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Hormones are chemical substances secreted in very small amounts by endocrine glands. They coordinate the activities of living organisms & also their growth. CHARACTERISTICS OF HORMONES (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Secreted in small amounts by endocrine glands Poured directly into blood Transported into body thru circulatory system. Chemical messengers Act on specific tissues/ organs (Target organs) Coordinate the activities of the body & their growth.

Gland A gland is a structure which secretes a specific substance. A gland is made up of a group of cells or tissues. 2 types of glands exist in body. Endocrine g ⊆ secretes its secretions directly into blood. Ductless Secrete hormones Mixed/ Dual glands • • • • Serve both functions Pancreas Ovary Testes THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM/ HORMONAL SYSTEM Consists of a no. of glands Name of gland (1) Hypothalamus (+nt in brain) (2) Pituitary (Hypophysis) Master gland (2) Trophic Hormone Hormones Secreted (1) Releasing Hormones (2) Inhibiting hormones (1) Growth Hormone Functions Regulates the secretions of hormones from Pituitary Growth of body • Bones • Muscles regulate secretion of hormones from other endocrine glands Exocrine g ⊆ secretes its product into a duct. Secrete secretions, digestive enzymes. Glands C ducts

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(3) Prolactin (4) Vasopressin (5) Oxytocin (3) Thyroid (1) Tyroxine (contains iodine) (2) Calcitonin (4) Parathyroid (5) Pancreas (6) Adrenal Parathormone (1) Insulin (2) Glucogen (1) Adrenalin (2) Corticoids (7) Testes (males) (8) Ovaries (1) Testosterone (1) Oestrogen

regulate function of mammary gland regulate water and electrolyte balance regulate release of milk during lactation Control of rate of metabolism Works opposite to Parathormone Regulate Ca & P levels in blood Lower blood glucose level Upper blood glucose level Regulate heart rate, breathing rate, BP, carbo – metabolism, numeral balance Controls development of male sex organs & male features Development of female sex organs, female features such as fenuine voice, soft skin, mammary glands

(2) Progesterone

Controls uterus changes in menstrual cycle Maintains pregnancy

Endocrine glands produce hormones

Hormone act as a messenger bt. Nervous system & organs of body thus help in control & coordination of the activities along nervous system.

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