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## Mathematics IA Worked Examples CALCULUS: THE LOGARITHM AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS

### April 18, 2011

The questions on this page have worked solutions and links to videos on the following pages. Click on the link with each question to go straight to the relevant page.

### Questions

• 1. See Page 3 for worked solutions.

• (a) Let a > 0. Find the derivative of the function ln(ax).

• (b) Using the deﬁnition of the function ln x and the Fundamental Theo- rem of Calculus, show that ln a + ln b = ln(ab), for all a, b > 0.

• 2. See Page 4 for worked solutions. Use the upper sum U 6 for 2.5

• 1

1

t

dt to show that e > 2.5.

• 3. See Page 6 for worked solutions. Using the properties of ln x, show that (e a ) b = e ab .

• 4. See Page 7 for worked solutions. Solve the following equations for x R:

• (a) ln(x + 3) + ln(x 3) = 3

(b)

3e x = 2 + 5e x

.

• 5. See Page 9 for worked solutions. Find the derivatives of the following functions:

ln(5x 4 )

• (a) (b)

x 2 e x

• 6. See Page 10 for worked solutions. Find the derivatives of the following functions:

• (a) (b)

log 10 (x + 2)

3 · 2 3x

(c)

x ln x

1

7.

See Page 12 for worked solutions. Use the deﬁnitions of sinh x and cosh x to show that sinh 2 x = 1 2 cosh(2x) 1 .

• 8. See Page 13 for worked solutions. Let arctanh x be the inverse function of tanh x. Write down the domain and range of arctanh x and ﬁnd a formula for arctanh x.

• 9. See Page 15 for worked solutions. Find the derivatives of the following functions:

(a)

sinh(x 2 )

(b)

tanh 3 (x)

(c)

cosh x cos x

2

1. Click here to go to question list.

• (a) Let a > 0. Find the derivative of the function ln(ax).

• (b) Using the deﬁnition of the function ln x and the Fundamental Theo- rem of Calculus, show that ln a + ln b = ln(ab), for all a, b > 0. Link to video on YouTube 3 " id="pdf-obj-2-28" src="pdf-obj-2-28.jpg">

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2. Click here to go to question list. Use the upper sum U 6 for 2.5

1

1

t

dt to show that e > 2.5. Link to video on YouTube 4 " id="pdf-obj-3-30" src="pdf-obj-3-30.jpg">

4  5

3. Click here to go to question list. Using the properties of ln x, show that (e a ) b = e ab . Link to video on YouTube 6 " id="pdf-obj-5-18" src="pdf-obj-5-18.jpg">

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4. Click here to go to question list. Solve the following equations for x R:

• (a) ln(x + 3) + ln(x 3) = 3

(b)

3e x = 2 + 5e x

. Link to video on YouTube (b) 3 e = 2 + 5 e . 7 " id="pdf-obj-6-31" src="pdf-obj-6-31.jpg">

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5. Click here to go to question list. Find the derivatives of the following functions:

(a)

ln(5x 4 )

(b)

x 2 e x Link to video on YouTube 9 " id="pdf-obj-8-22" src="pdf-obj-8-22.jpg">

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6. Click here to go to question list. Find the derivatives of the following functions:

• (a) log 10 (x + 2)

(b)

3 · 2 3x

(c)

x ln x Link to video on YouTube 10 " id="pdf-obj-9-28" src="pdf-obj-9-28.jpg"> Link to video on YouTube 10 " id="pdf-obj-9-31" src="pdf-obj-9-31.jpg">

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7. Click here to go to question list. Use the deﬁnitions of sinh x and cosh x to show that sinh 2 x = 1 2 cosh(2x) 1 . Link to video on YouTube 12 " id="pdf-obj-11-26" src="pdf-obj-11-26.jpg"> Link to video on YouTube 12 " id="pdf-obj-11-29" src="pdf-obj-11-29.jpg">

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8. Click here to go to question list. Let arctanh x be the inverse function of tanh x. Write down the domain and range of arctanh x and ﬁnd a formula for arctanh x. Link to video on YouTube 13 " id="pdf-obj-12-16" src="pdf-obj-12-16.jpg">

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9. Click here to go to question list. Find the derivatives of the following functions:

(a)

sinh(x 2 )

(b)

tanh 3 (x)

(c)

cosh x cos x Link to video on YouTube (c) cosh x cos x 15 " id="pdf-obj-14-30" src="pdf-obj-14-30.jpg"> Link to video on YouTube (c) cosh x cos x 15 " id="pdf-obj-14-33" src="pdf-obj-14-33.jpg">

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