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LECTURE NOTES – PHYSICS

BASICS OF ELECTRICITY AND IT’S HEATING EFFECTS
Nature of Charge 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. There are two kinds of charge, positive and negative Like charges repel, unlike charges attract Positive charge comes from having more protons than electrons; negative charge comes from having more electrons than protons Charge is quantized, meaning that charge comes in integer multiples of the elementary charge e (Q = n × e) e = 1.6 × 10–19C Charge is conserved

Law of conservation of charge Total electric charge in the Universe is a constant quantity, and if additional charge appears in some region, it is only at the expense of the charge deficit in some other regions. Coulomb’s Law “The magnitude of the electric force that a particle exerts on another particle is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The direction of the force is along the line joining the particles. " F ∝
Q1 . Q2 R2

where Q1 and Q2 are the magnitude of the charges and R the separation

between them. Conductors and Insulators A conductor is a material that permits the motion of electric charge through its volume. Examples of conductors are copper, aluminium and iron. An electric charge placed on the end of a conductor will spread out over the entire conductor until an equilibrium distribution is established. Conductors have low resistivity. Electric charge placed on an insulator stays in place: an insulator (like glass, rubber and Mylar) does not permit the motion of electric charge in under normal physical conditions. They have very high resistivity. The Potential at a Point Electric potential is a measure of the potential energy per unit charge. The potential of a point is the work done in carrying unit positive charge from infinity to that point. • • The potential of a point in an electric field is a characteristic constant of that point. It does not depend on how much charge is carried.

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• • •

It does not depend upon the distance that is actually covered but on the displacement of the point from infinity It is a scalar quantity. The unit is volt.

Potential Difference Between Two Points (V) The potential difference between two points is the work done in moving a unit positive charge from one point to the other. If the potential at point A is VA and the potential at point B is VB then the potential difference, V, between the A and B is given by V = VB – VA If a charge, q, is moved through a potential difference, V, we can write V=
W q

The units of V are JC-1 or Volt. 1 Volt: A potential difference of 1 volt between two points means that in carrying a charge of +1 coulomb from one point to the other 1 joule of work would be done. Electric Current: It is a sustained flow of charge requiring a closed circuit a power source It is measured as the rate of flow of charge: I = Q/t Unit: Ampere. 1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb per second. • • • A current in a metal is due to the movement of electrons. In a conducting solution, the current is due to the movement of ions. Current is measured using an ammeter. An ammeter measures the rate of flow of charge.

Note: When current is due to the flow of electrons there is an associated mass transfer. However mass transfer if any in electron conduction is insignificant. Conventional current and electron flow Conventional Current assumes that current flows out of the positive terminal, through the circuit and into the negative terminal of the source. This was the convention chosen during the discovery of electricity. Electron Flow is what actually happens and electrons flow out of the negative terminal, through the circuit and into the positive terminal of the source
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Resistance The resistance of any object is measured as the potential difference required per unit current in that object. Hence the resistance R is quantified as: R=
V I

where V is the applied potential difference and I the current in the object. It can be said that resistance is the property of an object to resist flow of current through it. George Ohm investigated the resistance of metals. He first tried to find how the resistance of a piece of metal depends on its dimensions. He found that resistance depends on (i) (ii) (iii) the length of the piece of metal, l the cross-sectional area of the piece of metal, A the type of metal. R∝l and R ∝l/A R = ρ l/A (ρ is the resistivity of material) Resistance and Temperature Resistance occurs because conducting electrons repeatedly collide with the comparatively massive vibrating atoms losing their kinetic energy. The vibrating atoms having gained this kinetic energy now vibrate more. The resulting increase in the average vibrational kinetic energy is rise in temperature. Ohm’s law Physical conditions remaining constant, the current in a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor. V∝I V=R×I where R is a constant ∴R=
V I

His results showed that

I

V

where R is a constant for a particular conductor under given physical conditions. This constant is called the resistance of the wire. [Ohm’s law does not state V=IR; It states that in the expression V=IR, the R is a constant] Unit : ohm (Ω) = Volt/Ampere. 1 ohm 1 ohm is the resistance of that wire in which 1 volt of p.d. is required in order to maintain a current of 1 Ampere.

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Ohmic and non-ohmic resistors Since only metals have constant resistance as stipulated by Ohm’s law, they are called ohmic conductors. All other materials which conduct current such as electrolytes and semiconductors etc. do have resistance. But they are known as non-ohmic conductors since their resistance is not constant. Hence for non-ohmic conductors the V-I graph is a curve. Resistivity Resistivity (ρ) of a material is the resistance offered by a cube of dimension 1m made of the material when the potential difference is applied perpendicular to the opposite faces of the cube. It is an intrinsic property of that medium and does not change with the shape and size of the sample. It is however dependent on the temperature of the material. Unit of resistivity is ohm.metre Series circuits A series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain, so the current has only one path to take. The current is the same through each resistor. The total resistance of the circuit is found by simply adding up the resistance values of the individual resistors: Equivalent resistance of resistors in series: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + ...

V1

V2

V3

Let V1, V2 and V3 be the potential across resistors R1, R2 and R3. Since current is same throughout: by the definitions of Resistance.
V V V R1 = 1 , R2 = 2 , R3 = 3 I I I

Adding together R 1 + R2 + R 3 = R 1 + R2 + R 3 =
V1 + V2 + V3 V = (In series V = V1 + V2 + V3) I I V =R I

R is the equivalent resistance of the three resistors. It should be noted that in a series connection of resistances, • • • the equivalent resistance is higher than any of the components, the current is the same in all components the potential differences across the different components are directly proportional to their resistances. Parallel circuits A parallel circuit is a circuit in which the resistors are arranged with their heads connected together, and their tails connected together. The current in a parallel circuit
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breaks up, with some flowing along each parallel branch and re-combining when the branches meet again. The voltage across each resistor in parallel is the same. The total resistance of a set of resistors in parallel is found by adding up the reciprocals of the resistance values, and then taking the reciprocal of the total: equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel: 1 / R = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 +...

We know that I = I1 + I2 + I3 We know that all resistance work at same potential difference in the parallel circuit. So I1 =
V V V , I2 = and I3 = R1 R2 R3
⎡ 1 1 1 ⎤ + + ⎥ ⎣ R1 R 2 R 3 ⎦

I = I1 + I 2 + I3 = V ⎢
1 1 1 I = + + V R1 R 2 R 3

If all three resistors are replaced by a single equivalent resistor R then
1 I = R V

Hence

1 1 l l = + + R R1 R 2 R3

It should be noted that in a parallel connection of resistances, • • • The equivalent resistance R is in this case smaller than even the smallest of the individual resistances. In a parallel connection, the current subdivides, the sum of all the currents being equal to the main current in the circuit. The current in each arm is inversely proportional to the resistance of that arm.

Power of a device We know that potential difference is given by work done per unit charge carried. Therefore, W=VxQ If time taken is t, then W/t = V x Q/t or, P = V x I or, P = I2R and, P = V2/R All these expressions are applicable to all materials, both ohmic and non-ohmic.

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CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
Voltaic and electrolytic cells Electrochemical cells which generate an electric current are called voltaic cells or galvanic cells, and common batteries consist of one or more such cells. In other electrochemical cells an externally supplied electric current is used to drive a chemical reaction which would not occur spontaneously. Such cells are called electrolytic cells.

Electrolytes An electrolyte is a substance which dissociates into free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. Because they generally consist of ions in solution, electrolytes are also known as ionic solution. What is electroplating? Electroplating is the deposition of a metallic coating onto an object by putting a negative charge onto the object and immersing it into a solution which contains a salt of the metal to be deposited. The metallic ions of the salt carry a positive charge and are attracted to the part. When they reach it, the negatively charged part provides the electrons to reduce" the positively charged ions to metallic form.

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The laws of electrolysis. Law-I: The amount of chemical change produced by a current is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed, ie equal currents produce equal amounts of decomposition. m ∝ Q or m ∝ It Law-II: The quantities of substances liberated or deposited on the electrode by the passage of a given quantity of electricity (current) are proportional to the chemical equivalent weights of those substances. m∝z z=
atomic mass valency

Together the law yields the formula M=ZIt M is the mass deposited when a current of I flows for time t to deposit a metal of electrochemical equivalent Z Faraday’s constant It represents the electric charge carried on one mole of electrons. It is found by multiplying Avogadro's constant by the charge carried on a single electron, and is equal to 9.6483 × 104 coulombs per mole. One faraday is this constant used as a unit. The constant is used to calculate the electric charge needed to discharge a particular quantity of ions during electrolysis Dry Cell
brass cap Insulating The common dry cell relies on chemical changes occurring between the electrodes – the

central carbon rod and the outer zinc casing – and the ammonium chloride electrolyte to
ammonium produce electricity. The mixture of carbon and manganese is used to increase cover life of outer the insulating

top seal

(+ ve contact)

the cell. Zn(s) -> Zn2+(aq) + 2eMn2O3(s) (Cathode) (Anode)

chloride jelly

zinc can (– ve) mixture of powdered carbon and manganese (IV) oxide – ve contact trade here

carbon and (+ ve) cardboard disc

2NH4+(aq) + 2MnO2(s) + 2e + H2O(l) + 2NH3(aq)

Cathode reaction simplified The reduction of the ammonium ion produces two gaseous products 2NH4+(aq) + 2e2NH3(g) + H2(g) Which must be absorbed to prevent the buildup of gas pressure. That is accomplished with two further reactions in the paste electrolyte. Zinc chloride reacts with ammonia to form solid zinc ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide reacts with hydrogen to form solid dimanganese trioxide plus water. ZnCl2(aq) + 2NH3(g) 2MnO2(s) + H2(g) Zn(NH3)2Cl2(s) Mn2O3(s) + H2O(l)
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Primary cells In primary cells the electrochemical reaction is not reversible. During discharging the chemical compounds are permanently changed and electrical energy is released until the original compounds are completely exhausted. Thus the cells can be used only once. Secondary cells (accumulators) In secondary cells this electrochemical reaction is reversible and the original chemical compounds can be reconstituted by the application of an electrical potential between the electrodes injecting energy into the cell. Such cells can be discharged and recharged many times.

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MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
What is magnetism? Magnetism is the force of attraction or repulsion between substances made of certain materials, such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and steel. The force of magnetism, simply put, is due to the motion of electric charges. What is a magnetic field? A magnetic field is the region in space where a magnetic force can be detected. The magnetic field strength and direction can be measured in terms of strength and direction. What are magnetic poles? All magnets have points, or poles, where their magnetic strength is concentrated. Those points are called poles. We label them north and south because suspended magnets orient along north-south planes. On different magnets, like poles repel each other, opposite poles attract Magnetic field lines Magnetic field lines are a way to visualize the magnetic field. When drawn, the distance between them is an indication of the strength of the field. The closer they are, the stronger the field. Also, the direction of the tangent to the field line is the direction of the magnetic field at that point. A free north pole would move along the magnetic field line. Permanent magnets A permanent magnet is one that will hold its magnetic properties over a long period of time. Magnetite Magnetite is a magnetic material found in nature. It is a permanent magnet, but it is relatively weak. Magnetic Alloys Most permanent magnets we use are manufactured and are a combination or alloy of iron, nickel and cobalt. Rare-earth permanent magnets are a special type of magnet that can have extreme strength. Temporary magnets A temporary magnet is one that will lose its magnetism. For example, soft iron can be made into a temporary magnet, but it will lose its magnetic power in a short while.

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Electromagnet By wrapping a wire around an iron or steel core and running an electrical current through the wire, we can make an electromagnet. If the core is soft iron, the magnetism will diminish as soon as the current is turned off. This feature makes electromagnets good for picking up and dropping objects. Typically DC electricity is used in electromagnets Properties of magnets We know that a magnet has two poles. A north pole and a south pole. All the properties of magnets arise because of their poles. If you bring two magnets close to each other, you will observe that like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other. Also the poles exist only at the free ends of the magnet. If you break up a magnet, you will see, new north and south poles form immediately. A magnetic pole cannot be isolated. If you spread iron filings around a magnet, they will align themselves along the lines in a curved fashion, starting from one pole and ending on the next pole. These lines are called lines of force of the magnet. Uses of Magnets Common uses of magnets are based on simple magnetic attraction or repulsion, as in magnetic refrigerator latches. Large electromagnets are used to move loads of steel scrap and to process magnetic ores. Smaller electromagnets are used in relays, switches, loud speakers, microphones, clocks, ammeters, voltmeters and speedometers etc. Magnetic materials are used to store information in tapes, Floppies etc. MRI is a medical procedure that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to construct pictures of the body What are permanent magnets made of? Today’s permanent magnets are made of alloys. Alloy materials include Aluminum-Nickel-Cobalt (Alnico) Carbon, chromium, cobalt or tungsten steels Nipermag (iron, nickel, Aluminium and titanium) Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Neodymium magnets or "super magnets", a member of the rare earth category) Samarium-Cobalt (a member of the rare earth category) Strontium-Iron (Ferrite or Ceramic) How are magnets made? Magnets are made from materials that contain nickel, iron, or cobalt. When these materials are exposed to a magnetic field, the structure of the material is actually changed on a microscopic level. The molecules are rearranged into lines {called polarized). When enough of the metals are polarized, it becomes a magnet.
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Oersted’s Discovery A Danish professor, Hans Christian Oersted, prepared a science demonstration which included the heating of a wire by an electric current from a battery. Oersted noted that every time he connected the current, the compass needle moved, too, something completely unexpected. Thus for the first time it was established that electric current had magnetic properties. The direction of the magnetic field lines The right-hand rule: if you held the wire with your thumb pointing in the direction of the current, the magnetic field would make a circular path around the wire, in the direction that your fingers curl. The magnetic field strength due to a current carrying current Magnetic field strength, B ∝ I/r where I is the current flowing through the conductor and r the distance from the conductor Field due to a Current in a Straight Conductor

Field due to a circular loop

Field due to a Current in a Long Coil (Solenoid)

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Field Due to a bar magnet

Field due to a horse shoe magnet

The Motor Effect- Force on a current carrying conductor When the current passes at right angles through a magnetic field, it experiences a force. The direction of the force is determined by Flemmings “Left Hand Motor Rule” Case 1: Conductor parallel to magnetic field No force experienced Case 2: Conductor at right angles to magnetic field Maximum force experienced Case 3: Conductor at an angle to the magnetic field Intermediate force experienced Fleming′s Left Hand Rule Also known as the Motor Rule this is a way of determining the direction of a force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. The thumb, the first and the second fingers on the left hand are held so that they are at right angles to each other. If the first finger points in the direction of the magnetic field and the second finger the direction of the current in the wire, then the thumb will point in the direction of the force on the conductor.
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Van Allen Radiation Belts The particles originating in periodic solar flares, get carried by the solar wind, and are trapped by the earth's magnetic field. The charged particles of which the belts are composed circulate along the earth's magnetic lines of force extending from the area above the equator to the N Pole, to the S Pole, and circles back to the equator. This can present a dangerous hazard to satellites orbiting the earth. The Simple D.C. Electric Motor A simple d.c. electric motor consists of a coil of wire placed in a magnetic field. When current flows through the coil, a torque is produced. The brushes and commutator conduct the current from the supply to the coil. Each of the carbon brushes makes contact with one half of the commutator. The commutator rotates with the coil. This arrangement ensures that the torque produces a constant sense of rotation. In the diagram below, the force on side a – b of the coil will be directed downwards (Fleming’s left hand rule) so the rotation is anti-clockwise (viewed from the front). When the coil has rotated 180°, side d – c is on the left but, as the commutator has also rotated, the torque is still in the same sense.

N S

Brushes A device which conducts current between rotating and stationary parts of a generator or motor Slip ring A metal ring mounted on a rotating part of a machine electrical brushes on to provide a continuous through contacts. connection stationary

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Commutator The commutator is a single slip ring split into left and right halves that are insulated from each other and are attached to opposite ends of the coil. It allows current to leave the generator through the brushes in only one direction. Electromagnetic induction Faraday discovered that a voltage would be generated across a length of wire if that wire was exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field of changing intensity. An easy way to create a magnetic field of changing intensity is to produce a relative motion between a permanent magnet and a coil of wire. This phenomenon where a changing magnetic field induces a current in a coil is called electromagnetic induction. The direction of induced current is given by fleming’s right hand rule Right hand Rule Also known as the Generator Rule this is a way of determining the direction of the induced emf of a conductor moving in a magnetic field. The thumb, the first and the second fingers on the right hand are held so that they are at right angles to each other. If the first finger points in the direction of the magnetic field and the thumb in the direction of the motion of the conductor then the second finger will point in the direction of the induced emf in the conductor. Simple A.C. Generator Consider a coil of wire rotating in a uniform magnetic field, of flux density, B, as shown below. When the coil is in the position shown in the diagram, side 2 is moving down and side 1 is moving up. We can use Fleming’s right hand rule to decide that end q will (at that instant) be the positive terminal of the generator. When the coil has rotated through half a turn, end p will be the positive terminal. Therefore, a coil of wire rotating in a magnetic field has an alternating emf induced in it. To connect the coil to a light bulb (or any other component) brushes made of carbon make contact with slip rings made of brass, as shown in the diagram.
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DC Generators: In a dc generator, the ac output from a rotating armature is converted to pulsating dc by using a commutator in place of slip rings. The rotating coil and the magnetic field are the same for both AC and DC generators. The difference is in the method used for removing the voltage induced in the armature. In an AC generator the armature coil is attached to slip rings which make contact with brushes.In a DC generator the armature coil is attached to a commutator which also makes contact with brushes.

A commutator is basically a slip ring which is split into two or more parts. These parts are called commutator Segments. The segments are insulated from each other and from the shaft. Each end of the armature coil is attached to one of the segments. The brushes make contact to opposite sides of the commutator segments. Domestic Circuits Color coding of wires Red- Live (positive) Black- Nuetral (Negative) Green Wire- Earth Potential difference in domestic circuits is 220 V A.C. Amperage of wiring- 5A for bulbs and other low power devices 15 A for high power devices like Geyser etc. Earthing of appliances The earth wire gives a safe route for the current if the live wire touches the outer casing.

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If the live wire inside an electric cooker comes loose and touches the metal casing, you will get an electric shock. The earth terminal is connected to the metal casing, so the current goes through the earth wire instead of through you. The earth wire route has a very low resistance, so a big current flows which blows the fuse, disconnecting the cooker. Parallel connection of devices Devices are connected in parallel because (i) (ii) It ensures that each device can be controlled without affecting others All devices would operate under same potential difference

Overloading An overload is the flow of electricity into conductors or devices when normal load exceeds capacity. It may occur when (i) (ii) (iii) Higher power appliance is connected to a circuit having lower capacity. More number of appliances are used at a single point than recommended (e.g. multiplugs) A faulty device consuming more power than its rating An over load results in heating of conductors and hence melting of insulation resulting in short circuit and fire. Short circuit A short circuit occurs when the current finds a way to bypass the appliance on a path that has little or no resistance - for example, where frayed insulation bares a wire and allows it to touch the frame of the appliance, so the current can flow straight to ground. In this situation, a very large current can occur, producing a lot of heat and a fire hazard. The fuse The fuse does two jobs. It protects the wiring if something goes wrong, and it can also protect us. The fuse contains a piece of wire that melts easily. If the current through the fuse is too great, the wire melts and breaks the circuit. The thicker the fuse the more its current carrying capacity. It is usually made of pure tin or copper - tin alloy. Fuses in plugs are made in standard ratings. The most common are 5A and 15 A. The fuse should be rated at a slightly larger current than needed for the device. • • A 5A fuse is used in the wires feeding fans bulbs etc. A 15 A fuse is used to protect geysers, refrigerators (1000W or more) etc.

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