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12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform 12.2 Useful Laplace Transform Pairs 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady state Sinusoidal Response 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

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Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827) :

A French astronomer and mathematician First presented the Laplace transform and its applications to differential equations in 1979.

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Definition:

L [ f (t ) ] = F ( s ) = f (t )e st dt

0

s = + j

a complex variable

The Laplace transform is an integral transformation of a function f(t) from the time domain into the complex frequency domain, F(s).

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One-sided (unilateral) Laplace transform Two-sided (bilateral) Laplace transform

L1 [ F ( s ) ] = f (t ) = 1 1 + j F ( s )e st ds j 2 j 1

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Similar to the application of phasor transform to solve the steady state AC circuits , Laplace transform can be used to transform the time domain circuits into S domain circuits to simplify the solution of integral differential equations to the manipulation of a set of algebraic equations.

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Functions

impulse step ramp exponential sine

f(t) , t>0

F(s) 1

(t )

u (t )

t

e at

sin t

1 S 1 S2

1 S +a

S2 + 2

8

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Functions

cosine damped ramp

f(t) , t> 0

F(s)

cos t

S S 2 + 2

1

te at

(S + a)

damped sine

e at sin t e at cos t

(S + a) (S + a)

+ 2

S +a

2

damped cosine

+ 2

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d L f (t ) = sF ( s ) f (0 ) d t t F (s) L - f ( ) d = 0 S L [ f (t a )u (t a ) ] = e as F ( s ) , a > 0

at L f (t ) e = F (s + a) 1 s F ( ) ,a > 0 L [ f (at)] = a a li m [ f (t ) ] = li m sF ( s )

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lim [ f

t

t 0+

(t ) ] =

lim

s 0

sF (s)

10

Example Use the Laplace transform to solve the differential equation.

d 2v dv + 6 + 8v = 2u (t ) dt dt 2 v(0) = 1 v '(0) = 2 Take Laplace transfrom 2 s 2V ( s ) sv(0) v '(0) + 6 [ sV ( s ) v(0) ] + 8V ( s ) = s

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2 s 2V ( s ) sv(0) v '(0) + 6 [ sV ( s ) v(0) ] + 8V ( s ) = s 2 s + 4s + 2 ( s 2 + 6s + 8)V ( s ) = s 2 s + 4s + 2 s 2 + 4s + 2 V ( s ) = = s ( s 2 + 6 s + 8) s ( s + 2)( s + 4) 1 v(t ) = (1 + 2e 2t + e 4t )u (t ) 4

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(1) KCL ,

ik (t ) = 0 ,

n

I k ( s) = 0 ,

n

(2) KVL ,

vk (t ) = 0 ,

m

Vk (s) = 0 ,

m

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13

(3) Circuit Component Models resistor vR (t ) = RiR (t ) VR ( s ) = RI R ( s ) I R ( s ) = GVR ( s )

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14

inductor vL (t ) = L diL dt 1 t vL ( )d L 0

LiL (0 )

iL (t ) = iL (0 ) +

VL ( s ) = sLI L ( s ) LiL (0 ) VL ( s ) iL (0 ) I ( s) = + sL s

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iL (0 ) s

15

capacitor iC = C dvC dt

1 sC vC (0 ) s

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1 sC

CvC (0 )

16

Coupling inductors

i1 + v1 L1 M i2 L2

d i1 di2 + M dt dt + d i1 di2 v2 v2 = M + L2 dt dt v1 = L 1

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For zero initial conditions

V (s) = Z (s) I (S ) I (S ) 1 admittance @ = Y (s) = V ( s) Z (s) V ( s ) = Z ( s ) I ( s ) ohm ' s law in s domain impedance @

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The elegance of using the Laplace transform in circuit analysis lies in the automatic inclusion of the initial conditions in the transformation process, thus providing a complete (transient and steady state) solution.

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Circuit analysis in s domain nStep 1 : Transform the time domain circuit into s-domain circuit. nStep 2 : Solve the s-domain circuit. e.g. Nodal analysis or mesh analysis. nStep 3 : Transform the solution back into time domain.

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Example Find vo(t) given vo(0)=5V

10 s +1

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10 s

21

10 s +1 10 s

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Given a linear circuit N in s domain as shown below

H(s) =

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Y(s) X(s)

23

If Y ( s ) = Vo ( s ) , X ( s ) = Vi ( s ) ; then H ( s ) = voltage gain If Y ( s ) = I o ( s ) , X ( s ) = I i ( s ) ; then H ( s ) = current gain If Y ( s ) = V ( s ) , X ( s ) = I ( s ) ; then H ( s ) = impedance If Y ( s ) = I ( s ) , X ( s ) = V ( s ) ; then H ( s ) = admittance

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Given the transfer funtion H(s) and input X(s) , then Y(s)=H(s)X(s) If the input is Y(s)=H(s) (t) , then X(s)=1 and

Hence , the physical meaning of H(s) is in fact the Laplace transform of the impulse response of the corresponding circuit.

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Y(s)=H(s)X(s) , in s-domain

y (t ) =

in time domain

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(1)Approximating the input function by using a series of impulse functions. (2)Shifting property of linear systems input x(t)!output y(t) x(t-")!output y(t- ") (3)Superposition theorem for linear systems (4)Definition of integral : finding the area

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(1)Input x(") is approximated using impulse functions , x(")=0 , for "<0

x( ) x(0)

2 = 2V ,

0 1 2 3 4

, x(1 )V

, x(0)V

3 = 3V ,

, x( 3 )V

, x( 2 )V

x ( )

x( ) f 0 ( ) + f1 ( 1 ) + f 2 ( 2 ) + L

1

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@ x(k V )V ( k V )

k =0

28

(2) Use the linearity property

input x(0)V ( ) output (response) x(0)V h( )

x( 1 )V ( 1 ) x( 1 )V h( 1 ) M up to = tk

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x( 2 )V ( 2 ) x( 2 )V h( 2 ) M

29

(3) Use superposition theorem to find the total approximate response

n k =0

n = integer[

tk ] V

30

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$ y (tk ) (4) Take the limit , #"!d", y (tk )

y (tk ) =

x( )h(t

)d

= h(tk ) x( )d

0

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tk

Example:

Given x(t ) = u (t ) , h(t ) = e t u (t ) , find y (4) , y (t ) =

h(t ) x( )d

y (4) =

h(4 ) x( )d

32

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Step1.

xx (! )! 1.0

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

4 4

2 2

hh ( ! )!

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

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4 4

2 2

4

33

Step2. Shift to tk=4

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2 2

!

34

Step3. Find the product h(4-")x(")

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Step4. Find the integral (area)

y (4) = e (4 ) d = e 4 e d =e 4 e

4 4 0 0

4 0

=e (e 1) = (1 e )

4

Step5. Check

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

From definition of transfer function

Y ( s) X ( s) Y (s) = H (s) X (s) H ( s) =

Assume input X(t)=Acos(wt+ ) and H(s) is given, then one can get the steady state solution without needing a separate phasor analysis.

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

proof : X (t ) = A cos cos t A sin sin t A(cos s sin ) X (s) = s 2 + 2 Y (s) = H (s) X (s) K1 K1* + s j s + j + other terms due to poles under steady state : = Yss ( s ) = K1 = K1 K1* + s j s + j

H ( s) A( s cos sin ) s + j

s = j

38

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1 = H ( j) Ae j 2

12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

Let H ( j) =| H ( j) | e j ( ) and take inverse Laplace transform Then i.e. then yss (t ) = A | H ( j) | cos[t + + ()] P ( X (t )) = A P ( yss (t )) = A | H ( j) | + ()

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

Example : The transfer function H(s) of the circuit given below is known. Find the steady state solution of Vo(t) for the given Vg(t).

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

2

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

Solution : Let s = j = j5000 Evaluate H ( j5000) = = Then Voss (t ) = 120 1000( j5000 + 5000) 25106 + j5000(6000) + 25106 2 45 6

2 cos(5000t + 30 45 ) 6 = 20 2 cos(5000t 15 ) V

42

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

nIn theory , the relationship between H(s) and H(jw) provides a link between the time domain and the frequency domain. nIn some cases , we can determine H(jw) experimentally and then construct H(s) from the data.

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

Example: Find the impulse response of the following circuit.

R + vin _ C + vo _

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

(a) Time domain solution

RC dvo + vo = (t ) dt At t = 0 , vo (0 ) = 0 1 (t ) dt C 0 R 1 = V RC

t

(t )

vo (t )

At t = 0+ , vo (0+ ) =

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

For t > 0+ , (t ) = 0

R C + 1 vo (t ) , v(0+ ) = RC _

dvo + vo = 0 dt t 1 RC vo (t ) = e u (t ) RC RC

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

(b) s-domain solution Find the transfer function

H ( s) = Vo ( s) Vin ( s)

zero I .C .

R

Vin ( s )

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1 Cs

+ Vo ( s ) _

47

12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

1 Vo ( s ) 1 H ( s) = = Cs = Vin ( s ) R + 1 1 + RCs Cs -1 h(t ) = L [ H ( s )] =

t 1 RC e u (t ) RC

R

Vin ( s ) 1 Cs

+ Vo ( s ) _

Same answer.

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Example 1: Impulse voltage source excitation

i (t )

VO (t )

i (0 ) = 0

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(a) Time domain solution

At t = 0, i (0 ) = 0 i (0+ ) = 1 t VO ( x) dx L 0 V = O (A) L

VO (t )

i (0+ )

The impulse voltage source has stored energy, 2 1 2 L (i (0 )) , in the inductor as an initial current

+

in an infinitesimal moment.

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For t > 0+ , (t ) = 0

di + Ri = 0 , natural response dt V i (0+ ) = O A L V L i (t ) = O e t / u (t ) , = L R L

i (t )

Note that the impulse source just builds up an initial inductor current but does not contribute to any forced response.

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(b) s-domain solution

VO V /L = O R + sL s + R L V i (t ) = O e t / u (t ) L I ( s) =

R

VO

I (s)

sL

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Example 2: Impulse current source excitation

I o (t )

+ v(t ) , v(0 ) = 0 _

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(a) Time domain solution

At t = 0, v(0 ) = 0 v(0) = 0 , short circuit

v(0+ ) = 1 t I o ( x) dx C 0 I = o C

I o (t )

The impulse current source has stored energy, 2 1 2 C ( v (0 )) , in the capacitor as an initial voltage

+

in an infinitesimal moment.

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For t > 0+ , (t ) = 0, open circuit

dv v + = 0 , natural response dt R I v(0+ ) = o C I t v(t ) = o e u (t ) , = RC C C

v(t )

Note that the impulse current just builds up an initial capacitor voltage but does not contribute to any forced response.

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(b) s-domain solution Transform into s-domain circuit

Io

R

R

+ V ( s) _

1 Cs = I o / C V( s ) = I o 1 1 R+ s+ Cs RC t I v(t ) = o e u (t ) C

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Example 3: Impulse caused by switching operation The switch is closed at t=0 in the following circuit.

Note that v1 (0 ) v2 (0 )

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Transform into s-domain

I ( s) = Vo s +1 @ Vo Ce

sC1 sC 2 C1 C 2 Vo Ce Vo C1 Ce = , V 2(s) = = C1 + C 2 sC 2 s C1 + C 2

i(t ) = Vo Ce (t ) v2(t ) =

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C1 Vo C1 + C 2

58

At t=0 , a finite charge of C1 is transferred to C2 instantaneously. Note that , as the switch is closed , the voltage across C2 does not jump to Vo of C1 but to its final value of the two paralleled capacitors.

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N o te C1C 2 Vo , t > 0+ C1+ C 2 C 12 Q 1 = C 1 V 2 = Vo , t > 0+ C1+ C 2 Q 1+ Q 2 = C 1V o , t > 0 + Q 2 = C 2 V

2

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If we consider charged capacitors as voltage sources , then we should not connect two capacitors with unequal voltages in parallel. Due to violation of KVL , an impulse will occur which may damage the components.

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Example 4: Impulse caused by switching operation The switch is opened at t = 0 in the following circuit.

10 i1 3H L1 t =0 i2 L2

2H

15

100V

vo

_

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62

For t > 0, the S-domain circuit is

10

I ( s)

3s L1

30

100 s L2

15 Vo ( s )

2s

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10

I ( s)

3s L1

30

100 s L2

15 Vo ( s )

2s

Note t = 0 , iL1 (0 ) = 10 A , iL 2 (0 ) = 0 A t = 0+ , from ( A), iL1 (0+ ) = 6 A , iL 2 (0+ ) = 6 A Also, from ( B ), there exists 12 (t ) at vo (t ).

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Thus, if we consider an inductor current as a current source, then two inductors with unequal currents should not be connected in series. Due to violation of KCL, it will result in impulse voltage which may damage the components.

10 3s

30

15

I (s)

100 s

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L1

Vo ( s )

L2 2s

65

SUMMARY

Objective 1 : Know the component models in s-domain. Objective 2 : Be able to transform a time domain circuit into the s-domain circuit. Objective 3 : Know how to analyze the s-domain circuit and transform the solution back to time domain.

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SUMMARY

Objective 4 : Understand the significance of transfer function and be able to calculate the transfer function from the s-domain circuit. Objective 5 : Know the geometrical interpretation of convolution integral and be able to calculate the integral.

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SUMMARY

Objective 6 : Know the relation between the phasor solution technique for finding sinusoidal steady state solution and the s-domain solution technique . Objective 7 : Know how to use s-domain solution technique to solve a circuit containing impulse sources or a switching circuit which may result in impulse functions.

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SUMMARY

Chapter problems : 13.13 13.20 13.27 13.36 13.57 13.85 13.88

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