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First World War

(1914-1918)

Germany had become a great industrial country and wanted to have more markets for trade. Germany was jealous of the colonial and naval greatness of England. Wilhelm II, Kaiser of Germany, was very ambitious and wanted to gain influence in Turkey by linking Berlin with Baghdad by a railway line. This gave rise to great rivalry between England and Germany. Submarine warboat (U-boat) used by Germany in the war was a great menace. Woodrow Wilson was the President of America during the First World War. Lloyd George was the British Prime Minister and Clemenceaue was the French Prime Minister during the War. The Treaty of Versailles was signed between the Allies and Germany on 28th June 1919. The Treaty of Versailles resulted in the foundation of League of Nations in 1919. League of Nations was formed on the basis of the Fourteen Points put forward by Woodrow Wilson in 1918. League of Nations was the predecessor of the UNO. League of Nations was disbanded in 1945 and even before that it lost its importance in 1939 when the Second World War broke out. The First World War was fought as a war to end all wars. One of the most important results of the First World War was

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the Great Depression which started in USA in 1929. Only one European country which was not affected by great depression was Russia. Three major powers during the interwar period were USA, USSR and Japan. Ku Klux Klan was a white terrorist gang working in America during the period of Great Depression. Franklin D. Roosevelt became American President during the great depression in 1932. Parties to the War : Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, Hungary), Turkey and Bulgaria. Triple Entente (England, France, Russia), Serbia, Belgium, Japan and Italy. leader of Italian Nationalism. He founded an organisation known as Red Shirts. The initiative for the war of 1848 was taken by count cavour by uttering the hour of fat has struck for the Sardinian monarchy. One road only is open that of immediate war. Cavour came as the head of the government from 1852 to 1860. The unification of Germany was completed in 1870. Political organisations which originated in Europe after the First World War were collectively known as Fascist Movements. Benitto Mussolini, the worlds first fascist dictator who came to power in Italy in 1922, is known as the father of Fascism. Mussolini organised his followers into the Black shirts In October 1922 he organised a March to Rome and took over as Prime Minister. Mussolini was against Socialism and Communism and formed an organisation known Fasci di Combattiment. When Italy surrendered after the Second World War in 1945 Mussolini was captured and ex-

Unification of Italy & Fascism

After the decline of the Roman Empire Italy was divided into a number of small independent states. Joseph Massini is known as the Prophet of Italian Nationalism Massini founded Young Italy. Garibaldi was another famous

rrounded by means the axe su ch hi w es sc fa d from the Italian in wor ublic, and also ved from the Lat ep ri R de an as w om R t sm ci its of agitation ancien The word Fas rly as 1914 as un authority of the ea e as th d ng se ti ni en ga es or repr scism had been a bundle of rods e oup or band. Fa gr ng ni k shirts, and th ea m io e wearing blac word fasc ntente powers. er E w e s In th ni . of li te p so lu m us sa ca M the the old Roman n red shirts, so to bring Italy to nteers had wor etched hand of tr lu ts vo ou s e n to Rome. di th al h ib it ar As G ised the cry O I Duce w ra I d . an er e ... f. on ie ti ch lu r of revo d thei of Fasci sm w Fascists salute n to talk openly in g doctrines ga ad be le i r lin he so ot us e th ,M d Militarism. rpor ate Sta te, September 1922 horitarianism an idea of the co ut e A , th m is om tic fr an rt Apa ealism, Rom , Nationalism, Id Totalitarianism

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ecuted at Como. After 2000 Medea Tycoon Silvio Berlysconi won the election and became the PM. In 2006 he was defeated by the former President of EU Romano Prodi.

Unification of Germany & Nazism


Germany was known as Prussia in olden times. The process of German Unification began when King William I appointed Otto Von Bismark as his Prime Minister in 1862. Austria was excluded from Germany (Prussia) by the AustroPrussian war of 1866. The unification of Germany was completed by the Franco-Prussian war ended with the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871). The German Empire (1871-1914) came into force with Kaiser as its head. Bismark is known as the Iron man of Germany His policy was known as Blood and Iron Policy.

Memoirs is his autobiography. Customs Union was an organisation which supported German unification indirectly. Nazism in Germany was a German form of Fascism in Italy. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was the leader of the Nazi Party in Germany. He was known as the Fuehrer (Leader). Hitler was born in Austria in 1889. National Socialist German Workers Party founded in 1920 was known as Nazi Party. Nazi Party wanted the exclusion of Jews from German citizenship. The supporters of Nazi Party were known as Sturn Abteilung or Brown Shirts. Hitler became the head of Nazi Party in 1923. Hitler wrote his autobiography Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while he was in Jail. Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933. In 1935 under the Nuremberg Law German Jews were deprived of their citizenship.

Nazism
Nazism ( National Socialism) was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany. The Nazis believed in the supremacy of Aryan master race and claimed that Germans represent the most pure Aryan nation. The Nazis claimed that Jews were the greatest threat to the Aryan race and the German nation. They argued that Germany's survival as a modern great nation required it to create a New Order an empire in Europe. The end of the First World War gave rise to another totalitarian movement in Germany called Nazism, led by Adolf Hitler. It was strongly opposed to democracy, liberalism and internationalism. It collapsed with Germanys defeat in the Second World War. (Note that Bismarck was the founder of modern Germany. He dominated the politics of Europe from 1870 to 1890 A.D.) The book Mein Kampf was written by Adolf Hitler.

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On 8 December 1941 US declared war on Japan. Thus US formally entered the Second World War. Second World War became a Global war in 1941. The first country to surrender in the war was Italy and last to surrender was Japan. On 2 September 1945 Japan surrendered and the Second World War ended. The Axis powers lost the Second World War. This war led to the foundation of UNO in 1945. The UN Charter was signed at San Francisco on 26th June 1945 by fifty nations and UN came into force on 24 October 1945. The Nuremberg Trials were the trials of the major war criminals of the Second World War. It began on November 20, 1945. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival super powers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next forty-six years.

Hitler became the President of Germany in 1934 when Hindenburg died. Secret Police force of Hitler was known as Gustapo. In 2006 June Germany decided to open up a huge archive of Nazi records on Concentration camp inmates.

On 3 September 1939 Britain and France declared war on Germany, thus began the Second World War. The Second World War was between The Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) and the Allied Powers (Britain, France, Russia, USA etc) The German plan of conquering Britain during the Second World War was known as Sea - Lion. German attack on Russia during the war was known as Operation Barbosa In 7 December 1941, the Japanese bombers attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbour in

Second World War


(1939-45)

The Treaty of Versailles and the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany were the main causes of the war. Hitlers armies invaded Poland on 1 September 1939.

Causes of the First World War


Mussolini (Italy) and Hitler Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini, was the National Fascist Party leader. He held the supreme military rank of First Marshal of the Empire and also Prime Minister of Italy. On 10 June 1940, Mussolini led Italy into World War II on the side of the Axis powers. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape to Switzerland, only to be quickly captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian partisans.

Adolf Hitler was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and, after 1934, also head of state, ruling the country as an absolute dictator of Germany. His famous book: Mein Kampf Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in Europe. Germany and the Axis powers had occupied most of Europe, and most of Northern Africa, East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. However, with the reversal of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the Allies gained the upper hand from 1942 onwards. By 1945, Allied armies had invaded German-held Europe from all sides. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler & wife Eva Braun to avoid capture by Soviet forces less than two days later, the two committed suicide on 30 April 1945.

The Morocco crisis (1905 - 06) The British Agreement with Russia (1907). The Bosnia crisis (1908) The Agadir crisis (1911) The assassination of Austrian Archduke (1914)

Causes of the Second World War


Harsh treatment of Germany under the Treaty of Versailles. Clash of economic interests of powers. Extreme nationalism. Failure of the League Failure of the Disarmament Problems of national minorities Attitude of Western powers towards Russia. Policy of Appeasement Ideological conflict.

Middle East Conflict


First Arab Israel War - 1948 Second Arab Israel War - 1956 Third war in 1967 Some trace the beginning of the conflict to large-scale Jewish immigration to Palestine, especially after the establishment of the Zionist movement. The Arab states proclaimed their aim of a "United State of Palestine" in place of Israel and an Arab state. Israel Palestine conflict is popularly called Middle-East Conflict. The conflict became worse by the formation of Is-

rael by dividing Palestine in 1948. In the battle that occurred in 1948, Israel came out victorious. Egypt nationalised Suez Canal in 1956. Egypt and Israyel and the US signed Camp David Accord in 1978 offering limited autonomy to Palestinians. Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO ) was formed in 1964 to defeat Israel. The Israel - Palestine Peace Treaty was signed in 1994 and PLO leader sworn in as the head of Palestine National Authority. The historic Israel-PLO agreement was signed in Washington on September 28, 1995. River Wye Agreement was signed by Israel and Palestine for solving the crisis. Golan Height was a place captured by Israel from Syria in 1967 West Bank : This place was captured by Israel from Jordan. As per the peace treaty of 1994 the administrative authority of this place was given to Palestine National Authority. Gaza Strip is in the Egypt. It was captured by Israel in the 1967 battle and as per the treaty of 1994 it was handed over to Palestine National Authority. Sinai Peninsula : This place was also captured from Egypt in the 1967 war and handed over to Palestine in 1982. The official name of Israel is Medinat Israel. Hebrew and Arabic are the official languages of Israel.

The conflict reached a turning point with the election (January 2005) of Mahmud Abbas as the new Palestinian leader following the death of Yassar Arafat. In 2006 July-August Israel invaded Lebanon and tried to destroy the so called extremist organisation Hisbulla led by Sheik Hassan Nasrulla.

Iran-Iraq War

First Gulf War, was a war between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran lasting from September 1980 to August 1988. Iraq attacked Kuwait in August 1990. Richard Butler, head of the UNSCOM (United Nations Special Commission on Iraq) left Iran in 1998 alleging that Iraq was failing in its commitment to destroy weapons of mass destruction. The Iraq War, also known as the The Second Gulf War which began on March 20, 2003, with the invasion of Iraq by a multinational force led by troops from the United States and the United Kingdom. The Gulf War (1991) was fought between the US led multinational forces and Iraq to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Its code name was Operation Desert Storm. Operation Desert Fox was the continuation of operation Desert storm. Operation Iraqi Freedom was launched in 2003 to expel Saddam Hussain from Iraq. USA and England jointly launched

the operation. This war is known as Gulf War II. United States and the United Kingdom claimed that Iraq's alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed a threat to their security and that of their coalition/regional allies. Saddam Hussein was captured on December 13, 2003 on a farm near Tikrit. Saddam Hussein was hanged on December 30, 2006 after being found guilty of crimes against humanity by an Iraqi court after a year-long trial. The withdrawal of American military forces from Iraq has been a contentious issue within the United States since the beginning of the Iraq War.

Big Powers and Cold War

The Cold War was a war of words or ideologies and of nerves. This Cold War created great international tension. The Cold War was announced by Winston Churchill in his famous iron curtain speech at Fulton, Missourie in 1946. The word Cold War was first coined by Bernard Baruch in 1946. The years 1945-47 are generally taken to mark the beginning of the Cold War. The first shot of Cold War was fired by Winston Churchill. The biggest crisis of the early stage of Cold War was the Berlin Blockade which began in 1948. In 1954 the US brought most of

the South East Asian Countries under a common framework modell ed on NATO called SEATO. The Arab states formed CENTO in 1955. (Central Treaty Oganisation) The Cold War continued upto the collapse of Soviet Union in 1990. HOTLINE is a telecommunication link established since 1963 between the Kremlin (Moscow) and White House (Washington DC, USA) to avoid misunderstanding. Now hotline means a direct exclusive line of communication especially for an emergency. Warsaw Pact was a military alliance formed under the Soviet Union against NATO in 1955. Now Russia is in a more or less stable condition under the Presidentship of Dmitri Medvedev.

Latin American Nationalism

Countries to the south of USA are collectively called Latin America. Mexico, Central America, South America and the Islands of West Indies are the major countries of Latin America. There are altogether 46 countries in Latin America. 33 independent nations and 13 dependent countries. The major economic problem is the increase in population. Brazil is the largest Latin American country in area and population.

Spanish is the most widely spoken language in Latin America. Guarani is the language of Indian origin spoken in Paragua. Quechua is the Indian language in Peru. Aymara is the Indian language spoken in Bolivia. Christopher Columbus was the first European to reach Latin America. Francisco De Miranda (17501816) was one of the most important leader of Latin America. He fought for the liberation of Venezuela and came out victorious in 1910 and it proclaimed its independence in 1911. Simon Bolivor ( 1783-1830) worked for the liberation of Columbia, Venezuela, Equador, Peru and Bolivia. He is considered as the father of their nation by all these countries. He is known as the Liberator or the Washington of South. San Martin (1778 - 1850) another famous Latin American leader worked for the liberation of Argentina, Chili and Peru. Brazil got independence from Spain in 1822. Panama Canal was opened in 1914. Panama Canal connects the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

Soccer (Football) is the most important game of Latin American countries. Aguaretiente is a liquor obtained from sugarcane used in Latin America Latin American Tea is known as Mate. Most of the Latin American countries follow Christianity. Since the 2000s, or 1990s in some countries, left-wing political parties have risen to power. Hugo Chavez in Venezuela, Lula da Silva in Brazil, Fernando Lugo in Paraguay, Nstor and his wife Cristina Fernndez de Kirchner in Argentina, Tabar Vzquez and Jos Mujica in Uruguay, the Ricardo Lagos and Michelle Bachelet governments in Chile, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, Manuel Zelaya in Honduras, Rafael Correa in Ecuador, and Mauricio Funes of El Salvador, are all part of this wave of left-wing politicians who also often declare themselves socialists.

India and Pakistan

Muhammed Ali Jinnah was the founder of Pakistan. He was the first Governor General of the Dominion of Pakistan. Jinnah house is in Mumbai. Pakistan observes its independence day on August 14.

ro Conference on Envi The United Nations it. niser of Earth Summ , Brazil in 1992. (UNCED) is the orga held at Rio de Janeiro burg in South s wa it m m Su rth The first Ea at Johannas Summit was held In 2002 the second Africa. . y. April 22 is Earth Da mit was Substainable Development m Su e th of The motto,

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Jinnah is called the father of Pakistan. Pakistan proclaimed itself an Islamic Republic in 1956. Poet - Philosopher Muhammed Iqbal, first articulated the concept of Pakistan in 1931. Pakistans first free elections were held in December 1970. Bangladesh was separated from Pakistan in March 26, 1971. On 28 and 30 May 1998 Pakistan carried out five nuclear tests in the desert of Baluchistan at the Chagai Hills in response to Indias test. On 12 October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf in a military coup deposed the Premier Nawaz Sherif and suspended the constitution.

Now Asif Ali Zardari is the president and Yousuf Raza Gillani Prime Minister. The Tashkent Agreement was signed on January 10, 1966. This Agreement was signed by Lal Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan just after the 1965 Indo - Pak War. On January 11, Shastri died at Tashkent. Now Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekisthan. The Shimla Agreement of 1972 was signed between India and Pakistan after the 1971 battles. The Lahore Declaration was signed between India and Pakistan just before the Operation Vijay of 1999 in Kargil to expel the ussurpers.

Th Radcliff line separates India from Pakistan, the Durand Line is between Pakistan and Afghanisthan and the McMohan Line is between India and China. Siachin Glacier which lies between India and Pakistan is referred as the highest and the coldest battle field in the world. The Agra Summit (2002) between Musharraf and A.B. Vajpayee ended in failure. Aimsolving bilateral problems. Relation worsened due to the Mumbai blasts in July 2006 In the side line NAM summit in Havana (2006 September) both agreed to continue to the peace process.

Well known Freedom Fighters


Angola ...................................................................................................... Antonio Agostinho Neto Bangladesh ................................................................................................ Sheikh Mujibur Rehman China ....................................................................................................................... Mao-Tse-Tung Cuba ............................................................................................................................ Fidel Castro Cyprus .......................................................................................................... Archbishop Makarios France ................................................................................................................... Charles de Gaulle Ghana ................................................................................................................... Kwame Nkrumah Indonesia ............................................................................................................... Ahmad Sukarno Kenya ...................................................................................................................... Jomo Kenyatta South Africa ........................................................................................................... Nelson Mandela Soviet Union ............................................................................................................. Vladimir Lenin Tanzania ................................................................................................................ Dr.Julius Nyerere Turkey ...................................................................................................................... Kernal Ataturk Zambia .................................................................................................................. Kenneth Kaunda