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# LAPLACE TRANSFORM AND ITS APPLICATION IN CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

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12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform 12.2 Useful Laplace Transform Pairs 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady state Sinusoidal Response 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

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## 12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform

Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827) :
A French astronomer and mathematician First presented the Laplace transform and its applications to differential equations in 1979.

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## 12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform

Definition:
L [ f (t ) ] = F ( s ) = f (t )e st dt
0

s = + j

a complex variable

The Laplace transform is an integral transformation of a function f(t) from the time domain into the complex frequency domain, F(s).

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## 12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform

One-sided (unilateral) Laplace transform Two-sided (bilateral) Laplace transform
L1 [ F ( s ) ] = f (t ) = 1 1 + j F ( s )e st ds j 2 j 1

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## 12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform

Similar to the application of phasor transform to solve the steady state AC circuits , Laplace transform can be used to transform the time domain circuits into S domain circuits to simplify the solution of integral differential equations to the manipulation of a set of algebraic equations.
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## 12.2 Useful Laplace Transform Pairs

Functions
impulse step ramp exponential sine

f(t) , t>0

F(s) 1

(t )
u (t )

t
e at
sin t

1 S 1 S2
1 S +a
S2 + 2
8

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## 12.2 Useful Laplace Transform Pairs

Functions
cosine damped ramp

f(t) , t> 0

F(s)

cos t

S S 2 + 2
1

te at

(S + a)

damped sine

e at sin t e at cos t

(S + a) (S + a)

+ 2

S +a
2

damped cosine

+ 2

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## 12.2 Useful Laplace Transform Pairs

d L f (t ) = sF ( s ) f (0 ) d t t F (s) L - f ( ) d = 0 S L [ f (t a )u (t a ) ] = e as F ( s ) , a > 0
at L f (t ) e = F (s + a) 1 s F ( ) ,a > 0 L [ f (at)] = a a li m [ f (t ) ] = li m sF ( s )

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lim [ f
t

t 0+

(t ) ] =

lim
s 0

sF (s)
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## 12.2 Useful Laplace Transform Pairs

Example Use the Laplace transform to solve the differential equation.
d 2v dv + 6 + 8v = 2u (t ) dt dt 2 v(0) = 1 v '(0) = 2 Take Laplace transfrom 2 s 2V ( s ) sv(0) v '(0) + 6 [ sV ( s ) v(0) ] + 8V ( s ) = s
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## 12.2 Useful Laplace Transform Pairs

2 s 2V ( s ) sv(0) v '(0) + 6 [ sV ( s ) v(0) ] + 8V ( s ) = s 2 s + 4s + 2 ( s 2 + 6s + 8)V ( s ) = s 2 s + 4s + 2 s 2 + 4s + 2 V ( s ) = = s ( s 2 + 6 s + 8) s ( s + 2)( s + 4) 1 v(t ) = (1 + 2e 2t + e 4t )u (t ) 4
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(1) KCL ,

ik (t ) = 0 ,
n

I k ( s) = 0 ,
n

(2) KVL ,

vk (t ) = 0 ,
m

Vk (s) = 0 ,
m
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## 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain

(3) Circuit Component Models resistor vR (t ) = RiR (t ) VR ( s ) = RI R ( s ) I R ( s ) = GVR ( s )

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## 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain

inductor vL (t ) = L diL dt 1 t vL ( )d L 0
LiL (0 )

iL (t ) = iL (0 ) +

VL ( s ) = sLI L ( s ) LiL (0 ) VL ( s ) iL (0 ) I ( s) = + sL s
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iL (0 ) s
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## 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain

capacitor iC = C dvC dt

1 sC vC (0 ) s

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1 sC

CvC (0 )

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## 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain

Coupling inductors
i1 + v1 L1 M i2 L2

d i1 di2 + M dt dt + d i1 di2 v2 v2 = M + L2 dt dt v1 = L 1

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## 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain

For zero initial conditions

V (s) = Z (s) I (S ) I (S ) 1 admittance @ = Y (s) = V ( s) Z (s) V ( s ) = Z ( s ) I ( s ) ohm ' s law in s domain impedance @
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## 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain

The elegance of using the Laplace transform in circuit analysis lies in the automatic inclusion of the initial conditions in the transformation process, thus providing a complete (transient and steady state) solution.

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## 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain

Circuit analysis in s domain nStep 1 : Transform the time domain circuit into s-domain circuit. nStep 2 : Solve the s-domain circuit. e.g. Nodal analysis or mesh analysis. nStep 3 : Transform the solution back into time domain.
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## 12.3 Circuit Analysis in S Domain

Example Find vo(t) given vo(0)=5V

10 s +1
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10 s
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10 s +1 10 s

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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

Given a linear circuit N in s domain as shown below

H(s) =
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Y(s) X(s)
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

If Y ( s ) = Vo ( s ) , X ( s ) = Vi ( s ) ; then H ( s ) = voltage gain If Y ( s ) = I o ( s ) , X ( s ) = I i ( s ) ; then H ( s ) = current gain If Y ( s ) = V ( s ) , X ( s ) = I ( s ) ; then H ( s ) = impedance If Y ( s ) = I ( s ) , X ( s ) = V ( s ) ; then H ( s ) = admittance
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

Given the transfer funtion H(s) and input X(s) , then Y(s)=H(s)X(s) If the input is Y(s)=H(s) (t) , then X(s)=1 and

Hence , the physical meaning of H(s) is in fact the Laplace transform of the impulse response of the corresponding circuit.
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

Y(s)=H(s)X(s) , in s-domain
y (t ) =

in time domain

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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

(1)Approximating the input function by using a series of impulse functions. (2)Shifting property of linear systems input x(t)!output y(t) x(t-")!output y(t- ") (3)Superposition theorem for linear systems (4)Definition of integral : finding the area
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

(1)Input x(") is approximated using impulse functions , x(")=0 , for "<0
x( ) x(0)

## instant k , x( k ) value , area 0 = 0 , , x(0) x(1 ) x( 2 ) x( 3 ) 1 =V

2 = 2V ,
0 1 2 3 4

, x(1 )V

, x(0)V

3 = 3V ,

, x( 3 )V

, x( 2 )V

x ( )

x( ) f 0 ( ) + f1 ( 1 ) + f 2 ( 2 ) + L
1

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@ x(k V )V ( k V )
k =0
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

(2) Use the linearity property
input x(0)V ( ) output (response) x(0)V h( )

x( 1 )V ( 1 ) x( 1 )V h( 1 ) M up to = tk
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x( 2 )V ( 2 ) x( 2 )V h( 2 ) M

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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

(3) Use superposition theorem to find the total approximate response

n k =0

n = integer[

tk ] V
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

\$ y (tk ) (4) Take the limit , #"!d", y (tk )

y (tk ) =

x( )h(t

)d

= h(tk ) x( )d
0
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tk

## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

Example:
Given x(t ) = u (t ) , h(t ) = e t u (t ) , find y (4) , y (t ) =

h(t ) x( )d

y (4) =

h(4 ) x( )d
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

Step1.
xx (! )! 1.0
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

4 4

2 2

hh ( ! )!
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

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4 4

2 2

4
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

Step2. Shift to tk=4

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2 2

!
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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

Step3. Find the product h(4-")x(")

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## 12.4 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral

Step4. Find the integral (area)

y (4) = e (4 ) d = e 4 e d =e 4 e
4 4 0 0

4 0

=e (e 1) = (1 e )
4

Step5. Check

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## 1 1 1 1 a a Y(s) = H(s)X(s) = = + s +a s s +a s 1 y(t) = (1et ) , a =1 a y(4) =(1e4)

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
From definition of transfer function
Y ( s) X ( s) Y (s) = H (s) X (s) H ( s) =

Assume input X(t)=Acos(wt+ ) and H(s) is given, then one can get the steady state solution without needing a separate phasor analysis.
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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
proof : X (t ) = A cos cos t A sin sin t A(cos s sin ) X (s) = s 2 + 2 Y (s) = H (s) X (s) K1 K1* + s j s + j + other terms due to poles under steady state : = Yss ( s ) = K1 = K1 K1* + s j s + j

H ( s) A( s cos sin ) s + j
s = j
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1 = H ( j) Ae j 2

12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
Let H ( j) =| H ( j) | e j ( ) and take inverse Laplace transform Then i.e. then yss (t ) = A | H ( j) | cos[t + + ()] P ( X (t )) = A P ( yss (t )) = A | H ( j) | + ()

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
Example : The transfer function H(s) of the circuit given below is known. Find the steady state solution of Vo(t) for the given Vg(t).

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response

## 1000( s + 5000) s + 6000s + 25 106 Vg (t ) = 120 cos(5000t + 30 ) V H ( s) =

2
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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
Solution : Let s = j = j5000 Evaluate H ( j5000) = = Then Voss (t ) = 120 1000( j5000 + 5000) 25106 + j5000(6000) + 25106 2 45 6

2 cos(5000t + 30 45 ) 6 = 20 2 cos(5000t 15 ) V
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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
nIn theory , the relationship between H(s) and H(jw) provides a link between the time domain and the frequency domain. nIn some cases , we can determine H(jw) experimentally and then construct H(s) from the data.
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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
Example: Find the impulse response of the following circuit.

R + vin _ C + vo _

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
(a) Time domain solution
RC dvo + vo = (t ) dt At t = 0 , vo (0 ) = 0 1 (t ) dt C 0 R 1 = V RC
t

(t )

vo (t )

At t = 0+ , vo (0+ ) =

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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
For t > 0+ , (t ) = 0
R C + 1 vo (t ) , v(0+ ) = RC _

dvo + vo = 0 dt t 1 RC vo (t ) = e u (t ) RC RC
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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
(b) s-domain solution Find the transfer function
H ( s) = Vo ( s) Vin ( s)
zero I .C .

## Transform into s-domain circuit

R
Vin ( s )
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1 Cs

+ Vo ( s ) _
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12.5 The Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response
1 Vo ( s ) 1 H ( s) = = Cs = Vin ( s ) R + 1 1 + RCs Cs -1 h(t ) = L [ H ( s )] =
t 1 RC e u (t ) RC

R
Vin ( s ) 1 Cs

+ Vo ( s ) _

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

Example 1: Impulse voltage source excitation

i (t )
VO (t )

i (0 ) = 0

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

(a) Time domain solution
At t = 0, i (0 ) = 0 i (0+ ) = 1 t VO ( x) dx L 0 V = O (A) L
VO (t )

i (0+ )

The impulse voltage source has stored energy, 2 1 2 L (i (0 )) , in the inductor as an initial current
+

in an infinitesimal moment.
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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

For t > 0+ , (t ) = 0
di + Ri = 0 , natural response dt V i (0+ ) = O A L V L i (t ) = O e t / u (t ) , = L R L

i (t )

Note that the impulse source just builds up an initial inductor current but does not contribute to any forced response.
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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

(b) s-domain solution
VO V /L = O R + sL s + R L V i (t ) = O e t / u (t ) L I ( s) =

R
VO

I (s)

sL

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

Example 2: Impulse current source excitation
I o (t )

+ v(t ) , v(0 ) = 0 _

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

(a) Time domain solution
At t = 0, v(0 ) = 0 v(0) = 0 , short circuit
v(0+ ) = 1 t I o ( x) dx C 0 I = o C

I o (t )

The impulse current source has stored energy, 2 1 2 C ( v (0 )) , in the capacitor as an initial voltage
+

in an infinitesimal moment.
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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

For t > 0+ , (t ) = 0, open circuit
dv v + = 0 , natural response dt R I v(0+ ) = o C I t v(t ) = o e u (t ) , = RC C C

v(t )

Note that the impulse current just builds up an initial capacitor voltage but does not contribute to any forced response.
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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

(b) s-domain solution Transform into s-domain circuit
Io

R
R

+ V ( s) _

1 Cs = I o / C V( s ) = I o 1 1 R+ s+ Cs RC t I v(t ) = o e u (t ) C
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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

Example 3: Impulse caused by switching operation The switch is closed at t=0 in the following circuit.

Note that v1 (0 ) v2 (0 )
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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

Transform into s-domain
I ( s) = Vo s +1 @ Vo Ce

sC1 sC 2 C1 C 2 Vo Ce Vo C1 Ce = , V 2(s) = = C1 + C 2 sC 2 s C1 + C 2

i(t ) = Vo Ce (t ) v2(t ) =
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C1 Vo C1 + C 2
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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

At t=0 , a finite charge of C1 is transferred to C2 instantaneously. Note that , as the switch is closed , the voltage across C2 does not jump to Vo of C1 but to its final value of the two paralleled capacitors.

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

N o te C1C 2 Vo , t > 0+ C1+ C 2 C 12 Q 1 = C 1 V 2 = Vo , t > 0+ C1+ C 2 Q 1+ Q 2 = C 1V o , t > 0 + Q 2 = C 2 V
2

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

If we consider charged capacitors as voltage sources , then we should not connect two capacitors with unequal voltages in parallel. Due to violation of KVL , an impulse will occur which may damage the components.

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

Example 4: Impulse caused by switching operation The switch is opened at t = 0 in the following circuit.
10 i1 3H L1 t =0 i2 L2
2H

15

100V

vo
_

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

For t > 0, the S-domain circuit is
10
I ( s)

3s L1

30

100 s L2

15 Vo ( s )
2s

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

10
I ( s)

3s L1

30

100 s L2

15 Vo ( s )
2s

Note t = 0 , iL1 (0 ) = 10 A , iL 2 (0 ) = 0 A t = 0+ , from ( A), iL1 (0+ ) = 6 A , iL 2 (0+ ) = 6 A Also, from ( B ), there exists 12 (t ) at vo (t ).

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## 12.6 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis

Thus, if we consider an inductor current as a current source, then two inductors with unequal currents should not be connected in series. Due to violation of KCL, it will result in impulse voltage which may damage the components.
10 3s

30
15

I (s)
100 s
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L1

Vo ( s )
L2 2s
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SUMMARY
Objective 1 : Know the component models in s-domain. Objective 2 : Be able to transform a time domain circuit into the s-domain circuit. Objective 3 : Know how to analyze the s-domain circuit and transform the solution back to time domain.

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SUMMARY
Objective 4 : Understand the significance of transfer function and be able to calculate the transfer function from the s-domain circuit. Objective 5 : Know the geometrical interpretation of convolution integral and be able to calculate the integral.

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SUMMARY
Objective 6 : Know the relation between the phasor solution technique for finding sinusoidal steady state solution and the s-domain solution technique . Objective 7 : Know how to use s-domain solution technique to solve a circuit containing impulse sources or a switching circuit which may result in impulse functions.
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SUMMARY
Chapter problems : 13.13 13.20 13.27 13.36 13.57 13.85 13.88
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