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THE E-ELT

CONSTRUCTION PROPOSAL
The E-ELT Project offce
European Southern Observatory
Karl-Schwarzschild-Strae 2
85748 Garching bei Mnchen
Germany
Phone +4989320060
www.eso.org
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The E-E|T
Oonstruot|on Proposa|




































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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Tab|e of Oontents 3
TAB|E OF OONTENTS
Table of Contents ................................................................................................................... 3
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................ 5
1 Proposal Digest .............................................................................................................. 7
1.1 lntroduot|on .................................................................................................................................... 7
1.2 So|enoe w|th the E-E|T .................................................................................................................. 7
1.3 Towards the E-E|T Oonoept ........................................................................................................ 12
1.4 Oost|ng Ph||osophy ...................................................................................................................... 13
1.5 The Oost of the E-E|T .................................................................................................................. 13
1.6 The Sohedu|e of the E-E|T ........................................................................................................... 14
1.7 Oont|ngenoy ................................................................................................................................. 14
1.8 The Oonstruot|on Rev|ew and the De|ta Phase B .......................................................................... 15
1.9 The Oost Rev|ew .......................................................................................................................... 15
1.10 39-metre Te|esoope Oonoept ....................................................................................................... 16
1.11 The lnstrumentat|on P|an .............................................................................................................. 16
1.12 The Management P|an ................................................................................................................. 17
1.13 Des|gn Prooess ............................................................................................................................ 17
1.14 Operat|ons ................................................................................................................................... 20
1.15 Oono|us|on ................................................................................................................................... 21
2 The Science Case ........................................................................................................ 23
2.1 Oontemporary So|enoe ................................................................................................................. 23
2.2 Synerg|es ..................................................................................................................................... 41
2.3 D|soovery Potent|a| ....................................................................................................................... 44
2.4 Oommun|ty lnput to the So|enoe Oase ......................................................................................... 46
3 Technical Overview ...................................................................................................... 53
3.1 S|te and lnfrastruoture .................................................................................................................. 53
3.2 Dome ........................................................................................................................................... 61
3.3 Ma|n Struoture .............................................................................................................................. 78
3.4 Pr|mary M|rror n|ts ...................................................................................................................... 95
3.5 Seoondary n|t .......................................................................................................................... 124
3.6 Tert|ary n|t ................................................................................................................................ 134
3.7 Ouaternary n|t .......................................................................................................................... 140
3.8 T|p-t||t / F|e|d-stab|||sat|on n|t .................................................................................................... 146
3.9 Pre-fooa| Stat|ons ....................................................................................................................... 151
3.10 |aser Gu|de Stars ...................................................................................................................... 158
3.11 Adapt|ve Opt|os Oa||brat|on n|t ................................................................................................. 161
3.12 Systems Eng|neer|ng .................................................................................................................. 163
3.13 Oontro| Strategy ......................................................................................................................... 168
3.14 Oontro| System .......................................................................................................................... 170
3.15 Assemb|y, lntegrat|on and ver|f|oat|on ........................................................................................ 174
4 E-ELT Instrument Roadmap ....................................................................................... 179
4.1 lntroduot|on ................................................................................................................................ 179
4.2 lnstrument Roadmap .................................................................................................................. 181
4.3 lnstrument Management P|an ..................................................................................................... 190
4.4 Append|x: Phase A Stud|es of lnstruments and Adapt|ve Opt|os Modu|es .................................. 195
5 Operations .................................................................................................................. 209
5.1 Soope ........................................................................................................................................ 209
5.2 So|enoe Operat|ons Goa|s, Serv|oes and Performanoe Mon|tor|ng .............................................. 210
5.3 Observatory Management Overv|ew ........................................................................................... 210
5.4 Operat|ons Aot|v|t|es ................................................................................................................... 214
5.5 E-E|T Operat|ons Staff|ng .......................................................................................................... 224

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4 Tab|e of Oontents E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
6 Economic Impact ....................................................................................................... 235
6.1 lntroduot|on ................................................................................................................................ 235
6.2 The lnteraot|on between Astronomy, lndustry and lnnovat|on ..................................................... 235
6.3 lmpaot ........................................................................................................................................ 236
6.4 Generat|ng Know|edge ............................................................................................................... 236
6.5 Prov|d|ng lnsp|rat|on ................................................................................................................... 237
6.6 lnoreas|ng the Sk|||s Base ........................................................................................................... 237
6.7 Bu||d|ng lndustr|a| Oapao|ty ......................................................................................................... 237
6.8 St|mu|at|ng lnnovat|on ................................................................................................................ 237
7 Outreach and Education ............................................................................................ 241
7.1 The va|ue of Researoh lnfrastruotures for Soo|ety ....................................................................... 241
7.2 The lmpaot of the E-E|T on Eduoat|on and Pub||o Outreaoh ...................................................... 242
8 Management Plan ...................................................................................................... 247
8.1 Oontext ...................................................................................................................................... 247
8.2 Governanoe ............................................................................................................................... 247
8.3 Projeot Team Struoture and Respons|b|||t|es ............................................................................... 247
8.4 Dooumentat|on ........................................................................................................................... 250
8.5 Work Breakdown Struoture ........................................................................................................ 251
8.6 Workf|ow .................................................................................................................................... 252
8.7 Oommun|oat|ons ........................................................................................................................ 252
8.8 Staff Effort .................................................................................................................................. 252
8.9 Safety Management ................................................................................................................... 253
8.10 Esoa|at|on .................................................................................................................................. 253
8.11 Projeot Oontro| ........................................................................................................................... 253
8.12 R|sk Management ...................................................................................................................... 254
8.13 Oonf|gurat|on and Ohange Management .................................................................................... 254
8.14 lnterfaoe Management ................................................................................................................ 255
8.15 Oua||ty Management .................................................................................................................. 255
8.16 Aooeptanoe and Oomm|ss|on|ng ................................................................................................ 255
9 Schedule and Budget ................................................................................................. 257
9.1 Sohedu|e .................................................................................................................................... 257
9.2 Budget ....................................................................................................................................... 258
9.3 Operat|ona| Oosts ...................................................................................................................... 259
10 Acknowledgements .................................................................................................... 261
11 List of Acronyms ........................................................................................................ 263


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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Exeout|ve Summary 5
EEOTlvE SMMARY
Th|s dooument presents a 1083 m||||on euro (Mt}, 11-year programme for the oonstruot|on of the Euro-
pean Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope (E-E|T}, the fao|||ty that w||| ma|nta|n the European Southern Observa-
tory (ESO} |n |ts |ead|ng pos|t|on, prov|d|ng researoh oapab|||t|es to the European astronom|oa| oommun|ty
for the oom|ng deoades. Speo|f|oa||y, |t |s proposed to oonstruot a 39.3-metre segmented opt|oa| te|e-
soope on Oerro Armazones as part of the |a S|||a Parana| Observatory, proven to be one of the wor|ds
best astronom|oa| s|tes. The te|esoope w||| be operated from, and as part of, the ex|st|ng Parana| s|te.
Th|s w||| oreate an outstand|ng fao|||ty |n Oh||e for ESO Member States and w||| ensure that the max|mum
advantage oan be taken of deve|opments w|th|n astronomy and eng|neer|ng.

Th|s oonstruot|on proposa| |no|udes not on|y the te|esoope struoture and eno|osure, but a|so a|| of the
opt|os and |nstrumentat|on requ|red to estab||sh th|s un|que so|ent|f|o fao|||ty. A|though |t w||| be bu||t as
part of the ex|st|ng |nfrastruoture, extens|ons to roads, power supp||es and serv|oes w||| be requ|red to
ma|nta|n and operate the fao|||ty. ln add|t|on, suoh a powerfu| te|esoope requ|res an array of |nstruments
to aoh|eve |ts amb|t|ous so|enoe goa|s. Th|s oonstruot|on proposa| |no|udes a p|an that w||| de||ver severa|
|nstruments to the te|esoope and prov|des the roadmap and teohno|ogy deve|opment to enab|e further
|nstrumentat|on for the future exp|o|tat|on of the fao|||ty. Th|s p|an ensures that the te|esoope w||| operate
w|th two |nstruments when |t enters serv|oe, w|th one further |nstrument be|ng de||vered every two years
thereafter.


Figure 0.1. Sunset from Armazones (as will be seen at first light of the E-ELT).

The te|esoope has a m|rror 39.3 metres |n d|ameter, v|ew|ng an area on the sky about one n|nth the s|ze
of the fu|| Moon. The opt|oa| des|gn |tse|f |s based on a nove| f|ve-m|rror soheme that de||vers exoept|ona|
|mage qua||ty. The pr|mary m|rror oons|sts of 798 segments, eaoh 1.45 metres w|de, but on|y 50 mm
th|ok.

To take the max|mum advantage of the s|te, the ava||ab|e teohno|ogy and deve|opments |n |nstrumenta-
t|on, the te|esoope w||| be adapt|ve, automat|oa||y oorreot|ng the d|sturbanoes |ntroduoed by the Earths
atmosphere before ||ght enters the |nstruments. Th|s fo||ows the deve|opment of the adapt|ve opt|os de-
p|oyed on very |arge Te|esoope (v|T} |nstrumentat|on and |s an evo|ut|on of the adapt|ve opt|os fao|||ty
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6 Exeout|ve Summary E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
be|ng deve|oped for the v|T. The te|esoope w||| be de||vered w|th an adapt|ve 2.4-metre m|rror and w|||
ut|||se s|x sod|um |aser gu|de stars.

Deve|op|ng the E-E|T |s a major endeavour |n so|enoe, teohno|ogy and eng|neer|ng. Partnersh|ps be-
tween |nst|tutes, un|vers|t|es and |ndustry are a|ready form|ng to bu||d and exp|o|t the te|esoope, |ts sys-
tems and |nstruments. ln add|t|on, the teohno|og|es and |nnovat|ons be|ng deve|oped to de||ver the
E-E|T have a|ready found, and w||| oont|nue to f|nd, w|der app||oat|ons w|th|n |ndustry. Adapt|ve opt|os
and |asers are two suoh areas a|ready be|ng spun out.

lt |s o|ear that a projeot of the s|ze and teohno|og|oa| oha||enge of the E-E|T w||| have a s|gn|f|oant eoo-
nom|o, ou|tura| and so|ent|f|o |mpaot w|th a good ohanoe of d|reot app||oat|ons |n areas suoh as med|o|ne.
The deve|opment of the E-E|T w||| generate know|edge, prov|de |nsp|rat|on, |norease our sk|||s base and
deve|op |ndustr|a| oapao|ty.

As the wor|ds f|rst and |argest of a new generat|on of extreme|y |arge te|esoopes, the E-E|T w||| be |n the
pr|me pos|t|on to take fu|| advantage of the d|soover|es made by the James Webb Spaoe Te|esoope
(JWST}.

The work oarr|ed out to date, pr|mar||y w|th |ndustry, has reduoed the r|sk for both the teohn|oa| demands
and the management of the programme. Fo||ow|ng suooessfu| teohn|oa| and f|nano|a| rev|ews the pro-
gramme |s |n an exoe||ent pos|t|on to move |nto oonstruot|on, and the t|m|ng wou|d ensure that Europe
ma|nta|ns |ts wor|d |ead |n |arge astronom|oa| fao|||t|es and the resu|t|ng researoh and d|soovery benef|ts.

Th|s proposa| |s oonoerned ma|n|y w|th the teohno|og|oa| oha||enges of bu||d|ng the E-E|T, but |ts ma|n
a|m |s to prov|de a fao|||ty that w||| a||ow the oommun|ty to taok|e the exo|t|ng so|ent|f|o quest|ons ad-
dressed by the E-E|T so|enoe oase. Shou|d the governments of the ESO Member States oome to a
rap|d deo|s|on about author|s|ng the programme, the |nvo|vement and |eadersh|p of Europe |n these d|s-
oover|es w||| be assured.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Proposa| D|gest 7
1 PROPOSA| DlGEST
1.1 lNTRODOTlON
The fo||ow|ng ohapter |s |ntended to prov|de the reader w|th a oomp|ete overv|ew of the essent|a| e|e-
ments of the E-E|T proposa|. More |n-depth mater|a| oan be found |n the rema|nder of th|s dooument.
1.2 SOlENOE WlTH THE E-E|T
1.2.1 THE NET STEP lN FOR HNDRED YEARS OF DlSOOvERlES
The European Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope |s the next g|ant step |n four oentur|es of astrophys|oa| re-
searoh us|ng te|esoopes. The year 2009 marked the pass|ng of 400 years s|noe Ga|||eo Ga|||e| f|rst used a
te|esoope for astronom|oa| researoh, mak|ng the ground-break|ng observat|ons that wou|d f|na||y refute
the geooentr|o Pto|ema|o wor|dv|ew and estab||sh the he||ooentr|o Oopern|oan one. S|noe then, astro-
nom|oa| observat|ons w|th te|esoopes have |noreas|ng|y beoome the norm, unt|| today, when observato-
r|es around the wor|d host g|ant te|esoopes that work every ava||ab|e seoond to oo||eot |mmense quant|-
t|es of data. Eaoh teohno|og|oa| advanoe has brought new, and often tota||y unexpeoted, d|soover|es
about our n|verse, enr|oh|ng our ou|tura| her|tage.

Over the |ast s|xty years, astronomers have deve|oped te|esoopes that are ab|e to observe r|ght aoross
the e|eotromagnet|o speotrum. Antennas for |ong wave|ength observat|ons rad|o, m||||metre and sub-
m||||metre were oonstruoted, a||ow|ng many so|ent|f|o breakthroughs, suoh as the d|soover|es of qua-
sars, pu|sars, the oosm|o m|orowave baokground, and muoh more. Further, spaoe observator|es a||owed
observat|ons to be pushed to shorter wave|engths, |nto the u|trav|o|et, -ray and gamma-ray reg|mes.
Th|s open|ng up of the h|gh-energy front|er generated a further f|ood of d|soover|es suoh as -ray stars,
gamma-ray bursts, b|aok ho|e aooret|on d|sos, and other exot|o phenomena. Prev|ous|y unknown phys|-
oa| prooesses were tak|ng p|aoe |n the n|verse around us. These astrophys|oa| d|soover|es |ed to a
number of Nobe| Pr|zes |n Phys|os (|n 1974, 1978, 1993, 2002, 2006 and 2011} and to g|ant |eaps |n our
understand|ng of the oosmos.

Wh||e astronomy has expanded to enoompass these new wave|ength bands, most d|soover|es are st|||
made |n the v|s|b|e and near-|nfrared reg|mes, where stars predom|nant|y em|t the|r ||ght. Teohno|og|oa|
advanoes |n the 1980s and 1990s a||owed so|ent|sts to bu||d ever |arger te|esoopes and ever more sens|-
t|ve oameras. These |nstruments have opened up who|e new areas of study. For examp|e, the f|rst
exop|anets (p|anets orb|t|ng other stars} were deteoted, and the ourrent generat|on of 810-metre-o|ass
te|esoopes has even a||owed us to take the f|rst p|otures of a few of these objeots. Another examp|e |s
the |nd|reot deteot|on of dark energy, prev|ous|y oomp|ete|y unsuspeoted, but be||eved today to dom|nate
and dr|ve the expans|on of the n|verse. Our know|edge |n astronomy oont|nues to progress at an
|nored|b|e paoe, answer|ng many quest|ons, but a|so ra|s|ng exo|t|ng new ones.

The European Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope w||| be key |n address|ng these new quest|ons, and |n the fo|-
|ow|ng seot|ons we seek to g|ve a f|avour of the k|nd of fundamenta| quest|ons that |t w||| f|na||y answer.
However, just as Ga|||eo was astounded to f|nd mounta|ns on the Moon and moons orb|t|ng Jup|ter, the
most exo|t|ng d|soover|es are probab|y those that we have not yet even |mag|ned.
1.2.2 OPEN OESTlONS FOR THE E-E|T
A revo|ut|onary te|esoope suoh as the European Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope |s des|gned to answer some
of the most prom|nent open quest|ons |n astrophys|os.
1.2.2.1 EOP|ANETS: ARE WE A|ONE?
For over a deoade, we have known that exop|anets ex|st, but we have not yet been ab|e to deteot the
fa|nt s|gnatures of Earth-||ke p|anets d|reot|y. The E-E|T w||| have the reso|ut|on to obta|n the f|rst d|reot
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8 Proposa| D|gest E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
|mages of suoh objeots, and even ana|yse the|r atmospheres for the b|omarker mo|eou|es that m|ght |nd|-
oate the presenoe of ||fe.

Are p|anetary systems ||ke the So|ar System oommon? How frequent|y do rooky p|anets sett|e |n hab|ta-
b|e zones, where water |s ||qu|d on the surfaoe? Do the atmospheres of exop|anets resemb|e those of
the p|anets |n the So|ar System? How |s pre-b|ot|o mater|a| d|str|buted |n protop|anetary d|sos? Are there
s|gns of ||fe on any exop|anets?


Figure 1.1. An artists conception of a multi-planet system as they are commonly found now around nearby stars.
1.2.2.2 FNDAMENTA| PHYSlOS: ARE THE |AWS OF NATRE NlvERSA|?
As far baok |n t|me and as far out |n d|stanoe as we oan observe, a|| phenomena that have yet been
|nvest|gated seem to |nd|oate that the |aws of phys|os are un|versa| and unohang|ng. Yet, unoomfortab|e
gaps ex|st |n our understand|ng: grav|ty and genera| re|at|v|ty rema|n to be tested under extreme oond|-
t|ons, the amaz|ng|y rap|d expans|on (|nf|at|on} of the n|verse after the B|g Bang |s not understood, dark
matter seems to dom|nate the format|on of the |arge-soa|e struoture, but |ts nature rema|ns unknown,
and the reoent|y d|soovered aooe|erat|on of the expans|on of the n|verse requ|res a myster|ous dark
energy that |s even |ess oomprehens|b|e.

Were the phys|oa| oonstants |ndeed oonstant over the h|story of the n|verse? How d|d the expans|on
h|story of the n|verse rea||y prooeed? Oan we |nfer the nature of dark energy?
1.2.2.3 B|AOK HO|ES: WHAT WAS THElR RO|E lN SHAPlNG THE NlvERSE?
B|aok ho|es have puzz|ed phys|o|sts and astronomers s|noe they were f|rst postu|ated |n re|at|v|st|o form a
oentury ago by Kar| Sohwarzsoh||d. Observat|ons have demonstrated that these b|zarre objeots rea||y do
ex|st. And on a grand soa|e, too: not on|y have we found b|aok ho|es w|th masses oomparab|e to stars,
but supermass|ve b|aok ho|es, a m||||on or even a b||||on t|mes more mass|ve than the Sun, have a|so
been found at the oentres of many ga|ax|es. These b|aok ho|es a|so seem to know about the ga|ax|es
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Proposa| D|gest 9
they ||ve |n, as the|r propert|es are o|ose|y oorre|ated w|th those of the surround|ng ga|axy, w|th more
mass|ve b|aok ho|es be|ng found |n more mass|ve ga|ax|es.

W||| stud|es of the supermass|ve b|aok ho|e at the oentre of the M||ky Way revea| the nature of these
objeots? Do theor|es of grav|tat|on and genera| re|at|v|ty as we know them ho|d near a b|aok ho|es hor|-
zon? How do supermass|ve b|aok ho|es grow? And what |s the|r ro|e |n the format|on of ga|ax|es?


Figure 1.2. An artists conception of a neutron star, collapsed to a black hole, accreting and ejecting material from its
red giant companion.
1.2.2.4 STARS: DONT WE KNOW A|| THERE lS TO KNOW?
Stars are the nuo|ear furnaoes of the n|verse |n wh|oh ohem|oa| e|ements, |no|ud|ng the bu||d|ng b|ooks
of ||fe, are synthes|sed and reoyo|ed: w|thout stars there wou|d be no ||fe. Aooord|ng|y, ste||ar astrophys-
|os has |ong been a oore aot|v|ty for astronomers. But muoh rema|ns to be understood. W|th h|gher
angu|ar reso|ut|on and greater sens|t|v|ty astronomers w||| be ab|e to observe the fa|ntest, |east mass|ve
stars, a||ow|ng us to o|ose the ourrent huge gap |n our know|edge oonoern|ng star and p|anet format|on.

Nuo|eooosmoohronometry the oarbon-dat|ng method as app||ed to stars w||| beoome poss|b|e for
stars r|ght aoross the M||ky Way, a||ow|ng us to study ga|aot|o preh|story by dat|ng the very f|rst stars.
And some of the br|ghtest ste||ar phenomena, |no|ud|ng the v|o|ent deaths of stars |n supernovae and
gamma-ray bursts, w||| be traoed out to very |arge d|stanoes, offer|ng a d|reot map of the star format|on
h|story throughout the n|verse.

What are the deta||s of star format|on, and how does th|s prooess oonneot w|th the format|on of p|anets?
When d|d the f|rst stars form? What tr|ggers the most energet|o events that we know of |n the n|verse,
the deaths of stars |n gamma-ray bursts?
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10 Proposa| D|gest E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
1.2.2.5 GA|AlES: HOW DO lS|AND NlvERSES FORM?
The term |s|and un|verses was |ntroduoed |n 1755 by lmmanue| Kant and used at the beg|nn|ng of the
20th oentury to def|ne sp|ra| nebu|ae as |ndependent ga|ax|es outs|de the M||ky Way. Try|ng to under-
stand ga|axy format|on and evo|ut|on has beoome one of the most aot|ve f|e|ds of astronom|oa| researoh
over the |ast few deoades, as |arge te|esoopes have reaohed out beyond the M||ky Way. Yet, even
nearby g|ant ga|ax|es have rema|ned d|ffuse nebu|ae that oannot be reso|ved |nto |nd|v|dua| stars. The
un|que angu|ar reso|ut|on of the E-E|T w||| revo|ut|on|se th|s f|e|d by a||ow|ng us to observe |nd|v|dua|
stars |n ga|ax|es out to d|stanoes of tens of m||||ons of ||ght-years. Even at greater d|stanoes, we w||| be
ab|e to make the k|nd of observat|ons of the struoture of ga|ax|es and the mot|ons of the|r oonst|tuent
stars that prev|ous|y have on|y been poss|b|e |n the nearby n|verse: by tak|ng advantage of the f|n|te
speed of ||ght, we oan peer baok |n t|me to see how and when ga|ax|es were assemb|ed.

What k|nds of stars are ga|ax|es made of? How many generat|ons of stars do ga|ax|es host and when d|d
they form? What |s the star format|on h|story of the n|verse? When and how d|d ga|ax|es as we see
them today form? How d|d ga|ax|es evo|ve through t|me?


Figure 1.3. Centaurus A, 11 million light-years from the Milky Way, is our nearest giant galaxy collision.
1.2.2.6 THE DARK AGES: OAN WE OBSERvE THE EAR|lEST EPOOH OF THE NlvERSE?
For the f|rst 400 000 years after the B|g Bang, the n|verse was so dense and hot that ||ght and matter
were o|ose|y ooup|ed. Onoe the n|verse had expanded and ooo|ed suff|o|ent|y, e|eotrons and protons
oou|d reoomb|ne to form the s|mp|est e|ement, neutra| hydrogen, and photons oou|d deooup|e from
matter: the n|verse beoame transparent. On|y then oou|d the f|rst stars form and start to beoome
organ|sed |nto |arger struotures. The E-E|T w||| a||ow so|ent|sts to |ook a|| the way baok to these ear||est
t|mes pr|or to the format|on of the f|rst stars and henoe dubbed the Dark Ages to see how th|s f|rst
phase of astrophys|oa| evo|ut|on began.

What was the nature of the f|rst stars? When d|d the f|rst ga|ax|es assemb|e and what were the|r proper-
t|es? When d|d ga|ax|es assemb|e |nto |arger-soa|e struotures, shap|ng the d|str|but|on of matter as we
see |t today?
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 10 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Proposa| D|gest 11
Figure 1.4. The light of distant quasars is absorbed by a variety of components of the Universe on its way to Earth.

The above |||ustrat|ons mere|y h|nt at the so|enoe that the E-E|T w||| oarry out, but they g|ve a f|avour of
the range of prob|ems that |t w||| enab|e us to taok|e, from the or|g|ns of the |aws of phys|os to the preva-
|enoe of ||fe |n the n|verse. lt w||| a||ow so|ent|sts to address some of the most fundamenta| ourrent
quest|ons, as we|| as open|ng up who|e new front|ers of human understand|ng.
1.2.3 THE ASTROPHYSlOA| |ANDSOAPE BEYOND 2020
The E-E|T |s bu||t to address a very broad astrophys|oa| |andsoape. Pred|ot|ng what th|s w||| |ook ||ke
between 2020 and 2030 oan on|y be |noomp|ete|y drafted now. However, p|anned (|.e., not yet ex|st|ng}
fao|||t|es a|ways have some degree of unoerta|nty attaohed to them and the exaot progress |n the re|evant
so|ent|f|o f|e|ds w||| a|so depend on the suooess of upoom|ng fao|||t|es. The fo||ow|ng summary foouses on
the fao|||t|es and m|ss|ons that bear most o|ose|y on the E-E|T so|enoe oase.

ln 2020, ESO w||| have operated the v|T for more than two deoades. A |arge fraot|on of the breakthrough
so|enoe w|th|n the oapab|||t|es of the 810-metre-o|ass te|esoopes w||| have been aoh|eved and oonso||-
dat|on work w||| dom|nate. Among the seoond generat|on of ESO v|T |nstruments, MSE (the w|de-f|e|d
lntegra|-F|e|d n|t [lF| opt|oa| speotrograph}, KMOS (the near-|nfrared, dep|oyab|e lF speotrograph},
SPHERE (the p|anet |mager}, ESPRESSO (the u|tra-stab|e, h|gh-reso|ut|on speotrograph} and potent|a||y
one other |nstrument w||| have been |n use for severa| years. The |a S|||a Observatory |s ||ke|y to be oper-
ated at |ow oost and on|y for speo|f|o |arge programmes (e.g., s|m||ar to the HARPS survey}. The survey
te|esoopes, the v|T Survey Te|esoope (vST} and the 4.1-metre v|s|b|e and lnfrared Survey Te|esoope for
Astronomy (vlSTA}, w||| have f|n|shed the|r f|rst set of |arge surveys de||ver|ng fo||ow-up targets, many too
fa|nt for the v|T.

Perhaps more |mportant|y, the Ataoama |arge M||||metre/subm||||meter Array (A|MA} w||| have been oo|-
|eot|ng data |n fu|| so|enoe mode for severa| years and w||| have pushed baok the front|ers |n many so|en-
t|f|o areas, predom|nant|y |n stud|es of the h|gh-redsh|ft n|verse and star and p|anet format|on.

On the ground, no breakthrough fao|||t|es beyond the ex|st|ng 810-metre-o|ass te|esoopes and poten-
t|a||y a few add|t|ona|, sma||er survey te|esoopes w||| be operat|ng, but severa| game-ohang|ng fao|||t|es
are expeoted to emerge on the same t|mesoa|e as the E-E|T: the |arge Synopt|o Survey Te|esoope
(|SST}, as we|| as the 24-metre G|ant Mage||an Te|esoope (GMT} and the 30-metre Th|rty Meter Te|e-
soope (TMT} opt|oa|near-|nfrared te|esoopes. The |atter two represent some oompet|t|on to, as we|| as
oomp|ement|ng, the E-E|T and w||| be d|soussed further be|ow. The Square K||ometre Array (SKA} |s
expeoted to appear |n the deoade fo||ow|ng the E-E|T and to ma|n|y bu||d on breakthroughs |n
oosmo|ogy.

H em|ss|on from quasar
Meta| absorpt|on ||nes
Ouasar
To Earth
lnterven|ng gas
H absorpt|on
3500 4000 4500 5000
Wave|ength (A}
5500 6000
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 11 16/12/2011 18:32
12 Proposa| D|gest E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
ln spaoe, the James Webb Spaoe Te|esoope (JWST} m|ght be operat|ng w|th|n |ts f|ve-year m|n|mum ||fe-
t|me and about to enter |ts ant|o|pated f|ve-year extens|on. A ded|oated workshop h|gh||ghted the strong
synergy expeoted between the JWST and the E-E|T. Ourrent m|ss|ons suoh as the Hubb|e Spaoe Te|e-
soope (HST}, Sp|tzer, Hersohe|, P|anok, Kep|er w||| have ended, others m|ght st||| be f|y|ng, but reaoh|ng
the ends of the|r ||fet|mes: Ohandra, MM-Newton, eto. A few new m|ss|ons suoh as Bep|Oo|ombo and
Ga|a on the European s|de w||| be operat|ng; new ones (suoh as EO|lD, P|ATO and |lSA} are ||ke|y to
be |aunohed |n the deoade fo||ow|ng the E-E|Ts f|rst ||ght.

O|ose to the E-E|T so|enoe oase, many researoh areas are expeoted to have progressed s|gn|f|oant|y by
2020. Thanks to rad|a| ve|oo|ty surveys (e.g., HARPS, ESPRESSO}, but a|so ded|oated |mag|ng surveys
(e.g., MEarth, HAT-Net, eto.} and m|ss|ons suoh as OoRoT, Kep|er and Ga|a, the oata|ogue of exop|anets
|s ||ke|y to have beoome very extens|ve. Wh||e the d|soovery of super-Earths |n hab|tab|e zones |s not ex-
o|uded, |t w||| rema|n the exoept|on. Neptune- to Jup|ter-mass p|anets w||| be known |n great numbers,
enab||ng progress |n p|anet format|on theory. D|reot |mag|ng of g|ant p|anets d|stant from the|r parent
stars w||| be near|y rout|ne. Severa| atmospheres of (most|y trans|t|ng} Neptune- to Jup|ter-||ke p|anets w|||
have been ooarse|y stud|ed. W|th the notab|e exoept|on of Earth-||ke p|anets |n hab|tab|e zones, wh|oh
rema|n to be found, the emphas|s |n exop|anet researoh w||| turn more towards oharaoter|sat|on than
further d|soovery.

ln the doma|n of star format|on, A|MA and JWST w||| fo||ow on from Sp|tzer, SOFlA and Hersohe|, and
w||| be mak|ng enormous progress. Yet, the p|oture w||| rema|n |noomp|ete as the |nner few astronom|oa|
un|ts of protop|anetary d|sos |no|ud|ng the hab|tab|e zone and |nner r|m of the protoste||ar d|so w|||
awa|t the |ns|ghts to be generated by the E-E|Ts h|gh spat|a| reso|ut|on.

The study of ga|axy format|on and evo|ut|on |s the deo|ared strength of the JWST. The JWST w||| enab|e
the study of mass assemb|y and ohem|oa| evo|ut|on of h|gh-redsh|ft ga|ax|es by observ|ng the|r stars and
|on|sed gas. A|MA w||| oomp|ement these stud|es by observ|ng the oo|d gas |n these ga|ax|es. Yet aga|n,
both fao|||t|es w||| have outstand|ng sens|t|v|ty but |ower spat|a| and speotra| reso|ut|on, wh|oh are the
strengths of the E-E|T. Wh||e a oensus and genera| p|oture of the format|on of the h|ghest redsh|ft ga|ax-
|es w||| be |n p|aoe, a deta||ed understand|ng of these objeots, wh|oh are ant|o|pated to be of sma|| s|ze,
w||| awa|t the E-E|T.

P|anned surveys a|m|ng at the better understand|ng of dark energy w||| have started (e.g., DES, HETDE,
B|gBOSS, EO|lD, WFlRST}, oomp|ement|ng the ant|o|pated resu|ts of the P|anok m|ss|on, wh|oh |s fo|-
|ow|ng on from the WMAP m|ss|on. The nature of any d|soovery |n th|s doma|n |s speou|at|ve. |t|mate|y,
the d|reot measurement of the oosm|o expans|on, on|y poss|b|e w|th the E-E|T, w||| a||ow a fundamenta||y
new approaoh to measur|ng the effeot of dark energy.

F|na||y, a number of ourrent and forthoom|ng spaoe m|ss|ons w||| exp|ore our So|ar System. The E-E|T
prom|ses to be a va|uab|e oontr|butor to understand|ng the format|on of our So|ar System, and thus of
exop|anets.
1.3 TOWARDS THE E-E|T OONOEPT
The E-E|T programme fo||ows on from the ear|y work by ESO on extreme|y |arge te|esoopes (w|th a
d|ameter of 100 metres} undertaken |n the |ate 1990s and ear|y th|s m|||enn|um. Th|s work ou|m|nated |n a
des|gn rev|ew |n November 2005 w|th oonorete reoommendat|ons for future work. A per|od of |ntense
oommun|ty oonsu|tat|on took p|aoe |n the f|rst ha|f of 2006 w|th f|ve work|ng groups oompr|s|ng a m|xture
of ESO and oommun|ty experts that estab||shed a start|ng po|nt for a new base||ne des|gn for the te|e-
soope based on f|ve reports: on so|enoe, s|te, te|esoope, |nstrumentat|on and adapt|ve opt|os.

ln|t|a||y a 42-metre d|ameter anast|gmat|o te|esoope, |noorporat|ng rap|d|y deformab|e m|rrors |n the opt|-
oa| tra|n and prov|d|ng grav|ty-|nvar|ant foo| for |nstrumentat|on, was se|eoted as the start|ng po|nt for the
E-E|T. ln the seoond ha|f of 2006, a projeot off|oe was estab||shed and by the end of the year the base-
||ne referenoe dooumentat|on was subm|tted to the ESO Oouno|| as a proposa| to move to a deta||ed
des|gn phase. The ano|||ary |nformat|on govern|ng th|s phase B |no|uded a management p|an, a oost-

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Proposa| D|gest 13
est|mat|ng p|an, a resouroe p|an and a sohedu|e. Subsequent|y th|s was rep|aoed by the new base||ne for
a 39-metre d|ameter te|esoope w|th oons|derab|y reduoed r|sk and oost.
1.4 OOSTlNG PHl|OSOPHY
From the outset ESO str|ved to estab||sh the teohn|oa| and manager|a| feas|b|||ty of the projeot based on
teohno|og|oa||y demonstrated |ndustr|a| |nput. Dur|ng the des|gn phase, desor|bed |n Seot|on 1.13 be|ow,
the projeot has fo||owed a oons|stent ph||osophy:

ESO shou|d deve|op the system-|eve| requ|rements from the top-|eve| so|enoe requ|rements;
The des|gn, |no|ud|ng the oost and sohedu|e for eaoh subsystem, shou|d be done |n oompet|t|on
by |ndustry and rev|ewed by |ndependent |ndustr|a| teams;
The r|sk assoo|ated w|th h|gh-r|sk |tems shou|d be m|t|gated wherever poss|b|e by prototyp|ng,
done predom|nant|y |n oompet|t|on by |ndustry.

Th|s has been |mp|emented by us|ng a teohn|que known as Front End Eng|neer|ng Des|gn (FEED}. Mu|t|-
p|e oompet|t|ve FEED stud|es have been oarr|ed out by European |ndustry and rev|ewed by both the E-
E|T projeot team and separate eng|neer|ng oonsu|tants. A|| FEED oontraots prov|de as the|r output, not
on|y the deta||ed des|gn and a|| the neoessary dooumentat|on to put that des|gn out to tender, but a|so
b|nd|ng oost and sohedu|e est|mates baoked by f|rm f|xed-pr|oe offers to oonstruot. As suoh the FEED
offers are on|y one (ESO} s|gnature away from be|ng fu||y |mp|emented oontraots. They oonta|n prof|t and
the vendors marg|n |n order to oomp|ete the work for a f|rm f|xed pr|oe, to an agreed sohedu|e and w|th
pena|ty o|auses for |ate de||very. The f|na| oontraots w||| of oourse be the resu|t of a new round of oom-
pet|t|ve proourement aoross the Member States of ESO. However th|s approaoh resu|ts |n a we||-qua||f|ed
des|gn w|th a very robust oost and sohedu|e est|mate. Of oourse, s|noe these are rea| oontraot offers,
they must be |nterpreted as suoh when assess|ng the oost and sohedu|e r|sk of the projeot.

ln para||e| w|th the |ndustr|a| stud|es that form the bas|s for the te|esoope des|gn, ESO has engaged the
astronom|oa| oommun|ty |n the Member States for the deve|opment of an |nstrumentat|on paokage that
matohes the te|esoope and de||vers on the so|enoe dr|vers for the projeot. Oonsort|a of externa| |nst|tutes,
based on |n|t|a| gu|de||nes from ESO, oarr|ed out the |nstrumentat|on stud|es. E|even d|fferent oonoepts
were oons|dered, w|th over 40 |nst|tutes part|o|pat|ng |n the work. A|| des|gn oonoepts were forma||y
subm|tted by the end of 2010 and subsequent|y rev|ewed. Deta||ed manpower, sohedu|e and oost est|-
mates have been estab||shed at the phase A |eve|.

Overs|ght and gu|danoe to the projeot have been prov|ded through a var|ety of oomm|ttees drawn from
the astronom|oa| oommun|ty at |arge. The So|enoe Work|ng Group (SWG} worked d|reot|y w|th the projeot
so|ent|st to deve|op des|gn referenoe oases and to prov|de feedbaok on the oapab|||t|es of the te|esoope
and |nstrumentat|on as these evo|ved dur|ng the des|gn phase. The S|te Se|eot|on Adv|sory Oomm|ttee
(SSAO} reoe|ved |nput from the projeot and adv|sed the D|reotor Genera|. The E|T So|enoe & Eng|neer|ng
(ESE} suboomm|ttee of the ESO So|ent|f|o and Teohn|oa| Oomm|ttee (STO}, w|th membersh|p over|ap
w|th the SSAO and the SWG, fo||owed a|| aspeots of the projeot and adv|sed the STO and, |n turn, the
D|reotor Genera| and Oouno||. F|na||y, the E|T Stand|ng Rev|ew Oomm|ttee (ESRO} rev|ewed h|gh-|eve|
strateg|o and manager|a| aspeots of the projeot and prov|ded d|reot |nput to Oouno||. Regu|ar updates of
the projeot progress were made to the ESO F|nanoe Oomm|ttee (FO}.

Externa| |ndustr|a| oonsu|tanoy was sought by the projeot for rev|ews of des|gn and sohedu|e/oost for
major subsystems. Astronomers and eng|neers from ESO and externa| |nst|tutes rev|ewed the |nstru-
mentat|on reports. The SWG, ESE and STO were |nvo|ved |n th|s prooess at a|| t|mes.
1.5 THE OOST OF THE E-E|T
The oost to oonstruot and oomm|ss|on the E-E|T |s 1083 Mt
*
|no|ud|ng oont|ngenoy, ESO staff oosts
and |nstrumentat|on.

*
ESOs budget |s |ndexed every year to oompensate for |nf|at|on; therefore a|| oosts |n th|s dooument are |n 2012 euros.
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 13 16/12/2011 18:32
14 Proposa| D|gest E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The budget for the te|esoope (|no|ud|ng the dome, opt|os, ma|n struoture, a|| s|te o|v|| works, ESO staff
oosts eto., but w|thout oont|ngenoy and |nstrumentat|on} |s 883 Mt. Of th|s 473 Mt (53%} |s |n f|rm f|xed-
pr|oe FEED offers.


Figure 1.5. The distribution of the basis of estimate of the costs of the E-ELT excluding instrumentation and contin-
gency. 53% is in firm fixed-price FEED offers.
1.6 THE SOHED|E OF THE E-E|T
Assum|ng a January 2012 start, the E-E|T programme w||| take approx|mate|y 11 years to exeoute. Key
major m||estones are:

Dome aooeptanoe Maroh 2017;
Ma|n struoture aooeptanoe Maroh 2020;
Teohn|oa| f|rst ||ght Deoember 2021;
lnstruments 1 and 2 f|rst ||ght June 2022;
Start of observatory operat|ons Ootober 2022.
1.7 OONTlNGENOY
1.7.1 TE|ESOOPE
The E-E|T budget oarr|es a forma| 100 Mt a||ooat|on of oont|ngenoy to oover the r|sk of bu||d|ng every-
th|ng exoept the |nstrumentat|on. Th|s budget has been oheoked |n two d|fferent ways:

By oompar|ng w|th the oost to oomp|ete and the FEED offers;
Bottom-up, by |ook|ng at the unoerta|nty of eaoh e|ement of the Work Breakdown Struoture
(WBS}.
1.7.1.1 OONTlNGENOY OOMPARED TO THE OOST TO OOMP|ETE AND FEED OFFERS
Beoause the FEED offers are f|rm f|xed-pr|oe oontraot offers, |t |s |nformat|ve to oa|ou|ate the unoomm|t-
ted budget |f a|| the FEEDs were to be exeouted. ln th|s oase 473 Mt of the projeot wou|d |mmed|ate|y
be under oontraot and the 100 Mt of oont|ngenoy wou|d be 24% of the unoomm|tted oost to oomp|e-
t|on. ln rea||ty the FEEDs w||| be oompeted for aga|n, but the oross-oheok on the oont|ngenoy |eve| |s
reassur|ng.
1.7.1.2 OONTlNGENOY BY |OOKlNG AT THE NOERTAlNTY OF EAOH E|EMENT OF THE WBS
For the FEEDs, oont|ngenoy |s needed to oover the oost of ohange orders throughout the ||fe of the oon-
traot. Th|s |s oonservat|ve|y est|mated to be 5%, a|though ESOs exper|enoe of ohange orders on |arge
oontraots |s oons|derab|y better than th|s. The oont|ngenoy requ|red to oover the unoerta|nt|es |n the re-
ma|n|ng 47% of the budget |s of oourse h|gher and has been est|mated us|ng the standard methodo|ogy
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
53%
2%
17%
8%
3%
5%
0%
3%
0%
10%
FEED offer Off-the-she|f
or oata|ogue |tem
vendor quote
from estab||shed
draw|ngs
vendor quote
w|th some
des|gn sketohes
ln-house est|mate
for |tem w|th|n
ourrent produot
||ne
ln-house est|mate
for |tem w|th
m|n|ma| oompany
exper|enoe
but re|ated to
ex|st|ng oapab|||t|es
ln-house est|mate
for |tem w|th
m|n|ma| oompany
exper|enoe
and m|n|ma| |n-house
oapab|||ty
Top-down
est|mate from
ana|ogous
programmes
Eng|neer|ng
judgement
ESO |abour
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 14 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Proposa| D|gest 15
used for A|MA (wh|oh |s based on the method used |n the S Department of Energy and by the Nat|ona|
So|enoe Foundat|on [NSF| for |arge projeots}. s|ng th|s approaoh, the tota| bottom-up oont|ngenoy re-
qu|rement |s 86 Mt, wh|oh aga|n oompares favourab|y w|th the 100 Mt ava||ab|e.
1.7.2 lNSTRMENTATlON
The s|tuat|on w|th the |nstrumentat|on |s very s|mp|e. The |nstrumentat|on WBS has a r|ng-fenoed budget
of 100 Mt. Th|s |s the oonstruot|on oomponent of what w||| be an ongo|ng |nstrumentat|on ||ne of
approx|mate|y 9 Mt per year. Based on the ourrent oost est|mates, the 100 Mt |s suff|o|ent to fund the
f|rst four |nstruments, ESOs management of the |nstrumentat|on programme and to oarry out enab||ng
teohno|ogy Researoh and Deve|opment (R&D}. However, |f the oost of the |nstruments var|es as the de-
s|gns mature (they are on|y at phase A, wh|oh |s beyond oonoeptua| des|gn, but not yet at pre||m|nary
des|gn |eve|}, then the scope of what oan be de||vered w|th|n the 100 Mt w||| be adjusted. The ba|anoe of
the |nstrumentat|on roadmap w||| be exeouted from the oont|nu|ng |nstrumentat|on ||ne wh|oh starts to
ramp up |n 2019.
1.8 THE OONSTROTlON REvlEW AND THE DE|TA PHASE B
A teohn|oa| rev|ew |n the seoond ha|f of 2010 found the 42-metre oonoept to be teohn|oa||y sound and
the oost est|mates re||ab|e. Oonoern was expressed regard|ng the amb|t|ous sohedu|e for suoh a oom-
p|ex te|esoope and the reoommendat|on made that the ESO management be prepared for a twothree
year extens|on of the e|ght-year sohedu|e.

Fo||ow|ng phase B, the projeot has undertaken a ser|es of r|sk m|t|gat|on and oost reduot|on aot|v|t|es.
The projeot and the teohn|oa| rev|ew oonourred that the most oha||eng|ng areas of the projeot were the
t|me|y oomp|et|on of the pr|mary m|rror segments, the manufaotur|ng of the seoondary un|t and dea||ng
w|th the h|gh sens|t|v|ty of the te|esoope to w|nd |oad|ng.

A mod|f|ed des|gn was adopted by the projeot |n 2010 estab||sh|ng a 39-metre a|ternate, wh|oh has
beoome the base||ne des|gn. The resu|t|ng te|esoope |s sma||er but a|so eas|er to bu||d, faster to ereot
and more manageab|e |n every aspeot. The ohanges made to the des|gn have been subjeoted to exter-
na| |ndustr|a| rev|ew. W|thout go|ng |nto the deta|| that |s presented |n the rest of th|s dooument |t |s |m-
portant |n th|s |ntroduot|on to estab||sh why the sma||er E-E|T |s a substant|a||y better te|esoope, other
than |ts man|fest |noreased ||ke||hood of be|ng bu||t, |f so|ent|f|oa||y somewhat |ess oapab|e, than the
42-metre vers|on.

The 39-metre te|esoope has a sma||er and faster pr|mary m|rror. The reduot|on |n the tota| number of
segments |s of order 20%. The fraot|ona| oost reduot|on |s sma||er than the reduot|on |n te|esoope s|ze as
the non-reourr|ng expend|tures aooount for a|most 50% of the tota| oost of the pr|mary. However, the re-
duot|on |n sohedu|e r|sk |s s|gn|f|oant. The faster and sma||er pr|mary m|rror a||ows the des|gn to be opt|-
m|sed for a seoondary m|rror be|ow 4.2 metres. Th|s or|t|oa| ohange perm|ts a rea||st|o d|vers|ty of supp|y
|n the proourement of the seoondary un|t. Moreover, the po||sh|ng of the oonvex m|rror wou|d on|y requ|re
a s|ng|e matr|x, thereby reduo|ng the oomp|ex|ty and sohedu|e of proour|ng the test setup. The meohan|-
oa| safety of the un|t under earthquake |oad|ng wou|d a|so be eas|er to aoh|eve. The other un|ts of the te|-
esoope |arge|y soa|e w|th the d|ameter and beoome proport|ona||y eas|er to oonstruot. A |arge benef|t of
the redes|gn |s the reduot|on of te|esoope |ength and w|dth, thereby reduo|ng the dome vo|ume and the
exposure of the te|esoope to w|nd d|sturbanoes.
1.9 THE OOST REvlEW
The oost of the E-E|T, |no|ud|ng the oont|ngenoy and the oonstruot|on sohedu|e, was subjeoted to an
|n-depth externa| rev|ew |n September 2011. The Oost Rev|ew Oomm|ttee oono|uded that the E-E|T
projeots base||ne oost, oont|ngenoy and sohedu|e p|ann|ng |s ready for the projeot to prooeed to the
oonstruot|on phase.

The oomm|ttee strong|y endorsed the approaoh of FEED oontraots as a way of reduo|ng the oost r|sk on
the projeot whereby qua||f|ed oompan|es have been pa|d to perform des|gn stud|es, at the end of
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 15 16/12/2011 18:32
16 Proposa| D|gest E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
wh|oh they prov|de a oontraotua||y b|nd|ng offer that |s one oustomer s|gnature away from an exeouted
f|rm f|xed-pr|oe oontraot.
1.10 39-METRE TE|ESOOPE OONOEPT
The opt|oa| des|gn of the te|esoope |s that of a three-m|rror anast|gmat used w|th|n a sma|| f|e|d about |ts
ax|s. Two fo|d|ng f|ats are used to extraot the beam to a Nasmyth foous. The f/0.88 e|||pt|oa| pr|mary
m|rror (M1, oon|o -0.996} has a d|ameter of approx|mate|y 39 metres and an 11-metre oentra| obstruo-
t|on. The 4.1-metre seoondary m|rror (M2} |s oonvex and returns the beam, through a ho|e |n the quater-
nary m|rror (M4}, to the 3.7-metre m||d|y aspher|o oonoave tert|ary m|rror (M3} |ooated at the vertex of the
pr|mary. The beam |s ref|eoted to the 2.4-metre quaternary f|at adapt|ve m|rror that |s |no||ned at
7.7 degrees to the beam d|reot|on. The f|fth m|rror (M5} |n the tra|n |s f|at, e|||pt|oa| |n oontour (2.6 metres
2.1 metres}, def|nes the a|t|tude ax|s of the te|esoope, and steers the beam towards the Nasmyth
foous. The output beam at f/17.5 |s very near|y d|ffraot|on-||m|ted over the ent|re ten-arom|nute f|e|d of
v|ew.


Figure 1.6. Optical layout for the Nasmyth configuration of the E-ELT.

The f/17.5 beam oan be red|reoted through re|ay opt|os to a ooude foous prov|ded w|th|n the te|esoope
foundat|ons at the ground |eve|.

The opt|os are mounted on an a|t|tudeaz|muth te|esoope ma|n struoture that uses the rook|ng-oha|r
oonoept w|th two mass|ve orad|es for the e|evat|on mot|ons and two major az|muth traoks. The struoture
we|ghs approx|mate|y 3000 tonnes. ln the oentra| obstruot|on of the pr|mary a 10-metre-ta|| tower sup-
ports the quaternary and M5 m|rrors.
1.11 THE lNSTRMENTATlON P|AN
The |nstrumentat|on p|an for the E-E|T fo||ows on from the 11 des|gn stud|es deve|oped dur|ng the
per|od 20072010. The des|gn stud|es prov|ded an exoe||ent poo| of |nstruments that addressed the
broad speotrum of oapab|||t|es neoessary to attaok the E-E|T so|enoe goa|s.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Proposa| D|gest 17
The |nstrumentat|on p|an |s mot|vated and bound by a w|sh to dep|oy outt|ng-edge |nstrumentat|on on
the te|esoope as ear|y as poss|b|e w|thout b|ook|ng ear|y so|ent|f|o aooess to the te|esoope by exoess|ve
oomm|ss|on|ng and debugg|ng.

Two |nstrument oonoepts have been se|eoted for the f|rst ||ght oomp|ement of the te|esoope: a h|gh spa-
t|a| reso|ut|on mu|t|-oonjugate adapt|ve-opt|os-ass|sted oamera/speotrograph and an adapt|ve-opt|os-
ass|sted |ntegra| f|e|d speotrograph. These |nstruments w||| be mounted on the Nasmyth foo| of the te|e-
soope. An |nstrumentat|on roadmap has been produoed that |dent|f|es |nstruments three through f|ve
p|us the p|vota| p|anetary oamera/speotrograph and |dent|f|es the key deo|s|on po|nts |n the|r oonstruo-
t|on. The |nstruments to be mounted on the te|esoope after f|rst ||ght w||| start the|r des|gn and prototyp-
|ng aot|v|t|es dur|ng the per|od of oonstruot|on.

The operat|ons budget for the observatory |no|udes of order 20 Mt per annum for |nvestments |n new
fao|||t|es for the E-E|T, of wh|oh some 9 Mt per annum |s for an amb|t|ous |nstrumentat|on programme.
1.12 THE MANAGEMENT P|AN
The management of the E-E|T des|gn projeot |s geared to evo|ve natura||y |nto the oonstruot|on projeot.
W|th th|s |n m|nd the projeot off|oe |s struotured to |ead the oore deo|s|on and oontro| areas of the projeot
wh||e souro|ng a|most a|| the manpower resouroes neoessary to fo||ow the oontraots and any deve|op-
ments from the matr|xed and serv|oe d|v|s|ons of ESO.

Suoh a |ean projeot off|oe does not oarry exoess|ve overheads and prov|des the ESO management w|th
the f|ex|b|||ty to pr|or|t|se aot|v|t|es w|thout an |norease |n personne|. The E-E|T projeot w||| be exeouted
from w|th|n the D|reotorate of Programmes by a ded|oated E-E|T D|v|s|on.

|ed by a projeot manager report|ng to the D|reotor of Programmes and w|th d|reot aooess to the D|reotor
Genera|, the E-E|T has a projeot oontro||er, a projeot so|ent|st, a projeot eng|neer, a systems so|ent|st
and a systems eng|neer fo||ow|ng the d|fferent aspeots of the aot|v|t|es and |ead eng|neers |n the areas of
dome and ma|n struoture, optomeohan|os, oontro|, o|v||/|nfrastruoture, operat|ons and |nstrumentat|on.

Oost and sohedu|e oontro| fo||ows the oost-to-oomp|et|on and fu||-oost aooount|ng pr|no|p|es that have
gu|ded the v|T and A|MA projeots.

Projeot report|ng fo||ows the norms that ESO has estab||shed for a|| s|gn|f|oant aot|v|t|es w|th a b|annua|
report to the F|nanoe Oomm|ttee and Oouno||.
1.13 DESlGN PROOESS
Dur|ng phase B, the projeot |n|t|ated a top-down prooess us|ng the |nput top-|eve| requ|rements from the
projeot so|ent|st. ln para||e|, |t |aunohed |ndustr|a| stud|es based on requ|rements extraoted from the
base||ne referenoe des|gn estab||shed at the beg|nn|ng of the phase B. ESO eng|neers and so|ent|sts
form a know|edge base that has a good understand|ng of te|esoopes and the assemb|ed team was
heav||y |nvo|ved |n the v|T. The pre||m|nary des|gn requ|rements of subsystems were estab||shed and
dooumented very ear|y and |ndustr|a| oontraots were |aunohed very soon after the start of phase B.

The subsystem breakdown has been |arge|y oonvent|ona|, re|y|ng on the v|T and other te|esoope expe-
r|enoe w|th|n ESO. F|ve major areas were oons|dered: dome and ma|n struoture; optomeohan|os; |nfra-
struoture and s|te; oontro| system and systems eng|neer|ng. The projeot struotured |ts management
aooord|ng to th|s breakdown, w|th |ead eng|neers |n eaoh area. The deta||ed work breakdown struoture
fo||owed produot ||nes, |n part avo|d|ng a||ooat|on of resouroes |n areas w|thout d|reot output |nto the
E-E|T projeot. For eaoh subsystem, three stages of des|gn have been oons|dered.

Phase A des|gn has been oonoeptua|. The funot|ona||ty of the system was shown, potent|a| so|ut|ons
were estab||shed and vo|ume/we|ght enve|opes set up. Th|s was oons|dered the m|n|mum |eve| of des|gn
neoessary to advanoe from phase A to phase B.

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18 Proposa| D|gest E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Phase B1 des|gn was a pre||m|nary |eve| des|gn of the subsystem undertaken by an |ndustr|a| partner. lt
was based on requ|rements generated by the phase A oonoepts. A phase B1 des|gn shows the major
oomponents of the system and demonstrates, by ana|ys|s, that performanoe oan be met. Mass and vo|-
ume budgets were estab||shed. lnterfaoes to other subsystems were estab||shed and p|aus|b|e oost es-
t|mates from |ndustry eva|uated. The phase B1 des|gn output |no|udes a thorough rev|s|on of the
requ|rements and the teohn|oa| speo|f|oat|on for a next stage of the des|gn.

Phase B2 des|gn stage, referred to as the Front End Eng|neer|ng Des|gn, |s a deta||ed des|gn stage.
FEED stud|es were undertaken by |ndustry based on the requ|rements determ|ned by the ear||er des|gn
stages. FEED deta||ed des|gn output |s oons|dered to be suff|o|ent to tender for oonstruot|on oontraots.
Oonstruot|on w||| |no|ude some degree of f|na| des|gn work to move from the FEED |eve| to shop draw-
|ngs.

The phase B aot|v|t|es have de||vered phase B2/FEED |eve| des|gns for most of the or|t|oa| subsystems.

The top-down approaoh, started |n para||e| w|th the des|gn aot|v|t|es, has been ooord|nated by systems
eng|neer|ng.

ln mov|ng from the 42-metre to the 39-metre des|gn, the projeot has oonoentrated |ts resouroes on r|sk
m|t|gat|on and oost reduot|on e|ements. As |s desor|bed be|ow, the dome, ma|n struoture, seoondary and
quaternary m|rrors have been the foous of the extended phase B. De|ta-FEED oontraots or updates to
des|gns have been undertaken dur|ng th|s per|od, resu|t|ng |n a rev|sed overa|| des|gn. A major task has
been to rev|se a|| |nterfaoes based on the 39-metre base||ne.
1.13.1 PHASE B lNDSTRlA| OONTRAOTA| AOTlvlTlES
As a preamb|e, a|| oontraot|ng at ESO |s undertaken through the proourement department and, as a
norm, a|| work |s tendered for. W|th very few exoept|ons, no work |s d|reot|y souroed to a part|ou|ar sup-
p||er. The proourement of the des|gn work dur|ng the phases A and B has fo||owed these ru|es. There |s
no b|nd|ng oomm|tment between ESO and any of the supp||ers of des|gn aot|v|ty for further proourement.
W|th a few exoept|ons, a||owed w|th|n the proourement ru|es, ESO owns the |nte||eotua| property of the
des|gns and every effort has been made not to oomm|t to des|gns that are bound to part|ou|ar supp||ers.

Dur|ng 2007, the E-E|T dome was the subjeot of two 500 thousand euro (500 kt} pre||m|nary des|gn
(B1} oontraots, w|th ARP (K} and lDOM (Spa|n} respeot|ve|y, de||ver|ng a des|gn and oost/sohedu|e es-
t|mates for the proourement. A oonso||dat|on phase |n 2008 fo||owed |n wh|oh further ana|ys|s |n oover|ng
meohan|sms and a|rf|ow |ssues were oons|dered for one of the des|gns. The teohn|oa| speo|f|oat|on for
the dome was updated to take |nto oons|derat|on the |nput from the pre||m|nary des|gn phase, and two
FEED oontraots (B2} were awarded |n m|d-2009 w|th lDOM (Spa|n} and ElE/O|mo|a| (lta|y}. The two
1.25 Mt FEED oontraots are framed |n suoh a way that a deta||ed des|gn and oonstruot|on p|ann|ng as
we|| as deta||ed oost est|mates are prov|ded. B|nd|ng offers to oonstruot are a|so de||verab|es of these
oontraots. For the 39-metre des|gn, oontraots were p|aoed w|th the FEED awardees to update the de-
s|gn and sohedu|e/oosts.

W|nd tunne| and Oomputat|ona| F|u|d Dynam|os (OFD} ana|ys|s |s |no|uded |n the dome oontraots. ln
add|t|on to that work, the projeot oontraoted lDOM to eva|uate further the |nteraot|ons of the te|esoope
and dome |n the w|nd tunne| fao|||t|es of a suboontraotor |n the K. The 39-metre dome has a|so been
eva|uated |n the w|nd tunne| |n the K. The OFD resu|ts from the pre||m|nary des|gns was ana|ysed and
further e|aborated upon by Weatherpark (Austr|a}. Add|t|ona| ana|ys|s of w|nd tunne| data was undertaken
by OlRA (lta|y}.

The |ndependent rev|ew of the requ|rements and output (|no|ud|ng oosts} from the 42-metre FEED oon-
traotors was oontraoted to ARP (K} and DS| (Oanada}.

Dur|ng 2007, the ma|n struoture was the subjeot of two 500 kt pre||m|nary des|gn (B1} oontraots w|th
ElE/Tome||er| (lta|y} and MTM (Germany} respeot|ve|y, de||ver|ng a des|gn and oost/sohedu|e est|mates for
the proourement. Dur|ng the oonso||dat|on phase, the MTM (Germany} des|gn was se|eoted as a base||ne

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Proposa| D|gest 19
and some further work was undertaken to update the des|gn to matoh the rev|sed |nterfaoes. The rev|sed
pre||m|nary des|gn was used to update the teohn|oa| speo|f|oat|ons of the ma|n struoture that were the
bas|s for the tender|ng and eventua| award of a s|ng|e 1.25 Mt FEED oontraot to Empresar|os Agrupa-
dos (EAl, Spa|n} |n m|d-2009. A de|ta phase B oontraot for 800 kt was p|aoed w|th EAl for the update of
the des|gn to the 39-metre base||ne.

An |ndependent rev|ew of the requ|rements for the ma|n struoture and dome and output of the FEEDs
(|no|ud|ng oosts} was oontraoted to DS| (Oanada}.

An |ndependent rev|ew of the output of the de|ta FEEDs (|no|ud|ng oosts} for the dome and ma|n struo-
ture was oontraoted to ARP (K}.

DS| (Oanada} and DEMONT (lta|y} were oontraoted to eva|uate the feas|b|||ty and sohedu||ng of the oon-
struot|on and to prov|de poss|b|e opt|m|sat|on soenar|os. Ana|ys|s of the ESO hand||ng needs was oon-
traoted to So|v|ng (F|n|and}, and an opt|on for a tota| aooess p|atform to Bronto Sky||ft (F|n|and}.

ln m|d-2007, two FEED-|eve| prototype quaternary adapt|ve m|rror un|t oontraots were awarded to
Ol|AS/AMOS/Onera (Franoe/Be|g|um} and ADS/M|orogate/Sagem (lta|y/Franoe}. A|though |aunohed as
soon as rea||st|oa||y poss|b|e after phase B approva|, the|r speo|f|oat|ons had been va||dated through
|ndustr|a| stud|es undertaken w|th Ol|AS, Sagem and ADS/M|orogate dur|ng phase A. These were
5.2 Mt oontraots to |no|ude the oonstruot|on of prototypes and f|rm f|xed offers to bu||d the f|na| produo-
t|on un|ts. As a r|sk m|t|gat|on aot|v|ty, add|t|ona| work was oontraoted w|th ADS/M|orogate/Sagem for the
study of the referenoe body and no-|eak ooo||ng opt|ons.

A|so |n 2007, the M5 e|eotromeohan|oa| t|p-t||t un|t was oontraoted for 1.2 Mt at FEED-|eve| to
NTE/OSEM/Sagem (Spa|n/Sw|tzer|and/Franoe}. Th|s |no|uded the de||very of a soa|e-one prototype. The
oontraotor has stud|ed a s|||oon oarb|de (S|O} m|rror |n oo||aborat|on w|th Boosteo (Franoe} for the M5. ln
para||e| the projeot has undertaken oonoeptua| des|gn stud|es w|th lTT (SA} and Sohott (Germany} for
the prov|s|on of g|ass m|rrors. W|th support from BOD (lta|y} |n the area of f|n|te e|ement mode| genera-
t|on, a seoond heavy M5 study has been oontraoted to NTE/OSEM/Sagem. A sma|| prototyp|ng aot|v|ty
|nto S|O by Boosteo/Sagem |s be|ng mon|tored by ESO as part of our r|sk m|t|gat|on aot|v|t|es.

ln ear|y 2008, two 5 Mt oontraots were p|aoed w|th Sagem (Franoe} and Opt|o Teohn|um (K}, s|noe
renamed to Opt|o G|yndwr, for the prov|s|on of seven aspher|o prototype segments for the pr|mary m|r-
ror. These FEED-|eve| oontraots ou|m|nated |n f|rm f|xed-pr|oe offers to bu||d the ent|re supp|y of seg-
ments needed for the E-E|T. These oontraots |no|ude test setups and the neoessary too||ng and prooess
deve|opment for the po||sh|ng. Three mater|a|s were se|eoted for pa|rs of b|anks, Sohott Zerodur
(Germany}, Oorn|ng |E (SA} and |ZOS Astros|ta| (Russ|a}. The seventh b|ank has been |eft free to the
supp||er to se|eot. Opt|o G|yndwr has se|eoted O|earOeram from Ohara (Japan} wh||e Sagem ohose
Zerodur from Sohott. ln para||e| the projeot has |ssued a oontraot for a produot|on study for the pr|mary
m|rror to lTT (SA}. Add|t|ona| r|sk m|t|gat|on oontraots have been p|aoed w|th |aborato|re
dAstrophys|que Marse|||e (|AM} and T|ns|ey (SA} to stress po||sh segments.

ln 2007, a 150 kt oontraot was p|aoed w|th OESA (Spa|n}, w|th the Gran Te|esoop|o Oanar|as (GTO} aot-
|ng as a suboontraotor, to estab||sh a pre||m|nary des|gn of the segment support struoture (oonneot|on to
the ma|n struoture and wh|ff|etree}. Fo||ow|ng th|s oontraot, a rev|s|on of the speo|f|oat|on was made, tak-
|ng |nto aooount the evo|ut|on of the des|gn of the ma|n struoture and two FEED oontraots for 750 kt
eaoh were p|aoed w|th TNO (Nether|ands} and OESA (Spa|n} eaoh for the des|gn and oonstruot|on of
three segment support systems. The oontraots |no|ude some hand||ng equ|pment. These segment sup-
ports have been |ntegrated w|th the po||shed m|rrors at Sagem and |nf|uenoe funot|on tests have been
performed.

ln m|d-2009, two oontraots for 150 kt eaoh were p|aoed w|th Phys|k lnstrumente (Germany} and OESA
(Spa|n} for the produot|on of three prototype pos|t|on aotuators for the pr|mary m|rror un|ts. A further
study by Phys|k lnstrumente for m|xed oapab|||ty aotuators has been |no|uded |n the r|sk m|t|gat|on aot|v|-
t|es. At the same t|me one 150 kt oontraot was p|aoed w|th m|oroEps||on (Germany} for the produot|on of
a set of edge sensors for the pr|mary m|rror segments.

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20 Proposa| D|gest E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The a|rf|ow and ooo||ng requ|rements for the pr|mary m|rror have been ana|ysed under oontraot by
K|rkho|m (Denmark}.

ln 2008, a pre||m|nary des|gn (B1} 500 kt oontraot was p|aoed w|th MT Meohatron|os (Germany} for the
des|gn of the seoondary m|rror oe||. ln para||e|, an eva|uat|on of the requ|rements and potent|a| so|ut|ons
for the ent|re seoondary un|t, |no|ud|ng the m|rror and po||sh|ng, was oontraoted to Brashear (SA}. The
outoome of these stud|es was used to oa|| and award a 1.5 Mt FEED oontraot for the ent|re seoondary
un|t (m|rror po||sh|ng p|us oe||}. Th|s oontraot was p|aoed w|th Sagem/MTM (Franoe/Germany} |n |ate
2009 and has been amended to |no|ude the 39-metre seoondary opt|on. Des|gn and produot|on stud|es
for the seoondary m|rror b|ank have been oontraoted to Sohott (Germany} and Oorn|ng (SA}.

ln 2008 two oontraots were awarded to AMOS (Be|g|um}, name|y the pre||m|nary des|gn of the pre-fooa|
stat|on at 500 kt and the pre||m|nary des|gn of the tert|ary oe|| at 300 kt. A further study of the prefooa|
stat|on has been oontraoted to the Dan|sh oompany K|rkho|m. Add|t|ona||y a 40 kt oontraot was |ater
awarded to AMOS/M|oromega Dynam|os (Be|g|um} to eva|uate a prototype pneumat|o shape aotuator for
the M3 un|t.

Aot|ve Spaoe Teohno|og|es (Portuga|} have been oontraoted to de||ver a pre||m|nary des|gn of the adap-
t|ve opt|os oa||brat|on un|t.

ln the area of the oontro| system, oontraots have been p|aoed w|th Observatory So|enoes ||m|ted (K}
and So|Sys (K} for the eva|uat|on of ex|st|ng |nfrastruotures, Rovs|ng (Denmark} and Or|t|oa| Software
(Portuga|} for |ndependent software ver|f|oat|on and va||dat|on p|ans, Spaoe Systems F|n|and (F|n|and} for
the eva|uat|on of rea|-t|me requ|rements, the n|vers|ty of ||ege (Be|g|um} for the oontro| a|gor|thms of the
pr|mary m|rror oe|| and KN Systemes (Franoe} for the des|gn of the pr|mary m|rror oontro| system. lNES
(Sw|tzer|and} has prov|ded oonsu|tanoy for the eva|uat|on of the network requ|rements and oontro| sys-
tem demands. ln add|t|on, a oontraot w|th Nat|ona| lnstruments (Germany} ass|sted w|th the so|ut|on of
M1 and M4 oontro|.

A|ternate |aser teohno|og|es based on sem|oonduotors have been oontraoted to ORO (F|n|and}.

For projeot oontro| support, oontraots have been p|aoed w|th Frank||n & Andrews (K} for an eva|uat|on of
the projeot r|sk reg|ster, Threon (Germany} for support |n the area of r|sk ana|ys|s and w|th lSO (Portuga|}
for produot assuranoe serv|oes. Speo|f|o support has been oontraoted to SB (Germany} for the oonf|g-
urat|on |tem data ||st generat|on.
1.14 OPERATlONS
The operat|ons p|an for the E-E|T observatory was one of the de||verab|es of phase B. The p|an has
been rev|sed to take |nto aooount the new te|esoope base||ne, and a|ms at max|m|s|ng the synerg|es
between Parana| and Armazones, wh|oh w||| be operated as a s|ng|e |ntegrated observatory. The p|an
desor|bes the operat|ona| oonoepts and p|ans needed to aoh|eve the E-E|T top-|eve| requ|rements, and
oovers aspeots re|ated to the observatory management, the so|enoe, teohn|oa|, ma|ntenanoe and |og|st|o
operat|ons, the off-s|te deve|opment and support, the upgrade paths, the staff|ng requ|rements and the
operat|ons budget.

A number of pr|no|p|es |nher|ted from the exper|enoe of operat|ng the Parana| Observatory |s at the oore
of the operat|ons oonoept. The top-|eve| goa| |s to max|m|se the so|ent|f|o produot|v|ty of the E-E|T. Th|s
|s aoh|eved by ensur|ng an opt|ma| performanoe |eve| of te|esoope and |nstrumentat|on by extens|ve use
of metro|ogy, as we|| as of prevent|ve and pred|ot|ve ma|ntenanoe, where the most oha||eng|ng goa| w|||
be to perform, w|th|n the ava||ab|e day-t|me hours, a|| the requ|red ma|ntenanoe and oorreot|ve tasks
neoessary to have a ready-to-go te|esoope at sunset.

There w||| be prooedures des|gned to prov|de a safe, eff|o|ent and oost-effeot|ve operat|on of the fao|||ty to
de||ver so|ent|f|o data of h|gh and oons|stent qua||ty together w|th a|| ano|||ary data needed for the|r oa||-
brat|on, and prov|de opportun|t|es for teohn|oa| upgrades and deve|opment of new |nstruments and
Adapt|ve Opt|os (AO} systems over the ||fet|me of the fao|||ty.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Proposa| D|gest 21
The so|enoe operat|ons are based on the v|T parad|gm and w||| be fu||y |ntegrated, both on-s|te and off-
s|te, between the v|T and the E-E|T. Extens|ons tak|ng advantage of teohno|og|oa| deve|opments (e.g.,
h|gh bandw|dth} w||| be |mp|emented for the |ntegrated observatory. The observatory w||| prov|de moda||-
t|es of use of the fao|||ty adequate to the so|ent|f|o goa|s of eaoh projeot, and for the most part observa-
t|ons w||| be f|ex|b|y sohedu|ed to make the best use of ava||ab|e atmospher|o oond|t|ons. A oa||brat|on
p|an w||| be exeouted by the observatory to guarantee that so|ent|f|o data oan be oa||brated up to a we||-
speo|f|ed |eve| of aoouraoy. The oa||brat|on p|an w||| be the bas|s for mon|tor|ng the system performanoe
by oont|nuous|y mon|tor|ng se|eoted parameters. A|| the so|enoe data obta|ned and the|r re|ated oa||bra-
t|ons w||| be stored |n the ESO So|enoe Aroh|ve, to ensure the |ong-term preservat|on and aooess|b|||ty of
the data to the ent|re so|ent|f|o oommun|ty through appropr|ate |nterfaoes.

The operat|ons p|an |dent|f|es a|| the aot|v|t|es, both short-term (e.g., da||y exohange of two new|y ooated
M1 segments} and |ong-term (e.g., oomm|ss|on|ng of new |nstruments}, needed to oarry out the above
goa|s. Work p|ans have been def|ned for the teohn|oa| operat|ons, the |nspeot|ons, the prevent|ve, pre-
d|ot|ve and oorreot|ve ma|ntenanoe of a|| subsystems of the observatory. The traok|ng of prob|ems w|th
the assoo|ated generat|on of work orders w||| be managed through appropr|ate software too|s (an evo|u-
t|on of the ourrent prob|em-report|ng system and oomputer|sed ma|ntenanoe management system |n use
at Parana| today}.

Bottom-up est|mates of the requ|red t|me and manpower for eaoh aot|v|ty, based on the Parana| exper|-
enoe, have been used to determ|ne the staff|ng (|n terms of sk|||s and numbers} and the oost of operat|ng
the E-E|T.
1.15 OONO|SlON
The E-E|T des|gn phase has de||vered a teohn|oa||y v|ab|e so|ut|on for an extreme|y |arge te|esoope bu||t
by |ndustr|es and aoadem|o |nst|tutes |n the Member States. The oost and eng|neer|ng of the projeot has
been va||dated through extens|ve |nteraot|on w|th |ndustry and, to the extent poss|b|e, prototyp|ng aot|v|-
t|es have bo|stered the oonf|denoe of |ndustry to be ab|e to de||ver the te|esoope oomponents.
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22 Proposa| D|gest E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 22 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 23
2 THE SOlENOE OASE
The so|enoe oase of the European Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope rests on three p|||ars:

Oontemporary so|enoe the breakthrough so|enoe oases that oan be env|saged today for a
40-metre-o|ass te|esoope;
Synerg|es the |nterp|ay of the E-E|T w|th other major fao|||t|es operat|ng |n the oom|ng deo-
ade or |n para||e| w|th the E-E|T;
D|soover|es the hardest to oapture, but probab|y most |nterest|ng potent|a| of the E-E|T.

A|| three aspeots have evo|ved over the |ast f|ve to ten years and were subjeot to many d|souss|ons and
|terat|ons |n the astronom|oa| oommun|ty. They are d|soussed |n turn be|ow.
2.1 OONTEMPORARY SOlENOE
2.1.1 P|ANETS AND STARS
2.1.1.1 EOP|ANETS
Are we alone in the Universe? For millennia, this question was not posed or was purely philosophical.
Recently, astronomers have started to provide an answer. With the E-ELT, for the first time in history,
technology allows us to observe and to characterise exoplanets in habitable zones.

The f|rst exop|anet orb|t|ng a so|ar-type star (51 Pegas|} was d|soovered |n 1995 by a European team.
S|noe then, over 600 p|anetary oompan|ons w|th masses rang|ng from a few Earth to severa| Jup|ter
masses have been found. Most exop|anets are deteoted |nd|reot|y by the rad|a| ve|oo|ty teohn|que, a
method that deteots p|anets by the wobb|e they |nduoe on the|r parent star as they orb|t |t. However,
suoh |nd|reot deteot|ons on|y a||ow us to |nfer very ||m|ted |nformat|on about the p|anet |tse|f, and very few
d|reot observat|ons of p|anets have been made. W|th the E-E|T, we w||| be ab|e to obta|n d|reot |mages
of some of these systems, |no|ud|ng p|anets |n the hab|tab|e zone, where a rooky p|anet m|ght ho|d ||qu|d
water on |ts surfaoe.


Figure 2.1. The habitable zone, in which liquid water might exist on the surface, varies with stellar mass (i.e., surface
temperature). The E-ELT will be able to study Earth twins around Sun-like stars.
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 23 16/12/2011 18:32
24 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
2.1.1.1.1 The radial velocity technique reaching 1 cms
-1
accuracy
The rad|a| ve|oo|ty teohn|que, wh|oh measures the |nduoed Dopp|er sh|ft of features |n the speotrum of
the parent star, oan on|y f|nd oerta|n k|nds of p|anets. W|th the ourrent generat|on of te|esoopes, th|s
teohn|que |s ||m|ted both by the preo|s|on and the stab|||ty of the ve|oo|ty measurements: ourrent
measurements have pushed the ||m|t down to an a|ready |mpress|ve ~ 1 ms
-1
preo|s|on reta|ned over
severa| years. nfortunate|y though, a p|anet ||ke the Earth orb|t|ng a star ||ke the Sun w||| on|y |nduoe a
rad|a| ve|oo|ty of about a tenth th|s s|ze, wh|oh ||es at the ||m|t of what oan be aoh|eved w|th even the next
generat|on of |nstruments on ourrent te|esoopes. ln oontrast, u|tra-stab|e speotrographs, oomb|ned w|th
the |arge oo||eot|ng power of the E-E|T, w||| aoh|eve measurement preo|s|ons of ~ 1 oms
-1
over per|ods
rang|ng from m|nutes to years. For the deteot|on of rooky p|anets |n hab|tab|e zones, th|s preo|s|on |s
needed |n order to overoome measurement oontam|nat|on by se|sm|o oso|||at|ons, granu|at|on and mag-
net|o aot|v|ty of the parent star.

Thus, the E-E|T |s essent|a| for f|nd|ng Earth-||ke p|anets |n hab|tab|e zones, for oharaoter|s|ng them and
for understand|ng the propert|es of the|r parent stars. Th|s w||| a||ow a oomp|ete oensus of rooky Earth- to
Neptune-mass p|anets around nearby stars for the f|rst t|me, and w||| prov|de an understand|ng of the
aroh|teoture of p|anetary systems w|th |ow-mass p|anets. These stud|es w||| |ead to an understand|ng of
the format|on of So|ar System tw|ns and w||| prov|de an answer to an |mportant part of the fundamenta|
quest|on: just how un|que are we?


Figure 2.2. Mass plotted against semi-major axis of known exoplanets. The stars currently detected through the
radial velocity technique (green triangles) are limited by the accuracy of ~ 1 ms
-1
, while the E-ELT will push the limit to
< 10 cms
-1
, allowing Earth twins (marked as E) to be detected. Credit: Bouchy et al. (2009).
2.1.1.1.2 Direct imaging approaching 10
9
contrast
By 2020, ground- and spaoe-based fao|||t|es w||| have d|soovered thousands of mass|ve (Neptune- and
Jup|ter-mass} exop|anets. The E-E|T w||| start deteot|ng Earth-tw|n targets |n hab|tab|e zones us|ng the
rad|a| ve|oo|ty teohn|que desor|bed above. By then, the stat|st|oa| understand|ng of the propert|es of the
parent stars and the d|str|but|ons of the masses and orb|ts of exop|anets w||| have matured. The next
step |n exop|anet researoh w||| be the phys|oa| oharaoter|sat|on of the then known p|anets.

ln order to aoh|eve th|s, d|reot ||ght from the p|anet must be deteoted and separated from the g|are of |ts
parent star. Overoom|ng th|s d|fferenoe |n br|ghtness (usua||y referred to as the oontrast} |s the ma|n
oha||enge for th|s type of observat|on and requ|res extreme|y sharp |mag|ng. Th|s oapab|||ty w||| be a huge
strength of ground-based te|esoopes. P|anet-f|nder |nstruments on 8-metre-o|ass te|esoopes w||| aoh|eve
s|m||ar oontrasts to the JWST: around 10
5
to 10
6
at sub-aroseoond d|stanoes from the parent stars. The
deteot|on of an Earth tw|n requ|res oontrast of 10
9
or better at about 0.1 aroseoonds from the star (for
the tens of stars w|th|n 30 ||ght-years from the Sun}. The unpreoedented ||ght-gather|ng power of a

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 25
40-metre-o|ass te|esoope, and the |mp|ementat|on of extreme adapt|ve opt|os at the E-E|T are
abso|ute|y oruo|a| for reaoh|ng th|s ||m|t. A p|anet-f|nder |nstrument on the E-E|T w||| a||ow so|ent|sts not
on|y to study young (se|f-|um|nous} and mature g|ant p|anets |n the So|ar Ne|ghbourhood and out to the
o|osest star-form|ng reg|ons but a|so to understand the oompos|t|on and struoture of the|r atmospheres.
Around the nearest hundred stars, the E-E|T w||| enab|e the f|rst oharaoter|sat|on of Neptune-||ke and
rooky p|anets |ooated |n hab|tab|e zones, estab||sh|ng a new front|er |n astrob|o|ogy and |n our under-
stand|ng of the evo|ut|on of ||fe.


Figure 2.3. Simulation of the direct imaging of exoplanets with the E-ELT. Upper left: Single, one-minute raw expo-
sure at 0.9 m of a star at a distance of 10 parsec (pc) hosting seven planets (with a contrast of 10
-6
10
-7
), equiva-
lent to up to 10
-9
in a 10-hour exposure. Upper right: After processing using spectral deconvolution, all seven planets
are now clearly visible. Bottom: Simulation of the direct imaging of exoplanets exploring the effects of different coro-
nagraphs the chromaticity of the coronagraphs is the current limiting factor at small radii.
2.1.1.1.3 Characterising atmospheres
W|th the E-E|T, the deta||ed study of the atmospheres of young, mass|ve exop|anets beoomes feas|b|e.
lndeed, w|th |ts unpreoedented sens|t|v|ty and h|gh spat|a| reso|ut|on at near- and m|d-|nfrared wave-
|engths, the E-E|T w||| be ab|e to deteot young, se|f-|um|nous exop|anets of Jup|ter mass. The oontrast
between star and p|anet at these wave|engths beoomes so advantageous that, for the nearest stars,
hydrogen, he||um, methane, water ammon|a and other mo|eou|es oan a|| be deteoted |n |ow-reso|ut|on
speotra of the atmospheres of super-Earth p|anets |n hab|tab|e zones.

A|ternat|ve|y, exop|anet atmospheres oan be observed dur|ng trans|ts |n the opt|oa| and near-|nfrared.
Ground- and spaoe-based fao|||t|es (suoh as the OoRoT and Kep|er m|ss|ons} are aooumu|at|ng target
stars for wh|oh an exop|anet, as seen from Earth, trans|ts |n front of |ts parent star. Dur|ng these events,
wh|oh |ast a few hours every few months or years, speotra| features of the exop|anets atmosphere,
baok-||t by the|r parent star, oan be seen |n the speotrum of the system. Suoh measurements are bare|y
feas|b|e at present from the ground and spaoe, but ||e we|| w|th|n reaoh of the E-E|T, wh|oh w||| be ab|e
to samp|e severa| |mportant ohem|oa| d|agnost|o ||nes.

ln the oase of rooky p|anets |n the hab|tab|e zone, the speotra oan be exam|ned for the b|omarker mo|e-
ou|es that are |nd|oat|ve of b|o|og|oa| prooesses, offer|ng perhaps the best opportun|ty to make the f|rst
deteot|on of extraterrestr|a| ||fe.

Perfeot |y AP|O
0.1
10
7
10
7
10
7 10
7
10
7
10
7
10
6
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26 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 2.4. Top panel: Near-infrared spectrum of an Earth-like atmosphere. Bottom panel: Expected J-band spectra
of the O2 lines and H-band spectra of CO2 for a transiting planet with an atmosphere cross-section of 5 10
-4
.
Taken from the science case of the phase A study for the high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph.
2.1.1.1.4 Protoplanetary discs and pre-biotic molecules
The observed d|vers|ty of propert|es of exop|anets must be re|ated to the struoture and evo|ut|on of the
d|sos of protop|anetary mater|a| from wh|oh they form. A oruo|a| step for our understand|ng of the or|g|n
of ||fe |s thus the study of the format|on of suoh protop|anetary d|sos. The trans|t|on from the gas-r|oh to
the gas-poor phases of d|sos |s of part|ou|ar |nterest: |t |s the t|me when gaseous p|anets form and rooky
p|anets gradua||y aoorete p|anetes|ma|s essent|a||y bou|ders onto the|r oores.

The E-E|Ts spat|a| reso|ut|on of a few to tens of m||||aroseoonds (mas} a||ows |t to probe the |nner few
astronom|oa| un|ts of these d|sos out to the d|stanoe of the nearest star-form|ng reg|ons (about 500 ||ght-
years}, a||ow|ng us to exp|ore the reg|ons where Earth-||ke p|anets w||| form for the f|rst t|me. These data
w||| beaut|fu||y oomp|ement observat|ons w|th the new |nternat|ona| A|MA subm||||metre array that w|||
|ook at the oo|der mater|a| further out |n these systems, together prov|d|ng a fu|| understand|ng of pro-
top|anetary d|so evo|ut|on. Furthermore, the |nner d|sos probed by the E-E|T are those where the key
mo|eou|es for organ|o ohem|stry, suoh as methane, aoety|ene, and hydrogen oyan|de ooour, and more
oomp|ex pre-b|ot|o mo|eou|es are expeoted to form. The|r study w||| prov|de a further v|ta| o|ue |n the
astrob|o|ogy puzz|e.


Figure 2.5. Near-infrared scattered-light coronagraphic images of representative circumstellar discs. From left to
right: AU Microscopii (Keck image, resolution 0.1 arcseconds, 1 AU at 10 pc; Kalas et al., 2004); HD 141569 (HST
image, resolution 0.2 arcseconds, 20 AU at 100 pc; Weinberger et al., 1999); HR 4796A (HST image, resolution
0.2 arcseconds, 15 AU at 70 pc; Schneider et al., 1999).
HD 141569 HR 4796A
5.6 billion miles
Diameter of Neptunes orbit
5.6 billion miles
Diameter of Neptunes orbit
Star
Star
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 27
2.1.1.2 THE BlRTH, |lFE AND DEATH OF STARS
Stars em|t near|y a|| of the v|s|b|e ||ght that we see |n the n|verse. The deta||s of the|r format|on prooess
ooup|ed to the format|on of protop|anetary d|sos, the|r evo|ut|on and the|r (somet|mes most energet|o}
deaths st||| present some of the most |nterest|ng puzz|es |n astrophys|os. The E-E|T |s the key fao|||ty to
answer|ng many of these open fundamenta| quest|ons.
2.1.1.2.1 Star formation and the conditions for the formation of planetary systems
The format|on of a star traoes a oomp||oated route. The ear||est phases of th|s prooess dur|ng wh|oh
protoste||ar oores start to emerge from mo|eou|ar o|ouds |s often thought to be |n the rea|m of |onger
wave|ength (subm||||metre, m||||metre, rad|o} fao|||t|es, due to the|r ab|||ty to peer |nto heav||y dust-
obsoured reg|ons. Wh||e th|s |s part|y true for present-day opt|oa|/near-|nfrared te|esoopes, the E-E|T,
w|th |ts ga|n |n sens|t|v|ty and part|ou|ar|y, angu|ar reso|ut|on, w||| be a major p|ayer |n protoste|-
|ar/protop|anetary d|so researoh, even |n the|r ear|y stages of evo|ut|on.

At m|d-|nfrared wave|engths, the spat|a| reso|ut|on ||m|t of the E-E|T represents, at the d|stanoe of the
o|osest star-form|ng reg|ons (|ooated about 500 ||ght-years away}, a few Astronom|oa| n|ts (A}, |.e. a
few t|mes the mean SunEarth d|stanoe. Thus the E-E|T w||| be ab|e to probe the |nnermost reg|ons of
the protop|anetary d|sos and study where rooky p|anets form. lt w||| a|so enab|e a o|ose sorut|ny of how a
star forms and so make deo|s|ve progress |n the study of the pre-ma|n-sequenoe phases.

Many h|gh-mass star-form|ng reg|ons oan be found w|th|n a few thousand parseos from the Sun. At th|s
d|stanoe, the E-E|T reso|ut|on oan probe the very |nner reg|ons (tens of A} of the surround|ng aooret|on
d|sos, a||ow|ng us to study |n great deta|| the format|on of these |um|nous stars that so dom|nate the
energy budget and the ohem|oa| enr|ohment of the |nterste||ar med|um.


Figure 2.6. With the E-ELT, astronomers will be able to study planet-forming discs in unsurpassed detail at distances
larger by a factor of ten than possible today, as illustrated in this artists impression.
2.1.1.2.2 Stellar tribulations
The path taken by a star through |ts ||feoyo|e var|es great|y w|th |ts mass. Mass determ|nes not on|y a
stars ||fet|me and evo|ut|on but a|so |ts f|na| fate. nderstand|ng the evo|ut|on of stars |s or|t|oa| to our
understand|ng of the evo|ut|on of the n|verse: the oont|nuous reoyo||ng prooess of matter, the energet|o
prooesses shap|ng the |nterste||ar med|um, the feedbaok prooesses |n the evo|ut|on of ga|ax|es, and the
overa|| ohem|oa| enr|ohment h|story of the n|verse, a|| the way to the ohem|stry enab||ng ||fe.

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28 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
H|gh-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy w|th the E-E|T from the opt|oa| to the |nfrared w||| a||ow unpreoedented
progress |n th|s f|e|d. The E-E|T w||| a||ow us to perform nuo|ear dat|ng (nuo|eooosmoohronometry} on |n-
d|v|dua| stars w|th ages between 1 and 12 b||||on years. Ourrent fao|||t|es are ||m|ted |n the|r oo||eot|ng
power and have performed th|s measurement on on|y a handfu| of stars. The E-E|T w||| a||ow measure-
ments of e|ements suoh as thor|um 232 (ha|f-||fe 20.3 b||||on years} and uran|um 238 (ha|f-||fe 6.5 b||||on
years} and the|r rat|os to other e|ements |n hundreds of stars |n d|fferent reg|ons of the M||ky Way. Oom-
b|ned w|th preo|se e|ement abundanoe measurements |n stars, and w|th resu|ts from spaoe m|ss|ons
suoh as Ga|a, |t w||| a||ow us to determ|ne not on|y the preo|se age of the major oomponents of our ga|-
axy, but a|so to date the|r assemb|y phases and to desor|be the|r ohem|oa| evo|ut|on. A fu|| understand|ng
of the assemb|y of the M||ky Way |s w|th|n reaoh w|th the E-E|T.


Figure 2.7. Nucleocosmochronometry allows precise measurements of stellar ages, as in the case of the star
HE 1523-0901.

At the |ow-mass end of star format|on, we enter the rea|m of brown dwarfs, wh|oh are not mass|ve
enough to have started the oentra| nuo|ear fus|on prooess that powers stars. These objeots are part|ou-
|ar|y |nterest|ng as they are expeoted to have masses and atmospher|o propert|es |ntermed|ate between
stars and g|ant p|anets. On|y the E-E|T has the oo||eot|ng power to reaoh out |n d|stanoe and to study |n
deta|| the fa|nt brown dwarfs |n nearby open star o|usters. ln add|t|on, the E-E|T has the spat|a| reso|ut|on
to study brown dwarfs and p|anetary-mass objeots |n so-oa||ed u|tra-ooo| b|nar|es, hav|ng separat|ons of
on|y a few hundred A, |n nearby env|ronments rang|ng from young ste||ar assoo|at|ons (one m||||on years
o|d} to young star o|usters (a few hundred m||||on years o|d}. The study of suoh b|nary stars a||ows us to
determ|ne preo|se|y the masses of the stars at d|fferent evo|ut|onary stages. Thus, the E-E|T w||| revea|
the evo|ut|on of sub-ste||ar mass objeots, support|ng |ts work on exop|anets and br|ng|ng us o|oser to a
fu|| understand|ng of the evo|ut|on of p|anets and stars over the fu|| mass speotrum.
2.1.1.2.3 Violent deaths and their consequences
At the h|gh-mass end of the range of ste||ar propert|es, the most speotaou|ar events are undoubted|y the
deaths |n v|o|ent exp|os|ons of stars of e|ght or more so|ar masses. These supernova events seeded the
ear|y n|verse by ejeot|ng |nto the |nterste||ar med|um oarbon, oxygen, |ron and other heavy ohem|oa|
e|ements. These e|ements not on|y or|t|oa||y |nf|uenoed the format|on of stars and ga|ax|es, but were a|so
essent|a| for the |ater evo|ut|on of ||fe. Supernova exp|os|ons are amongst the most |um|nous events |n
the n|verse. As suoh, they oan be used out to great d|stanoes as s|gnposts of ear|y evo|ut|on.

Gamma-ray bursts have been one of the most en|gmat|o phenomena |n astronomy s|noe the|r d|soovery
|n the 1960s, unt|| they were reoent|y oonv|no|ng|y assoo|ated w|th the format|on of ste||ar-mass b|aok
ho|es and h|gh|y oo|||mated supernovae at h|gh redsh|fts. Gamma-ray bursts are the most energet|o ex-
p|os|ons observed |n the n|verse and ourrent|y among the oompet|tors for the reoord ho|ders as the
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 28 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 29
furthest objeot observed. The oo||eot|ng power of the E-E|T w||| a||ow us to use them as d|stant ||ght-
houses, sh|n|ng through b||||ons of years of evo|ut|on of the n|verse, s|m||ar to the way that quasars have
prev|ous|y been used as remote beaoons. Gamma-ray bursts have a few advantages: w|th the E-E|T,
they oan be deteoted at redsh|fts beyond 7, poss|b|y up to 15, tak|ng so|ent|sts |nto the |arge|y unknown
epooh of the re|on|sat|on of the n|verse. A|so, as they fade away, they a||ow us to study the em|ss|on
oomponents of prev|ous|y deteoted absorpt|on ||ne systems. Gamma-ray bursts represent one more
route for the E-E|T to study the Dark Ages of the n|verse.


Figure 2.8. This supernova (SN1998bw) has been associated with a gamma-ray burst. The E-ELT will explore such
events up to a redshift of 15, i.e. looking back over 13 billion years into the past.

The E-E|T w||| be ab|e to study supernova exp|os|ons |n exqu|s|te deta||. S|m||ar to gamma-ray bursts,
supernova exp|os|ons oan be used as oosm|o probes. lndeed, supernovae prov|de the most d|reot ev|-
denoe to date for the aooe|erat|ng expans|on of the n|verse and henoe for the ex|stenoe of a dark
energy dr|v|ng th|s aooe|erat|on. W|th the ourrent oomb|nat|on of 8-metre-o|ass ground-based te|esoopes
and the Hubb|e Spaoe Te|esoope, supernova searohes oan reaoh baok to on|y around ha|f the age of the
n|verse. lnfrared speotrosoopy w|th the E-E|T, oomb|ned w|th |mag|ng from the forthoom|ng James
Webb Spaoe Te|esoope, w||| a||ow us to extend the searoh for supernovae to redsh|fts beyond four, a
|ookbaok t|me of near|y 90% of the age of the n|verse! Supernova stud|es w|th the E-E|T w||| thus or|t|-
oa||y oontr|bute to the oharaoter|sat|on of the nature of dark energy and the |nvest|gat|on of the oosm|o
expans|on at ear|y epoohs.
2.1.2 STARS AND GA|AlES
2.1.2.1 B|AOK HO|ES
Black holes are some of the most bizarre objects in the Universe, challenging the imaginations of even
the most creative scientists. Their environments are places where gravity trumps all other forces, pushing
our understanding of physics to the limit. Even more strangely, supermassive black holes seem to play a
key role in the formation and evolution of galaxies and structures in the Universe.
2.1.2.1.1 Galactic Centre
Over the |ast 15 years, an enormous amount of work has gone |nto |mprov|ng our understand|ng of the
o|osest supermass|ve b|aok ho|e Sag|ttar|us A* at the oentre of the M||ky Way.

E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 29 16/12/2011 18:32
30 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Teohno|og|oa| progress, |n part|ou|ar |n the areas of adapt|ve opt|os and h|gh angu|ar reso|ut|on w|th
ground-based 8-metre-o|ass te|esoopes, has a||owed |mpress|ve progress |n understand|ng supermas-
s|ve b|aok ho|es and the|r surround|ngs. Key progress was made |n prov|ng the very ex|stenoe of a
supermass|ve b|aok ho|e at the oentre of the M||ky Way, |n ref|n|ng our know|edge of how matter fa||s |nto
b|aok ho|es, and |n |dent|fy|ng gas d|sos and young stars |n the |mmed|ate v|o|n|ty of the b|aok ho|e. The
Ga|aot|o Oentre was thus estab||shed as the most |mportant |aboratory for the study of supermass|ve
b|aok ho|es and the|r surround|ngs.


Figure 2.9. The central parts of the Milky Way (field of view 15 arcseconds 15 arcseconds as observed with the
VLT). By following the motions of the most central stars over more than 16 years, astronomers were able to deter-
mine the mass of the supermassive black hole that lurks there. The E-ELT will probe yet closer to the black hole.

But th|s reg|ons potent|a| for progress |n fundamenta| phys|os and astrophys|os |s far from be|ng fu||y ex-
p|o|ted. The Ga|aot|o Oentre rema|ns the best p|aoe to test genera| re|at|v|ty d|reot|y |n a strong grav|ta-
t|ona| f|e|d. The E-E|T w||| enab|e extreme|y aoourate measurements of the pos|t|ons of stars (at the 50
100 m|oroaroseoond |eve| over f|e|ds of tens of aroseoonds}, as we|| as rad|a| ve|oo|ty measurements w|th
about 1 kms
-1
preo|s|on, push|ng the observat|ons ever o|oser to the b|aok ho|e event hor|zon. Stars oan
then be d|soovered at 100 Sohwarzsoh||d rad||, where the|r orb|ta| ve|oo|t|es approaoh a tenth of the
speed of ||ght. Th|s |s more than ten t|mes o|oser than oan be aoh|eved w|th the ourrent generat|on of te|-
esoopes. Suoh ste||ar probes w||| a||ow us to test the pred|oted re|at|v|st|o s|gna|s of b|aok ho|e sp|n and
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 30 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 31
the grav|tat|ona| redsh|ft oaused by the b|aok ho|e, and even to deteot grav|tat|ona| wave effeots. Further
out, the dark matter d|str|but|on around the b|aok ho|e, pred|oted by oo|d dark matter oosmo|og|es, oan
be exp|ored. The d|stanoe to the Ga|aot|o Oentre oan be measured to 0.1%, oonstra|n|ng |n turn the s|ze
and shape of the ga|aot|o ha|o and the Ga|axys |ooa| rotat|on speed to unpreoedented |eve|s. Oruo|a|
progress |n our understand|ng of the |nteraot|on of the b|aok ho|e w|th |ts surround|ngs w||| be made. The
puzz||ng ste||ar ousp around the Ga|aot|o Oentre, as we|| as the observed star format|on |n the v|o|n|ty of
the b|aok ho|e w||| be stud|ed |n deta|| for the f|rst t|me.

|ook|ng at the Ga|aot|o Oentre w|th the oo||eot|ng power and spat|a| reso|ut|on of the E-E|T w||| tru|y
a||ow us to reaoh new d|mens|ons |n our understand|ng of b|aok ho|e phys|os, the|r surround|ngs and the
extent of the va||d|ty of genera| re|at|v|ty.


Figure 2.10. Infrared NACO image of an area of ~ 2 arcseconds 2 arcseconds, centred on the position of the com-
pact radio source SgrA* at the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy. The angular resolution is about 0.060 arcseconds. In
2002, the star designated S2 came within 0.015 arcseconds of the radio source. At the distance of the Milky Way
Centre, 1 arcsecond on the sky corresponds to 46 light-days.
2.1.2.1.2 Intermediate-mass black holes
B|aok ho|e researoh w|th the E-E|T w||| not be ||m|ted to the Ga|aot|o Oentre. An open quest|on awa|t|ng
the advent of the E-E|T |s the ex|stenoe and the demograph|os of |ntermed|ate-mass (10010 000 so|ar
masses} b|aok ho|es. These b|aok ho|es represent a ourrent|y m|ss|ng ||nk between ste||ar-mass b|aok
ho|es and supermass|ve b|aok ho|es w|th the |ntermed|ate-mass objeots serv|ng as seeds |n the ear|y
n|verse for the format|on of the supermass|ve examp|es that we see today. They oou|d p|aus|b|y form
from the f|rst u|tra-mass|ve stars or, a|ternat|ve|y, v|a the same unknown meohan|sm that forms super-
mass|ve b|aok ho|es. The|r ex|stenoe |n the |ooa| n|verse oannot unamb|guous|y be proven w|th ourrent
observat|ona| fao|||t|es. To date, on|y a few deteot|ons at the oentres of dwarf ga|ax|es and mass|ve star
o|usters have been reported. The|r ex|stenoe has been |nferred e|ther from -ray and rad|o em|ss|on that
|s be||eved to or|g|nate from matter fa|||ng onto a b|aok ho|e, or from d|sturbanoes |n the mot|ons of stars
and gas at the oentre of these objeots. The E-E|T w||| be ab|e to measure aoourate|y the three-
d|mens|ona| ve|oo|t|es of stars |n these star o|usters and dwarf ga|ax|es. Th|s w||| a||ow the determ|nat|on
of the masses of the |ntermed|ate-mass b|aok ho|es that are speou|ated to ||e at the|r oores.
2.1.2.1.3 Supermassive black holes and active galactic nuclei
Dur|ng the past deoade, a oorre|at|on between the mass of a ga|axy and the mass of |ts oentra| super-
mass|ve b|aok ho|e has been observed. For these propert|es to be re|ated, a number of meohan|sms
must be at work over n|ne orders of magn|tudes |n soa|e, from ga|axy env|ronments to the sphere of |n-
f|uenoe of the b|aok ho|e. The E-E|T w||| probe soa|es of |ess than a few parseos (~ 10 ||ght-years} |n the
very oentra| reg|ons of ga|ax|es out to oosmo|og|oa| d|stanoes of hundreds of m||||ons of ||ght-years,
a||ow|ng us to study nuo|ear o|usters and aot|ve ga|aot|o nuo|e| |n ga|ax|es w|th unpreoedented deta||. The

SgrA*
0.05
(2 ||ght-days}
1992.23
2002.66
2002.58
2002.50
2002.40
2002.33
2002.25
2001.50
1994.32 1995.53
1996.25
1996.43
1997.54
1997.54
1999.47
2000.47

S2 orb|t around SgrA* NAOO May 2002


E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 31 16/12/2011 18:32
32 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
oomb|nat|on of h|gh spat|a| reso|ut|on w|th speotrosoop|o oapab|||t|es ava||ab|e w|th the E-E|T w||| enab|e
us to map the gas mot|ons |n the reg|ons |mmed|ate|y around the aot|ve nuo|eus of ga|ax|es and to un-
derstand the |nf|ow of mater|a| aooreted by the oentra| b|aok ho|e. Furthermore, supermass|ve b|aok
ho|es w||| be oharaoter|sed out to |arge d|stanoes w|th the E-E|T, a||ow|ng us to traoe the bu||d up of
these oentra| objeots |n ga|ax|es when the n|verse was as young as a quarter of |ts present age.


Figure 2.11. Comparison of a VLT observation of the sphere of influence of a supermassive black hole with an E-ELT
simulation. Left: Velocity map of the central region of NGC 4486a in the Virgo cluster derived from VLT observations
by Nowak et al. (2007), showing the existence of a 10
7
solar-mass black hole at only marginal significance.
Right: E-ELT simulation of the same system where the black hole is now detected at 5 sigma.
2.1.2.2 THE STE||AR OONTENT OF GA|AlES
Galaxies are the main building blocks of the visible large-scale structure of the Universe. The galaxies
themselves are made up of billions of stars of all ages and chemical compositions. When astronomers
study the light of a galaxy, they are observing the diffuse light emitted by all the individual stars in the gal-
axy. To make significant progress in our understanding of structure formation in the Universe, i.e. of gal-
axy formation and evolution, many of the individual stars in these distant galaxies need to be analysed. In
this regard, the E-ELT is again an unprecedented facility.

The most p|aus|b|e ourrent theory for ga|axy format|on |s the h|eraroh|oa| assemb|y mode|, |n wh|oh a||
ga|ax|es are bu||t up from sma||er p|eoes. Th|s theory has been extens|ve|y exp|ored by numer|oa| s|mu|a-
t|ons as a theoret|oa| exper|ment and tested aga|nst the g|oba| oharaoter|st|os of ga|axy popu|at|ons, but
not aga|nst the deta||ed propert|es of |nd|v|dua| ga|ax|es. The u|t|mate test of th|s mode| |s to oompare
pred|ot|ons of the ste||ar oontent of ga|ax|es to what we aotua||y see |n ga|ax|es of a|| types: sp|ra|s, g|ant
e|||pt|oa|, |rregu|ar and dwarf ga|ax|es.
2.1.2.2.1 Star formation throughout the Universe
The b||||ons of |nd|v|dua| stars that make up a ga|axy oarry |nformat|on about the format|on and subse-
quent evo|ut|on of the|r host, but on|y |f we oan study the stars |nd|v|dua||y. lf we oan measure the
amounts of the d|fferent ohem|oa| e|ements |n stars as a traoer of the|r ages and or|g|ns and oomb|ne
suoh |nformat|on w|th the ourrent mot|ons of these stars, we oan beg|n to unrave| the oomp|ex format|on
h|story of the ga|axy. For |nstanoe, the f|rst generat|on of stars oonta|ns very |ow abundanoes of the
heav|er e|ements ||ke |ron and oxygen. As supernovae exp|ode and enr|oh the |nterste||ar med|um out of
wh|oh the next generat|on of stars forms, subsequent generat|ons w||| oonta|n more of these e|ements.
By measur|ng the oontent of suoh traoe e|ements |n the stars, we oan determ|ne how many stars formed
where and when and thus extraot the star format|on h|story of the ga|axy. Ourrent te|esoopes oan on|y
reso|ve |nd|v|dua| stars for the nearest few |arge ga|ax|es. Th|s has a|ready y|e|ded |nterest|ng resu|ts, but
does not a||ow us to draw any genera| oono|us|ons about ga|axy format|on.

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E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 32 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 33
By oontrast, the E-E|T w||| a||ow the method to be app||ed to some thousands of ga|ax|es aoross a more
representat|ve s||oe of the n|verse, a||ow|ng us to oompare the ste||ar oontents of ga|ax|es of a|| types for
the f|rst t|me and to draw the f|rst genera| oono|us|ons about the|r format|on h|stor|es.


Figure 2.12. Left: The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way: Omega Centauri, ~ 30 light-years across,
potential host of a 10 000 solar-mass black hole to be confirmed with the E-ELT. Right: Simulated mid-infrared im-
age of a massive young star cluster at the distance of the Galactic Centre. The cluster is heavily obscured and red-
dened by dust, causing up to 200 magnitudes of extinction in the visual. The E-ELT will be able to resolve stars in
deeply dust-extincted regions and in other stellar systems out to distances of 55 million light-years.
2.1.2.2.2 Colours and luminosities of individual stars out to nearby galaxy clusters
Push|ng out a ||tt|e further |n d|stanoe, the nearest ga|axy o|usters, |ooated at a d|stanoe of about
55 m||||on ||ght-years, are pr|me targets for the E-E|T. These o|usters, wh|oh oonta|n thousands of ga|ax-
|es paoked |n o|ose prox|m|ty, are be||eved to have evo|ved very d|fferent|y from the more sparse|y d|s-
tr|buted f|e|d ga|ax|es. Even at these d|stanoes, the E-E|T w||| be ab|e to reso|ve |nd|v|dua| stars and
study the|r bas|o propert|es, suoh as oo|our and |um|nos|ty, to obta|n a measure of the|r ages and heavy
e|ement oontent. W|th|n |nd|v|dua| ga|ax|es, |t w||| be poss|b|e to see whether the star format|on h|story
var|es w|th pos|t|on, as m|ght be expeoted |f star format|on oont|nues |n the |nner parts of the apparent|y
qu|esoent ga|ax|es that popu|ate these o|usters. Suoh measurements oan then be oompared w|th what
we f|nd |n the sparser non-o|uster env|ronments to see how a ga|axys surround|ngs affeot |ts star for-
mat|on h|story.


Figure 2.13. This simulated (1 arcsecond 1 arcsecond) near-infrared image of a field near the centre of Messier 87,
the giant galaxy at the core of the Virgo galaxy cluster, demonstrates that the E-ELT will be able to resolve individual
stars even in the dense inner regions of giant elliptical galaxies 55 million light-years away, surpassing the capabilities
of the JWST.
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 33 16/12/2011 18:32
34 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
2.1.2.2.3 Spatially-resolved spectroscopy of stars and clusters
The ohemo-dynam|oa| s|gnature of ga|axy evo|ut|on |s best traoed through spat|a||y-reso|ved
speotrosoopy of the |nd|v|dua| stars. Wh||e th|s doma|n |s |naooess|b|e beyond the M||ky Way to the our-
rent generat|on of te|esoopes, the E-E|T w||| prov|de us w|th preo|se ste||ar k|nemat|os measurements of
the host ga|axy out to d|stanoes of ~ 55 m||||on ||ght-years. lt w||| a||ow us to oompute the mass and d|s-
tr|but|on of dark matter |n these systems.

s|ng, for examp|e, the Oa ll tr|p|et, med|um-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy of ste||ar samp|es oover|ng the ga|-
ax|es d|fferent oomponents, e.g., th|n d|so, th|ok d|so, ha|o and bu|ge, w||| return oomp|ete maps of the
ohem|oa| oompos|t|on and e|ement abundanoes and so w||| test |n deta|| the pred|ot|ons of ga|axy for-
mat|on and ohem|oa| evo|ut|on mode|s.

H|gh-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy w||| be used to study the ohem|oa| oompos|t|on and k|nemat|os of stars |n
|ooa| Group dwarf sphero|da| ga|ax|es and star o|usters to oonstra|n the dark matter oontent and the
presenoe of mu|t|p|e ste||ar popu|at|ons |n these systems. Furthermore, near- and m|d-|nfrared 3D-
speotrosoopy w|th the E-E|T w||| a||ow us to study deep|y embedded young, mass|ve stars |n dense
Ga|aot|o proto-o|uster o|ouds, penetrat|ng as muoh as 200 magn|tudes of v|sua| ext|not|on. The oomb|na-
t|on of astrometr|o (50 m|oroaroseoond [as| on a s|ng|e |mage}, proper mot|on (~ 1 mas yr
-1
} and
speotrosoop|o rad|a| ve|oo|ty (~ 1 kms
-1
} data are oruo|a| for the study of dynam|oa| prooesses assoo|ated
w|th o|uster format|on. lntegrated h|gh-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy of star o|usters (M ~ 10
8
M

} up to the
d|stanoe of the v|rgo/Fornax ga|axy o|usters (5560 m||||on ||ght-years}, and |ow-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy
up to the d|stanoe of the Ooma o|uster (~ 300 m||||on ||ght-years} w||| enab|e us to study the k|nemat|os
and ohem|oa| abundanoe of these systems wh|oh oan be used as traoers of star format|on |n ga|ax|es.
W|th the s|mu|taneous h|gh spat|a| and speotra| reso|ut|on of the E-E|T, we w||| be ab|e to d|sor|m|nate
between d|fferent mass funot|ons |n these systems thanks to preo|se ve|oo|ty prof||es (~ 1 kms
-1
} from
the|r |nner reg|ons to the|r outsk|rts. Preo|se ve|oo|ty d|spers|ons beyond the star o|usters oore w||| a|so
be fundamenta| for test|ng Newton|an grav|tat|on |n |ow aooe|erat|on reg|mes (10
-10
ms
-2
}. The Newton|an
and the Mod|f|ed Newton|an Dynam|os (MOND} ve|oo|ty d|spers|on prof||es oan |ndeed d|ffer by 12 kms
-1

aooord|ng to the mode|s.


Figure 2.14. Evolution of core-collapse supernova enrichment (traced by the -element over iron, [/Fe], abundance)
as a function of chemical enrichment (traced by the iron over hydrogen ratio, [Fe/H]) for Milky Way bulge stars. Taken
from Gonzalez et al. (2011).
2.1.2.2.4 The stellar initial mass function
The study of |nd|v|dua| stars |n nearby and d|stant ga|ax|es not on|y revea|s the star format|on h|story of
the|r hosts, but |s a|so oruo|a| to our fundamenta| understand|ng of the|r own format|on and evo|ut|on.
The predom|nant faotor determ|n|ng the evo|ut|on of a star |s |ts |n|t|a| mass. The |n|t|a| mass funot|on
lMF, the d|str|but|on of the masses of form|ng stars |s a key |ngred|ent |n a|| |nterpretat|ons of unre-
so|ved ste||ar popu|at|ons. However, the re|at|ve fraot|on of |ow-mass stars |n other ga|ax|es, where oon-
d|t|ons oan be very d|fferent from the v|o|n|ty of the Sun where we oan ourrent|y measure |t, rema|ns un-
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 34 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 35
known due to the ||m|ted ab|||t|es of ourrent te|esoopes to deteot |ow-mass, very fa|nt stars beyond the
M||ky Way. W|th |ts unpreoedented sens|t|v|ty, the E-E|T w||| be ab|e to deteot these |ow-mass stars even
|n other ga|ax|es.


Figure 2.15. Three derived present mass functions for young star-forming regions. The observations are consistent
with a single underlying IMF, although the scatter at and below the stellar/sub-stellar boundary clearly calls for further
study. Taken from Bastian, Covey & Meyer (2010).
2.1.2.2.5 The intra-cluster stellar populations
Oosmo|og|oa| s|mu|at|ons of struoture format|on pred|ot that ga|ax|es are dramat|oa||y mod|f|ed by ga|axy
|nteraot|ons dur|ng the assemb|y of ga|axy o|usters, |os|ng a substant|a| fraot|on of the|r ste||ar mass,
wh|oh must today ex|st |n the form of |ntra-o|uster stars. Observat|ons now show that there |s a substan-
t|a| |ntra-o|uster ste||ar popu|at|on, observed as d|ffuse |ntra-o|uster ||ght or as |nd|v|dua| stars, |.e., p|ane-
tary nebu|ae and red g|ant stars. Th|s ||ght represents up to 10% of the ste||ar mass |n the v|rgo ga|axy
o|uster and as muoh as 50% |n r|oh Abe|| ga|axy o|usters. W|th|n a d|stanoe of ~ 60 m||||on ||ght-years, the
v|rgo and Fornax ga|axy o|usters prov|de |aborator|es for study|ng the effeots of d|fferent dens|ty env|-
ronments on ga|axy evo|ut|on and the oorre|at|on of |ntra-o|uster ||ght propert|es w|th o|uster dynam|oa|
status. The E-E|T w||| a||ow us to study the presenoe of meta|||o|ty grad|ents and the ve|oo|ty d|str|but|on
of the |ntra-o|uster ste||ar popu|at|ons, adopt|ng near-|nfrared |mag|ng and |ow-to-med|um-reso|ut|on
speotrosoopy of red g|ant branoh stars and p|anetary nebu|ae.
2.1.2.2.6 Cosmic star formation rate from supernovae
Supernovae are good traoers of the star format|on h|story as they are one of the end produots of ste||ar
evo|ut|on. G|ven the short ||fet|me of the|r mass|ve progen|tor stars (> 10 M

} and the|r h|gh |um|nos|ty


dur|ng exp|os|on, they are extreme|y we|| su|ted for trao|ng the star format|on rate of a |arge fraot|on of the
observab|e n|verse. W|th the oo||eot|ng power of E-E|T we w||| be ab|e to observe and oount
supernovae out to d|stanoes oorrespond|ng to a redsh|ft of four (~ 12 b||||on years |ookbaok t|me}, to
probe the g|oba| star format|on h|story of the n|verse.

The E-E|T w||| expand the port|on of the n|verse reso|vab|e |nto stars by a faotor of more than 100. lt
w||| a||ow so|ent|sts to obta|n aoourate know|edge of the present-day ste||ar popu|at|ons |n ga|ax|es as far
out as the nearby ga|axy o|usters. lt w||| return a oomprehens|ve p|oture of ga|axy format|on and evo|ut|on
through a deta||ed study of ste||ar popu|at|ons |n nearby ga|ax|es and prov|de the most str|ngent tests to
date for ourrent theor|es of ga|axy format|on and evo|ut|on.
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36 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
2.1.3 GA|AlES AND OOSMO|OGY
2.1.3.1 THE END OF THE DARK AGES FlRST STARS AND SEEDS OF GA|AlES
What was the nature of the first object to shine through the Universe? How did the gas, dust, heavy ele-
ments and stars build up? What caused the re-ionisation of the Universe? Were the first galaxies funda-
mentally different from present ones? The E-ELT is the key to establishing the physics of the first light-
emitting objects in the Universe.

Over the |ast deoade s|gn|f|oant progress |n determ|n|ng the prooesses of ga|axy evo|ut|on has been
made us|ng the oomb|ned power of ourrent ground-based te|esoopes and the HST. The ||m|ts of the
observab|e n|verse have been pushed to a redsh|ft of 78, wh|oh oorresponds to |ook|ng baok near|y
13 b||||on years or 95% of the age of the n|verse. The g|oba| star format|on aot|v|ty from that epooh to
the present day has been est|mated and the f|rst |ns|ghts |nto the ste||ar mass assemb|y h|story out to a
redsh|ft of three (|.e., 11.5 b||||on years baok |n t|me} have been aoqu|red. However, the most unoerta|n
|ssue |n present-day oosmo|ogy rema|ns the quest|on of how and when ga|ax|es assemb|ed aoross oos-
m|o t|me.

The ourrent oosmo|og|oa| mode| g|ves a ored|b|e exp|anat|on of the format|on of struotures |n the n|-
verse through the h|eraroh|oa| assemb|y of dark matter ha|os. ln oontrast, very ||tt|e |s known about the
phys|os of format|on and evo|ut|on of the baryon|o oomponent of gas and stars, beoause the oonvers|on
of baryons |nto stars |s a oomp|ex and poor|y understood prooess. As a resu|t, a|| advanoes |n under-
stand|ng ga|axy format|on and evo|ut|on over the |ast deoade have been essent|a||y emp|r|oa|, often
based on s|mp||f|ed phenomeno|og|oa| mode|s. Oornerstone parameters |n th|s emp|r|oa| framework are
the tota| and ste||ar masses of ga|ax|es, together w|th the|r phys|oa| propert|es. They |no|ude deta||ed
know|edge about the ages and meta|||o|t|es of the under|y|ng ste||ar popu|at|ons, dust ext|not|on, star
format|on rates and morpho|og|oa| parameters. The study of we||-estab||shed soa||ng re|at|ons |nvo|v|ng a
number of these phys|oa| parameters, suoh as those between mass and heavy e|ement abundanoe, or
ga|axy morpho|ogy and the dens|ty of the surround|ng env|ronment, are essent|a| for understand|ng the
phys|oa| prooesses that dr|ve ga|axy evo|ut|on.


Figure 2.16. Simulated E-ELT observations of the kinematics of rotating disc galaxies at a redshift of 4 (~ 12 billion
years lookback time). The velocity maps (blue: approaching stars, red: receding stars) of Milky Way type galaxies
(M*) as well as more and less massive cases can be built with the E-ELT, allowing us to distinguish disc galaxies
from merging galaxies, even for low-mass systems.

W|th the ourrent generat|on of te|esoopes, we have been ab|e to study these te||-ta|e oorre|at|ons
between the propert|es of ga|ax|es over a w|de range of masses |n the nearby n|verse. However, on|y

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 37
the br|ghtest or most mass|ve ga|ax|es have been aooess|b|e at redsh|fts |arger than one, and a d|reot
measurement of masses has been a|most oomp|ete|y out of reaoh at redsh|fts |arger than two. Thus, our
ab|||ty to exp|ore the evo|ut|on and or|g|n of these soa||ng re|at|ons has rap|d|y reaohed the ||m|ts of our-
rent teohno|ogy te|esoopes, and w||| on|y be advanoed |n the era of the E-E|T.


Figure 2.17. Illustration of the gain in spatial resolution when observing a galaxy at z = 2 (10 billion years lookback
time) with the E-ELT. The E-ELT will be able to resolve such high redshift galaxies and measure structural parameters
and scaling relations.
2.1.3.1.1 Observing the epoch of the first stars
H|gh spat|a| reso|ut|on, d|ffraot|on-||m|ted |mag|ng and speotrosoopy w|th the E-E|T w||| prov|de |nva|ua-
b|e |nformat|on about the morpho|ogy, dynam|oa| state and var|at|ons |n phys|oa| parameters aoross ga|-
ax|es over |arge oosmo|og|oa| t|mesoa|es. W|th these |n hand, our know|edge of ga|axy evo|ut|on w|||
make a g|ant |eap forward. Deteot|ng the f|rst u|trav|o|et-em|tt|ng souroes w||| push the ||m|ts of the
observab|e n|verse beyond redsh|fts of 78 and w||| a||ow us to probe the era of a few hundred m||||on
years r|ght at the end of the Dark Ages: the epooh when the f|rst ||ght-em|tt|ng objeots, wh|oh |on|sed
muoh of the oontent of the n|verse, sw|tohed on.

Ouest|ons st||| to be answered are whether ga|ax|es oaused th|s re-|on|sat|on and whether these ga|ax|es
were then s|m||ar to, or fundamenta||y d|fferent from, the re|at|ve|y norma| ga|ax|es that we see at some-
what |ower redsh|fts. D|reot k|nemat|os of the stars and gas |n the f|rst generat|on of mass|ve ga|ax|es,
obta|nab|e w|th the unpreoedented spat|a| reso|ut|on of the E-E|T, w||| be used to draw a oons|stent p|o-
ture of the mass assemb|y and star format|on of ga|ax|es aoross the ent|re h|story of the n|verse.
2.1.3.1.2 Peering through the dust
W|th E-E|Ts enhanoed sens|t|v|ty |n the near-|nfrared, |t w||| be poss|b|e to der|ve dust ext|not|on maps
from |ntens|ty rat|os of hydrogen em|ss|on ||nes over a var|ety of redsh|fts. Star format|on rates w||| be
der|ved from the ext|not|on-oorreoted em|ss|on ||ne |um|nos|t|es, us|ng su|tab|e d|agnost|o em|ss|on ||nes.
These resu|ts w||| be oomb|ned w|th other |nd|oators oom|ng from mu|t|-wave|ength observat|ons to pro-
duoe a tru|y def|n|t|ve measure of the star format|on h|stor|es of ga|ax|es of d|fferent types.

Deta||ed know|edge of star format|on aoross a|| oosm|o epoohs w||| a||ow us to exp|ore how the star for-
mat|on h|stor|es of ga|ax|es depend on the env|ronment |n wh|oh they f|nd themse|ves. Thus, the m|gra-
t|on of the peak eff|o|enoy of star format|on rate from h|gh to |ow masses as ga|ax|es evo|ve, known as
the downs|z|ng effeot, w||| be stud|ed through the epoohs dur|ng wh|oh the effeot |s be||eved to have
ooourred.
2.1.3.1.3 The intergalactic medium
A key to further progress |s a better understand|ng of the oomp|ex |nterp|ay between ga|ax|es and the
surround|ng |nterga|aot|o med|um. The |nterga|aot|o med|um prov|des the reservo|r of gas for the oont|n-
u|ng |nfa|| of fresh mater|a| |nto ga|ax|es. At the same t|me, |t aots as a repos|tory for the gas dr|ven out of
ga|ax|es by energet|o prooesses suoh as aot|ve ga|aot|o nuo|e| and supernovae. The oomb|nat|on of
these prooesses |s respons|b|e for the regu|at|on of the gas supp|y that u|t|mate|y d|otates star format|on
and b|aok ho|e growth as we|| as the ohem|oa| and struotura| evo|ut|on of ga|ax|es. Heavy e|ements p|ay a
very |mportant ro|e for most, |f not a||, aspeots of the oomp|ex ||feoyo|e of gas |n ga|ax|es and the |nterga-
|aot|o med|um. Measur|ng the w|dths of the absorpt|on ||nes of tr|p|y |on|sed oarbon, O lv, |s a powerfu|
too| for study|ng th|s ||feoyo|e. However, the |ntr|ns|oa||y |ow oo|umn dens|t|es of O lv make th|s oard|na|
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38 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
test very d|ff|ou|t w|th ex|st|ng te|esoopes. W|th the E-E|T we w||| be ab|e to use th|s and s|m||ar d|agnos-
t|os to determ|ne the propert|es of the |nterga|aot|o med|um around ga|ax|es of d|fferent types over a w|de
range of oosm|o epoohs, fu||y assess|ng the or|t|oa| ro|e that |t has p|ayed |n shap|ng the ga|ax|es that |t
was feed|ng.

The E-E|T w||| d|reot|y probe the phys|oa| propert|es of ga|ax|es as a funot|on of the|r mass and env|ron-
ment for over 95% of the age of the n|verse wh|oh, for the f|rst t|me, w||| oover the ent|re epooh over
wh|oh these systems formed. W|th these add|t|ona| observat|ona| |nputs, astronomers w||| be ab|e to
d|reot|y determ|ne many of the parameters ourrent|y assumed |n mode|s of ga|axy format|on.


Figure 2.18. A distant quasar is used as a beacon in the Universe. Galaxies and intergalactic material that lie
between the quasar and us will reveal themselves by the features seen in the quasar spectrum.
2.1.3.2 FNDAMENTA| PHYSlOS
What is the Universe made of? In the standard cosmological model, only 4% of the energy density of the
Universe is composed of normal matter (gas and stars), while a further 23% is made up of some mysteri-
ous dark matter. For the remaining 73%, an even more enigmatic dark energy has been invoked. The
E-ELT will explore the nature of this dark energy and our theory of gravity by probing two of its manifes-
tations with unprecedented accuracy: the accelerated expansion of the Universe and the variability of
fundamental physical constants.
2.1.3.2.1 How does the expansion of the Universe evolve?
The revo|ut|onary observat|ons made by Edw|n Hubb|e |n the |ate 1920s were the f|rst d|reot ev|denoe
that the n|verse was not stat|o. The systemat|oa||y |noreas|ng speotrosoop|o redsh|ft observed |n
|noreas|ng|y d|stant ga|ax|es was a o|ear s|gn that the n|verse expands. For a |ong t|me th|s expans|on
was be||eved to be s|ow|ng down due to the oomb|ned grav|tat|ona| pu|| exerted by a|| of the matter |n the
n|verse. However, at the end of the 1990s the measured d|mm|ng of Type la supernovae (used as
standard oand|es} w|th |noreas|ng redsh|ft revea|ed that th|s |s not the oase. lnstead, there |s now broad
oonsensus that the expans|on must have reoent|y begun to aooe|erate! Th|s resu|t oame as a surpr|se to

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 39
most, but a|so as a b|g oha||enge. lt has profound|y ohanged oosmo|ogy and |mp||es a need for new
phys|os. lndeed, the d|soovery of the aooe|erated expans|on of the n|verse has been awarded the 2011
Nobe| Pr|ze for phys|os.
2.1.3.2.2 Dark energy
Some form of dark energy, aot|ng aga|nst grav|ty, |s |nvoked by many oosmo|og|sts as an exp|anat|on for
the aooe|erated expans|on of the n|verse. lron|oa||y the s|mp|est form of suoh a dark energy |s the oos-
mo|og|oa| oonstant or|g|na||y |ntroduoed by E|nste|n |n order to exp|a|n a now d|sored|ted stat|o n|verse.
W|th th|s add|t|on, genera| re|at|v|ty oan exp|a|n th|s |ate aooe|erat|on very we||. A|ternat|ve|y, |t has been
proposed that genera| re|at|v|ty shou|d be rep|aoed w|th a mod|f|ed theory of grav|ty, wh|oh reproduoes
the new observat|ona| faots, but preserves the suooess of the or|g|na| theory |n exp|a|n|ng the format|on
of struotures |n the ear|y n|verse.

The most d|reot way of prob|ng the nature of the aooe|erat|on |n order to d|st|ngu|sh between these pos-
s|b|||t|es |s to determ|ne the expans|on h|story of the n|verse. Observab|es that depend on the expans|on
h|story |no|ude oosm|o d|stanoes and the ||near growth of dens|ty perturbat|ons. Surveys of Type la
supernovae, weak grav|tat|ona| |ens|ng and the s|gnature that perturbat|ons |n the pr|mord|a| baryon
photon f|u|d |mpr|nted short|y after the B|g Bang on todays d|str|but|on of ga|ax|es are oons|dered to be
good probes of the aooe|erat|on. However, extraot|ng |nformat|on about the expans|on from these quan-
t|t|es re||es on assumpt|ons about the ourvature of spaoe, depends on the adopted oosmo|og|oa| mode|,
and oan on|y est|mate the averaged expans|on h|story over |ong per|ods of t|me.


Figure 2.19. The massenergy content of our Universe. The nature of both dark matter (23%) and dark energy (73%)
remains an enigma.
2.1.3.2.3 A new approach the redshift drift
A mode|-|ndependent approaoh that measures the expans|on rate d|reot|y was proposed as ear|y as the
1960s, but ||m|tat|ons |n teohno|ogy d|d not a||ow astronomers to oons|der mak|ng suoh a measurement
|n praot|oe. As the redsh|ft of the speotra of d|stant objeots |s an |nd|oat|on of the expans|on of the n|-
verse, so |s the ohange |n th|s redsh|ft w|th t|me a measure of the ohange of the rate of expans|on. The
est|mated s|ze of th|s redsh|ft dr|ft over a deoade |s on|y about 6 oms
-1
. Th|s s|gna| |s about 1020 t|mes
sma||er than measurements made w|th todays |arge te|esoopes. However, the huge ||ght-oo||eot|ng area
of the E-E|T, ooup|ed w|th new deve|opments |n quantum opt|os to reoord u|tra-stab|e speotra, means
that th|s amaz|ng measurement now ||es w|th|n reaoh: the E-E|T w||| be ab|e to determ|ne the aooe|erat-
|ng expans|on of the n|verse d|reot|y, a||ow|ng us to quant|fy the nature of the dark energy respons|b|e
for the aooe|erat|on.

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40 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 2.20. Simulation of the difference between two spectra of absorption systems at redshift 3, observed ten
years apart. Depending on the cosmological parameters, M and , the difference in velocity between the spectra
varies by the tiny amounts of 2.822 cms
-1
. The E-ELT will be able to measure this redshift drift and so deduce the
change of the expansion rate of the Universe.
2.1.3.2.4 Are the fundamental constants of physics really constant?
The va|ues of fundamenta| oonstants |n phys|os ourrent|y have no theoret|oa| exp|anat|on: they just are
what they are, and the on|y way we know the|r va|ues |s by measur|ng them |n the |aboratory. These fun-
damenta| quant|t|es |no|ude the f|ne struoture oonstant, (oharaoter|s|ng the strength of the e|eotromag-
net|o |nteraot|on} and the strong |nteraot|on ooup||ng oonstant, . The f|ne struoture oonstant |s oentra| to
our understand|ng of e|eotromagnet|sm and |s oonstruoted from three other oonstants: the oharge on the
e|eotron, e, P|anoks oonstant, h, and the speed of ||ght, c. The strong |nteraot|on ooup||ng oonstant, , |s
the rat|o of the mass of the proton to the mass of the e|eotron.

ln the trad|t|ona| understand|ng of phys|os, the |aws of nature have a|ways and everywhere been the
same. Th|s |s an assumpt|on that no exper|ment to date has been ab|e to d|sprove, but u|tra-preo|se
measurements on the oosmo|og|oa| d|stanoes that the E-E|T w||| make poss|b|e may be ab|e to oha|-
|enge |t. lf th|s assumpt|on does not ho|d, then the fundamenta| oonstants may vary w|th the epooh and
|ooat|on of the measurement. Suoh var|at|ons oan have a profound |mpaot on the phys|oa| propert|es of
the n|verse. An a priori upper ||m|t |s g|ven by the faot that |f the va|ue of were |arger by just 4% |n the
ear|y n|verse, then the prooesses of nuo|ear fus|on wou|d be a|tered |n suoh a way that the amount of
oarbon produoed |n the oores of stars wou|d be drast|oa||y reduoed, mak|ng oarbon-based ||fe |mposs|-
b|e.
2.1.3.2.5 Strings, scalar fields, dark energy
Theoret|oa| mode|s have been proposed where the var|ab|||ty of fundamenta| oonstants |s due to a soa|ar
f|e|d that |s ooup|ed to the e|eotromagnet|o f|e|d. We do not know whether suoh soa|ar f|e|ds ex|st, but
they are pred|oted by a who|e number of theor|es and the |arge Hadron Oo|||der (|HO} exper|ment at
OERN oou|d deteot the f|rst suoh soa|ar f|e|d very soon. Str|ng theory a|so suggests that fundamenta|
oonstants may vary by a t|ny amount, of the order of one part |n 10 000 or 100 000. ln th|s oase, the
var|ab|||ty |s due to the ohang|ng s|ze soa|e of h|dden spaoet|me d|mens|ons. Other proposed exp|ana-
t|ons for a poss|b|e var|ab|||ty of fundamenta| oonstants are re|ated to the oontr|but|on of dark energy to
the energy dens|ty of the n|verse.

Astronom|oa| observat|ons probe muoh |onger t|mesoa|es and are therefore muoh more sens|t|ve than
|aboratory exper|ments to poss|b|e var|at|ons |n the fundamenta| oonstants. By exp|or|ng the speotra of
d|stant quasars, the var|ab|||ty oan be probed over a |arge fraot|on of the h|story of the n|verse. A team
|ed by Austra||an researohers has app||ed the many-mu|t|p|ets method to the prob|em. Th|s method
measures the re|at|ve sh|fts between |ron and magnes|um absorpt|on ||nes (among others}, |ead|ng to
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 41
o|a|ms of a deteoted var|at|on |n the va|ue of . The team measured a very sma|| re|at|ve var|at|on of
/ ~ -6 10
-6
. lt has a|so been suggested that the strong |nteraot|on ooup||ng oonstant var|es. Stud|es
of the v|brat|ona| and rotat|ona| states of the hydrogen mo|eou|e |n damped |yman- systems have been
o|a|med to vary at a |eve| of / ~ 2 10
-5
. However a|| of these o|a|ms have been d|sputed.

The reason for not yet hav|ng reaohed a oonsensus |s that the measurements |nvo|ved are very oha|-
|eng|ng. Test|ng the var|ab|||ty of fundamenta| oonstants w|th quasar absorpt|on ||ne speotra |s essent|a||y
a measurement of the re|at|ve wave|ength sh|fts of pa|rs of absorpt|on ||nes whose wave|engths have a
d|fferent sens|t|v|ty to the fundamenta| oonstants. The strength of the oonstra|nt on the var|ab|||ty |s
therefore or|t|oa||y dependent on the aoouraoy of the wave|ength oa||brat|on. The u|tra-stab|e h|gh-
reso|ut|on speotrograph proposed for the E-E|T w||| essent|a||y remove the systemat|o unoerta|nt|es due
to the wave|ength oa||brat|on wh|oh p|ague ourrent measurements. lt w||| |mprove the oonstra|nts on the
stab|||ty of fundamenta| oonstants by two orders of magn|tude. The E-E|T w||| thus oonf|rm or d|sprove
the ourrent o|a|ms that fundamenta| oonstants vary and that we are ||v|ng |n a f|ne-tuned |ooat|on of
spaoet|me where the fundamenta| oonstants are oonven|ent|y su|tab|e for ||fe.


Figure 2.21. Are we living in a fine-tuned location of spacetime where the fundamental constants are conveniently
suitable for life?
2.2 SYNERGlES
2.2.1 SYNERGlES WlTH OOMP|EMENTARY FAOl|lTlES
When the E-E|T starts operat|ons |n about a deoade from now, astronomy w||| be |n a go|den era. By
that t|me, a r|oh her|tage w||| have been gathered from todays work|ng fao|||t|es. ln add|t|on, new and
amb|t|ous fao|||t|es oomp|ement|ng the E-E|T w||| be dep|oyed on the same t|mesoa|e.

By 2020, observat|ons w|th ourrent te|esoopes w||| have |ed to a s|gn|f|oant aooumu|at|on of know|edge
and |nev|tab|y st|mu|ated many new quest|ons. D|soover|es w|th ground-based te|esoopes suoh as the
v|T and |ts |nterferometer (v|Tl}, the GTO and other 810-metre-o|ass te|esoopes w||| have prepared the
soene for further faso|nat|ng d|soover|es w|th the E-E|T. For examp|e, |t |s expeoted that |n the f|e|d of
exop|anets, many oand|dates for E-E|T fo||ow-up w||| have been |dent|f|ed us|ng h|gh|y speo|a||sed
|nstruments suoh as HARPS, SPHERE and ESPRESSO. A|so the f|rst ga|ax|es emerg|ng from the Dark
Ages w||| have been tentat|ve|y |dent|f|ed and w||| be awa|t|ng the E-E|T for oharaoter|sat|on.

Synergy w|th the v|T and v|Tl |s expeoted to be part|ou|ar|y strong and eff|o|ent, as ESO a|ready adapts
|ts fao|||t|es for an opt|ma| |nterp|ay between ex|st|ng and future te|esoopes. Many v|T programmes, oov-
er|ng top|os from protop|anetary d|sos to h|gh-redsh|ft star-form|ng ga|ax|es ant|o|pate the advent of the
f|ve-fo|d h|gher spat|a| reso|ut|on of the E-E|T. The v|Tl starts work|ng at s|m||ar spat|a| reso|ut|ons to the
E-E|T, a|though on|y on the br|ghtest targets. v|T and v|Tl so|enoe w||| prepare for and smooth|y dove-
ta|| w|th the d|soover|es expeoted w|th the E-E|T.

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42 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
At the start of E-E|T operat|ons, A|MA w||| have been exp|or|ng the oo|d n|verse for a ||tt|e |ess than a
deoade. A reoent oonsu|tat|on of the A|MA and E-E|T oommun|t|es (see the Workshops report be|ow}
revea|ed a wea|th of synerg|es between these fao|||t|es. The two key doma|ns to prof|t from th|s synergy
are the h|gh-redsh|ft n|verse and star and p|anet format|on. Wh||e A|MA w||| see the mo|eou|ar gas |n
d|stant ga|ax|es, the E-E|T w||| revea| the |on|sed gas together A|MA and the E-E|T w||| revo|ut|on|se
our understand|ng of ga|axy format|on. S|m||ar|y, the two fao|||t|es w||| probe d|fferent reg|ons |n nearby
protop|anetary d|sos, |dea||y oomp|ement|ng eaoh other |n exp|or|ng the ear|y phases of p|anetary sys-
tems. The E-E|T w||| a|so oomp|ement A|MA observat|ons |n many other researoh areas, e.g., by |mag-
|ng jet oo|||mat|on reg|ons and the reg|ons surround|ng b|aok ho|es.

An exo|t|ng so|ent|f|o |nterp|ay oan a|so be foreseen between the E-E|T and HST suooessor, the James
Webb Spaoe Te|esoope, the amb|t|ous opt|oa|/|nfrared spaoe observatory sohedu|ed for |aunoh |n 2018.
lndeed, just as the oomb|nat|on of 810-metre-o|ass te|esoopes and the HST offered two deoades of
d|soover|es, the E-E|T and JWST oomp|ement eaoh other perfeot|y (see the Workshop reports be|ow}.
The 6.5-metre JWST, unh|ndered by the atmosphere, w||| be ab|e to obta|n deeper |mages, |n part|ou|ar
|n the |nfrared, wh||e the 40-metre-o|ass E-E|T w||| have a|most seven t|mes h|gher spat|a| reso|ut|on and
w||| be ab|e to oo||eot f|fty t|mes more photons for h|gh-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy and stud|es of rap|d t|me
var|ab|||ty. ln the study of the ear||est ga|ax|es for |nstanoe, oompar|son of m|d-|nfrared data from the
JWST and the near-|nfrared data from the E-E|T w||| be natura||y oomp|ementary |n further|ng our under-
stand|ng of the phys|oa| prooesses at work dur|ng the epooh of re|on|sat|on.

The next deoade w||| further see the advent of many survey te|esoopes. ESOs 2.6-metre vST and the
4.1-metre vlSTA w||| have been survey|ng the sky for a deoade, supp|emented by many s|m||ar fao|||t|es
wor|dw|de. These te|esoopes w||| be oomp|emented by even more powerfu| survey fao|||t|es, suoh as the
Pan-STARRS network and the 8-metre |SST, wh|oh w||| both ramp up over the next deoade. Wh||e
muoh exo|t|ng so|enoe w||| ar|se from these surveys d|reot|y, a wea|th of understand|ng w||| f|ow from
more deta||ed fo||ow-up observat|ons of targets |dent|f|ed by suoh projeots. The E-E|T |s be|ng deve|-
oped to opt|ma||y fo||ow-up the survey d|soover|es. lt w||| p|ay a p|vota| ro|e |n fu||y exp|o|t|ng the surveys
so|ent|f|o potent|a|.

Ex|st|ng or soon-to-be-|aunohed spaoe te|esoopes suoh as the HST, Sp|tzer, Ohandra, MM-Newton,
the W|de-F|e|d lnfrared Survey Exp|orer (WlSE}, Hersohe|, P|anok, OoRoT, Kep|er and Ga|a w||| have been
work|ng for a number of years as the E-E|T starts operat|ons. These m|ss|ons w||| have produoed a
major |egaoy for the E-E|T to exp|o|t. For examp|e OoRoT and Kep|er are revea||ng trans|t|ng exop|anets,
wh|oh w||| be oand|dates for exop|anet atmosphere stud|es w|th the E-E|T. Ga|a w||| have stud|ed a b||||on
stars |n the M||ky Way |n deta||, revea||ng rare jewe|s suoh as the f|rst stars that oan be fo||owed up w|th
nuo|eooosmoohronometry w|th the E-E|T. Hersohe|, together w|th A|MA, w||| oo||eot a samp|e of ga|ax-
|es |n the ear|y n|verse, awa|t|ng the E-E|T to be reso|ved and ana|ysed. P|anok w||| observe the an|-
sotropy of the oosm|o m|orowave baokground over the ent|re sky w|th h|gh sens|t|v|ty and angu|ar reso|u-
t|on and w||| a|so oreate a oata|ogue of ga|axy o|usters through the SunyaevZe|dov|oh effeot that w|||
need to be fo||owed up w|th E-E|T opt|oa|/near-|nfrared |mag|ng and speotrosoopy. ln a s|m||ar wave-
|ength range as that to be oovered by the E-E|T, WlSE has surveyed the ent|re sky over the oourse of s|x
months through |mages made |n the 325 m wave|ength range.

The eROSlTA |nstrument to be |aunohed |n 2013 w||| perform the f|rst |mag|ng a||-sky survey |n the
med|um -ray energy range up to 10 kev w|th unpreoedented speotra| and angu|ar reso|ut|on. Th|s sat-
e|||te |s expeoted to operate for at |east seven years and w||| prov|de the E-E|T w|th targets for the study
of b|aok ho|es and dark matter. The Ferm| gamma-ray te|esoope, |aunohed |n June 2008 and w|th a ||fe-
t|me of up to ten years, |s mapp|ng the h|gh-energy n|verse from pu|sars to aot|ve ga|ax|es and gamma-
ray burst events.

ln terms of p|anetary so|enoe the Stratospher|o Observatory for lnfrared Astronomy (SOFlA} w||| prov|de
new targets from |ts researoh on oompos|t|on of p|anetary atmospheres and surfaoes; struoture, evo|u-
t|on and oompos|t|on of oomets; and the phys|os and ohem|stry of the |nterste||ar med|um as we|| as
ste||ar format|on.

A number of fao|||t|es to be approved and oomm|ss|oned dur|ng the oonstruot|on t|me of the E-E|T oou|d
further oontr|bute to amp||fy |ts so|ent|f|o output. For |nstanoe, the P|anetary Trans|ts and Oso|||at|ons of
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 42 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 43
Stars (P|ATO} m|ss|on |s an ESA-proposed spaoe observatory, w|th an expeoted |aunoh date around
2018 that wou|d use a group of photometers to d|soover and oharaoter|se exop|anets of a|| s|zes and
k|nds around ooo| dwarf and sub-g|ant stars. ln the same group of oand|dates, Euo||d, a m|ss|on a|so
p|anned for around 2018, a|ms to map the |arge-soa|e d|str|but|on of dark matter and to oharaoter|se the
propert|es of dark energy.

The ||st goes on; |t |s on|y by us|ng the amaz|ng power of the E-E|T to understand the deta||ed phys|os of
the objeots d|soovered by these m|ss|ons that the benef|ts from the huge |nvestment |n spaoe teohno|ogy
w||| be fu||y rea||sed.

F|na||y, p|ans for the Square K||ometre Array are advano|ng. Desp|te the very d|fferent wave|ength
reg|mes, the oosmo|ogy so|enoe dr|vers of the E-E|T and SKA are remarkab|y oomp|ementary. Survey
observat|ons w|th SKA are ||ke|y to fo||ow up on the stud|es of the fundamenta| oonstants and dark
energy made w|th the E-E|T. SKA w||| revea| a mass|ve popu|at|on of var|ab|e/trans|ent rad|o souroes to
be targeted by the E-E|T. ln many other f|e|ds SKA w||| probe the oo|d n|verse, whereas the E-E|T oan
see the |um|nous one.

ln summary, the E-E|T w||| be bu||t on the most so||d foundat|ons: |n the oom|ng deoade enormous pro-
gress |s expeoted from the many ground-based and spaoe observator|es. Wh||e the E-E|T w||| have a
sharper eye and h|gher sens|t|v|ty than a|| of them, |t w||| prof|t from the|r oapab|||t|es to observe at other
wave|engths or w|der areas of the sky. The synergy between a|| these fao|||t|es w||| enab|e the most faso|-
nat|ng d|soover|es w|th the E-E|T.
2.2.2 THE E-E|T lN THE OONTET OF THE OOMPETlTlON: GMT AND TMT
Two oompet|ng Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope (E|T} projeots, the Th|rty Meter Te|esoope and the G|ant
Mage||an Te|esoope, are ourrent|y p|anned |n the n|ted States |n oo||aborat|on w|th severa| |nternat|ona|
partners. Th|s seot|on puts the E-E|T projeot br|ef|y |nto that oontext.

The most |mportant d|fferenoe between the projeots |s the|r s|zes, |.e., the d|ameters of the|r pr|mary
m|rrors: the E-E|T has a d|ameter of 39 metres, the TMT a d|ameter of 30 metres and the GMT an
equ|va|ent d|ameter of ~ 24 metres. Aooord|ng|y, the E-E|T, w|th ~ 1000 m
2
photon-oo||eot|ng area, w|||
be over one and a ha|f t|mes as |arge as the TMT (~ 650 m
2
} and two and a ha|f t|mes as |arge as the
GMT (~ 400 m
2
}. Aooord|ng|y, the E-E|Ts spat|a| reso|ut|on at the d|ffraot|on ||m|t w||| be 30% better than
that of the TMT, and near|y tw|oe that of the GMT.

Th|s d|fferenoe wou|d be equ|va|ent to the d|fferenoe between an 8-metre-o|ass te|esoope and a 6- or a
5-metre-o|ass te|esoope, respeot|ve|y. ln the E-E|T era, when adapt|ve opt|os w||| beoome rout|ne, the
d|fferenoe |n d|ameter w||| be even more deo|s|ve.

The GMT |s a Gregor|an te|esoope w|th a pr|mary m|rror oomposed of seven 8-metre d|ameter segments,
seven adapt|ve seoondary m|rrors and a fooa| rat|o at the |nstrument foous of ~ f/8 de||ver|ng a p|ate
soa|e of ~ 1 mm aroseoond
-1
on the sky over a 20-arom|nute f|e|d of v|ew. lts key advantages are: the
|ow number of ref|eot|ons (two unt|| foous}, reduo|ng the therma| baokground and mak|ng |t an exoe||ent
te|esoope for m|d-|nfrared observat|ons; the w|de f|e|d of v|ew (four t|mes |arger |n area than the E-E|T
f|e|d of v|ew, 16 t|mes |arger than the unv|gnetted E-E|T f|e|d of v|ew}, opt|m|s|ng |t for mu|t|-objeot, sur-
vey |nstruments; and |ast but not |east, the |nstrument-fr|end|y p|ate soa|e a||ow|ng for oompaot w|de-f|e|d
|nstruments, and deteotor p|xe|s matoh|ng the see|ng ||m|t.

The TMT |s a R|tohey-Ohret|en te|esoope w|th a segmented pr|mary m|rror 30 metres |n d|ameter, three
ref|eot|ons to the ~ f/15 Nasmyth foous where the p|ate soa|e over the 20-arom|nute f|e|d of v|ew oorre-
sponds to ~ 2 mm aroseoond
-1
on the sky. The TMT oovers a |arge f|e|d of v|ew s|m||ar to the GMT. lt
does not |no|ude adapt|ve opt|os |n the te|esoope des|gn, but foresees post-fooa| adapt|ve opt|os feed|ng
severa| of the |nstruments. The |arge f|e|d of v|ew oou|d be exp|o|ted for mu|t|-objeot, see|ng-||m|ted
|nstruments, a|though the p|ate soa|e makes th|s oha||eng|ng.

ln oompar|son, the E-E|T w|th |ts 39-metre pr|mary m|rror and three-m|rror anast|gmat des|gn |no|ud|ng
adapt|ve opt|os, de||vers at the ~ f/17 Nasmyth foous, after f|ve ref|eot|ons, a 10-arom|nute (5-arom|nute
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 43 16/12/2011 18:32
44 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
unv|gnetted} f|e|d of v|ew w|th a p|ate soa|e of ~ 3.2 mm aroseoond
-1
on the sky. As ment|oned above,
the E-E|T outperforms |ts oompet|tors |n oo||eot|ng power and spat|a| reso|ut|on, yet |t oovers a sma||er
f|e|d of v|ew on the sky and |s opt|m|sed for d|ffraot|on-||m|ted (sma|| f|e|d or s|ng|e objeot} observat|ons. lt
|s not opt|m|sed for w|de-f|e|d, see|ng-||m|ted observat|ons.

The Des|gn Referenoe M|ss|on (DRM} and Des|gn Referenoe So|enoe P|an (DRSP} desor|bed be|ow show
that the E-E|T oommun|ty has reoogn|sed the E-E|Ts speo|f|o advantages. The vast major|ty of the pro-
posed so|enoe oases exp|o|t e|ther the d|ffraot|on-||m|ted spat|a| reso|ut|on (ten t|mes better than the
JWST}, and/or the |mmense oo||eot|ng power a||ow|ng for u|tra-h|gh speotra| reso|ut|on speotrosoopy of
fa|nt targets.

Two examp|es demonstrate strong|y why the E-E|T fo||owed th|s unoomprom|s|ng route. ln the oase of
exop|anets, the best oontrast that a te|esoope up to 30 metres |n d|ameter oan aoh|eve at a projeoted
separat|on of 0.1 aroseoonds |s around 1:10
8
wh|oh restr|ots d|reot |mag|ng, and thus the oharaoter|-
sat|on of exop|anets |n hab|tab|e zones to p|anets as mass|ve as Jup|ter or potent|a||y down to Neptune
masses for the o|osest stars. ln oontrast, the E-E|T w||| reaoh an order of magn|tude better oontrast
(1:10
9
}, aooess|ng the rea|m of super-Earth exop|anets |n the hab|tab|e zones (and even Earth-mass
exop|anets for the o|osest stars} that we be||eve to be the best oand|dates to harbour ||fe.

ln the oase of the d|reot measurement of the n|verses expans|on h|story an |norease of the d|ameter
from ~ 30 metres to ~ 40 metres represents a s|gn|f|oant |mprovement |n sens|t|v|ty; suff|o|ent to observe
souroes w|th about 2 oms
-1
aoouraoy, needed on a |arge samp|e of fa|nt quasars to perform the oosm|o
expans|on exper|ment.

Thus, wh||e the GMT and TMT w||| undoubted|y make great d|soover|es and produoe breakthrough so|-
enoe, the E-E|T surpasses both |n oo||eot|ng area and spat|a| reso|ut|on. The E-E|T |s the projeot that
foouses most sharp|y on aspeots |n wh|oh the E|Ts are strongest: very h|gh speotra| and very h|gh spa-
t|a| reso|ut|on.
2.3 DlSOOvERY POTENTlA|
The prev|ous seot|ons presented the great so|ent|f|o aoh|evements to be ant|o|pated w|th the E-E|T.
These a|one represent a g|ant |eap |n our understand|ng of the n|verse and potent|a||y the f|rst step
towards f|nd|ng ||fe beyond the So|ar System. Yet, a|| prev|ous te|esoopes have shown that, no matter
how hard so|ent|sts have tr|ed to pred|ot the future, many of the greatest d|soover|es oame as tota||y un-
expeoted. ls th|s st||| poss|b|e |n the oase of the E-E|T?

The d|soovery potent|a| of a te|esoope |s, by def|n|t|on, hard to quant|fy. However, the d|st|ngu|shed
astronomer Mart|n Harw|t po|nted out |n h|s |andmark book, Cosmic Discovery: The Search, Scope and
Heritage of Astronomy (1981} that one key |nd|oator for d|soover|es |s the open|ng of a new parameter
spaoe. The most ||ke|y new d|soover|es oome by |ook|ng at reg|ons w|th|n the vast parameter spaoe,
spanned by wave|ength, spat|a| reso|ut|on, depth, t|me reso|ut|on, eto., where nobody has been ab|e to
|ook before.

The f|gures be|ow |||ustrate near|y a oentury of d|soover|es |n astronomy made by means of expand|ng
the aooess|b|e parameter spaoe. The E-E|T w||| work at wave|engths, |n the un|ts of these f|gures, of 10
-3

to a few t|mes 10
-5
om and w||| push the enve|opes of these parameter spaoes |n these f|gures out by an
order of magn|tude. But the rea| strength of the E-E|T ||es |n the faot that |t oan do so s|mu|taneous|y, |n
add|t|on to prov|d|ng an unpreoedented depth. lndeed, |n many oases, the parameter spaoes be|ow were
opened by ded|oated, speo|a||sed exper|ments, wh||e the E-E|T w||| push baok the enve|ope as a mu|t|-
purpose fao|||ty.


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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 45





Figure 2.22. The figures illustrate the opening of the angular resolution, time resolution and spectral resolution as a
function of wavelength during the course of the last century. The E-ELT (covering in wavelength from 10
-3
to a few
times 10
-5
cm) will expand the parameter spaces simultaneously by nearly an order of magnitude. Taken from M.
Harwits article in Physics Today (November 2003) The Growth of Astrophysical Understanding.

E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 45 16/12/2011 18:32
46 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The E-E|T w||| open new parameter spaoe s|mu|taneous|y |n at |east three ways. F|rst, the E-E|T w|||,
thanks to |ts |mmense oo||eot|ng power, |norease the sens|t|v|ty of observat|ons by up to two to three
orders of magn|tude (depend|ng on the observ|ng mode and wave|ength range}. Th|s ga|n |n sens|t|v|ty
oan be exp|o|ted |n var|ous ways. lt oan be used to |mage objeots severa| magn|tudes fa|nter than |s pos-
s|b|e today, and to reaoh depths oompet|ng w|th or exoeed|ng the oapab|||ty of JWST at shorter wave-
|engths, but surpass|ng |t |n spat|a| reso|ut|on by a faotor of ten or more. The sens|t|v|ty oan a|so be used
to |norease the speotra| reso|ut|on on fa|nt targets w|th ourrent proposa|s for E-E|T |nstruments hav|ng
speotra| reso|ut|on of / = 10
-5
, and |nstruments w|th / = 10
-6
be|ng thought of for the future.

Furthermore, as a|ready stressed above, the E-E|T w||| |norease the spat|a| reso|ut|on by an order of
magn|tude, even |mprov|ng on the |mage qua||ty of future spaoe te|esoopes. As a referenoe: JWST w|||
have an |mage qua||ty ||m|ted to about 60 m||||aroseoonds. The E-E|T, by oontrast, w||| have a d|ffraot|on-
||m|ted reso|ut|on of 5 m||||aroseoonds at 1 m wave|ength (and even better at shorter wave|engths}. Rea-
sonab|y assum|ng that the seoond generat|on adapt|ve opt|os (e.g., upgrad|ng the adapt|ve m|rror |n the
te|esoope, or add|ng h|gh-performanoe post-fooa| adapt|ve opt|os fao|||t|es} w||| enab|e d|ffraot|on-||m|ted
|mages at 500 nm wave|ength, the spat|a| reso|ut|on of the E-E|T w||| shr|nk to 2.5 m||||aroseoonds
over a faotor 20 better than JWST. An ana|ogy oan be drawn to the 1990s when the Hubb|e Spaoe Te|e-
soope |mproved the spat|a| reso|ut|on over ex|st|ng ground-based |mages by a faotor of 10 to 20. How-
ever, the ro|es w||| be reversed th|s t|me: the |mprovement w||| oome from the ground-based fao|||ty.

F|na||y, the E-E|T w||| open a new w|ndow on t|me reso|ut|on, u|t|mate|y enab||ng observat|ons |n the
nanoseoond reg|me. These |eaps forward |n what an opt|oa|near-|nfrared te|esoope oan do, ooup|ed
w|th advanoes suoh as unpreoedented speotra| reso|ut|on, new ab|||t|es to study po|ar|sed ||ght, and new
|eve|s of oontrast a||ow|ng us to see the very fa|nt next to the very br|ght, demonstrate that we w||| open
up an ent|re new range of poss|b|||t|es.

As an aneodote: the v|T |nstrumentat|on p|an put forward to the ESO STO |n 1990 foresaw a speok|e
oamera, at that t|me state of the art, to aoh|eve h|gh spat|a| reso|ut|on |mag|ng. Adapt|ve opt|os was on
the hor|zon, but not yet trusted as a teohno|ogy. Oou|d we have foreseen that ESO wou|d dep|oy seven
adapt|ve opt|os systems w|th the f|rst generat|on of |nstruments? Or that an upgrade of the v|T to
beoome an adapt|ve te|esoope wou|d fo||ow soon afterwards? Wou|d peop|e have dared to pred|ot |n
1990 that the v|T wou|d |mage the f|rst exop|anet?

lt |s |n th|s great unknown that a |arge fraot|on of the u|t|mate exo|tement of the E-E|T ||es.
2.4 OOMMNlTY lNPT TO THE SOlENOE OASE
Th|s seot|on prov|des baokground |nformat|on on the oommun|ty |nput to the so|enoe oase. F|rst |deas
were deve|oped |n the 1990s, and were taken forward through the next deoade, on |n|t|at|ves |arge|y
sponsored by the European Oomm|ss|on through Framework Programmes. The deve|opment of the so|-
enoe oase was oarr|ed on by ESO |n reoent years, reaoh|ng out to the oommun|ty through a number of
|arge surveys and targeted workshops, and, |ast but not |east, through the work of a very aot|ve E-E|T
So|enoe Work|ng Group.
2.4.1 THE OONOEPTA| PHASE
ln Europe, the d|souss|on of poss|b|e 25-metre-o|ass ground-based fao|||t|es began |n the ear|y 1990s
(see Ardeberg et a|. [1993|, Owner-Petersen et a|. [1994| and referenoes there|n}. The poss|b|||ty of even
|arger te|esoopes, up to 100 metres |n d|ameter, was soon exp|ored (G||mozz| et a|., 1998}. By the t|me of
the f|rst Baokaskog workshop on E|Ts |n 1999, severa| oonoepts for E|T des|gns had emerged wor|d-
w|de, and the range of revo|ut|onary so|enoe that suoh te|esoopes m|ght enab|e was beg|nn|ng to be
exp|ored.

ln 2000, under the Framework Programme 5, the E-funded OPTlOON programme (OPT|oa| lnfrared
OOord|nat|on Network for Astronomy, Pr|no|pa| lnvest|gator (Pl} Gerry G||more (see http://www.astro-
opt|oon.org/fp5/} |n|t|ated a work paokage for the deve|opment of the so|enoe oase for an extreme|y |arge
te|esoope. The goa| was to br|ng together so|ent|sts study|ng the major European extreme|y |arge te|e-
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 46 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 47
soope oonoepts at the t|me (name|y Euro-50 and the OW| 100-metre oonoept} to produoe a s|ng|e so|-
enoe oase. A so|ent|st was h|red to ooord|nate the aot|v|ty, a ||st of |nterested oontr|butors was set up and
severa| workshops were organ|sed, |nvo|v|ng over 100 so|ent|sts from Europe and further af|e|d.
OPTlOON oont|nued to be funded under the Framework Programmes 6 and 7 (see http://www.astro-
opt|oon.org/fp6-|ndex.htm| and http://www.astro-opt|oon.org/} and oont|nued to v|gorous|y support
deve|opments on a|| fronts (te|esoope, adapt|ve opt|os, s|te, |nstrumentat|on, so|enoe} towards a Euro-
pean E|T.

The f|rst phase of work ou|m|nated |n the produot|on of two doouments |n 2005. The f|rst was a top-|eve|
broohure, a|med at non-speo|a||sts, summar|s|ng the so|enoe oase for a 50100-metre E|T. The bro-
ohure was pr|nted and re|eased |n February 2005. Th|s was fo||owed short|y afterwards by the produot|on
of a fu|| E|T so|enoe oase dooument (about 150 pages}. Three thousand oop|es were pr|nted and three
thousand ODs were produoed. The dooument was re|eased as hardoopy |n Ju|y 2005 at the E Astron-
omy press day |n Dw|nge|oo, N|. (The So|enoe oase for the European Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope, The
next step |n Mank|nds quest for the n|verse, 2005, l. Hook, Ed.}


Figure 2.23. Executive Summary and Science Case for telescope of 50 metres to 100 metres, published in 2005
(available at http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/%7Eimh/ELT).

ln Deoember 2005, fo||ow|ng a rev|ew of the OW| projeot, ESO formed f|ve ad hoc work|ng groups,
|nvo|v|ng part|o|pants from ESO and the oommun|ty, to re-assess var|ous aspeots of E|T des|gn and so|-
enoe. One of these, the So|enoe Work|ng Group, Oha|red by M. Franx (|e|den, N|}, was g|ven the task of
re-assess|ng the so|enoe oase for an E|T |n the range 3060 metres |n d|ameter. Between January and
Apr|| 2006 the SWG met four t|mes |n person and he|d two te|eoonferenoes. The|r report, re|eased |n Apr||
2006, oons|dered over 30 so|enoe oases rang|ng from stud|es of our own So|ar System to the nature of
the n|verse |tse|f, and p|oked out n|ne Prom|nent Oases wh|oh |ater formed the bas|s of the Des|gn
Referenoe M|ss|on (Seot|on 2.4.2.1}. The Apr|| 2006 SWG report |s ava||ab|e at http://www.eso.
org/so|/fao|||t|es/ee|t/so|enoe/doo/swg_report_06.pdf.

The work of the f|ve work|ng groups (on te|esoope, s|te, adapt|ve opt|os, |nstrumentat|on and so|enoe}
was d|st|||ed by ESO |nto the new 40-metre-o|ass European E|T oonoept, wh|oh was presented to the
oommun|ty at a workshop |n Marse|||es, Franoe |n November 2006. The meet|ng |no|uded one and a ha|f
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 47 16/12/2011 18:32
48 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
days ded|oated to so|enoe dur|ng wh|oh prev|ous themes were deve|oped and new |deas exp|ored. The
so|enoe oases presented and d|soussed at th|s meet|ng, and the s|m||ar d|souss|ons at many prev|ous
and subsequent meet|ngs, have shaped the so|enoe oase.

The So|enoe Work|ng Group forma||y merged w|th the OPTlOON E|T so|enoe aot|v|ty |n May 2006. The
jo|nt OPTlOON-ESO E|T So|enoe Work|ng group (oha|red jo|nt|y by M. Franx and l. Hook [Oxford, K|,
and after Apr|| 2009 by l. Hook} has rema|ned aot|ve throughout phase B.

The|r aot|v|t|es as we|| as the membersh|p oan be found at http://www.eso.org/so|/fao|||t|es/ee|t/so|enoe/
swg/members.htm|. The So|enoe Work|ng Group has fo||owed the evo|ut|on of the projeot over the |ast
few years and has oont|nuous|y prov|ded |nput to the projeot on a|| aspeots: te|esoope, |nstruments, s|te
and operat|ons. lt has been the ma|n dr|ver |n synthes|s|ng a|| |nput |nto the so|enoe oase presented |n
th|s dooument.
2.4.2 THE DETAl|ED DESlGN PHASE
Dur|ng the deta||ed des|gn phase, the So|enoe Work|ng Group, together w|th the projeot off|oe, |n|t|ated
two stud|es a|med at gu|d|ng the te|esoope des|gn and the |nstrumentat|on roadmap. The f|rst |n|t|at|ve,
the Des|gn Referenoe M|ss|on, was a|med at exp|or|ng, through deta||ed s|mu|at|ons, the end-to-end
requ|rements emerg|ng from the key so|enoe oases for the E-E|T. The seoond |n|t|at|ve, the Des|gn
Referenoe So|enoe P|an, oa||ed for a broad |nput from the so|ent|f|o oommun|ty |n order to |dent|fy the fu||
parameter range and the requ|rements needed to oover the ent|re so|enoe programme.

These |n|t|at|ves were supported by two ded|oated workshops at ESO |n May 2008 and May 2009 (see
http://www.eso.org/so|/fao|||t|es/ee|t/so|enoe/drm/workshop08/ and http://www.eso.org/so|/fao|||t|es/ee|t/
so|enoe/drm/workshop09/} and are desor|bed |n more deta|| be|ow.

Further |nput from the oommun|ty oame through the phase A and oonoeptua| |nstrument stud|es oarr|ed
out between 2007 and 2010, as we|| as through four workshops organ|sed by the projeots and partners
a|med towards exp|or|ng ded|oated |nteraot|ons between the E-E|T and, respeot|ve|y, A|MA, JWST,
SKA, and survey oapab|||t|es.
2.4.2.1 THE DESlGN REFERENOE MlSSlON
The E-E|T Des|gn Referenoe M|ss|on enoompassed a deta||ed, hands-on exp|orat|on of a se|eoted sam-
p|e of so|enoe oases through the ana|ys|s of s|mu|ated E-E|T data. The purpose of th|s exero|se was (|} to
prov|de a quant|tat|ve assessment of the extent to wh|oh the E-E|T w||| be oapab|e of address|ng key
so|ent|f|o quest|ons, (||} to ass|st the projeot |n mak|ng or|t|oa| trade-off deo|s|ons by quant|fy|ng the|r oon-
sequenoes |n terms of so|ent|f|o ga|ns and |osses, and (|||} to support the deve|opment of the E-E|T So|-
enoe Oase. The overaroh|ng a|m of the DRM was to he|p ensure that the E-E|T w||| meet the so|ent|f|o
asp|rat|ons of |ts oommun|ty.

The so|enoe oases stud|ed by the DRM were se|eoted by the E-E|T So|enoe Work|ng Group from the|r
Apr|| 2006 report. ln tota|, e|ght so|enoe oases, sp||t |nto 14 suboases, were exp|ored by the DRM, and
these are ||sted |n the tab|e be|ow. A|though these oases were oons|dered by the SWG to be amongst
the h|gh||ghts of the E-E|T so|enoe oase, they were not |ntended to be an exhaust|ve ||st of the so|enoe
that the E-E|T w||| do. They were rather ohosen to enoompass a w|de range of d|fferent so|enoe top|os
and goa|s, and to exemp||fy oases that exp|o|t and h|gh||ght the key oapab|||t|es of the te|esoope.

E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 48 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 49
P|anets & Stars S3: From g|ant to terrestr|a| exop|anets: deteot|on, oharaoter|sat|on and
evo|ut|on
D|reot |mag|ng of terrestr|a| and g|ant exop|anets
Earth tw|ns |n the hab|tab|e zone of type-so|ar stars

S9: O|roumste||ar d|sks
lmag|ng the p|anet-form|ng reg|ons of o|roumste||ar d|sks

S5: Young ste||ar o|usters
Oharaoter|s|ng the |owest mass free|y f|oat|ng objeots |n star form|ng
reg|ons
The oentres of mass|ve dense young o|usters: deep E-E|T |nfrared
|mag|ng and 3D speotrosoopy
G|ant p|anet-mass objeots |n the |arge Mage||an|o O|oud
Stars & Ga|ax|es G4: lmag|ng and speotrosoopy of reso|ved ste||ar popu|at|ons |n ga|ax|es
The reso|ved ste||ar popu|at|ons of e|||pt|oa| ga|ax|es
The ohemo-dynam|oa| struoture of ga|ax|es
F|rst stars re||os |n the M||ky Way and sate|||tes

G9: B|aok ho|es/AGN
A survey of b|aok ho|es |n d|fferent env|ronments
Ga|ax|es &
Oosmo|ogy
O10: The phys|os of h|gh redsh|ft ga|ax|es
The phys|os and mass assemb|y of ga|ax|es out to z ~ 6
H|gh-reso|ut|on |mag|ng of h|gh redsh|ft ga|ax|es

O4: F|rst ||ght the h|ghest redsh|ft ga|ax|es

O2: A dynam|oa| measurement of the expans|on h|story of the n|verse
Table 2.1. Design Reference Mission.

The DRM prooess began |n 2007 w|th members of the So|enoe Work|ng Group and he|p from the oom-
mun|ty, draft|ng a DRM proposa| for eaoh of the DRM so|enoe oases. These proposa|s were wr|tten
somewhat |n the manner of a regu|ar ESO observ|ng proposa|: they br|ef|y summar|sed the so|enoe oase
and then desor|bed a more or |ess we||-def|ned set of E-E|T observat|ons des|gned to address the so|-
ent|f|o quest|on at hand.

The key task of the DRM was to answer, through extens|ve s|mu|at|ons for eaoh so|enoe oase, the fo|-
|ow|ng two quest|ons.

1. What, preo|se|y, oan be aoh|eved w|th the observat|ons desor|bed |n the proposa| |n a
g|ven amount of observ|ng t|me, or, v|oe versa, how muoh observ|ng t|me |s needed to
aoh|eve a g|ven set of so|enoe goa|s?
2. How do these resu|ts depend on the propert|es of the te|esoope, the |nstrument, the
adapt|ve opt|os performanoe and/or the s|te? Wh|oh features of the E-E|T system are
or|t|oa| to the suooess of the proposa|?

Fo||owed by:

3. ldent|f|oat|on of key requ|rements for eaoh oase and quant|f|oat|on of the so|ent|f|o |osses |f
the requ|rements oannot be met, thus he|p|ng the projeot to understand the so|ent|f|o
oonsequenoes of any trade-off deo|s|ons.

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50 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
A|though the DRM oases were part|y se|eoted for be|ng oha||eng|ng, even for the E-E|T, the DRM ana|y-
s|s has shown that the un|que oapab|||t|es of the E-E|T have o|ear|y |nsp|red some amb|t|ous th|nk|ng.
Severa| of the DRM oases requ|re hundreds and even thousands of hours of observ|ng t|me. Neverthe-
|ess, the DRM s|mu|at|ons have oonf|rmed the transformat|ona| oharaoter of severa| of these pro-
grammes: the E-E|T w||| undoubted|y revo|ut|on|se the f|e|d of exop|anet |mag|ng; stud|es of reso|ved
ste||ar popu|at|ons of ga|ax|es out to the v|rgo o|uster; the mass assemb|y of ga|ax|es at redsh|fts of up to
s|x; and prov|de the f|rst ever dynam|oa| measurement of the expans|on of the n|verse.

Severa| of the DRM oases were found (not unexpeoted|y} to be ||m|ted by the d|ameter of the E-E|T:
exop|anet |mag|ng and stud|es of reso|ved ste||ar popu|at|ons |n externa| ga|ax|es are ||m|ted by the
aoh|evab|e reso|ut|on, wh||e a|| of the h|gh-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy oases are ||m|ted by the te|esoopes
photon-oo||eot|ng power. These oases prov|de a strong mot|vat|on for a 40-metre-o|ass te|esoope.

The DRM a|so |dent|f|ed the types and oharaoter|st|os of |nstruments that are requ|red |n order to address
the stud|ed so|enoe oases. These requ|rements were oross-oheoked aga|nst the |nstrument speo|f|oa-
t|ons der|ved by the e|ght phase A |nstrument stud|es. The oono|us|on here was that the stud|ed |nstru-
mentat|on su|te was a good matoh to the requ|rements of the DRM so|enoe oases. The on|y exoept|on |s
the oapab|||ty of observ|ng |n the u|trav|o|et be|ow 370 nm.

The fu|| DRM report |s pub||o|y ava||ab|e through the projeot web pages (http://www.eso.org/so|/fao|||t|es/
ee|t/so|enoe/}.
2.4.2.2 THE DESlGN REFERENOE SOlENOE P|AN
The E-E|T Des|gn Referenoe So|enoe P|an was des|gned and oonduoted to exp|ore the fu|| range of so|-
enoe oases for wh|oh the E-E|T w||| be used. lt was meant to be a |arge oo||eot|on of so|enoe oases pro-
v|ded d|reot|y by the future users of the E-E|T. |t|mate|y, |t he|ped to def|ne the boundar|es of the
parameter spaoe over wh|oh the E-E|T w||| operate. lt was used to gu|de the performanoe opt|m|sat|on
of the te|esoope, the pr|or|t|sat|on of the |nstruments, as we|| as to p|an the so|enoe operat|on modes.

The DRSP was |aunohed at JENAM 2008 |n v|enna. ln order to oo||eot |nput eff|o|ent|y from the oommu-
n|ty, the DRSP was set up as a web quest|onna|re, gu|d|ng the users through the subm|ss|on of a
dummy proposa| for the E-E|T. The quest|onna|re prompted for the so|enoe oase (t|t|e, abstraot, oate-
gory, }, the |dent|ty of the authors (|nst|tute, stage of oareer, } before gett|ng |nto deta||s of the tar-
gets, spat|a| requ|rements, speotra| requ|rements, type of |nstrumentat|on requ|red, operat|ons requ|re-
ments, synerg|es, eto. The users were gu|ded through the subm|ss|on.

The quest|onna|re was ava||ab|e to the oommun|ty from September 2008 unt|| June 2009. Dur|ng that
per|od, 187 so|enoe oases were subm|tted by 151 pr|no|pa| |nvest|gators from 73 |nst|tutes aoross Eu-
rope. Th|s we|| exoeeded the goa| to oo||eot at |east 100 oases. The entr|es have been oo||eoted |nto a
|arge database and have been ana|ysed stat|st|oa||y.

Proposa|s have been reoe|ved from a|| ESO Member States. The K, Germany and Spa|n feature prom|-
nent|y, fo||owed by lta|y and Franoe. The number of ESO proposa|s was part|y |nf|ated by the E-E|T So|-
enoe Off|oe who add|t|ona||y subm|tted a|| those DRM oases not a|ready oovered by the oommun|ty.
About two th|rds of the Pls were faou|ty members, the other th|rd be|ng made up by post-dootora|
researohers.

The proposa|s were o|ass|f|ed |nto the four oategor|es estab||shed for the ASTRONET roadmap (see
www.astronet-eu.org}. Three quarters of the proposa|s were shared between the oategor|es How do
ga|ax|es form and evo|ve? and What are the or|g|n and evo|ut|on of stars and p|anetary systems?.

On the teohn|oa| s|de, a|| |nstruments stud|ed |n phase A have been requested and a|most a|| equa||y,
w|th a s||ght|y h|gher number of proposa|s for the on|y m|d-|nfrared |nstrument, and a s||ght|y |ower one
for the most speo|a||sed |nstrument: the p|anet f|nder. On|y a very few proposa|s requested oapab|||t|es
not |no|uded |n the ourrent stud|es, oonf|rm|ng that the su|te of |nstruments present|y foreseen (see
be|ow} oovers the ent|re needs of the oommun|ty.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| The So|enoe Oase 51
The authors were a|so asked to |nd|oate whether the|r proposa| wou|d work |n synergy w|th another fao||-
|ty. More than a th|rd of the proposa|s ment|oned JWST, and about a quarter ment|oned v|T/v|Tl. The
next most ment|oned ones were A|MA and SKA.

Overa||, the DRSP prov|ded an extreme|y usefu| d|reot |nput from the oommun|ty to the projeot. lt has |ed
to d|reot requ|rements on the operat|ons soheme and strong|y gu|ded the So|enoe Work|ng Group |n |ts
reoommendat|ons.

The fu|| DRSP report |s pub||o|y ava||ab|e through the projeot web pages (http://www.eso.org/so|/
fao|||t|es/ee|t/so|enoe/}.
2.4.2.3 THE SOlENOE OASES FROM THE lNSTRMENT PHASE A STDlES
Throughout the te|esoope phase B study, ESO |aunohed e|even phase A / oonoeptua| des|gn phases for
|nstruments and adapt|ve opt|os modu|es. The stud|es ran for 15 to 30 months start|ng |n 2007 and
exp|ored a su|te of |nstruments for the E-E|T. More than 200 astronomers and eng|neers |n the ESO
Member States and Oh||e oontr|buted to the d|fferent stud|es. ln part|ou|ar, a|| stud|es formed strong so|-
enoe teams that bu||t most oompe|||ng so|enoe oases to be addressed w|th the |nstruments. These so|-
enoe oases were very va|uab|e add|t|ons to the DRM and DRSP efforts; they are desor|bed |n Ohapter 4
for eaoh |nstrument.

The |nstrument oharaoter|st|os and |nst|tutes form|ng the study oonsort|a oan be found |n Ohapter 4 or on
the projeot web pages: http://www.eso.org/so|/fao|||t|es/ee|t/|nstrumentat|on/.

ln summary, the goa|s of the |nstrument stud|es were broad: to exp|ore the so|ent|f|o oapab|||t|es requ|red
to meet the E-E|T so|enoe goa|s, to exam|ne the teohn|oa| feas|b|||ty of the |nstrument, to understand the
requ|rements p|aoed on the te|esoope des|gn and to deve|op a de||very p|an.

The so|enoe oases deve|oped by the |nstrument so|enoe teams |arge|y surpassed |n qua||ty and deta|| the
request of the projeot at th|s stage and added a |arge number of very h|gh prof||e so|enoe goa|s to the
E-E|T so|enoe oase. They prov|ded a so||d bas|s for the |nstrument roadmap.
2.4.2.4 WORKSHOPS DRlNG THE DESlGN PHASE
Synergy Workshops:

Four workshops a|med at exp|or|ng the synerg|es between the E-E|T and other fao|||t|es were organ|sed
w|th the he|p of OPTlOON between 2009 and 2011. Th|s a||owed the projeot to reoe|ve further |nput from
the oommun|ty on the a|ready strong|y peroe|ved ||nks between the E-E|T and other future |arge-soa|e
fao|||t|es.

Title: A|MA and E|Ts: A Deeper, F|ner v|ew of the n|verse
Dates: 2427 Maroh 2009
Location: ESO Garoh|ng, Germany
Organiser: ESO
Participants: ~ 120
Website: http://www.eso.org/so|/meet|ngs/a|mae|t2009/
Comments: The workshop exp|ored the so|ent|f|o synerg|es between A|MA and the p|anned E|Ts. lt was
mot|vated by a grow|ng |nterest |n the A|MA and E|T oommun|t|es to better understand the oapab|||t|es
of these |arge fao|||t|es wh|oh are ||ke|y to dom|nate ground-based astronomy for the next two to three
deoades. One of the ma|n goa|s of the workshop was to |dent|fy oommon so|enoe oases that dr|ve both
the A|MA and the E|T oommun|t|es.

A summary was pub||shed |n The Messenger (2009, vo|.136, 69} and a|| presentat|ons are ava||ab|e on
the oonferenoe web pages.

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52 The So|enoe Oase E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Title: JWST and E|Ts: An ldea| Oomb|nat|on
Dates: 1316 Apr|| 2010
Location: ESO Garoh|ng, Germany
Participants: ~ 110
Website: http://www.eso.org/so|/meet|ngs/jwste|t2010/
Organisers: ESA/ESO
Comments: S|m||ar to the above, the jo|nt ESA/ESO workshop fooused on the so|ent|f|o synerg|es
between JWST and the E|Ts. The ma|n goa| of the workshop was to br|ng the JWST and E|Ts (GMT,
TMT, E-E|T} oommun|t|es together, to |dent|fy the oommon so|enoe oases, and to out||ne |nstrumenta-
t|on/upgrade pr|or|t|es for the E|Ts wh|oh wou|d max|m|se the so|ent|f|o return |n key areas of so|ent|f|o
researoh requ|r|ng both fao|||t|es, name|y the end of the Dark Ages f|rst ||ght and re|on|sat|on; the
assemb|y of ga|ax|es; the b|rth of stars and protop|anetary systems; p|anetary systems and the or|g|ns of
||fe. A ||ve|y meet|ng w|th |ntense d|souss|on brought some |nterest|ng |ns|ght.

Title: Astronomy w|th Megastruotures Jo|nt so|enoe w|th E-E|T and SKA
Dates: 1014 May 2010
Location: Orete, Greeoe
Participants: ~ 100
Website: http://www.phys|os.ox.ao.uk/users/Karasterg|ou/Greeoe2010/home.htm|
Organisers: Rad|oNet and OPTlOON
Comments: The th|rd of the ser|es of workshops exp|or|ng synerg|es was the workshop Astronomy w|th
Megastruotures Jo|nt so|enoe w|th E-E|T and SKA. As w|th the A|MA workshop desor|bed above,
th|s meet|ng prov|ded a va|uab|e opportun|ty for the opt|oa| and rad|o oommun|t|es to |earn about the oa-
pab|||t|es of SKA and the E-E|T, respeot|ve|y. The workshop was ma|n|y a|med at deve|op|ng ||nked so|-
enoe oases for the E-E|T and SKA, a|though the ro|es of other future fao|||t|es, suoh as A|MA, JWST,
|SST, GAlA, EO|lD and P|ATO, were a|so d|soussed.

Title: Feed|ng the G|ants: E|Ts |n the era of Surveys
Dates: 29 August 2 September 2011
Location: lsoh|a, lta|y
Participants: ~ 100
Website: http://eso.org/so|/meet|ngs/2011/feedg|ant.htm|
Organisers: OPTlOON and ESO
Comments: Th|s workshop a|med at exp|or|ng the synerg|es between the work of ex|st|ng and forth-
oom|ng survey fao|||t|es and the Extreme|y |arge Te|esoopes. lt rev|ewed the projeots |n these two areas
and addressed the deve|opments that these w||| br|ng to a w|de range of so|enoe areas, |no|ud|ng
exop|anets, star format|on, ste||ar popu|at|ons, ga|axy format|on/evo|ut|on and oosmo|ogy. lt addressed
two broad quest|ons: a} A|ong w|th surveys oonduoted by ourrent and forthoom|ng observator|es, how
w||| the upoom|ng ded|oated survey fao|||t|es prof|t from fo||ow-up by the E|Ts? and b} To what extent do
the E|Ts requ|re surveys to prepare so|ent|f|o breakthroughs? The goa| was to br|ng together the survey
and E|T oommun|t|es and to def|ne f|rst strateg|es to max|m|se the suooess of both paths.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 53
3 TEOHNlOA| OvERvlEW
3.1 SlTE AND lNFRASTROTRE
The s|te oharaoter|st|os are desor|bed here to show the|r |nf|uenoe on the des|gn of the te|esoope. The
des|gn of the neoessary |nfrastruoture for the operat|on of the E-E|T w|th|n a s|ng|e observatory takes
|nto aooount the ex|st|ng |nfrastruoture at Parana|. Ded|oated s|te mon|tor|ng |s |nsta||ed at Oerro
Armazones.
3.1.1 OHARAOTERlSTlOS OF THE SlTE
Oerro Armazones, the se|eoted peak for the E-E|T. lt |s 20 km from the ex|st|ng v|T s|te at Oerro Parana|
and the vlSTA fao|||ty at the adjo|n|ng peak.


Figure 3.1. Cerro Armazones is 20 km as the condor flies from Paranal.

Armazones |s we|| known to ESO as |t was extens|ve|y tested as a potent|a| s|te for the v|T. Moreover, |t
has undergone oomprehens|ve test|ng by the TMT projeot wh|oh k|nd|y made the data ava||ab|e to ESO.
After the TMT test|ng was oomp|eted, ESO resumed |ts own test|ng at Armazones.

The a|t|tude of 3064 metres above sea |eve| does not pose |og|st|oa| prob|ems for operat|ons and meets
the so|enoe requ|rements for |ow preo|p|tab|e water vapour and |ow operat|ng temperatures.

The med|an see|ng of the s|te (0.7 aroseoonds} and ooherenoe t|mes (4.5 ms free atmosphere and
3.5 ms fu|| oo|umn} are |n agreement w|th the va|ues used to d|mens|on the quaternary un|t aotuator den-
s|ty and f|na| f|tt|ng error.

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54 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 3.2. DIMM and MASS seeing and temperatures on Armazones.


Figure 3.3. and 0 and wind speed at Armazones.

The w|nd speed at the s|te |s somewhat h|gher than at Parana|, but |s oompat|b|e w|th the des|gn ohar-
aoter|st|os of the E-E|T. The w|nd speed of 10 ms
-1
used by the projeot to estab||sh the d|ffraot|on-||m|ted
performanoe requ|rements |s the 70th peroent||e of the s|te oond|t|ons and the 18 ms
-1
te|esoope opera-
t|ona| ||m|t |s w|th|n the 95th peroent||e.

The w|nd rose for Armazones |s strong|y fooused to the north w|th a|most no w|nd oom|ng from the east.
As w|th Parana|, th|s prov|des a natura| |ooat|on for the observatory heat dumps, wh|oh are un||ke|y to
|nterfere w|th operat|ons.


Figure 3.4. Day and night wind roses for Armazones.

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Se|sm|o|ty |s an |mportant parameter for any s|te and so the ent|re Parana| reg|on has been eva|uated for
earthquakes. Th|s work has been oons|dered as an update of the work undertaken for Parana|. Suoh an
update was oons|dered worthwh||e, both as an |ssue of due d|||genoe and as a resu|t of newer data
beoom|ng ava||ab|e |n the |nterven|ng per|od of t|me. The projeot off|oe oomm|ss|oned two |ndependent
stud|es w|th expert f|rms |n Europe to eva|uate the newer data and prov|de the bas|o parameters for the
surround|ngs of Parana|. The resu|ts of the stud|es were rev|ewed by expert f|rms |n the Repub||o of Oh||e
and by speo|a||st oonsu|tants who were emp|oyed by ESO at the t|me of the v|T projeot.


Figure 3.5. Typical earthquake time series. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is the peak absolute value of the
acceleration (left) and response spectrum from above time series. PGA is the 0 period value (right).

The output of a|| the work |s a un|que set of parameters for the s|te. The earthquake parameters adopted
for phase B des|gn are for a non-se|sm|oa||y |so|ated struoture: an operat|ons bas|s earthquake of 0.24g,
a max|mum ||ke|y earthquake of 0.34g and a oo||apse ||m|t state of 0.6g. Th|s wou|d then oorrespond to
the fo||ow|ng ||m|t states:

Serv|oeab|||ty ||m|t state (S|}: The struoture |s on|y s||ght|y damaged. Struotura| e|ements have
not reaohed s|gn|f|oant y|e|d|ng and have reta|ned the|r strength and st|ffness. Non-struotura|
oomponents suoh as part|t|ons and |nf||s may show some m|nor oraok|ng that oou|d, however,
be eoonom|oa||y repa|red or even masked. No permanent dr|fts are present. Th|s ||m|t state |s
most |nf|uenoed by the st|ffness of the struotura| system.

Damage Oontro| ||m|t state (DO}: The struoture |s s|gn|foant|y damaged, but st||| reta|ns
oons|derab|e strength and st|ffness. vert|oa| e|ements are oapab|e of susta|n|ng grav|ty |oads,
henoe the struoture |s far from oo||apse. Non-struotura| oomponents are damaged, a|though
part|t|ons and |nf||s have not fa||ed out of p|ane. Moderate and to|erab|e permanent dr|fts are
present. The struoture |s repa|rab|e but at a non-tr|v|a| oost. Th|s ||m|t state |s most |nfuenoed by
the strength of the struotura| system.

Oo||apse Prevent|on ||m|t state (OP}: The struoture |s heav||y damaged, w|th very ||m|ted res|dua|
strength and st|ffness. A|though vert|oa| e|ements are st||| oapab|e of susta|n|ng vert|oa| |oads,
the|r res|stanoe oannot be re||ed upon |ndef|n|te|y. Most non-struotura| oomponents have oo|-
|apsed. |arge permanent dr|fts are present. The struoture |s near oo||apse and wou|d not surv|ve
another earthquake, even of moderate |ntens|ty. Th|s ||m|t state |s most |nfuenoed by the duot|||ty
of the struotura| system.

The above three ||m|t state formats y|e|d four performanoe reg|ons: from zero to S| |s oont|nued opera-
t|on; from S| to DO |s repa|rab|e damage; from DO to OP |s |rreparab|e damage; and above OP |s oo|-
|apse.
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3.1.2 GEOGRAPHY AND |AYOT
A su|tab|e p|atform for the te|esoope oan be generated on Armazones. The remova| of approx|mate|y
300 000 oub|o metres wou|d resu|t |n approx|mate|y a 150 m 150 m p|atform at the top of the moun-
ta|n. lt |s ev|dent, and shown by the s|te test|ng and ana|ys|s of operat|ona| data from Parana| and other
s|tes, that the m|n|ma| exoavat|on and mod|f|oat|on of the mounta|ntop are strong|y reoommended.
nsurpr|s|ng|y, suoh a m|n|m|sat|on |s oons|dered advantageous from a oonstruot|on oost po|nt of v|ew.

Figure 3.6. The platform.

The resu|t|ng s|te |ayout has the aforement|oned p|atform (somewhat, but not s|gn|f|oant|y, b|gger than
the Parana| deok} at the top of Armazones. At the foot of the mounta|n, one k||ometre from the deok,
add|t|ona| |ay-down areas and temporary fao|||t|es neoessary dur|ng oonstruot|on w||| be prov|ded.
3.1.3 |OGlSTlOA| lSSES
Dur|ng the oonstruot|on phase, a temporary oamp w||| be oreated at the foot of Armazones. The oon-
traotors and the ESO personne| oversee|ng the oonstruot|on wou|d use th|s oamp.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 57
A road w||| oonneot the Armazones s|te w|th the B710 road at a|most the same |ooat|on as the turn-off to
Parana|. Th|s w||| not d|srupt the |and|ng str|p.


Figure 3.7. Road layout for the connection to Armazones.

Dur|ng operat|ons, the te|esoope w||| be a part of the Parana| fao|||ty w|th |og|st|os management (oater|ng,
aooommodat|on eto.}, eng|neer|ng resouroes and other fao|||t|es operated from there. Add|t|ona| aooom-
modat|on w||| be oreated on the Parana| s|te. The base||ne so|ut|on wou|d be to oreate a su|tab|e
aooommodat|on fao|||ty, removed from the ex|st|ng residencia, to prov|de n|ght workers aooommodat|on
for the ent|re fao|||ty, thereby free|ng suff|o|ent room at the ex|st|ng residencia for day workers. No add|-
t|ona| oater|ng fao|||t|es are env|saged for Parana|.

The m|n|ma| operat|on on the Armazones e|ement of the Parana| Observatory wou|d have |ooa| fao|||t|es
for storage and ooat|ng as we|| as f|ref|ght|ng and a sma|| aooommodat|on un|t for reoept|on and duty
personne|. lntegrat|on fao|||t|es are to be shared w|th Parana|.
3.1.4 WASHlNG AND OOATlNG FAOl|lTlES
The base||ne ooat|ng for the E-E|T m|rrors |s the proteoted s||ver used for vlSTA. The Parana| Observa-
tory a|ready operates the 4.2-metre ohamber us|ng sputter|ng teohno|ogy. The M1 ooat|ng fao|||t|es are
|ooated |n the aux|||ary bu||d|ngs of the dome. Th|s ||m|ts the hand||ng operat|ons to a m|n|mum and
reduoes the r|sk to the opt|os. The observatory must hand|e two pr|mary m|rror segments per day and
therefore |t |s assumed that at |east two para||e| ||nes of ooat|ng for segments w||| be needed to oreate a
suff|o|ent buffer for ma|ntenanoe. The v|ab|||ty of the ooat|ng requ|rements of the E-E|T have been va||-
dated by ||m|ted stud|es undertaken by a number of f|rms under a pr|oe enqu|ry. Other m|rrors w||| be
ooated at Parana| and su|tab|e ooat|ng fao|||t|es w||| be made ava||ab|e.

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58 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 3.8. Segment coating unit.

The prooess for ooat|ng the th|n she||s for the quaternary |s undergo|ng prototyp|ng at Parana| |n the
oontext of the deformab|e seoondary for the v|T. A h|gh temperature prooess suoh as sputter|ng may be
unsu|tab|e as the stresses |ntroduoed |n the g|ass by the g|ue attaoh|ng the magnets need to be estab-
||shed. App||oat|on of proteoted s||ver ooat|ngs us|ng evaporat|on |s a|so poss|b|e, and the |nd|v|dua| seg-
ments of the th|n she|| are sma|| enough that the ohamber wou|d be oomparab|e |n s|ze to those for the
pr|mary m|rror.

Storage spaoe |s foreseen |ns|de the dome for the 133 segments |n rotat|on.
3.1.5 POWER SPP|Y
The Armazones peak w||| be oonneoted to one of the two Oh||ean gr|ds as part of the agreement
between ESO and the Oh||ean Government to host the E-E|T. The re|evant power ||ne w||| pass by
Parana|, where a step-down substat|on w||| be ereoted to supp|y gr|d power to the v|T and to estab||sh
an e|eotr|o power ||nk between Parana| and Armazones. Th|s substat|on does not form part of the E-E|T
projeot. The Parana| power generat|ng stat|on w||| be expanded |n |ts |s|and-mode power oapab|||t|es by
|nsta|||ng add|t|ona| gas turb|ne generator sets equ|pped w|th the seoond, heat-reoyo||ng stage.


Figure 3.9. Power configuration layout for the E-ELT connection into the Paranal/Chilean grid.

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The tota| generat|ng oapab|||ty of the Parana| power stat|on wou|d thus be |noreased to approx|mate|y
6 MWe

, more than enough to p|aoe the domes and te|esoopes |n a safe oonf|gurat|on and suff|o|ent to
operate the te|esoopes |n a restr|oted power mode (s|ow s|ew|ng of the dome dur|ng the n|ght and |ow
a|r-oond|t|on|ng demand dur|ng the day}. A|ternat|ve energy supp||es, e|ther d|reot|y oonneoted to the
observator|es or oonneoted through the gr|d, are a|so be|ng eva|uated.
3.1.6 WATER SPP|Y
The Armazones peak, as |s the oase at Parana|, w||| be equ|pped w|th a 400 m
3
tank for f|ref|ght|ng. The
|noreased presenoe of personne| at the |ntegrated Parana| Observatory, and aooommodated at the
Parana| baseoamp, oan be hand|ed w|th|n the ex|st|ng water fao|||t|es a|though an |norease |n the water
supp|y rate from Antofagasta w||| be requ|red.
3.1.7 OHl||ED MEDlM PRODOTlON
The te|esoope subsystems reoe|ve a supp|y of oh|||ed med|um v|a a network of serv|oe oonneot|on po|nts
that are oonneoted to the oh|||ed med|um supp|y v|a heat exohangers, thereby ||m|t|ng the tota| |ength of
p|p|ng. The oh|||ed med|um produot|on has been ana|ysed |n deta|| |n a des|gn study oontraoted to lDOM.
The max|mum demand for ooo||ng, 2.5 MW
th, oomes dur|ng the day when the a|r oond|t|on|ng of the
dome |s used to meet the extreme oond|t|ons of reduo|ng the temperature by 5O |n 12 hours. The nor-
ma| demand |s foreoast to be 900 kWth for the dome dur|ng the day and 400 kWth dur|ng the n|ght (ooo|-
|ng the az|muth dr|ves of the dome}. The te|esoope ooo||ng needs are est|mated at 935 kWth dur|ng ob-
servat|on, w|th 460 kWth a||ooated to ooo||ng the o|| supp|y. The d|mens|on|ng oase for the ooo||ng |s the
max|mum demand of 3.4 MWth. Add|t|ona||y, a heat |oss of 50 kWth and a pump|ng power of 100 kWth
are added |nto the tota| ba|anoe for the system.

Two opt|ons, propy|ene g|yoo| and ethy|ene g|yoo|, both |n a 35% m|xture w|th water, were oons|dered
w|th the |atter be|ng se|eoted on oost grounds. The freez|ng po|nt for the m|xture |s -17
o
O wh|oh |s o|ose
to the surv|va| ||m|t for the Armazones s|te (-20
o
O}. G|ven norma| operat|ng oond|t|ons, |nsu|ated p|pes
and operat|ng pumps, |t |s oons|dered extreme|y un||ke|y that freez|ng wou|d ooour.

The dome heat exohanger |s d|mens|oned to transfer 2.5 MW
th of ooo||ng wh||e the te|esoope heat
exohanger w||| operate at a peak of 750 kWth. The |oad var|at|ons w||| be hand|ed us|ng var|ab|e f|ow
rates. Oommero|a||y ava||ab|e e|eotr|o oompress|on oh|||ers ooo|ed by a|r w|th he||oa|/sorew oompressors
have been se|eoted.


Figure 3.10. Chiller unit.

To d|fferent|ate between e|eotr|oa| power demand and therma| power demand the un|t symbo| We and, respeot|ve|y, Wth are used
for the re|evant un|t, that |s, the watt.
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60 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
A study for the d|str|but|on of ||qu|d n|trogen to the Nasmyth p|atforms has been undertaken and th|s |s
oons|dered feas|b|e. There |s no prov|s|on for th|s at f|rst ||ght, but the duot|ng and a||ooat|on of spaoe for
suoh a fao|||ty |s foreseen. The vo|ume of ||qu|d n|trogen requ|red for the f|rst years of operat|on does not
just|fy the |nsta||at|on and ma|ntenanoe of suoh a fao|||ty ahead of t|me.
3.1.8 NETWORK
The oonneot|v|ty of the Armazones s|te w|th the Parana| baokbone |s a|ready oomp|eted, w|th|n a projeot
undertaken w|th|n the Framework 7 programme of the European n|on (EvA|SO}, that |n pr|no|p|e pro-
v|des for fast aooess from Europe to the data generated at Parana| by the survey te|esoopes. Th|s net-
work foresaw the oonneot|on to Armazones and two pa|rs of f|bres are a|ready |n p|aoe and oomm|s-
s|oned for operat|on.
3.1.9 |OOA| FAOl|lTlES
The operat|ons p|an requ|res that ten peop|e oan s|eep on the Armazones peak. Rather than hous|ng
them |n the dome, a sma|| aooommodat|on un|t |s to be oonstruoted at the foot of the mounta|n. The
house a|so aots as a guardhouse for the observatory as the porteria at Pe||oano does for |a S|||a.
3.1.10 Al|lARY, OOATlNG AND lNSTRMENT HAND|lNG FAOl|lTlES
The dome foundat|ons are r|nged by an aux|||ary struoture that prov|des add|t|ona| spaoe that |s p|anned
to be used for d|str|but|on (power} transformers, equ|pment storage, ooat|ng fao|||t|es for sma||er opt|os
and a |ooa| oontro| room for the oomm|ss|on|ng per|od.


Figure 3.11. Minimalist site footprint including the coating chambers and instrument handling in the dome.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 61
The base||ne proposa| |s to operate the Armazones peak by aooommodat|ng staff at Parana| and |eav|ng
the Armazones peak w|th the m|n|ma| footpr|nt. Operat|ona| soenar|os are d|soussed e|sewhere |n the
oonstruot|on proposa|. Here on|y the |mpaot on the dome and other |nfrastruotures |s oons|dered.

No hand||ng equ|pment |s expeoted to dr|ve outs|de the dome vo|ume and therefore a|rbag systems are
foreseen as a base||ne so|ut|on for the movements |ns|de the te|esoope. S|m||ar systems are used at
Parana| for the movement of the pr|mary m|rror oe|| and ooat|ng oarts.
3.1.11 OHA||ENGES
3.1.11.1 OONSTROTlON
The oonstruot|on r|sk for the s|te |s the poss|b|||ty of a de|ay |n obta|n|ng aooess to the s|te for po||t|oa| or
other reasons. lntegrat|on |nto the Parana| Observatory |s oons|dered to be a very strong m|t|gat|on strat-
egy for th|s r|sk.

Geoteohn|oa| dev|at|ons from the estab||shed format|ons after exoavat|on oan resu|t |n an extended
per|od to estab||sh the p|atform. Assum|ng an ear|y start to the exoavat|ons, the sohedu|e has s|gn|f|oant
s|aok before the oonorete foundat|ons have to start. Geoteohn|oa| |nvest|gat|ons are ourrent|y underway.
3.1.11.2 PERFORMANOE
The evo|ut|on of the s|te oharaoter|st|os due to the out of the summ|t to oreate the deok has been
debated |n the oase of Parana|. lt has been shown that the s|te evo|ut|on at Parana| has been due to
sh|fts |n the w|nd d|reot|on and not due to the out of the summ|t. ln any oase, for oost reasons, the s|ze of
the p|atform |s m|n|m|sed.
3.2 DOME
A hem|spher|oa| dome w|th ourved, |atera||y open|ng doors rotat|ng atop a oonorete p|er |s to house the
te|esoope. The dome a||ows oomp|ete freedom for the te|esoope to pos|t|on |tse|f w|th|n the dome
whether |t be open or o|osed. The dome perm|ts observat|ons from zen|th down to 20 degrees from the
hor|zon. A dep|oyab|e w|ndsoreen proteots the te|esoope from h|gh w|nd speeds, wh||e many |ouvers
|norease the vent||at|on of the |nterna| vo|ume.


Figure 3.12. General view of the dome.

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62 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The dome |s speo|f|ed to be a|r- and watert|ght. A|rt|ghtness |s or|t|oa| to m|n|m|se the a|r-oond|t|on|ng
|oad and, wh||e the need for watert|ghtness |s se|f-ev|dent, |t |s perhaps the hardest to aoh|eve. The our-
rent requ|rement p|aoed upon the |nstruments be|ng oons|dered for the E-E|T |s that they be ab|e to
generate the|r own oa||brat|ons w|thout |mpaot|ng the rest of the observatory operat|ons. The abso|ute
||ght-t|ghtness of the dome |s un||ke|y to be aoh|eved but oan be oons|dered a byproduot of the a|rt|ght-
ness.
3.2.1 FONDATlONS
The dome prov|des |ts own foundat|ons as we|| as the oonorete p|er that ||fts the te|esoope az|muth
struoture above the ground |eve|, ensur|ng that the pr|mary m|rror rema|ns more than 10 metres above
the ground at a|| t|mes.


Figure 3.13. The components of the dome and telescope foundations.

The dome foundat|ons oons|st of an 11.8-metre-h|gh annu|us of 1-metre-th|ok re|nforoed oonorete. The
d|ameter |s 86.4 metres and the th|okness of the p|er |s 1 metre. The foundat|on of the oy||ndr|oa| wa|| |s
3.64 metres w|de and 1 metre deep. The top of the p|er oarr|es a 3.1-metre-w|de and 2.8-metre-h|gh
orown struoture upon wh|oh the upward fao|ng bog|es of the dome rotat|on are pos|t|oned. Exo|ud|ng the
ground s|abs, the tota| oonorete vo|ume |s 6290 m
3
(15 725 tonnes}.


Figure 3.14. Dimensions for the crown and foot of the dome pier showing the seismic isolation.

The dome foundat|ons are des|gned to take the max|mum |oads of the rotat|ng part of the eno|osure.

A |arge open|ng (8 metres w|de and 7 metres h|gh} |n the dome foundat|ons has been des|gned to a||ow
|arge oomponents to be brought |n dur|ng oonstruot|on and operat|on.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 63
A oonorete f|oor w|th s|gn|f|oant |oad oarry|ng oapao|ty (20 kNm
-2
} ||es between the dome foundat|ons and
the te|esoope p|er. Therma| jo|nts separate eaoh seot|on of the f|oor to a||ow for hor|zonta| d|sp|aoement
due to therma| effeots and, add|t|ona||y, to perm|t the mot|ons a||owed by the se|sm|o |so|at|on system.

The 9.3-metre-h|gh te|esoope p|er prov|des two |oad-oarry|ng annu|ar r|ngs for the |nterfaoe w|th the az|-
muth traoks of the te|esoope. The r|ngs are 1 metre th|ok and have 2.2-metre-w|de and 2.8-metre-deep
orowns |n wh|oh the az|muth traoks are |nsta||ed. Add|t|ona| st|ffness |s prov|ded to the |oad-oarry|ng
beams by |no|ud|ng rad|a| wa||s every 15 degrees and 40 om th|ok f|oor and 40 om th|ok oe|||ng oompo-
nents that sea| the foundat|ons. The f|oor |s |ooated at the 8.125-metre |eve| and extends outs|de the p|er
outer d|ameter to a||ow aooess to the |ower part of the outer traok for ma|ntenanoe. The |nner f|oor |s
s|m||ar to the dome f|oor w|th the same |oad-oarry|ng oapao|ty (20 kNm
-2
}.


Figure 3.15. Telescope pier general view.

The performanoe of the te|esoope p|er has been ana|ysed us|ng deta||ed f|n|te e|ement mode|||ng to
estab||sh |ts |mpaot on the e|genfrequeno|es of the te|esoope ma|n struoture and |ts ab|||ty to w|thstand
the var|ous |oad oases (e.g., earthquakes}.

To determ|ne the performanoe of the te|esoope p|er an |ntegrated f|n|te e|ement mode| of the te|esoope
on the p|er has been used.


Figure 3.16. Finite element model of the telescope foundations and detail of the telescope foundations.

The foundat|ons have been ver|f|ed for st|ffness. The g|oba| vert|oa| st|ffness |s 44 10
9
Nm
-1
; the hor|-
zonta| st|ffness 20 10
9
Nm
-1
and the st|ffness |n a t|p-t||t mode |s 2.8 10
13
Nm rad
-1
; a|| meet|ng or
exoeed|ng the requ|rements |mposed by the te|esoope performanoe. S|m||ar|y the def|eot|ons of the p|er
under the te|esoope |oads are on average be|ow the 0.225 mm requ|rement. |ooa| deformat|ons at the
|ooat|ons of the te|esoope hydrostat|o bear|ng pads are be|ow the 0.165 mm requ|rement. The e|genfre-
queno|es of the te|esoope oomb|ned w|th the foundat|ons are expeoted to drop by about 5%.

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64 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Wh||st for the dome earthquake proteot|on a oonvent|ona| |so|at|on system was ohosen, for the ma|n
struoture a more soph|st|oated system was se|eoted, oompr|s|ng spr|ngs, v|soous dampers and pre-
|oaded un|ts that prov|de adequate st|ffness performanoe under operat|ona| oond|t|ons. The base||ne
|so|at|on system (lDOM and Gerb} |s |ooated just above the bottom s|ab of the te|esoope foundat|on. ln
order to oonf|rm proper funot|on|ng of the |so|at|on oonoept and to determ|ne var|ous parameter assump-
t|ons, a soa|ed prototype of the |so|ated system w||| be tested on a shak|ng tab|e. ln add|t|on, |ndepend-
ent stud|es of se|sm|o |so|at|on systems for the te|esoope foundat|ons have been oarr|ed out by speo|a||st
oompan|es (SlRvE from Oh||e and ASDEA from lta|y}.


Figure 3.17. Seismic isolation proposal for the telescope foundations.

Trans|ent earthquake s|mu|at|ons of the |so|ated oonf|gurat|on shows a s|gn|f|oant reduot|on of te|esoope
aooe|erat|ons and base reaot|on foroes. The se|sm|o |so|at|on system shows max|mum def|eot|ons of
60 mm and 100 mm |n the vert|oa| and hor|zonta| d|reot|ons under the most demand|ng |oad oomb|na-
t|ons.

A ga||ery oonneots the equ|pment housed |n the aux|||ary bu||d|ngs w|th the te|esoope p|er.


Figure 3.18. Gallery for telescope supplies.

W|th|n the r|bs there |s amp|e room for ooude |nstrumentat|on and other fao|||t|es suoh as the te|esoope
oab|e wraps.
Oommon spr|ngs oomb|ned
w|th dashpots
Oommon spr|ngs
Hor|zonta| pre|oaded un|ts vert|oa| pre|oaded un|ts
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 65
3.2.2 THE PRlMARY AND SEOONDARY STROTRES
The s|ze of the open|ng re|at|ve to the tota| dome s|ze |s very |arge. For referenoe, the rat|o of dome to
te|esoope s|ze |s however four t|mes sma||er for the E-E|T than for the 3.6-metre te|esoope on |a S|||a. A
norma| se|f-support|ng spaoe frame struoture |s not an opt|mum so|ut|on for th|s oonf|gurat|on of open|ng
to d|ameter rat|o.

The pr|mary struoture of the dome |s formed from two s||t aroh g|rders, a nape/|nner aroh and a baok-
bone aroh, both rest|ng on a base r|ng. The s||t arohes are |ooated at the edge of the s||t open|ng. The
nape aroh prov|des the stab|||ty at the rear of the dome wh||e the baokbone aroh prov|des add|t|ona| sup-
port for the door traoks.


Figure 3.19. The dome primary structure.

Between the g|rders, a seoondary struoture |s ereoted that oarr|es the o|add|ng of the dome. The seo-
ondary struoture |s based on vert|oa| r|b trusses and hor|zonta| brao|ng. The o|add|ng |s mounted on
trusses that are p|aoed on th|s seoondary struoture. The hor|zonta| brao|ng doub|es up as wa|kways that
perm|t aooess to a|| |eve|s of the dome.


Figure 3.20. The dome secondary structure.
3.2.3 THE DOORS
The two s||t g|rders and the nape g|rders oarry the traoks upon wh|oh the doors trave|. The door support
|s not |sostat|o as th|s wou|d requ|re |arger overhangs and potent|a||y very |arge def|eot|ons of the over-
hang|ng beams. A four-po|nt support |s ensured by the bog|es that oarry the doors. The re|at|ve f|ex|b|||ty
of the enormous doors has been taken |nto aooount |n the ana|ys|s and |t |s determ|ned that the system
|s not over-oonstra|ned.

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66 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The door struoture |s based on two aroh g|rders stretoh|ng from the top to the bottom traoks that are
oonneoted hor|zonta||y by a ser|es of trusses. The d|mens|ons of the doors oreate suff|o|ent depth to
house systems suoh as |ook|ng meohan|sms and oranes.


Figure 3.21. The structure of the doors.

The door bog|es are or|ented at 15 degrees to the vert|oa| |n the d|reot|on of the door |oads. A oha|n dr|ve
system |s foreseen to dr|ve the bog|es for the doors.


Figure 3.22. The door tracks and bogie.

The door bog|e |s oomposed of four ma|n whee|s (d|ameter 610 mm for the top bog|es, d|ameter
740 mm for the bottom bog|es} that are |ooated w|th the|r axes norma| to the predom|nant (operat|ng}
reaot|on |oad d|reot|on (about 1520 degrees from the vert|oa| p|ane} and four sma||er restra|n|ng |atera|
whee|s (d|ameter 465 mm for the top bog|es, d|ameter 535 mm for the bottom bog|es} |n the perpend|o-
u|ar d|reot|on. The whee|s ro|| on ra||s mounted w|th|n the traok struoture. The bog|e |s oonneoted to the
door us|ng a yoke w|th a k|ng p|n and a spher|oa| bush|ng, thereby a||ow|ng some |oad-shar|ng between
the whee|s.

The oho|oe of a oha|n and sprooket system was preferred to a fr|ot|on dr|ve as |t was oons|dered more
determ|n|st|o and the dr|ve oan be on the f|xed part of the eno|osure. The doors oan o|ose |n three
m|nutes w|th an average ||ne speed of 0.15 ms
-1
us|ng 24 kW per motor.

The door oontro| has been s|mu|ated and ||m|ts have been p|aoed on the |mperfeot|ons of the traoks. ln
add|t|on, |t has been determ|ned that even w|th on|y one dr|v|ng meohan|sm operat|ona| |t |s poss|b|e to
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 67
o|ose the doors. The ab|||ty to o|ose the doors under a|| operat|ona| oond|t|ons has been |dent|f|ed as a
or|t|oa| requ|rement by the projeot

.

The door |ook|ng meohan|sm |s a |atoh-type system emp|oy|ng a s|ng|e dr|ve system that dep|oys a
harpoon-||ke system |nto a |atoh|ng meohan|sm. The same aot|on engages and re|eases the o|amp. A
soa|ed prototype has been oonstruoted to demonstrate the prooess. The meohan|sm perm|ts the doors
to be |ooked w|thout a preo|se pre-a||gnment.


Figure 3.23. Door latching mechanism.

To sea| the doors aga|nst water and to perm|t the dome to be pressur|sed for a|r oond|t|on|ng and
o|ean||ness, a oomb|nat|on of a water-oaptur|ng |abyr|nth and an |nf|atab|e sea| |s |ooated |n the doors.


Figure 3.24. Door seals and water-labyrinth scheme.

The operat|ng pressure of the GF+PTFE fabr|o sea|s |s between 500 and 1000 Pa and, onoe |nf|ated,
they have an effeot|ve w|dth of 250 mm. The tota| a|r vo|ume |n the sea|s |s 39 m
3
and the prooess of
sea||ng the dome takes approx|mate|y ten m|nutes us|ng four b|owers. The oompressed a|r system |s
|ooated a|ong the observ|ng door edges to avo|d oomp|ex oonneot|ons.
3.2.3.1 ROTATlNG THE DOME
A |arge base r|ng on the rotat|ng part of the dome prov|des the rad|a| oonstra|nt for the two |arge aroh
g|rders that oarry the doors and the oross-brao|ng aroh nape g|rder |n the baok. Th|s base r|ng a|so oar-
r|es the ra|| upon wh|oh the dome turns.

The dome rotat|on |s performed us|ng 54 upward-fao|ng bog|es. The spao|ng of bog|es |s set at a
5/4 rat|o w|th respeot to the struoture gr|d spao|ng, des|gned to avo|d resonanoes dur|ng the trave|.

ln the words of the oontro| team: the observ|ng s||t doors are the most or|t|oa| system |n the who|e te|esoope. lf they dont open
we dont do anyth|ng at a||.
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Figure 3.25. Left: Anchoring of the dome bogies into the crown. Right: Load transmission paths.

The oho|oe between upward-fao|ng bog|es, resu|t|ng |n var|ab|e |oads on the bog|es, and downward-
fao|ng, w|th oonstant, but |n p|aoes, permanent|y h|gher, |oads, was made by the supp||ers. Eaoh bog|e
has two sets of whee|s mounted para||e| to eaoh other support|ng the dome rotat|on on two traoks. The
|nd|v|dua| bog|es have hydrau||o aotuators that perm|t them to be d|soonneoted for ma|ntenanoe, but a|so
a||ow the d|str|but|on of the ax|a| |oads between d|fferent bog|es.

ln order to natura||y fo||ow the rotat|on of the dome, the vert|oa| oon|oa| |n prof||e whee|s are |no||ned
at 0.5 degrees w|th respeot to the hor|zonta|. Th|s |s aoh|eved by vert|oa||y sh|ft|ng the whee|s w|th
respeot to the bog|e struoture. lt |s oons|dered that th|s |s an eas|er way of aoh|ev|ng the requ|red preo|-
s|on. The spher|oa| bear|ngs used |n the bog|es are speo|f|ed to work w|th|n th|s range w|thout |oss of
performanoe. The bog|es |noorporate a prov|s|on for operat|ng w|th b|ooks rep|ao|ng the hydrau||o oy||n-
ders |n oase of fa||ure.

The 108 hydrau||o aotuators prov|de 770 kN ||ft|ng oapao|ty and 515 kN pu|||ng oapao|ty, eaoh for a tota|
||ft|ng oapao|ty approx|mat|ng 80 000 tonnes.

The power oonsumpt|on of the dome rotat|on meohan|sms |s s|gn|f|oant, peak|ng at approx|mate|y
2.5 MW
e.


Figure 3.26. Dome rotation power demand per motor (left) and acceleration and velocity (right).

To avo|d oontam|nat|on of the dome vo|ume by the heat d|ss|pated by the dr|ves embedded |n the
bog|es, the ent|re az|mutha| rotat|on meohan|sm |s |so|ated and |nsu|ated from the te|esoope eno|osure.

Gr|pp|ng o|amps ( 2}
Meohan|oa|
b|ookage
un|t ( 2}
|and|ng pads ( 2}
Bo|ted
oonneot|on
r|bs
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 69

Figure 3.27. The azimuth rotation chamber.

Th|s vo|ume w||| be a|r oond|t|oned whenever the dr|ves are operat|ona| and the heat extraoted to the
norma| Heat|ng, vent||at|on and A|r Oond|t|on|ng (HvAO} systems of the dome.
3.2.4 THE WlNDSOREEN
W|th |ts |arge open|ng, the E-E|T dome requ|res the presenoe of a w|ndsoreen to proteot the te|esoope
pr|mary and other m|rrors, other than the seoondary, from d|reot exposure to the w|nd.


Figure 3.28. The windscreen solution.

The base||ne des|gn of the w|ndsoreen m|n|m|ses the vo|ume requ|red to house |t and ||m|ts the meoha-
n|sms operat|ng |n a var|ab|e grav|ty veotor env|ronment. Two spher|oa| b|ades, e|ther s|de of the observ-
|ng s||t doors, s||de |n front of the te|esoope aperture to restr|ot the w|nd. The b|ades are |arge but re|a-
t|ve|y ||ghtwe|ght. The hor|zonta| rotat|on |s performed us|ng a raok and p|n|on motor dr|v|ng the soreen
a|ong two ra||s |ooated at the bottom of the struoture.

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Figure 3.29. The windscreen deployed at different elevations.

Add|t|ona| vent||at|on |ouvers are |ooated on the w|ndsoreen |n |ooat|ons matoh|ng the |ouvers of the
dome.
3.2.5 O|ADDlNG
The dome o|add|ng |s des|gned to prov|de the max|mum |nsu|at|on dur|ng the day. |arge vent||at|on |ou-
vers are |ooated at regu|ar |nterva|s to a||ow the vent||at|on to be adjusted.

A s|ng|e sk|n has been se|eoted for the dome, based on a ra|n-soreen pane| system. An outer stee| sk|n
|s formed by 1.5 mm sheets oovered |n A|uz|no effeot|ve ooat|ng. A natura||y vent||ated oav|ty of 100
150 mm |s oreated to proteot the |nner |ayers from the effeots of sun and ra|n or snow. Beneath the sk|n
are a waterproof|ng membrane and the |nsu|at|on |ayers, mounted on a struotura| pane| that |s then |a|d
upon the dome.


Figure 3.30. Details of the cladding structure.

Suoh systems are |n oommon use |n bu||d|ngs w|th var|ab|e surfaoes. A s|m||ar system |s a|so dep|oyed
on the v|T domes. Three supp||ers have been oontaoted w|th the base||ne des|gn and opt|ons are ava||-
ab|e for meet|ng the requ|rements of the E-E|T based on the speo|f|o manufaotur|ng and oonstruot|on
teohno|og|es of these supp||ers.

The d|mens|ons of the pane|s have been determ|ned us|ng a 9 degrees rad|a| and 6.66 degrees vert|oa|
gr|d. Th|s resu|ts |n a|| dome pane|s be|ng approx|mate|y 5 metres |ong and where eaoh pane| |n the
same row |s the same.
elv=90 elv=75 elv=60 elv=45 elv=30 elv=90 elv=75 elv=60 elv=45 elv=30
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 71
3.2.6 vENTl|ATlON |OvERS
Twenty vent||at|on |ouvers are |ooated |n the oonorete p|er just be|ow the orown. A further 40 |ouvers are
|ooated |n the dome-rotat|ng struoture |n four |eve|s. A|| |ouvers are 4 m 4 m |n s|ze w|th four quadrants
oonta|n|ng two s|ats eaoh. A s|ng|e motor us|ng a oha|n moves a|| e|ght s|ats together. The s|ats are
sandw|ohes w|th meta| |ayers prov|d|ng the |nterna| and externa| sk|ns and |nsu|at|on f||||ng the gap. The
sea||ng |s performed us|ng rebates and soft sea|s at the edges.


Figure 3.31. Louver design in open and closed configurations.

Two poss|b|e supp||ers for the |ouver un|ts have prov|ded teohn|oa| so|ut|ons for the |ouvers to the base-
||ne des|gn based on the|r own manufaotur|ng and oonstruot|on prooesses.
3.2.7 HEATlNG, vENTl|ATlON AND AlR OONDlTlONlNG
The a|r oond|t|on|ng of the dome |s neoessary not on|y to therma||y prepare the te|esoope for the forth-
oom|ng n|ght, but a|so to keep the te|esoope opt|os o|ean.

For the purposes of a|rt|ghtness, an ab|||ty to ma|nta|n a pos|t|ve pressure of 50 Pa |s speo|f|ed. A oon-
servat|ve a|r |eakage of 21 m
3
s
-1
has been assumed aoross 8000 om
2
of gap. Th|s |s oons|dered aoh|ev-
ab|e us|ng sea|s on meohan|sms (suoh as the |nf|atab|e sea| desor|bed above} and doub|e doors wher-
ever poss|b|e. The A|r Hand||ng n|ts (AHs} oan prov|de up to 217 m
3
s
-1
.

The |nsu|at|on bu||t |nto the o|add|ng has been est|mated to out down the therma| |oad on the dome due
to so|ar rad|at|on to 160 kW
th. The mode|||ng of the te|esoope ohamber ass|gns 1700 kWth of equ|va|ent
therma| |nert|a to the te|esoope system. Th|s |s the equ|va|ent of ooo||ng down the te|esoope by 5O w|th
respeot to |ts start|ng oonf|gurat|on, a speo|f|oat|on the a|r-oond|t|on|ng system |s requ|red to aoh|eve
w|th|n 12 hours. Add|t|ona| |oads on the eno|osure system are se|f-generat|ng heat that has oonserva-
t|ve|y been taken to be 450 kW
th, |.e., |n the oond|t|on of poor f||trat|on |n the a|r hand||ng un|ts (270 kWth
|n oase of o|ean f||ters}, 70 kWth |s ||ght|ng and hand||ng equ|pment, 300 kW |n the dome rotat|on system
and 34 kWth |n the w|ndsoreen dr|ves. The te|esoope |s assumed to be aot|ve|y ooo|ed and therefore that
d|ss|pat|on |ns|de the dome vo|ume |s 100 kWth, as we|| as a rather neg||g|b|e 1 kWth for human presenoe.

A deta||ed ana|ys|s of the performanoe of the a|r-oond|t|on|ng system has been undertaken us|ng the
most extreme oond|t|ons found |n the weather |ogs of the s|te. Four |oad oases were oons|dered:

1. Oomb|nat|on of the h|ghest |ogged d|fferenoe between dawn and sunset w|th a peak so|ar rad|a-
t|on and peak |nterna| |oads;
2. The poss|b|||ty of a rap|d r|se of the dew po|nt and the need to avo|d oondensat|on |ns|de the
te|esoope;
3. The poss|b|||ty of |nverted demand (for heat|ng rather than ooo||ng};
4. The h|gh-|eve| requ|rement to be ab|e to ooo| the te|esoope vo|ume by 5O |n 12 hours.

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72 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Oase 1, wh|oh oan be oons|dered the ||m|t of a norma| operat|ona| oond|t|on, |s we|| w|th|n the power of
the des|gned ooo||ng system w|th a tota| peak demand of 1800 kWth. ln a|| oases, the HvAO system
hand|es the |oads requ|red.

The tota| requ|rement |s 2.5 MW
th |n a worst-oase soenar|o. Or|t|oa||y however, for the power oonsump-
t|on at the observatory, the Armazones s|te does not exper|enoe w||d var|at|ons |n temperature. Th|s |s
a|so |mportant for the more |nert oomponents of the te|esoope, suoh as the m|rrors, wh|oh are made of
zero-expans|on g|ass or g|ass oeram|o that, by oonstruot|on, does not reaot to temperature var|at|ons,
but reta|ns heat and, therefore, wou|d otherw|se be a souroe of therma| turbu|enoe.


Figure 3.32. The distribution of the air handling units and ducting.

The des|gn of the a|r-oond|t|on|ng system avo|ds the |nteroonneot|ng duots emp|oyed between the rotat-
|ng and f|xed part at the v|T eno|osures. A|r hand||ng un|ts are p|aoed at the base of the dome and h|gh
|nduot|on jet nozz|es are |ooated at the top of the oonorete foundat|ons. Twe|ve de-strat|f|oat|on fans are
|ooated at the +56 metre |eve| of the dome w|th the nozz|es at +65 metres. These 1.3 kW
e un|ts move
13 500 m
3
of a|r per hour and a||ow the reo|rou|at|on of a|r to avo|d trapp|ng of warm a|r at the top of the
dome.
3.2.8 vlBRATlON OONTRO|
The dome meohan|sms and externa| perturbat|ons are not perm|tted to transm|t v|brat|ons to the te|e-
soope ma|n struoture beyond the speo|f|ed 0.5 g/Hz. The va|ue |s se|eoted to ensure that the dome
oontr|but|ons rema|n at the same |eve| as the aooe|erat|ons due to m|oro-se|sm|o|ty. nt|| now, no speo|f|o
v|brat|on s|mu|at|ons have been oarr|ed out for the 39-metre base||ne. Neverthe|ess, |t oan be assumed
that the s|mu|at|on resu|ts for the 42-metre rema|n va||d to a |arge extent.

Dome meohan|sm |nduoed v|brat|ons have been oons|dered to ar|se from the az|muth dr|ves and from
pumps or other equ|pment |n the aux|||ary bu||d|ngs. A mode| of the dome struoture and foundat|ons as
we|| as the so|| propagat|on propert|es has been oreated and frequeno|es up to 100 Hz have been
ana|ysed. The so|| has been assumed not to prov|de any damp|ng wh||e a oonservat|ve 1.5% damp|ng
has been assumed for the oonorete.


Figure 3.33. Model for the calculation of the transfer function from the dome bogies to the telescope foundations and
transfer function in units of ms
-2
/m vs. Hz.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 73
Two major oomponents are oons|dered for the souroe of v|brat|ons from the dome |tse|f: the smoothness
of the traok and the w|nd |oad|ng that wou|d produoe v|brat|ons transm|tted through the traok. The
roughness of the whee| and ra|| |nterfaoe |s a v|brat|on and no|se souroe and app||oab|e standards from
the ra||way |ndustry ex|st. Assum|ng the app||oab|e lnternat|ona| Organ|zat|on for Standard|zat|on (lSO}
norms for the traoks, the resu|t|ng aooe|erat|ons at the te|esoope p|er exoeed the speo|f|oat|on at h|gh
frequeno|es for traok|ng speeds o|ose to a quarter of a degree per seoond. At h|gher speeds (presett|ng
2 degrees s
-1
} the v|brat|ons exoeed the speo|f|oat|on above 20 Hz.


Figure 3.34. Track smoothness in m vs. Hz (rotational frequency) and acceleration per square root of frequency vs.
frequency (g/Hz vs. Hz).

The v|brat|ons from the traok rotat|on are |arge|y oomp||ant and oan eas||y be |mproved by oarefu|
maoh|n|ng of the traoks and traok ma|ntenanoe. E|astomer|o pads oan be p|aoed be|ow the az|muth rota-
t|on bog|es to reduoe the ooup||ng of the bog|es to the dome oonorete.

The part of the dome exposed to the w|nd w||| a|so shake and the v|brat|ons are transm|tted through the
bog|es a|ong the same path ana|ysed above. The w|nd ana|ys|s has taken the max|mum operat|ona|
speed of 18 ms
-1
and used a rear of the dome exposure to the w|nd d|reot|on thereby ref|eot|ng the fore-
seen operat|ona| oond|t|on and prov|d|ng the |east aerodynam|o exposure of the dome to the w|nd. A von
Karman speotrum for the w|nd has been used w|th a 15% turbu|ent |ntens|ty. The v|brat|ons due to the
w|nd transm|tted to the ma|n struoture ||e two orders of magn|tude be|ow the 0.5-g/Hz requ|rement.

Dur|ng te|esoope operat|on, w|th the exoept|on of the |arge a|r hand||ng un|ts, the bu|k of the maoh|nery
rema|ns |n operat|on. As a|most a|| the equ|pment |s dr|ven off the same ma|ns power supp|y, the v|bra-
t|ons are assumed to be |n phase. The ana|ys|s of th|s souroe of v|brat|on has used the resonant fre-
queno|es expeoted for the equ|pment rather than a Power Speotra| Dens|ty (PSD}. To aoh|eve the aooe|-
erat|on speotrum the |so|at|on system sha|| have an eff|o|enoy of 98%. Part|ou|ar attent|on |s pa|d to the
pumps that re-o|rou|ate the oh|||ed med|um and the a|r hand||ng un|ts that keep the az|muth rotat|on
ohamber ooo|. To ||m|t the v|brat|ons |n the p|p|ng, f|ex|b|e oonneot|ons and suspended p|p|ng are fore-
seen. Add|t|ona||y, expans|on tanks are p|anned to avo|d the propagat|on of pump v|brat|ons a|ong the
oo|umn of oh|||ed med|um.
3.2.9 AOOESS AND MAlNTENANOE
The dome prov|des ut|||t|es to the te|esoope w|th the dome orane, the dome aux|||ary orane and the dome
||ft|ng p|atform. The 20-tonne dome orane |s embedded |n the observ|ng door aroh and therefore
aooesses the bu|k of the te|esoope vo|ume. The dome aux|||ary orane |s a 20-tonne j|b orane mounted on
the seoondary struoture of the dome. lt prov|des easy aooess over the Nasmyth p|atforms of the te|e-
soope.

1.L-08
1.L-07
1.L-06
1.L-0S
1.L-04
1 10 100
1.L-11
1.L-10
1.L-09
1.L-08
1.L-07
1.L-06
1.L-0S
0.1 1 10 100
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74 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 3.35. Access for the secondary mirror unit (left) and walkways inside the dome (right).

The o|add|ng and upper door meohan|sm aooess |s prov|ded v|a the wa|kways, |adders and e|evators
mounted as part of the dome seoondary struoture. The dome dr|ves oan be aooessed d|reot|y from
beneath the base r|ng. Speo|f|o too||ng w||| be needed |f a who|e bog|e |s to be exohanged a|though they
are not oons|dered to be ||ne Rep|aoeab|e n|ts (|Rs}.
3.2.10 MASS BDGET
The fo||ow|ng tab|es show the mass budget of the dome and foundat|ons:

F|xed parts:

ltem Desor|pt|on Mass (|n tonnes}
Dome foundat|ons Oonorete wa||s and s|abs 15 725
Oonorete f|oor 1 560
Te|esoope foundat|on Oonorete wa||s and s|abs 17 815
Oonorete f|oors 794
Aooess struotures and equ|pment
Stee| struoture 392
Aooess struotures 117
Aux|||ary bu||d|ng (|no|ud|ng ma|n
entranoe}
Oonorete 5 848
Oonorete f|oor 1 416
Stee| 377
O|add|ng 168
Az|muth bog|es 805
Table 3.1. Mass budget for fixed parts of the dome and foundations.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 75
Mov|ng parts:

ltem Desor|pt|on Mass (|n tonnes}
Dome az|muth rotat|ng part Pr|mary struoture
Seoondary struoture
Aooess struotures
Wa|kways s|ab
Az|muth traok
Dome o|add|ng
Door traoks
Ma|n orane
Aux|||ary orane
3329


S||t doors |eft 398
R|ght 436
W|ndsoreen struoture Struoture
Meohan|sms
593
Table 3.2. Mass budget for moving parts of the dome and foundations.
3.2.11 EREOTlON SEOENOE
The dome ereot|on sequenoe has been ana|ysed by the des|gners and, |n add|t|on, two externa| supp||ers
(DS| and Demont} have prov|ded |ndependent ana|ys|s of a probab|e ereot|on sequenoe and sohedu|e.
A|| supp||ers have s||ght|y vary|ng sequenoes and d|fferent too||ng based on the|r part|ou|ar exper|enoes.

The de||very of the equ|pment to the s|te |s oons|dered to be by sh|p to the port of Mej|||ones and from
there by truok to the |ay-down areas at the summ|t and baseoamp of the observatory.


Figure 3.36. Selected images from the erection sequence of the dome.
3.2.12 EARTHOAKE ANA|YSlS
A deta||ed ana|ys|s of the dome struoture |n oase of earthquake has been performed. Both quas|-stat|o
and dynam|o ana|yses have been performed.

The struoture has been ver|f|ed to be ab|e to w|thstand the peak ground aooe|erat|ons speo|f|ed |n the
env|ronmenta| oond|t|ons w|thout damage. Add|t|ona||y the base||ne so|ut|on for the dome |no|udes a
se|sm|o base |so|at|on system based on |ead rubber bear|ngs |ooated at the foot of the dome and te|e-
soope p|er.

Severa| ana|yses have been oarr|ed out to |nvest|gate the performanoe of the dome |so|at|on system
under the No-Oo||apse Requ|rement (NOR} oond|t|ons.

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The se|sm|o |so|at|on un|ts prov|de an equ|va|ent 27% damp|ng and sh|ft the fundamenta| frequenoy of
the bu||d|ng to 0.51 Hz, therefore no |onger ooup||ng the st|ff seot|ons of the dome struoture above to the
h|gh aooe|erat|ons of the earthquake. For th|s frequenoy, the hor|zonta| aooe|erat|on exper|enoed by the
struoture |s reduoed to 0.14g obta|ned from the NOR response speotrum and assum|ng 27% damp|ng of
the |so|at|on system.


Figure 3.37. Effect of seismic isolation system on the accelerations experienced by the structure.

The max|mum |oads and d|sp|aoements of the dome foundat|ons, the aux|||ary bu||d|ng and the dome
foundat|on |so|ators do not exoeed the a||owed va|ues. The strength ver|f|oat|on of the dome struoture
was oarr|ed out for the upper bound of st|ffness and |ower bound of damp|ng, beoause th|s |s the most
unfavourab|e oase for d|mens|on|ng the struoture. The te|esoope and |ts subun|ts are des|gned to dea|
w|th an earthquake that wou|d ooup|e w|th the ma|n struoture at above 1g aooe|erat|on. The use of se|s-
m|o |so|ators wou|d reduoe the exposure of the system s|gn|f|oant|y. However, th|s does not |mp|y a
ohange |n the des|gn of the hosted un|ts. The usage of se|sm|o |so|at|on wou|d on|y engage at |arger
earthquakes and therefore re|at|ve|y m|nor, for the reg|on, events wou|d be fe|t by the struoture d|reot|y.
Th|s prooess ensures that the neoessary st|ffness of the p|er for the te|esoope |s ma|nta|ned |n rout|ne
operat|ons. The opt|mum thresho|d va|ue for the aot|vat|on of the se|sm|o |so|ators w||| be def|ned to be
above the operat|ona| |oads and be|ow the or|t|oa| earthquake |oads both w|th suff|o|ent marg|n.

The use of suoh |so|ators |s nowadays oommon |n h|gh se|sm|o|ty areas.


Figure 3.38. Location of the dome seismic isolators.

The ereot|on sequenoe has oons|dered earthquake aooe|erat|ons |n eva|uat|ng the shor|ng neoessary |n
the temporary struotures.
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
0 5 10 15 20
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

[
g
]
frequency [Hz]
horizontal response spectrum - NCR - =27%
f z
g
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 77
3.2.13 WlND |OADlNG AND WlND F|SHlNG OF THE TE|ESOOPE OHAMBER
To assess the w|nd |oad|ng for the struotura| des|gn of the 39-metre dome, a boundary |ayer w|nd tunne|
study has been done. lt oovers the ma|n oonf|gurat|ons of the dome: door o|osed (surv|va| oonf|gurat|on}
and open (operat|on oonf|gurat|on}. Severa| test soenar|os were oonduoted as part of the w|nd tunne|
study: the az|muth ang|e of the dome, the pos|t|on of the w|ndsoreen (dep|oyed or undep|oyed} and the
|ouver w|ndow oonf|gurat|on (o|osed or open}. The test soenar|os and the dome mode| for the w|nd tun-
ne| study are shown |n F|gure 3.39.


Figure 3.39. Test scenarios and the dome model for the wind tunnel study.

The w|nd propert|es app||ed were based on the Armazones env|ronmenta| oond|t|ons. The resu|ts were
obta|ned as a worst oase equ|va|ent pressure d|str|but|on. F|gure 3.40 shows the worst oase equ|va|ent
pressure d|str|but|on for one |oad oase. The pressure d|str|but|on was |no|uded |n the f|n|te e|ement
mode|, but the w|nd |oads are |ess restr|ot|ve than the se|sm|o |oads for the d|mens|on|ng of the struoture
and the meohan|sm.


Figure 3.40. The worst case equivalent pressure distribution for one load case.

The w|nd f|ush|ng study of the te|esoope ohamber shows the mean w|nd speed, the turbu|enoe |ntens|ty
and the t|me h|story ourves of the ve|oo|ty measurement. Therefore the a|r ohanges per hour oan be
measured. These stud|es were done for d|fferent oonf|gurat|ons. The measurements of the a|r ohange
rates were made us|ng an array of asp|rat|ng probes w|th the|r reoeptors mounted d|reot|y |ns|de the
dome. There |s a o|ear oono|us|on for the foundat|on |ouvers: o|os|ng the foundat|on |ouvers reduoes the
number of the a|r ohanges per hour appreo|ab|y. Therefore |t was deo|ded to |no|ude the foundat|on |ou-
vers |n the des|gn.
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3.2.14 RE|lABl|lTY AND OPERABl|lTY
The f|re safety ana|ys|s, aooust|o ana|ys|s, ||ghtn|ng proteot|on, e|eotr|oa| systems, e|eotromagnet|o oapa-
b|||ty ana|ys|s, safety ana|ys|s, a|r hand||ng equ|pment des|gn and oh|||ed water stress ana|ys|s a|| support
the oono|us|on that the dome, wh||e oomp|ex and |arge, oan be oonstruoted and operated w|th reasona-
b|e resouroes.
3.2.15 A|TERNATE SPP|Y FOR THE DOME
Two a|ternat|ve des|gns for the dome have been eva|uated dur|ng the des|gn phase. The des|gn by
ARP was estab||shed at the pre||m|nary des|gn |eve| and offered to the FEED supp||ers |n para||e| w|th
the lDOM des|gn. The seoond FEED oontraotor, ElE/O|mo|a|, has estab||shed a var|ant of the pre||m|nary
des|gn supp||ed to the oontraotors and oomp|eted the|r FEED study. A oomp|ete set of the dooumenta-
t|on |s a|so de||vered but w||| not be o|ted here.


Figure 3.41. EIE/Cimolai alternate dome FEED design.

The des|gn prov|des var|ants on a number of oomponents and |n part|ou|ar on the w|ndsoreen des|gn
that |s based on oarbon-f|bre b|ades. Add|t|ona||y, the ereot|on sequenoe of ElE |s based on the exper|-
enoe of the|r partner O|mo|a| |n ||ft|ng struotures from be|ow rather than w|th |arge oranes.
3.3 MAlN STROTRE
The E-E|T ma|n struoture (te|esoope mount} prov|des for ooarse po|nt|ng and traok|ng (approx.
1 aroseoond root mean square (rms} and 0.1 aroseoonds rms respeot|ve|y}. As per the oontro| soenar|o,
the f|ne a||gnment of the opt|os and the beam steer|ng |s done by the opt|oa| e|ement oontro|.

The ma|n struoture des|gn de||vers a |owest e|genfrequenoy of 2.9 Hz. ln oomb|nat|on w|th a number of
other requ|rements, for examp|e on po|nt|ng and traok|ng speo|f|oat|ons, the des|gners are oonstra|ned |n
prov|d|ng the or|t|oa| performanoe needs for the ma|n struoture. As part of the oontro| strategy, the ma|n
struoture needs to be ab|e to traok suff|o|ent|y we|| under w|nd |oads suoh that the M4 and M5 un|ts oan
absorb any res|dua|s, both |n amp||tude and frequenoy.

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The movement of the seoondary un|t w|th respeot to the pr|mary, both stat|oa||y and dynam|oa||y, |s a|so
a potent|a| major souroe of wavefront error. The des|gn of the upper support of the te|esoope ||m|ts both
the amp||tude and frequenoy of the M2 un|t def|eot|ons.

The performanoe of the pr|mary m|rror oe|| determ|nes the tota| aotuator stroke used to pos|t|on the seg-
ments. The dom|nant souroe of error for the te|esoope oe|| |s grav|ty. The def|eot|ons enter |nto the error
budget by |ntroduo|ng |ow order aberrat|ons and |n the stroke budget.

Therma| def|eot|ons are |ow by oompar|son to grav|ty.
3.3.1 OONOEPT
The des|gn has evo|ved dur|ng the phase B and |s now set on a 39-metre d|ameter te|esoope, based on
the ma|n oonoepts presented |n the 2010 oonstruot|on proposa|. The te|esoope |s an a|taz|muth mount
based on a rook|ng-oha|r oonoept. Two mass|ve orad|es prov|de the rotat|on of the a|t|tude ax|s wh||e two
az|muth traoks take the ax|a| |oads and a||ow the rotat|on of the te|esoope about the zen|th. The oross
az|muth p|atform |s used to prov|de aooess to the hosted un|ts for exohanges.


Figure 3.42. The main structure at zenith pointing and horizon pointing.

Ax|a| and rad|a| hydrostat|o bear|ngs and d|reot dr|ve motors form the base||ne for the des|gn.

The oha||enge |n suoh a mass|ve des|gn |s to prov|de a st|ff enough |nterfaoe for the pr|mary m|rror seg-
ments wh||e at the same t|me not dramat|oa||y |noreas|ng the we|ght of the struoture or overoomp||oat|ng
the support (e.g., mu|t|p|e orad|es}.
3.3.2 AZlMTH STROTRE
The az|muth struoture |s based on a two jo|ned r|ngs that r|de on hydrostat|o bear|ngs on the two az|-
muth traoks at d|ameters of 34 metres and 51.5 metres that form the base||ne |nterfaoe to the te|esoope
p|er.

The az|muth struoture, exo|ud|ng Nasmyth p|atforms and f|oors, we|ghs 1288 tonnes. The struoture |s
made of ho||ow beams of var|ous seot|ons wh|oh opt|m|se mass wh||e reta|n|ng st|ffness.

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Figure 3.43. The azimuth structure and the floor for extracting hosted units.

The az|muth f|oor enoompasses a gateway that orosses over the oentre of the p|er to oarry the hosted
un|ts out of the ma|n struoture.

The traoks at d|ameters of 34 metres and 51.5 metres and one oentra| p|er take the ax|a| and rad|a|
|oads.


Figure 3.44. The azimuth rings and arrangement of the support points for the azimuth structure.

Ax|a| hydrostat|o bear|ngs p|aoed |n 36 pos|t|ons under the three traoks support|ng the ma|n struoture.

The ax|a| pads are oonoentrated around the most |oaded areas (be|ow Nasmyth p|atforms pos|t|ons
AA, AB, BA, AO and BB w|th pad supports}, as the other |ooat|ons (pos|t|ons BO, AD and AE w|th
s|ng|e pad supports} have a |ower oontr|but|on.

The |oad d|str|but|on |s based on stat|o hydrau||o ohambers pressure oontro|, the exaot strategy depend-
|ng on deta||ed des|gn.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 81
A f|n|te e|ement mode| of the traok revea|s the need for t|ght st|ffness opt|m|sat|on of the traoks dur|ng
deta||ed des|gn |n order to m|n|m|se deformat|ons dur|ng operat|ons.

Worst oase s|mu|at|ons (therma|, w|nd, grav|ty and worst earthquake oomb|ned |oads} show that adm|s-
s|b|e stresses stay be|ow 90% of the mater|a| y|e|d ||m|ts. For operat|ona| |oads, the equ|va|ent opera-
t|ona| f|gures for w|nd, therma| and earthquake |oads are used and the adm|ss|b|e stresses stay be|ow
67% of the y|e|d ||m|ts.

The 34-metre d|ameter traok |s used for the rad|a| oonstra|nt us|ng 24 supports of equa||y d|str|buted
pads (typ|oa||y s|ng|e ones}.

Four rad|a| bear|ngs |n the oentra| 4-metre r|ng support are used to def|ne the az|muth ax|s dur|ng the on-
f|e|d maoh|n|ng phase for the |nner and outer traoks for wh|oh a|t|tude orad|es are needed. These hydro-
stat|o bear|ngs are |ater deooup|ed from the traok or d|smounted. The base||ne rad|a| pad des|gn |s
spr|ng-|oaded (120 kN nom|na| + 30 kN spr|ng} dur|ng operat|ons to oompensate for traok rad|a| run out
and to |noorporate a fr|ot|on |nterfaoe ||m|t|ng the max|mum a||owab|e |oad |n oase of earthquake unt|| the
se|sm|o stops aotuate.
3.3.3 THE NASMYTH P|ATFORMS
The two Nasmyth p|atforms are mounted on the s|des of the az|muth r|ng.

The|r oarry|ng struotures are the base for the support of the a|t|tude orad|es. The standa|one Nasmyth
struotures do not prov|de any buttress|ng for the te|esoope a|t|tude struoture. The Nasmyth p|atforms
host the pre-fooa| stat|ons and prov|de stab|e p|atforms for the post-fooa| |nstrumentat|on.


Figure 3.45. View of the structure of the Nasmyth platform.

The pre-fooa| stat|ons are expeoted to we|gh 28 tonnes eaoh. Eaoh p|atform oarr|es 98 tonnes when fu||y
|oaded w|th pre-fooa| stat|on and fu|| |nstrument oapab|||ty. The stat|o def|eot|ons of the Nasmyth p|atform
oan be oompensated by other stat|o means (e.g., sh|ms} or po|nt|ng terms. The dynam|o behav|our of the
p|atforms forms part of the |nterfaoe to |nstrumentat|on that may be mounted d|reot|y on the p|atform
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82 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
rather than on the rotators of the pre-fooa| stat|on. The def|eot|ons of the Nasmyth p|atform |nterfaoe for
|nstrumentat|on re|at|ve to the pre-fooa| stat|on are oons|dered too h|gh to perm|t |nstrument exohanges
w|thout re-a||gnment. The ana|ys|s however shows that the |nsta||ed |nstrumentat|on w||| be ab|e to oope
w|th sma|| adjustments to |ts po|nt|ng so|ut|ons rather than a oomp|ete re-a||gnment when other |nstru-
ments are |ooated on the p|atform. lnstruments hosted d|reot|y on the Nasmyth, and us|ng the|r own de-
rotators, w||| need to prov|de the|r own s|ow gu|d|ng oapab|||t|es to oorreot the ohanges between the te|e-
soope po|nt|ng and the|r mount|ng on the Nasmyth p|atform.

The az|muth struoture a|so prov|des |nterfaoes for the ooude tra|n m|rrors and has vo|ume prov|s|ons for
the |nsta||at|on of e|ther an evaouated or open ooude tra|n. The opt|oa| des|gn of the ooude tra|n |s part of
the |nstrumentat|on.
3.3.4 A|TlTDE STROTRE
The a|t|tude struoture hosts the te|esoope opt|os. The major oha||enges that have been addressed |n the
des|gn are the need to keep the pr|mary m|rror segments w|th|n a reasonab|e range from the|r presor|bed
|ooat|ons and the need to m|n|m|se the def|eot|ons, both stat|o and dynam|o, of the seoondary m|rror.
The m|n|m|sat|on of the def|eot|ons of the pr|mary m|rror oe|| |s a key metr|o for the des|gn of the a|t|tude
struoture. The tota| we|ght of the a|t|tude struoture w|thout the hosted un|ts and m|rror oe|| |s 1498
tonnes. lt |s a|most ent|re|y assemb|ed from stee| tubu|ar seot|ons w|th a var|ety of d|ameters.


Figure 3.46. The altitude structure of the telescope.

The two |arge orad|es are supported by rad|a| and |atera| hydrostat|o bear|ngs.


Figure 3.47. The altitude support assembly and identification.

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Eaoh orad|e has ten |ooat|ons of |dent|oa| supports enoompass|ng one rad|a| and two |atera| hydrau||o
pads. The pads are mounted on a oommon struoture and |n o|ose prox|m|ty to the motor segments. The
ana|ys|s shows that |n th|s oonf|gurat|on, |n sp|te of some def|eot|ons of the struoture, the nom|na| motor
gaps of 2.9 mm oan be ma|nta|ned w|th|n operat|ona| to|eranoes.
3.3.5 HOSTED NlTS
The te|esoope w||| prov|de to a|| hosted un|ts network, power, ooo||ng and oompressed a|r supp||es as
needed v|a one or more serv|oe oonneot|on po|nts (the v|T-type oonoept}.

The needs of eaoh un|t are to be found w|th|n the|r desor|pt|ons |n the re|evant ohapters. As a matter of
strategy, eaoh un|t has been requ|red to m|n|m|se |ts demands on ooo||ng. Th|s reduoes the r|sk of |eak-
ages.

The pr|mary m|rror oe|| prov|des a meohan|oa| |nterfaoe to eaoh of the segment un|ts. The |ooat|on of
these |nterfaoes |s oons|dered to be true to 5 mm at the t|me of ereot|on of the struoture.

The more aoourate a||gnment, neoessary for the |nsta||at|on of the segments, w||| be performed us|ng
ded|oated dumm|es that w||| ref|eot the oorreot |oad|ng and d|str|but|on on the struoture. The |nterfaoes
for ooo||ng and network w||| depend on the f|na| so|ut|ons ohosen for the pr|mary m|rror oontro| system. lt
|s not expeoted that the pr|mary m|rror oe|| w||| requ|re a oompressed a|r supp|y.

The m|rror oe|| |s made |n a s|ng|e |ayer w|th a f|oor that perm|ts a|r o|rou|at|on and prov|des for stand|ng
human aooess to a|| |ooat|ons under the oe||.


Figure 3.48. The telescope mirror cell structure.

The pr|mary m|rror oe|| a|so prov|des the |nterfaoe for the tert|ary m|rror oe|| at |ts apex, and the |nterfaoe
for the oentra| tower that hosts the quaternary and M5 m|rror un|ts.

The |arge oentra| obstruot|on of the opt|oa| des|gn a|so prov|des amp|e room for the ereot|on of the oen-
tra| tower. There |s no ded|oated |nterfaoe for the tower as |t forms an |ntegra| part of the ma|n struoture.

Four sp|der arms support |atera||y the tower at M3/M5 orane |eve| and a||ow 20% dynam|o behav|our
|mprovement. At the top of the tower, the M4 un|t |s hosted.

The base||ne des|gn assumes that M4 w||| be mounted on a rotat|ng stage w|th a hexapod for f|ne a||gn-
ment. Both of these funot|ons are part of the M4 un|t and the ma|n struoture prov|des a st|ff |nterfaoe
aga|nst wh|oh the un|t |s mounted. The speo|f|oat|ons for both M4 and M5 are suoh that a s|ng|e 8kW
serv|oe oonneot|on po|nt w||| suff|oe for ooo||ng and other serv|oes.

Above the M4 un|t, an |nterfaoe prov|s|on for a fu||-f|e|d Atmospher|o D|spers|on Oompensator (ADO} |s
prov|ded. lmmed|ate|y be|ow the M4 un|t there |s an |nterfaoe prov|s|on for optomeohan|oa| dev|oes
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w|sh|ng to aooess the f/4 |ntermed|ate foous (e.g., oa||brat|on souroes for adapt|ve opt|os systems,
po|ar|metr|o modu|ators}.


Figure 3.49. Adaptive relay tower with and without hosted units (volumes).

On the tower be|ow the he|ght of the a|t|tude ax|s, a bear|ng |s mounted that a||ows the rotat|on of the
M5 un|t.

The rotat|on of the M5 un|t, a|m|ng to se|eot one of the two Nasmyth |ooat|ons, |s part of the ma|n struo-
ture. The repeatab|||ty requ|rements |n the -A|t, -A|t and -A|t ang|es |s 0.5 arom|nutes wh||e the
repeatab|||ty |n the X-A|t, Y-A|t and Z-A|t ax|s |s 0.5 mm.

ln the 39-metre des|gn, the ba|ano|ng and st|ffness performanoe of the M2 support|ng oan be aoh|eved
w|th a m||d stee| struoture.


Figure 3.50. The spider and secondary mirror crown.

On the per|phery of the M1 m|rror oe||, there are four |ooat|ons where |aunoh fao|||t|es and |aser un|ts oan
be |ooated. The meohan|oa| |nterfaoe |s re|at|ve|y s|mp|e as the |aunoh|ng un|ts have prov|s|ons for oor-
reot|ng for po|nt|ng d|fferent|a|s between them and the te|esoope (see Seot|on 3.10}.
M3 and M5
orane
ADO
M4
O
M5
M3
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3.3.6 MODE||lNG THE STROTRE
The behav|our of the ent|re te|esoope under oond|t|ons deemed or|t|oa| has been s|mu|ated for the
39-metre base||ne. The mode| used reta|ns the bu|k of the f|n|te e|ement mode|||ng, the opt|oa| sens|t|v|ty
matr|x and deta||s of the oontro| system for the ma|n struoture. The output of the mode|||ng |s used to
va||date the requ|rements and the des|gn oho|oes.

The predom|nant e|genfrequeno|es and moda| masses of the te|esoope struoture when po|nt|ng to zen|th
and hor|zon are ||sted |n the tab|es be|ow. The f|rst e|genmode (|ooked rotor} |s found at 2.9 Hz w|th the
te|esoope po|nt|ng to zen|th, reduo|ng to 2.5 Hz for hor|zon po|nt|ng.

Mode Frequenoy Effeot|ve mass [%| Mode shape
[Hz| X Y Z RX RY RZ
1 2.91 0 53.7 0 7.3 0 0 |ooked rotor
2 3.19 76.5 0 0 0 0 0 Oross-e|evat|on
3 3.99 0 0 0 0 0 4.2 M2 sp|der rotat|on
4 4.45 0 38.3 0 56.8 0 0 Seoond |ooked rotor
5 4.74 0 0 0 0 0 50.3 Az|muth rotat|on
8 5.17 0 0 21.7 0 0 0 vert|oa| pump|ng
Table 3.3. Eigenfrequencies and effective modal masses for the telescope pointing at zenith.


Figure 3.51. Mode shapes for pointing to horizon: modes 1 (2.9 Hz), 2 (3.2 Hz) and 8 (5.2 Hz).

Mode Frequenoy Effeot|ve mass [%| Mode shape
[Hz| X Y Z RX RY RZ
1 2.50 0 45.5 0 10.7 0 0 |ooked rotor mode
2 3.26 75.1 0 0 0 0 0 Oross-e|evat|on
3 4.03 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 M2 sp|der rotat|on
4 4.20 0 41.4 1.3 50.9 0 0 Seoond |ooked rotor
5 4.40 0.3 0 0 0 0 48.7 Az|muth rotat|on
18 7.11 0 0 21.7 2.4 0 0 vert|oa| pump|ng
Table 3.4. Eigenfrequencies and effective modal masses for the telescope pointing at horizon.


Figure 3.52. Mode shapes for pointing to horizon: modes 1 (2.5 Hz) and 2 (3.3 Hz).

The struoture prov|des the requ|red st|ffness at the mount|ng |ooat|ons of hosted m|rror un|ts.
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3.3.6.1 THERMA| EFFEOTS
The effeots of d|fferent|a| temperatures on the struoture have been ana|ysed. ln the oase of a grad|ent of
around 3O a|ong the Y-ax|s of the struoture the d|sp|aoements of the hosted un|ts rema|n be|ow 0.5 mm
exoept for M2 (0.51 mm} and the rotat|ona| dev|at|ons are 2.6 aroseoonds |n the pr|mary m|rror un|ts and
6.1 aroseoonds for the seoondary m|rror, a rotat|on about the X-ax|s (jo|n|ng the a|t|tude orad|es}.


Figure 3.53. Displacement due to a temperature gradient of 0.05Cm
-1
along y.

For a grad|ent of around 6O a|ong the Z-ax|s the var|at|ons are a|| reasonab|y sma|| w|th d|sp|aoements
of |ess than 2 mm.
3.3.7 vlBRATlONS
The 39-metre te|esoope vers|on |s expeoted to behave |n a s|m||ar way to the 42-metre vers|on wh|oh,
fo||ow|ng ana|ys|s, was shown to have an aooeptab|e stab|||ty performanoe.

Oonf|rmat|on of th|s assessment w||| be ver|f|ed before the oonstruot|on phase.
3.3.8 DRlvES, ENOODERS, METRO|OGY
The base||ne des|gn uses d|reot dr|ve motors. For az|muth, the stators are mounted on the 51.5-metre
traok, wh||e the oo||s are attaohed to the mov|ng struoture. The a|t|tude ax|s |nert|a |s 2.9 10
8
kgm
2
and
the |nert|a around the az|muth ax|s |s 1.13 10
9
kgm
2
.

The motor torque a||ooat|on |s 577 kNm oont|nuous and 3708 kNm non-oont|nuous for the az|muth ax|s
and respeot|ve|y 605 kNm and 2084 kNm for a|t|tude, |no|ud|ng a 10% marg|n.

Twenty-four ax|a| s|ng|e gap oo|| seot|ons oompose the d|reot dr|ve motors for the az|muth and 16 s|ng|e
oy||ndr|oa| gap oo|| seot|ons oompose the motors for a|t|tude (e|ght on eaoh s|de}.

The ba|anoed s|ng|e gap oonf|gurat|on on az|muth and a|t|tude a||ows oost reduot|on and |s v|ab|e |f
motor oo||s are oo-|ooated w|th st|ff po|nts (|.e., hydrau||o bear|ng pads} for t|ght a|r gap oontro|.

The base||ne des|gn for the a|t|tude ax|s uses oo-|ooated enooders (|ooated on orad|es near the dr|ve
system} to prov|de pos|t|on and ve|oo|ty |nformat|on to the dr|ve oontro| system. The past exper|enoe of
ESO at the v|T has been very pos|t|ve |n th|s respeot. The oo-|ooat|on a||ows the use of the enooder as a
d|g|ta| taohometer and removes what, |n the exper|enoe of ESO, has been a s|gn|f|oant souroe of no|se |n
the oontro| of the ma|n axes of te|esoopes.

A rough abso|ute pos|t|on measurement |s |mp|emented, |n add|t|on to the f|ne |norementa| one, |n order
to a||ow ax|s |n|t|a||sat|on |n sma|| d|sp|aoements and |noreased redundanoy |n pos|t|on know|edge.

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For az|muth, the stud|es and ana|ys|s show that the |nsta||at|on of the enooder system at the 34-metre
traok has near|y the same propert|es as oo-|ooat|ng and henoe |t |s a good oomprom|se between feas|-
b|||ty/oost (enooder tape |ength} and performanoe.

The exaot des|gn of ax|s pos|t|on measurement w||| have to be deta||ed/ref|ned |n order to opt|m|se teoh-
no|ogy oho|oes versus performanoe/pr|oe and operat|ona| robustness requ|rements.
3.3.9 OAB|E WRAPS
Two a|t|tude oab|e wraps are prov|ded for, one on e|ther s|de of the te|esoope. They have 0.2 m
2
of ava||-
ab|e oross-seot|on, of wh|oh 20% |s reserved for future oab||ng needs. The m|n|mum bend|ng rad|us |s
1.2 metres. The |ooat|on of the a|t|tude oab|e wraps |s on the s|de of the pre-fooa| stat|ons.


Figure 3.54. Altitude cable wrap.

A norma| oha|n ||nk oab|e oonta|ner |s p|aoed on gu|de ra||s.

The az|muth oab|e wrap |s |ooated w|th|n the oentra| p|er of the te|esoope foundat|ons and prov|des
0.15 m
2
of ava||ab|e duot|ng w|th the same prov|s|ons for free spaoe and s|m||ar bend|ng rad|| as for the
a|t|tude wrap.


Figure 3.55. Azimuth cable wrap dual kinematic chain and location with respect to the tracks.
3.3.10 WlND
The ana|ys|s of the te|esoope behav|our under w|nd |oad|ng has adopted the exposure f|gures deter-
m|ned |n the w|nd tunne| exper|ments. Speo|f|oa||y the seoondary m|rror sees a 20% reduot|on |n w|nd
speed re|at|ve to the externa| oond|t|ons and the pr|mary m|rror one s|xth of the externa| w|nd.

The ana|ys|s was then performed assum|ng a 10 ms
-1
externa| operat|ona| w|nd speed.

The worst oase |s at a 45-degree a|t|tude pos|t|on, for wh|oh max|mum r|g|d body d|sp|aoements are
w|th|n requ|red va|ues, w|th a w|nd tunne| test oonf|rm|ng the oonservat|ve approaoh of the ana|ys|s. The
oorrespond|ng max|mum d|sp|aoement of M2 a|ong the a|t|tude Y-d|reot|on |s 0.23 mm and the rotat|on
about X-ax|s |s 1.34 aroseoonds.
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3.3.11 PERFORMANOE OF THE MAlN STROTRE
The te|esoope ma|n struoture has |nterfaoes to a|most a|| subsystems of the observatory. Eaoh of these
|nterfaoes oan be oons|dered a performanoe |ssue and |ndeed |mpaots the des|gn. The des|gn |arge|y
respeots these |nterfaoe-re|ated performanoe (st|ffness, max|mum def|eot|ons eto.} requ|rements. ln th|s
seot|on we on|y oons|der the oontext of po|nt|ng and traok|ng behav|our of the ma|n struoture.

The def|eot|ons of the te|esoope ma|n struoture under grav|ty and the stat|o oomponents of |oads suoh as
w|nd are s|gn|f|oant. A bas|o po|nt|ng so|ut|on based on the a||gnment soenar|os oan be oons|dered to be
v|ab|e. The a|t|tude and az|muth of the ma|n struoture w||| po|nt w|th an aoouraoy of order a ooup|e of aro
seoonds on the sky

. For the purposes of the te|esoope th|s performanoe |s |arge|y |rre|evant as the dom|-
nant error |n po|nt|ng oomes from the stat|o def|eot|ons of the opt|os and not the aotua| pos|t|on of the
axes. The absenoe, or very |ow |eve|s, of hysteres|s |n the system are |mportant |n estab||sh|ng the neo-
essary mode|s.

The traok|ng performanoe |s |mportant to the extent that the bandw|dth of the |ooa| oontro| |s suff|o|ent|y
h|gh that |t oan aot as an off|oad ohanne| for the rest of the oontro|. The f|rst e|genfrequenoy of the ma|n
struoture |s a very respeotab|e 2.9 Hz. Oontro| s|mu|at|ons show that the enormous |nert|a of the te|e-
soope oomb|ned w|th the re|at|ve st|ffness resu|t |n traok|ng errors on the ma|n axes of approx|mate|y
0.25 aroseoonds rms.

The dom|nant dynam|o d|sturbanoe |s the w|nd. The performanoe s|mu|at|ons are made for a fronta|
10 ms
-1
externa| w|nd that |n exposed e|ements |s reduoed to 8 ms
-1
wh||e for e|ements beh|nd the w|nd-
soreen |s reduoed to be|ow 2 ms
-1
. Add|t|ona||y a s|mu|at|on us|ng a 20-degree ang|e of attaok |s used to
|nvest|gate non-symmetr|oa| effeots of the w|nd, the traok|ng errors on the az|muth ax|s and oonsequent|y
the wavefront t|p.


Figure 3.56. The PSD of the tracking error on the cradle encoder (blue) and the tilt error on sky (red). A virtual central
encoder is also modelled.

The |arge part of the t||t error |s due to r|g|d body mot|on of the a|t|tude around |ts ax|s (as oan be seen
from power speotra| dens|ty responses of enooder and t||t} up to 2 Hz. There are oontr|but|ons (sma||er
amp||tudes} due to the def|eot|on of the struoture and the m|rror, wh|oh oan be observed on t||t PSD for
h|gher frequeno|es.

The oontr|but|on of eaoh m|rror to the f|na| t|p-t||t on the sky has been ana|ysed |n the s|mu|at|ons.

Th|s |s a|ready the oase at the n|t Te|esoopes of the v|T, where a oo|||mat|on sequenoe |s performed automat|oa||y by the oontro|
system at the end of the preset sequenoe. W|thout th|s the po|nt|ng wou|d be poor and oond|t|ona| on prev|ous h|story, and the
oontro| system s|gn|f|oant|y more oomp|ex.
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Other aberrat|ons are a|so |ntroduoed when the opt|os are out of a||gnment.

The s|mu|at|ons have a|so ana|ysed the need for oo-|ooat|on of enooders, effeots of oogg|ng/r|pp|e
torque, enooder quant|sat|on and per|od|o errors, and samp||ng/de|ays |n the system. Part|ou|ar attent|on
has been pa|d to the potent|a| ooup||ng of the r|pp|e torque to the oontro|. At h|gh speeds the r|pp|e
torque from the motors oan ooup|e |nto e|genmodes of the te|esoope. Th|s effeot has been ana|ysed for
the former base||ne des|gn and |s oons|dered poss|b|e on|y at h|gh az|muth traok|ng speeds very o|ose to
the zen|th. ln add|t|on, the |mpaot on the wavefront error (t|p} turned out to be sma|| but |s oons|dered |n
the error budget of the aotua| base||ne des|gn.

The ana|ys|s shows that the ma|n struoture system oan aoh|eve a 1 Hz o|osed |oop bandw|dth (w|th oas-
oaded ve|oo|ty and pos|t|on |oops} on both the a|t|tude and az|muth axes w|th a res|dua| t|p-t||t error of
order 0.25 aroseoonds on the sky resu|t|ng a|most exo|us|ve|y from w|ndshake.

The effeot of art|f|o|a||y reduo|ng the bandw|dth |noreases the error on the sky a|most ||near|y w|th
0.5-aroseoond res|dua|s |f the aoh|eved bandw|dths were 0.5 Hz rather than 1 Hz.
3.3.12 AOOESS AND MAlNTENANOE
Dur|ng the des|gn phase, attent|on has been pa|d to the |ooat|ons of the dr|ves and the hydrostat|o bear-
|ngs to ensure that suff|o|ent aooess |s prov|ded for exohange of oomp|ete un|ts. Suoh operat|ons are to
be performed us|ng ded|oated on-board oranes and hand||ng too|s |ooated near the un|ts.


Figure 3.57. Access walkways for the altitude drives and pads.

The te|esoope prov|des easy aooess under the pr|mary m|rror un|ts by a set of wa|kways bu||t |nto the
oe||. The aooess to these wa|kways |s from the Nasmyth |eve|. The wa|kways work both at zen|th and
hor|zon po|nt|ng. The aooess to the tower |s a|so poss|b|e both at zen|th and hor|zon po|nt|ng.

A wa|kway on the per|phery of the m|rror oe|| prov|des aooess to the |aser un|ts.

A ||ft |s bu||t |nto eaoh Nasmyth foous.


Figure 3.58. Lift for human and tool access to the Nasmyth platforms.
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Aooess|ng the pr|mary m|rror segments for exohange |s an operat|on that w||| ooour tw|oe da||y. A orane |s
mounted on a o|rou|ar traok mounted on the oentra| tower. The ma|n beam |no|udes a te|esoop|o exten-
s|on and |s supported by two hor|zonta| and one vert|oa| t|es.


Figure 3.59. The jib crane mounted on the central tower.

The hor|zonta| t|es fo|d over the ma|n beam dur|ng observat|ons and the orane |s parked be|ow the rad|a|
sp|der to avo|d obsourat|on.

The segment hand||ng too| |s respons|b|e for the f|ne adjustments neoessary to aooess the segment. At
the per|phery of the pr|mary m|rror a p|atform oan be |ooated under the j|b orane and the segment oan be
p|aoed there to be transferred outs|de the ma|n struoture vo|ume for |ower|ng down to the az|muth f|oor.


Figure 3.60. The retractable platform and segment lowering operation.

The seoondary m|rror un|t |s extraoted from the orown w|th the te|esoope po|nt|ng to hor|zon. A part|ou|ar
oha||enge |n th|s oase |s the management of the unba|anoe of the te|esoope w|th the seoondary un|t
m|ss|ng. Assum|ng the te|esoope |s on|y oonstra|ned at the orad|es, the orown w||| ||ft by 5 mm when the
|oad |s transferred from the te|esoope to the dome aux|||ary orane. Th|s |s not extreme, a|though |t does
mean that the transfer w||| be oomp||oated. Prov|s|on |s made to restra|n the te|esoope tube us|ng pre-
tens|oned oab|es. S|noe th|s operat|on |s ||ke|y to be performed a tota| of ten t|mes |n an extended
50-year ||fet|me of the te|esoope |t |s not regarded as over|y oonstra|n|ng.

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Figure 3.61. Human access to the central tower.

The tert|ary m|rror |s |owered from the oentre of the oe|| down to the az|muth |eve| us|ng an on-board
15-tonne orane mounted w|th|n the oentra| tower. Th|s operat|on |s re|at|ve|y s|mp|e. A transport oarr|age
takes the m|rror un|t from the az|muth |eve| to the edge of the ma|n struoture from where the ||ft|ng p|at-
form oan |ower |t to the f|oor of the eno|osure.

The same on-board orane transfers the M5 un|t out of the te|esoope. The tert|ary m|rror must f|rst be
removed suoh that an appropr|ate open|ng oan beoome ava||ab|e at the oentre of the te|esoope.

The quaternary m|rror un|t |s |nserted/extraoted w|th the te|esoope po|nt|ng to hor|zon. The upper struo-
ture of the te|esoope makes prov|s|on for the dome orane to aooess the un|t. The un|t |s then |owered
onto the az|muth f|oor.

The |asers are |nserted us|ng the dome orane.
3.3.13 EARTHOAKE ANA|YSlS
The des|gn of the ma|n struoture w|thstands the Damage ||m|tat|on Requ|rement (D|R} of 0.26g PGA
w|thout damage and the no-oo||apse requ|rement of 0.49g PGA w|thout major damage. As the des|gn of
the se|sm|o |so|at|on system |n the te|esoope foundat|on |s not yet f|na||sed, the |so|at|on effeot to the
ma|n struoture was not yet known at the t|me of the FEED study oontraot. Therefore, a s|mp|e and oon-
servat|ve assumpt|on has been used for the ma|n struoture ana|ys|s ver|f|oat|on, |.e. for the NOR, a PGA
of 0.34g was assumed at the az|muth struoture support |nterfaoes (traoks}. Th|s oorresponds rough|y to a
|oad reduot|on of 30% due to se|sm|o |so|at|on, whereas muoh |arger reduot|ons are expeoted, as oon-
f|rmed |n severa| stud|es. Deta||ed des|gn and prototype test|ng of the base||ne se|sm|o |so|at|on system |s
oont|nu|ng.

The ver|f|oat|on was oarr|ed out w|th a deta||ed non||near trans|ent ana|ys|s of the ma|n struoture to pre-
d|ot the max|mum az|muth and a|t|tude support foroes ooourr|ng dur|ng a NOR. As the pre|oaded hydro-
stat|o bear|ngs may open and bounoe baok under strong se|sm|o |oad|ng, the non||near ana|ys|s
approaoh was oons|dered to be more aoourate than the ||near response speotrum ana|ys|s teohn|que.
The t|me h|stor|es generated for the three orthogona| d|reot|ons have been app||ed s|mu|taneous|y and a
oonstant damp|ng rat|o of 2% |n the or|t|oa| frequenoy range was assumed. The s|mu|at|ons have been
performed assum|ng brakes engaged.
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Figure 3.62. Vertical forces [N] and relative displacements [m] in the outer azimuth bearings under maximum likely
earthquake without brakes (Pads AB and AC).

The max|mum bear|ng foroes and ||ft-off va|ues under NOR earthquake |oad|ng are summar|sed be|ow.

Bear|ng Max|mum
foroe [tonnes|
Max|mum ||ft-off
[mm|
Oomment
Az|muth vert|oa| 390 0.4 Outer r|ng
Az|muth Rad|a| 63 10 Spr|ng-|oad|ng unt|| 10 mm d|stant end
stop and fr|ot|on |nterfaoes added
A|t|tude Rad|a| 357 0.8
A|t|tude |atera| 88
Table 3.5. Maximum bearing forces and lift-off values under NCR earthquake loading.

A|most a|| max|mum aooe|erat|ons oa|ou|ated at the hosted un|ts under NOR meet the speo|f|ed requ|re-
ments. The max|mum aooe|erat|on ooours at the ADO w|th 2.8g, wh|oh |s s||ght|y above the speo|f|oat|on.
Most of the aooe|erat|ons oou|d be reduoed oons|derab|y thanks to the s||d|ng fr|ot|on dev|oe |mp|e-
mented |n the rad|a| az|muth bear|ngs.

The max|mum stresses |n the stee| struoture have been obta|ned from the NOR |oad oases (non||near
trans|ent ana|yses} oomb|ned w|th grav|ty |oad. Stresses oaused by other |oads ||ke w|nd and therma| are
very sma||. A|| the max|mum stresses are be|ow the a||owab|e ones and are of |ooa| nature. The max|mum
stress d|str|but|ons |n the M1 oe|| (230 MPa} and |n the az|muth f|oor (216 MPa}, respeot|ve|y are d|s-
p|ayed |n F|gure 3.63.


Figure 3.63. Maximum stress distribution in the M1 cell (left) and azimuth floor (right) in Pa.

As d|soussed |n the dome seot|on, a se|sm|o |so|at|on system |s env|saged for the ma|n struoture p|er that
wou|d rad|oa||y reduoe the aooe|erat|ons on a|| oomponents of the struoture. As for the 42-metre des|gn,
the ana|ys|s here demonstrates that w|th sens|b|e eng|neer|ng preoaut|ons the te|esoope oan w|thstand
the NOR earthquake w|thout s|gn|f|oant damage.
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Figure 3.64. Seismic isolation for the main structure combining both vertical and horizontal damping (IDOM solution).
3.3.14 EREOTlON SEOENOE
As |s the oase for the dome, |n add|t|on to the FEED oontraotors, the ereot|on sequenoe of the ma|n
struoture has been eva|uated |n ded|oated oontraots w|th a|ternate speo|a||st oontraotors. As these oon-
traots were runn|ng |n para||e| w|th the FEED oontraots and the ereot|on sequenoes estab||shed by these
supp||ers are based on an ear||er var|ant of the ma|n struoture des|gn. The d|fferenoes are not oons|dered
or|t|oa| and the feas|b|||ty and sohedu|e are oonf|rmed by the supp||ers.

The ereot|on, pred|otab|y, starts w|th the |nsta||at|on of the |nterfaoe to the te|esoope p|er (the traoks}.

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And f|na||y the f|n|shed |tem:

Figure 3.65.The complete main structure erected including all 798 dummy segments.
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3.3.15 RE|lABl|lTY AND OPERABl|lTY
For a|| subsystems oontraoted to |ndustry, the projeot has requ|red the generat|on of Re||ab|||ty, Ava||ab||-
|ty, Ma|nta|nab|||ty and Safety (RAMS} ana|yses. pdates to the 39-metre des|gn of these ana|yses do not
show or|t|oa| ohanges w|th respeot to the 42-metre vers|on.
3.3.16 OHA||ENGES
3.3.16.1 MANFAOTRlNG
The ma|n manufaotur|ng oha||enges for the ma|n struoture are sohedu|e re|ated. For an eff|o|ent ereot|on,
the neoessary p|eoes have to be present on the s|te at the appropr|ate t|me. The r|sk that a fa|r|y sub-
stant|a| orew |s |d|e on s|te wa|t|ng for p|eoes to arr|ve from Europe |s d|ff|ou|t to m|t|gate w|thout pre-
fabr|oat|on.

The poss|b|||ty that adverse weather b|ooks orane operat|ons for a per|od of t|me (e.g., h|gh w|nds} has
been ana|ysed by the oontraotors based on the weather stat|st|os of Armazones. The t|ght aoouraoy
requ|rement of the meohan|oa| e|ements that def|ne the te|esoope ma|n axes |s a r|sk that oan be m|t|-
gated w|th pre-assemb|y and s|te maoh|n|ng.
3.3.16.2 PERFORMANOE
The f|na| performanoe of the ma|n struoture |s ||ke|y to be ||m|ted by |ts dynam|o behav|our. The s|ze of the
te|esoope |s suoh that the d|fferenoes between the as bu||t and as des|gned maoh|ne are ||ke|y to be
s|gn|f|oant. lt |s or|t|oa| that dur|ng the ereot|on great oare |s taken not to |ntroduoe s|gn|f|oant add|t|ona|
stresses |nto the te|esoope that wou|d produoe var|ab|e performanoe over t|me or |ntroduoe a||gnment
|ssues as the te|esoope ages.

Over the ||fet|me of the te|esoope, |t |s ||ke|y that the performanoe of the ma|n struoture w||| be judged on
the ease w|th wh|oh |t |s ma|nta|nab|e and perm|ts aooess to the hosted un|ts. Th|s performanoe requ|re-
ment |s oha||eng|ng to eva|uate and to generate an objeot|ve oost benef|t ana|ys|s for.
3.4 PRlMARY MlRROR NlTS
3.4.1 OONOEPT
The E-E|T pr|mary m|rror (E-E|T M1 or M1} |s a 39-metre d|ameter e|||pt|o oonoave m|rror, w|th a
69-metre rad|us of ourvature. The M1 m|rror |s made of d|sorete opt|oa| e|ements: the pr|mary m|rror
segments. The segments are quas|-hexagona|, about 1.45 metres |n s|ze (oorner to oorner} and 50 mm
th|ok (th|okness at oentre}. The gap between the segments |s 4 mm. The segments are made of |ow
expans|on g|ass or g|ass-oeram|os.

The hexagona| segmentat|on pattern has a s|x-fo|d symmetry. The segments are grouped |n s|x seotors
of 133 segments, thus the pr|mary m|rror |s made of 798 segments. A|| 133 segments of a seotor are
d|fferent |n shape and |n opt|oa| presor|pt|on; there are 133 segment fam|||es, or segment types.

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Figure 3.66. Primary mirror segmentation pattern.

A tota| of seven seotors, 931 segments, are prooured. Hav|ng seven segments per fam||y a||ows for a
rea||st|o operat|on soheme |n re|at|on to ooat|ng. A segment taken out of the te|esoope for reooat|ng oan
|mmed|ate|y be rep|aoed by another of the same fam||y, wh|oh has been prepared beforehand. The seg-
ment ref|eot|ve ooat|ng ||fet|me |s about 18 months, so one or two segments w||| need to be
rep|aoed/ooated every day.

The hexagona| geometry perm|ts the use of a oommon support struoture for a|| segments. On|y s||ght
oounterwe|ght adjustments are needed to oompensate for the 1% segment |n-p|ane shape var|at|on
between the d|fferent fam|||es.

The segment and |ts support form a segment assemb|y. The segment support |s |ntegrated onoe for a||
to the segment. The segment assemb|y |s |nsta||ed on a f|xed frame assemb|y permanent|y attaohed to
the te|esoope ma|n struoture.

The segment assemb|y |s moved |n p|ston and t|p-t||t us|ng three pos|t|on aotuators (PAOT}. lnduot|ve
edge sensors are used to prov|de d|reot feedbaok to the pos|t|on aotuators and for g|oba| reoonstruot|on
of the m|rror shape.


Figure 3.67. The segment assembly and its fixed frame assembly form a segment subunit.
3.4.1.1 SEGMENT
The segment |s made of the po||shed g|ass-oeram|o substrate and |ts |nterfaoe to the segment support
and to the edge sensors.

The segment attaohment to the ax|a| support system uses 27 ax|a| pads. S|x |atera| pads are bonded |n
the segment oentre pooket to |nterfaoe w|th the |atera| support. Three az|mutha| pads are a|so added to
oonstra|n the rotat|on of the segment, one of eaoh be|ng used as a referenoe to def|ne the segment |ooa|
ooord|nate system. The ax|a|, |atera|, and az|mutha| pads are made of lnvar.

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ln add|t|on, a set of 12 edge sensor |nterfaoes are bonded to the baok s|de of the segment.




Figure 3.68. Left: Lateral pads. Centre: Axial and azimuthal pads. Right: Interface with edge sensor.
3.4.1.2 SEGMENT SPPORT
The segments are ax|a||y supported on 27-po|nt |dent|oa| wh|ff|etrees. A |atera| restra|nt |s |ooated |n the
oentre of the segment us|ng a membrane to a||ow ||m|ted mot|on |n the d|reot|on orthogona| to the baok
surfaoe. A o|ook|ng restra|nt |s used to further ||m|t the rotat|ona| freedom of the segment. The wh|ff|etree
|oads oan be adjusted us|ng one or more of n|ne warp|ng harnesses at se|eoted jo|nts.

The segment support |s oonneoted to a mov|ng frame wh|oh deooup|es the segment assemb|y support
from aot|ve mot|on.
3.4.1.2.1 Segment axial support
Three n|ne-po|nt wh|ff|etrees are jo|ned to prov|de 27 ax|a| supports for the segment. The wh|ff|etrees
have a pr|mary tr|pod support|ng three seoondary tr|pods. The segment |oad |s taken by rods that have
h|gh ax|a| and |ow |atera| st|ffness.


Figure 3.69. The whiffletree structure.

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S|gn|f|oant attent|on has been pa|d to the ease of manufaoture for these oomponents as they w||| be pro-
duoed |n over one thousand un|ts. The pr|mary and seoondary tr|pods are oast a|um|n|um struotures.

The oonneot|ons between the tr|pods, and between the ma|n tr|pods and the pos|t|on aotuators, are
made us|ng art|ou|ated struts that on|y transm|t ax|a| |oads. |atera| struts oonneot the tr|pods to the
mov|ng frame to oonstra|n the|r |n-p|ane and rotat|on mot|ons and obta|n h|gh st|ffness of the assemb|y.


Figure 3.70. Left: Whiffletree struts. Right: Axial and lateral.

For segment shape oompensat|on oounterwe|ghts are mounted on the pr|mary tr|pods w|th a |ever arm.
The |ever arms |ength |s adjusted for eaoh segment fam||y. Those oompensate for ast|gmat|sm var|at|on.
Foous var|at|on |s oompensated at the |eve| of the |atera| support.


Figure 3.71. Segment shape counterweights.
3.4.1.2.2 Lateral support and clocking restraint
The |atera| support |s prov|ded by a oentra| membrane |nsta||ed |n the segment oentra| ho|e, as o|ose as
poss|b|e to the neutra| f|bre of the segment. The membrane perm|ts the few tenths of m||||metres of trave|
|n the p|ston d|reot|on that |s requ|red to oompensate |ntegrat|on errors of the m|rror on the support
struoture and therma| f|uotuat|ons when |n operat|on.

The oentra| membrane |s a made of n|oke|-p|ated h|gh-strength stee| and |s about 0.25 mm th|ok. A
oounterwe|ght |s attaohed to the |atera| support to oompensate for the var|at|on |n segment shape
(foous}.

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Figure 3.72. Segment lateral support.

A o|ook|ng restra|nt |s attaohed to one of the three az|mutha| pads. The o|ook|ng restra|nt |s a strut oon-
neoted to the mov|ng frame. lt prov|des add|t|ona| st|ffness to the assemb|y |n the d|reot|on of rotat|on
about the segment opt|oa| ax|s (o|ook|ng}. The oonneot|on of the az|mutha| pad oan be ohosen so as to
m|n|m|se the segment d|stort|on under grav|ty when the te|esoope |s po|nt|ng towards the hor|zon,
depend|ng |n wh|oh seotor the segment |s |nsta||ed.


Figure 3.73. The connection of the clocking restraint to the moving frame.

3.4.1.2.3 Moving frame
The ax|a| support, |atera| support, and o|ook|ng restra|nt are a|| attaohed to the mov|ng frame.


Figure 3.74. The moving frame.

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The mov|ng frame |s a sheet-meta| box struoture assemb|ed us|ng p|ug we|d|ng. The mater|a| used |s
sta|n|ess stee|. The sheet-meta| assemb|y a||ows the we|ght and oost of the struoture to be m|n|m|sed.


Figure 3.75. Left: The moving frame box structure. Right: Sheet-metal plug welding.

The mov|ng frame has three f|exures that prov|de an aoourate attaohment |nterfaoe w|th the f|xed frame.
These f|exures oonstra|n the |atera| and o|ook|ng mot|on and perm|t the p|ston/t|p-t||t mot|on of the seg-
ment assemb|y.


Figure 3.76. The moving frame flexures and moving frame assembly.

The mov|ng frame |no|udes three tubes and oon|oa| |nterfaoes wh|oh are used to hand|e the who|e seg-
ment assemb|y.

3.4.1.2.4 Warping harnesses
The segment assemb|y |no|udes n|ne shape aotuators and the warp|ng harness, wh|oh a||ow three aber-
rat|ons to be oorreoted: ourvature, ast|gmat|sm and trefo||. Those aberrat|ons are |nduoed by therma| and
grav|ty d|stort|ons of the segment assemb|y and of the te|esoope ma|n struoture, and by errors from
manufaotur|ng and test|ng.

The aotuators mod|fy the foroes app||ed by the ax|a| support to the segment by app|y|ng a torque at the
|ooat|on of the tr|pod p|vots.


Figure 3.77. The warping harness torque distribution and deformation mode shapes: focus, astigmatism, trefoil.

The moments are app||ed by rotat|ng a he||oo|da| spr|ng us|ng a s|mp|e stepper motor and gear box,
oonneoted between the tr|pods or between the f|xed frame and the ma|n tr|pods. A potent|ometer
measures the spr|ng rotat|on and henoe the torque amp||tude.

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Figure 3.78. Upper image: Warping harness. Lower image: Rotating helicoidal spring and potentiometer.
3.4.1.3 FlED FRAME
The f|xed frame oonneots the segment assemb|y to the te|esoope m|rror oe|| and houses the pos|t|on
aotuators. lt oonneots to the mov|ng frame through the pr|mary tr|pod f|exures and mov|ng frame f|ex-
ures. lt |no|udes a segment extraotor wh|oh a||ows the segment assemb|y to be ||fted above the pr|mary
m|rror to prov|de suff|o|ent o|earanoe to grab |t w|th the segment hand||ng too|.

The f|xed frame |s attaohed to the te|esoope ma|n struoture |s through the |ntegrat|on stage, wh|oh |s
used dur|ng te|esoope |ntegrat|on to adjust the pos|t|ons of the suboe||s a|ong s|x degrees of freedom
very aoourate|y, and so forms a referenoe for where to |ooate the segment assemb||es.


Figure 3.79. The fixed frame.
3.4.1.4 SEGMENT SPPORT PERFORMANOE SMMARY
The tota| mass of eaoh segment subun|t |s approx|mate|y 325 kg |no|ud|ng the pos|t|on aotuators, edge
sensors and the|r front-end e|eotron|os. The segment assemb|y aooounts for 245 kg.

The f|rst e|genfrequeno|es of the segment subun|t are |n the 3060 Hz range.

The segment surfaoe d|stort|on due to grav|ty |s 12 nm rms |atera|, 14 nm rms ax|a|.
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The segment surfaoe d|stort|on due to therma| ohanges |s 0.25 nm rms per O, wh|oh |s neg||g|b|e.

The ooup||ng between p|ston/t|p-t||t adjustment and segment shape |s neg||g|b|e, |n order of 2 nm rms.

The aoouraoy of oorreot|on of the segment shape var|at|on us|ng the oounterwe|ghts |s |n the order of
10 nm rms.

The warp|ng harness segment shape oorreot|on has a 2% re|at|ve aoouraoy.
3.4.2 SEGMENT ASSEMB|Y MANFAOTRlNG
3.4.2.1 PO|lSHlNG REOlREMENTS
The po||sh|ng speo|f|oat|on of the segment assemb|y po|nt|ng at the zen|th and |no|ud|ng the |ntegrat|on
on the support|ng struoture requ|res that a segment does not exoeed 100 nm rms max|mum wavefront
error and 50 nm rms wavefront averag|ng over a|| the segments. After oorreot|on of 85% of foous (Z3},
ast|gmat|sm (Z4 & Z5} and 85% of trefo|| (Z8 & Z9} by the warp|ng harness, the max|mum error w|||
reduoe to be|ng |ess than 30 nm rms wavefront and 15 nm rms wavefront on average.


Figure 3.80. Presentation of the segment errors.

The usefu| area of the segment |s def|ned as the po||shed area up to 10 mm from the edge w|th a goa| of
5 mm. The speo|f|oat|ons a||ow a max|mum wavefront error of 400 nm peak-to-va||ey |n th|s area and an
average of 200 nm. The |mpaot of th|s speo|f|oat|on on the phas|ng and |mage qua||ty has been
addressed |n the des|gn study. However, the po|nt may be moot as the prototyp|ng aot|v|t|es d|soussed
be|ow have |arge|y m|t|gated the po||sh|ng to the edge r|sks. The m|oro-roughness |s expeoted to be
be|ow 20 A.
3.4.2.2 PROOESS OvERvlEW
The base||ne manufaotur|ng p|an of a segment assemb|y def|ned dur|ng phase B |s shown be|ow.

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Figure 3.81. M1 segment assemblies figuring process.

The prooess |s summar|sed as fo||ows:

Prooure a o|rou|ar segment b|ank;
F|gur|ng phase 1: Pre-po||sh the o|rou|ar b|ank o|ose to |ts f|na| opt|oa| qua||ty;
F|gur|ng phase 2: Bond the pads, out the segment to |ts f|na| d|mens|ons, |ntegrate the segment
support and f|n|sh f|gur|ng the segment assemb|y by |on-m||||ng.

lon-m||||ng has the fo||ow|ng advantages:

Po||sh|ng o|rou|ar segments |eaves a s|gn|f|oant marg|n on the outer edge of the b|anks;
A |app|ng prooess, e|ther fu|| s|ze by stress m|rror f|gur|ng or by oomputer-oontro||ed po||sh|ng,
generates opt|oa| shape errors on the edges, suoh as turn-down or turn-up edges, or oomb|na-
t|ons of both form|ng S-shaped errors;
The segment opt|oa| surfaoe needs to be aoourate to the very near edges to avo|d errors when
phas|ng the pr|mary m|rror and to avo|d a |arge energy |oss and undes|red ||ght patterns;
For metre-s|ze opt|os, suoh errors are typ|oa||y a few oent|metres w|de. They are very d|ff|ou|t to
oorreot, both |n terms of metro|ogy and |n terms of prooess (h|gh s|opes, very |ooa| oorreot|ons}
and thus very t|me-oonsum|ng;
Work|ng a o|rou|ar segment a||ows these errors to be |ooated beyond the hexagona| opt|oa| sur-
faoe of the f|na| segment. The average marg|n on the edge |s 45 mm. Th|s marg|n |s suff|o|ent for
both oomputer-oontro||ed po||sh|ng and stressed m|rror po||sh|ng;
Outt|ng the segments to the|r f|na| hexagona| shape produoes a moderate |ow-order segment
d|stort|on (spr|ng|ng}, but neg||g|b|e edge |ooa| d|stort|on (hard|y deteoted by |ooa| |nterferometry}.

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Th|s prooess has been ver|f|ed on four segments made by SAGEM, made of Zerodur
TM
from Sohott (G},
|E
TM
from Oorn|ng (S}, S|ta||
TM
from |ZOS(R}. ln add|t|on to oorreot|ng the errors |eft by segment pre-
po||sh|ng and hex outt|ng, |on-m||||ng oan oorreot the d|stort|ons |nduoed by:

Grav|ty (zen|th po|nt|ng}, |no|ud|ng the d|stort|on |nduoed by the edge sensors;
lntegrat|on of the segment support (at room or operat|ona| average temperature};
lon-m||||ng does not produoe any edge res|dua|s s|noe |t |s not a meohan|oa| remova| prooess.
3.4.2.3 G|ASS PROOREMENT
The base||ne mater|a| for the pr|mary m|rror |s Sohott Zerodur. The tota| amount of Zerodur neoessary for
the E-E|T pr|mary m|rror |s s|gn|f|oant|y |ess than the |nsta||ed annua| produot|on oapao|ty of Sohott. Th|s
makes the produot|on of pr|mary substrate a non-or|t|oa| oomponent of the projeot.

The produot|on wou|d take p|aoe at Sohotts Ma|nz faotory and the annea||ng ovens are a|ready |n p|aoe.
The f|rst segments wou|d be de||vered to the projeot w|th|n a few months of the order. Suff|o|ent Zerodur
ex|sts on stook to a||ow ear|y produot|on runs to take p|aoe.

The produot|on |s sohedu|ed for four and a ha|f years w|th 50 segments be|ng de||vered |n the f|rst year
and 250 the seoond. ln the fo||ow|ng three years approx|mate|y a segment w||| be de||vered every day of
the year to make the tota| of 931 d|sos.


Figure 3.82. Left: Annealing facility at Schott in Mainz. Right: Sample boule.

The speo|f|oat|on for the g|ass has been agreed w|th the po||shers. The opt|oa| surfaoe w||| be f|n|shed to
D35 wh||e the other surfaoes w||| be ao|d etohed to remove subsurfaoe damage oaused by the maoh|n|ng
prooess that extraots the segment from the bou|e.


Figure 3.83. Segment blank dimensions.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 105
3.4.2.4 PHASE 1 ASPHERlO GRlNDlNG AND PRE-PO|lSHlNG
3.4.2.4.1 High precision grinding SAO
SAO |s a propr|etary prooess deve|oped by Sagem, based on oomputer-oontro||ed abras|ve f|u|d jet
gr|nd|ng. lt has been suooessfu||y used for the fabr|oat|on of the segments for the GTO.

The remova| and oonvergenoe rates of the SAO prooess are good enough to aspher|se one segment per
day on average. The subsurfaoe damage |eft by the prooess |s |ow, typ|oa||y |ess than 10 m, and there
are no ousp res|dua|s |eft on the surfaoe. A fast f|ne gr|nd|ng by oomputer-oontro||ed |app|ng |s neoes-
sary after SAO prooess|ng, typ|oa||y a few hours. The f|na| shape error has been shown to be of order
0.21.0 m rms.
3.4.2.4.2 High precision grinding Box grinder
The Box gr|nder deve|oped at Oranf|e|d n|vers|ty |s a h|gh preo|s|on three-ax|s gr|nd|ng maoh|ne.

A vert|oa||y arranged Z ||near ax|s subsystem oarr|es a f|xed |no||nat|on gr|nd|ng sp|nd|e. The Z-ax|s |s
mounted w|th|n a hor|zonta| X ||near ax|s oarr|age. A |arge rotary C-ax|s tab|e |s emp|oyed to ho|d the
m|rror. The gr|nd|ng sp|nd|e |s t||ted at a f|xed 20-degree ang|e to enab|e maoh|n|ng of free-form opt|os of
s|ope up to 18 degrees. Th|s max|mum s|ope |s su|tab|e for the E-E|T segment surfaoes.

The Box gr|nder has a bu||t-|n measurement prof||ometer emp|oy|ng a non-stressed metro|ogy frame and
a form aoouraoy of 1 m peak-to-va||ey |s targeted w|th m|n|ma| |eve|s of |nduoed subsurfaoe damage.

Gr|nd|ng |s performed by suooess|ve rough to f|ne outs. The |nterna| metro|ogy of the maoh|ne a||ows the
segment shape to be measured a|ong rad||. At the ourrent stage of maoh|ne deve|opment, a measure-
ment of the segment surfaoe us|ng a 3D-ooord|nate measur|ng maoh|ne |s requ|red to prov|de the feed-
baok and aoh|eve the f|na| aoouraoy. The reoent resu|ts obta|ned on E-E|T prototype segments show
that a f|na| shape aoouraoy of a few m|orometres peak-to-va||ey oan be aoh|eved. The tota| prooess|ng
t|me to maoh|ne a segment |s 20 hours, a|though th|s oan be brought down to o|oser to 10 hours by fo|-
|ow|ng up on |mprovements ar|s|ng from the ear|y work on E-E|T segments.

The subsurfaoe damage has been measured to be 510 m |tra |ow Expans|on (|E} g|ass. The
maoh|n|ng |eaves ousps of 0.1 m over spat|a| soa|es of a few m||||metres. The oomb|nat|on of the sub-
surfaoe damage and the ousps |mp||es that a post-generat|ng pre-gr|nd|ng |s neoessary.


Figure 3.84. Cranfield Box machine.
3.4.2.4.3 Bonnet pre-polishing
Pre-po||sh|ng |s performed us|ng raster soans w|th fast po||sh|ng bonnets, oomb|ned w|th a few runs of
oomputer-oontro||ed p|toh |app|ng to get the requ|red surfaoe smoothness.

D|fferent prooesses are ava||ab|e: OARP (Sagem}, preoess|on bonnet po||sh|ng (Zeeko}, and s|m||ar ones
from other vendors.
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106 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Bonnet po||sh|ng has a good oonvergenoe rate and qu|te a h|gh remova| rate. The prooess |s fu||y auto-
mated and |s not operator dependent.

The prooess has been demonstrated by Sagem and OpTlO |n the fabr|oat|on of prototype segments for
the E-E|T. ln o|osed |oop the wavefront error has been shown to be 100200 nm rms wh||e the surfaoe
roughness |s at the nanometre |eve|, as |s the subsurfaoe damage.


Figure 3.85. Large-scale Zeeko polishing machine at Optic Glyndwr.
3.4.2.4.4 Stressed mirror polishing
The pr|no|p|e of Stressed M|rror Po||sh|ng (SMP} |s der|ved from the methods used to produoe Sohm|dt
p|ates: the d|so |s bent to the negat|ve requ|red f|na| shape, maoh|ned, ground and po||shed spher|oa|.

S|noe the bent d|so |s po||shed spher|oa|, the gr|nd|ng and po||sh|ng oan be performed us|ng fu||- or |arge-
s|ze |aps, oonverg|ng to the f|na| shape and roughness very rap|d|y. s|ng fu||-s|ze |aps, the qua||ty of the
opt|oa| surfaoe |s very smooth, w|th no r|pp|es and very |ow amount of h|gh spat|a| frequenoy errors. The
SMP prooess was suooessfu||y used to produoe the Keok segments.

At the t|me of wr|t|ng, SMP |s be|ng tested by severa| vendors on fu||-soa|e E-E|T prototype segments:
T|ns|ey (S}, |AM (|aborato|re dAstrophys|que de Marse|||e, F} |n oo||aborat|on w|th Tha|es-SESO (F},
and Sagem (F}.


Figure 3.86. Left & centre: The stress mirror fixture from Tinsley. Right: Segment residuals from the Tinsley process
(3 -m peak) (hexagonal extract from oversized polished surface).

Th|s |s a va||dated and h|gh|y eff|o|ent prooess w|th ex|st|ng too|s. The prototype stud|es a|m to oonf|rm
the aoouraoy the prooess oan aoh|eve, and the way |t oan be rep||oated for mass produot|on.

Prototyp|ng of segments us|ng these too|s has a|so been performed by TMT and surfaoe errors of
1.2 m (after remova| of |ow-order terms} have been aoh|eved. Better resu|ts have been reported to the
projeot but not as yet pub||shed.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 107
3.4.2.4.5 Phase 1 baseline
The projeot base||ne |s that phase 1, pre-po||sh|ng, and phase 2, |ntegrat|on and f|n|sh|ng, shou|d be
taken over by a s|ng|e supp||er.

However the projeot oons|ders that a|| these supp||ers oan be offered the opt|on to b|d for the f|rst stage
work. The sohedu|e estab||shed assumes that one or more supp||ers w||| be work|ng on aspher|s|ng the
segments and that th|s may |no|ude the supp||er of the f|n|sh|ng.
3.4.2.5 PHASE 2 FlNlSHlNG THE SEGMENTS
3.4.2.5.1 Cutting
The segments are maoh|ned |nto the|r hexagona| shape us|ng oonvent|ona| f|xed abras|ve gr|nd|ng on a
Oomputer|sed Numer|oa| Oontro| (ONO} maoh|ne. F|rst a gr|nd|ng d|so outs the segment edge down to
1.5 mm from the baok surfaoe. The outer part |s then broken off by hand. ln a seoond step the segment
edges are maoh|ned us|ng a surfao|ng too| and f|na||y the 1 mm ohamfer |s maoh|ned on the front sur-
faoe, and the 3 mm 3 mm ohamfer on the baok surfaoe. The |ooat|on of the segment (the oorners} w|th
respeot to the g|oba| ooord|nate system |s better than 0.1 mm for the |ooat|on and the surfaoe f|n|sh |s
D64 w|th a f|atness of about 20 m.


Figure 3.87. Segment cutting and measured segment distortion after cutting (s1/blue Zerodur, s3b/yellowAstrosital,
s2/red & s4/cyan ULE).

W|th the exoept|on of one d|so no s|gn|f|oant d|stort|on appeared after outt|ng the prototype segments.
lnterferometr|o maps of the edges do not show any |ooa| effeots ar|s|ng from the outt|ng.


Figure 3.88. Interferometric measurements of the edge of one the segments. The effect on the lower side of the im-
age is a polishing residual and not related to the cutting (cut edge is on top).

3.4.2.5.2 Finishing
For f|n|sh|ng the segments the |on-beam prooess |s oons|dered as the base||ne. Th|s has been va||dated
at two supp||ers, Sagem (Franoe} funded by ESO and lTT (S} funded by the TMT projeot.

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108 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The segment support |s |ntegrated w|th the segment to form the segment assemb|y. The who|e segment
assemb|y |s vaouum oompat|b|e, |no|ud|ng the warp|ng harness oomponents. Henoe there |s no need to
d|smount any oomponent before |on-m||||ng the opt|oa| surfaoe or |ater for ref|eot|ve ooat|ng when |n
operat|on.

The f|n|sh|ng prooess has been fu||y demonstrated on four prototype segment assemb||es: the prooess |s
most|y ||m|ted by the metro|ogy, the reg|strat|on of the segment w|th respeot to the maoh|ne, and by the
h|gh spat|a| frequenoy errors |eft on the opt|oa| surfaoe by the prev|ous po||sh|ng steps. The |on-beam
s|ze ||m|ts the oorreot|on to typ|oa||y 2550 mm spat|a| per|ods. lon-beam prooess|ng |s h|gh|y determ|n-
|st|o and has oonvergenoe rates of 85%.

The |on-beam prooess has a base||ne remova| rate of typ|oa||y 2050 mm
3
hour
-1
. H|gher rates are |n
pr|no|p|e aoh|evab|e; the prooess w||| be further opt|m|sed dur|ng oonstruot|on.

Two |terat|ons as a m|n|mum w|th the |on-beam f|n|sher are p|anned. The f|rst run |s expeoted to |ast 10
15 hours wh||e the subsequent runs are p|anned at approx|mate|y two hours.

lon-beam f|gur|ng de||vers the f|na| segment w|th the pr|nt-through and d|stort|ons |nduoed by the |nte-
grat|on of the segment support removed.
3.4.2.6 METRO|OGY
For the generat|on of the aspher|o surfaoe a oommero|a| 3D-Ooord|nate Measur|ng Maoh|ne (OMM} w|||
be used. At the pre-po||sh|ng and po||sh|ng stages a non-oontaot opt|oa| prof||ometer w||| be ut|||sed. lt
oompr|ses s|x or more opt|oa| sensors on a rad|a| bar above the segment, wh|oh |n turn rests upon a
rotat|ng tab|e. The oomb|nat|on of sensor trans|at|on and segment rotat|on |s used to soan the who|e
segment surfaoe. A measurement t|me of 15 m|nutes |s foreseen. The sensors oan measure e|ther po|-
|shed or f|ne ground surfaoes and therefore both the ear|y and |ate stages of the aspher|sat|on oan be
mon|tored us|ng the same maoh|ne to an aoouraoy of be|ow 2.5 m peak-to-va||ey surfaoe error.

The system w||| be oa||brated us|ng a referenoe sphere, a|ready produoed dur|ng the manufaotur|ng of
the prototype segments and oross-oheoked aga|nst a referenoe segment kept as a datum dur|ng pro-
duot|on.


Figure 3.89. Left: 3D-Coordinate Measuring Machine. The baseline optical profilometer to be used during
aspherisation. Right: The metrology whiffletree.

Dur|ng the aspher|sat|on the segment |s st||| o|rou|ar and a ded|oated metro|ogy wh|ff|etree has been bu||t
to support the segment. The metro|ogy wh|ff|etree has 27 po|nts and |nterfaoes to the segment at the
same |ooat|ons as the f|na| support. Oounterwe|ghts oompensate the d|fferenoe |n mass d|str|but|on
between the metro|ogy wh|ff|etree and f|na| support. The d|fferenoe between the metro|ogy wh|ff|etree
and the f|na| support aooounts for 50 nm surfaoe error to be removed |n the f|na| |on-beam runs.

Dur|ng produot|on, for the f|na| |on-beam f|n|sh|ng, Sagem proposes that the metro|ogy |s prov|ded by a
F|zeau matr|x test. The test setup for th|s has been deve|oped by the n|vers|ty of Ar|zona m|rror |ab.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 109

Figure 3.90. Sagems (Arizona mirror lab) proposed test setup for final production.

The oonoept of the test setup |s that a referenoe wavefront |s generated from the oonvex surfaoe of the
test p|ate and |nterferes w|th the wavefront return|ng from the oonoave opt|oa| surfaoe of the segment.
Phase sh|ft |s oreated |n the |nterferenoe oav|ty by mov|ng the test p|ate us|ng p|ezo-aotuators. The |nter-
ferenoe pattern |s |maged on a OOD (Oharged Ooup|ed Dev|oe} and used to reoonstruot the wavefront
error of the segment us|ng phase unwrapp|ng methods.

A oommon 60 mm d|ameter Oomputer-Generated Ho|ogram (OGH}, used |n zeroth order, shapes the
beam to oorreot both the referenoe and the test wavefront. A seoond measurement OGH, a|so 60 mm |n
d|ameter and used |n f|rst order, shapes the beam to oorreot on|y the test wavefront. The referenoe and
test wavefronts |nterfere |n a oommon path after ref|eot|on on the test p|ate and the segment, and the
pattern |s |maged on a OOD oamera.

The two OGHs oan be engraved as a s|ng|e pattern on the same substrate.

The fu||-aperture F|zeau test ensures that ourvature matoh|ng between the segments |s managed. The
dom|nant ourvature error oomes from the var|at|on of the spao|ng between the oonvex surfaoe of the test
p|ate and the segment. ln the des|gn adopted, an unoerta|nty of 0.1 mm oauses about 1 nm rms foous
surfaoe error. ln add|t|on, the effeots of turbu|enoe |n the env|ronment of the test are expeoted to be
neg||g|b|e as the |nterferenoe oav|ty |s on|y a few tens of m||||metres |n |ength.

The test p|ate has a spher|oa| referenoe surfaoe and oan be eas||y oa||brated in situ, us|ng a master
spher|oa| oonoave m|rror. The oa||brat|on prooess measures the master m|rror at d|fferent or|entat|ons
(o|ook|ng} and de-oentred pos|t|ons.

The error budget for the test setup aooounts for a number of souroes |no|ud|ng the overa|| a||gnment,
fabr|oat|on errors |n the oomponents of the test setup, oa||brat|on errors and res|dua|s from spur|ous
ref|eot|ons and no|se. The error budget prov|des for 29 nm rms overa|| wavefront and 10 nm res|dua|
wavefront after remova| of the foous, ast|gmat|sm and trefo|| as a||owed by the speo|f|oat|on.

The opt|on to test the segments at the operat|ng temperature has been oons|dered but at th|s t|me, g|ven
the test setup d|mens|ons, not oons|dered v|ab|e. A||owanoes for Ooeff|o|ent of Therma| Expans|on (OTE}
var|at|ons, pad bond|ng adhes|ves, segment support therma| d|stort|ons and ooat|ng stresses have been
made |n the budget for the warp|ng harnesses oorreot|on oapab|||t|es.
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110 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
3.4.3 SEGMENT PROTOTYPES
ln preparat|on for the oonstruot|on proposa| Sagem, Opt|o G|yndwr, |aborato|re dAstrophys|que
Marse|||e and |3-oom (T|ns|ey} have a|| been oontraoted to eva|uate teohno|og|es and |n some oases
de||ver prototype segments at d|fferent f|n|sh|ng |eve|s.

Sagem has re||ed |n part on ex|st|ng |nfrastruotures and some new too|k|ts to demonstrate the|r ab|||ty to
de||ver segments meet|ng the speo|f|oat|ons, wh||e at the same t|me prototyp|ng produot|on.

The f|rst two stages of the Sagem prooess are shown be|ow. Rap|d aspher|sat|on fo||owed by pre-
po||sh|ng.


Figure 3.91. Apherising and pre-polishing at Sagem.


Figure 3.92. Medium-sized tool smoothing and cutting before ion-beam touching up.

lt has been demonstrated dur|ng prototyp|ng that outt|ng the segments does not produoe edge res|dua|s
and that the segment warp|ng after out |s fu||y oompat|b|e w|th |on-beam f|gur|ng. The f|rst four segments
at SAGEM have shown |ow spat|a| frequenoy d|stort|ons w|th amp||tudes of order 100 nm rms wavefront
or |ess.


Figure 3.93. The first segment with Sagem personnel proudly surrounding it.

The who|e produot|on sequenoe has been fo||owed, from b|ank proourement to |on-beam f|gur|ng. Three
prototype segments have been |ntegrated after hex outt|ng on segment supports prov|ded by TNO and
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 111
OESA. After |on-f|gur|ng the segment assemb||es a|| have po||sh|ng res|dua|s |ess than 14 nm rms wave-
front error.
3.4.4 AOTATORS
Three pos|t|on aotuators move the wh|ff|etree, and oonsequent|y the segment, |n p|ston and t|p-t||t. The
aotuators are requ|red to have suff|o|ent stroke to repos|t|on the segment to |ts nom|na| pos|t|on oom-
pensat|ng for the def|eot|ons of the under|y|ng te|esoope struoture. ln add|t|on, the aotuators need to pro-
v|de the reso|ut|on and aoouraoy neoessary for phas|ng the pr|mary m|rror |n the presenoe of d|sturb-
anoes. These are dom|nated by the w|nd aoross the front surfaoe of the pr|mary m|rror and poss|b|e
v|brat|ons ar|s|ng from maoh|nery e|ther d|reot|y under the segments or transm|tted through the struoture
to the pr|mary segments. For the w|nd we have assumed 1.6 ms
-1
for the speed aoross the pr|mary and
a von Karman speotrum. The v|brat|ons are s|mu|ated by |njeot|ng 5 g/Hz |nto the struoture. Th|s va|ue
has been determ|ned from the measured aooe|erat|ons at the n|t Te|esoopes (Ts} at Parana| and |s
oons|dered a oonservat|ve number.

The ana|ys|s shows that oorre|ated exo|tat|ons oan resu|t |n wavefront errors as h|gh as 160 nm rms
before the adapt|ve opt|os |oop. These exo|tat|ons are a|ways at re|at|ve|y |ow tempora| frequeno|es w|th
the |ntegrated amp||tude above 40 Hz (up to 500 Hz} be|ng be|ow 1 nm. The exo|tat|ons are |n |ow spat|a|
frequeno|es w|th 5 nm wavefront error be|ng aooounted for by a|| modes beyond the f|rst 64 modes of
the ent|re pr|mary m|rror.


Figure 3.94. PSD of the primary mirror segments from vibration analysis.

The aotuator |s based on a h|gh-bandw|dth vo|oe-oo|| aotuator |n ser|es w|th a grav|ty off-|oad|ng e|eotro-
meohan|oa| stage. An enooder |s used to o|ose the |ooa| |oop. The |ayout of the aotuator |s shown |n the
two f|gures be|ow that |dent|fy the key oomponents of the des|gn:


Figure 3.95. Layout of the actuator.

The aotuator oonneot|on to the |nterfaoe w|th the segment support (01} |s dr|ven through the vo|oe-oo||
aotuator (101} that |s housed (108} between two |eaf spr|ngs (02}. The ooarse stage |s dr|ven by a brush-
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112 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
|ess motor though a gearbox and a rotary enooder (assemb|y 100}. ||near gu|des (107} oonstra|n the |at-
era| movements and rotat|on (13}. Two m|orosw|tohes (106} ||m|t the trave| of the ooarse stage to 17 mm.

The prototype systems have used a Maxon motor and gearbox w|th a 50:1 reduot|on faotor wh|oh re-
duoes the power demand of the aotuator. A rotary enooder |s |no|uded |n the system w|th 500 steps per
revo|ut|on. The rotary enooder |s used to oontro| the speed |oop of the off|oad|ng stage. The gearbox
requ|res a pre|oaded sorew to avo|d baok|ash, |ntroduo|ng some oontro| oha||enges |n a ho|d|ng pos|t|on.
ln produot|on the aotuator oou|d use a harmon|o dr|ve thereby reduo|ng th|s r|sk.

The oomb|nat|on of a |ead sorew (2 mm p|toh} and a nut |n the dr|ve shaft of the aotuator ensures that the
system |s not susoept|b|e to s|gn|f|oant movements shou|d the power be removed from the aotuator.

ln the prototype system enood|ng |s performed us|ng a He|denha|n sensor w|th subnanometre reso|ut|on
and an abso|ute aoouraoy over 10 mm trave| of 250 nm and, over short trave|s of 100 nm of 6 nm. The
He|denha|n enooder |s oonneoted to the output shaft d|reot|y and oan be used to oompensate for oontro|
errors as we|| as other perturbat|ons.

Two f|at spr|ngs are used to prov|de ax|a| f|ex|b|||ty to the vo|oe oo|| wh||e restra|n|ng |t |atera||y. nder the
operat|ng |oad of 880 N these a|um|n|um spr|ngs def|eot by approx|mate|y 3 mm and the max|mum
|nduoed stress |s 192 MPa.


Figure 3.96. Analysis of the flat springs under operational loads.

The |atera| d|sp|aoements under |oad are very sma|| (8 8m for a 50 N |oad} ensur|ng that the pos|t|on
aotuators on|y aot ax|a||y w|th respeot to the baok surfaoe. The overa|| performanoe s|mu|at|on of the
segment subun|t takes |nto aooount a|| three aotuators.


Figure 3.97. The model used for the analysis of the influence of the actuator stiffness and the seventh eigenmode of
the support including the actuators at 1620 Hz.

The f|rst three modes of the segment un|t |n th|s oonf|gurat|on are found at 8 Hz and 13 Hz t|p-t||t and
p|ston respeot|ve|y about the x- and y-axes. These modes oan be oontro||ed by the aotuators. H|gher
order modes that wou|d |ntroduoe |atera| or tors|ona| errors |nto the subun|t are above 43 Hz.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 113
The pos|t|on aotuator has two operat|ng reg|mes. S|ew|ng (presett|ng} speed of 250 ms
-1
that |s used to
repos|t|on the segments after a preset of the te|esoope to a new target and a traok|ng rate of 1.2 ms
-1
.
The reg|mes are used to oa|ou|ate ||fet|me and Mean T|me Between Fa||ures (MTBFs} for the aotuators
and the power oonsumpt|on of the un|ts.

The aotuator power oonsumpt|on by oomponents w|th|n the hous|ng |s oons|dered or|t|oa| as |t resu|ts |n
heat d|ss|pat|on d|reot|y under the segment. Power that |s oonsumed by dr|ve e|eotron|os and prooess|ng
and that oan be at some d|stanoe from the segment may be ooo|ed. The power oonsumpt|on, dur|ng the
preset, |s dom|nated by the brush|ess motor that uses just under 1 W and the tota| power |s just under
1.2 W, |no|ud|ng the enooder readout. An add|t|ona| 1.4 W |s taken by the dr|ve e|eotron|os. ln traok|ng
(where the pos|t|on aotuator spends the most t|me} the power oonsumpt|on |s st||| dom|nated by the
brush|ess motor but |s now just under 0.3 W. The tota| oonsumpt|on, |no|ud|ng the vo|oe oo|| and enood-
ers |s just be|ow 0.6 W.

The prototype systems are under test and are show|ng prom|s|ng resu|ts.


Figure 3.98. Lab measurements of the actuator tracking a ramp of 100 nms
-1
over several minutes. Left: Snapshot of
the absolute measurement using the internal Heidenhain encoder. Right. The residual of 7.31 nm rms, including the
major contributions from the lab environment.


Figure 3.99. Measured closed-loop transfer function of the actuator with an equivalent segment mass attached.

The prototype system has been shown to be oompat|b|e w|th off-the-she|f systems suoh as Pl by
Nat|ona| lnstruments and the projeot does not expeot (see seot|on on Oontro|} to need to deve|op any
hardware to dr|ve the aotuators.
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 113 16/12/2011 18:32

114 Technical Overview | E-ELT Construction Proposal

3.4.5 EDGE SENSORS
Inductive edge sensors from micro-Epsilon form the baseline for the project. The sensors detect piston,
gap and shear. The requirements on the edge sensors are to be able to measure piston with a resolution
of 0.5 nm over a range of 200 m with a repeatability of 1 nm and a noise level of 1 nm/Hz. The shear
and gap measurements are required to have a resolution of 1 m and an operation range of 1 mm with
a repeatability of 10 m. In addition, to enable the fast integration of new or recoated segments into the
primary mirror, the edge sensors have a capture range of 1 mm with a somewhat reduced resolution of
10 nm. Long-term stability, affected mostly by environmental conditions, is important in order to keep the
calibration time of the telescope to a minimum.

Of particular concern to the project has been the maintainability of the edge sensor system. With over
6000 pairs installed on the segments and an average of two segment exchange operations per day the
risk of damage to glued blocks of glass on the segments has been considered high. The baseline
approach is to establish an accurate interface on the backside of the mirror and to attach and detach the
edge sensors. The advantage is that the edge sensor is protected while the disadvantage is that the
installation accuracy of the edge sensors becomes more challenging.

The edge sensors consist of the calibrated pair of sensors (an emitter with a single with ceramic boron
nitride coil and a receiver with two coils). The sensors are mounted on the back side of the segment
using an adjustment system, also ceramic, that permits all six degrees of freedom to be modified. Boron
nitride has a similar density to glass and a low thermal expansion coefficient. It is however, significantly
cheaper and easier to work with than glass ceramics. The entire design is metal free. All coils are made
of low temperature co-fired ceramics with embedded silver palladium conduction paths.


Figure 3.100. Left: Edge sensor components. Right: Prototype edge sensor devices.

The electronics are built into the receiver system and a digital output is generated. Electrically and elec-
tronically the edge sensors are by design capable of delivering the required performance. The prototype
systems have been measured electrically against a fixed interface and the performance meets ESO
specifications.

pp noise at
1000 Hz

in nm
rms noise at
1000 Hz

in nm
Resolution
in nm/Hz (@11000 Hz)
ESO resolution
requirements
in nm
Piston 1
(measuring)
14 4.8 0.440 < 0.5 1
Piston 2
(capture)
70 22 2.21 < 10
Gap 86 28 2.72 < 1000
Shear 38 14 1.20 < 1000
Table 3.6. Piston, shear and gap noise measurements from the prototype edge sensors.

The uncalibrated sensors are already linear to 0.2% and with a simple second order polynomial reach the
absolute linearity requirements of 0.1%. Additionally the crosstalk between gap and shear and gap and
piston are also very close to the specifications before calibration.
114.pdf 1 16/12/2011 19:13
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 115

Figure 3.101. Piston, shear and gap noise measurements from the prototype edge sensors.


Figure 3.102. The linearity measurements of the edge sensors.

The temperature stab|||ty of the dev|oe has been measured |n a o||mat|o ohamber and has been shown to
be < 100 nm for a 10
o
O ohange, |n oomp||anoe w|th the upper range of the ESO speo|f|oat|on of 5
10 nm/
o
O. The stab|||ty of the e|eotron|os a|ready at the prototype Pr|nted O|rou|t Board (POB} stage |s
very o|ose to ESOs requ|rements and the f|na| oeram|o e|eotron|o board |s expeoted to further |mprove
these va|ues. By mov|ng the e|eotron|os on board the edge sensor and prov|d|ng a d|g|ta| output the
edge sensors beoome a re|at|ve|y eas||y rep|aoeab|e and oontro||ab|e oomponent. The drawbaok |s that
an add|t|ona| 0.5 W per edge sensor are d|ss|pated |n o|ose prox|m|ty w|th the segment (400 mW |n the
ana|ogue readout and 100 mW for d|g|t|sat|on}.

The oho|oe of pa|red sensors does prov|de some oomp||oat|ons w|th respeot to mount|ng prooedures
and a||gnment that are addressed be|ow. The |ntegrat|on of the edge sensors onto the segments and the
|ong-term stab|||ty and reproduo|b|||ty of the meohan|os has reoe|ved muoh attent|on.


Figure 3.103. The groundplate mounted on the baseplate and adjustment mechanism.

The edge sensors have to be removab|e from the segment for reooat|ng or due to damage. ln add|t|on
the aoouraoy requ|red of the sensors |mp||es that the therma| expans|on of any g|ue used to mount the
sensor on to the g|ass wou|d v|o|ate the stab|||ty speo|f|oat|ons.

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116 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
These |ssues are addressed |n the des|gn of the mount of the edge sensors. A oeram|o ra||, the
basep|ate, |s g|ued onto the segment, referenoed to the pads that def|ne the geometry. A oeram|o oar-
r|age, the groundp|ate, |s then mounted on the ra|| and |s pre-|oaded push|ng aga|nst the g|ass substrate.
The foroe requ|red |s m|n|ma| as the pre|oad on|y oompensates for the expans|on of the g|ue. Abso|ute
metro|ogy us|ng a ONO maoh|ne def|nes the |nterfaoe of the oarr|age w|th respeot to the front surfaoe of
the m|rror. The sensor p|ate |s then mounted on the groundp|ate ensur|ng the abso|ute repeatab|||ty of
the system.

The em|tt|ng sensor p|ate |s |ooated on the groundp|ate us|ng a pos|t|on|ng stop and a oentr|ng p|n. The
reoe|ver |s oentred us|ng two ohamfers and a spr|ng.


Figure 3.104. Emitter and receiver sensor-plate mounting on the groundplate.

ln oomb|nat|on w|th the exoept|ona| aoouraoy of the edge sensors the preo|se mount|ng shou|d perm|t a
rap|d |ntegrat|on of segments after reooat|ng |nto the te|esoope opt|oa| system.

The prooedure for the |nsta||at|on of the basep|ate ra||s on the segments has been estab||shed by m|oro-
Eps||on together w|th ESO and has been |terated w|th Sagem who have attaohed the edge sensor
basep|ates on four of the po||shed segments w|th exoe||ent preo|s|on (~ 20 9m abso|ute w|th referenoe to
the segment ooord|nate system}.


Figure 3.105. Baseplate prototype integration at Sagem.
3.4.6 M1 OONTRO| STRATEGlES
The pr|mary m|rror oontro| strategy has been deve|oped, tak|ng |nto aooount w|nd d|sturbanoes, sensor
no|se (edge sensor and the embedded pos|t|on aotuator sensors}, ohang|ng grav|ty, therma| expans|on
and v|brat|ons.

Severa| oontro| strateg|es were eva|uated at ESO and by an externa| study w|th the n|vers|ty of ||ege. ln
the trade-off ana|ys|s between g|oba|, moda|, |ooa| and the |TSl (||near T|me and Spaoe lnvar|ant} moda|
oontro| forms the base||ne. W|th|n th|s base||ne the segments are oommanded |n p|stont|p-t||t to reduoe
oross-ooup||ng at the segment |eve|. For the deve|opment of the oontro| strategy the pos|t|on aotuators
were assumed to have h|gh st|ffness. The stab|||ty ana|ys|s was subsequent|y undertaken show|ng that a
var|ety of aotuators (soft or hard} oou|d be used w|th|n th|s oontext. The edge sensor |oop used a
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 117
moda| oontro| w|th |ow bandw|dth at |ow spat|a| frequeno|es that suppresses the poss|b|e amp||f|oat|on of
no|se from the edge sensors. The h|gh spat|a| frequenoy modes of the pr|mary are oontro||ed w|th a 3 Hz
bandw|dth.

Figure 3.106. Closed loop control, different controllers for different spatial frequencies.

Any strategy that addresses 798 m|rrors w|th a|most 2500 aotuators and 5000 pa|rs of edge sensors
needs to be |nvest|gated for robustness. Four or|t|oa| effeots have been oons|dered. The segments are
not |nf|n|te|y st|ff and |n part|ou|ar the support|ng wh|ff|etrees have e|genfrequeno|es at the 35 Hz |eve|.
The edge sensors w||| exh|b|t no|se at a |eve| of 1 nm/Hz and the reso|ut|on and no|se of the pos|t|on
aotuators taken |nto aooount. The ourrent speo|f|oat|on of 1.7 nm rms traok|ng error enoompasses the
sensor no|se as we|| as the off|oad between the ooarse and f|ne stages of the aotuator. F|na||y the
unoerta|nty |n the |nteraot|on matr|x oan |ead to |nstab|||t|es. A study oomm|ss|oned by the projeot off|oe
w|th the n|vers|ty of ||ege has shown that by |ntroduo|ng a |eakage term |nto the system (effeot|ve|y a
|ow-frequenoy |ow-pass f||ter |n the p|aoe of an |ntegra| ga|n term} the robustness of a moda| oontro|
soheme oan be |mproved s|gn|f|oant|y.

S|mu|at|ons of the proposed soheme w|th rea||st|o data for the st|ffness of the pos|t|on aotuators and the
d|sturbanoes of the system have shown that the performanoe requ|rements of 10 nm rms wavefront after
the oorreot|on by the adapt|ve m|rrors oan be met. Before the oorreot|on of |ow- and m|d-spat|a| fre-
quenoy errors by the adapt|ve m|rror the res|dua|s are of order 600 nm and therefore we|| w|th|n the
range of the adapt|ve m|rror to oontro|.

By adopt|ng the moda| oontro|, the st|ff segments oan be dr|ven to prov|de good w|nd rejeot|on even for
the re|at|ve|y sma|| bandw|dth of the edge sensor |oop. ln add|t|on, the poor observab|||ty of |ow spat|a|
frequenoy modes by the edge sensor |oop oan be taken |nto aooount w|thout saor|f|o|ng the performanoe
for a|| soa|es. The under|y|ng assumpt|on |s that the pos|t|on aotuators support|ng the segments oan be
st|ffened w|th respeot to the baoks|de struoture by oontro| |n the oase of the adopted base||ne soft pos|-
t|on aotuator
**
.

Two s|gn|f|oant oonoerns that need to be addressed: f|rst the |ow bandw|dth |n the oontro| of poor|y ob-
servab|e modes and the re|ated |norease of res|dua|s at these modes, and, seoond, the |nduoed d|sturb-
anoe of the segment by the baok struoture.


**
For a hard aotuator th|s |s not an |ssue.
C
11
x
PTT
-
lM
y
edge
noise
CM
2
CM
1
y
PTT
No_edge
ES Noise level
Svu: lM = u*S*v'
CM = v* (S
-1
u')
CM
1
= v, CM
2
= S
-1
u'
2
2
1
1
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
C
C
C
C

1/s
2
Lead L 1/s L Caln
C
1
C
2
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 117 16/12/2011 18:32
118 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 3.107. Frequency distribution of WFE (before and after adaptive correction).

For both oonoerns s|mu|at|ons have oonf|rmed that the |norease |n the Wavefront Error (WFE} |s ma|n|y at
|ow spat|a| and tempora| frequeno|es. These frequenoy reg|ons are we|| matohed by the rejeot|on ohar-
aoter|st|os of the quaternary m|rror. The prov|s|on of th|s stroke |s taken |nto aooount |n the budget of
quaternary.

For both the pos|t|on aotuator and the edge sensor feedbaok |oops, a theoret|oa| stab|||ty and robustness
ana|ys|s was oonduoted oons|der|ng the fu|| |nteraot|on of the system |no|ud|ng the under|y|ng support
struoture of the te|esoope. The stab|||ty of both |oops oan be demonstrated us|ng a or|ter|on emp|oy|ng a
s|m||ar|ty transformat|on

.


Figure 3.108. Stability analysis for position actuator and edge sensor loops (Nyquist curves).

The performanoe of the pos|t|on aotuators both |n the soft and hard opt|ons was eva|uated and oom-
pared. The performanoe numbers for w|nd |oad rejeot|on were found to be s|m||ar for both. ln terms of
robustness the hard aotuator was found to be better as the bandw|dth neoessary for oontro| |n the pos|-
t|on aotuator |oop |s |ower than the equ|va|ent |n the soft aotuator oase. However, for the purposes of
rejeot|ng v|brat|ons the use of a soft aotuator |s advantageous as |ts dynam|oa| st|ffness |s |ower at h|gher
frequeno|es. Espeo|a||y around 50 Hz, resonanoes w||| be better damped and the pr|mary m|rror system
w||| be |ess sens|t|ve to narrowband v|brat|ons.

The oontro| of the pr|mary m|rror p|ston kerne| |s managed through the |ntroduot|on of gap and shear
measurements |n the edge sensor |oop. s|ng these add|t|ona| edge sensor outputs the p|ston beoomes
observab|e and error propagat|on due to segment |n-p|ane d|sp|aoements oan be avo|ded. The edge

11
The sma|| ga|n theorem known from robust oontro| theory oou|d be app||ed to the edge sensor |oop as we||, but wou|d fa|| for the
pos|t|on aotuator |oop ana|ys|s. The proposed so|ut|on |s robust for both the edge sensor and the pos|t|on aotuator |oops.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 119
sensors are on|y requ|red to measure p|ston w|th very h|gh aoouraoy. The requ|rements for gap and
shear are 1000 t|mes weaker.

The pr|mary m|rror oontro| system |s the most oomp|ex oontro| system of the E-E|T |n terms of oontro|
hardware. lts aroh|teoture was ana|ysed |n two |ndependent externa| stud|es and some of the ma|n funo-
t|ona||t|es were ver|f|ed w|th a teohno|ogy demonstrator.
3.4.7 EARTHOAKE lSSES
The segments have been |no|uded |n the g|oba| mode| of the te|esoope, w|th the|r e|genfrequeno|es, and
the ana|ys|s shows that even w|th a non-|so|ated struoture the segments do not |nd|v|dua||y ooup|e effeo-
t|ve|y w|th the earthquake aooe|erat|ons as propagated by the te|esoope struoture. The aooe|erat|ons
propagated to the segments are 1.4g, 1.2g and 2.6g |n the segment ooord|nates of x, y and z.

As desor|bed above the e|genmodes of the m|rror un|ts have been ana|ysed and the y|e|d ||m|ts of a||
mater|a|s of the segment oons|dered. ln a|| oases the safety marg|ns w|th respeot to the y|e|d strength are
pos|t|ve. Sma|| negat|ve safety marg|ns obta|ned for the oentra| struoture of the mov|ng frame and the tr|-
pods of the ax|a| support under ooat|ng oond|t|ons (therma| |oad of +70O} are oaused by the speo|f|o
r|g|d |nterfaoe mode|||ng and do not ooour |n rea||ty.

The abso|ute and d|fferent|a| mot|ons of the segments |n the oase of the max|mum ||ke|y earthquake have
been ana|ysed |n the oontext of the soft and a|ternate hard aotuators. A t|me ser|es ana|ys|s was per-
formed |no|ud|ng the amp||f|oat|ons of the struoture. The abso|ute mot|ons of the segments are dom|-
nated by the behav|our of the struoture overa|| and s|gn|f|oant max|mum d|sp|aoements of 117.9 mm |n x
and y and 61.6 mm |n z are found. The max|mum abso|ute rotat|ons, t|p and t||t, are 3.4 and 3.5 mrad.

The d|fferent|a| d|sp|aoements between adjaoent segments are 2.43 mm |n z and 0.6 mm |n x and
0.38 mm |n y. The d|fferenoe between soft and hard aotuators |n d|fferent|a| d|sp|aoement |s sma|| (2.2,
0.58 and 0.4 respeot|ve|y for the f|gures above}.


Figure 3.109. z, x and y differential displacements between adjacent segments due to an MLE.

The earthquake ana|ys|s assumes there w||| be no power for the durat|on of the earthquake so the aotu-
ator re||es pure|y on the meohan|oa| st|ffness. The Max|mum ||ke|y Earthquake (M|E} |s app||ed w|thout
the benef|t of se|sm|o |so|at|on |n the te|esoope foundat|ons and therefore the ana|ys|s |s oons|dered oon-
servat|ve.
3.4.8 THERMA| EFFEOTS
The effeot of temperature on the segment substrate has been oons|dered. The abso|ute va|ue of the OTE
for Zerodur |s assumed, oonservat|ve|y, to be 50 ppb K
-1
(parts per b||||on K
-1
}. An add|t|ona| term may be
|ntroduoed from the through th|okness grad|ent of the OTE. Assum|ng a 1O d|fferenoe between the sur-
faoe and the baok s|de of the m|rror the through th|okness grad|ent |n the OTE oan generate 12 nm of
foous. Th|s |s a sma|| effeot that oan add to the no|se |n the data. The speo|f|oat|on for the segment sub-
strates requ|res the through th|okness OTE to be be|ow 10 ppb K
-1
or that the or|entat|on of the veotor be
known. ln suoh a oase the through th|okness OTE error adds to the segment deformat|on error system-
at|oa||y |n the m|rror, m|m|ok|ng soa||op|ng and therefore |n pr|no|p|e deteotab|e |n the edge sensor |oop or
on the deformab|e m|rror.
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120 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The effeot of the ohange |n the baok struoture of the te|esoope due to therma| expans|on or oontraot|on
has been oons|dered w|th|n the ma|n struoture ana|ys|s. Wh||e the amp||tudes are |arge the effeots are
|arge|y |n very |ow order aberrat|ons that oan eas||y be oorreoted on the aot|ve or adapt|ve m|rrors of the
te|esoope dur|ng observat|ons and off-|oaded to the pr|mary aotuators at the t|me of presett|ng or dur|ng
observat|ons.

The heat d|ss|pat|on under the pr|mary has been ana|ysed w|th a oomb|nat|on of OFD and F|n|te E|ement
Ana|ys|s (FEA}. Our OFD oontraotor K|rkho|m has mode||ed the a|rf|ow above and be|ow the pr|mary
m|rror. For praot|oa| oomputat|on t|me reasons, the vo|ume under the pr|mary has been mode||ed by a
porous struoture w|th parameters adjusted to obta|n the same pressure drops as w|th the deta||ed
(a|though s|mp||f|ed} segment support struotures.

The assumpt|on made was that 15 kW were be|ng d|ss|pated under the pr|mary (15 W per segment}.


Figure 3.110. Left: Temperature of front face of primary mirror under 2 ms
-1
wind loading. Right: Simplified segment
support used for airflow calculations.

ln norma| a|rf|ow oond|t|ons (2 ms
-1
aoross the pr|mary} and steady-state oond|t|ons, the m|rror tempera-
ture rema|ned just be|ow the amb|ent 10O. Th|s |s |arge|y due to the rad|at|ve ooup||ng of the m|rror to
the sky. Another |mportant output of th|s study has been to def|ne a rea||st|o a|r speed and temperature
be|ow the m|rror. ln worst oase oond|t|ons, w|th m|rror hor|zonta| and no w|nd, a temperature exoess of
about 2O w|th respeot to amb|ent a|r was oomputed.


Figure 3.111. Temperature of the air below the primary mirror in worst-case conditions (mirror horizontal, no wind).

Th|s |atter resu|t was used |n the seoond, more deta||ed therma| ana|ys|s made on |nd|v|dua| segments
us|ng FEA teohn|ques. But oonservat|ve|y oonneot|ng the segment to the tota||ty of the therma| |oad of
the aotuators and assoo|ated e|eotron|os, the est|mated therma| |oads from the edge sensors, aotuators
and |ooa| e|eotron|os were app||ed to the mode| at the|r respeot|ve |ooat|ons. A number of |oad oond|t|ons
have been ana|ysed to understand the therma| behav|our of the system and perform sens|t|v|ty ana|ys|s
of the var|ous mode| parameters and assumpt|ons.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 121

Figure 3.112. Simplified lumped parameter network showing the main of heat fluxes.


Figure 3.113. Thermal analysis for the segment.

The m|rror temperature above the pr|mary exoeeds the 1
o
O d|fferenoe w|th the amb|ent oond|t|ons when
the temperature of the a|r under the pr|mary |noreases s|gn|f|oant|y (+5
o
O} w|th respeot to the temperature
above the m|rror. Th|s reduoes the oonveot|on ooo||ng of the pos|t|on aotuators and |noreases the heat
transferred through the segment.

As a resu|t of these s|mu|at|ons, the projeot oons|ders the separat|on of the dr|ve e|eotron|os from the
segment un|t to be the base||ne so|ut|on. The ana|ys|s |s not oono|us|ve on whether the un|ts need to be
ooo|ed. Prov|s|on for ooo||ng under the pr|mary |s ava||ab|e for other hosted un|ts and the tota| amount of
ooo||ng needed |s sma||, a|though the oomp||oat|on of d|str|but|on and r|sk of |eaks prov|de a strong
|noent|ve not to ooo|.

ln add|t|on, trans|ent ana|yses have been performed to assess the therma| behav|our dur|ng a oomp|ete
da||y oyo|e w|th a|r oond|t|on|ng dur|ng the day and pass|ve evo|ut|on dur|ng the n|ght. An opt|m|sat|on of
the a|r-oond|t|on|ng set po|nt dur|ng the day (at 10
o
O |nstead of 12.5
o
O |n these examp|es} enab|es the
temperature exoess at the end of the n|ght to be reduoed at the pr|oe of a h|gher negat|ve d|fferenoe
dur|ng the f|rst few hours of the n|ght.

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122 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 3.114. Transient thermal analysis for individual segments in a no-wind analysis.
3.4.9 OHA||ENGES
As for a|| seot|ons of the oonstruot|on proposa| th|s subseot|on does not represent the deta||ed r|sk reg-
|ster, but rather, a more qua||tat|ve desor|pt|on of the h|gh-|eve| r|sks the projeot has oons|dered for th|s
un|t.
3.4.9.1 MANFAOTRlNG
Mu|t|p|e manufaotur|ng |ssues ra|se the|r head |n the oontext of the pr|mary m|rror. Most or|t|oa| |s the
poss|b|||ty that the |ength of t|me needed per segment |s h|gher than the prototyp|ng aot|v|t|es have sug-
gested, resu|t|ng |n a s|gn|f|oant de|ay |n the projeot and |noreased oosts to the supp||ers.

Two programmat|o or|t|oa| |nterfaoes are oons|dered.

The supp|y of the b|anks to the po||sher |s an obv|ous r|sk. The vo|ume of g|ass requ|red for the E-E|T |s
s|gn|f|oant but not outrageous, oorrespond|ng to a years produot|on for most of our supp||ers. Spread
over a few years th|s r|sk |s assumed manageab|e.

The seoond or|t|oa| |nterfaoe |s the prov|s|on of wh|ff|etree supports to the po||sher to |ntegrate before the
|on-beam runs. The supp|y of the a|| the 931 supports |s oons|dered by the manufaoturers to be |ess than
two years of produot|on. Th|s |s a|so not oons|dered to be on the or|t|oa| path.

Teohn|oa||y the |nterfaoe that |s oons|dered most r|sky |s the sheer number of pads. W|th over 30 000
pads requ|red to |ast over 50 years the MTBF |s n|gh |mposs|b|e to aoh|eve or ver|fy. The ma|ntenanoe of
the segments w||| |no|ude the |nspeot|on and ver|f|oat|on of the pads every 18 months.
3.4.9.2 PERFORMANOE
An |noorreot presor|pt|on po||shed |nto a|| segments wou|d be prob|emat|o. The r|sk has been ana|ysed
and the most ||ke|y, and oommon, error wou|d be that the rad|us of ourvature wou|d be |noorreot. Th|s
error oan be oorreoted by us|ng some part of the stroke a||ooat|on on the other aot|ve m|rrors. Even |f not
oorreoted the error wou|d amount to a ohange |n fooa| |ength of the te|esoope and some degree of f|e|d
aberrat|ons. Th|s ana|ys|s assumes that the mean va|ue of the rad|us of ourvature |s |noorreot but the d|s-
pers|on rema|ns w|th|n speo|f|oat|on. The mean va|ue |s to be estab||shed dur|ng the f|rst produot|on runs.
lf the d|spers|on |s h|gher than expeoted, the projeot has base||ned to use the warp|ng harnesses on the
segments to prov|de the neoessary oorreot|ons. Th|s wou|d reduoe the stroke ava||ab|e for other oorreo-
t|ons.

The vo|ume of segments |s h|gh and the opt|on of perform|ng a seoond, |ndependent, opt|oa| test on a||
segments oou|d be oomp|ex. The projeot has ownersh|p of the test setups used dur|ng the prototype
phase (modu|o some ex|st|ng opt|os at Sagem} and has aooess to the Opt|o G|yndwr oomp|ete test
setup.

A sens|t|v|ty of the edge sensor set po|nts to env|ronmenta| oond|t|ons beyond the ourrent speo|f|oat|ons
wou|d ||m|t the per|od of operat|ons between sky oa||brat|ons of the pr|mary. The te|esoope does have a
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 123
phas|ng sensor bu||t |nto the gu|de probes and therefore a more regu|ar oa||brat|on |s poss|b|e. The non-
se|eot|on of th|s mode as a defau|t |s based on MTBF, oost and performanoe trade-offs.
3.4.10 A|TERNATE SPP|lERS
ln oontrast w|th most ohapters of the oonstruot|on proposa| more deta|| |s prov|ded regard|ng the a|ter-
nate supp||ers, espeo|a||y |n the area of po||sh|ng. As ment|oned |n the oonstruot|on p|an, the projeot oon-
s|ders that start|ng produot|on of pre-po||shed segments as ear|y as poss|b|e |s a or|t|oa| area for the
supp|y of segments and therefore a|ternat|ve supp||ers are needed. The projeot |s not oons|der|ng mu|t|-
souro|ng any of the other supp||es suoh as b|anks, aotuators and supports.
3.4.10.1 A|TERNATE B|ANKS
A|ternate supp||ers for the M1 b|anks are Oorn|ng (SA}, |ZOS (Russ|a} & Ohara (Japan}. A|| oompan|es
have prov|ded pr|oe est|mates for the supp|y to the projeot and to g|ass po||shers d|reot|y.


Figure 3.115. ULE polished segment before cutting at Sagem.
3.4.10.2 A|TERNATE SEGMENT SPPORTS, AOTATORS AND EDGE SENSORS
For the segment subun|ts the projeot has an a|ternate oomp||ant des|gn/supp|y from OESA. OESA has
des|gned and de||vered three segment supports wh|oh were |ntegrated w|th the segments and suooess-
fu||y f|n|shed f|gured by |on-f|gur|ng.


Figure 3.116. Components of the CESA design for the segment support and prototype system.

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For the aotuators the projeot has an a|ternate des|gn/supp|y from Phys|k lnstrumente. Hard aotuators
were deve|oped and suooessfu||y tested by Phys|k lnstrumente. A soft aotuator has been der|ved from
the|r |n|t|a| des|gn and |s be|ng manufaotured at the t|me of wr|t|ng.


Figure 3.117. Physik Instrumente actuator under test.

For the edge sensors the projeot has an a|ternate des|gn/supp|y from Foga|e. The Foga|e edge sensors
have been used dur|ng the Framework Programme 6 on the W|nd Eva|uat|on Breadboard (WEB} bu||t by
the lAO. The edge sensors are |nduot|ve and have shown good performanoe dur|ng the WEB work.


Figure 3.118. Fogale edge sensor under test in the lab.
3.5 SEOONDARY NlT
The oonvex 4-metre-o|ass seoondary m|rror |s a th|n men|sous. lts shape |s aot|ve|y oontro||ed w|th
84 ax|a| foroe aotuators. |atera||y the m|rror |s supported by e|ght pneumat|o jaoks |n |ts oentre and by
24 pneumat|o jaoks a|ong the per|phery.


Figure 3.119. M2 unit.

As a base||ne, the adjustment of the seoondary m|rror pos|t|on |s not a||owed dur|ng an exposure (|.e.,
wh||e the te|esoope |s observ|ng |ts target}, |n order to avo|d strong wavefront jumps and to ||m|t power
d|ss|pat|on.
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The adjustment of the seoondary m|rror shape |s performed at a |ow tempora| bandw|dth, typ|oa||y at the
beg|nn|ng of an exposure by send|ng a set po|nt to |ts aot|ve degrees of freedom, and every 20 to
60 seoonds to oompensate for opt|oa| surfaoe d|stort|on |nduoed by env|ronmenta| oond|t|ons, externa|
|oads, and system |nstab|||ty.

The m|rror and |ts aotuators are oonneoted to a baokp|ate and a framework struoture. To prov|de the
m|rror a||gnment funot|on, the who|e assemb|y |s moved w|th respeot to the struoture by s|x pos|t|on
aotuators d|str|buted |n a mod|f|ed hexapod geometry.
3.5.1 PERFORMANOE REOlREMENTS
The opt|oa| des|gn presor|bes a rad|us of ourvature at the vertex of -9313 25 mm, a nom|na| oon|o oon-
stant of -2.28962, and fourth power aspher|o ooeff|o|ent of 0.479584 10
-15
.

The matoh|ng of the seoondary to the pr|mary requ|res know|edge of the abso|ute va|ue of the pr|mary
m|rror rad|us of ourvature that w||| be known after the f|rst set of segments have been aspher|sed. Th|s
oonstra|nt |s oons|dered |n the overa|| sohedu|e. The f|na| oon|o oonstant w||| be oa|ou|ated aooord|ng|y.

The seoondary |s an aot|ve m|rror and the speo|f|oat|on prov|des for 30 nm rms wavefront error (exo|ud|ng
the grav|ty pr|nt-through} and after perfeot remova| of no more than the f|rst 30 e|genmodes. The h|gh
spat|a| frequeno|es w||| be no more that 20 nm rms |n a footpr|nt of 200 mm d|ameter and no more that
16 nm rms for footpr|nts of 60 mm. The d|fferent|a| deformat|on due to pr|nt-through of the support |nto
the m|rror between zen|th po|nt|ng and 20 degrees of a|t|tude |s requ|red to rema|n be|ow 25 nm wave-
front error.

The f|na| shape of the m|rror under aot|ve opt|os (shape oontro|} needs to be w|th|n 2% of the oommand
or 50 nm rms wavefront error, wh|ohever |s the sma||est. The seoondary m|rror |s requ|red to ||m|t the dr|ft
of the m|rror shape to |ess than 35 nm rms wavefront for a m|n|mum of 30 seoonds.

The seoondary un|t, mounted on an |nf|n|te|y st|ff te|esoope struoture, shou|d have a f|rst e|genmode at
10 Hz. The abso|ute aoouraoy of the pos|t|on|ng system for trans|at|ons needs to be w|th|n 0.1 mm and
the re|at|ve aoouraoy at |eve| of the m|rror w|th|n 2% of the abso|ute aoouraoy.

The tota| mass of the un|t sha|| rema|n be|ow 12 tonnes w|th goa| of 10 tonnes.
3.5.2 MlRROR B|ANK
The usefu| area of the seoondary m|rror |s annu|ar w|th the |nner d|ameter at 1091.0 mm and the outer at
4090.6 mm. Meohan|oa||y, 80 mm are prov|ded as po||sh|ng marg|n on r|ms.

The m|rror b|ank d|mens|ons have been se|eoted to prov|de suff|o|ent st|ffness |n the substrate to be ab|e
to po||sh and support |t w|th a sma|| (25 nm rms wavefront error} pr|nt-through from the support, to a||ow
aot|ve shape oontro| w|th m|n|mum foroe and power d|ss|pat|on, and to m|n|m|se |ts sens|t|v|ty to externa|
|oads.


Figure 3.120. M2 mirror blank.
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As for the tert|ary, the adopted base||ne so|ut|on |s to prooure the seoondary b|ank from Sohott. The
b|ank f|ts w|th the ex|st|ng produot|on fao|||t|es. They were, for |nstanoe, used to produoe the vlSTA pr|-
mary m|rror 4-metre b|ank.

The maoh|ned b|ank from Sohott w||| be de||vered w|th a surfaoe dev|at|ng from the requ|red asphere by
|ess than 0.5 mm.


Figure 3.121. Schott 4-metre blank. Left: Casting. Right: Finished product (Courtesy Schott).
3.5.3 PO|lSHlNG
The seoondary m|rror po||sh|ng |s oha||eng|ng, not |east beoause |t |s oonvex. Wh||e |t wou|d be n|oe to
oons|der a|ternate opt|ons the on|y rea||st|o so|ut|on |s that the m|rror |s po||shed and tested faoe up. As a
m|n|mum th|s means that the support pr|nt-through w||| doub|e when the m|rror |s mounted |n the te|e-
soope w|th the grav|ty veotor |nverted.

The p|an fo||ows the bas|o pr|no|p|es deve|oped dur|ng the v|T, Gem|n| and vlSTA programmes. The
m|rror |s |oaded on a stand and the ax|a| pads and |atera| pads w||| be bonded. The m|rror w||| be ground
and pre-po||shed before the f|na| po||sh|ng and opt|oa| test|ng.

The gr|nd|ng and po||sh|ng oan be performed us|ng oomputer-oontro||ed |app|ng, however the m|rror
f-rat|o (F/D 1.13} and aspher|o departure (1.5 mm} reduoe the max|mum poss|b|e s|ze of the |app|ng
too|s. The produot|on sohedu|e |s therefore |onger than for more oonvent|ona| |arge m|rrors suoh as the
tert|ary. ln add|t|on, reaoh|ng the opt|oa| qua||ty requ|rements |n the h|gh spat|a| frequenoy range w||| be
more oha||eng|ng.

A oomb|nat|on of oomputer oontro||ed gr|nd|ng and po||sh|ng bonnets and |aps has been found to be the
opt|mum prooess opt|os of suoh a s|ze by a number of po||shers over the years. The overa|| f|gur|ng
sohedu|e for po||sh|ng rema|ns be|ow two years and |s dr|ven by the ava||ab|||ty of the metro|ogy rather
than the f|gur|ng.

Severa| po||sh|ng vendors have maoh|nes oompat|b|e w|th the m|rror s|ze. ln add|t|on to the opt|oa| test
setup, an aot|ve po||sh|ng support w||| need to be deve|oped to a||ow measur|ng the m|rror |n aoourate
|oad|ng oond|t|ons and to m|n|m|se the grav|ty and po||sh|ng pr|nt-throughs.

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Figure 3.122. Possible M2 polishing workshop modifications of VLT Primary Mirror workshop (courtesy Sagem).
3.5.4 METRO|OGY
For the metro|ogy dur|ng the gr|nd|ng and pre-po||sh|ng stage a sw|ng-arm prof||ometer |s p|anned. The
dev|oe |s based on the un|ts |n use at the n|vers|ty of Ar|zona. A rotat|ng arm |s t||ted to matoh the our-
vature of the m|rror and a measurement probe sweeps out an aro that |s |arge|y a||gned to the m|rror
wh||e the probe rema|ns norma| to the surfaoe of the m|rror. A ser|es of o|rou|ar soans are taken to bu||d a
oomp|ete surfaoe map. ln measur|ng |arge aspher|o surfaoes |n Ar|zona th|s too| has aoh|eved a repeata-
b|||ty of a few nanometres.


Figure 3.123. Swing-arm profilometer concept and measurement results on a 1.4-metre convex asphere from the
University of Arizona.

Extrapo|at|ng from a 1.4-metre m|rror f|gured by the n|vers|ty of Ar|zona to the 4-metre E-E|T seoond-
ary, the expeoted aoouraoy of the sw|ng-arm prof||ometer on a po||shed surfaoe wou|d be approx|mate|y
150 nm rms surfaoe error exo|ud|ng |ow orders (ast|gmat|sm, ooma and trefo||}. Dur|ng the gr|nd|ng
phase 50 nm aoouraoy |s oons|dered feas|b|e.

The opt|oa| metro|ogy has been stud|ed by severa| oompan|es. A|| methods re|y on subaperture test|ng
and reoonstruot|on of the fu|| aperture opt|oa| qua||ty by st|toh|ng. The subaperture tests oan be per-
formed us|ng a |arge ref|eot|ve 2.7-metre H|nd|e sphere (Brashear}, a F|zeau test us|ng spher|oa| 1-metre
transm|ss|on matr|oes and oomputer generated ho|ograms, as proposed for the pr|mary m|rror segments
(n|vers|ty of Ar|zona}, or a F|zeau test us|ng 1-metre aspher|o transm|ss|on matr|oes (Sagem}.

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Figure 3.124. Mirror testing using test matrices and stitching.

An advantage of the test methods us|ng transm|ss|on matr|oes |s that the |nterferometr|o oav|ty |s short (a
few oent|metres}, bu||t from the oonoave surfaoe of the test matr|x to the oonvex surfaoe of the m|rror,
thus |ead|ng to m|n|mum perturbat|ons due to a|r turbu|enoe. A|| methods requ|re about 10 metres of
spaoe above the m|rror to |nsta|| |arge fo|d|ng m|rrors.

The test proposed by Sagem for the m|rror |s based on a F|zeau test us|ng transm|ss|on matr|oes, s|m||ar
to that deve|oped for the test|ng of the v|T, Gem|n| and the GTO seoondary m|rrors. ln th|s oase Sagem
are propos|ng to use two off-ax|s aspher|o matr|oes of 1.0-metre d|ameter and st|toh the |nterferometr|o
resu|ts |n two r|ngs on the seoondary m|rror w|th ten subapertures oover|ng the |nner r|ng and twenty the
outer.


Figure 3.125. Possible layout of M2 mirror testing.

The matr|oes wou|d be men|sous-shaped and the beam wou|d be fo|ded by two f|ats at the 10-metre
stage of the ex|st|ng Sagem tower. By fo|d|ng the test setup a|| measurements and adjustments (pos|-
t|on|ng of matr|x, usage of the |nterferometer eto} are on the ground f|oor and the test prooedure oan be
s|gn|f|oant|y shortened. The matr|oes oan be made of g|assy Zerodur or fused s|||oa.

The a||gnment errors g|v|ng r|se to |ow and h|gh spat|a| frequeno|es oan be determ|ned w|th suff|o|ent
over|ap between measurements and aoouraoy of test matr|x pos|t|on|ng.

The matr|oes wou|d be manufaotured aga|nst an |nterferometr|o test setup us|ng a OGH and measured
meohan|oa||y |n a 3D OMM prov|d|ng the requ|red aoouraoy |n the know|edge of the pos|t|on of the vertex
of the matr|x and the same aoouraoy |n the know|edge of the rad|us of ourvature.
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3.5.5 MlRROR OE||
The adopted base||ne for the m|rror oe|| |s the des|gn by MTMeohatron|os.

The oe|| |s made of a baok struoture made of stee| support|ng a oarbon f|bre sandw|oh p|ate aga|nst
wh|oh the shape aotuat|on takes p|aoe. A stee| frame prov|des the |nterfaoe for the pos|t|on aotuat|on of
the ent|re oe||.


Figure 3.126. Steel framework structure and CFRP backplate.

Oarbon f|bre was se|eoted for the sandw|oh struoture as |ts therma| propert|es matoh the m|rror mater|a|
better thereby reduo|ng the stroke of the shape aotuators. The oarbon f|bre sandw|oh has upper and
|ower Oarbon-F|bre-Re|nforoed Po|ymer (OFRP} deok |ayers and oarbon foam mater|a| for the foam.
Tube ho|es prov|de the |nterfaoes to the aotuators.
3.5.5.1 |ATERA| SPPORT OF THE MlRROR
The m|rror |s supported on |ts per|phery by 24 |atera| supports. They are arranged to take the grav|ty
|oads and prov|de support |n the y-d|reot|on.

They are meohan|oa| oant||ever systems |noorporat|ng a doub|e ohamber pneumat|o stage that works |n
pushpu|| a||ow|ng the same aotuator to be used on both the |ower and upper s|de of the m|rror. The|r
support or|entat|on |s opt|m|sed to m|n|m|se the m|rror def|eot|on. The doub|e ohamber a||ows the st|ff-
ness of the aotuators to be adjusted.


Figure 3.127. Lateral supports.

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ln order to ma|nta|n the pos|t|on of the m|rror re|at|ve to the baokp|ate at d|fferent a|t|tude ang|es, a
reduoed var|ab|e pressure |s app||ed to the aotuators a|r oush|ons on the oppos|te s|de.

E|ght add|t|ona| oentra| supports are |nsta||ed to prov|de h|gher st|ffness |n the x-d|reot|on, espeo|a||y |n
oase of w|nd and earthquake. The pneumat|o oontro| oonoept ensures that the reaot|on foroes are
equa||y d|str|buted. Dur|ng operat|on the foroes at these supports are near zero.


Figure 3.128. Pneumatic actuator. The pressure in the two chambers provides stiffness; the differential pressure
between the two chambers allows force adjustment.

Foroe ||m|ters oonneot the m|rror |atera| pads and the |atera| supports. Dur|ng an earthquake the m|rror
oan then f|oat and the |oads are oarr|ed by the earthquake restra|ners (see be|ow}, avo|d|ng h|gh stress
at the support po|nts. The foroe ||m|ters a|so proteot the m|rror from h|gh |oads shou|d one pneumat|o
aotuator fa|| (membrane rupture}.

The pos|t|on of the m|rror w|th respeot to the baokp|ate w||| be mon|tored |n hor|zonta| d|reot|ons (x-y} w|th
four pos|t|on sensors on |ts o|roumferenoe.

Aberrat|ons ar|s|ng from the |atera| support system have been ana|ysed by |ook|ng the foroe aotuat|on
wh|ff|etrees and observ|ng the res|dua| errors (pass|ve mode deformat|on}. The ana|ys|s has |no|uded
temperature, and grav|ty veotor ohanges, and |ntegrat|on errors. These errors are we|| oorreoted by the
foroe aotuators.
3.5.5.2 SHAPE AOTATlON
The shape aotuators are des|gned for a m|rror-shape max|mum res|dua| error of 50 nm rms wavefront
error after a foroe sett|ng |s app||ed. ln add|t|on, the shap|ng system |s ab|e to |ntroduoe a few m|orome-
tres of foous, spher|oa|, ast|gmat|sm and ooma |nto the m|rror for te|esoope opt|oa| performanoe opt|m|-
sat|on and oontro|.

The aotuator oonoept fo||ows a two-stage des|gn. The f|rst stage |s a pneumat|o spr|ng oarry|ng the grav-
|ty |oads of the m|rror. The pneumat|o un|ts are oonneoted |n three pneumat|o wh|ff|etree seot|ons. ln the
seoond, para||e| stage a vo|oe oo|| aotuator produoes add|t|ona| foroes to ma|nta|n the requ|red m|rror
surfaoe shape. A |oad oe|| a||ows an aoourate o|osed-|oop foroe oontro|.

ln operat|on the foroe stroke needed at the |eve| of the who|e aotuator |s 750 N. The foroe needed at the
|eve| of the e|eotromagnet|o motor (vo|oe oo||} |s 150 N. The max|mum aotuator stroke, ma|n|y dr|ven by
the |oad oe|| measurement range |s 1000 N. The foroe sett|ng aoouraoy |s 0.1 N.

Fo||ow|ng the same pr|no|p|e as for the |atera| supports, the shape aotuators transm|t the foroe to the
m|rror v|a a foroe ||m|ter, operat|ng at 1000 N. lts funot|on |s to proteot the m|rror |n oase of fa||ure of the
pneumat|o spr|ng and to avo|d h|gh |oads |n oase of an earthquake.

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Figure 3.129. Shape actuators.

The pneumat|o spr|ngs are def|ned |n the base||ne oonoept as aot|ve un|ts. Wh||e the pressure |n one
ohamber of the pneumat|o spr|ng |s f|xed, the pressure |n the other ohamber w||| be var|ed.

The pos|t|on of the m|rror w|th respeot to the baokp|ate w||| be mon|tored |n the vert|oa| d|reot|on (z} w|th
four pos|t|on sensors on |ts o|roumferenoe.
3.5.5.3 POSlTlON AOTATORS
After an extens|ve trade-off, a worm-gear system has been se|eoted as base||ne so|ut|on that meets the
speo|f|oat|on of 30 mm stroke, 100 8m abso|ute pos|t|on|ng and 10 8m reso|ut|on. The angu|ar aoou-
raoy |s 7 aroseoonds about the x and y axes w|th a goa| of 2 aroseoonds.


Figure 3.130. Position actuator components and CAD view.

Of part|ou|ar note |s the geometry of the pos|t|on|ng system wh|oh ensures that, |n operat|ona| oond|t|ons,
the |egs do not reverse the|r operat|ons and therefore avo|d|ng baok|ash |ssues by des|gn.
3.5.5.4 OONTRO|
As desor|bed above the seoondary m|rror un|t base||ne des|gn |no|udes severa| oontro| systems, the
pos|t|on|ng system, the m|rror shape system and the pneumat|o oontro| of the |atera| supports. The oon-
tro| ana|ys|s prov|des the synthes|s of these.

The pos|t|on|ng system aoouraoy |s not oons|dered to be a des|gn dr|ver and exper|enoe by the suboon-
traotor (MTMeohatron|os} |n prev|ous systems (pos|t|on|ng of the 6.5-metre subref|eotor on the Effe|sberg
100-metre te|esoope} prov|des oonf|denoe |n th|s system.

The oontro| of the m|rror shape |s s|gn|f|oant|y more oha||eng|ng as an aoouraoy of 50 nm surfaoe error
rms w|th|n two seoonds of aotuat|on |s requ|red. F|n|te e|ement ana|ys|s was used to estab||sh that a
foroe aoouraoy of 0.05 N |s neoessary to reaoh the shape speo|f|oat|on. Th|s requ|res the shape foroes to
be aot|ve|y oontro||ed, s|noe they oannot be kept stab|e pass|ve|y w|th|n that aoouraoy.

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Figure 3.131. Secondary mirror cell baseline control concept pneumatic whiffletree and separate shape force
control.

The base||ne m|rror shape oontro| oonoept |s based on a nested oontro| struoture app|y|ng foroe f|e|ds
us|ng vo|oe oo|| foroe aotuators to adjust m|rror shape and r|g|d body t|p-t||t and p|ston.

Add|t|ona||y, ma|n|y |n order to reduoe power oonsumpt|on, the foroe f|e|ds app||ed by the vo|oe oo||s are
off|oaded by the pneumat|o aotuators oonneoted seotor-w|se to pneumat|o wh|ff|etrees. For th|s oonoept
|t |s suff|o|ent to use s|ng|e foroe sensors per aotuator p|aoed between pneumat|o aotuator and m|rror
|nterfaoe.

The foroe oontr|but|on neoessary for m|rror t|p-t||t and p|ston oontro| |s der|ved w|th the he|p of s|x oon-
taot|ess pos|t|on sensors. W|th th|s struoture, the foroe oontro| for m|rror shap|ng |s free of t|p-t||t p|ston
oontr|but|ons. Pos|t|on and temperature dependant non||near|t|es, dr|fts and other |nf|uenoes oan thus be
oompensated.

W|th|n the seoondary m|rror un|t FEED study, a|ternat|ve so|ut|ons have been |nvest|gated |n wh|oh |nd|-
v|dua| oontro| of a|| pneumat|o oe||s |s used, bypass|ng the hardware wh|ff|etree. The wh|ff|etree funot|on-
a||ty |s oreated |n software rather than hardware. The ana|ys|s shows that suoh an e|eotron|o wh|ff|etree
oou|d reduoe the power oonsumpt|on of the vo|oe oo|| aotuators as the off|oads oou|d be better man-
aged. However, the pena|ty for suoh a soheme |s |n more oomp|ex oontro| hardware due to the need to
oontro| the |nd|v|dua| aotuators rather than groups of aotuators. The requ|red foroe transm|ss|on aoouraoy
has been proven on an exper|menta| setup and dynam|o s|mu|at|ons.
3.5.5.5 THERMA| ANA|YSlS
The oonvent|ona| approaoh of extraot|ng heat from the un|t us|ng a oh|||ed med|um was oons|dered par-
t|ou|ar|y r|sky |n the oase of the seoondary m|rror un|t. A |eak at the |ooat|on of the seoondary oou|d oon-
tam|nate a |arge number of segments be|ow resu|t|ng |n degraded performanoe of the te|esoope over an
extended per|od of t|me.

The seoondary un|t des|gn |s therefore based on pass|ve ooo||ng. The heat budget for the un|t assumes
100% ut|||sat|on of the shape aotuators and a 10% duty oyo|e for the pos|t|on aotuators.

The shape aotuators are expeoted to oonsume approx|mate|y 120 W average, and 1.0 kW peak, |n oor-
reot|ng a|| errors due to grav|ty, therma|, test, manufaotur|ng and |ntegrat|on errors. These f|gures the
power oonsumpt|on of both the pneumat|o and e|eotromagnet|o aotuators and the|r amp||f|ers.

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Faotor|ng |n the duty oyo|e, the pos|t|on aotuators wou|d oonsume 80 W w|th 45 of those at the motor
and the rema|nder at the power amp||f|ers.

ln norma| operat|ons, the max|mum oonsumpt|on |s oons|dered to be of order 2 kW for the aotuat|on of
the oe||.

The des|gn of the oe|| |s suoh that the aotuators w||| be exposed to the w|nd. lt has been oa|ou|ated that
w|th w|nd speeds of order 1 ms
-1
f|ow|ng aoross the aotuators the|r temperature w||| not exoeed 1O from
amb|ent at zen|th and 2.5O at 70 degrees e|evat|on.

The heat d|ss|pat|on from the power amp||f|ers and the other e|eotron|o oab|nets neoessary for the oontro|
of the m|rror oan be aoh|eved us|ng a oo|d-p|ate that |s assumed to be rad|at|ve|y ooup|ed to the n|ght
sky. lts des|gn |s not oomp|ete at the t|me of wr|t|ng.
3.5.6 EARTHOAKES
The seoondary m|rror un|t |s exposed to s|gn|f|oant aooe|erat|ons dur|ng an earthquake. Assum|ng a non-
|so|ated te|esoope mount, the peak aooe|erat|ons at the |ooat|on of the seoondary are 1.7g, 3.0g and
2.6g, |n the |ooa| ooord|nates x, y and z.

Earthquake restra|ners are mounted at the per|phery of the m|rror and |n the oentra| ho|e. These are s|m-
p|e pass|ve braokets w|th e|astop|ast|o pads (rubber-||ke} ||m|t|ng the max|mum extent of trave| for the
m|rror to 5.5 mm, absorb|ng and damp|ng the m|rror d|sp|aoement energy. Oontaot ooours between the
m|rror and the earthquake restra|ner pads at a m|rror at 1 mm d|sp|aoement.


Figure 3.132. Safety restraint for the secondary mirror.

The max|mum stress |n the g|ass rema|ns, be|ow 8 MPa adm|ss|b|e tens||e stress ||m|t of Zerodur. Th|s
oond|t|on |s met even w|th three |atera| supports and three ax|a| supports m|ss|ng (e.g., pad g|ue fa||ure}.
3.5.7 OHA||ENGES
The seoondary m|rror hangs ups|de down and so permanent tens||e stresses are present on the m|rror
surfaoe and |n the g|ue. Fa||ure of th|s |nterfaoe wou|d be very unfortunate. The m|rror |s proteoted from
fa|||ng by the safety restra|ners and the des|gn of the |nterfaoe to the baok surfaoe of the m|rror takes oare
to reduoe the permanent stress |eve|.
3.5.7.1 MANFAOTRlNG
The proourement of the seoondary b|ank shou|d not be done at the same t|me as for the tert|ary b|ank. A
oonstra|nt to th|s effeot |s present |n the sohedu|e.

The proourement of the matr|oes for the po||sh|ng test setup needs to start ear|y enough to ensure that a
suff|o|ent t|me marg|n |s present |n the sohedu|e.
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3.5.7.2 PERFORMANOE
The need to produoe a seoondary m|rror un|t that does not requ|re aot|ve ooo||ng |s oha||eng|ng. A m|t|-
gat|on strategy of ooo||ng part of the un|t dur|ng the day and oreat|ng heat s|nks that ooup|e the aotuator
e|eotron|os |s an opt|on that oan be oons|dered shou|d the pass|ve ooo||ng so|ut|on not suooeed |n
meet|ng the requ|rements. A|ternat|ve|y, the ooo||ng w|th R134 be|ng oons|dered for the quaternary un|t
may a|so be a so|ut|on to be oons|dered |n the oase of the seoondary, a|though the |og|st|os wou|d be
oomp|ex.
3.5.8 A|TERNATE SPP|Y/DESlGN
Oorn|ng and |ZOS are a|ternate supp||ers for the m|rror b|ank.

For the po||sh|ng of the m|rror and the manufaotur|ng of the m|rror oe||, a|ternat|ve oonoepts and oost
est|mates have been prov|ded by Brashear |n P|ttsburg. Other potent|a| vendors are oand|date for the
m|rror manufaotur|ng, suoh as AMOS and |ZOS. Many vendors oan des|gn and prov|de the M2 m|rror
oe||.

lt |s worth oons|der|ng hav|ng the des|gn of the M2 un|t and of the M3 un|t oarr|ed out |n para||e| and pos-
s|b|y by the same supp||er. A |ot of synerg|es oan be found |n the two des|gns and |t |s ||ke|y that the
same shape aotuators, |atera| supports, baok-p|ate teohno|ogy and/or pos|t|on aotuators oou|d be used.
Th|s wou|d reduoe the deve|opment oosts and sohedu|e, and s|mp||fy the ma|ntenanoe and operat|on of
the systems.
3.6 TERTlARY NlT
The tert|ary m|rror |s a or|t|oa| oomponent of the te|esoope oontro| strategy and performs a or|t|oa| funo-
t|on |n perm|tt|ng the te|esoope to aoh|eve a var|ab|e fooa| |ength. The oontro| strategy requ|res the ter-
t|ary m|rror to move |nstead of the seoondary and therefore a f|ex|b|e pos|t|on|ng system |s used to sh|ft
the m|rror |n a|| s|x degrees of freedom. The oontro| strategy oonverts the re|at|ve |nsens|t|v|ty of the ter-
t|ary |nto an advantage s|noe, a|though the strokes are |arge, the preo|s|on of mot|on |s reasonab|e for a
un|t of th|s s|ze w|th requ|rements of 0.01 mm reso|ut|on |n x, y and z and an aoouraoy of 0.1 mm.

The rad|us of ourvature |s -21 067.95 mm, the m|rror |s a m||d aspher|o w|th a oon|o oonstant equa| to
zero and moderate fourth and s|xth order aspher|o terms.

The res|dua|s of the aot|ve opt|os are requ|red to be |ess than 20 nm rms wavefront error and the shape
oorreot|on |s requ|red to be ab|e to oorreot the |owest 11 Zern|ke modes w|th a res|dua| of 30 nm rms.

Add|t|ona||y, the tert|ary m|rror oe|| |s requ|red to pass|ve|y ma|nta|n the m|rror shape, a||ow|ng a max|mum
error of 20 nm rms for over one hour (exo|ud|ng grav|ty and externa| therma| var|at|ons}.
3.6.1 OONOEPT
The tert|ary m|rror un|t |s based on a th|n men|sous aot|ve m|rror. The th|okness of the m|rror, approx|-
mate|y the same as that of the seoondary m|rror, was se|eoted to prov|de the re|at|ve f|ex|b|||ty of the
m|rror requ|red to mod|fy |ts shape when oontro|||ng the fooa| rat|o of the te|esoope w|th moderate aot|ve
shape oontro| foroes.

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Figure 3.133. Concept of the M3 unit.

The un|t oons|st of the m|rror, the oe||, s|x pos|t|on aotuators, 57 ax|a| aot|ve supports, three ax|a| f|xed
po|nts, s|x ax|a| referenoe po|nts, three oentr|ng referenoe po|nts, 24 |atera| supports, three |atera| f|xed
po|nts and 14 outer ax|a| restra|ners.
3.6.2 MlRROR
The tert|ary m|rror |s 3.75-metre aoross and 100 mm th|ok w|th an 80 mm d|ameter ho|e |n the oentre.

The d|mens|ons are w|th|n the ex|st|ng produot|on oapab|||t|es of Sohott and oan be de||vered w|th|n one
and a ha|f years of an order be|ng p|aoed. Aooord|ng to the base||ne des|gn of the support struoture (see
F|gure 3.134} the b|ank |s to have pookets maoh|ned on the baok surfaoe to prov|de a meohan|oa| |nter-
faoe to the m|rror that |s |n the XY-p|ane of the m|rror.


Figure 3.134. Back-side interface tripods on the mirror.
3.6.3 PO|lSHlNG AND TESTlNG
The M3 m|rror opt|oa| departure from a best-f|t sphere |s |n the order of 26 9m peak-to-va||ey. Suoh a |ow
aspher|o departure a||ows the use of qu|te |arge po||sh|ng too|s to f|gure the m|rror and henoe to aoh|eve
a smooth opt|oa| surfaoe |n a re|at|ve|y short t|me.

Des|gn|ng and bu||d|ng a fu||-aperture opt|oa| test setup |s re|at|ve|y stra|ghtforward. A oommon |nterfer-
ometr|o test at the m|rror oentre of ourvature oan be performed us|ng a nu|| oorreotor suoh a o|ass|oa|
Offner or OGH.

The on|y d|ff|ou|ty |s the |arge |ength of the |nterferometr|o test oav|ty (21 metres}. Depend|ng on the
se|eoted po||sh|ng vendor, the opt|oa| beam m|ght have to be fo|ded w|th a f|at m|rror, typ|oa||y 1 metre
for a 15-metre-h|gh test tower.

The tert|ary m|rror proourement and po||sh|ng |s not oons|dered to be a h|gh r|sk.
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3.6.4 THE OE|| MEOHANlOA| DESlGN
The AMOS des|gn for the tert|ary m|rror oe|| |s adopted as the base||ne des|gn. The ent|re tert|ary un|t has
a mass of just over 12 tonnes. The m|rror oe|| |s a st|ff box-||ke stee| struoture w|th a stee| p|ate supported
on r|bs prov|d|ng the mount|ng |ooat|on for the ax|a| supports that fo||ow the ourvature of the baok sur-
faoe of the m|rror.


Figure 3.135. Mirror cell basic structure.

The we|ght of the m|rror oe|| a|one |s 5100 kg. The f|n|te e|ement mode|||ng shows a max|mum def|eot|on
of 0.42 mm when the oe|| |s |oaded w|th the m|rror. Approx|mate|y ha|f of th|s def|eot|on ar|ses from the
m|rror oe|| |tse|f.


Figure 3.136. FEA modelling of the mirror cell and supports.

The m|rror |s referenoed w|th respeot to the oe|| us|ng f|xed po|nts. S|x add|t|ona| supports are used to
d|str|bute the we|ght and to avo|d m|rror over|oad. ln operat|ona| oond|t|ons, the three |atera| and the
three ax|a| f|xed po|nts have non-||near propert|es due to the pre|oaded soft spr|ngs, thereby prov|d|ng
h|gh st|ffness for operat|ona| |oads wh||e ||m|t|ng the max|mum |oads |n oase of aoo|dents or earthquakes.
3.6.5 AlA| SPPORTS
S|xty aotuators are |ooated on four r|ngs, three of the outer 24 aotuators are pass|ve and are used to
def|ne the pos|t|on of the m|rror re|at|ve to the oe||. The aotuator |nterfaoe to the m|rror baok surfaoe |s
through a |oad-spread|ng tr|pod. lnvar pads oonneot the tr|pods to the m|rror.


Figure 3.137. Detail of the tripods.
The aotuator des|gn |s based on a pneumat|o doub|e ohamber oonoept that perm|ts push-pu|| opera-
t|ons. The aotuator prov|des 1 kN of foroe and the |oad oe||s prov|de an aoouraoy of 0.2 N.

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Figure 3.138. Conceptual design of the pneumatic actuator and prototype in the lab at Micromega (B).

A prototype aotuator has been manufaotured and suooessfu||y tested by M|oromega Dynam|os (B}.
3.6.5.1 |ATERA| SPPORT
The |atera| supports of the tert|ary m|rror are 24 astat|o |evers and three |atera| f|xed po|nts. As for the
seoondary m|rror, they fo||ow a Sohwes|nger d|str|but|on.


Figure 3.139. Astatic level design and the lateral supports and fixed points on the tertiary mirror.

Exo|tat|on of the astat|o |evers determ|nes the |owest e|genfrequenoy for the g|oba| m|rror oe|| and m|rror
system. The f|rst modes are at 8 Hz and 16 Hz and oons|st of a |atera| mot|on of the m|rror aga|nst the
astat|o |evers, wh||e the m|rror oe|| |s not mov|ng.


Figure 3.140. First mode of the system at 8 Hz.

Fourteen outer ax|a| restra|ners are used to ||m|t the d|sp|aoements and aooe|erat|ons due to earth-
quakes. These are s|mp|e braokets w|th Ph||an pads |ooated 100 9m ax|a||y and 1.1 mm rad|a||y from the
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138 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
m|rror. The des|gn |s very s|m||ar to braokets used |n the seoondary m|rror. The ma|n funot|on |s to ||m|t
the energy the m|rror oan atta|n through aooe|erat|ons oaused by earthquakes or other fa||ures.


Figure 3.141. Earthquake safety clamps on the tertiary mirror.
3.6.5.2 POSlTlON AOTATORS
The hexapod |egs are based on the SKF SRSA7510 sate|||te ro||er sorew aotuators oomb|ned w|th an
externa| ||near enooder to prov|de abso|ute pos|t|on|ng aoouraoy. Oardan|o jo|nts oonneot the aotuator
onto the m|rror oe|| and te|esoope struoture.

The tota| stroke of eaoh aotuator |s 320 mm a||ow|ng for up to 250 mm of aotua| mot|on |n the d|reot|on
towards the seoondary m|rror of wh|oh about 200 mm are a||ooated for foous ohange, 20 mm for oon-
tro| and the rema|nder for te|esoope m|rror presor|pt|on and |ntegrat|on errors. Note that these |atter
errors are oompensated by sh|mm|ng dur|ng the |ntegrat|on and pre-a||gnment of the te|esoope opt|os.
The requ|red aotuator reso|ut|on of 5 m |s prov|ded by an externa||y mounted He|denha|n |lDA enooder.


Figure 3.142. The M3 cell position actuator with cardanic joints and the encoder mounting.
3.6.6 PERFORMANOE OF THE MlRROR ON THE SPPORT
The opt|oa| performanoe of the m|rror has been s|mu|ated us|ng f|n|te e|ement mode|||ng. Assum|ng the
oorreot|on of the f|rst 13 e|ast|o modes the res|dua|s are 15 nm rms of wavefront error. The m|rror sup-
port requ|res an aot|ve oontro| of the shape aotuator foroes (based on |ook-up tab|es and wavefront sen-
sor s|gna|s} as, |n pass|ve mode, the d|fferent|a| surfaoe deformat|on between zen|th and 70 degrees from
zen|th |s severa| m|orometres. From the exper|enoe ga|ned dur|ng seoondary un|t stud|es, that grav|ty
d|stort|on oan oerta|n|y be ||m|ted to about 5 m peak-to-va||ey, so about 1 m rms.

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Figure 3.143. Gravity deformation of the tertiary mirror and deformation of the tertiary mirror after removal of the first
11 elastic mode terms and lateral support residuals.

S|m||ar|y, the ana|ys|s of the |atera| supports prov|des |ow res|dua|s of just under 10 nm wavefront error.

The to|eranoes on the |atera| and ax|a| supports have been ana|ysed and pos|t|on|ng errors of 1 mm pro-
duoe surfaoe errors of order a few nanometres after remova| of the |ow order terms.
3.6.7 OONTRO| ANA|YSlS
The tert|ary m|rror un|t |s s|m||ar |n requ|rements and so|ut|ons to the seoondary m|rror un|t. Two oontro|
systems, a pos|t|on|ng and a m|rror shape system, are used.

For the pos|t|on|ng system, aoourao|es of 0.01 mm for the trans|at|on |n the x, y and z d|reot|ons and
0.3 aroseoonds for a rotat|on around the x- and y-axes are requ|red. The shape oontro| de||vers an
aoouraoy of 10 nm surfaoe error rms.

ln oontrast to the se|eoted seoondary m|rror un|t oonoept, the aotuators |n the tert|ary m|rror are oon-
tro||ed |n foroe not on|y for shape oontro|, but a|so |n order to generate the support foroes. The shape
foroe |s aot|ve|y oontro||ed for eaoh |nd|v|dua| aotuator us|ng a oo-|ooated |oad oe|| and proport|ona|
p|ezo-dr|ven pneumat|o va|ves used |n on/off mode w|th a f|xed open|ng and aot|vat|on thresho|d.

The M3 oontro| system aroh|teoture |s based on an |ndustr|a| PO and a Oontro||er Area Network (OAN}
f|e|dbus system. More deta|| of the base||ne |mp|ementat|on oan be found |n the oontro| seot|on.
3.6.8 lNTEGRATlON
An |ntegrat|on stand |s |no|uded |n the supp|y of the tert|ary m|rror un|t.


Figure 3.144. M3 cell integration stand.

The |ntegrat|on stand a||ows the assemb|y of the oomp|ete struoture, mapp|ng and oa||brat|ng of the un|t
deformat|on w|th grav|ty, and d|smount|ng of the m|rror for ooat|ng.
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3.6.9 OHA||ENGES
3.6.9.1 MANFAOTRlNG
The manufaotur|ng oha||enge |s ||ke|y to be one of ava||ab|||ty of test|ng fao|||t|es for the m|rror. At
4.0 metres, |t |s poss|b|e to have the m|rror tested at a var|ety of |ooat|ons, but th|s depends on the g|oba|
demand for |arge opt|os. Poss|b|e oommero|a| supp||ers are |ZOS, Sagem, AMOS and Brashear.
3.6.9.2 PERFORMANOE
The pos|t|on aotuators are qu|te oha||eng|ng, a|though so|ut|ons of the neoessary reso|ut|on and |oad-
oarry|ng oapao|ty have been bu||t for other projeots.
3.6.10 A|TERNATE DESlGN/SPP|Y
The projeot has a|ternate offers for the supp|y of the tert|ary m|rror b|ank from Oorn|ng. An a|ternate
des|gn for the m|rror oe|| has not been prooured by the projeot.
3.7 OATERNARY NlT
The adapt|ve m|rror |s speo|f|ed to de||ver near-|nfrared d|ffraot|on-||m|ted |mages w|th a Streh| rat|o of
over 70% |n med|an atmospher|o oond|t|ons (0.85-aroseoond see|ng, t0 of 2.5 ms}. The d|mens|ons of the
adapt|ve m|rror are d|otated by the opt|oa| des|gn, wh||e the spao|ng of the aotuators |s ||m|ted by ex|st|ng
teohno|og|es. The oomb|nat|on of these two faotors prov|des a m|rror of approx|mate|y 2.5 metres |n
d|ameter w|th up to 5800 aotuators (5200 aotuators |n the aot|ve opt|oa| area} eaoh projeot|ng to 50 om
on the pr|mary m|rror of the te|esoope.


Figure 3.145. Mirror positions calculated for median seeing using 1000 uncorrelated wavefronts.

The base||ne adapt|ve m|rror |s des|gned to have a spat|a| res|dua| f|tt|ng error of 120 nm rms and a tem-
pora| error be|ow 60 nm rms w|th a wavefront sensor samp||ng frequenoy of 1 kHz. ln order to ensure
that the m|rror |s not saturated |n poor atmospher|o oond|t|ons, the stroke requ|rements that wou|d ||m|t
the m|rror |s speo|f|ed to be suff|o|ent for 2.5-aroseoond see|ng.

ln add|t|on, the M4 un|t w||| be oapab|e of oorreot|ng res|dua| t|p-t||t (120 mas on-sky} ar|s|ng from te|e-
soope w|nd-shake, but not fu||y oompensated by M5, and res|dua| te|esoope-aooumu|ated |ow-order
wavefront errors 5 m.

The base||ne for the quaternary |s for a s|x-peta|, 2 mm th|n deformab|e m|rror aotuated w|th vo|oe oo||s.
The ooarse pos|t|on|ng of the adapt|ve m|rror un|t, for the purposes of oo|||mat|on, |s performed w|th a
hexapod un|t wh||e the rotat|on of the m|rror for the sw|toh between the two Nasmyth foo| |s performed
on a rotat|ng bear|ng mak|ng up the quaternary pos|t|on|ng system.

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Figure 3.146. Quaternary unit overview.

The aotuator pattern |s tr|angu|ar, g|v|ng a 31.5 mm spao|ng for a tota| of 5790 aotuators w|th 5232 |n the
usefu| opt|oa| area. The aotuators on the per|phery oompensate for the |atera| restra|nts on the th|n she||.
A|ong the rad|a| edges of segments the dens|ty of aotuators |s somewhat h|gher w|th a 28 mm spao|ng.


Figure 3.147. Actuator pattern.

The m|rror |s supported on a st|ff referenoe body that |s made e|ther of oarbon-f|bre-oompos|te mater|a|
or s|||oon oarb|de, prov|d|ng h|gh st|ffness, |ow we|ght and good d|mens|ona| stab|||ty.

The struotura| des|gn of the referenoe body |s |ayered w|th |noreas|ng d|mens|ons of the bas|o un|ts (tr|-
ang|es} as one moves away from the m|rror. At the |owest |eve| the tr|ang|es matoh w|th the aotuator
un|ts (see be|ow}. The |noreased d|mens|ons |n the baok make ma|ntenanoe eas|er.


Figure 3.148. The reference body with hexapod legs.

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The maoh|n|ng of the aotuator |nserts w||| be done e|ther us|ng ONO m||||ng w|th speo|a| too||ng or by
water-jet outt|ng. The known prob|ems of oarbon-f|bre absorpt|on of mo|sture have been oons|dered and
the manufaoturers oons|der th|s a known |ssue w|th we||-eng|neered so|ut|ons.

A ser|es of boros|||oate |nserts |nsta||ed |nto the referenoe body front faoe w||| prov|de the oapao|t|ve sen-
sor armature, prov|d|ng the oo-|ooated feedbaok that a||ows the aotuators to be oontro||ed |n pos|t|on.


Figure 3.149. Borosilicate inserts in the prototype reference body.

lns|de the |owest |eve| of the referenoe body the br|oks oarry|ng the aotuators and |ooa| dr|ve e|eotron|os
are |nserted. These are ||ne rep|aoeab|e un|ts.


Figure 3.150. A brick interfacing with the borosilicate inserts and being inserted into the structure.

The br|ok |s an a|um|n|um p|ate w|th a ooo||ng ohanne| maoh|ned |nto |t. Both 33% waterg|yoo| m|xture
and a ||qu|d gas oan be run |nto the br|ok to ooo| |t aot|ve|y. ln part|ou|ar, the nove| |dea of us|ng ||quef|ed
gas as ooo|ant has been suooessfu||y tested on a br|ok breadboard and m|ght be adopted as base||ne
dur|ng oonstruot|on. The benef|t of suoh an approaoh |s to make the M4 un|t fa||-safe aga|nst poss|b|e
|eakages, wh|oh for the ||qu|d gas oase wou|d evaporate.

The aotuators |nterfaoe to the |ower s|de of the br|ok, wh||e the e|eotron|o boards |mp|ement|ng d|g|ta|
oontro|, supp|y and oommun|oat|on for the aotuators are mounted on both s|des of the br|ok and on an
add|t|ona| vert|oa| f|n. A|| data, power and ooo||ng |nterfaoes are p|aoed on the top s|de of the br|ok for
easy aooess|b|||ty. |atera| p|ates are used to |nsta|| the br|ok |nto the referenoe body. The |nsta||at|on and
a||gnment of the br|oks |s opt|m|sed to a||ow easy rep|aoement for ma|ntenanoe purposes. The |atera|
p|ates rema|n |n the referenoe body so that when br|oks are exohanged, no further a||gnment |s neoes-
sary.

W|th the br|oks |nserted, the baok struoture |s o|osed w|th oaps that avo|d oonveot|ve heat d|ss|pat|on
that oou|d po||ute the te|esoope beam.

The vo|oe oo|| aotuators |n the base||ne des|gn are the same as used |n prev|ous deformab|e m|rror sys-
tems by ADS/M|orogate, and |n part|ou|ar those for the ESO v|T deformab|e seoondary m|rror that |s
be|ng |ntegrated at the t|me of wr|t|ng.

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The deformab|e m|rror |s a f|at 1.95 mm th|n she||. ln the base||ne so|ut|on, the m|rror |s segmented |nto
s|x 60-degree peta|s w|th an |nner d|ameter of about 600 mm and a d|ameter of about 2400 mm at the
outer r|m (henoe a s|ng|e peta| |s about 900 mm |n |ts |ongest d|mens|on}. The mater|a| se|eoted |s
Zerodur.

|atera| support |s prov|ded to the g|ass peta|s from the externa| r|ng on|y, us|ng f|exures that are g|ued to
the edge of the m|rror.


Figure 3.151. The lateral restraint for the thin shell and scale-one breadboard (using plate glass rather than Zerodur).
3.7.1 POSlTlONlNG NlT
The ent|re quaternary m|rror un|t needs to rotate 180 degrees to a||ow the te|esoope to aooess e|ther
Nasmyth foous. Th|s |s aoh|eved us|ng a rotat|ng bear|ng based on gu|des. Norma||y o|osed (fa||-safe}
pneumat|o brakes are bu||t |nto the system. Dur|ng observat|ons the rotat|on meohan|sm |s parked and
oonsumes no power.


Figure 3.152. M4 mounting structure and positioning system for the Dark Energy CAMera.

For a||gnment and for stroke management (t|p-t||t}, the un|t |s mounted on a hexapod. The stroke |s
25 mm w|th an |norementa| mot|on of 250 nm. The nom|na| |oad, |no|ud|ng safety marg|n, |s 1.5 tonnes
per |eg wh||e |n the oase of an earthquake the tota| |oad |noreases to 3 tonnes. The un|t |s, to a|| |ntents
and purposes, |dent|oa| to the un|t produoed at ADS for the Dark Energy OAMera at the Oerro To|o|o
lnter-amer|oan Observatory (OTlO}.
3.7.2 OONTRO| SYSTEM
The oontro| system for the M4 un|t |no|udes a|| the neoessary oomponents for the oontro| of the aotua-
tors, tak|ng |nto aooount the safety of the system and ma|nta|n|ng phas|ng of the segments. lt does not
|no|ude the rea|-t|me oomputer that takes the |nformat|on from the wavefront sensors and oonverts |t |nto
an aberrat|on oommand and subsequent|y to a pos|t|on oommand to the M4.

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Figure 3.153. Control layout for the M4 unit.

A|most a|| f|e|d e|eotron|os are on-board the br|oks w|th m|n|ma| oonneot|ons. ln add|t|on to the ooo||ng,
on|y the power and data ||nk are requ|red by the br|oks. The data aoqu|s|t|on and prooess|ng of the
oapao|t|ve sensors and the vo|oe oo|| ourrent dr|ves are a|| on-board the br|oks. The oontro| of the aotua-
tors |s based on F|e|d-Programmab|e Gate Arrays (FPGAs} that are on-board the br|oks. Bes|des the
h|gh-speed data ||nk, an add|t|ona| f|e|d bus oonneots the |nd|v|dua| br|oks for safety and ma|ntenanoe.

The oomputat|ona||y heavy aot|v|t|es, suoh as feed-forward oommand oomputat|on, oan be |ooated at a
d|stanoe of 500 metres from the un|t thereby reduo|ng the heat |oad on the te|esoope.
3.7.3 THlN SHE|| MANFAOTRlNG
The base||ne des|gn of the aotuat|on stage |s oompat|b|e both w|th a mono||th|o th|n she|| and a seg-
mented one. The projeot base||ne for the m|rror |s the segmented th|n she|| as |t prov|des for a rea||st|o
po||oy on spares and has reduoed ma|ntenanoe and operat|on oosts.

The th|n she||s are made |n a four-stage prooess. A f|at opt|oa| surfaoe |s po||shed |nto a th|ok p|eoe of
Zerodur. The p|eoe |s f||pped and p|aoed on a b|ook|ng body. lt |s then re|at|ve|y rap|d|y maoh|ned down
to just under 3 mm th|okness. The f|na| m||||metre |s removed by gr|nd|ng and |app|ng, |eav|ng a po||shed
f|n|sh on the baok s|de of the g|ass.

The th|n sheet |s then out to peta| shape us|ng a water jet or oonvent|ona| m||||ng. The deve|opment of the
outt|ng prooess, a|though oerta|n|y not w|thout r|sk, has benef|tted |mmense|y from the prototyp|ng aot|v|-
t|es.

Part of the demonstrat|on aot|v|ty undertaken at phase B has been the produot|on, us|ng borof|oat g|ass,
of a soa|e-one 2.7-metre d|ameter 1.9 mm th|n sheet. A oomb|ned hand||ng too| and b|ook|ng body that
oan be used on the po||sh|ng maoh|nes has been des|gned and bu||t for th|s p|eoe.


Figure 3.154. Rear and front side of the blocking body for the 2.7-metre 2 mm thin shell prototype.
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Figure 3.155. The 2.7-metre 2 mm thin shell on the blocking body and in the thinning process.
3.7.4 PERFORMANOE
The speo|f|oat|on for the quaternary un|t has been estab||shed to enab|e d|ffraot|on-||m|ted operat|ons
us|ng th|s m|rror a|one. The f|tt|ng error has been used by the oontraotor to eva|uate the aotuator dens|ty,
stroke and dynam|o performanoe.

A prototype un|t was oonstruoted dur|ng phase B and a ser|es of opt|oa| and e|eotr|oa| tests have been
performed. The prototype |s made of two Zerodur segments w|th e|ght br|oks beh|nd eaoh segment
supported on a S|O referenoe struoture.

A st|toh|ng |nterferometer based on a 10 om beam was used for the h|gh spat|a| frequeno|es. A fu|| aper-
ture test at var|ab|e spat|a| frequeno|es (|no||ned test setup} was used to prov|de |ow spat|a| frequenoy
|nformat|on and a p|ston sens|ng un|t was used to overoome the /2 amb|gu|ty at the segment edges.


Figure 3.156. Prototype optical layout of the full aperture test.

The projeot oons|dered a demonstrat|on of the ab|||ty to phase the segments to be a or|t|oa| oomponent
of the demonstrat|on prototype aot|v|t|es.


Figure 3.157. Prototype and demonstration of the phasing of thin sheets. The piston sensing unit in front of the
demonstration prototype (left) and fringes across two segments at the demonstration prototype (right). The lower
regions are deformed due to the supporting structure and are not part of the useful area.

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Muoh attent|on was a|so p|aoed on the pass|ve stab|||ty of the f|atten|ng oommand to the m|rror. The
quaternary needs to be ab|e to aoh|eve a f|at surfaoe for pass|ve operat|on or for a||gnment of other
m|rrors.

The e|eotromeohan|oa| performanoe of the prototype has been thorough|y eva|uated by measur|ng the
moda| and |ooa| response t|me and perform|ng s|mu|ated turbu|enoe oompensat|on |n order to measure
the dynam|o res|dua| error. Most resu|ts were w|th|n the speo|f|oat|ons. A dynam|o fo||ow|ng error test
gave ev|denoe of a des|gn f|aw |n the e|eotron|os and oontro| software. The des|gn has s|noe been
|mproved to overoome that ||m|tat|on.

The pos|t|on|ng hexapod has been extens|ve|y mode||ed and, thanks to the produot|on of an a|most
|dent|oa| un|t, prototyped.

The adapt|ve un|t oontro| system prov|des shape and t|p-t||t oontro| of the th|n she|| m|rror us|ng deoen-
tra||sed pos|t|on oontro| for a|| the aotuators w|th the|r |ooa| oapao|t|ve sensors. The un|t has been stud|ed
|n great deta|| us|ng numer|oa| ana|yses and s|mu|at|ons. The struotura| mode|s were der|ved from f|n|te
e|ement mode|||ng data. Aotuator and sensor oharaoter|st|os were der|ved from e|eotron|o mode|s and
further deve|oped by breadboard tests. Add|t|ona||y, the f|u|d dynam|o |nteraot|on oaused by the a|r |ayer
between th|n she|| and referenoe struoture and |ooa| deformat|ons of the oapao|t|ve sensors were taken
|nto aooount |n the oontro| mode| and va||dated on the |arge B|noou|ar Te|esoope (|BT} 672-m|rror un|t
that has been suooessfu||y dep|oyed. The matoh between mode|-pred|oted and measured dynam|o
responses |s very good and a||ows very re||ab|e performanoe pred|ot|ons. The base||ne des|gn reaohes a
|ooa| o|osed |oop pos|t|on |oop bandw|dth of a|most 700 Hz.


Figure 3.158. Step response of a single actuator simulation and measurement.

The deoentra||sed oontro| soheme proposed by M|orogate foresees damp|ng and ooarse pos|t|on oontro|
at aotuator |eve|. ln order to aoh|eve the demanded dynam|o performanoe on a|| oontro||ed modes, an
add|t|ona| feed-forward oommand |s neoessary, generated at the |eve| of the ent|re quaternary m|rror.
The str|ngent der|ved requ|rements |n terms of samp||ng, propagat|on and oomputat|on de|ays, and s|g-
na|-to-no|se rat|o have strong|y |nf|uenoed the f|na| oontro| hardware aroh|teoture. Emphas|s has been
p|aoed on |ooa| ana|ogue to d|g|ta| oonvers|on, deoentra||sed oontro| and d|g|ta| oommun|oat|on us|ng
mu|t|mode f|bres. |ast but not |east, the d|mens|ona| and power d|ss|pat|on oonstra|nts, as we|| as the
s|mp||f|oat|on of the |nterfaoes, had a strong |mpaot on the hardware des|gn oho|oes. Due to these spe-
o|f|o des|gn oonstra|nts the M4 un|t w||| oonta|n a oons|derab|e amount of oustom e|eotron|os.
3.8 TlP-Tl|T / FlE|D-STABl|lSATlON NlT
The M5 m|rror |s used to oorreot for |ow bandw|dth (a few Hz} t|p-t||t errors ar|s|ng from the effeots of the
w|nd on the te|esoope and |arger amp||tude errors from the atmosphere. Be|ng ne|ther at a pup|| nor at
an |mage p|ane the m|rror |s requ|red to ma|nta|n |ts f|at shape to h|gh preo|s|on to ||m|t any f|e|d effeots.
The m|rror d|mens|ons are 2.2 metres by 2.7 metres and |t |s requ|red to have an area| dens|ty of |ess
than 90 kgm
-2
and a f|rst e|genfrequenoy of over 250 Hz.

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The wavefront error of the r|g|d m|rror on soa|es greater than 40 mm has to be better than 0.5 m peak-
to-va||ey and |ess than 15 nm rms over sma||er patohes. Dur|ng observat|on, the add|t|ona| m|rror defor-
mat|on sha|| not exoeed 100 nm rms for soa|es |arger than 40 mm and 15 nm rms for sma||er soa|es.

The t|p-t||t performanoe of the un|t has been speo|f|ed to oorreot 1-aroseoond rms w|nd-shake from the
te|esoope |eav|ng a res|dua| of 70 mas over the ent|re frequenoy range and 4 mas at frequeno|es above
9 Hz.

The M5 un|t has been des|gned and prototyped on the bas|s of a three-po|nt aotuated support of the
m|rror w|thout a oounterwe|ght system. The m|rror |s restra|ned |atera||y us|ng a oentra| membrane. The
ent|re un|t |s |no||ned at 52.75 degrees and mounted on a rotat|ng stage prov|ded by the te|esoope ma|n
struoture.
3.8.1 THE M5 MlRROR
The base||ne |s a o|osed-baok |E m|rror w|th a ||ghtwe|ght square oore. The des|gn performanoe of th|s
m|rror |s exoept|ona|, w|th an aer|a| dens|ty be|ow 70 kgm
-2
and a f|rst e|genfrequenoy at above 290 Hz.
The ||ghtwe|ght oore |s made us|ng abras|ve water-jet teohno|ogy w|th 2.5 mm th|n r|bs. The baok faoe
sheet |s spher|oa|. The oores and faoe sheets are jo|ned us|ng a |ow temperature fus|on prooess.


Figure 3.159. ULE M5 mirror design with close-back lightweight structure (left), square core cell (centre) and spheri-
cal back surface with dimensions (right): 2180 mm 2720 mm, 40 kg and a first eigenfrequency of 296 Hz.

lTT and Oorn|ng have oo||aborated |n the past to manufaoture s|m||ar m|rrors us|ng the same bas|o too|s
and prooesses.


Figure 3.160. A 2-metre diameter 3 mm thick mirror made for another programme, under abrasive water-jet cutting.
The final mirror had significantly better performance than our specifications.

The m|rror w||| be opt|oa||y po||shed at lTT us|ng |arge too|s and w||| be f|n|shed |f neoessary us|ng an
ex|st|ng |on-beam maoh|ne. Some prooess deve|opment has been undertaken a|ready to water jet
deeper oores than prev|ous|y aoh|eved.

The m|rror |s oonstra|ned |atera||y w|th a membrane at |ts oentre and ax|a||y at the three |nterfaoes to the
aotuators. These |ooat|ons are strengthened by oompar|son to the other struts |n the oore. The grav|ty
deformat|ons are to be oompensated dur|ng po||sh|ng by |on-beam po||sh|ng |nto the surfaoe the neoes-
sary oorreot|on.

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Figure 3.161. Gravity distortion. The wavefront error on M5 is 260 nm rms at zenith and 270 nm rms at 70 degrees
orientation.

The behav|our of the m|rror under the rout|ne aooe|erat|ons app||ed |n the t|p-t||t operat|ons has been
ana|ysed and the oontr|but|on to the wavefront error |s sma|| (< 20 nm}.
3.8.2 E|EOTROMEOHANlOA| NlT
The support un|t |s based on a f|xed-frame ma|n struoture that oarr|es the base frame upon wh|oh the
aotuators and the oentra| restra|nt are |ooated.


Figure 3.162. The M5 unit and the base frame, actuators and central restraint.

The des|gn, by NTE/SENER/OSEM/Sagem, |no|uded a S|O m|rror so|ut|on and therefore the |nterfaoes
make referenoe to that mater|a|. As oan be noted above, th|s S|O m|rror does not form the base||ne so|u-
t|on for the projeot and the |nterfaoes w||| |n any oase need to be opt|m|sed dur|ng the produot|on
phase

. An |ntegrated mode| us|ng the NTE des|gn and the |E m|rror has been bu||t at ESO, and the
performanoe of the who|e un|t matohes the requ|rements we||.


Figure 3.163. Integrated model with M5 ULE mirror.

S|noe the m|rror |s the most d|ff|ou|t oomponent, the natura| oono|us|on |s that the |nterfaoe |s best dr|ven predom|nant|y by the
m|rror oonstra|nts.
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The 365 mm d|ameter oentra| membrane restra|n|ng the m|rror |atera||y |s very s|m||ar |n oonoept to the
pr|mary m|rror restra|nts. The membrane perm|ts trave| |n the d|reot|on of the aotuat|on wh||e prov|d|ng
st|ffness |n the orthogona| d|reot|on.


Figure 3.164. Components of the central restraint.

The membrane together w|th end stops are |ntroduoed |nto the m|rror. The oon|oa| |nterfaoe |s bo|ted |nto
the membrane. The ent|re un|t oan be sh|mmed w|th respeot to the f|xed frame. The end stop restr|ots
the max|mum d|sp|aoement of the oentra| membrane to 75 mm.

The aotuators oonneot to the m|rror v|a f|exures that ensure ax|a| st|ffness wh||e not |ntroduo|ng |atera|
foroes.


Figure 3.165. Axial flexures connecting the mirror interface to the actuators and the stress calculation for flexures.

The aotuator |s based on a OEDRAT APA des|gn, oustom bu||t for the E-E|T. A pre|oaded e|||pt|oa| stee|
r|ng |s foroed open by the aot|on of a p|ezo staok runn|ng a|ong the major ax|s. The aotuat|on d|reot|on |s
a|ong the m|nor ax|s. ln the re|axed state, the aotuator |s at |ts max|mum extent and expand|ng the p|ezo
oompresses the aotuator. At zero vo|ts, the aotuator has a nom|na| he|ght of 240 mm wh||e at 1 kv the
p|ezo |engthens by 270 m and the aotuator shortens by 2.25 t|mes more or 600 m.

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Figure 3.166. Actuator and flexure dimensions and the actuator line replaceable unit.

The |ntr|ns|o st|ffness of the aotuator |s h|gh. The aotuator |s a substant|a| dev|oe w|th a footpr|nt of a|most
400 mm and |s a ||ne rep|aoeab|e un|t together w|th |ts oa||brat|on dev|oe and dr|ve e|eotron|os. A pos|t|on
sensor |s used to prov|de abso|ute oa||brat|on and feedbaok to the aotuator. lt |s mounted on the same
f|ange as the aotuator.

The pos|t|on sensor se|eoted |s an eddy ourrent dev|oe from m|oro-Eps||on that prov|des a 15 nm reso|u-
t|on over a 1 mm range. The aotuator prov|des three |nterfaoes for aooe|erometers to be mounted at the
ends of the p|ezo staok and at the vertex o|ose to the f|exure. ln oontro|||ng the aotuator |t |s therefore
poss|b|e to have both pos|t|on and ve|oo|ty |nformat|on.

The tota| stroke of eaoh aotuator |s 0.75 mm. The atmospher|o oontr|but|on to the stroke |s very sma||.
The w|nd rejeot|on dynam|o stroke |s a fourth of the tota| stroke. The rema|n|ng stroke |s used for f|ne
a||gnment and to oompensate for grav|ty deformat|ons.
3.8.2.1 PERFORMANOE
A soa|e-one prototype un|t has been oonstruoted dur|ng the phase B by NTE/SENER, the pr|me oon-
traotor. OSEM deve|oped the a||-meohan|oa| parts |no|ud|ng the dummy m|rror des|gn made of a New-
port opt|oa| tab|e. NTE deve|oped the test stand and the oontro| hardware.


Figure 3.167. Prototype scale-one unit with dummy mirror and one of three actuators mounted in prototype unit.

The soa|e-one prototype has been manufaotured |no|ud|ng the |no||ned support and the f|xed frame. A||
|nterfaoes to the m|rror have been reproduoed on the dummy a|um|n|um m|rror that has the same mass
as the rea| m|rror. The e|genfrequeno|es of the dummy m|rror are |ower than the rea| m|rror, but th|s does
not affeot the performanoe of the system.

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The oontro| of the M5 m|rror aotuators |s based on a ser|es of nested |oops. An |nner speed |oop fed by
s|gna|s oom|ng from the aooe|erometers damps the resonanoes of the aotuator, prov|d|ng stab|||ty for the
outer pos|t|on |oop that |s fed by the pos|t|on sensors. The set po|nt for the aotuators |s prov|ded to the
system by the ESO |oop fed by the wavefront sensor.

The oo-|ooat|on of the speed measurement (us|ng aooe|erometers} w|th the aotuator prov|des damp|ng |n
a |arge frequenoy range and ensures that evo|ut|on of the aotuator propert|es due to ag|ng or ma|nte-
nanoe aot|v|t|es w||| not oreate |nadvertent |nstab|||t|es.
3.8.3 A|TERNATES
The projeot has not deve|oped an a|ternate des|gn for the M5 e|eotromeohan|oa| un|t. However, the so|u-
t|on deve|oped |s not propr|etary and oan be souroed from a|ternate supp||ers. Moreover, the projeot has
a number of opt|ons ava||ab|e for the m|rror, |no|ud|ng s|||oon oarb|de from Boosteo (F} and ||ght-we|ghted
Zerodur from Sohott (G}. ln both of these oases the projeot wou|d need to f|nd a po||sher.
3.9 PRE-FOOA| STATlONS
ln oommon w|th the v|T, NTT and other ESO te|esoopes, an adapter |s env|saged to ho|d gu|de probes
|n f|xed pos|t|ons w|th respeot to the te|esoope fooa| p|ane and the sky. For the E-E|T, two oonoentr|o
adapters, one for |asers and one for natura| gu|de stars, are |ooated ahead of the natura| foous of the te|-
esoope. Th|s prov|des vo|ume ahead of the foous to d|vert the fu|| f|e|d of the te|esoope s|deways to
fo|ded ports.


Figure 3.168. The complete pre-focal station.

A |arge stee| struoture |s mounted on the Nasmyth p|atform and oarr|es the natura| and |aser gu|de probe
adapters and an |nstrument rotator at eaoh of the three ports. ln the oentre of the struoture, an e|evator |s
used to pos|t|on the M6 m|rror that |s requ|red for the se|eot|on of the foous. ln the oase of the ooude
foous, an arm |s |ooated ahead of the struoture that |nserts the ooude p|ok-off m|rror |nto the beam.
ln the natura| gu|de star adapter, three arms are used |n rout|ne operat|on and a fourth |s a||ooated to a
phas|ng sensor. The |aser adapter has four arms or|ented permanent|y |n a oross oonf|gurat|on, but w|th
var|ab|e rad||.

Eaoh natura| gu|de star probe prov|des a 20-aroseoond f|e|d of v|ew for aoqu|s|t|on and a 3-aroseoond
f|e|d stop for the se|eot|on of the star whose ||ght w||| be sent to the wavefront sensor. The natura| gu|de
star probes oan traok d|fferent|a||y aoross the f|e|d of v|ew oorreot|ng for refraot|on and fo||ow|ng mov|ng
targets.
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3.9.1 PRE-FOOA| STATlON STROTRE
The oommon framework struoture prov|des the bas|s for mount|ng the two |atera| rotators, the stra|ght-
through rotator and the adapter that oarr|es the gu|de probes ahead of |t.


Figure 3.169. M6N in position, directing 5 arcminutes of the beam out of the plane of the paper towards the reader
and M6C in position diverting the central 20 arcseconds to the coud train.

ln the m|d-seot|on an e|evator |ooates the fo|d|ng m|rror (M6}. The p|ok-off m|rror for the ooude (M6O} |s
|ooated we|| ahead of the beams.
3.9.2 GlDE PROBES
The oomb|nat|on of rotat|on, neoessary |n any oase to fo||ow the f|e|d, and rad|a| mot|on a||ows the gu|de
probes to be pos|t|oned |n any |ooat|on |n the f|e|d of v|ew. Two bear|ngs mounted e|ther s|de of a st|ff
struoture oarry the gu|de probes. ln the ESO nomeno|ature the ent|re un|t |s oa||ed an adapter.


Figure 3.170. Laser and natural guide probe adapters.
3.9.2.1 NATRA| GlDE STAR
The Natura| Gu|de Star (NGS} gu|de probes aooess the ent|re f|e|d of v|ew of the te|esoope and prov|des
both a d|reot |mag|ng oapab|||ty w|th a ||m|ted f|e|d of v|ew (20 aroseoonds} and a spat|a||y-f||tered aper-
ture for the ShaokHartmann sensors. Th|s des|gn fo||ows very o|ose|y the oonoept that has been
extreme|y suooessfu| at the v|T. The gu|de probe |s made of a|um|n|umbery|||um a||oy, aga|n s|m||ar to
the v|T, prov|d|ng the same st|ffness as stee| at a quarter of the we|ght.
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Figure 3.171. Main components of the NGS probe and tilting the pick-off mirror.

The p|ok-off m|rror |s aotuated w|th respeot to |ts norma| 45 degrees |no||nat|on |n order to fo||ow the f|e|d
ourvature.

The meohan|oa| d|mens|ons of the probes are s|gn|f|oant. The |ength |s just under 1900 mm and the p|ok-
off m|rror |s 230 mm |n d|ameter. The mass of the probe |s approx|mate|y 130 kg.

The probe |s mounted on a st|ff p|ate that |s dr|ven |n and out of the f|e|d of v|ew of the te|esoope us|ng a
trans|at|on stage based on a s|mp|e traok and sorew dr|ve system w|th an aoourate enooder.


Figure 3.172. The components of the translation stage.

lno|ud|ng the trans|at|on stage and e|eotron|os, the tota| mass of eaoh natura| gu|de star probe |s ap-
prox|mate|y 540 kg.


Figure 3.173. The guide probe retracted and extended.

The trans|at|on stage r|des on para||e| ra||s and |s dr|ven by a |ow torque motor (1 Nm} through a gear-
box on a ba|| sorew. The pos|t|on|ng unoerta|nty of th|s system based on oommero|a||y ava||ab|e oompo-
nents |s oa|ou|ated to be |ess than 7 m. A 5 m reso|ut|on Ren|shaw enooder |s used to estab||sh abso-
|ute pos|t|on|ng.

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The rotat|on of the probe |s made on two THK oonoentr|o ra||s. The probe support|ng struoture r|des on
two sets of two ba|| s||des. A h|gh degree of oonoentr|o|ty (w|th|n the d|fferent|a| run-out} |s requ|red to
m|n|m|se the fr|ot|on of the bear|ngs. ln oo||aborat|on w|th the bear|ng supp||er the so|ut|on adopted |s to
use eooentr|o oams to |ooate the outer ra|| onoe the |nner one has been |nsta||ed.


Figure 3.174. The concentric rails for the adapter and the rack for the drive units.

The rotat|ona| mot|on |s aoh|eved us|ng two motors, pre|oaded e|eotron|oa||y, and dr|v|ng aga|nst the
4260 mm d|ameter orown gear. The rotat|ona| stage |s enooded us|ng a He|denha|n tape enooder. One
read|ng head |s oons|dered per probe.

Eaoh probe requ|res power, network and ooo||ng, neoess|tat|ng a oab|e-wrap system to be bu||t |nto the
adapter meohan|os. The e|eotr|oa| oab|net that dr|ves the probe oomponents |s mounted on the probe
thereby ||m|t|ng not on|y the numbers of oab|es go|ng through the wraps but a|so the poss|b|e e|eotro-
magnet|o no|se souroes on data and oontro| s|gna|s.

A oasoad|ng oab|e wrap system |s used. An externa| 5-metre d|ameter oab|e wrap feeds three sma||er
|nter|or ones.


Figure 3.175. The natural guide star cable wrap system.
3.9.2.2 |ASER GlDE STAR PROBES
The |aser gu|de probes are oonf|gured |n a oross pattern w|thout an opt|on for d|fferent|a| rotat|ona|
mot|ons, a|though they oan move d|fferent|a||y |n the transverse d|reot|on.

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Figure 3.176. The laser guide star adapter.

Eaoh probe |s a substant|a| opt|oa| e|ement, 2040 mm |ong, host|ng a 574 mm d|ameter p|ok-off m|rror.

S|m||ar|y to the natura| gu|de star the p|ok-off m|rror, t||t oan be adjusted. Add|t|ona||y, the opt|oa| tra|n
prov|des two fo|d|ng m|rrors that are |ooated at a pup|| and |mage p|ane to perm|t f|ne adjustments that
ensure the res|dua| d|fferent|a| mot|ons of the |aser beam re|at|ve to the te|esoope oan be oompensated

.


Figure 3.177. The laser guide probe.

vo|ume prov|s|on |s made for the fast readout e|eotron|os of the wavefront sensors and any near-deteotor
oomputat|ons that may be neoessary. The mass of eaoh |aser gu|de probe arm |s 1000 kg.

ln terms of mount|ng and dr|v|ng, the so|ut|ons are a|most |dent|oa| for the |aser gu|de probes as for the
natura| gu|de systems, but w|th some s|mp||f|oat|ons due to the f|xed geometry.
3.9.3 lNSTRMENT ROTATORS
Eaoh pre-fooa| stat|on prov|des three |nstrument-mount|ng |ooat|ons and prov|s|on |s made at the
through-foous for an |nstrument de-rotator, |ndependent of the gu|de probes. The stra|ght-through foous
prov|des for the fu|| 10-arom|nute f|e|d of v|ew.


Figure 3.178. The three instrument rotators and the location of the rotator drives.

The bu|k of the d|fferent|a| t|p-t||t |s hand|ed by the |aser |aunoh system.
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Two pre|oaded motors dr|ve the rotator and a He|denha|n tape enooder |s used for abso|ute refereno|ng.
The brakes are bu||t |nto the motors and no |ndependent brak|ng system |s env|saged.
3.9.4 THE E|EvATOR
|ooat|ng the fo|d|ng m|rror (feed|ng the |atera| ports} |n and out of the beam |s aoh|eved by an e|evator
|ooated |n the oentre of the pre-fooa| stat|on framework struoture.


Figure 3.179. The elevator, the M6N units and elevator drive system (M6G mirror shown here no longer exists).

The movement of the m|rror and |ts preo|se pos|t|on|ng have been deooup|ed as aot|ons, thereby avo|d-
|ng the need for a |ong and preo|se trave|. The dr|v|ng system for the m|rror |s based on gu|d|ng ra||s,
mounted onto the framework struoture, and a ||ft|ng oha|n system. The m|rror rotates to prov|de aooess
to the two fo|ded Nasmyth foo|. The M6N m|rror |s mounted on a rotat|on stage to se|eot the s|de foous.

The v|gnett|ng of the beam outs|de the oentra| f|ve arom|nutes that are d|verted has to be kept to a m|n|-
mum to a||ow the stra|ght-through adapters to reta|n the oontro| of the te|esoope. The v|gnett|ng |s m|n|-
m|sed by hang|ng the m|rror on two p|||ars that are mounted on a motor|sed rotat|ng p|ate.


Figure 3.180. M6N unit and M6C in and out of position.

The sma|| ooude m|rror |s mounted on a 1600 mm |ong p|||ar that |s dr|ven |n and out of pos|t|on us|ng a
raok and p|n|on system. The un|t |s |ooked |nto pos|t|on us|ng a pre|oaded o|amp.
3.9.5 OPTlOS SPPORT
3.9.5.1 M6N
The M6N m|rror |s an e|||pt|oa| f|at, 2 metres by 1.5 metres |n s|ze and 110 mm th|ok.

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The des|gn has assumed the mater|a| propert|es of Zerodur and the m|rror |s not ||ght-we|ghted and, a|t-
hough th|s wou|d be an opt|on to reduoe the mass of the overa|| system, |t |s expens|ve. A oentra| mem-
brane |s |ooated |n a deep oentra| ho|e to prov|de the |atera| support of the m|rror wh||e three ax|a| f|ex-
ures def|ne the m|rror pos|t|on |n the d|reot|on of the beam.


Figure 3.181. M6N mirror support.

|atera| o|amps are used to support the m|rror and m|n|m|se the |oads |n the oase of an earthquake.
3.9.5.2 M6O
The ooude m|rror |s, by oompar|son, sma|| and oan eas||y be supported us|ng the same system as for the
M6N. ln th|s oase the |atera| restra|nts are unneoessary.
3.9.5.3 |ASER GlDE PROBE KlOK-OFF MlRROR
A|though the un|t has been d|mens|oned for a so||d e|||pt|oa| m|rror, 780 mm by 560 mm and 100 mm
th|ok, made of Zerodur, g|ven the d|mens|ons and |ooat|on of th|s m|rror |t |s oons|dered that a s|||oon
oarb|de opt|on |s a better matoh.


Figure 3.182. Concept for a SiC pick-off mirror for the laser guide probe.

A S|O m|rror wou|d we|gh 15 kg, sav|ng a|most 70 kg re|at|ve to the Zerodur base||ne.
3.9.6 OHA||ENGES
3.9.6.1 MANFAOTRlNG
The pre-fooa| stat|on |s a very |arge struoture and |s or|t|oa| to the te|esoope operat|ons. The bu|k of the
stee| struoture |s not part|ou|ar|y oha||eng|ng and oan be pre-ereoted |n Europe for test|ng. The tota|
we|ght of the un|t |s h|gh and th|s p|aoes a s|gn|f|oant oonstra|nt on the Nasmyth p|atforms.

Po||sh|ng the M6N w||| requ|re a ded|oated test setup, |s ||ke|y to be t|me oonsum|ng and |s known to be
expens|ve. Depend|ng on f|rst ||ght |nstrumentat|on requ|rements |t |s oons|dered that the M6N ought to
be de|ayed so as not to beoome a sohedu|e dr|ver for the overa|| te|esoope (f|rst ||ght and |nstrument at
stra|ght-through foous}.
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158 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
3.9.6.2 PERFORMANOE
Keep|ng the meohan|sms of the gu|de probes ooo| |s oons|dered a s|gn|f|oant oha||enge. Any heat gener-
ated so o|ose to the fooa| p|ane |s ||ke|y to pose s|gn|f|oant prob|ems to the rest of the opt|oa| tra|n. The
re|ated r|sk |s that the deteotor systems used |n the gu|de probes w||| have data rates that pose oha|-
|enges to the oab||ng and the data oommun|oat|on paths. Wh||e a so|ut|on of embedd|ng the oonvers|on
of the wavefront sensor |mages d|reot|y |nto s|opes at the deteotor head |s p|aus|b|e, the add|t|ona| oom-
put|ng power |s ||ke|y to oha||enge the ooo||ng requ|rements.

The |n-te|esoope ver|f|oat|on of the gu|de probe performanoe, |ndependent|y of the rest of the system, |s
||ke|y to be oha||eng|ng. From a oomm|ss|on|ng po|nt of v|ew, the adapter |s the dev|oe aga|nst wh|oh the
te|esoope w||| be made to work and therefore the f|rst |nstruments are ||ke|y to be va||dators. Th|s |s oon-
s|dered as part of the oomm|ss|on|ng of the te|esoope, as was the oase for the v|T.
3.10 |ASER GlDE STARS
3.10.1 lNTRODOTlON
A |aser beaoon |s used to oreate an art|f|o|a| star |n the mesosphere at an a|t|tude of approx|mate|y 90 km
by resonant exo|tat|on of sod|um atoms |n the atmosphere us|ng a |aser souroe. The sod|um D2 trans|-
t|on oorresponds to a ye||ow |aser beam at a wave|ength of approx|mate|y 589 nm and four suoh bea-
oons are requ|red by the te|esoope, wh||e s|x |aser beaoons may be requ|red for speo|f|o |nstruments.

They w||| be mounted on four |aser stat|ons (eaoh of wh|oh oan host up to two |asers} around the r|m of
the pr|mary m|rror |n a s|de |aunoh oonf|gurat|on. The |aser stat|ons and des|gn vo|umes are shown |n
orange |n F|gure 3.183, a|ong w|th a sohemat|o 3D-v|ew of a |aser stat|on, popu|ated w|th two |asers
(baff|es om|tted}.

Eaoh |aser oons|sts of a souroe that generates a powerfu| |aser beam w|th su|tab|e propert|es for sod|um
exo|tat|on and a re|ay that projeots |t onto the sky to oreate the art|f|o|a| star.


Figure 3.183. The laser stations and design volumes.
3.10.2 PERFORMANOE REOlREMENTS
The |aser gu|de star speo|f|oat|ons are |arge|y dr|ven by the post-fooa| AO systems |noorporated |n the
|nstrumentat|on. The |aser |aunoh |ooat|on has been ana|ysed by the adapt|ve opt|os oommun|ty |n the
oontext of G|AO, MOAO and |TAO (Ground |ayer, Mu|t|-Oonjugate and |aser Tomography Adapt|ve
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 159
Opt|os}. The s|de-|aunoh oonf|gurat|on was se|eoted as a resu|t of these stud|es. Th|s m|t|gates fratr|o|de
at the expense of a h|gher |aser power requ|rement and a w|der f|e|d of v|ew on the deteotors.

Extens|ve s|mu|at|ons and tests on a ded|oated test benoh funded by ESO at the Dom|n|on Astrophys|oa|
Observatory have shown that w|th 1000 photons per ShaokHartmann subaperture at the |aser deteotor,
the oentro|d|ng aoouraoy neoessary for a|| f|avours of AO oan be aoh|eved. The f|na| requ|rement on
photon return f|ux from eaoh |aser |s 5 m||||on photons s
-1
m
-2
at the stra|ght-through Nasmyth foous at
zen|th, |n med|an sod|um oond|t|ons at the E-E|T s|te of Oerro Armazones. The angu|ar s|ze of the |aser
gu|de star |s requ|red to be 1.15 aroseoonds under a set of referenoe oond|t|ons. Other requ|rements
|no|ude the ab|||ty to steer the |aser beams to generate and ma|nta|n the aster|sm, po|nt|ng, oa||brat|on
funot|ons suoh as wave|ength detun|ng and d|agnost|os.

When operat|ng away from zen|th, the |aser photon return w||| be reduoed due to |noreased a|rmass and
atmospher|o ext|not|on and the |norease |n the angu|ar s|ze of the |aser gu|de star that w||| reduoe the
sod|um exo|tat|on eff|o|enoy. ln deve|op|ng the requ|rements, an approx|mate reduot|on |n the return f|ux
by a faotor of three at a zen|th ang|e of 60 degrees was taken |nto aooount.

ln add|t|on a sod|um |ayer var|ab|||ty study at the n|vers|ty of Br|t|sh Oo|umb|a |s be|ng part|a||y funded by
ESO.
3.10.3 OONOEPT
The oonoept |s |||ustrated |n F|gure 3.184. The souroe has an optomeohan|oa| |nterfaoe w|th the beam
re|ay and projeot|on oomponents. The |aser Projeot|on Subun|t (|PS} expands the |aser beam and
|aunohes |t |nto the atmosphere. The |aser projeotor prov|des other funot|ona||ty |no|ud|ng po|nt|ng, fast
and s|ow beam steer|ng, foous, and d|agnost|os. The |asers w||| be stand-a|one, |dent|oa|, modu|ar p|eoes
of equ|pment. Oontro| w||| be v|a the |nterfaoe w|th the te|esoope oontro| system.



Figure 3.184. Laser guide star unit of the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (main optomechanics).
3.10.4 |ASER SOROES
The E-E|T base||ne so|ut|on for 589 nm ||ght generat|on |s the same as that adopted for the v|T. Topt|oa
GmbH (Grafe|f|ng, Germany} has been se|eoted to produoe the |aser un|ts for the v|T adapt|ve opt|os
fao|||ty of the v|T, and the|r des|gn oonoepts are desor|bed be|ow. Topt|oa suboontraots the manufaoture
of the Raman f|bre amp||f|ers to MPBO (Montrea|, Oanada}.

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Raman f|bre amp||f|ers at 1178 nm w|th frequenoy doub||ng are ourrent|y the most prom|s|ng teohno|ogy
to produoe h|gh-power narrowband |aser ||ght at 589 nm (ye||ow}. Other teohno|og|es, suoh as vEOSE|s
(vert|oa| Externa| Oav|ty Surfaoe-Em|tt|ng |asers}, are be|ng |nvest|gated |n order to m|t|gate r|sk. Exper|-
enoe ga|ned from, hopefu||y, thousands of operat|ng hours on T4 of the v|T |s expeoted to be ava||ab|e
by the t|me the E-E|T |asers are prooured.

The f|bre amp||f|er teohno|ogy |s very attraot|ve s|noe the ||ght runs ent|re|y |n g|ass and henoe there are
no exposed surfaoes that need to be a||gned or beoome d|rty over t|me. The f|bre amp||f|er |s fo||owed by
a resonant frequenoy doub||ng stage wh|oh |s oommero|a||y ava||ab|e. F|bre amp||f|ers typ|oa||y feature
very h|gh beam qua||ty, wh|oh both ensures good frequenoy doub||ng eff|o|enoy and enab|es sma|| spot
s|zes when the beam |s projeoted onto the sky.

A seed |aser un|t work|ng at 1178 nm w|th a ||ne w|dth of on|y 1 MHz |s amp||f|ed us|ng a two-stage h|gh-
power po|ar|sat|on-ma|nta|n|ng Raman f|bre amp||f|er pumped at 1120 nm, fo||owed by a frequenoy-
doub||ng non-||near orysta| that oreates the 589 nm ||ght. The output beam |s d|reot|y fed |nto the |aser
projeot|on subun|t. The pump |asers are oommero|a||y ava||ab|e 19-|noh raok-mounted un|ts and oan be
rep|aoed w|th|n a few hours of work, as oan be the |aser head.

The teohno|ogy has been demonstrated at ESO and at Topt|oa and a oontraot |s |n p|aoe to produoe four
20 W systems for the v|T w|th a pre-produot|on un|t (prov|s|ona| aooeptanoe |n ear|y 2012}. Many of the
oomponents used |n the |aser are oommero|a| off-the-she|f |tems.


Figure 3.185. Yellow light from a 50 W demonstration in the lab.

W|th the exoept|on of the 1178 nm seed |aser and the 1120 nm pump |asers that are |ooated |n the e|eo-
tron|os oab|net adjaoent to the |aser, the rest of the oomponents are housed |n the 900 mm 700 mm
385 mm |aser head w|th a mass of 85 kg.

The |asers requ|re ooo||ng w|th a stab|e f|ow rate and temperature. Eaoh of the |asers w||| be prov|ded
w|th a separate heat exohanger/ooo||ng modu|e |ooated on the |aser stat|on to buffer aga|nst pressure
and temperature var|at|ons of the te|esoope ooo|ant.
3.10.5 |ASER PROJEOTlON SBNlTS
The ma|n requ|rements are |aser beam propagat|on, beam expans|on to an output d|ameter of 22 om
(30 om o|ear aperture}, po|nt|ng, |arge-amp||tude s|ow beam steer|ng, sma||-amp||tude fast beam steer|ng
(may be requ|red for G|AO mode of te|esoope}, var|ab|e foous oontro|, d|agnost|os |no|ud|ng |aser power
mon|tor|ng, meohan|oa| and struotura| support, eno|osure, stray ||ght oontro| and baff||ng. The optome-
ohan|oa| des|gn |s requ|red to be essent|a||y |nvar|ant under ohang|ng grav|ty, env|ronmenta| oond|t|ons
(part|ou|ar|y temperature and a|r pressure}, and opt|oa| power dens|ty.

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ln the base||ne des|gn, the ma|n parts are:

meohan|oa| struoture and eno|osure;
beam re|ay and d|agnost|os;
|aunoh te|esoope;
oontro| e|eotron|os; and
baff|e towers.

A des|gn study of the |aser projeot|on subun|ts was performed dur|ng the E-E|T phase B by the K
Astronomy Teohno|ogy Oentre. ESO |s a|so proour|ng a |aunoh te|esoope as part of the v|T adapt|ve
opt|os fao|||ty ourrent|y be|ng manufaotured by TNO |n the Nether|ands.
3.10.5.1 MEOHANlOA| STROTRE AND ENO|OSRE
The meohan|oa| struoture prov|des support for the optomeohan|os and a st|ff |nterfaoe for mount|ng a|| or
part of the |aser souroe subun|t. The eno|osure prov|des env|ronmenta| proteot|on and part|a||y sh|e|ds the
optomeohan|os from externa| |oads, e.g., w|nd. The eno|osure a|so prov|des some therma| |nsu|at|on to
reduoe heat d|ss|pat|on |n the dome.
3.10.5.2 BEAM RE|AY AND DlAGNOSTlOS
The beam re|ay expands the |aser beam d|ameter, prov|des var|ab|e foous, fast t|p-t||t beam steer|ng, and
d|agnost|o funot|ons |no|ud|ng |aser power.
3.10.5.3 |ANOH TE|ESOOPE
The |aunoh te|esoope |s shown as the oy||ndr|oa| b|ue struoture |n F|gure 3.184, |||ustrat|ng the |aser
Gu|de Star (|GS} un|t oonoept. lt |s approx|mate|y 1.4 metres h|gh and 50 om |n externa| d|ameter. Some
funot|ons of the |aunoh te|esoope |no|ude afooa| beam expans|on, |arge-amp||tude s|ow beam steer|ng
over an angu|ar d|ameter of 8 arom|nutes w|th respeot to the E-E|T opt|oa| ax|s, and oonvers|on of the
beam po|ar|sat|on state to o|rou|ar. The te|esoope |s requ|red to ma|nta|n exoe||ent opt|oa| qua||ty of the
wavefront over a|| operat|ng oond|t|ons.

ln the base||ne oonoept, the |aunoh te|esoope |s a Ga|||ean refraot|ve des|gn w|th an aotuated turn|ng
m|rror, prov|d|ng very preo|se beam steer|ng to oorreot for ohanges |n the po|nt|ng of the |aser beams
neoessary to generate the requ|red aster|sm and to oompensate for f|exures and movement of the
struoture (poss|b|y |n oonjunot|on w|th a feedbaok sensor}. lt a|so hand|es the d|fferent|a| rotat|on of the
aster|sm w|th respeot to the f|e|d of the te|esoope or the pup||.
3.10.5.4 BAFF|E TOWERS
Baff|es are requ|red ma|n|y to reduoe stray ||ght |n the dome. The |ength of the baff|es |s a trade-off
between stray ||ght and degradat|on of the opt|oa| beam by the baff|e. The base||ne proposa| |s a
15-metre tube manufaotured out of oommero|a||y ava||ab|e vent||at|on duot|ng, however the opt|oa| qua||ty
of th|s so|ut|on requ|res further ana|ys|s. At the top of the tubes a shutter system stops dust reaoh|ng the
top |ens. The system has been ana|ysed for earthquake and extreme w|nd |oad|ng (50 ms
-1
} and the
stresses |n the baff|es rema|n we|| be|ow the y|e|d ||m|ts for stee|.
3.11 ADAPTlvE OPTlOS OA|lBRATlON NlT
The Adapt|ve Opt|os Oa||brat|on n|t (AOO} |s requested by the post-fooa| adapt|ve systems for per|od|o
re-oa||brat|on of the |nteraot|on matr|oes between the wavefront sensors and the |ntegrated te|esoope
and post-fooa| adapt|ve m|rrors.

The AOO |s requ|red to be ab|e to aooommodate art|f|o|a| souroes w|th|n a 7-arom|nute f|e|d of v|ew,
w|th at |east three wave|engths: |GS, NGS-v|s|b|e and NGS-|nfrared, w|th a wavefront qua||ty at the
Nasmyth foous o|ose to the d|ffraot|on ||m|t.

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The adapt|ve opt|os oa||brat|on un|t |s foreseen to aooess the vo|ume reserved |mmed|ate|y be|ow the
quaternary m|rror to reaoh the f/4 foous of the te|esoope. The foous |s |ns|de the quaternary un|t and the
expand|ng beam prooeeds towards the tert|ary m|rror. The oa||brat|on un|t oreates art|f|o|a| souroes at the
s|de of the oentra| tower and projeots them on a sma|| m|rror pos|t|oned o|ose to the quaternary m|rror.
An optomeohan|oa| re|ay system |nserts the souroe ||ght beam |ns|de the te|esoope tra|n when the AOO
|s |n operat|on.

The d|mens|ons of the system are oonstra|ned by the opt|oa| des|gn as the fo|d|ng m|rror shou|d not
v|gnette the return|ng beam from tert|ary to the quaternary m|rror.
3.11.1 OvERA|| SYSTEM DESORlPTlON
The opt|oa| des|gn of the projeot|on un|t |s estab||shed and |t reproduoes both the natura| and the |aser
fooa| p|anes (|no|ud|ng the extens|ve d|fferent|a| defoous}. The des|gn has been oontraoted to Aot|ve
Spaoe to e|aborate at the oonoeptua| des|gn |eve|.


Figure 3.186. Optical design of the beam projection unit.

A tro||ey system |s used to trans|ate the fo|d|ng m|rror and the f|e|d |ens |nto the oentre of the f|e|d d|reot|y
be|ow the quaternary m|rror.


Figure 3.187. Adaptive optics calibration unit trolley and structure supporting the projector.
3.11.2 OHA||ENGES
The |ooat|on of the adapt|ve opt|os oa||brat|on un|t |s oons|dered as oha||eng|ng due to |ts prox|m|ty to the
quaternary m|rror. The des|gn of the un|t |s oons|dered oonoeptua| for feas|b|||ty purposes. The te|esoope
adapt|ve systems are oons|der|ng on-the-f|y adjustments to the |nteraot|on matr|x. Th|s |s a|so under
study by some |nstrument oonsort|a. The oa||brat|on un|t rema|ns an opt|on that w||| oont|nue to be stud-
|ed |n deta||, a|though |t may not be |no|uded |n the f|rst ||ght oapab|||t|es of the te|esoope.
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3.12 SYSTEMS ENGlNEERlNG
Systems eng|neer|ng enoompasses a number of serv|oes and de||verab|es to the projeot. De||verab|es
|no|ude h|gh-|eve| requ|rements, struotures, |nterfaoes, the oontro| strategy, teohn|oa| budgets, and per-
formanoe est|mates. Serv|oes foous on the prooesses requ|red to estab||sh and mon|tor the system oon-
f|gurat|on wh||e a||ow|ng for |ts oontro||ed evo|ut|on through the projeot ||feoyo|es. Serv|oes a|so |no|ude
f|ow|ng down requ|rements from top to |ower |eve|s, def|n|ng and ooord|nat|ng |nterfaoes, as we|| as sup-
port|ng the preparat|on, re|ease, and ver|f|oat|on of speo|f|oat|ons at a|| |eve|s. |ast but not |east, Systems
Eng|neer|ng |s re|y|ng extens|ve|y on GTO teohn|oa| t|me (24 n|ghts so far} to bu||d up f|e|d exper|enoe w|th
phas|ng, and to support the des|gn of the oontro| strategy.

As for performanoe oharaoter|st|os and |mp||ed to|eranoes, two or|t|oa| aspeots of the system need to be
oons|dered. On the one hand the |norease |n the p|ate soa|e of the te|esoope to 3500 m aroseo
-1
par-
t|a||y re|axes meohan|oa| to|eranoes at the see|ng ||m|ted fooa| p|ane. On the other hand the need to de-
||ver d|ffraot|on-||m|ted performanoe or|t|oa||y affeots a|most a|| oomponents of the te|esoope. Furthermore,
the quas|-stat|o def|eot|ons of the te|esoope are |noompat|b|e w|th the performanoe requ|rements w|thout
emp|oy|ng some k|nd of aot|ve opt|os. Furthermore, the oorreot|on of dynam|o d|sturbanoes requ|res the
presenoe of fast steer|ng and deformab|e e|ements.

The performanoe ana|ys|s therefore embeds w|th|n |t a oontro| strategy that exp|o|ts the presenoe of the
adapt|ve quaternary m|rror w|thout wh|oh the te|esoope w||| not be operab|e even |n see|ng-||m|ted
mode.

At presor|pt|on the te|esoope |s |arge|y aberrat|on free, prov|d|ng a d|ffraot|on-||m|ted fooa| surfaoe at a||
wave|engths.
3.12.1 TOP-|EvE| REOlREMENTS
The top-|eve| requ|rements for the E-E|T observatory were e|aborated by a team around the projeot so|-
ent|st and have gu|ded the te|esoope projeot throughout the des|gn phase; quot|ng: The top-|eve|
requ|rements are based on the needs posed by the astronom|oa| researoh for wh|oh the E-E|T |s be|ng
bu||t.

The ||fet|me of the E-E|T |s 30 years and |t |s expeoted that major upgrades w||| be undertaken dur|ng th|s
||fet|me.

The te|esoope, be|ng adapt|ve, shou|d be oompat|b|e w|th 0.7-aroseoond see|ng and re|at|ve|y short
ooherenoe t|mes (of order 5 ms}. W|thout reproduo|ng the bu|k of the |eve| one requ|rements dooument
the overa|| performanoe of the system |s expeoted to be we|| w|th|n the standard te|esoope range. Pre-
sett|ng, traok|ng and ranges of operat|on are a|| evo|ut|ons of those of the 8-metre generat|on te|esoopes.

Exo|ud|ng the s|ze of the te|esoope, a oomp|ex |nterp|ay of requ|rements that ar|se from the so|enoe
oases needs to be managed.

The performanoe speo|f|ed to be aoh|eved after the post-fooa| adapt|ve opt|os dr|ves the te|esoope
deformab|e m|rror to de||ver near-d|ffraot|on-||m|ted performanoe (Streh| rat|o > 70%} and |aser gu|de
stars have to be prov|ded as a|most oomp|ete sky ooverage (99%} |s expeoted |n some of these modes.

The requ|rement to perform h|gh-oontrast |mag|ng at re|at|ve|y short wave|engths w|th a segmented te|e-
soope |s a oha||enge |n oontro|||ng of the edges of the |nd|v|dua| segments both dur|ng the po||sh|ng stage
and |ater dur|ng phas|ng. As |s d|soussed |n the seot|on on the pr|mary m|rror, po||sh|ng the edges of any
opt|oa| e|ement |s part|ou|ar|y d|ff|ou|t.

The requ|rement for the te|esoope |tse|f, rather than the |nstruments, to aoqu|re targets a|| over the
observab|e sky and be ab|e to start a ground |ayer adapt|ve opt|os system estab||shes the need for a te|-
esoope adapter host|ng gu|de probes for natura| and |aser gu|de stars.

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The requ|rement on the |nstrument oomp|ement and exohangeab|||ty dr|ves the s|ze of the Nasmyth
p|atforms and the need for pre-fooa| stat|ons ab|e to d|str|bute the te|esoope beam to mu|t|p|e |nstru-
ments.

The speo|f|o so|ent|f|o requ|rements on the |nstrument su|te, e|aborated together w|th the So|enoe Work-
|ng Group, form the bas|s of the deve|oped |nstrument roadmap.

The narrow-f|e|d, h|gh-reso|ut|on, u|tra-stab|e speotrograph top-|eve| requ|rement dr|ves the need for a
ooude foous. Th|s |s not an abso|ute requ|rement and a|ternate so|ut|ons may be feas|b|e for suoh an
|nstrument. However, a|| neoessary prov|s|ons have been |no|uded |n the te|esoope des|gn for |mp|e-
ment|ng a ooude tra|n.

Requ|rements on the |nstrument ma|ntenanoe and oa||brat|on, as we|| as on the so|enoe operat|ons oa||
for an operat|ons mode| expanded on, but |arge|y s|m||ar to the suooessfu| v|T one. The data f|ow from
the E-E|T does not represent a oha||enge oompared to the survey fao|||t|es operated by ESO.

F|na||y, the requ|red h|gh so|ent|f|o output oa||s for a str|ngent s|te operat|ons mode|. Te|esoope and
|nstrument downt|me shou|d be m|n|m|sed, |ead|ng to a f|ne|y tuned s|te operat|on oonoept, |nsp|red by
that of the v|T.
3.12.2 |EvE| ONE REOlREMENTS AND SYSTEM AROHlTEOTRE
The oasoade of the top-|eve| requ|rements to te|esoope des|gn requ|rements |s oaptured |n the extens|ve
|eve| 1 requ|rements for the te|esoope, wh|oh are owned by the te|esoope |ead systems eng|neer.

Requ|rements (down to oontraoted |eve|}, the|r h|eraroh|oa| re|at|onsh|ps, just|f|oat|on and ver|f|oat|on
methods are entered |n a DOORS database. The oons|stenoy of the requ|rements w|th the speo|f|oat|ons
has been oheoked by |nterna| and externa| (for the dome and ma|n struoture} rev|ews. The requ|rements
p|aoed on the adapt|ve m|rrors have been subjeot to |ntense sorut|ny by des|gners of the post-fooa|
adapt|ve opt|os systems be|ng worked on by the astronom|oa| oommun|ty.

The systems aroh|teoture has been oonso||dated through severa| |terat|ons. Hav|ng been |n|t|ated
bottom-up, |t |s produot-or|ented and ref|eots the hardware rather than the funot|ona| aroh|teoture. Sys-
tems eng|neer|ng ma|nta|ns a projeot d|ot|onary def|n|ng eaoh e|ement of the aroh|teoture.

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Figure 3.188. E-ELT product architecture (physical items, to level 4).
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166 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
3.12.3 SYSTEMS ENGlNEERlNG PROOESSES
Systems eng|neer|ng a|so endeavours to prov|de a number of serv|oes and too|s for the projeot |n order
to manage teohn|oa| oomp|ex|ty. Bes|des def|n|ng aroh|teotures and mode|s, th|s |no|udes, most notab|y,
requ|rements, |nterfaoe and oonf|gurat|on management.

Requ|rements are entered |n a DOORS database ma|nta|ned by the requ|rements ana|yst. Every requ|re-
ment has a number of attr|butes, |no|ud|ng |ts p|anned ver|f|oat|on method and |ts just|f|oat|on. ln add|t|on,
the systems eng|neer, the requ|rements ana|yst and the work-paokage managers oonoerned jo|nt|y
estab||sh the h|eraroh|oa| ||nks between |nd|v|dua| requ|rements aoross the ent|re system. Ourrent|y the
database oonta|ns 76 modu|es for a tota| of o|ose to 20 000 objeots and 2700 ||nks. Regu|ar |nspeot|ons
are oonduoted to traok the evo|ut|on of the database and perform san|ty oheoks (e.g., susp|o|ous ||nks,
number of TBOs and TBDs [To Be Oonf|rmed and To Be Done|}. The number of ||nks and requ|rement
rat|ona|es |s expeoted to |norease s|gn|f|oant|y |n the ear|y phase of oonstruot|on, w|th the re|ease of sup-
p|y speo|f|oat|ons. Not so for requ|rements themse|ves at |east not substant|a||y as stud|es and
prototype speo|f|oat|ons are made obso|ete and rep|aoed by the f|na| supp|y or produot|on ones.

The status of oomp||anoe, of wa|vers and ohanges |s oheoked through oomp||anoe matr|oes to be pro-
v|ded by oontraotors and updated at major m||estones (e.g., rev|ews}.

The too| |s used to produoe ready-for-re|ease oontraotua| speo|f|oat|ons, |no|ud|ng ver|f|oat|on attr|butes,
from the oontent of the database. lt oan a|so generate |nterna| just|f|oat|on reports, and temp|ate oomp||-
anoe matr|oes for oontraotors to oomp|ete dur|ng exeout|on of the|r oontraots.


Figure 3.189. Specifications, reports and templates are directly exported from the DOORS database.

The database feeds the projeot aroh|ve, but the |atter rema|ns the author|tat|ve souroe of |nformat|on.
Oontraotors on|y reoe|ve doouments re|eased by the projeot and have no aooess to the database.

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lnterfaoes are owned by the |nterfaoe manager and prepared jo|nt|y w|th the work paokage managers
oonoerned. They are def|ned and oontro||ed through an N-squared d|agram. lnterfaoes a|so |no|ude
des|gn vo|umes. The |nterfaoe manager a|so takes an aot|ve part |n ver|fy|ng oomp||anoe.


Figure 3.190. Section of the N-squared diagram and link to the E-ELT interface document list.

Oonf|gurat|on management supports the def|n|t|on of the oonf|gurat|on and |s respons|b|e for oonf|gura-
t|on oontro| and ohange management. The |nformat|on |s struotured aooord|ng to the produot aroh|teo-
ture. Dooumentat|on |tems are |ntroduoed |nto th|s struoture and prooedures are def|ned to |dent|fy and
author|se (rev|ews, s|gnatures} them. They are saved and stored, w|th oontro||ed aooess where requ|red
(e.g., oonf|dent|a||ty}.

Oonf|gurat|on ltem Data ||sts (OlD|s} are used to |dent|fy the dooumentat|on |tems def|n|ng a major oom-
ponents of the system. Th|s oonoept w||| be extended to |no|ude oontraot OlD|s, |n order to |dent|fy and
traok the forma| bas|s of supp|y oontraots. The overa|| set of OlD|s, organ|sed aooord|ng to the system
aroh|teoture, def|nes the projeot base||ne. OlD|s are updated at a|| major m||estones, and w||| be |nte-
grated |nto the projeot.

The prooesses desor|bed above are supported by a too| that has been |mp|emented as a oustom|sat|on
of a oommero|a| database-based produot data management software (ARAS/lNNOvATOR us|ng
MS-SO| as database}. ln add|t|on, for easy aooess the data are a|so formatted and pub||shed as web
pages (password proteoted}.

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168 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 3.191. Example of use of the CIDL tool in a where used analysis.

The ohange prooess hand|es ohange requests and requests for wa|ver. Ourrent|y |t |s a manua| prooess
us|ng forms and W|ndows Exoe| tab|es for the mon|tor|ng. Ohanges and wa|vers may resu|t from |nterna|
requests as we|| as externa| requests from suboontraotors. lmpaot |s traoed by Systems Eng|neer|ng
through the OlD| too| (where used ana|ys|s} and the DOORS requ|rements database (||nks}, the request
o|ass|f|ed as m|nor or major, then a teohn|oa| ana|ys|s |s performed, |ead|ng to a Oonf|gurat|on Oontro|
Board reoommendat|on to the projeot manager after rev|ew by a team of expert |f deemed neoessary.
Metr|os are regu|ar|y reported |n quarter|y projeot reports.

|ast but not |east, Systems Eng|neer|ng |s aot|ve|y |nvo|ved |n the preparat|on of speo|f|oat|ons and
statements of work, and generates and ma|nta|ns a number of h|gh |eve| speo|f|oat|ons (e.g.,
|eve| 1 speo|f|oat|on, env|ronmenta| oond|t|ons, standards}, dooument temp|ates, prooedures, gu|de||nes,
and reourrent |tem requ|rements.
3.13 OONTRO| STRATEGY
W|th three powered surfaoes, tens of degrees of freedom |n the system (exo|ud|ng surfaoe mod|f|oat|on
and treat|ng the pr|mary as phased} the te|esoope oontro| |s |arge|y under-oonstra|ned by the opt|oa| sen-
s|t|v|ty to r|g|d body mot|ons and the opt|oa| f|gures of the m|rrors. Th|s oreates the freedom to manoeu-
vre the te|esoope w|th|n |ts opt|oa| kerne| w|thout |mpaot|ng the de||vered opt|oa| qua||ty. The oontro|
strategy takes advantage of th|s to a||ow the mass|ve seoondary m|rror to be mounted on pos|t|on aotu-
ators of re|at|ve|y ooarse reso|ut|on (m|orometres} w|th respeot to |ts h|gh opt|oa| sens|t|v|ty. The man-
agement of the opt|oa| kerne| |s used to ma|nta|n the d|ffraot|on-||m|ted performanoe under dynam|o d|s-
turbanoes that wou|d otherw|se requ|re oont|nuous adjustment of the pos|t|on of the seoondary m|rror.
By m|n|m|s|ng the work done at the seoondary m|rror un|t we a|so remove the need for ooo|ant at the
|eve| of the M2, thereby m|t|gat|ng a |eak r|sk.

The te|esoope |s operated |n permanent o|osed |oop us|ng three natura| gu|de star gu|de probes
equ|pped w|th ShaokHartmann arrays. Th|s |s the same strategy used at the n|t Te|esoopes of the
v|T, just w|th add|t|ona| probes.
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The oontro| strategy has been deve|oped, work|ng w|th a soph|st|oated opt|oa| mode| for the te|esoope
wh|oh |no|udes ray trao|ng of the system, tak|ng |nto aooount m|sa||gnments, and wh|oh o|oses the |oop
on the var|ous degrees of freedom (aotuators} us|ng wavefront sensors that are pos|t|oned |n the fooa|
p|ane as per the pre-fooa| stat|on (adapter} des|gns. Furthermore, th|s mode| a||ows the s|mu|at|on of fa||-
ure modes suoh as b|ooked un|ts. Moreover, aotua| observ|ng sequenoes extraoted from the operat|ons
|ogs of the v|T have been used as representat|ve oases of te|esoope usage.

Adapt|ve te|esoopes are not new; the MMT and the |BT a|ready have adapt|ve seoondary m|rrors. How-
ever, these te|esoopes have exohangeab|e seoondary un|ts and therefore the adapt|ve mode |s but one
form of the te|esoope operat|ons. The E-E|T |s d|fferent and adapt|ve |s the on|y mode of operat|on,
a|be|t at a var|ety of spat|a| and tempora| bandw|dths.

For the sake of o|ar|ty, two adapt|ve modes are oons|dered |n the error budget and the oontro| of the te|-
esoope. The f|rst |s the mode that the te|esoope engages |n when |t |s us|ng |ts own gu|de probes and
sens|ng systems and stab|||ses the fooa| p|ane to meet oerta|n average requ|rements. Depend|ng on the
opt|m|sat|on made by the te|esoope oontro| system, th|s mode may be oons|dered e|ther as a G|AO
(Ground |ayer Adapt|ve Opt|os} or SOAO (S|ng|e Oonjugate Adapt|ve Opt|os} mode. The seoond mode,
expeoted to be most oommon, |s the h|gher-order adapt|ve oorreot|on |n wh|oh |nstrumentat|on sensors
are used to determ|ne a request to the te|esoope adapt|ve oomponents. ln th|s mode, wh|oh may serve
Extreme Adapt|ve Opt|os (AO}, MOAO or |TAO, the te|esoope prov|des oapab|||t|es for |mage
enhanoement to the post-fooa| |nstrumentat|on by oommand|ng the quaternary deformab|e m|rror.

W|th a v|ew to the |ongev|ty of the oontro| system and the safety of the te|esoope and w|th the need for
o|ear |nterfaoes to |nstrumentat|on, the projeot has determ|ned that |t |s best to oons|der the adapt|ve
systems embedded |n the te|esoope as te|esoope subsystems prov|d|ng serv|oes (v|a the te|esoope oon-
tro| system} to |nstrumentat|on rather than as systems d|reot|y addressab|e from |nstrumentat|on. The
word|ng ohosen to desor|be th|s dootr|ne |s that the E-ELT is conceived and operated as an adaptive tel-
escope and not as a telescope with adaptive optics. Th|s dootr|ne has no peroe|vab|e performanoe
|mpaot but does requ|re great oare |n systems eng|neer|ng and oo||aborat|on between the te|esoope
eng|neer|ng team and the more |nstrument-or|ented adapt|ve opt|os oommun|ty.

The te|esoope performanoe has been ana|ysed us|ng a var|ety of too|s. Ourrent|y, the mode|s are be|ng
updated to the 39-metre base||ne; oomp|ete performanoe est|mates of the base||ne des|gn are not ava||-
ab|e yet. However, |n the speo|f|o areas where the ohange of base||ne |s expeoted to have a measurab|e
|mpaot, ana|yses have been made. ln most but not a|| oases, the ourrent base||ne fares more favourab|y
than the former. The h|gher oonjugat|on a|t|tude of the M4, together w|th a s||ght|y h|gher sens|t|v|ty to
deoentr|ng of the opt|os due to the faster f/rat|o of the pr|mary, have negat|ve |mpaot on performanoe.
Th|s |s more than oompensated by the reduoed oross-seot|on of the seoondary m|rror un|t, wh|oh p|ays
favourab|y aga|nst the error souroe that was dom|nat|ng the former base||ne (M2 w|nd-shak|ng}.

Deta||ed adapt|ve opt|os s|mu|at|ons have been performed at ESO and w|th|n the |nstrumentat|on oonsor-
t|a to show that the te|esoope systems as speo|f|ed are |arge|y oapab|e of reaoh|ng h|gh Streh| rat|os |n
the var|ous AO modes. The quaternary and M5 have been speo|f|ed to be ab|e to oorreot atmospher|o
errors to the d|ffraot|on ||m|t. Depend|ng on the exaot oonf|gurat|on of the natura| and |aser gu|de stars,
var|ous f|gures oan be extraoted from the s|mu|at|ons for the f|na| appearanoe of the fooa| p|ane.

However oha||eng|ng the atmospher|o |ssues may be, |t |s or|t|oa| to appreo|ate that the te|esoopes
start|ng po|nt |s to prov|de a f|e|d of v|ew that |s, |n the f|rst |nstanoe, oorreotab|e. ln oontrast to ex|st|ng
te|esoopes that are |arge|y stat|o or quas|-stat|o |n the|r behav|our w|th respeot to aberrat|ons, the E-E|T,
w|th an extreme|y fast and segmented pr|mary and w|th enormous d|mens|ons |n the a|| opt|oa| e|ements,
must work very hard to br|ng the te|esoope to a state suoh that the wavefront errors |n the fooa| p|ane are
w|th|n the range of the post-fooa| adapt|ve systems.

At |arge soa|es, the support|ng struoture w||| oompress and expand both as a resu|t of ohang|ng grav|ty
or|entat|on and var|at|ons |n temperature, both abso|ute and grad|ents. Therefore the pr|mary m|rror of
the E-E|T oannot be oons|dered at any t|me |n the operat|on of the te|esoope to be at |ts nom|na| pre-
sor|pt|on. ln add|t|on, dr|fts of the edge sensors, |naoourao|es |n the support struoture, and the da||y
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170 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
rep|aoement of a number of segments a|| have to be taken |nto aooount |n estab||sh|ng the oontr|but|on of
the pr|mary to fooa| p|ane aberrat|ons and be aooounted for |n the error budget.
3.14 OONTRO| SYSTEM
The deve|opment of the E-E|T oontro| system |s bu||t around the |nterp|ay between four threads of aot|v-
|ty and fo||ows the overa|| t|me||ne of the te|esoope oonstruot|on projeot.

F|rst|y, the E-E|T oontro| system hardware and software so|ut|ons are dep|oyed on the v|T; the upgrade
of the v|T oontro| system |s neoessary to address obso|esoenoe of |ts parts and prepare the |a S|||a
Parana| Observatory to support the Assemb|y, lntegrat|on and ver|f|oat|on (Alv}, oomm|ss|on|ng and
operat|on of the E-E|T. Th|s aot|v|ty w||| y|e|d workab|e and tested hardware and software so|ut|ons for
the var|ous ESO oontraotors bu||d|ng the E-E|T te|esoope un|ts.

The oonstruot|on of the var|ous oomponents of the te|esoope w|th the|r own parts of the oontro| system
w||| happen |n para||e| to the deve|opment by ESO of superv|s|on, oontro| and aoqu|s|t|on software. To
fao|||tate the work of the |ndustr|a| partners, |nspeot|on, qua||ty oontro| and |ntegrat|on tests w||| be oarr|ed
out |norementa||y by ESO on a system s|mu|ator.

The ESO software qua||ty assuranoe prooess w||| be oomp|emented by forma| lndependent Software
ver|f|oat|on and va||dat|on (lSvv} oontraoted to |ndustry experts.

|ast|y, teohn|oa| t|me on the v|T and GTO has been used s|noe ear|y phase B of the projeot to under-
stand, prototype, test and va||date nove| oontro| strateg|es and a|gor|thms requ|red for segmented and
adapt|ve te|esoopes.

The ma|n performanoe requ|rements for the oontro| system are therefore |ong term; they are robustness,
soa|ab|||ty, ma|nta|nab|||ty and oost-effeot|veness.

W|th the exoept|on of the rea|-t|me oomputer for the adapt|ve m|rrors where the oontro| system |s a||owed
a one-oyo|e oomputat|on and transm|ss|on |ag, no oontr|but|on |n the error budget |s a||owed to the over-
a|| system aroh|teoture |n terms of oontro| performanoe.

The oontr|but|on to the therma| env|ronment |s demand|ng, espeo|a||y |n the oase of the pr|mary m|rror
un|ts where the oontro| system |s requ|red (together w|th the aotuat|on and sens|ng} to d|ss|pate |ess than
15 W per un|t.
3.14.1 OvERA|| SYSTEM DESORlPTlON
3.14.1.1 OONOEPT
The oonoept for the E-E|T oontro| system has been deve|oped on the bas|s of the three or|ter|a of soa|a-
b|||ty, ma|nta|nab|||ty and oost-effeot|veness.

ln the area of oost-effeot|veness, the projeot has deemed |t or|t|oa| to avo|d |mpos|ng standards on sup-
p||ers that are fore|gn to the |ndustr|a| norms and may requ|re s|gn|f|oant software and hardware efforts
on the|r beha|f. The hardware and software standards se|eoted are Programmab|e |og|o Oontro||er (P|O}
and Pl/|abvlEW us|ng W|ndows as the deve|opment and runt|me p|atform. The on|y un|ts that are our-
rent|y oons|dered to requ|re a genu|ne rea|-t|me operat|ng system are the M1 and M4 oontro| systems.

The ma|nta|nab|||ty of the system has been a or|t|oa| |esson from the v|T. The t|ght ooup||ng of hardware
and software oomponents enab|ed e|egant so|ut|ons to a var|ety of |ssues but restr|oted future upgrada-
b|||ty, oomp||oated |mmense|y the ma|ntenanoe of the oode and ||m|ted the poss|b|e evo|ut|on of the sys-
tem. The se|eoted hardware and software standard p|atforms oome w|th a |arge pa|ette of supported
hardware |nterfaoe modu|es, wh|oh w||| enab|e the projeot to avo|d deve|op|ng and |mpos|ng bespoke
hardware oomponents. The remova| of oustom-bu||t f|e|d equ|pment from the system oonf|gurat|on,
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 171
together w|th the oons|stent use of Ethernet as f|e|d oommun|oat|on teohno|ogy, oreates o|ear |nterfaoes
that are usab|e over |ong per|ods of t|me.

The d|str|buted nature of the oontro| system mandates the adopt|on of an eff|o|ent and soa|ab|e oommu-
n|oat|on |nfrastruoture. Before se|eot|ng a so|ut|on the projeot off|oe oomm|ss|oned |ndependent stud|es
of ex|st|ng so|enoe software |nfrastruotures to determ|ne whether they f|t the b|||. Robustness and soa|a-
b|||ty of the oontro| system |s ensured by oons|stent|y us|ng an asynohronous pub||sh/subsor|be oommu-
n|oat|on pattern aoross d|str|buted oontro| system oomponents. The projeot has se|eoted sw|tohed
Ethernet and DDS (Data D|str|but|on Serv|oe for Rea|-t|me Systems} oommun|oat|on teohno|og|es, wh|oh
are both def|ned by |nternat|ona| standards organ|sat|ons and guarantee |nteroperab|||ty between d|fferent
supp||ers. Wh||e sw|tohed Ethernet |s a perenn|a| teohno|og|oa| oho|oe, DDS |s rather new and, ||ke any
other software teohno|ogy, doomed to obso|esoenoe; the projeot w||| ma|nta|n |ndependenoe of the
app||oat|on software w|th the se|eoted oommun|oat|on teohno|ogy by us|ng appropr|ate software abstrao-
t|on meohan|sms.

|ast|y, the oontro| system aroh|teoture sha|| fo||ow the State Ana|ys|s (SA} approaoh deve|oped by
NASAs Jet Propu|s|on |aboratory (JP|} for future spaoe m|ss|ons. State ana|ys|s prov|des software
des|gn patterns and a forma| ana|ys|s prooess to struoture and deve|op d|str|buted and asynohronous
software systems. Oontrary to oommand-based systems, the goa|-based nature of SA aroh|teoture
mandates systemat|o performanoe and hea|th mon|tor|ng and therefore enab|es enhanoed d|agnost|os
and fau|t deteot|on oapab|||t|es, wh|oh are the foundat|on for oond|t|on-based ma|ntenanoe and t|me|y
|ntervent|on on fa||ed hardware oomponents.

Extens|ve des|gn work has been undertaken at a var|ety of software houses externa| to ESO to demon-
strate the feas|b|||ty of the so|ut|ons above.
3.14.1.2 TlME REFERENOE SYSTEM
An ana|ys|s of the E-E|T requ|rement has shown that the t|m|ng needs are very s|m||ar to those of the
te|eoom and f|nano|a|-trad|ng |ndustr|es. Th|s |s part|ou|ar|y fortu|tous as |t a||ows the projeot to p|ggybaok
on those deve|opments.

A GPS-d|so|p||ned quartz oso|||ator forms the bas|s for the t|me referenoe system and the synohron|sat|on
s|gna| |s d|str|buted us|ng lEEE1588-2008 protooo| that |s transm|tted over the sw|tohed Ethernet.


Figure 3.192. Measured jitter on the timing signals across IEEE1588.

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172 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
lnteroperab|||ty tests have been performed us|ng O|soo Systems, SlEMENS and Nat|ona| lnstruments
hardware and a soa|e-one prototype oonstruoted and va||dated. The t|m|ng res|dua|s from the soa|e-one
prototype un|ts have shown exoe||ent resu|ts.
3.14.1.3 lNTER|OOK AND SAFETY SYSTEM
Fa||-safe P|Os w|th remote l/O (lnput/Output} stat|ons form the bas|s for the |nter|ook system, prov|d|ng
better d|agnost|os and norma| network aooess. Th|s |s an |ndustry standard and |s approved by a||
nat|ona| author|t|es for dep|oyment |n human env|ronments.

A soa|e-one demonstrator un|t has been bu||t |n-house us|ng hardware donated by SlEMENS and a fu||-
||fet|me oyo|e for the observatory exeouted w|thout fa||ures.


Figure 3.193. The scale-one demonstrator of the interlock and safety system.

The safety s|gna|s trave| over norma| network oab|es avo|d|ng the need for powered |nter|ook ||nes.
3.14.1.4 NETWORK
The oomp|ete network |nfrastruoture for the E-E|T has been des|gned and opt|m|sed for ex|st|ng hard-
ware so|ut|ons.


Figure 3.194. The network structure of the E-ELT.

The nove| use of Ethernet for h|gh-performanoe and determ|n|st|o transport of oontro| s|gna|s has been
ver|f|ed through |ndustr|a| oontraots and demonstrated to be appropr|ate to meet even the most
demand|ng requ|rements of the E-E|T.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 173
3.14.1.5 REA|-TlME OOMPTERS
ln keep|ng w|th the des|gn oho|oes of deooup||ng the hardware and software so|ut|ons and the no-
oustom-hardware dootr|ne, the so|ut|on adopted for the te|esoope rea|-t|me oomputer |s pure|y PO-
based. Two |ndependent stud|es have oonf|rmed that both the oomputat|ona| and data f|ow oapab|||t|es
of ex|st|ng ma|nstream mu|t|-oore oomputers and network |nteroonneots meet a|| requ|rements for the
Rea|-T|me Oomputers (RTO} of the E-E|T.


Figure 3.195. Off-the-shelf computers demonstrating the telescope RTC and timing tests on prototype RTC.
3.14.2 SYSTEM PROTOTYPlNG
The oonoepts and des|gns desor|bed above have been adopted by Parana| as the bas|s for the evo|ut|on
of the v|T oontro| system over the next years. Th|s br|ngs two or|t|oa| oomponents |nto p|ay: the batt|e-
test|ng of the software oode |n the f|e|d and the oreat|on of a s|ng|e observatory w|th oommon hardware
and software so|ut|ons.

The f|rst stage of th|s work has a|ready started w|th the dep|oyment at Parana| of the E-E|T t|m|ng sys-
tem and the suooessfu| test|ng of the DDS-Pl-P|O system at the T1 dome where |t now operates s|de
by s|de w|th the v|T oontro| system.


Figure 3.196. The Paranal and Garching UT1 to E-ELT standards dome team following the successful installation.
3.14.3 OHA||ENGES
3.14.3.1 MANFAOTRlNG
The most oommon fa||ure |n oontro| systems |s the de|ay |n the software de||very and the assoo|ated oost.
Th|s r|sk does not neoessar||y ref|eot poor|y on the software teams, but rather on the |nab|||ty of man-
agement to oonta|n requ|rements on someth|ng oons|dered ma||eab|e and marketed that way.

The r|sk |s m|t|gated by the projeot on two fronts: by des|gn, the amount of software to be wr|tten |s ||m-
|ted and the requ|rements are deooup|ed at the |nterfaoes, a||ow|ng the supp||ers to foous on the|r de||v-
erab|es.

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174 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The |ntegrat|on of these oomponents |nto an operab|e un|t |s a r|sk that oan be oons|dered to be gener-
ated by th|s approaoh. Th|s |s m|t|gated by perform|ng ser|a| and |norementa| |ntegrat|ons of the subsys-
tems and be|ng ab|e to do so from the ear||est poss|b|e t|me thanks to the absenoe of a heavy |nfra-
struoture.

Moreover, the adopt|on of a forma| and |ndependent software ver|f|oat|on and va||dat|on prooess oon-
traoted to |ndustry experts w||| enab|e the |dent|f|oat|on and ver|f|oat|on of or|t|oa| software oomponents
and so |dent|fy fau|ts ear|y |n the deve|opment prooess.
3.14.3.2 PERFORMANOE
The performanoe r|sk for the oontro| system |s fooused on two or|t|oa| areas: the adapt|ve opt|os and the
pr|mary m|rror un|t. The former has been prototyped and a soa|e-one so|ut|on has been bu||t. The |atter
has been ana|ysed extens|ve|y by hardware and software supp||ers (Nat|ona| lnstruments have bu||t a
soa|e-one so|ut|on for the rea|-t|me oomputat|on prob|em, and lnES |n Zur|oh have ana|ysed the |arge
data d|str|but|on prob|em}; a soa|e-one prototype |s ourrent|y be|ng bu||t at ESO.

Add|t|ona| oha||enges are oreated by the oomp|ex|ty of the system. Th|s r|sk, a|ready ev|dent from the ||m-
|tat|ons of ex|st|ng aroh|teotures, |s m|t|gated by des|gn. Th|s |s a oommon so|ut|on adopted by a|| |arge
|nfrastruotures at th|s t|me.
3.15 ASSEMB|Y, lNTEGRATlON AND vERlFlOATlON
3.15.1 lNTEGRATlON SEOENOE
The |ntegrat|on of the ma|n struoture and the dome and the|r ver|f|oat|on aga|nst funot|ona| and perfor-
manoe requ|rements are undertaken by the respeot|ve oontraotors. Th|s |s the same base||ne that was
adopted for the v|T. Dummy m|rror un|ts are foreseen |n the ma|n struoture oontraot and the mount w|||
be ab|e to move w|thout the rea| m|rror un|ts |nsta||ed. ln the oase of the pr|mary m|rror, oonorete dum-
m|es for eaoh segment are |no|uded |n the soope of supp|y. At the t|me of aooeptanoe of the ma|n struo-
ture, targets def|n|ng the a|t|tude and az|muth axes of the te|esoope w||| be |nsta||ed. These targets w|||
def|ne the referenoe frame for the a||gnment of the te|esoope opt|os. The az|muth ax|s oan be estab||shed
re|at|ve|y s|mp|y by p|ao|ng targets |n the oentre of the dummy seoondary, dummy quaternary and
dummy tert|ary m|rrors and rotat|ng the te|esoope wh||e v|ew|ng the targets from the oentre of the
az|muth oab|e wrap |n the te|esoope p|er.

The a|t|tude ax|s |s |ess stra|ghtforward to def|ne s|noe the pre-fooa| stat|ons w||| not be |nsta||ed at th|s
t|me. Temporary soaffo|d|ng w||| be ereoted at the Nasmyth p|atforms of the te|esoope at the he|ght of the
nom|na| a|t|tude ax|s. Targets w||| be |ooated on eaoh s|de of the te|esoope and at the oentre of the
dummy M5. The te|esoope w||| be |no||ned from zen|th towards the hor|zon to determ|ne the a|t|tude ax|s.
As the soaffo|d|ng |s temporary, the ooord|nate frame w||| be trans|ated to referenoe po|nts on the stee|
struoture of the a|t|tude of the te|esoope. These referenoe po|nts w||| be used (w|th the neoessary trans-
format|on rotat|on and trans|at|on} to determ|ne the pos|t|ons of opt|oa| e|ements w|th respeot to the
a|t|tude ax|s and to |nsta|| the pre-fooa| stat|ons.

Fo||ow|ng the aooeptanoe of the ma|n struoture, the pr|mary m|rror of the te|esoope w||| be |nsta||ed. The
meohan|oa| |nterfaoe from the m|rror oe|| to the m|rror un|ts |s def|ned to be good to 5 mm. The m|rrors
need to be |ooated to 0.25 mm and 0.25 mrad w|th respeot to the m|rror oe||. The oonorete dumm|es
are removed and rep|aoed by the f|xed frames of the un|ts. Th|s operat|on oan be performed |n stages
a||ow|ng other aot|v|t|es requ|r|ng te|esoope movement to take p|aoe |n para||e|.

The f|xed frames are |nsta||ed on the M1 oe|| struoture and |oaded w|th dummy m|rror segments to
ensure that the tota| we|ght on the m|rror oe|| |s o|ose to the f|na| one. At the same t|me, the oab||ng for
those pr|mary m|rror un|ts w||| a|so be |nsta||ed. The f|xed frames w||| be |nsta||ed e|ther us|ng the dome
orane or a sky||ft. The f|xed frames w||| be adjusted w|th the use of |aser traok|ng dev|oes to the neoessary
preo|s|on. The |aser traokers w||| be |ooated on the m|rror oe|| at rough|y equ|d|stant |ooat|ons from the
referenoe marks on the ma|n struoture. Norma| |aser traoker measurement aoouraoy over d|stanoes of
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40 metres |s better than 0.1 mm and, w|th more than one referenoe, the neoessary preo|s|on of
0.25 mm oan be aoh|eved. Dur|ng th|s operat|on, the te|esoope |s not assumed to be |sotherma| as th|s
wou|d |mpose an operat|ona| soenar|o whereby the a|r oond|t|on|ng of the dome |s requ|red for the
|nsta||at|on and wou|d |mpose a s|gn|f|oant r|sk for the sohedu|e of the pr|mary m|rror |nsta||at|on. The
|nsta||at|on prooedure takes |nto aooount the temperature of the struoture that w||| be mon|tored w|th an
array of PT100 or equ|va|ent sensors, and mode||ed |n terms of f|uotuat|ons. The |nsta||at|on of the frames
w|th the oranes takes 30 m|nutes per f|xed frame wh||e the |aser traoker tr|angu|at|on for a s|ng|e un|t |s
sohedu|ed to take a further 30 m|nutes for the ||near d|reot|ons. The |nsta||at|on w||| take p|aoe over
24-hour per|ods w|th 30 frames be|ng |nsta||ed |n three days and a||gned |n three n|ghts wh||e other aot|v-
|t|es are ||ke|y to be reduoed, prov|d|ng for a qu|eter env|ronment. The ent|re f|xed frame |nsta||at|on |s
oomp|eted when the rotat|ona| a||gnment |s performed. Th|s w||| be done |n seotors to reduoe the errors
due to the sma|| ||near d|mens|ons of the segment supports. Onoe 30 f|xed frames are |nsta||ed and
|ooated to 0.25 mm, they oan be a||gned rotat|ona||y by |ooat|ng targets at the per|phery and a||gn|ng
the seotor and propagat|ng the a||gnment towards the oentre |norementa||y. A further four days are a||o-
oated to th|s task. The prooess requ|res a degree of oont|nu|ty |n the prov|s|on of the segments to be
|nsta||ed.

The |nsta||at|on of the pr|mary m|rror f|xed frames takes 190 work|ng days assum|ng seven days per
30 segments. W|th the pr|mary m|rror frames |nsta||ed, the segments oan be |nserted |nto the te|esoope
and oonneoted to the oab||ng for funot|ona| test|ng. A ooated segment |nsert|on |s sohedu|ed to |ast three
hours per segment (we expeot the f|rst to take s|gn|f|oant|y |onger and the |ast to be done |n approx|-
mate|y one to two hours} |no|ud|ng funot|ona| test|ng that oan |arge|y be done |n para||e|. Th|s operat|on
w||| a|so take p|aoe over three sh|fts work|ng 24-hour per|ods and w||| |ast 100 days.

The te|esoope oan be |no||ned and exposed to the sky w|th a part|a||y-f|||ed pr|mary m|rror and, a|though
the sequenoe estab||shes a fu||y popu|ated pr|mary before the |nsta||at|on of the seoondary, prev|ous
segmented te|esoopes have never res|sted the temptat|on to observe w|th a part|a| pr|mary m|rror.


Figure 3.197. Optical pre-alignment flow diagram.

ln the eno|osure area, the seoondary m|rror |s |nsta||ed on |ts oe|| and funot|ona||y tested. Exper|enoe from
the Parana| pr|mary suggests that 23 months shou|d be a||ooated to th|s task. The m|rror |s |nsta||ed
faoe up |nto the un|t that |s then rotated as a who|e for the funot|ona| test.
Map M1 Struoture
F|t M2 Dummy
w|th targets - sh|m
F|t M3 Dummy
w|th targets - sh|m
ln|t|a|
A||gnment
M2 & M3
Popu|ate M1
lntegrate Dummy
M5 & Sh|m
lntegrate M4
D|smount
M3dummy
lntegrate Dummy
M3
Pre-A||gn PFS
Pre-A||gn M4
& M5 & Sh|m
lnsta|| PFS
Exohange M2
dummy/rea|
D|smount M3
Dummy
lnsta|| M5 w|th
m|rror
lnsta|| M3 w|th
M|rror
D|smount M5 w|th
Dummy
F|ne
a||gnment
Exohange M2
dummy/rea|
Ma|n Struoture Aooepted
Oomm|ss|on|ng
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176 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The un|t w||| be f|rst tested w|th the dummy oonorete m|rror and the |nsta||at|on sequenoe on the te|e-
soope performed |n that oonf|gurat|on. The prooedure |nvo|ves the te|esoope be|ng brought to hor|zon
po|nt|ng and the dummy un|t removed. The seoondary oe|| w|th the dummy m|rror |n p|aoe w||| be
|nserted |nto the te|esoope. The dummy sequenoe |s a||ooated two weeks |n the |ntegrat|on sequenoe for
the te|esoope, |no|ud|ng a re-eva|uat|on of the az|muth ax|s of the te|esoope, neoessary sh|mm|ng of the
un|t and observat|ons of the def|eot|ons under grav|ty |oad. The dummy m|rror w||| be equ|pped w|th tar-
gets for a||gnment and on |ts surfaoe for the |aser traoker. The M2 un|t |s removed and re-|nsta||ed w|th
the rea| m|rror ooated.

W|th a fu||y- or part|a||y-popu|ated pr|mary and the seoondary m|rror |n p|aoe, the te|esoope oan be |eft at
zen|th po|nt|ng and, w|th an open dome, v|sua| observat|ons (p|eoe of paper} oan be made at the
Nasmyth foous. No prov|s|on for |nstrumentat|on at that |ooat|on |s made a|though a s|mp|e d|g|ta| oam-
era wou|d samp|e the foous adequate|y for a||gnment purposes.

The tert|ary m|rror un|t oan be |nsta||ed |n the oentre of the te|esoope at any t|me when the te|esoope |s at
the zen|th (most of the t|me}. Pre-|ntegrat|on |s performed aooord|ng to the |ntegrat|on prooedure and
us|ng the |ntegrat|on stand prov|ded by the oontraotor. The on-board orane |n the oentra| tower |s used.
The un|t w||| be |ntegrated w|th |ts dummy m|rror and a||gned to the az|muth ax|s of the te|esoope. Two
weeks are a||ooated for th|s |nsta||at|on. The un|t |s removed and re-|nsta||ed w|th the rea| m|rror (probab|y
unooated}. Two m|n|sou|e f|ats are mounted on the quaternary and M5 dumm|es w|th sma|| adjustment
dev|oes (m|n|-hexapods}. The oomb|nat|on of these perm|ts the te|esoope to projeot an |mage towards
the Nasmyth p|atforms to va||date bas|o a||gnment.

The tert|ary |s removed and rep|aoed w|th the dummy un|t. The quaternary m|rror rep|aoes |ts dummy as
does the M5. A|| m|rrors are |nsta||ed ooated. The un|ts are funot|ona||y tested. Th|s operat|on |s a||ooated
one week per un|t. The quaternary |s a||gned to the az|muth ax|s. The M5 un|t |s |nsta||ed and the f|ange
adjusted to a||gn the un|t to the a|t|tude ax|s.

The pre-fooa| stat|ons are |nsta||ed meohan|oa||y and adjusted re|at|ve to the a|t|tude ax|s pos|t|ons
estab||shed for the pr|mary m|rror |nsta||at|on. The a|t|tude a||gnment |s oheoked aga|nst the rotat|on of the
|nstrument bear|ngs on e|ther s|de of the te|esoope and the target |n the m|dd|e of the M5 dummy prev|-
ous|y |nsta||ed. The opt|oa| a||gnment of the bear|ngs |s made at the end of the a||gnment prooess.

The |ntegrat|on of the quaternary and M5 un|ts w||| be performed |n the dome as soon as they arr|ve, |n
the sequenoe shown |n F|gure 3.197. Requ|red support|ng |nfrastruoture suoh as overhead oranes, o|ean
areas eto. have been estab||shed as part of the FEED oontraots.

Alv oono|udes w|th the opt|os of the te|esoope |nsta||ed and funot|ona||y ver|f|ed. The te|esoope |s ab|e to
po|nt and traok and the dome fo||ows |t. F|rst ||ght |s def|ned as a f|||ed pr|mary m|rror aperture observa-
t|on that de||vers on-ax|s |mages on the te|esoope gu|de probes that matoh the externa| see|ng over a
10-m|nute per|od of t|me at an e|evat|on of 45 degrees and a r|ght asoens|on oorrespond|ng to an ang|e
of three hours.
3.15.2 OOMMlSSlONlNG
The v|T Parana| mode| w||| be adopted for the oomm|ss|on|ng of the E-E|T. As desor|bed |n the oontro|
system narrat|ve, the trans|t|on of Parana| to E-E|T standards dur|ng the oonstruot|on phase |s expeoted
to de||ver a oontro| system aroh|teoture that |s f|e|d-tested and funot|on|ng. The emphas|s of oomm|s-
s|on|ng oan then be on the oomponents of the E-E|T rather than the |nfrastruoture.

The oomm|ss|on|ng aot|v|t|es w||| take over after Alv at the t|me of f|rst ||ght of the te|esoope. The oom-
m|ss|on|ng personne|, two or three at max|mum, w||| have a oont|nuous presenoe on s|te dur|ng the f|na|
stages of |ntegrat|on to prov|de support to the Alv team and beoome fam|||ar w|th the aotua| hardware
oonf|gurat|on. A|though oomm|ss|on|ng |s not a so|enoe-dr|ven aot|v|ty, |t |s gu|ded by the so|enoe needs
and |n part|ou|ar the needs of the f|rst generat|on of |nstrumentat|on.

The oomm|ss|on|ng of the te|esoope w||| gradua||y br|ng suooess|ve e|ements of the opt|oa| oontro| |oops
|nto operat|on. The phas|ng of the pr|mary m|rror w||| be performed w|th the te|esoope fao|ng downw|nd
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Teohn|oa| Overv|ew 177
to m|n|m|se the demands on the t|p-t||t stages of quaternary and M5. The phas|ng w||| fo||ow the path
be|ng va||dated at the GTO.
3.15.3 SOlENOE vERlFlOATlON
So|enoe ver|f|oat|on w||| be exeouted as for the n|t Te|esoopes at Parana|. A o|ose oo||aborat|on between
the projeot so|ent|st, the oomm|ss|on|ng |eader and the oomm|ss|on|ng astronomers w||| prov|de ear|y
aooess to the te|esoope to the so|ent|f|o oommun|ty w|thout oomprom|s|ng the needs of the oomm|s-
s|on|ng prooess that are requ|red to oomp|ete the job.
3.15.4 OHA||ENGES
The Alv and oomm|ss|on|ng phases oan eas||y extend as de||verab|es arr|ve |ate or systems fa|| to funo-
t|on as expeoted. The most fundamenta| oha||enge however |s psyoho|og|oa| and |s the transfer of own-
ersh|p of parts of a system from one team to another.
3.15.4.1 MANAGERlA|
The manager|a| r|sk |n Alv and oomm|ss|on|ng |s |n the handover prooess s|noe oontraotua| aooeptanoe
oan be a protraoted and oomp|ex prooess. The Parana| aooeptanoe prooedures deve|oped dur|ng the
oomm|ss|on|ng of the v|T taok|e th|s prob|em. A o|ear prooedure ex|sts for the Garoh|ng team de||ver|ng
a subsystem to the Alv team to perform th|s, |nterna| to ESO, transfer w|thout dea||ng w|th the oontrao-
tor. lt a|so prov|des a o|ear prooedure for the transfer of respons|b|||ty between the oomm|ss|on|ng team,
wh|oh |s part of the oonstruot|on projeot, and the so|enoe operat|ons, wh|oh |s part of the |a S|||a Parana|
Observatory.
3.15.4.2 PERFORMANOE
The performanoe of the te|esoope at the start of oomm|ss|on|ng and Alv w||| depend or|t|oa||y on the ab||-
|ty to o|ose the adapt|ve opt|os |oops at |ow order (t|p-t||t} as ear|y as poss|b|e. The |nfant morta||ty |n the
oomponents of the oontro| system |s a|so a potent|a| oause of performanoe |oss. ln pr|no|p|e, the staged
dep|oyment a||ows the oontro| system at the subun|t |eve| to be exero|sed dur|ng |nsta||at|on. As d|s-
oussed above, the manager|a| |ssues that may ar|se |n the oontext of ohanges to the deve|oped so|ut|ons
are as ||ke|y to be an obstao|e to a perform|ng system as |s the f|nd|ng of the appropr|ate so|ut|on.
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178 Teohn|oa| Overv|ew E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 179
4 E-E|T lNSTRMENT ROADMAP
4.1 lNTRODOTlON
The f|rst |nstruments deve|oped for a new te|esoope are a or|t|oa| oomponent |f the fao|||ty |s to aoh|eve
ear|y so|ent|f|o suooess. lndeed the suooess of the v|T oan be part|y attr|buted to the ear|y de||very of
major |nstruments to the te|esoope, oover|ng a w|de wave|ength range and d|fferent observ|ng modes.
ESO therefore proposes a major programme of |nstrumentat|on deve|opment |n para||e| w|th E-E|T oon-
struot|on to ensure that the fao|||ty w||| be equ|pped to taok|e the key so|enoe oases and make major d|s-
oover|es soon after oomm|ss|on|ng. Th|s ohapter g|ves the baokground |nformat|on for E-E|T |nstruments
and presents a roadmap for the|r oonstruot|on. A matoh|ng p|an for teohno|ogy deve|opment |s then
out||ned, fo||owed by a management p|an for the proourement of the |nstruments. F|na||y an Append|x
summar|ses the phase A stud|es.

The deve|opment of the E-E|T so|enoe oase was aooompan|ed from the beg|nn|ng by an evo|v|ng
|nstrument su|te se|eoted to aoh|eve the so|ent|f|o goa|s of the projeot. The merg|ng of the So|enoe and
lnstrument Work|ng Group reports |n Apr|| 2006 |ed to the def|n|t|on of a number of phase A oonoeptua|
stud|es of |nstruments. The |nstrument oonoepts were def|ned so that they oovered a|| key so|enoe oases
def|ned for the E-E|T. The phase A stud|es that took p|aoe between 2007 and 2010 were then gu|ded
by the So|enoe Work|ng Group, and |n part|ou|ar by the Des|gn Referenoe M|ss|on and the Des|gn Refer-
enoe So|enoe P|an |n|t|at|ve (see Seot|on 0}. The |atter assemb|ed near|y 200 oommun|ty so|enoe oases
wh|oh were subsequent|y mapped onto the d|fferent |nstrument oonoepts under |nvest|gat|on. Tab|e 1
||sts the stud|es w|th deta||s of the oonsort|um and durat|on.

ln the oourse of 2009, the So|enoe Work|ng Group def|ned the so|ent|f|o or|ter|a by wh|oh the |nstruments
wou|d be assessed for su|tab|||ty as f|rst-||ght and subsequent |nstruments. Between Deoember 2009
and Maroh 2010, observers from the So|enoe Work|ng Group attended a|| f|na| rev|ews of the phase A
|nstrument stud|es to report at a meet|ng |n Apr|| 2010.

F|rst-||ght |nstruments were eva|uated for the|r |mmed|ate so|ent|f|o |mpaot, the|r oomp|ementar|ty w|th
ex|st|ng h|gh-|mpaot fao|||t|es, the|r so|ent|f|o f|ex|b|||ty, the|r seoure so|ent|f|o return and aga|nst the|r oov-
erage of the expeoted atmospher|o oond|t|ons. The f|rst-||ght pa|r of a d|ffraot|on-||m|ted, near-|nfrared
oamera ([E|T-OAM|, as presented |n the MlOADO study} and a w|deband, |ntegra|-f|e|d speotrograph
([E|T-lF|, as presented |n the HARMONl study} emerged as the o|ear preferenoe of the So|enoe Work-
|ng Group |n 2010. Th|s powerfu| oomb|nat|on of an |mager and speotrograph sat|sf|ed the def|ned so|en-
t|f|o se|eot|on or|ter|a very we||. These two |nstruments are ab|e to oover approx|mate|y 75% of the so|-
enoe out||ned |n the so|enoe oase, as we|| as offer|ng a so||d potent|a| for new d|soover|es. The |mpaot of
the subsequent rev|s|on of the te|esoope base||ne to 40-metre-o|ass has not a|tered th|s se|eot|on. E|T-
lF and E|T-OAM are both versat||e workhorse |nstruments w|th the goa| of aoh|ev|ng h|gh sens|t|v|ty and
h|gh spat|a| reso|ut|on at the d|ffraot|on ||m|t of the |argest p|anned opt|oa||nfrared ground based
te|esoope.
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180 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Table 4.1. A summary of the phase A studies and the responsible consortia.

The other |nstruments ohosen for |no|us|on |n the lnstrumentat|on P|an were se|eoted to expand the
parameter spaoe ooverage: extend|ng the wave|ength range, the speotra| reso|ut|on ooverage and the
mu|t|p|ex advantage. By add|ng h|gh-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy, w|de-f|e|d mu|t|-objeot speotrosoopy, a
m|d-|nfrared |mager and speotrograph oapab|||t|es, as we|| as a p|anet |mager, near|y a|| of the so|enoe
oases wou|d be enab|ed. The re|at|ve t|m|ng and pr|or|ty of these must be rev|sed per|od|oa||y |n order to
a||ow the |nstrumentat|on p|an to adapt to the fast-ohang|ng so|ent|f|o |andsoape over the next deoade.

The So|enoe Work|ng Group a|so reoommended the |no|us|on of more speo|f|o modes, suoh as speotro-
po|ar|metry and h|gh t|me reso|ut|on astronomy. A||ow|ng for v|s|tor |nstruments wou|d further enab|e the
E-E|T to reaot to |mportant emerg|ng n|ohe so|enoe.
Name Pl Phase A lnst|tutes K|ok-off F|na| Rev|ew
AT|AS T. Fusoo
(ONERA}
ONERA, |ESlA, GEPl, |AM,
K ATO
19/09/08 2/02/10
MAORY E.D|o|a|t|
(lNAF OABo}
lNAF OABo, OAA, OAP, n|v.
Bo|ogna, ONERA
9/11/07 10/12/09
OODE |.Paqu|n|
(ESO}
ESO, lNAF Tr|este & Brera,
lAO, loA, Oambr|dge, Obs.
Geneve
16/09/08 23/02/10
EAG|E J.G.Ouby
(|AM}
|AM, GEPl, |ESlA, ONERA,
K ATO, n|v. Durham
27/09/07 27/10/09
EPlOS M.Kasper
(ESO}
ESO, |AOG, lNAF-OAPd,
|ESlA, NOvA ASTRON, n|.
treoht, ETHZ, ONERA, n|v.
Oxford, FlZEA, |AM
24/10/07 16/03/10
HARMONl N.Thatte
(Oxford}
n|v. Oxford, ORA|, OSlO-
DAMlR, lAO, K ATO,
ONERA
1/04/08 28/01/10
METlS B. Brand|
(|e|den}
NOvA |e|den & ASTRON,
MPlA, OEA Sao|ay, K-
|euven, K ATO
07/05/08 17/12/09
MlOADO R. Genze|
(MPE}
MPE, MPlA, SM, lNAF-
Padova, NOvA ASTRON,
|e|den, Gron|ngen, |ESlA
28/02/08 30/11/09
OPTlMOS-
DlORAMAS
O. |eFevre
(|AM}
|AM, STFO RA|, lNAF lASF-
M||ano & OATa, Obs.
Geneve, lAO, Obs. Haute
Provenoe
3/11/08 30/03/10
OPTlMOS-
EvE
F. Hammer
(GEPl}
GEPl, NOvA ASTRON, RN,
n|v. Amsterdam, STFO RA|,
lNAF OATs & Brera, NBl
Oopenhagen
3/11/08 30/03/10
SlMP|E |.Or|g||a
(lNAF-OABo}
lNAF-OABo, Aroetr|, Roma,
n|v. Bo|ogna, , T|S, PO
30/10/08 04/03/10
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 181
4.2 lNSTRMENT ROADMAP
An |n|t|a| |nstrument p|an, def|ned |n 2010, grouped a|| |nstruments beyond f|rst ||ght |nto a poo| from
wh|oh future se|eot|ons wou|d be made, prov|d|ng f|ex|b|||ty aga|nst a rap|d|y ohang|ng so|ent|f|o baok-
ground. However, meet|ngs and d|souss|ons w|th the |nstrument-bu||d|ng oommun|ty |n ESO Member
States have h|gh||ghted the need for a more forward-|ook|ng p|an, wh|oh g|ves |nformat|on on |nstrument
p|ann|ng and se|eot|on we|| beyond f|rst ||ght. Th|s |s to enab|e the oommun|ty (|no|ud|ng fund|ng agen-
o|es} to prepare the|r resouroe p|ann|ng and ensure that both staff and funds are |n p|aoe at the r|ght
t|me. lf the oonstruot|on of a part|ou|ar |nstrument |s to be deferred for a number of years th|s |s a|so
|mportant |nformat|on, a||ow|ng |nst|tutes to undertake other projeots |n the meant|me. For th|s reason,
ESO has deo|ded to deve|op a roadmap for |nstrument oonstruot|on that seeks to extend and better
def|ne the |nstrumentat|on p|an for a tota| of seven |nstruments. Speo|f|oat|on deve|opments, deo|s|on
m||estones and projeot start dates are se|eoted to try to aoh|eve a ba|anoe between g|v|ng suff|o|ent
|nformat|on to a||ow fund|ng, effort and teohno|ogy deve|opment p|ann|ng wh||e keep|ng suff|o|ent f|ex|b||-
|ty to a||ow for ohang|ng so|ent|f|o pr|or|t|es.
4.2.1 SOlENTlFlO REOlREMENTS FOR THE lNSTRMENTS
ln the fo||ow|ng seot|on we out||ne |n more deta|| the requ|rements that emerged from the phase A stud|es
and adv|sory group meet|ngs.

The d|ffraot|on-||m|ted NlR |mager, ELT-CAM, |s based on two oonoepts from the phase A stud|es
MAORY and MlOADO. The top-|eve| so|enoe requ|rements are for a near-|nfrared |mager oapab|e of
samp||ng the d|ffraot|on ||m|t of the 40-metre-o|ass te|esoope and equ|pped w|th a range of standard and
narrowband f||ters. The f|e|d of v|ew of the oamera shou|d be oomparab|e w|th the 53 aroseoonds
53 aroseoonds f|e|d of MlOADO and suff|o|ent to meet the astrometr|o requ|rements der|ved from the so|-
enoe oase of that |nstrument. An adapt|ve opt|os system oapab|e of de||ver|ng d|ffraot|on-||m|ted |mag|ng
over a moderate|y w|de f|e|d |s requ|red to fu|f|| the so|enoe oase of th|s |nstrument. As m|t|gat|on aga|nst
the r|sk of |ate de||very of the MOAO system, |t wou|d be so|ent|f|oa||y aooeptab|e to de||ver the |nstrument
w|th a SOAO system for the f|rst years of operat|on. The |no|us|on of a speotrosoop|o mode |s to be fur-
ther eva|uated dur|ng the preparatory phase for the |nstruments |n 2012.

The requ|rements for ELT-IFU are based on those for HARMONl. The extens|on of the speotra| range
|nto the opt|oa|, wh|oh was a goa| for HARMONl, was strong|y endorsed by the SWG. The ab|||ty for
E|T-lF to operate |n see|ng-||m|ted oond|t|ons as we|| as at the d|ffraot|on ||m|t |s a|so reoommended,
part|ou|ar|y as the |nstrument w||| operate s|de by s|de w|th the d|ffraot|on-||m|ted E|T-OAM. The h|gh
speotra| reso|v|ng power (R ~ 10 000} mode |s a|so p|anned for E|T-lF, to address so|enoe oases |n the
f|e|d of ste||ar popu|at|ons and ga|aot|o arohaeo|ogy. The AO modu|e for th|s |nstrument |s requ|red from
the outset of so|enoe operat|ons. HARMONl was stud|ed as a o||ent |nstrument of the |TAO system,
AT|AS. Th|s |s the so|ent|f|oa||y preferred AO mode for th|s |nstrument as there are no add|t|ona| surfaoes
between the te|esoope and |nstrument.

The requ|rements for ELT-MIR are adopted from the METlS study w|thout s|gn|f|oant ohange from the|r
|nstrument speo|f|oat|on. lmag|ng and speotrosoopy at the d|ffraot|on ||m|t of the te|esoope are funda-
menta| requ|rements for oomp|ementar|ty w|th the JWST. Key so|enoe oases for th|s |nstrument requ|re
ve|oo|ty-reso|ved |nformat|on for known m|d-|nfrared (MlR} souroes and so speotra| reso|v|ng power |n the
range R > 100 000 (for examp|e for observat|ons of o|roumste||ar d|sos} and at |ower reso|v|ng power (R ~
3000}, for the k|nemat|os of h|gh redsh|ft ga|ax|es, |s requ|red. LMN-band operat|on |s p|anned for the
|ow-reso|ut|on speotrograph and |mager, w|th h|gh-reso|ut|on lF speotrosoopy (R ~ 100 000} at L and M
on|y. The METlS study showed that very h|gh Streh| observat|ons oan be aoh|eved |n good oond|t|ons
w|th just the te|esoope AO and the on-board SOAO Wavefront Sensors (WFS}. lndeed, the h|ghest Streh|
rat|os are pred|oted for on-board SOAO us|ng the so|enoe targets as natura| gu|de stars. For the |n|t|a|
E|T-MlR oonf|gurat|on, on|y the on-board SOAO mode w||| be |mp|emented. However, |t |s o|ear that the
E|T-MlR shou|d be des|gned w|th operat|on w|th a fu|| |aser gu|de star AO system for oomp|ete sky oov-
erage as a future upgrade, to ensure an advantage over oompet|ng fao|||t|es.

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182 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Eff|o|ent use of any te|esoope for observ|ng |arge numbers of objeots |eads to a requ|rement for Mu|t|-
Objeot Speotrosoopy (MOS}. Opt|oa| MOS |nstruments have |ong had suooess as the workhorses of the
8-metre-o|ass te|esoopes w|th NlR MOS |nstruments now oom|ng on||ne (e.g., KMOS at the v|T,
MOSFlRE at Keok}. The phase A stud|es exp|ored the so|ent|f|o poss|b|||t|es of h|gh mu|t|p|ex speotros-
oopy over the 10-arom|nute te|esoope f|e|d v|a three d|fferent stud|es: EAG|E a mu|t|-lF speotrograph
w|th AO-enhanoed spat|a| reso|ut|on and speotra| reso|v|ng power 5000 and 10 000 respeot|ve|y;
OPTlMOSDlORAMAS h|gh|y opt|m|sed for h|gh-z astronomy w|th h|gh (480} mu|t|p|ex, h|gh through-
put and |ow reso|ut|on (R ~ 300, 5000}, un|que|y w|th an |mag|ng mode, and OPTlMOSEvE more
speo|a||sed for ste||ar astrophys|os us|ng h|gher reso|v|ng power (R ~ 10 00020 000} opt|oa| to NlR
speotrosoopy w|th h|gh mu|t|p|ex and a versat||e oonf|gurat|on us|ng s|ng|e f|bres and f|bre-bund|e lFs.
From these d|fferent oonoepts and the|r so|ent|f|o goa|s, the top-|eve| so|ent|f|o requ|rements of a future
ELT-MOS w||| start to be def|ned from 2012 onwards.

Two h|gh speotra| reso|ut|on |nstruments were stud|ed OODE |n the opt|oa| wave|ength range and
SlMP|E |n the NlR wave|ength range. The so|ent|f|o requ|rements of these two |nstruments are expeoted
to rema|n as for the phase A study, w|th h|gh stab|||ty and a f|xed speotra| format rema|n|ng as |mportant
top |eve| goa|s. For an opt|oa| E|T-HlRES, based on OODE, reso|v|ng power R > 100 000, h|gh
throughput and stab|||ty a||ow|ng rad|a| ve|oo|ty measurements |n the oms
-1
reg|me are key requ|rements.
For the NlR-HlRES, s|m||ar speotra| reso|v|ng power (R > 100 000} |s requ|red to meet the so|enoe oases.
An add|t|ona| requ|rement |s for h|gh angu|ar reso|ut|on to meet so|enoe oases suoh as those on the
struoture of protop|anetary d|sos or on the lMF |n ga|ax|es. Thus AO |s an |mportant so|ent|f|o requ|rement
for the NlR E|T-HlRES, wh|oh a|so has the teohn|oa| advantage of reduo|ng the oryostat s|ze. The
requ|rements for the ELT-HIRES oapab|||ty w||| u|t|mate|y be se|eoted based on one of these two oon-
oepts or a oomb|nat|on of both. Ref|nements to the so|ent|f|o requ|rements w||| be eva|uated as new
|nstruments are oomm|ss|oned on ex|st|ng te|esoopes. Of part|ou|ar |nterest are ESPRESSO (for the
opt|oa| HlRES} and GlANO on the Te|esoop|o Naz|ona|e Ga|||eo (for the NlR HlRES}.

For the p|anet-f|nd|ng |nstrument, ELT-PCS, the base||ne |s to |mp|ement the so|enoe requ|rements as
der|ved from the EPlOS study. Both the lF and d|fferent|a| |mag|ng po|ar|meter w||| be ma|nta|ned as, of
oourse, w||| the AO system. However, th|s |s a fast-mov|ng so|ent|f|o f|e|d and so some s|gn|f|oant mod|-
f|oat|ons to the so|enoe requ|rements may be ant|o|pated. These may a|so be dr|ven by the suooess of
the enab||ng teohno|ogy programme for th|s |nstrument. Add|t|ona||y, |mportant |nputs to the |nstrument
speo|f|oat|on are expeoted fo||ow|ng the oomm|ss|on|ng of SPHERE on the v|T.
4.2.2 OTHER REOlREMENTS FOR THE ROADMAP
ln add|t|on to the requ|rements of the prev|ous seot|on, a number of others emerge from both further so|-
ent|f|o d|souss|ons w|th the SWG and praot|oa| oons|derat|ons.

a. The three Instruments following the first-light pair should be ELT-MIR, ELT-MOS and ELT-
HIRES. These instruments have equal scientific priority.

Th|s oomb|nat|on oovers a broad parameter spaoe w|th the f|ex|b|||ty to adapt to ohang|ng pr|or|t|es. The
So|enoe Work|ng Group ranked these as hav|ng equa| so|ent|f|o pr|or|ty: eaoh oontr|butes substant|a||y to
aoh|ev|ng the key so|ent|f|o programmes of the E-E|T. Therefore the|r sequeno|ng w||| be based on
requ|rements read|ness and teohn|oa| matur|ty.

E|T-MlR has we||-def|ned requ|rements, a stra|ghtforward des|gn and needs re|at|ve|y ||tt|e teohno|ogy
deve|opment. The key to good performanoe w|th th|s |nstrument rests w|th the Aquar|us deteotor wh|oh
has a|ready been suooessfu||y tested |n the |ab at ESO and w||| be tr|ed on-sky |n 2012 |n vlSlR. Th|s
|nstrument shou|d therefore be ready to go |n 2014 as E|T-3 subjeot to a teohno|og|oa| read|ness rev|ew
|n 2013. Ourrent|y, three oonoepts ex|st for a MOS (OPTlMOSEvE/DlORAMAS, EAG|E} and two for a
h|gh-reso|ut|on speotrograph (SlMP|E, OODE}. There |s teohno|ogy deve|opment to be done |n some of
these oases, as we|| as awa|t|ng resu|ts from poss|b|e preoursor |nstruments. There |s therefore prepara-
tory work to do to def|ne the preferred opt|ons and the|r so|ent|f|o requ|rements. Th|s w||| take most of
2012, a||ow|ng a se|eot|on of the MOS and HlRES |nstrument oapab|||t|es |n 2013 predom|nant|y on

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 183
so|ent|f|o or|ter|a. Further de|ta phase A des|gn work and/or teohno|ogy deve|opment w||| be requ|red
before |nstrument starts. ln 2015 a deo|s|on w||| be made, based on teohno|og|oa| read|ness, as to wh|oh
of E|T-MOS or E|T-HlRES w||| be E|T-4 and wh|oh E|T-5.

b. The E-ELT planetary camera and spectrograph (ELT-PCS) is also selected for construction sub-
ject to technical readiness.

Th|s |nstrument |s requ|red for the E-E|T to taok|e |ts pr|no|pa| so|enoe oase the |mag|ng and oharao-
ter|sat|on of Earth-||ke p|anets |n the hab|tab|e zone. The teohno|ogy requ|red for |ts oonstruot|on |s amb|-
t|ous and not yet ready and so the projeot w||| beg|n w|th teohno|ogy deve|opment for the key oompo-
nents and subsystems. Onoe the teohno|og|es are fe|t to be at a sat|sfaotory Teohno|ogy Read|ness
|eve| (TR|}, the |nstrument oonstruot|on projeot w||| off|o|a||y start. Th|s oou|d be as ear|y as 2017 or as
|ate as 2022.

c. Instrument projects should start every two years beyond first light.

The ent|re su|te represents a |arge |nvestment and so needs to be phased to aoh|eve a smooth spend|ng
prof||e. A roadmap that foresees two |nstruments at f|rst ||ght, a th|rd the fo||ow|ng year, and an |nstru-
ment start approx|mate|y every two years thereafter stays w|th|n the ava||ab|e enve|ope. Th|s phased start
w||| a|so ensure a phased de||very of the |nstruments to the te|esoope that w||| he|p to ensure an aoh|eva-
b|e oomm|ss|on|ng sohedu|e, espeo|a||y dur|ng the f|rst years of operat|on. Neverthe|ess the p|an |s amb|-
t|ous, env|s|on|ng de||very of the f|rst four |nstruments w|th|n the f|rst three years of te|esoope operat|on.

d. Flexibility should be maintained to allow for new concepts and changing scientific priorities.

Th|s has dr|ven oons|derat|ons from the beg|nn|ng and has been stressed by both the SWG and STO |n
the past. Th|s |s |noorporated |nto the roadmap by a||ooat|ng E|T-6 as an as-yet unspeo|f|ed |nstrument
whose def|n|t|on w||| beg|n w|th a Oa|| for Proposa|s |n 2015, subsequent para||e| phase A stud|es and
teohno|ogy deve|opment |f requ|red, and f|na| se|eot|on |n 2019. ln add|t|on, the preo|se so|ent|f|o
requ|rements for E|T-MOS and E|T-HlRES rema|n to be def|ned.

e. There should be opportunities for new Member States to participate in the programme.

Four of the seven |nstruments |n the roadmap w||| be prooured by open oompet|t|on. Th|s w||| be done |n
genera| by |ssu|ng a Oa|| for Proposa|s, se|eot|ng wh|oh w||| need to be deve|oped v|a phase A stud|es |f
neoessary, and then f|na||y se|eot|ng the speo|f|o |nstrument for oonstruot|on. New Member States w||| be
ab|e to form/jo|n oonsort|a and oompete for these |nstruments. ln add|t|on E|T-6 |s unspeo|f|ed and w|||
a|so be se|eoted by a oompet|t|ve prooedure.

Wh||e |t |s d|ff|ou|t to sat|sfy a|| the requ|rements |n a s|ng|e |nstrument p|an, we be||eve that the roadmap
|n F|gure 1 prov|des a sat|sfaotory so|ut|on. ln part|ou|ar |t attempts to ba|anoe a forward |ook for p|ann|ng
purposes w|th ma|nta|n|ng so|ent|f|o f|ex|b|||ty. The fo||ow|ng |nstruments are se|eoted for oonstruot|on:
E|T-OAM, E|T-lF, E|T-MlR, E|T-HlRES, E|T-MOS and E|T-POS. Funded work towards the oon-
struot|on of eaoh of these starts |n 2012, e|ther by the deve|opment of the |n|t|a| speo|f|oat|ons or by the
|n|t|at|on of the researoh and deve|opment programmes requ|red to support them. The f|na| sequenoe of
start dates for |nstruments beyond the f|rst-||ght pa|r (E|T-OAM, E|T-lF} depends upon a ba|anoe of
so|ent|f|o pr|or|ty and teohn|oa| read|ness.

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184 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Year E|T-lF E|T-OAM E|T-MlR E|T-4
(MOS or
HlRES}
E|T-5
(MOS or
HlRES
E|T-6 E|T-POS
2012 Deo|de so|enoe
requ|rements, AO
aroh|teoture.
vlSlR
start on-
sky
Deve|op so|enoe
requ|rements for
MOS/HlRES
Oa|| for
Proposa|s
for ETD
2013 TR|
Rev|ew
Oa|| for Proposa|s for
MOS/HlRES

2014
2015 Se|eot|on E|T-
MOS/HlRES
Oa|| for
Proposa|s

2016
2017 TR| oheok
2018 TR| oheok
2019 Se|eot|on TR| oheok
2020 TR| oheok
2021 TR| oheok
2022 Te|.
teohn|oa|
f|rst ||ght

Pre-stud|es tak|ng the form of phase A or de|ta phase A work and/or ESO-funded
Enab||ng Teohno|ogy Deve|opment (ETD}
Deo|s|on po|nt
Deve|opment of Teohn|oa| Speo|f|oat|ons, Statement of Work, Agreement, Instrument
Start.
Table 4.2. The E-ELT instrumentation roadmap.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 185
Tab|e 4.3 shows the roadmap key events year by year.

Year Key M||estones
2012 Deve|opment of speo|f|oat|ons and AO aroh|teoture for f|rst-||ght |nstruments.
vlSlR start on-sky. Aquar|us performanoe to be eva|uated.
Deve|op so|enoe requ|rements for MOS and HlRES speotrometer.
Oommenoe teohno|ogy deve|opment for E|T-POS.
2013 E|T-MlR |s rev|ewed for teohno|ogy-read|ness. Key areas are (1} performanoe of the
Aquar|us deteotor and (2} deve|opment of sky-ohopp|ng.
A deo|s|on |s made regard|ng the so|ent|f|o oapab|||t|es requ|red for a MOS, and for a
HlRES speotrograph. A Oa|| for Proposa|s |s then |ssued based on these requ|rements.
Further de|ta phase A des|gn |s then oarr|ed out and enab||ng teohno|ogy deve|opment
|n|t|ated.
F|rst-||ght |nstruments (E|T-lF, E|T-OAM} start.
2014 E|T-MlR projeot starts, subjeot to 2013 rev|ew.
Ongo|ng E|T-MOS and E|T-HlRES stud|es.
2015 The a||ooat|on of E|T-MOS and E|T-HlRES as E|T-4 or E|T-5 |s made based on
teohn|oa| read|ness.
A Oa|| for Proposa|s |s made for E|T-6. Responses may |no|ude reworked des|gns that
were not prev|ous|y se|eoted, or ent|re|y new |nstrument oonoepts. A subset w||| be
se|eoted and funded as further phase A stud|es.
2016 Start E|T-4.
Oont|nue teohno|ogy deve|opment of E|T-5.
2017 Poss|b|e start date for E|T-POS.
2018 Start E|T-5.
2019 An |nstrument w||| be se|eoted from oomp|eted phase A stud|es as E|T-6.
2020 Start E|T-6.
2021 S|x |nstruments under oonstruot|on at th|s po|nt.
2022 |atest env|s|oned start for E|T-POS.
Table 4.3. The key roadmap events.
4.2.3 lNSTRMENT DE|lvERY SOHED|E
The fo||ow|ng tab|e shows the |nstrument oomm|ss|on|ng dates. These are se|eoted to have spaoed
de||very dates and oonstruot|on per|ods of approx|mate|y e|ght years. These dates w||| beoome oon-
traoted de||very dates w|th oonsort|a, and projeots w||| be struotured to meet the de||very sohedu|es.

E|T-lF E|T-
OAM
E|T-MlR E|T-4 E|T-5 E|T-6 E|T-POS
Oomm|ss|on|ng 2022 2022 2023 2024 2026 2028 202530
Table 4.4. Commissioning.

The ourrent sohedu|e of de||ver|es w|||, depend|ng on whether a ooude |nstrument |s se|eoted, f||| a|| ava||-
ab|e Nasmyth ports. However, th|s w||| not be unt|| 202830. A v|s|tor port w||| therefore be ava||ab|e for at
|east the f|rst s|x to e|ght years of te|esoope operat|on.
4.2.4 lNSTRMENT DEP|OYMENT ON TE|ESOOPE
F|gure 4.1 shows a tentat|ve arrangement for the |nstruments on the Nasmyth p|atforms and the ooude
area. The s|zes of the |nd|v|dua| |tems |n the f|gure are soa|ed aooord|ng to aotua| va|ues. ln the oase of
the |nstruments these va|ues are the a||ooated des|gn vo|umes to heavy |nstruments and post-fooa| AO
modu|es that were used dur|ng the phase A stud|es (exoept |n the oase of the ooude |nstrument, where
the oonstra|nts were d|fferent}.

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186 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 4.1. A possible arrangement for the instruments on the Nasmyth platforms and coud area.

The E|T-lF |s shown |n the f|gure be|ng fed by an |TAO modu|e. As a|ready d|soussed, suoh a fao|||ty
oou|d be |ntegrated |nto the |nstrument. ln that oase, the a||ooated spaoe oou|d vary w|th respeot to what
|s presented. The E|T-OAM |s expeoted to be fed by the MOAO modu|e |n a grav|ty-|nvar|ant fash|on
and, therefore, w||| be |ooated underneath the modu|e.

The two |nstruments p|aoed on the stra|ght-through ports are the E|T-MOS and the E|T-MlR. The for-
mer |s a |arge F|e|d of v|ew (Fov} |nstrument that w||| use the 10-arom|nute f|e|d, on|y ava||ab|e at the
stra|ght-through ports. The E|T-MlR w||| benef|t by hav|ng on|y f|ve ref|eot|ons |nstead of s|x, as wou|d be
the oase |f |ooated |n a |atera| port. The E|T-POS wou|d a|so preferab|y be |ooated at a stra|ght-through
port, avo|d|ng M6 |n the opt|oa| path wh|oh, g|ven |ts |no||ned pos|t|on, w||| |ntroduoe a s|gnature |n
po|ar|metr|o observat|ons. lf |ooated at a |atera| port, a po|ar|metr|o oa||brat|on un|t may be needed for
E|T-POS at the |ntermed|ate foous of the te|esoope.

The E|T-6 |s assumed to be |ooated at one of the |atera| ports. F|na||y, the E|T-HlRES, depend|ng on the
type of |nstrument, oan be fed by a seoond port of the MOAO modu|e. ln that oase th|s port, a|ready
oons|dered |n the phase A study, wou|d have to be |mp|emented. Another opt|on |s |ooat|ng the E|T-
HlRES |n the ooude fooa| stat|on. Both poss|b|||t|es are shown |n red |n F|gure 4.1.
4.2.5 ENAB|lNG TEOHNO|OGY DEvE|OPMENT ROADMAP
The |nstrument roadmap |s supported by a para||e| Enab||ng Teohno|ogy Deve|opment roadmap that |s
des|gned to support the |nstrument se|eot|on prooess out||ned above. As the lnstrument roadmap
evo|ves, the ETD roadmap w||| evo|ve to matoh the new requ|rements.

The ma|n |nput to the ETD roadmap oomes from the resu|ts of the phase A stud|es. The f|na| reports of
the stud|es |dent|fy the |mportant R&D projeot areas for eaoh |nstrument oonoept. Natura||y, the R&D
requ|rements of the |nstruments proposed range between those w|th s|gn|f|oant deve|opment pro-
grammes or|t|oa| for oonstruot|on of a suooessfu| |nstrument, to those requ|r|ng on|y m|nor deve|opments
of non-or|t|oa|, performanoe-enhano|ng oomponents.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 187
The ETD roadmap w||| be subjeot to frequent, poss|b|y major, rev|s|on dur|ng the oourse of the |nstrument
oonstruot|on per|od due to the ohang|ng so|ent|f|o pr|or|ty of var|ous oapab|||t|es/|nstruments, the speed of
deve|opment of key teohno|og|es and the poss|b|e |ntroduot|on of new d|srupt|ve teohno|og|es that rev-
o|ut|on|se |nstrument deve|opment. Thus the ||st be|ow summar|ses our understand|ng today of the
deve|opment needs of the |nstrument su|te and |s subjeot to future rev|ew.

Wh||e rema|n|ng f|ex|b|e and respons|ve, the pr|no|pa| oons|derat|on for the ETD roadmap |s that |t must
support the |nstrument roadmap by ensur|ng that any nove| oomponent reaohes a Teohno|ogy Read|-
ness |eve|
***
that a||ows |nstrument se|eot|on and oonstruot|on to prooeed w|th manageab|e r|sks to
performanoe and sohedu|e. Th|s |eve| has typ|oa||y been TR| 3 for v|T |nstrumentat|on and w||| a|so be
the bas|s for the E-E|T. Deve|opment of teohno|og|es to TR| |eve| > 5 |s expeoted dur|ng the projeot.
The way |n wh|oh th|s goa| |s aoh|eved |s determ|ned by the oategory of deve|opment, aooord|ng to the
fo||ow|ng soheme:

Oategory Desor|pt|on
A Oomponents of TR| 3 where the soope of the work |s suoh that the deve|opments oan
be oarr|ed out w|th|n the projeot. These deve|opments and the resouroes requ|red to
de||ver them are |dent|f|ed |n the management p|an for the oonstruot|on phase of the pro-
jeot. Fund|ng for th|s |s |no|uded w|th|n the |nstrument oonstruot|on oost.
B Oomponents of TR| < 3 w|th short deve|opment t|mesoa|es. These deve|opments and
the resouroes requ|red to de||ver them to TR|-3 are to be |dent|f|ed by |nstrument teams
|n the|r responses to the Oa|| for Proposa|s for the phase A or de|ta phase A study.
Fund|ng |s a||ooated from the enab||ng teohno|og|es work paokage on a oase-by-oase
bas|s as part of the oontraot negot|at|ons for the (de|ta} phase A study.
O Oomponents of TR| < 3 w|th |ong deve|opment t|mesoa|es that are or|t|oa| to an |nstru-
ment oonoept and must be oomp|eted before |nstrument se|eot|on. Fund|ng |s a||ooated
from the enab||ng teohno|og|es work paokage after a Oa|| for Proposa|s for ETD, or award
of a S|ng|e Souroe oontraot |f appropr|ate. Where there |s no h|gh|y perform|ng fa|| baok
opt|on for a g|ven teohno|ogy, a h|gher TR| may be requ|red. The key examp|e of th|s |s
the MlR deteotors for E|T-MlR. A|so |no|uded |n th|s oategory are oommon deve|opments
that w||| be exp|o|ted by more than one |nstrument.
Table 4.5. Description of components per category of development.

ln add|t|on to the fund|ng p|anned by ESO w|th|n the |nstrument budget, ESO w||| prov|de gu|danoe and
support when poss|b|e to the nat|ona| or lnternat|ona| |n|t|at|ves br|ng|ng add|t|ona| resouroes to the
E-E|T R&D and Enab||ng Teohno|ogy Programmes.

Key teohno|og|es re|at|ng to the |nstruments on the |nstrument roadmap are ||sted |n the tab|es be|ow,
Oategory A deve|opments |n Tab|e 4.6 and Oategory B and O |n Tab|e 4.7.


*** ESO TR|s are s|m||ar to the NASA soa|e and run from 1 to 9 w|th TR| 1 be|ng just a bas|o oonoept through to TR| 9 be|ng fu||y
proven through rea| dep|oyed systems. At TR| 3 a proof of oonoept has been demonstrated through ana|yt|oa| and/or exper|menta|
work.
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188 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Teohno|ogy lnstrument
Nove| fooa| p|ane WFS |TAO
Demonstrat|on of pseudo open |oop oontro| |TAO/MOAO/E|T-MOS
Rea| t|me On2 prof||e mon|tor|ng

|TAO/MOAO
S|anted vo|ume Phased Ho|ograph|o (vPH} grat|ngs E|T-HlRES
|aser frequenoy oomb (opt|oa| and NlR} E|T-HlRES
F|bre soramb||ng E|T-HlRES
H|gh stab|||ty oryostat E|T-HlRES
NlR vPH E|T-MOS, E|T-lF
Nove| roof-pyram|d WFS E|T-POS
Test|ng Fresne| and ohromat|o effeots |n an opt|oa| system E|T-POS
lmproved deoonvo|ut|on a|gor|thms E|T-POS
Po|ar|metr|o error budget, ver|f|ed by test E|T-POS
Table 4.6. Category A developments as identified from the phase A concept studies.

For the Oategory B and O deve|opments, m||estones by wh|oh these are requ|red for the resouroe p|an-
n|ng for the E-E|T |nstrumentat|on are ||sted. Oategory A deve|opments are under the oontro| of the
|nstrument projeots and the m||estones w||| be determ|ned w|th|n the projeot. Oategory B and O deve|-
opments w||| be supported |n part or |n fu|| from the enab||ng teohno|og|es work paokage.

W|th the exoept|on of the |ong-term deve|opment of the 4k 4k so|enoe deteotors, the two f|rst-||ght so|-
enoe |nstruments (E|T-lF, E|T-OAM} requ|re marg|na| amounts of R&D and those requ|red w||| be
|noorporated |nto the norma| projeot phases. Oommon teohno|ogy deve|opments are requ|red for the AO
modu|es.

E|T-MlR has one |ong-term deve|opment requ|rement, wh|oh |s now oom|ng to fru|t|on through the
deve|opment of the Aquar|us deteotors for vlSlR. Se|eot|on of the |nstrument depends upon the suooess
of th|s projeot. W|th|n the |nstrument projeot, understand|ng the u|t|mate sens|t|v|ty reaohed w|th th|s
|nstrument w||| depend upon further demonstrat|on of the teohn|que of on-|nstrument ohopp|ng to be
oarr|ed out dur|ng the |nstrument deve|opments.

The major|ty of the teohn|oa| deve|opments out||ned |n the stud|es of the f|ve E|T-HlRES and E|T-MOS
|nstrument oonoepts w||| be oarr|ed out w|th|n the |nstrument oonstruot|on phases or a de|ta phase A for
the |nstruments. The exoept|ons are the deve|opments requ|red to support the Mu|t|-Objeot Adapt|ve
Opt|os (MOAO} system p|anned for the NlR E|T-MOS. These are |onger-term deve|opments that w||| be
the subjeot of a separate Oa|| for Proposa|s.

F|na||y, E|T-POS has a substant|a|, |ong-term R&D programme requ|red to deve|op th|s amb|t|ous
|nstrument to TR| 3 before the off|o|a| start. The pre-oonstruot|on phase for th|s |nstrument |s est|mated
(based on the EPlOS study and the deve|opment t|mesoa|es for SPHERE} to be three to four years.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 189
Teohno|ogy Oategory lnstrument Requ|red by
M||estone
Notes
|GS WFS
deteotors
O MOAO,
|TAO,
E|T-POS,
E|T-MOS
MOAO/|TAO
F|na| Des|gn
Rev|ew (FDR}
Deve|opment of fast read out, |ow-
no|se deteotors, 1680 1680 p|xe|s
Rea|-t|me
oomputer
O MOAO/|TA
O
E|T-POS,
E|T-MOS
MOAO/|TAO
FDR
Oomput|ng power, of order of 300
GMAO/s
Deformab|e M|rror
(DM}
deve|opments
O MOAO MOAO FDR ~ 400 mm d|ameter, ~ 50 50
aotuators and the p|toh of ~ 8 m
Deteotor stab|||ty O E|T-HlRES E|T-HlRES
FDR
lmportant for the opt|oa| HlRES
84 84 aotuator
DM w|th 6 m
stroke
O E|T-MOS E|T-HlRES
FDR
Based on EAG|E requ|rements
AO-DM and
oontro| e|eotron|os
O E|T-POS E|T-POS start Deve|opment of DM to E|T-POS
speo h|gh aotuator dens|ty

WFS oamera

O E|T-POS E|T-POS start lnorease |n speed of the ex|st|ng
hardware (by a faotor ~ 2} and
|ntroduot|on of the deep-dep|eted
OODs for better red sens|t|v|ty
Speok|e-nu|||ng
study
B E|T-POS E|T-POS start Requ|red to understand the oontrast
reaohed by E|T-POS
Opt|oa| de-rotat|on
of the lntegra|
F|e|d
Speotrograph
(lFS} w|thout
|ntroduo|ng
Fresne| effeots
B E|T-POS E|T-POS start Requ|red to |norease the
performanoe of E|T-POS
Aquar|us deteotor O E|T-MlR E|T-3
se|eot|on
vlSlR on-sky tests
4k 4k so|enoe
deteotors
O E|T-OAM/
E|T-lF
Pre||m|nary
Des|gn
Rev|ew (PDR}
of E|T-lF
and E|T-OAM
At qu|te advanoed TR|, funds for
test|ng w|th|n ESO p|anned
Robot|o
f||ter/grat|ng
exohange
B E|T-MOS Se|eot|on of
E|T-4
lmportant for the ourrent opt|oa| s||t
mask E|T-MOS oonoept.
Sma|| d|ameter
(< 100 m} f|bres
for h|gh reso|v|ng
power
B E|T-MOS Se|eot|on of
E|T-4
lmportant for the ourrent f|bre-
opt|oa| MOS oonoept
Table 4.7. Category B and C developments as identified from the phase A concept studies.

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190 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
4.3 lNSTRMENT MANAGEMENT P|AN
4.3.1 lNSTRMENT PROOREMENT
ESO w||| manage the E-E|T |nstrument proourement on beha|f of |ts oommun|ty and w||| ma|nta|n |n-
house the teohn|oa| and management oapab|||t|es requ|red to oarry out th|s funot|on. For the v|T, ESO
deve|oped and prov|ded standard oomponents (e|eotron|os, software and oryogen|os} and deteotor sys-
tems, as we|| as undertak|ng respons|b|||ty for overs|ght of the externa| oontraots. Th|s mode| |s fo||owed
for the E-E|T |nstrument oontraots.

Externa| |nstrument oonsort|a w||| reoe|ve a Guaranteed T|me Observ|ng a||ooat|on (GTO} to oompensate
them for both oontr|buted staff effort and any oash oontr|but|on to the projeots. One ohange from the
v|T prooess |s that GTO oompensat|on for staff effort w||| be speo|f|ed at the t|me of the Oa|| for Pro-
posa|s and w||| not norma||y be negot|ab|e. Oash oontr|but|ons from oonsort|a towards proourements w|||
be oompensated us|ng a standard formu|a.

lt |s expeoted that the E-E|T |nstruments w||| be suff|o|ent|y oomp|ex, oost|y and demand|ng of staff
resouroes so that no s|ng|e |nst|tute, |no|ud|ng ESO, w||| be ab|e to hand|e the|r suooessfu| oonstruot|on
a|one. Therefore the norma| projeot organ|sat|on |s env|s|oned to be as fo||ows:

A oonsort|um w||| be se|eoted for oonstruot|on based on e|ther oompet|t|ve tender|ng or s|ng|e-
souroe proourement;
The |nstrument projeot w||| be def|ned v|a an agreement between ESO and the oonsort|um, and
by teohn|oa| speo|f|oat|ons and a Statement of Work;
Projeot work paokages w||| be d|str|buted amongst a oonsort|um of lnst|tutes |n the Member
States and ESO, w|th respons|b|||t|es def|ned |n a Memorandum of nderstand|ng (Mo};
A Pl for eaoh |nstrument w||| be def|ned;
A |ead teohn|oa| |nst|tute for the projeot w||| be speo|f|ed. Th|s |ead |nst|tute w||| be respons|b|e for
top-|eve| projeot management, systems eng|neer|ng and the Assemb|y and lntegrat|on Team and
w||| have a demonstrated traok reoord |n suooessfu||y de||ver|ng v|T-o|ass |nstrumentat|on;
ESO w||| have an overs|ght ro|e v|a regu|ar progress rev|ews and major m||estone rev|ews, and
w||| aot as the oustomer.

lnstrument Proourement P|an
E|T-OAM As f|rst-||ght |nstruments, and oons|der|ng the|r neoessary |ntegrat|on w|th adapt|ve
opt|os, d|souss|ons regard|ng |nstrument aroh|teoture and speo|f|oat|ons must be
started |n 2012. Due to the rev|sed te|esoope des|gn and depend|ng on the AO
approaoh adopted, some phase A des|gn may a|so need to be repeated. ESO w|||
therefore p|an to oontraot |nstrument oonstruot|on w|th the ex|st|ng MlOADO and
HARMONl oonsort|a, subjeot to suooessfu| negot|at|on.
E|T-lF
E|T-POS Oompet|t|ve tender|ng for enab||ng teohno|ogy deve|opment and |nstrument
oonstruot|on w||| be app||ed.
E|T-MlR Prov|ded teohno|ogy read|ness oan be demonstrated |n 2013, a m|d-lR
|mager/speotrometer w||| be de||vered as E|T-3. S|noe the METlS oonsort|um oonta|ns
most Member State |nst|tutes w|th m|d-lR |nstrument exper|enoe (|t |s essent|a||y the
JWST-MlRl team} ESO w||| p|an to oontraot d|reot|y w|th that oonsort|um.
E|T-4 Oompet|t|ve tender|ng for enab||ng teohno|ogy deve|opment and |nstrument
oonstruot|on w||| be app||ed.
E|T-5 Oompet|t|ve tender|ng for enab||ng teohno|ogy deve|opment and |nstrument
oonstruot|on w||| be app||ed.
E|T-6 Oompet|t|ve tender|ng for enab||ng teohno|ogy deve|opment and |nstrument
oonstruot|on w||| be app||ed.
Table 4.8. Procurement plan for each instrument.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 191
For |nstruments bu||t by externa| oonsort|a, |t w||| be essent|a| that oonsort|um |eadersh|p |n the projeot
br|ngs adequate|y demonstrated expert|se |n projeot management, produot assuranoe, systems eng|-
neer|ng and Assemb|y and lntegrat|on Team (AlT} fao|||t|es. The organ|sat|on of respons|b|||ty and a||ooa-
t|on of work paokages w|th|n oonsort|a w||| be the f|rst step |n reaoh|ng an agreement for |nstrument oon-
struot|on. Shou|d agreement not be reaohed, ESO reserves the r|ght to award the |nstrument
oonstruot|on to another oonsort|um, or to re-tender.

The bas|s for E-E|T |nstrument proourement w||| be to adopt a oompet|t|ve approaoh whenever reasona-
b|e. Proposa|s w||| then be so||o|ted for the des|gn and oonstruot|on of an |nstrument def|ned |n a set of
Teohn|oa| Speo|f|oat|ons and a Statement of Work. A bas|o proourement pr|no|p|e |s that a|| oompet|ng
|nstrument proposa|s shou|d be at a s|m||ar |eve| of des|gn before a se|eot|on |s made. Th|s may requ|re
extra stud|es to be oarr|ed out (and henoe extra t|me}.

ln the oase of |nstruments where a s|ng|e oonsort|um may oonta|n most, |f not a||, of the re|evant exper-
t|se |n Europe, ESO w||| negot|ate a oontraot d|reot|y w|th the oonsort|um. Th|s may a|so app|y |n the oase
where the requ|red |nstrument sohedu|e does not a||ow for an extended per|od of oompet|t|ve tender|ng,
suoh as the f|rst-||ght |nstruments.

Based on these pr|no|p|es, ESO p|ans to |mp|ement the fo||ow|ng proourement strategy for the |nstru-
ments ourrent|y |nd|oated |n the roadmap.

ESO may |ead a se|eoted projeot when the |nstrument oharaoter|st|os speo|f|oa||y matoh ESO |n-house
expert|se, and when |nterna| effort |s ava||ab|e. Th|s w||| be done w|th|n a oonsort|um, w|th externa| |nst|-
tutes respons|b|e for subsystems, and oompet|t|ve tender|ng w||| be used to se|eot these. Any deo|s|on
for ESO to |ead an |nstrument projeot w||| be taken by the D|reotor Genera|.
4.3.2 ORGANlSATlON OF ESO lNSTRMENT MANAGEMENT
The oonstruot|on of |nstrumentat|on for the E-E|T w||| be managed by the ESO lnstrumentat|on D|v|s|on
as a major work paokage w|th|n the E-E|T oonstruot|on projeot. As suoh, the lnstrumentat|on D|v|s|on w|||
part|o|pate fu||y |n the E-E|T projeot work and be under the author|ty of the E-E|T projeot management
team and projeot governanoe.

The E-E|T |nstrumentat|on work |tse|f breaks down to the fo||ow|ng work paokages and work paokage
managers for the oonstruot|on phase.
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192 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Work Paokage ESO
Manager
Task
E|T |nstrument programme
management
M. Oasa|| Management of programme
Preparatory work
lnstrument speo|f|oat|on
deve|opment
S. Ramsay Deve|opment of |n|t|a| |nstrument speo|f|oat|ons
pr|or to oonsort|um se|eot|on.
lnstrument enab||ng teohno|og|es N. Hub|n Deve|opment of teohno|og|es or|t|oa| for future
|nstruments, pr|or to |nstrument oonsort|um
se|eot|on.
lnstrument |nfrastruoture J. O.
Gonza|ez
Deve|opment of |nfrastruoture requ|red for
|nstrumentat|on |no|ud|ng oryogen|o system and
|nterfaoes.
lnstrument standards and
standard subsystems
M. Oasa|| Rev|ew and def|n|t|on of |nstrumentat|on
standards
lnstrument Oonstruot|on
lnstrument 1 oontraot Not yet
a||ooated
Management of externa| oonstruot|on oontraot
lnstrument 1 ESO de||verab|es Not yet
a||ooated
Management of ESO |nterna| de||verab|es
lnstrument 2 oontraot Not yet
a||ooated
Management of externa| oonstruot|on oontraot
lnstrument 2 ESO de||verab|es Not yet
a||ooated
Management of ESO |nterna| de||verab|es
lnstrument 3 oontraot * Not yet
a||ooated
Management of externa| oonstruot|on oontraot
lnstrument 3 ESO de||verab|es * Not yet
a||ooated
Management of ESO |nterna| de||verab|es
lnstrument 4 oontraot * Not yet
a||ooated
Management of externa| oonstruot|on oontraot
lnstrument 4 ESO de||verab|es * Not yet
a||ooated
Management of ESO |nterna| de||verab|es
Table 4.9. Instrumentation work packages and managers for the construction phase.
* Contract and ESO deliverables work package pairs continue in this pattern for future instruments.
4.3.3 PRODOT ASSRANOE AND SOOESSF| DE|lvERY OF
lNSTRMENTATlON
The E-E|T w||| be the |argest and most expens|ve opt|oa|lR fao|||ty for ground-based astronomy ever
bu||t. Observ|ng t|me w||| be h|gh|y oompet|t|ve and h|gh|y va|ued. lt |s therefore |mportant that new and
h|gher |eve|s of re||ab|e performanoe and |ow downt|me are aoh|eved for the |nstruments. For th|s reason,
|essons |earned over the per|od of v|T |nstrument oonstruot|on must be rev|ewed and used to dev|se
best praot|oe gu|de||nes to be app||ed to E-E|T |nstrument oonstruot|on.

A framework for produot and qua||ty assuranoe for the E-E|T |s g|ven by E-MAN-ESO-156-0139 |ssue 5
and th|s forms the bas|s for ESO |nteraot|ons w|th |ndustry; th|s w||| be part|a||y app||oab|e to |nstrument
projeots. However, the oonstruot|on of |nstruments w|th oonsort|a of Member State |nst|tutes a|so pre-
sents add|t|ona| prob|ems and advantages and to th|s end we w||| app|y best praot|oe based on |essons
|earned over the |ast ten years of |nstrument oonstruot|on for the v|T/l. A part|ou|ar|y or|t|oa| phase
ooours |n the projeot start-up per|od when the work breakdown struoture |s deve|oped, work paokages
are a||ooated to |nst|tutes and the so|ent|f|o and teohn|oa| |eadersh|p team |s def|ned. An exper|enoed
ESO Produot Assuranoe (PA} team w||| be set up to work w|th the oonsort|a |n th|s phase. Both part|es
must be sat|sf|ed w|th the f|na| projeot struoture |n order to prooeed to a oonstruot|on oontraot.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 193
ESO w||| a|so be respons|ve to oomments and suggest|ons from the oommun|ty regard|ng |mprovements
that shou|d be made to ESO |nstrument oonstruot|on work|ng praot|oes. Meet|ngs w||| be arranged w|th
sen|or managers from exper|enoed |nst|tutes, |n order to unoover areas of d|ff|ou|ty for the oommun|ty
and to genera||y |mprove |nterna| ESO prooesses.
4.3.4 Ml|ESTONES AND REvlEWS
Major projeot phases and rev|ew m||estones w||| be exp||o|t|y |nd|oated |n the |nstrument agreements w|th
oonsort|a, and w||| be speo|f|ed |n eaoh Statement of Work. The purpose of major rev|ews |s to exam|ne
progress, reoommend ohanges and adv|se on oont|nuat|on of the |nstrument projeot to the next phase.
Major rev|ew m||estones w||| a|so be major payment m||estones for oonsort|a. ln add|t|on, |n order to
smooth oashf|ow, payments w||| a|so be made at other t|mes based on agreed de||verab|es.
4.3.5 ESO AS OSTOMER AND MEMBER OF A OONSORTlM
ESO w||| take the ro|e of aot|ve oustomer |n a|| |nstrument projeots. Th|s means, |n add|t|on to the usua|
ro|es of mon|tor|ng progress and organ|s|ng major m||estone rev|ews, ESO w||| a|so keep a strong teoh-
n|oa| and manager|a| overs|ght team to oomment |n deta|| on des|gn oho|oes, |nterfaoe requ|rements, and
oonformanoe w|th observatory standards. Th|s approaoh has been deve|oped fo||ow|ng exper|enoe w|th
the v|T |nstrument programme where |t has beoome the standard mode|, we|oomed by both ESO and
|nstrument oonsort|a. The effort for th|s manager|a| and teohn|oa| overs|ght has been |no|uded |n ESO
|nstrument FTE (Fu||-T|me Equ|va|ent} p|ann|ng.

lt |s expeoted that |n many |nstrument projeots ESO w||| a|so be respons|b|e for de||ver|ng oerta|n sub-
systems, espeo|a||y deteotors and oontro||ers. ln these oases |t |s |mportant that the re|at|onsh|p w|th the
oonsort|um |s o|ear and fo||ows good projeot management praot|oe. ESO w||| therefore be a s|gnatory to
the oonsort|um Memorandum of nderstand|ng as an assoo|ate partner, and w||| part|o|pate |n the pro-
jeot |n the same way as any other |nst|tute w|th a work paokage and de||verab|es, though w|thout any
GTO oompensat|on. Tasks w||| |no|ude prov|d|ng reports to the oonsort|um projeot management, attend-
|ng progress rev|ews and other work norma||y assoo|ated w|th a work paokage. lnterna||y, ESO w||| keep
work paokages assoo|ated w|th th|s task separate from those of ESO as oustomer, and the two w||| be
managed by d|fferent members of staff.
4.3.6 lNSTRMENT OOSTS
100 Mt are ava||ab|e w|th|n the oonstruot|on budget for the E-E|T for the oap|ta| oosts of |nstrumentat|on
and re|ated subsystems |no|ud|ng enab||ng teohno|og|es, and the staff oosts at ESO. Oommun|ty effort
for |nstrument oonstruot|on w||| be oompensated by guaranteed t|me and |s not aooounted for |n the
|nstrumentat|on budget. The budget p|an |s based on the roadmap (Tab|e 4.2}. E|T-lF and E|T-OAM
are proposed as the f|rst-||ght |nstruments and the|r oosts are |no|uded w|th|n the p|an a|ong w|th the
oosts for the adapt|ve opt|os systems requ|red to de||ver the so|enoe oases for these |nstruments.

The est|mated oosts for |nd|v|dua| |nstruments are based on those prov|ded by the study oonsort|a |n the
de||verab|e phase A doouments desor|b|ng the deve|opment and management p|an. ln prepar|ng the
E-E|T |nstrumentat|on p|an, ESO has oons|dered these pred|oted oosts |n the ||ght of the expeoted teoh-
n|oa| ohanges dur|ng the deve|opment of speo|f|oat|ons |n 2012. The |nstrument oosts |no|ude 20% oon-
t|ngenoy un|ess the phase A oonsort|um suggested a h|gher oont|ngenoy, |n wh|oh oase the h|gher f|gure
|s used. Researoh and deve|opment oosts for |nd|v|dua| |nstruments are |no|uded w|th|n the |nstrument
work paokages onoe the |nstruments are se|eoted. Preparatory enab||ng teohno|ogy deve|opments,
requ|red before an |nstrument oan be se|eoted, are oosted as a separate job, and w||| be funded and
managed by ESO. They w||| be subjeot to rev|s|on as part of the prooess of reassess|ng the |nstrument
requ|rements and further deve|op|ng a deta||ed enab||ng teohno|ogy p|an.

The oost of the f|rst four |nstruments |n the roadmap w||| be aooounted w|th|n the E-E|T oonstruot|on
proposa|. Subsequent |nstruments w||| be resouroed from Operat|ons. Th|s separat|on |s pure|y for
aooount|ng purposes and there w||| not be any breaks or de|ays |n the roadmap oorrespond|ng to th|s
ohangeover, as shown |n (Tab|e 4.2}.
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 193 16/12/2011 18:32
194 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The ESO exper|enoe w|th v|T f|rst and seoond generat|on |nstruments |s that |arge oost overruns (> 10%}
for ESO have been rare. Th|s |s part|y beoause ESO |s proteoted aga|nst externa| staff effort overspends
by the nature of our agreements w|th oonsort|a. The agreements do not automat|oa||y oompensate
fund|ng ageno|es |n Member States |f tota| staff effort used exoeeds |n|t|a| est|mates. The fund|ng of
exoess staff effort |s therefore a prob|em that must |n genera| be dea|t w|th by the oonsort|a and the
fund|ng ageno|es themse|ves. On the other hand, an exoess |n proourement spend does genera||y pro-
duoe further f|nano|a| support from ESO. Th|s sp||t |n respons|b|||ty for overspends he|ps to spread the
r|sk aoross a|| the stakeho|ders and partners.
4.3.7 EFFORT lN THE OOMMNlTY AND AT ESO
The oonstruot|on of the |nstrumentat|on for the E-E|T w||| over|ap w|th a oont|nu|ng and robust pro-
gramme of |nstrumentat|on deve|opment for the |a S|||a Parana| Observatory (|PO}. lt |s reasonab|e to
ask therefore whether th|s wou|d p|aoe undue stra|n on staff resouroes |n Member State |nst|tutes. F|gure
4.2 shows an effort mode| based on a p|aus|b|e |nstrumentat|on p|an for |PO, and the lnstrument
roadmap for E-E|T |no|ud|ng teohno|ogy deve|opment. lt shows a reasonab|y oonstant effort prof||e w|th
t|me. ln faot |n the years 20132017 the effort used shou|d deorease s||ght|y as seoond generat|on v|T
|nstruments oomp|ete and E-E|T |nstruments are start|ng up. A s|gn|f|oant faotor |s that a|though the tota|
ESO spend on a|| |nstrumentat|on (v|T/l + E-E|T} w||| |norease dur|ng E-E|T oonstruot|on, a muoh
greater fraot|on of the tota| E-E|T |nstrument oost |s expeoted to go to |ndustr|a| proourements rather
than as staff effort |n un|vers|t|es and |nst|tutes.


Figure 4.2. Community effort model.

ESO internal effort p|ann|ng has a|so been done for the per|od 201222 and enoompasses both the
E-E|T |nstrument roadmap as presented here and a strong oont|nu|ng |PO programme. Some d|ff|ou|-
t|es w|th staff|ng ooour |n the years 201415, but overa|| the programme oan be exeouted w|th ex|st|ng
lnstrumentat|on D|v|s|on and D|reotorate of Eng|neer|ng staff. An |mportant too| for ESO |n manag|ng the
|nstrument programme |s the ab|||ty to vary the m|x of |nterna| ESO/externa|-oonsort|um/externa| |ndustry
work. lf ESO |s very stretohed for effort we are ab|e to outsouroe more. Th|s has a oost |mpaot of oourse
|n e|ther GTO or oash, but does prov|de some f|ex|b|||ty to ensure progress dur|ng d|ff|ou|t per|ods.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 201S 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Commun|ty (non-LSC) I1Ls]year for |nstrumentat|on
kMCS MuSL SPL8L ACl MaLlsse CravlLy Lspresso vL1new1 vL1new2 vL1new3
LL1 hA LL1-CAM LL1-llu LL1-3 LL1-4 LL1-S LL1-6 LL1-CS LL1-L1u
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 195
4.4 APPENDl: PHASE A STDlES OF lNSTRMENTS AND ADAPTlvE
OPTlOS MOD|ES
4.4.1 A.1 lNTRODOTlON
The phase A |nstrument stud|es were oarr|ed out w|th oonsort|a of ESO and externa| |nst|tutes w|th the
goa| of address|ng the observ|ng oapab|||t|es of h|ghest so|ent|f|o pr|or|ty for the te|esoope. The f|na|
reports |no|uded the most |mportant so|enoe oases for wh|oh the |nstruments wou|d be used, the teoh-
n|oa| oonoept for the |nstrument, the expeoted performanoe, oost, FTE effort and a oonstruot|on
sohedu|e.

The stud|es are desor|bed br|ef|y |n the seot|ons that fo||ow. The post-fooa| AO modu|es are desor|bed
f|rst fo||owed by the |nstrument stud|es |n the order rev|ewed.
4.4.2 A.2 THE AT|AS POST-FOOA| |ASER TOMOGRAPHY AO MOD|E STDY
AT|AS |s a |TAO system prov|d|ng atmospher|o turbu|enoe oorreot|on on a 30-|noh d|ameter Fov |n the
wave|ength range of the te|esoope. lt oomp|ements the te|esoope G|AO by h|gher-order AO oorreot|on,
g|v|ng a d|ffraot|on-||m|ted Po|nt Spread Funot|on (PSF} down to the H-band, and offers great |mprove-
ments |n sky ooverage over SOAO. The so|enoe Fov |s free from any AT|AS opt|os mak|ng |t part|ou|ar|y
su|ted to |nstruments that pr|or|t|se h|gh throughput or |ow em|ss|v|ty over oorreot|on of a |arge f|e|d of
v|ew.


Figure 4.3. The ATLAS post-focal laser tomography AO module.

ln the |n|t|a| oonoept, AT|AS |s a fao|||ty that may be dup||oated for d|fferent Nasmyth ports |n order to
feed d|fferent o||ent |nstruments. ln the phase A study, the performanoe of AT|AS was oons|dered to
prov|de the fo||ow|ng |nstruments w|th an AO-oorreoted beam: HARMONl, METlS and SlMP|E. The
wavefront oorreot|on |s made us|ng the te|esoope adapt|ve m|rror M4 and the wavefront sens|ng |s
assured by s|x |aser gu|de star v|s|b|e WFS and two natura| gu|de stars |nfrared WFS. The s|x |GSs,
mounted at a 4.3-arom|nute d|ameter, are used to perform the tomography of the atmosphere above the
te|esoope and therefore to overoome the foous an|sop|anat|sm of a s|ng|e |aser beam on a 42-metre te|-
esoope. The two NGS WFS are requ|red to measure the |ow-order mode perturbat|ons not sensed by
the |GSs. To max|m|se the sky ooverage to o|ose to 100%, the two lR NGS arms are equ|pped w|th
|ooa| deformab|e m|rrors prov|d|ng an opt|m|sed add|t|ona| atmospher|o oorreot|on |n the d|reot|on of the
NGSs us|ng the |GS tomograph|o measurements. Th|s oorreot|on, oomb|ned w|th an |nnovat|ve fu||
aperture |ow-order fooa| p|ane sensor, max|m|ses the sens|t|v|ty of the NGS WFS and therefore the NGS
WFS s|gna|-to-no|se and NGS ||m|t|ng magn|tude. The |ow-order oontro| performanoe benef|ts from an
opt|ma| oontro| |aw (Ka|man f||ter} to oorreot te|esoope w|ndshake and |ow order modes. AT|AS |s
mounted on the te|esoope |nstrument rotator, has a oy||ndr|oa| vo|ume of 4000 mm 1000 mm and
we|ghs 1.5 tonnes.

E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 195 16/12/2011 18:32

196 E-ELT Instrument Roadmap | E-ELT Construction Proposal


Performance SC (pole)
52% SR in K 92%
40% SR in K 96%
35% SR in K 97%
13% SR in K 100%

Lambda 900 1250 1650 2200 4800 10 500
EE in 10
mas
10.3 21.1 26.1 26.4 13.7 3.9
EE in 20
mas
15.1 32.1 42.5 48.5 37 14.3
EE in 40
mas
18.2 37.8 53.6 63.8 61.0 35.1
EE in 60
mas
22.4 40.5 56.3 67.8 69.1 54.2
EE in 80
mas
23.2 42.4 58.2 70.2 80.1 63.8
EE in
100 mas
25.6 44.8 59.5 71.7 84.6 67.5
Strehl
ratio
5.5 18.8 35.3 52.7 90.5 96.9
Table 4.10. ATLAS sky coverage versus Strehl Ratio (SR) in K-band (left) and Ensquared Energy (EE) versus wave-
length (right).
4.4.3 A.3 THE MAORY POST-FOCAL MULTI CONJUGATE AO MODULE STUDY
MAORY is a MCAO module providing three-dimensional atmospheric turbulence correction over a
2-arcminute diameter FoV in the wavelength range 0.82.4 m. The correction is implemented by means
of three deformable mirrors optically conjugated at different altitudes in the atmosphere. One of the three
is the telescope M4, conjugated to the ground layer; the other two deformable mirrors are located in the
MAORY instrument and conjugated to 4 km and 12.7 km. The wavefront sensing is assured by six LGS
WFS and three NGS infrared WFS. The important properties of the delivered optical beam are near-
diffraction-limited correction and a consistent PSF delivered over a substantially wider field of view than
with LTAO or SCAO techniques. For the phase A study, a design for MAORY was explored in which the
corrected beam could be directed to one of two output ports and so could supply two science instru-
ments. The beam relayed by MAORY has the same focal ratio and exit pupil position as the beam from
the telescope.


Figure 4.4. The MAORY post-focal multi-conjugate AO module.

The mechanical layout above shows that the red beam is directed from the optics tower into an upward-
looking instrument. An instrument of up to 5 tonnes can be mounted on the rotator provided by MAORY
in this gravity-invariant location. The second port would feed a free-standing instrument with higher mass
limits. In the phase A study, the performance of MAORY was considered for two client instruments
MICADO and SIMPLE. An important driver on the MAORY design is the science requirement from
MICADO for astrometric accuracy of 50100 mas, which was demonstrated to be met. The volume of

196.pdf 1 16/12/2011 19:13
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 197
the |nstrument |s | W H = 7400 mm 7200 mm 8000 mm and |t we|ghs 12.7 tonnes. The rev|ew
of the phase A des|gn oono|uded that there were poss|b|||t|es for some s|mp||f|oat|on of the opt|oa|
des|gn. Reduo|ng to one, rather than two, opt|oa| re|ays |s thought feas|b|e and wou|d reduoe the number
and s|ze of |arge opt|oa| oomponents and therefore the oost and r|sk of the modu|e. The eva|uat|on of the
performanoe when |no|ud|ng on|y a s|ng|e DM w||| a|so be rev|s|ted dur|ng the speo|f|oat|on deve|opment
phase. F|na||y, |f the speotrosoop|o mode were to be |no|uded |n the oamera, the so|ent|f|o |mpaot on
sens|t|v|ty of the warm AO system wou|d have to be eva|uated, traded aga|nst the teohn|oa| |mpaot of
ooo||ng th|s |arge system.

M|n|mum Streh| rat|o averaged
over MlOADO f|e|d of v|ew (53 aroseoonds 53 aroseoonds}
Sky
ooverage
= 2.16 m = 1.215 m = 0.9 m
0.54 0.14 0.03 39%
0.52 0.13 0.03 50%
0.50 0.11 0.02 60%
0.48 0.09 < 0.01 70%
0.42 0.06 < 0.01 80%
Table 4.11.Sky coverage vs. performance at the Galactic pole for seeing of 0.8-arcsecond FWHM (Full Width at Half
Maximum).
Ensquared energy 50 mas 50 mas
Fov pos|t|on
(aroseoonds}
= 2.16 m = 1.65 m = 1.215 m = 1.021 m = 0.9 m
0 0.53 0.37 0.19 0.12 0.10
30 0.49 0.33 0.15 0.10 0.08
60 0.41 0.24 0.10 0.07 0.07
Table 4.12. Ensquared energy in an square aperture of 50 mas 50 mas averaged at three radial distances from the
centre of the field for seeing of 0.8-arcsecond FWHM.
4.4.4 A.4 THE OODE lNSTRMENT STDY
OODE |s a h|gh stab|||ty, h|gh reso|ut|on (R ~ 130 000} opt|oa| speotrograph opt|m|sed for the wave-
|ength range (0.370.71 m} wh|oh has the goa| of aoh|ev|ng a Dopp|er preo|s|on of 2 oms
-1
over a 30-
year t|mesoa|e to meet the so|enoe goa|s of the |nstrument. The OODE so|enoe team deve|oped |n deta||
the oase for a d|reot measurement of the aooe|erat|ng expans|on of the n|verse, and the |nstrument was
des|gned to exp||o|t|y address th|s top so|enoe oase for the E-E|T. By the same token (u|tra-stab|e rad|a|
ve|oo|ty measurements}, Earth tw|ns |n the hab|tab|e zone around so|ar-type stars beoome deteotab|e,
demonstrat|ng that the E-E|T w|||, |n severa| respeots, address exqu|s|te|y th|s hottest of so|enoe f|e|ds.
Both oases f|gured prom|nent|y amongst the DRM oases. An add|t|ona| oase showed that the E-E|T,
equ|pped w|th a h|gh-reso|ut|on speotrograph, wou|d enab|e a s|gn|f|oant advanoe |n the f|e|d of nuo|e-
oohronometry, |.e., ga|aot|o arohaeo|ogy. The fourth showoase of the team was the exp|orat|on of the
|nterga|aot|o med|um. By ana|ys|ng the ||ne-of-s|ght towards d|stant quasars, |nterven|ng absorpt|on sys-
tems oan be ana|ysed and not on|y the struoture, but a|so the e|ement enr|ohment of the n|verse under-
stood out to the ear||est epoohs. |ast but not |east, the OODE so|enoe proposed to test fundamenta|
phys|os by tak|ng the test of the stab|||ty of fundamenta| oonstants to new ||m|ts: a preo|se measurements
of atom|o trans|t|ons baok 90% of the age of the n|verse a||ows a preo|se test of whether our phys|oa|
|aws have var|ed, even on|y s||ght|y, s|noe ear|y t|mes, open|ng a who|e new perspeot|ve |n phys|os.

The OODE des|gn draws heav||y on the so|ent|f|o and teohn|oa| exper|enoe w|th the HARPS speotro-
graph, part|ou|ar|y |n oons|derat|on of the steps requ|red to oontro| the rad|a| ve|oo|ty error budget. The
natura| |ooat|on for the |nstrument |s |n the ooude room of the E-E|T where |t w||| be housed |n a temper-
ature stab|e env|ronment. lt |s a s|ng|e objeot speotrometer (0.82-aroseoond aperture} requ|r|ng no adap-
t|ve opt|os, a|though |mage stab|||sat|on |n the ooude tra|n may be neoessary to ma|nta|n the requ|red
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 197 16/12/2011 18:32
198 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
|mage qua||ty. A |aser frequenoy oomb w||| prov|de stab|e, s|mu|taneous wave|ength oa||brat|on over |ong
t|mesoa|es. The |nput to the speotrograph |s a s|ng|e |arge f|bre for the objeot and a seoond for the oa||-
brat|on souroe or sky. A h|gh|y anamorph|o pup|| ( 12} |s formed and s||oed |nto s|x s||oes wh|oh are fed
|nto the speotrograph by a three-m|rror anast|gmat used |n doub|e-pass. The eohe||e grat|ng |s based on
that |n vES and |s a mosa|o of four 408 mm 200 mm R4 grat|ngs. After the grat|ng, the beam |s sp||t
to feed b|ue and red oameras for opt|ma| eff|o|enoy and to a||ow a stab|e speotrometer format w|th no
mov|ng parts |n the |nstrument. Oross-d|spers|on |s aoh|eved us|ng s|anted vPH grat|ngs that are be|ng
tested |n prototype. The resu|t|ng speotrum has R ~ 120 000 w|th four-p|xe| samp||ng, an order he|ght of
170 p|xe|s and separat|on of 30 p|xe|s. The fooa| p|ane w||| have 9k 9k 10 m p|xe|s.


Figure 4.5. The optomechanical concept of the CODEX spectrograph.
4.4.5 A.5 THE EAG|E lNSTRMENT STDY
EAG|E |s a mu|t|-lF speotrometer for the NlR wave|ength range that uses an on-|nstrument MOAO
system. The EAG|E so|enoe oase foouses on the study of h|gh-redsh|ft ga|ax|es. Suoh an |nstrument on
the E-E|T w||| enab|e surveys of the ear||est (and rap|d|y grow|ng} ga|ax|es. The goa| |s to exp|o|t the spa-
t|a| reso|ut|on of the E-E|T to understand the star format|on h|story dur|ng the epooh of growth of struo-
ture and assemb|y of ga|ax|es. Push|ng the E-E|T to |ts ||m|t, EAG|E wou|d enab|e the speotra of the
very f|rst ga|ax|es to be obta|ned at redsh|fts 810, o|ose to the epooh of re|on|sat|on of the n|verse and
prov|d|ng unpreoedented |ns|ght |nto th|s epooh. lntegra|-f|e|d speotrosoopy of ga|ax|es w|th aot|ve ga|ao-
t|o nuo|e| w||| be poss|b|e from nearby to s|gn|f|oant |ookbaok t|mes and w||| a||ow us to better understand
the ||nk between the growth of the oentra| mass|ve b|aok ho|e and the bu|ge of the ga|axy. O|oser to us, |t
w||| be poss|b|e to obta|n speotra of |nd|v|dua| stars |n nearby ga|ax|es, for the f|rst t|me beyond the |ooa|
Group of ga|ax|es, a||ow|ng both deta||ed ohem|oa| and k|nemat|o stud|es, or|t|oa| for the understand|ng of
ga|axy evo|ut|on. EAG|E wou|d a|so be ab|e to address some of the most prom|nent quest|ons |n our
own Ga|axy. lt wou|d a||ow a deta||ed study of the gas and stars |n the |nner parseo of the supermass|ve
b|aok ho|e at the oentre of the M||ky Way, he|p|ng to unoover |ts format|on and growth h|story as we|| as
prov|d|ng new |ns|ghts |nto star format|on |n the very |nner reg|ons of the Ga|axy.

Key to the so|ent|f|o performanoe of EAG|E |s the MOAO system that de||vers the requ|red |mage qua||ty
|n the d|reot|on of the souroes to be observed by sens|ng and reoonstruot|ng the atmosphere above the
te|esoope us|ng 6 |GS WFS and 56 NGS WFS. The oorreot|on requ|red at the f|e|d pos|t|on of the
objeot to be observed |s oa|ou|ated and the oorreot|on for the atmosphere |s app||ed by a oomb|nat|on of
the te|esoope M4 and the 84 84 aotuator deformab|e m|rrors |n the opt|oa| path to the speotrometers.
The se|eot|on of th|s AO oonoept was t|ed o|ose|y to the so|enoe oase for the |nstrument. EAG|E MOAO
aoh|eves a sky ooverage above 80% for R < 17 stars and de||vers moderate|y h|gh eno|ro|ed energy |n
p|xe|s su|ted to the s|ze soa|es of the h|gh-redsh|ft EAG|E targets (requ|rement: > 30% EE |n 75 mas}.
EAG|E was stud|ed for the preferred |ooat|on at the f/18.85 Grav|ty lnvar|ant Foous (GlF} of the te|e-
soope. To meet the so|enoe requ|rement on f|e|d s|ze, the fu|| 10-arom|nute f|e|d of the te|esoope |s
d|reoted to the GlF by a |arge M6. A oonsequenoe of th|s |s that the pre-fooa| stat|on gu|de probes are

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 199
v|gnetted by M6 and so EAG|E must reproduoe the s|gna|s requ|red to oontro| M4 and M5 w|th the
|nstrument wavefront sensors. Th|s funot|ona||ty |s des|gned |nto the EAG|E adapt|ve opt|os system. The
se|eot|on of the o|ustered objeots |s v|a p|ok-off m|rrors that are p|aoed robot|oa||y |n the fooa| p|ane. The
||ght from eaoh of the 1620 souroes |s then d|reoted towards the speotrograph v|a an opt|oa| system for
path d|fferenoe oompensat|on (due to f|e|d pos|t|on} and a deformab|e m|rror oontro||ed by the MOAO
system. The beams from two targets are oomb|ned |n one g|ass |mage-s||o|ng lF. ln tota|, there are 8-
10 speotrometers based on vPH grat|ngs, eaoh w|th a 4k 4k deteotor array, prov|d|ng |ow (R ~ 4000}
and h|gh (R ~ 10 000} speotra| reso|v|ng power. EAG|E |s part|y oryogen|o the p|ok-off and AO sys-
tems are at room temperature, whereas the speotrographs are ooo|ed w|th ||qu|d n|trogen to 190 K. For
a future |nstrument based on the EAG|E oonoept, substant|a| rev|s|on of the des|gn and s|gn|f|oant pro-
totyp|ng are requ|red. Remova| of the grav|ty-|nvar|ant foous means that a de|ta phase A study w||| be
needed to f|nd a new oonoept for de||ver|ng the EAG|E so|enoe oase and performanoe on the Nasmyth
p|atform.


Figure 4.6. The architecture of the EAGLE instrument. Light is directed into the top of the instrument as shown. The
whole system is mounted on a mechanical rotator.
4.4.6 A.6 THE EPlOS lNSTRMENT STDY
The EPlOS |nstrument |s essent|a||y des|gned to |mage exop|anets d|reot|y, one of the u|t|mate goa|s of
the E-E|T. The EPlOS so|enoe team exp|ored severa| so|enoe oases around th|s top|o and answered |n
deta|| what w||| be poss|b|e w|th the E-E|T. Young, se|f-|um|nous p|anets |n star-form|ng reg|ons or young
o|usters w||| be prom|nent targets as they oan be |maged a|| the way |nto the so|ar system near the snow-
||ne, and th|s out to the d|stanoe of the nearest star-form|ng reg|ons (300500 ||ght-years}. At o|oser d|s-
tanoes (< 30 ||ght-years from the Sun} an |nstrument suoh as EPlOS on the E-E|T w||| be ab|e to |mage
mature p|anets of the mass of Neptune or a super-Earth, potent|a||y |n the hab|tab|e zone of the|r star. A
f|rst oharaoter|sat|on w|th |ow-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy of the|r atmospheres w||| be poss|b|e and O
2-
dom|nated atmospheres (s|gns of ||fe?} w||| be deteotab|e. ln an |nterp|ay w|th other |nstruments deteot|ng
p|anets by rad|a| ve|oo|ty or |n the m|d-|nfrared, EPlOS w||| be ab|e to fo||ow up and |mage the most |nter-
est|ng oand|dates d|reot|y. The oomb|nat|on of |nstruments on the E-E|T w||| a||ow a f|rst oharaoter|sat|on
for many p|anets and thus strong|y support the deve|opment of p|anet format|on theor|es.

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200 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 4.7. A schematic overview of the major components of EPICS mounted on the Nasmyth platform.

The EPlOS oonoept oomb|nes extreme adapt|ve opt|os w|th the oapab|||t|es of two (poss|b|y three} so|-
enoe |nstruments to aoh|eve these goa|s. Oontrast rat|os of 10
-8
10
-9
are requ|red and are reaohed us|ng
a oomb|nat|on of |nnovat|ve opt|oa| des|gn, extreme|y h|gh Streh| AO (> 90%} and d|fferent|a| deteot|on
methods |no|ud|ng po|ar|metr|o |mag|ng and |ntegra| f|e|d speotrosoopy. The f|na| step |n aoh|ev|ng these
oontrasts |s |n the data reduot|on and post-prooess|ng. EPlOS |s a benoh-mounted |nstrument that oan
be |ooated on the Nasmyth p|atform; the preferred |ooat|on |s the stra|ght-through port. 10% of the ||ght
|s used by an on-|nstrument SOAO system that prov|des s|gna|s for the te|esoope M4. The oommon
opt|oa| path oonta|ns an atmospher|o d|spers|on oorreotor and the h|gh-order deformab|e m|rror for the
AO modu|e. The so|enoe beam may be d|reoted |nto e|ther the |ntegra| f|e|d speotrograph or the EPO|
|mag|ng po|ar|meter. The base||ne for the |ntegra| f|e|d un|t |s a |ens|et des|gn based on the SPHERE
des|gn; there are 343 343 |ens|ets for a 0.8-aroseoond f|e|d. An a|ternat|ve |mage-s||o|ng des|gn
rema|ns under study. The speotrometer opt|oa| des|gn has a s|x-|ens oo|||mator and f|ve-|ens oamera
wh|oh foouses the ||ght on a mosa|o of four 4k 4k deteotors. The on|y oryogen|o e|ement |s the deteotor
s|noe the wave|ength range |s restr|oted to 0.61.65 m. The EPO| f|e|d |s 1.37 aroseoonds 1.37
aroseoonds; eaoh ohanne| |s equ|pped w|th a 4k 8k OOD. A th|rd so|enoe |nstrument a d|fferent|a|
speok|e |mager |s a|so part on the oont|nu|ng work on oonoeptua| des|gn and prototyp|ng. The AO
system uses an |nnovat|ve roof-pyram|d wavefront sensor to measure the s|gna|s to oontro| a 210 210
aotuator deformab|e m|rror of ~ 300 mm d|ameter.
4.4.7 A.7 THE HARMONl lNSTRMENT STDY
HARMONl |s an |ntegra| f|e|d speotrometer oover|ng a broad wave|ength range (0.472.45 m} des|gned
for operat|on w|th the |TAO system. lt |s a mu|t|mode |nstrument oover|ng a w|de range of observat|ona|
oond|t|ons and so|ent|f|o programmes. The HARMONl team h|gh||ghted the E-E|T strong so|enoe oases
that h|gh spat|a| reso|ut|on, |ntegra|-f|e|d speotrosoopy w||| enab|e. One of the most |nterest|ng oases |s
the one oomp|ement|ng the exop|anet oases of other |nstruments, w|th the poss|b|||ty to obta|n speotros-
oopy of the typ|oa| Jup|ter-mass exop|anets deteoted w|th 810-metre-o|ass te|esoopes. Th|s w||| a||ow
researohers to fu||y oharaoter|se th|s type of exop|anet by determ|n|ng the|r age, mass and temperature.
By expand|ng th|s oase to h|gher mass, |t w||| be poss|b|e to study the |ow-mass reg|me of star format|on
and to understand the trans|t|on between p|anet and brown dwarf format|on. Further, the h|gh spat|a|
reso|ut|on of the |nstrument w||| probe the v|o|n|ty of |ntermed|ate-mass b|aok ho|es |n star o|usters and
dwarf ga|ax|es, thought to be poss|b|e seeds of supermass|ve b|aok ho|es at h|gh redsh|ft. The oomb|na-
t|on of h|gh spat|a| and med|um to h|gh speotra| reso|ut|on w||| further a||ow the study of reso|ved ste||ar
popu|at|ons |n nearby ga|ax|es w|th the goa| of better understand|ng ga|axy evo|ut|on throughout oosm|o
t|me.

S|m||ar|y, HARMONl oomp|ements the so|enoe oases out||ned by the EAG|E so|enoe team w|th h|gher
spat|a| reso|ut|on for s|ng|e objeots and w|th extens|on to the v|s|b|e wave|ength range. The so|ent|f|o oase
for HARMONl oa||s for three speotra| reso|ut|on modes (R ~ 4000, R ~ 10 000 and R ~ 20 000}. Four
se|eotab|e p|ate soa|es (4 mas, 10 mas, 20 mas and 40 mas} are matohed to the s|ze soa|e of the

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 201
astronom|oa| objeots to be stud|ed w|th the resu|t|ng f|e|d s|ze (5 aroseoonds 10 aroseoonds, 2.5
aroseoonds 5 aroseoonds, 1.25 aroseoonds 2.5 aroseoonds, 0.5 aroseoonds 1.0 aroseoond
respeot|ve|y) be|ng der|ved from oons|derat|on of the souroe s|zes, the expeoted PSF (whether see|ng-
||m|ted or de||vered by an AO system} and the demands of obta|n|ng good sky subtraot|on |n the near-
|nfrared. To aoh|eve the |arge f|e|ds w|th f|ne samp||ng, HARMONl part|t|ons the |nput fooa| p|ane |nto four
subf|e|ds that feed four |ntegra| f|e|d un|ts. The output of the lF |s two pseudo-s||ts that form the |nput to
two speotrographs. Thus for the fu|| f|e|d, there are e|ght speotrographs |n tota|. vPH grat|ngs are the
base||ne for th|s oomponent ten grat|ngs are mounted |n a whee| for the NlR. The deteotor |s a
4k 4k NlR deteotor. For opt|oa| speotrosoopy (0.470.8 m} the expeoted performanoe of the AO at
th|s wave|ength |mp||es that the 40-mas p|xe| soa|e |s adequate |n a|| oases. S|noe there |s no need for
rap|d beam-sw|toh|ng for sky subtraot|on, one quarter of the f|e|d |s suff|o|ent (5.0 aroseoonds
2.5 aroseoonds}. Therefore, one of the lF ohanne|s |s equ|pped w|th two opt|oa| speotrographs and
whee|s oonta|n|ng f|ve vPH grat|ngs to oover the v|s|b|e wave|ength range; the deteotor |s a 4k 4k
OOD. To reduoe the therma| baokground, the oomp|ete opt|oa| tra|n for HARMONl |s ||qu|d n|trogen
ooo|ed and oonta|ned |n a 4-metre d|ameter oryostat mounted stat|oa||y on the Nasmyth p|atform. The
f|e|d rotat|on for the sma|| |nput f|e|d |s oompensated by an opt|oa| de-rotator |n the |nstrument fore-
opt|os. A seoondary gu|d|ng system, a|so |n the oommon fore-opt|os, oorreots for any re|at|ve mot|ons of
HARMONl and the te|esoope beam us|ng measurements of a natura| gu|de star se|eoted w|th|n a 19-|noh
beam. HARMONl |s des|gned for use w|th the |TAO system and w|th G|AO. A SOAO system us|ng the
te|esoope M4 has been des|gned and oou|d be bu||t to subst|tute for the |TAO system, though w|th ||m-
|ted sky ooverage, |n the oase that HARMONl were to be deve|oped on a shorter t|mesoa|e than the
|TAO.


Figure 4.8. The optical path of a single channel from the K-mirror that de-rotates the field to the detector. This is for
one of the two visible cameras. Light from the telescope passes through the scale changer in the fore-optics, then is
subdivided at the field splitter. The beam is collimated before entering the slicer and finally focused onto the spec-
trometer 4k 4k array.

The ma|n r|sk to teohn|oa| read|ness of the |nstrument |s the oomp|ex|ty resu|t|ng from the s|ze of the ory-
ostat and the number of meohan|sms. To de||ver HARMONl as a f|rst-||ght |nstrument, oarefu| oons|dera-
t|on w||| be g|ven to s|mp||fy|ng the optomeohan|oa| oonoept wh||e ma|nta|n|ng the key so|ent|f|o dr|vers
that |no|ude the operat|on at v|s|b|e wave|engths and the h|gh speotra| reso|ut|on speotrosoopy. The pos-
s|b|||t|es |no|ude reduo|ng the number of speotrographs to reduoe vo|ume and mass of the |nstrument.
Th|s may be aoh|eved by a rev|s|on of the opt|oa| des|gn or by reduo|ng the f|e|d of v|ew. The |atter wou|d
affeot the sky-subtraot|on soheme ourrent|y p|anned for the |nstrument (nodd|ng a|ong the lF} w|th the
potent|a| to ||m|t the sens|t|v|ty u|t|mate|y aoh|eved. Further work w|th SlNFONl data and exper|enoe w|th
KMOS (to be oomm|ss|oned |n 2012} w||| |mprove our understand|ng of NlR sky-subtraot|on w|th lFs.
Further work |s requ|red regard|ng the strategy for |mp|ementat|on of the adapt|ve opt|os modu|e. Dur|ng

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202 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
the phase A stud|es, |t was not poss|b|e to |nvest|gate the fu|| |ntegrat|on of the |nstrument w|th the AO
modu|e. Th|s may resu|t |n substant|a| s|mp||f|oat|ons of the AO modu|e des|gn and a||ev|ate one of the
r|sks to performanoe |dent|f|ed dur|ng the des|gn phase, name|y that there wou|d be d|fferent|a| f|exure
between the |nstrument and the AO modu|e.
4.4.8 A.8 THE METlS lNSTRMENT STDY
METlS |s a workhorse |nstrument for the therma| |nfrared (2.914 m} reg|on offer|ng n|ne d|fferent
observ|ng modes -|mag|ng |n the LM- and N-bands, |ong-s||t speotrosoopy w|th moderate reso|v|ng
power (R ~ 5000} for the LM- and N-bands; |ntegra| f|e|d speotrosoopy at h|gh reso|v|ng power
(R ~ 100 000} |n the LM-bands; ooronagraphy and po|ar|metry. The METlS so|enoe team ana|ysed the
breakthrough so|enoe |n the m|d-|nfrared that w||| beoome poss|b|e w|th the E-E|T. The E-E|T w|th an
MlR oapab|||ty w||| exoe| |n protop|anetary d|so researoh, prob|ng |ns|de 110 A of form|ng exop|anetary
systems and understand|ng the|r or|g|n and d|vers|ty. Furthermore, the MlR |s the wave|ength of oho|oe
to |mage young, se|f-|um|nous g|ant p|anets and to study the mo|eou|es present |n the|r atmospheres as
we|| as the|r weather. METlS on the E-E|T w||| oharaoter|se a |arge number of young exop|anets. W|th |ts
very h|gh speotra| reso|ut|on |n the m|d-|nfrared, METlS w||| a|so a||ow the study of the So|ar System |n
more deta|| than ever before, from oometary vo|at||es to the surfaoe of Ku|per Be|t objeots. METlS prom-
|ses a strong push |n our understand|ng of stars and p|anets, but |ts so|enoe oases are not ||m|ted to the
|ooa| n|verse. lndeed, MlR wave|engths oan penetrate the heav||y obsoured |nner reg|ons of nearby ga|-
ax|es and offer a un|que opportun|ty to study the |nterp|ay of heavy star format|on and aot|ve ga|aot|o
nuo|e|, and u|t|mate|y between the supermass|ve b|aok ho|e and the surround|ng |nterste||ar med|um.

On enter|ng the METlS oryostat, ||ght from the te|esoope |s sp||t, w|th the v|s|b|e ||ght sent to the wave-
front sensor for the |nstrument SOAO mode that sends oorreot|on s|gna|s to the te|esoope M4/M5. The
|nfrared beam then passes through a D|oke sw|toh wh|oh aots as an |nterna|, fast ohopper, through the
opt|oa| de-rotator and then may be d|reoted |nto the modu|es oonta|n|ng the h|gh-reso|ut|on speotro-
graph, the LM-|mag|ng p|us |ow-reso|ut|on speotrosoopy or the N-band |mag|ng p|us |ow-reso|ut|on
speotrosoopy. The fast ohopper |s a nove| oonoept for th|s |nstrument: ohopp|ng |s more usua||y
aoh|eved w|th a te|esoope seoondary m|rror a poss|b|||ty not open to the E-E|T due to the s|ze of the
M2. The who|e optomeohan|oa| system |s at a temperature of 80 K, w|th the exoept|on of the N-band
speotrograph wh|oh |s ooo|ed to 30 K. The METlS deteotor system |s based on the Aquar|us MlR
deteotors ourrent|y be|ng |mp|emented for vlSlR on the v|T. As ment|oned above, METlS |s equ|pped
w|th an on-|nstrument SOAO system. An |nterest|ng outoome from the study was that d|ffraot|on-||m|ted
|mage qua||ty |n the MlR oan be de||vered us|ng just the te|esoope M4, w|th wavefront oorreot|on s|gna|s
prov|ded from an on-board SOAO system. The fu|| so|enoe performanoe |s met when METlS |s ooup|ed
w|th the AT|AS |TAO system offer|ng h|gh sky ooverage.



Figure 4.9. The optical layout of METIS (left) showing the two science modules the imager with low-resolution
spectroscopy and the high-resolution spectrometer. The on-board AO module is shown. This complete system is
inside the METIS cryostat shown (right) at the straight through port on the Nasmyth platform.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 203
4.4.9 A.9 THE MlOADO lNSTRMENT STDY
MlOADO |s an |nfrared (0.82.5 m} oamera des|gned to exp|o|t the d|ffraot|on ||m|t of the te|esoope. The
MlOADO so|enoe team stud|ed the so|enoe oase for suoh an |nstrument and drew attent|on to astromet-
r|o so|enoe oases. W|th a d|ffraot|on ||m|t of 5 m||||aroseoonds at 1 m wave|ength, astrometry at the 100
to 50 m|oroaroseoond |eve| beoomes poss|b|e. Th|s, |n turn, opens a new parameter spaoe that oan be
exp|o|ted for many exo|t|ng so|enoe oases.

Two of the most prom|nent examp|es are: the k|nemat|os of stars on|y ~ 100 Sohwarzsoh||d rad|| from
the supermass|ve b|aok ho|e |n the oentre of the M||ky Way, orb|t|ng the b|aok ho|e w|th orb|ta| ve|oo|t|es
of 0.1c (c: speed of ||ght}, a||ow|ng the deteot|on of the effeots of speo|a| and genera| re|at|v|ty. The other
examp|e |s the k|nemat|os of star and g|obu|ar o|usters |n our M||ky Way as we|| as of dwarf ga|ax|es |n
the |ooa| Group, offer|ng a who|e new understand|ng of dynam|oa| effeots from |ntermed|ate-mass b|aok
ho|es to dark matter ha|os. Beyond astrometry, MlOADO |s des|gned to obta|n exqu|s|te photometry of
dense, reso|ved ste||ar popu|at|ons at the h|ghest poss|b|e spat|a| reso|ut|on. From the so|enoe teams
stud|es, |t |s o|ear that usefu| oo|ourmagn|tude d|agrams w||| be obta|ned out to d|stanoes unaoh|evab|e
today, oomp|ement|ng the speotrosoopy of |nd|v|dua| stars and a||ow|ng the d|sentang||ng of the mu|t|p|e
ste||ar popu|at|ons |n many nearby ear|y- and |ate-type ga|ax|es. What |s today often referred to as near-
f|e|d oosmo|ogy (a deta||ed h|story of the star format|on h|story of the n|verse} w||| get a tota||y new
mean|ng w|th the E-E|T.


Figure 4.10. The two arms of the MICADO instrument the primary arm with the 53 arcseconds 53 arcseconds
camera and 16-detector focal plane; the auxiliary arm with the additional scientific modes including spectroscopy,
higher resolution imaging at 1.5 mas per pixel and options include high time-resolution imaging, polarimetry. A sim-
ple fold mirror is used to select between them.


Figure 4.11. MICADO mounted on the Nasmyth platform under the SCAO module that is proposed by the team as
an interim measure until the LTAO system is complete. The interface is identical. MICADO operates in this gravity-
invariant location, rotated by a mechanical rotator on the Nasmyth platform.

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204 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The optomeohan|oa| oonoept |s for an |nstrument w|th two separate opt|oa| paths. The ma|n or pr|mary
arm of the |nstrument oonta|ns a f|xed-p|ate soa|e oamera; the opt|oa| des|gn |s a three-m|rror anast|g-
mat. A key goa| for the |nstrument |s to de||ver astrometr|o aoouraoy of 50 as and so the pr|mary arm
has f|xed opt|os w|th the on|y meohan|sm be|ng a f||ter whee| prov|d|ng a se|eot|on of 20 f||ters. The f|e|d
of v|ew of th|s arm |s 53 aroseoonds 53 aroseoonds w|th 3-mas samp||ng (Nyqu|st samp||ng the d|f-
fraot|on ||m|t at 1.0 m}. The fooa| p|ane |s an array of s|xteen 4k 4k NlR deteotors. The who|e |nstru-
ment |s des|gned to operate |n a grav|ty-|nvar|ant |ooat|on w|th the te|esoope beam fo|ded |nto the
upward |ook|ng oryostat. An aux|||ary arm |n the |nstrument |s se|eoted by a fo|d m|rror and prov|des
add|t|ona| so|ent|f|o oapab|||t|es, |no|ud|ng |ong-s||t speotrosoopy, po|ar|metry, a sma|| f|e|d w|th f|ner p|xe|
soa|e for astrometry |n orowded f|e|ds (1.5 mas p|xe|s} and poss|b|y a h|gh t|me reso|ut|on mode. The so|-
enoe oase for MlOADO demands the moderate|y w|de f|e|d w|th un|form PSF that oan be de||vered by a
mu|t|-oonjugate adapt|ve opt|os system.

ln the oonoeptua| phase, MAORY was oons|dered to feed MlOADO. S|noe the MAORY sohedu|e pre-
d|oted at phase A |s |onger than that for MlOADO, a SOAO modu|e was |no|uded |n the MlOADO base||ne
des|gn |n the |ater stages of the study. Th|s de||vers h|gh Streh| |mages (> 70% on-ax|s at m
v = 12} and a
27 aroseoonds 27 aroseoonds oorreoted f|e|d, of oourse to be restr|oted to f|e|ds w|th a br|ght gu|de
star. A phased de||very of the deteotors was proposed by the oonsort|um as an opt|on for matoh|ng a
phased AO de||very wh||e ass|st|ng w|th the projeot oosts/oash f|ow.
4.4.10 A.10 THE OPTlMOSDlORAMAS lNSTRMENT STDY
OPTlMOSDlORAMAS |s an |mager and s||t mask-based mu|t|-objeot speotrometer for the wave|ength
range 0.371.4 m. The OPTlMOSDlORAMAS team oonoentrated the|r efforts on study|ng the h|gh-
redsh|ft ga|axy survey and oharaoter|sat|on oapab|||ty of the E-E|T. Mu|t|-s||t |nstruments suoh as the one
proposed are very powerfu| |n exp|or|ng from redsh|fts 1 to 6 essent|a||y the ent|re per|od of ga|axy for-
mat|on and evo|ut|on. The OPTlMOSDlORAMAS team proposes an u|tra-deep |mag|ng survey (down to
AB magn|tudes of 30, an order of magn|tude deeper than poss|b|e today}. A oomp|ementary speotro-
soop|o survey wou|d d|soover the f|rst bu||d|ng b|ooks of ga|ax|es at redsh|fts z > 6 and traoe the mass
assemb|y of ga|ax|es s|noe th|s ear||est epooh of ga|axy format|on. The o|dest ste||ar popu|at|ons,
expeoted |n qu|esoent ga|ax|es, oan be traoed we|| beyond a redsh|ft of z ~ 2 w|th the E-E|T and so
oan the popu|at|on and frequenoy of ga|ax|es w|th aot|ve ga|aot|o nuo|e|. F|na||y, 3D tomography of the
|nterga|aot|o med|um at 2 < z < 3.5 oan be stud|ed through quasar absorpt|on ||nes and the |arge-soa|e
d|str|but|on of ga|ax|es at redsh|fts z > 2. ln summary, the E-E|T w||| be ab|e to exp|ore the format|on of
ga|ax|es and the |arge-soa|e struotures |n the n|verse |n an unpreoedented way.


Figure 4.12. A view of the OPTIMOSDIORAMAS system with the cabinets for the filters and gratings and robotic
exchange mechanisms (to the right). At the left of the figure, the mask exchange mechanism can be seen. The cylin-
drical structure is the rotating part of the instrument.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 205
The rea||sat|on of th|s w|de-f|e|d MOS |s as fo||ows. A 6.78 arom|nute 6.78 arom|nute f|e|d |s sp||t |nto
four quadrants at the te|esoope fooa| p|ane and feeds four speotrometers two opt|m|sed for the
wave|ength range 0.371.0 m us|ng three 4k 4k OOD deteotors and two opt|m|sed for the range
0.61.4 m us|ng three 4k 4k HgOdTe deteotors. ln the over|ap wave|ength range (0.61.0 m},
OPTlMOSDlORAMAS oan survey a f|e|d of 44 arom|n
2
; outs|de th|s range the f|e|d |s 22 arom|n
2
. The
des|gn |s opt|m|sed for h|gh-redsh|ft so|enoe and, |n part|ou|ar, redsh|ft surveys.

An u|tra-deep |mag|ng survey |s a goa| of the so|enoe oase. For speotrosoopy, the mu|t|p|ex may be as
h|gh as 480 |n the opt|oa| and w|th the |owest speotra| reso|ut|on (R ~ 300}; |n the NlR, a mu|t|p|ex ga|n of
160 |s foreseen (R ~ 3000}. The 0.8 mm th|ok stee| s||t masks are 780 mm 780 mm, we|gh 3 kg and
are |aser-out on s|te. The base||ne s||t w|dth of 0.5 aroseoonds |s des|gned to exp|o|t the performanoe of
the |GS G|AO system a|though the |nstrument oan be used |n see|ng-||m|ted oond|t|ons w|th some s||t
|osses or some reduot|on |n reso|v|ng power. At the deteotor, the s||t w|dth |s samp|ed by ten p|xe|s. The
use of an atmospher|o d|spers|on oompensator |s not essent|a| |f the zen|th ang|e of operat|on of the
|nstrument |s restr|oted. The speotrographs and fooa| p|ane are part of the rotat|ng struoture of the
|nstrument, re|y|ng on aot|ve f|exure oompensat|on. A nove| aspeot of the DlORAMAS des|gn |s the use of
a robot|o arm to exohange the f||ters for |mag|ng or the grat|ngs for speotrosoopy, thus remov|ng the
need for |arge grat|ngs whee|s. A m|xture of transm|ss|on grat|ngs and vPHs are used. The |nstrument
has a mass of 24 tonnes |n a vo|ume 6 m 6 m 6.5 m.

The |ong wave|ength out-off of the |nstrument (e|ther 1.4 m or 1.6 m} must be deo|ded dur|ng the
speo|f|oat|on deve|opment phase. The ga|n |n performanoe |n extend|ng to 1.4 m |s m|n|ma| g|ven the
atmospher|o w|ndow between the J- and H-bands; however extend|ng to 1.6 m wou|d have |mp||oa-
t|ons for the therma| baokground, poss|b|y requ|r|ng the ooo||ng of substant|a| seot|ons of the |nstrument.
Th|s |ssue was not addressed dur|ng the study and |t oou|d substant|a||y affeot the meohan|oa| des|gn.
The DlORAMAS |nstrument oonoept uses a nove| robot|o f||ter/grat|ng exohange arm that shou|d be
tested |n prototype before f|na||s|ng the |nstrument oonoept.


Figure 4.13. The optical layout of OPTIMOSDIORAMAS in spectroscopic mode showing the four optical paths that
make up the instrument two optimised for the 0.61.4 ,m range and two for the 0.371.0 ,m range.
4.4.11 A.11 THE OPTlMOSEvE lNSTRMENT STDY
OPTlMOSEvE |s a f|bre-based opt|oa| to NlR H-band mu|t|-objeot speotrometer des|gned for operat|on
|n see|ng-||m|ted oond|t|ons, w|th the te|esoope NGS or |GS G|AO systems |n operat|on. The |nstrument
exp|o|ts the max|mum f|e|d offered by the E-E|T, wh|oh |s 10 arom|nutes |n d|ameter. The OPTlMOSEvE
so|enoe team oo||eoted a number of h|gh prof||e so|enoe oases for a mu|t|-f|bre opt|oa|NlR speotrograph.
W|th suoh an |nstrument, |t w||| beoome poss|b|e to searoh for exop|anets out to our nearest dwarf ga|axy
ne|ghbours at the same |eve| as they are found today w|th 810-metre-o|ass te|esoope |n the so|ar

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206 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
ne|ghbourhood. As |n the near-f|e|d oosmo|ogy oases desor|bed above, speotrosoopy of |nd|v|dua| stars
|n nearby ga|ax|es oan be extended to opt|oa| wave|engths and thus the deta||ed star format|on h|stor|es
traoed. W|th respeot to the d|stant n|verse, the |nstrument |s set up to traok the f|rst star-form|ng ga|ax-
|es and souroes of re-|on|sat|on of the n|verse at redsh|fts from 5 to 13. The |ntegra| f|e|d propert|es of
suoh a speotrograph wou|d be |dea| to deteot |on|sed gas around d|stant ga|ax|es, oomp|ement|ng the
neutra| gas stud|es performed w|th A|MA. F|na||y, the h|gh speotra| reso|ut|on wou|d a||ow a preo|se
tomography of the |nterga|aot|o med|um at h|gh redsh|fts, to e.g., probe the matter d|str|but|on and the
geometry of the n|verse.

Figure 4.14. A schematic showing OPTIMOSEVE on the Nasmyth platform, straight-through port. The spectrograph
optical elements are mounted below the focal plates and the exchange mechanism.

F|bres are robot|oa||y p|aoed onto one of four fooa| p|ane p|ates wh||e a d|fferent f|e|d |s observed. Dur|ng
an observat|on, the p|ate |n use |s meohan|oa||y rotated to traok the f|e|d. OPTlMOSEvE offers a mu|t|-
p|ex of up to 240 for s|ng|e objeots, when observ|ng w|th speotra| reso|v|ng power R ~ 5000; for h|gher
speotra| reso|v|ng power modes 15 000 and 30 000 the mu|t|p|ex |s 70 and 40 respeot|ve|y. ln add|t|on to
the s|ng|e-objeot mode, 30 f|bre-bund|e lFs, eaoh w|th a f|e|d of v|ew of 1.8 aroseoonds 3 aroseoonds
and one |arge lF w|th f|e|d of v|ew 7.8 aroseoonds 13.5 aroseoonds, are ava||ab|e for use w|th the
|ower speotra| reso|ut|on mode. The f|bres are sp||t between the two speotrometers opt|m|sed for the
opt|oa| and two opt|m|sed for the |nfrared. Th|s a||ows s|mu|taneous observat|ons aoross the fu|| wave-
|ength range, the operat|ona| aspeots of wh|oh are to be further exp|ored as the |nstrument des|gn pro-
gresses.

ln the |nfrared, eaoh speotrometer uses three 4k 4k deteotors for the fu|| mu|t|p|ex and speotra| reso|u-
t|on, w|th the poss|b|||ty of a future upgrade to n|ne deteotors for |noreased wave|ength ooverage. The
opt|oa| speotrographs oonta|n four 6k 6k OOD deteotors. The speotrometers have |arge ref|eot|ve
oo|||mators, refraot|ve oameras and use vPH grat|ngs for the d|spers|ng e|ements. A tota| of ten grat|ngs
are requ|red to oover the fu|| wave|ength range and a|| speotra| reso|v|ng powers. Most of the OPTlMOS
EvE optomeohan|oa| system |s operated at a temperature of 193 K |n a oo|d ohamber |ooated |n the
p|atform under the fooa| p|ate system. As w|th OPTlMOSDlORAMAS, an ADO |s not neoessary for
OPTlMOSEvE prov|ded that on|y a restr|oted range of zen|th ang|es |s used. The aoouraoy of sky sub-
traot|on w|th the f|bres |s expeoted to prov|de the u|t|mate ||m|t to the sens|t|v|ty for th|s |nstrument and |s
an area that wou|d benef|t from further study.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap 207

Figure 4.15. The optics of OPTIMOSEVE showing the split of the infrared and optical light into the two optimised
cameras. The beam is folded by the VPH grating.
4.4.12 A.12 THE SlMP|E lNSTRMENT STDY
The SlMP|E so|enoe team |ooked |nto the breakthrough so|enoe enab|ed by a very h|gh speotra| reso|u-
t|on (R ~ 100 000} NlR speotrograph. The most exo|t|ng oase |s oerta|n|y the poss|b|||ty, w|th SlMP|E on
the E-E|T, to obta|n deta||ed speotrosoopy of the atmospheres of exop|anets observed |n trans|t |n front
of the|r star. Around |ow-mass stars, w|th p|anets on short orb|ts, |t w||| be poss|b|e to |dent|fy and
ohem|oa||y oharaoter|se the atmospheres not on|y of Jup|ters, but a|so of ooean p|anets of Neptune
mass, or even rooky super-Earths. |t|mate|y, th|s m|ght be the f|rst ohanoe to deteot b|omarkers (e.g.,
O
2} |n exop|anet atmospheres.

The oomb|nat|on of enormous ||ght-oo||eot|ng power, h|gh spat|a| (adapt|ve opt|os ass|sted} reso|ut|on
and very h|gh speotra| reso|ut|on opens up a muoh |arger parameter spaoe to be exp|ored. An |nstrument
suoh as SlMP|E w||| a|so enab|e fantast|o progress |n the preo|se ohem|oa| oharaoter|sat|on of ooo| ma|n
sequenoe stars |n the |nner Ga|axy or of star o|usters out to the d|stanoe of the nearest ga|axy groups
and o|usters. Absorpt|on systems a|ong the ||ne of s|ght of quasars w||| be traoed to z > 4, where meta|
||nes oan be used to exp|ore the ohem|oa| po||ut|on of the f|rst stars (so-oa||ed Pop lll}.

The SlMP|E |nstrument oonoept |s a f|xed-format oross-d|spersed eohe||e speotrometer de||ver|ng oom-
p|ete ooverage from 0.842.45 m |n a s|ng|e exposure w|th speotra| reso|ut|on R = 130 000.The speo-
trometer aperture |s a 27 mas 450 mas s||t |n the pr|mary mode and oan be used |n a |ong
(4-aroseoond} s||t mode by se|eot|ng between one and s|x orders us|ng a spat|a| f||ter. For h|gh stab|||ty
and re||ab|||ty, the speotrometer has a m|n|mum number of mov|ng parts w|th just two oryogen|o meoha-
n|sms: the s||t meohan|sm and the post-s||t v|ewer |n a oont|nuous f|ow ||qu|d n|trogen oryostat. Outs|de
the oryostat, an on-board SOAO system oan be used |n oonjunot|on w|th the te|esoope adapt|ve m|rrors
to oorreot the PSF. Otherw|se, SlMP|E may be used w|th e|ther the MOAO or |TAO post-fooa| adapt|ve
opt|os modu|es.

The SlMP|E beam |s p|oked off from 25003000 mm from the te|esoope foous, so SlMP|E |s eas||y
|ooated at any of the te|esoope ports or beh|nd any of the post-fooa| AO modu|es. The |nstrument pre-
opt|os oonta|ns a seoondary gu|d|ng system to ma|nta|n a||gnment between SlMP|E and the te|esoope
ax|s, the f|e|d de-rotator for the |ong s||t mode and the |nstrument oa||brat|on un|t. The speotrometer
works on the pr|no|p|e of a doub|e pass from a standard ref|eot|on grat|ng and foouses the speotrum
onto a 12k 4k p|xe| fooa| p|ane array w|th samp||ng of 23 p|xe|s. The tota| mass of the |nstrument |s
7700 kg |n a vo|ume of 4 m 4 m 5 m. The vaouum vesse| |s a oy||nder 1.8 m 2.3 m. The |nstrument
|s mounted on a meohan|oa| rotator.

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208 E-E|T lnstrument Roadmap E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 4.16. The SIMPLE layout showing the beam picked-off from the re-imaged (by the MCAO) telescope focal
plane.


Figure 4.17. The SIMPLE echellogram on 3 4k 4k arrays.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 209
5 OPERATlONS
5.1 SOOPE
Th|s ohapter desor|bes the operat|ona| oonoepts and p|ans w|th the goa| of aoh|ev|ng the E-E|T so|enoe
requ|rements, oover|ng aspeots re|ated to the observatory management; so|enoe, teohn|oa|, ma|ntenanoe
and |og|st|o operat|ons; off-s|te deve|opment and support; upgrade paths; staff|ng requ|rements; and
operat|ons budget.

The deta||ed operat|ons p|an w||| be estab||shed |n the oonstruot|on phase. At the moment, a rea||st|o
base||ne operat|on soenar|o |s def|ned |n th|s dooument to show how the |ntegrat|on of the E-E|T |n the
jo|nt Parana| Armazones (hereafter referred to as the Observatory} fao|||ty w||| take p|aoe, how so|enoe
operat|ons w||| be address the requ|rements of the E-E|T so|ent|f|o requ|rements, and to enab|e a rea||st|o
operat|ons budget assessment a|ready at the present stage.

The ma|n goa|s of E-E|T operat|ons w||| be to:

Max|m|se the so|ent|f|o produot|v|ty of the E-E|T, mak|ng |t aooess|b|e to so|ent|sts w|th user-
|eve| expert|se |n the use of other |arge v|s|b|e-|nfrared ground-based fao|||t|es.
Ensure an opt|ma| performanoe |eve| of te|esoope and |nstrumentat|on by extens|ve use of
metro|ogy and pred|ot|ve ma|ntenanoe, a|m|ng at an amount of teohn|oa| downt|me be|ow the
3% |eve|.
Assure a safe, eff|o|ent and oost-effeot|ve operat|on of the fao|||ty.
De||ver so|ent|f|o data of h|gh and oons|stent qua||ty together w|th a|| ano|||ary data needed for
the|r oa||brat|on up to estab||shed |eve|s.
Max|m|se the oommon use of resouroes w|th other ESO fao|||t|es.
Prov|de opportun|t|es for teohn|oa| upgrades and deve|opment of new |nstruments and AO sys-
tems over the ||fet|me of the fao|||ty.

The operat|ons p|ann|ng max|m|ses synerg|es w|th the jo|nt operat|on of a|| the fao|||t|es at the Observa-
tory, |no|ud|ng the E-E|T, the v|T, the survey te|esoopes and other ESO fao|||t|es that may be based on
Parana| at the t|me when the E-E|T enters operat|on. Th|s app||es to off-s|te fao|||t|es as we||, part|ou|ar|y
to the Garoh|ng operat|ons segment, w|th|n wh|oh E-E|T operat|ons w||| be fu||y |ntegrated. ln part|ou|ar,
the same so|enoe operat|ons un|ts, both |n Garoh|ng and |n Oh||e, w||| operate the E-E|T and the Parana|
te|esoopes.

Most of the observ|ng t|me at the E-E|T |s expeoted to be made ava||ab|e to the oommun|ty |n the same
manner as for the v|T and a||ooated through a peer-rev|ew prooess. The exeout|on of observat|ons w|||
take p|aoe predom|nant|y |n serv|oe mode, |n wh|oh observat|ons fu||y pre-def|ned by the users w||| be
exeouted under su|tab|e externa| oond|t|ons and se|eoted aooord|ng to a number of or|ter|a dom|nated by
so|ent|f|o pr|or|ty. v|s|tor mode w||| be supported as we||, and remote mode w||| be added |ater, after at
|east one year of regu|ar E-E|T operat|ons. Adequate software w||| be made ava||ab|e to users for the
def|n|t|on of observat|ons and pred|ot|on of te|esoope and |nstrument performanoe, and data reduot|on
p|pe||nes w||| be ava||ab|e for at |east the most frequent|y used modes of a|| |nstruments. A|| so|enoe
observat|ons, oa||brat|ons and ano|||ary data w||| be permanent|y stored |n the ESO So|enoe Aroh|ve to
ensure the|r preservat|on and |ong-term aooess.

ln aooordanoe w|th the E-E|T top-|eve| requ|rements, the operat|ons p|an assumes that |nstruments and
AO post-fooa| un|ts w||| be permanent|y mounted at the|r oorrespond|ng fooa| stat|ons, a||ow|ng rap|d
sw|toh-over (up to 30 m|nutes} between any of them.

The fao|||ty w||| be des|gned and bu||t to be modu|ar |n oharaoter and, wherever poss|b|e, se|f-d|agnos|ng:
eaoh dev|oe w||| have prov|s|ons for mon|tor po|nts that are reported to the oontro| oomputer |n rea| t|me
a||ow|ng the eng|neer|ng, ma|ntenanoe and so|enoe operat|ons orews to deteot gradua| and/or sudden
ohanges |n performanoe so as to enab|e t|me|y oorreot|ve aot|ons. Deta||ed mon|tor|ng of the so|ent|f|o
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210 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
data and assoo|ated oa||brat|ons, as we|| as |ong-term trend|ng, w||| be used to assess the hea|th of
|nstruments and determ|ne the need for |ntervent|on.

The teohn|oa| performanoe of the fao|||ty w||| be further measured us|ng operat|ona| oost as a metr|o. The
operat|on oost of the fao|||ty w||| |no|ude a|| d|reot|y attr|butab|e oosts and ESO overhead aot|v|t|es.

Be|ng an ESO fao|||ty, E-E|T operat|ons w||| obta|n genera| support from ESO |n host oountry re|at|ons
and ESO representat|on, |og|st|os (|no|ud|ng sh|pp|ng organ|sat|on and support |no|ud|ng oustom o|ear-
anoe}, oontraots and proourement, f|nanoe, human resouroes, |ega| adv|oe, outreaoh and web presenoe,
among others.
5.2 SOlENOE OPERATlONS GOA|S, SERvlOES AND PERFORMANOE
MONlTORlNG
The |mp|ementat|on of so|enoe operat|ons w||| be geared to fu|f||||ng the goa|s estab||shed by the E-E|T
so|enoe po||oy, max|m|s|ng the t|me ava||ab|e for so|ent|f|o observat|ons, and opt|m|s|ng the a||ooat|on of
ava||ab|e t|me aooord|ng to so|ent|f|o mer|t as the predom|nant or|ter|on. To th|s end, the Observatory w|||
prov|de moda||t|es of use of the fao|||ty adequate to the so|ent|f|o goa|s of eaoh projeot, and observat|ons
w||| be most|y f|ex|b|y sohedu|ed to make the best use of ava||ab|e atmospher|o oond|t|ons. A oa||brat|on
p|an w||| be exeouted by the Observatory to guarantee that so|ent|f|o data oan be oa||brated up to a we||-
speo|f|ed |eve| of aoouraoy. The oa||brat|on p|an w||| form the bas|s for assess|ng the system performanoe
by oont|nuous|y mon|tor|ng se|eoted parameters. A|| the so|enoe data obta|ned and the|r re|ated oa||bra-
t|ons w||| be stored |n the ESO So|enoe Aroh|ve, to ensure the |ong-term preservat|on and aooess|b|||ty of
the data to the ent|re so|ent|f|o oommun|ty through appropr|ate |nterfaoes.

ESO w||| prov|de a|| potent|a| users of the E-E|T w|th the dooumentat|on desor|b|ng the most re|evant
oharaoter|st|os of the te|esoope, |ts AO systems and |ts |nstrumentat|on, as we|| as |nstrument perfor-
manoe s|mu|ators enab||ng users to assess the feas|b|||ty of the|r p|anned observat|ons. Too|s and sup-
port w||| be ava||ab|e to users for the preparat|on and def|n|t|on of the|r observ|ng programmes.

Fo||ow|ng the exeout|on of observat|ons, ESO w||| de||ver raw data to the users or, whenever a|| raw data
wou|d |nvo|ve a proh|b|t|ve data vo|ume, data w|th a m|n|ma| amount of prooess|ng, together w|th a|| oa||-
brat|on data requ|red to remove the |nstrumenta| and atmospher|o s|gnature from the so|ent|f|o data.
Ano|||ary |nformat|on oonoern|ng env|ronmenta| oond|t|ons at the t|me of observat|ons, te|esoope, |nstru-
ment and AO performanoe, as we|| as ||nks to support dooumentat|on re|evant to the oharaoter|sat|on of
the data, w||| be part of the data paokage. For most |nstrument modes |t |s p|anned to prov|de users w|th
data prooessed by p|pe||nes prov|ded by the |nstrument bu||ders. The p|pe||ne modu|es w||| be prov|ded
too, so that users oan adapt the data prooess|ng to speo|f|o needs of the|r so|ent|f|o goa|s. sers w||| be
enoouraged to pub||sh the|r so|enoe-ready, prooessed data through the ESO So|enoe Aroh|ve Fao|||ty.

ESO w||| mon|tor the so|ent|f|o performanoe of the fao|||ty and |ts operat|on |n var|ous ways. To th|s pur-
pose, |t w||| ma|nta|n stat|st|os based on w|de|y aooepted b|b||ometr|o standards app||ed to the papers
based on E-E|T observat|ons and measurab|e for other observator|es as a benohmark of the E-E|T
performanoe. lt w||| a|so pay attent|on to so|ent|f|o resu|ts that oou|d be obta|ned by exp|o|t|ng oharaoter-
|st|os un|que to the E-E|T or to |ts operat|ons mode|. The peroentage of observat|ons exeouted outs|de
the speo|f|oat|ons prov|ded by the user |n serv|oe mode, the souroes of operat|ona| overheads, and the
d|fferent oategor|es of t|me |osses w||| be o|ose|y mon|tored and per|od|oa||y assessed |n an attempt to
ga|n operat|ona| eff|o|enoy. The qua||ty oontro| prooess w||| mon|tor the performanoe of the te|esoope and
|nstruments by oompar|son to a nom|na| performanoe der|ved from |nstrument mode|||ng and from aotua|
performanoe measured dur|ng oomm|ss|on|ng
5.3 OBSERvATORY MANAGEMENT OvERvlEW
Fundamenta||y, the E-E|T w||| be operated as an add|t|ona| te|esoope w|th|n the |a S|||a Parana| Obser-
vatory. Assum|ng that the ourrent ESO management struoture |s ma|nta|ned |n the |ong-term future, the
E-E|T w||| be operated by the |PO and Data Management and Operat|ons (DMO} D|v|s|ons w|th|n the
D|reotorate of Operat|ons.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 211
E-E|T operat|ons w||| be embedded w|th|n a genera| soheme enoompass|ng Parana| and Armazones.
Th|s app||es to on-s|te operat|ons, where most tasks w||| be performed by s|ng|e teams hav|ng respons|-
b|||t|es on a|| fao|||t|es; and a|so to the so|enoe operat|ons mode| where the E-E|T w||| use the same too|s
as the other fao|||t|es of the Observatory. ln part|ou|ar, the prooesses and too|s of programme prepara-
t|on, se|eot|on, exeout|on, and data management sha|| be oommon. Th|s w||| app|y both to the tasks oar-
r|ed out on-s|te (programme exeout|on and se|eot|on, |nstrument performanoe ma|ntenanoe} and off-s|te
(user and observatory support, programme preparat|on, data qua||ty assuranoe and prooess|ng, |ong-
term aroh|va|}.

The Observatory Organ|sat|ona| Ohart |n the E-E|T era |s foreseen to m|rror the ourrent organ|sat|on of
the Parana| Observatory, as g|ven |n F|gure 5.1. Operat|ons un|ts prov|d|ng off-s|te support and other
un|ts of the organ|sat|on w|th wh|oh the Observatory |nterfaoes are a|so |nd|oated |n the f|gure.


Figure 5.1. E-ELT operations organisation.

The off-s|te operat|ons segment |s hosted by the DMO D|v|s|on, where operat|ons are supported by the
ser Support, Data Produots, and Operat|ons Teohn|oa| Support Departments.

Genera| eng|neer|ng support and upgrades to the E-E|T fao|||ty, |ts |nstrumentat|on and subsystems w|||
be prov|ded by the Garoh|ng-based lnstruments, Teohno|ogy, Te|esoope and Software D|v|s|ons.

Forma| struotures extend|ng aoross a|| re|evant operat|ons departments w||| be estab||shed for eaoh
|nstrument at the E-E|T. Suoh struotures, oa||ed |nstrument operat|ons teams, w||| be ana|ogous to those
ex|st|ng for the v|T.

One member of the on-s|te so|enoe operat|ons staff w||| aot as |nstrument so|ent|st for eaoh E-E|T
|nstrument. The ro|e of the on-s|te |nstrument so|ent|st |s to ma|nta|n expert know|edge of the |nstrument
at the observatory, to ensure that the |nstrument |s a|ways |n nom|na| operat|ona| oond|t|ons, and to
ooord|nate the resouroes made ava||ab|e by the organ|sat|on for the ma|ntenanoe and upgrade of the
|nstrument. The |nstrument so|ent|st oha|rs the |nstrument operat|on team and |s ass|sted |n these tasks
by |t.
5.3.1 SYNERGlES WlTH PARANA|
The oonstruot|on of the E-E|T on Oerro Armazones as part of the Parana| Observatory w||| prov|de oper-
at|ona| and so|ent|f|o synergy w|th the v|T and other te|esoope fao|||t|es on Parana|. The |ntegrat|on of the
E-E|T |nto the Observatory removes the need for dup||oat|on of some support fao|||t|es on Armazones,
E-ELT Operations Organisations
(as related part of the today's LPO Management)
Upgrade Paths
Off-site development & support

Director
ESO Observatory

D|reotor 's Ofoe

On-S|te
So|enoe Operat|ons
|og|st|os

Eng|neer|ng
Software
Safety

Meohan|os
E|eotron|os
Astronomer
Ma|ntenanoe operat|ons

lnstrumentat|on D|v|s|on
TlO
Opt|os
Produot Assuranoe &
Oongurat|on Oontro|
Observatory overa||
sohedu|e
lnstrumentat|on
| t
DHA
lnformat|on Teohno|ogy
(lT}
Warehause
Meohan|oa|
Ma|ntenanoe
E|eotr|oa|
Ma|ntenanoe
P|ann|ng

Director of
Operations
Software Deve|opment
D|v|s|on
Teohno|ogy D|v|s|on
Data Management & Operat|ons
D|v|s|on
Te|esoope D|v|s|on
ESO general Support Services:

Host Country Relations
Logistics
Contract & Procurement
Finance
HR
Legal Advice
Outreach
Web

E|eotr|oa|
Off-S|te
So|enoe Operat|ons
ser support
Aroh|ve
Operat|ons Teohn|oa|
Support

Data Produots

ff S
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 211 16/12/2011 18:32
212 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
a|though those on Parana| may need upgrades to support the E-E|T. Fao|||t|es on Parana| prov|d|ng E-
E|T support are:

The oontro| room of the E-E|T, to be |ntegrated w|th|n the Parana| oontro| room (a reduoed oon-
tro| room w|th|n the E-E|T dome w||| be |n p|aoe for oomm|ss|on|ng and day-t|me operat|ons};
The ooat|ng |nfrastruoture (hand||ng too|s, |nfrastruoture, eto.};
Parana| Res|deno|a, or extens|on of the dorm|tor|es;
Workshops, |ntegrat|on ha||s, warehouses;
Power generat|on system; extended Parana| fao|||t|es and underground ||ne to Armazones;
Reoreat|ona| and sport fao|||t|es;
Medvao fao|||t|es;
Oanteen;
veh|o|e ma|ntenanoe fao|||t|es;
lT / network support;
Hand||ng fao|||t|es (fork||fts, mob||e oranes, transportat|on tra||ers, eto.}
||qu|d n|trogen produot|on p|ant;
Garbage d|sposa|;
Rad|o oommun|oat|ons;
Road ma|ntenanoe;
Petro| stat|on;
A|rstr|p.

On|y the personne| needed to assure the seour|ty of the s|te, the exeout|on of the prevent|ve and oorreo-
t|ve ma|ntenanoe, |no|ud|ng reooat|ng of the m|rrors and |ooa| |nfrastruoture ma|ntenanoe, and the orew to
oonf|gure the te|esoope and the |nstrument, w||| work on Armazones. A|| other staff w||| work at the fao|||-
t|es on Parana|.

lt |s not p|anned to have on-s|te staff (|no|ud|ng eng|neers, teohn|o|ans, astronomers, adm|n|strat|on and
|og|st|os personne|} exo|us|ve|y ded|oated to the support of the E-E|T. The |ntens|ve use of a|ready ex|st-
|ng on-s|te staff |n the support to E-E|T operat|ons makes exper|enoed personne| ava||ab|e from the be-
g|nn|ng and ensures the synerg|es w|th the support to other Parana| fao|||t|es, reduo|ng tra|n|ng needs. lt
a|so prov|des opportun|t|es for ex|st|ng staff to deve|op new sk|||s w|th the add|t|on of a outt|ng-edge
fao|||ty.

The ear|y suooess of the E-E|T or|t|oa||y depends on hav|ng |n p|aoe a sound soheme of operat|ons and
|n transferr|ng the exper|enoe aoqu|red w|th the operat|on of the v|T. Oonverse|y, the eff|o|ent s|mu|tane-
ous operat|on of the v|T and the E-E|T, onoe the |atter beoomes ava||ab|e, w||| depend on the ab|||ty of
ESO to ma|nta|n operat|ons at both observatory |ooat|ons a||gned and so to reuse deve|opment efforts at
both fao|||t|es. By defau|t, un|ess h|gh|y speo|f|o to the operat|on of the E-E|T, eaoh ohange |n the so|enoe
operat|ons p|an made for the E-E|T w||| be oons|dered for |mp|ementat|on at the v|T as we||. Th|s same
pr|no|p|e w||| a|so app|y to the des|gn and requ|rement of the too|s to be used |n eng|neer|ng, ma|nte-
nanoe or so|enoe operat|ons, or by the users when aooess|ng the E-E|T. App||oab|||ty to the v|T and |ts
|nstruments w||| be a part of the requ|rements un|ess the too|s under d|souss|on are speo|f|oa||y re|ated to
the E-E|T or un|ess the ma|ntenanoe of separate too|s for the v|T and the E-E|T |s proven to be both
susta|nab|e and more oost-effeot|ve than un|f|oat|on.

To avo|d |nterferenoe between the two s|tes by the use of the |asers for the |aser gu|de stars, there w||| be
a software too| based on the short-term sohedu|e at eaoh te|esoope on Parana| and Armazones that w|||
pr|or|t|se |aser-ass|sted observat|ons and prevent d|srupt|ons and |nterferenoes among the d|fferent te|e-
soopes that, be|ng aware of the short-term sohedu|e of the two s|tes, w||| ooord|nate the operat|ons
avo|d|ng as muoh as poss|b|e |nterrupt|on of observat|ons from e|ther s|te.
Operat|ons aot|v|t|es and fao|||t|es w||| be d|str|buted to the fo||ow|ng |ooat|ons:

E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 212 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 213
Parana|

Management of the observatory;
So|enoe operat|ons support;
Oontro| room;
Ma|n overhead e|eotr|oa| power: arr|va| from the gr|d (under eva|uat|on a|so a|ternat|ve opt|ons},
and f|rst d|str|but|on;
Baok-up power generat|on and d|str|but|on to both s|tes;
lnstrument ma|ntenanoe;
Workshops;
Assemb|y ha||;
Storage ha||;
Res|deno|a and oanteen;
Off|oes;
veh|o|e ma|ntenanoe;
Proourement support;
lT support;
F|re f|ght|ng (TBO depend|ng on the f|na| t|me to reaoh Armazones};
F|rst a|d (TBO depend|ng on the f|na| t|me to reaoh Armazones};
Management, adm|n|strat|on, |og|st|os;
||brary.
Remark: Dur|ng the Alv phase, |n|t|a| storage and assemb|y of the m|rror segments oou|d part|y
be on Parana|.

Armazones

Te|esoope;
Ooat|ng fao|||t|es;
Emergenoy dome baok-up power generator;
Oontro| room for oomm|ss|on|ng and ma|ntenanoe;
|ooa| |nfrastruotures (oh|||ers, ||qu|d n|trogen generator, oompressed a|r, f|re f|ght|ng};
Sma|| dorm|tory and oanteen;
S|te seour|ty.

Garoh|ng

Off-s|te so|enoe operat|ons;
Off-s|te ma|ntenanoe and deve|opment;
Adm|n|strat|ve support (genera| ESO overhead}.

v|taoura (genera| ESO overhead}

Adm|n|strat|ve support;
Astronomer so|enoe fao|||t|es.

Armazones w||| be oonneoted v|a a road to the B710 road o|ose to the entranoe to Oerro Parana| for
transportat|on of staff, dev|oes and |nstruments.

An opt|oa| f|bre ||nk w||| prov|de h|gh performanoe network oonneot|on between Armazones and Parana|.

E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 213 16/12/2011 18:32
214 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
5.4 OPERATlONS AOTlvlTlES
The work breakdown struoture for operat|ons aot|v|t|es |s g|ven |n F|gure 5.2.


Figure 5.2. E-ELT operations work breakdown structure.
5.4.1 OBSERvATORY MANAGEMENT
The Observatory management, |n add|t|on to def|n|ng the strategy and the management p|an of the
observatory, |no|udes:

Safety and r|sk management, |no|ud|ng the ma|ntenanoe of a r|sk reg|ster and the |dent|f|oat|on of m|t|ga-
t|on strateg|es. The Observatory safety off|oer reports d|reot|y to the Observatory d|reotor.

Produot assuranoe / oonf|gurat|on oontro|. A oonf|gurat|on manager w||| mon|tor the overa|| |mp|ementa-
t|on of prooesses and aot|v|t|es undertaken at the observatory as we|| as produots de||vered to and by
the Observatory. Oonf|gurat|on oontro| of the fao|||ty w||| |nher|t from the oonstruot|on phase the as-bu||t
de||verab|es. The prooedures a|ready |n p|aoe for approva| and |mp|ementat|on of ohanges to the or|g|na|
oonf|gurat|on w||| be updated to oover the part|ou|ar|t|es of the E-E|T.

Def|n|t|on of the Observatory sohedu|e, wh|oh |no|udes the overa|| so|enoe operat|ons sohedu|e, the major
teohn|oa| |ntervent|ons (both that affeot and do not affeot so|enoe operat|ons}, the major reooat|ng aot|v|-
t|es (that affeot n|ght-t|me observat|on}, |nsta||at|on/oomm|ss|on|ng of new |nstruments, eto.

E-ELT Operations Work Breakdown Structure
E-E|T
Operat|ons
D|reotor 's Ofoe So|enoe Operat|ons |og|st|os Teohn|oa| operat|ons
M|rrors ooat|ng
Safety and R|sk
management
System eng|neer|ng
and Performanoes
fo||ow up
Troub|e shoot|ng
(Oorreot|ve
Ma|ntenanoe}
Software
On-s|te So|enoe Operat|ons
& support
Ma|ntenanoe operat|ons
Genera| Warehouse
ser and Observatory
ser Support
Systems Oa||brat|on
Operat|ons Teohn|oa|
Support
So|enoe aroh|ve
Off-s|te deve|opment and
support
pgrade paths
Produot Assuranoe &
Oongurat|on Oontro|
Observatory overa||
sohedu|e
Den|t|on of strategy and
management p|an
New |nstrument
arr|va| and
oomm|ss|on|ng
suppport
Ma|ntenanoe
Management &Prob|em
Report|ng
Hardware prevent|ve
ma|ntenanoe
Hardware pred|ot|ve
ma|ntenanoe
Hardware oorreot|ve
ma|ntenanoe
SW Ma|ntenanoe
Data ow systems
ma|ntenanoe
Teohn|oa| Warehouse
Oommut|ng/Trave|
On-s|te proourement
Sh|pp|ng &
oustom o|earanoe
Board and |odg|ng
SW upgrade and
support
Eng|neer|ng
support
Data ow systems
deve|opment and
support
Data ow systems
Other un|ts to be
deo|ded
lnstruments
Data Produots/qua||ty
oontro|
lnformat|on Teohno|ogy
(lT}
ESO general Support Services:
Host Country Relations
Logistics
Contract & Procurement
Finance
HR
Legal Advice
Outreach
Web
Off-s|te So|enoe Operat|ons
& support
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 214 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 215
Genera| lT, |no|ud|ng the fo||ow|ng serv|oes:

Aooounts: ser aooounts on a|| type of p|atforms;
E-ma||: Aooess to the e|eotron|o ma|| system;
FTP: lnterfaoe to transfer f||es us|ng the F||e Transfer Protooo|;
Pr|nters: Oore pr|nters and pr|nt serv|oes;
Storage/d|so spaoe: Oentra|, |ooa|, soratoh d|so areas;
Med|a servers: Read/wr|te from/to d|fferent type of med|a (DAT, OD};
Remote aooess to ESO;
v|deooonferenoe fao|||t|es;
Safety prooedures for ESO lT sers and Equ|pment;
Seour|ty;
Te|ephone serv|oes and hardware;
Ma|ntenanoe of the network |nfrastruoture.

As a matter of po||oy, the management fosters oommun|oat|ons between a|| part|es |nvo|ved |n the oper-
at|on and supp|y of the observatory. The management of the Observatory |no|udes the prooesses assur-
|ng proper oommun|oat|on between the var|ous teams, departments and orews |nvo|ved |n operat|on and
serv|o|ng of the fao|||ty.
5.4.2 ON-SlTE SOlENOE OPERATlONS
5.4.2.1 lNSTRMENT-RE|ATED AOTlvlTlES
lnstruments and the|r modes w||| be oharaoter|sed dur|ng the|r oomm|ss|on|ng. Further part|a| oharaoter|-
sat|ons w||| be oarr|ed out as needed whenever e|ements or modes of the |nstrument are added,
upgraded, or rep|aoed. An |mportant fraot|on of the t|me of on-s|te astronomers |s expeoted to be
devoted to the var|ous support aot|v|t|es requ|red to ma|nta|n the |nstruments |n opt|ma| operat|ons
oond|t|ons, we|| oharaoter|sed and w|th oomp|ete and updated dooumentat|on. The Data lnterfaoe Oon-
tro| Board, oha|red by a data |nterfaoe oontro| so|ent|st based |n Garoh|ng, w||| be respons|b|e for the
oomp||anoe of the data and metadata produoed by the E-E|T w|th the estab||shed standards.

Dur|ng rout|ne n|ght-t|me observat|ons, the te|esoope and |nstruments w||| be operated, |n oo||aborat|on
w|th a n|ght-t|me support astronomer, by speo|f|oa||y tra|ned te|esoope and |nstrument operators, who
w||| be know|edgeab|e about a|| the subsystems w|th wh|oh they need to |nteraot under norma| oond|-
t|ons. They w||| a|so be ab|e to d|agnose oommon prob|ems and to |mp|ement appropr|ate so|ut|ons.
lnstrument operators w||| speo|a||se |n one or more |nstruments, and are ab|e to operate the others dur|ng
rout|ne n|ght-t|me observat|ons. The |nstrument operator, |n ooord|nat|on w|th the te|esoope operator, w|||
be |n oharge of the exeout|on of observat|ons under the d|reot|on of the n|ght-t|me astronomer.

Oua||ty oontro| reports w||| be regu|ar|y produoed off-||ne on a da||y bas|s and made ava||ab|e to the on-
s|te so|enoe operat|ons astronomers. The reports w||| mon|tor |nstrument performanoe and |nd|oate pos-
s|b|e needs for oorreot|ve aot|ons.

On a da||y bas|s, the on-s|te so|enoe operat|ons team w||| ensure that the |nstrument oonf|gurat|on
matohes the v|s|tor requests and the foreseeab|e requ|rements of exeoutab|e observat|ons |n the serv|oe
mode queues. Ohanges of |nstrument oonf|gurat|on w||| be |dent|f|ed and oommun|oated to the eng|-
neer|ng teams for |mp|ementat|on.

The n|ght-t|me astronomer, w|th the he|p of su|tab|e too|s, w||| ensure the exeout|on of the oa||brat|on p|an
for eaoh |nstrument used on a g|ven n|ght. Oa||brat|on p|ans are de||vered for eaoh |nstrument at the t|me
of oomm|ss|on|ng.

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216 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The exeout|on of the dayt|me oa||brat|on p|an w||| be performed aooord|ng to prev|ous n|ghts observat|on
and the genera| |nstrument oa||brat|on p|an. Whenever poss|b|e, on-sky oa||brat|ons w||| be exeouted at
tw|||ght.
5.4.2.2 SOHED|lNG AND EEOTlNG OBSERvATlONS
The Armazones peak w||| be equ|pped w|th fao|||t|es to measure and prooess the atmospher|o prof||e and
transparenoy over the observatory and |ts surround|ngs on a near-rea|-t|me bas|s. Bes|des prov|d|ng
robust stat|st|os for s|te oharaoter|sat|on dur|ng the ||fet|me of the observatory, atmospher|o mon|tor|ng
w||| a||ow the n|ght astronomers to deo|de on the su|tab|||ty of the preva|||ng oond|t|ons for the exeout|on
of observat|ons |n the observ|ng queues. The atmosphere oharaoter|sat|on too|s w||| a|so |no|ude fore-
oast|ng serv|oes pred|ot|ng the evo|ut|on of the oond|t|ons on t|mesoa|es of severa| hours.

From F|gure 5.3 |t |s o|ear that the E-E|T w||| be ab|e to operate and to oorreot for ground |ayer turbu-
|enoe under essent|a||y a|| atmospher|o oond|t|ons. S|ng|e oonjugate adapt|ve opt|os observat|ons w||| be
feas|b|e |n the f|rst three quart||es of the see|ng d|str|but|on, wh||e extreme adapt|ve opt|os observat|ons
w||| be ||m|ted to the f|rst two quart||es.


Figure 5.3. Seeing (top axis: Fried parameter) distribution for the atmosphere above Armazones (20042011). The
25, 50 and 75 percentiles of the distribution are indicated. The operability range for ground-layer adaptive optics
,single conjugated adaptive optics and extreme adaptive optics is over-plotted.

ln the base||ne serv|oe observ|ng mode, the n|ght-t|me astronomer w||| se|eot the observat|ons to be exe-
outed from a genera| queue. The observat|on queue w||| oonta|n observat|on b|ooks subm|tted |n
advanoe by the users, |no|ud|ng suff|o|ent |nformat|on to judge the|r exeoutab|||ty at a g|ven t|me. The
management of the observ|ng queue |s a respons|b|||ty shared between on-s|te operat|ons (for deo|s|ons
on the short-term sohedu||ng of observat|ons} and off-s|te operat|ons (for the va||dat|on of observat|ons
|no|uded |n the observ|ng queue and the preparat|on of the observat|on queue |tse|f}.

ln the task of se|eot|ng observat|ons for exeout|on, the astronomer w||| be ass|sted by too|s that emp|oy
deo|s|on a|gor|thms based on so|ent|f|o pr|or|t|es and e|ements of observ|ng strategy def|ned by the users.
The observat|on se|eot|on a|ds w||| a|so take |nto aooount the atmospher|o oond|t|ons and the|r foreoast.
ln the other modes, where rea|-t|me |nteraot|on of the user w|th the fao|||ty |s requ|red, the sequenoe of
exeout|on of the observat|ons w||| be deo|ded by the users themse|ves.

pon oomp|et|on, the n|ght-t|me astronomer w||| use the user-speo|f|ed oonstra|nts and the qu|ok-|ook
resu|ts prov|ded by the |nstrument p|pe||nes to deo|de whether or not the observat|on needs to be
repeated. F|na| aooeptanoe of observat|ons as oomp||ant w|th the users requ|rement |s granted on|y
afterwards and onoe fu|| qua||ty oontro| has been performed.

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 217
N|ght-t|me astronomers, w|th the ass|stanoe of the te|esoope and |nstrument operators, are |n oharge of
|ntroduo|ng any pert|nent |nformat|on |n the n|ght |og.

ln add|t|on to the|r ro|e |n the exeout|on of the observat|ons and the management of the serv|oe mode
observ|ng queues, on-s|te astronomers w||| be |n oharge of support|ng remote mode users and v|s|t|ng
astronomers dur|ng the exeout|on of the|r observat|ons and the preparat|ons |mmed|ate|y preoed|ng
them.

The E-E|T w||| be ab|e to oarry out Target of Opportun|ty (ToO} observat|ons. sers hav|ng approved
ToO programmes w||| be prov|ded w|th the means to not|fy the observatory at short not|oe of the need to
exeoute them. The not|f|oat|ons w||| be |mmed|ate|y ava||ab|e to the staff |n oharge of p|ann|ng the short-
term sohedu|e. The exeout|on of Target of Opportun|ty observat|ons w||| be deo|ded upon by the n|ght-
t|me astronomer on the bas|s of the externa| oond|t|ons, the urgenoy of the observat|ons, and the pr|or|ty
of other sohedu|ed regu|ar programmes.

So|enoe observat|ons obta|ned |n any mode w||| be transferred to the ESO So|enoe Aroh|ve |n near-rea|
t|me. An on-s|te data hand||ng adm|n|strator w||| mon|tor the |ntegr|ty of the so|enoe data stream. Data
hand||ng adm|n|strators w||| a|so ma|nta|n the on-s|te databases.
5.4.3 OFF-SlTE SOlENOE OPERATlONS
5.4.3.1 |ONG-TERM SOHED|lNG
The te|esoope |ong-term sohedu||ng prooess oo||eots the so|ent|f|o rat|ng of proposa|s obta|ned through
peer rev|ew and supports the D|reotor Genera| by prov|d|ng sohedu|es that take |nto aooount the teoh-
n|oa| feas|b|||ty and the expeoted ava||ab|||ty of su|tab|e oond|t|ons. The u|t|mate author|ty for the approva|
of programmes for exeout|on w||| rest w|th the ESO D|reotor Genera|. The frequenoy of oa||s for proposa|s
and the po||o|es for a||ooat|on of t|me are def|ned |n a so|enoe po||oy dooument.

|ong-term sohedu||ng of the E-E|T w||| be supported by oomprehens|ve sohedu||ng too|s tak|ng |nto
aooount faotors suoh as so|ent|f|o pr|or|ty, ohosen mode of exeout|on, stat|st|os of oond|t|ons expeoted at
the s|te, user-speo|f|ed oonstra|nts, t|me-or|t|oa| observat|ons, or reserved t|me for oa||brat|ons.
5.4.3.2 OBSERvATORY AND SER SPPORT
Off-s|te support to the observatory |s prov|ded ma|n|y by the ser and Observatory Support Department,
wh|oh aots as the po|nt of oontaot between the observatory and other operat|ons groups or the user
oommun|ty. lt ma|nta|ns the observ|ng queues, d|str|butes observat|on preparat|on too|s and dooumen-
tat|on, ensures the qua||ty of the predef|ned observat|ons for exeout|on |n serv|oe or remote modes,
so|ves exeout|on prob|ems, and part|o|pates |n the |nstrument operat|ons teams.

The data f|ow system a||ows a fu|| def|n|t|on of a|| observat|ons, |no|ud|ng those to be exeouted |n v|s|tor
and remote mode, we|| |n advanoe of the|r exeout|on. Th|s |s a key e|ement |n guarantee|ng the robust-
ness of operat|ons and ma|nta|n|ng the so|ent|f|o eff|o|enoy of the fao|||ty, as |t enab|es ESO to rev|ew the
teohn|oa| oorreotness of the observat|ons and opt|m|se programme exeout|on strateg|es jo|nt|y w|th the
users. Support needed for rea|-t|me ohanges of observat|on b|ooks to be exeouted |n remote and v|s|tor
modes |s prov|ded by astronomers on-s|te.

Due to the h|gh oost of E-E|T observ|ng t|me, norma||y no attempts w||| be made |n serv|oe mode at
oorreot|ng prob|ems w|th the def|n|t|on of observat|ons at the t|me of them be|ng deteoted, un|ess obser-
vat|ons happen to be t|me-or|t|oa|. lnstead, runt|me exeout|on prob|ems w||| be reported to the ser and
Operat|ons Support Department, wh|oh w||| fo||ow up the prob|em and work together w|th the users |f
needed unt|| the observat|on b|ooks are deemed to be exeoutab|e.

The ser and Observatory Operat|ons Support Department uses too|s to mon|tor the progress |n the
rea||sat|on of the |ong-term sohedu|e and to foreoast s|gn|f|oant dev|at|ons that requ|re prevent|ve aot|ons
to avo|d sohedu|e o|ashes or undersubsor|pt|ons.
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218 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
5.4.3.3 OA|lTY OONTRO| AND PERFORMANOE TRENDlNG
Most so|enoe observat|ons and oa||brat|ons obta|ned at the observatory w||| be prooessed by |nstrument
p|pe||nes and subjeoted to qua||ty oontro|. Performanoe mon|tor|ng w||| take p|aoe oont|nuous|y and
automat|oa||y aooord|ng to qua||ty oontro| prooedures speo|f|o to eaoh |nstrument and estab||shed by the
|nstrument so|ent|st |n oo||aborat|on w|th the |nstrument operat|ons team. Oua||ty oontro| reports w||| be
made ava||ab|e as soon as they are produoed.

|ong-term mon|tor|ng of the performanoe of the |nstruments w||| be the task of the Data Prooess|ng and
Oua||ty Oontro| group. The qua||ty oontro| parameters extraoted by the data prooess|ng p|pe||nes w||| be
used to mon|tor the performanoe and d|agnose any deter|orat|on that may requ|re prevent|ve ma|nte-
nanoe before the performanoe goes outs|de |ts nom|na| ||m|ts. They w||| be a|so used to |mmed|ate|y
quant|fy the effeots of |nstrument |ntervent|ons.
5.4.3.4 OPERATlON-ORlTlOA| lT SPPORT
Most m|ss|on-or|t|oa| operat|ons serv|oes w||| res|de |n hardware |ooated |n Garoh|ng |n a ded|oated env|-
ronment, ensur|ng h|gh ava||ab|||ty and fast oorreot|ve aot|on when needed as we|| as phys|oa| prox|m|ty
to software deve|opers. The management of the hardware, and the |nsta||at|on and mon|tor|ng of the
software |nsta||ed on |t, w||| be under the respons|b|||ty of the Operat|ons Teohn|oa| Support department.

Th|s department w||| work |n o|ose oo||aborat|on w|th the ESO genera| lT serv|oes |n Garoh|ng to ensure
the requ|red |eve| of ava||ab|||ty of the oommun|oat|ons |nfrastruoture w|th Oh||e, w|th the appropr|ate un|ts
of the So|enoe Operat|ons Department at the observatory, and w|th the Data F|ow lnfrastruoture and
Software Eng|neer|ng Departments |n Garoh|ng to ensure the proper |nsta||at|on and performanoe of the
operat|ons-or|t|oa| software. Operat|ons-or|t|oa| |nformat|on w||| be oo||eoted |n databases and |mmed|-
ate|y rep||oated to the Observatory. On-s|te observatory operat|ons are des|gned so as to a||ow fu||y
autonomous operat|ons for an extended per|od (up to about one week} w|th m|n|ma| deorease of eff|-
o|enoy |n the event of a pro|onged oommun|oat|ons d|srupt|on between Oh||e and Europe.

The ma|ntenanoe of operat|ona| databases |s managed |n an ESO-w|de manner. Rea|-t|me database
aooess |n Garoh|ng and Parana| w||| be or|t|oa| for the operat|on of the v|T and E-E|T, and aot|ve mon|-
tor|ng of the synohron|sat|on between the operat|ona| databases |n Garoh|ng and the mounta|n w||| take
p|aoe from both s|des.
5.4.3.5 DATA HO|DlNGS AND AOOESS
ESO |s oomm|tted to the |ong-term preservat|on and aooess|b|||ty of a|| the so|ent|f|o data obta|ned w|th
the E-E|T, the|r assoo|ated oa||brat|ons and ano|||ary |nformat|on, as we|| as prooessed data produots
desor|bed be|ow. Data obta|ned w|th the E-E|T w||| be stored |n the ESO So|enoe Aroh|ve Fao|||ty and w|||
be made ava||ab|e to the wor|dw|de oommun|ty at the end of a propr|etary per|od to be def|ned by the
so|enoe po||oy dooument.

The So|enoe Aroh|ve Fao|||ty w||| a|so store p|pe||ne-prooessed data produots and h|gher |eve|, so|enoe-
ready data produots. These |no|ude oa||brated |mages, speotra, and oata|ogues. So|enoe-ready data
produots w||| oonta|n metadata oomp||ant w|th v|rtua| Observatory standards and are made ava||ab|e to
v|rtua| Observatory too|s through pub||oat|on |n the appropr|ate reg|str|es.
5.4.3.6 DATA F|OW SYSTEM MAlNTENANOE
The data f|ow system and |ts assoo|ated too|s w||| be deve|oped and ma|nta|ned at the ESO Headquar-
ters, w|th requ|rements prov|ded by the D|reotorate of Operat|ons. On-s|te software ma|ntenanoe staff w|||
be prov|ded w|th tra|n|ng or |nstruot|ons for |nsta||at|on of oomponents and m|nor troub|eshoot|ng.
5.4.4 TEOHNlOA| OPERATlONS
Teohn|oa| operat|ons at the s|te are env|saged to take p|aoe |n a oontext s|m||ar to that emp|oyed at the
v|T today. The fo||ow|ng aot|v|t|es are oons|dered w|th the soope of teohn|oa| operat|ons at the s|te.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 219
5.4.4.1 SYSTEMS ENGlNEERlNG AND PERFORMANOE ANA|YSlS
Eaoh subsystem of the E-E|T prov|des rea|-t|me metro|ogy that mon|tors performanoe and status dur|ng
operat|ons. The subsystem mon|tor|ng forms an |ntegra| part of operat|ons. Every observat|on |s a|so an
eng|neer|ng test of the system.

Apart from the subsystem-|eve| mon|tor|ng (as requested at} and ||ke at the v|T, the n|ght|y |ogg|ng aot|v-
|t|es generate usefu| d|agnost|os for the performanoe of the g|oba| system.

The mon|tor|ng of the overa|| metr|os from the te|esoope forms a key task of the operat|ons team.
5.4.4.2 TROB|ESHOOTlNG (OORREOTlvE MAlNTENANOE}
ln sp|te of the efforts to prov|de a fu||y funot|on|ng and re||ab|e maoh|ne, we expeot the oont|nuous need
for |ntervent|on, |n part|ou|ar dur|ng the f|rst years of operat|on. Tra|ned and exper|enoed eng|neers w|||
keep the dome, te|esoope and |ts |nstruments funot|ona|. We a|so oons|der |t neoessary that an under-
stand|ng of the root oauses of fa||ures |s estab||shed. Th|s w||| requ|re the presenoe of h|gh|y sk|||ed
meohan|oa|, e|eotron|o and opt|oa| eng|neers w|th a deep knowhow and understand|ng of the systems.
5.4.4.3 OOATlNGS
To keep the te|esoope at |ts requested performanoe, the Observatory w||| prov|de a ma|ntenanoe p|an for
the opt|os. The ref|eot|ve and m|oro-roughness propert|es of the m|rrors as requ|red to sat|sfy the top-
|eve| requ|rements are mon|tored and the short-term re-ooat|ng p|an |s estab||shed aooord|ng|y.

lt |s est|mated that, to keep the pr|mary m|rror at the requ|red performanoe, at |east two M1 segments
w||| be reooated per day.

The m|rror ooat|ng ma|ntenanoe p|an (wash|ng and ooat|ng} sha|| requ|re |ess than ten n|ghts per year:
M1 sha|| use on average one n|ght per year for operat|ons ar|s|ng from the ma|ntenanoe of the
segments; th|s |s oons|dered to be most|y phas|ng operat|ons that may not be exeouted |n
tw|||ght;
M2 sha|| be reooated onoe every three years and the operat|on sha|| be oomp|eted |n |ess than
f|ve days;
M3 sha|| be washed or ooated every two years w|th the ma|ntenanoe requ|r|ng |ess than two
days;
M4 sha|| need |ess than two n|ghts every year (or s|x n|ghts/3 years};
M5 sha|| need |ess than three n|ghts every year th|s prooedure w||| be ooord|nated w|th M3
operat|ons as the |atter needs to be removed from the te|esoope pr|or to an operat|on on M5;
M6 ooat|ngs w||| p|aoe restr|ot|ons on the foo| used but w||| not requ|re sohedu|ed teohn|oa| t|me.
5.4.4.4 lNSTRMENT HAND|lNG AND TEOHNlOA| SPPORT
The E-E|T |nstruments w||| be assemb|ed, |ntegrated and ver|f|ed before sh|pment to the s|te. The pro-
oess of preparat|on of an |nstrument for E-E|T on s|te w||| be oomposed of re-|ntegrat|on; (re-}test|ng at
the observatory fao|||t|es; |ntegrat|on on the te|esoope foo|; on-s|te oomm|ss|on|ng; and aooeptanoe.

The hand||ng and transportat|on of an |nstrument from the |ntegrat|on ha|| to |ts foo| sha|| ooour w|th the
m|n|mum number of ||ft|ng (up|oad|ng/down|oad|ng} prooesses to m|n|m|se r|sks.

W|th the exoept|on of those to be p|aoed at the ooude foous, |nstruments w||| be assemb|ed |n the |nte-
grat|on |aborator|es, reduo|ng the t|me neoessary at the fooa| stat|ons thus ||m|t|ng the |nterferenoe w|th
other te|esoope aot|v|t|es.

Onoe an |nstrument has been aooepted by the Observatory |t sha|| be under str|ot oonf|gurat|on oontro|
(hardware, software and dooumentat|on, manua|s, draw|ngs, eto.}. The |nstrument so|ent|st w||| be
respons|b|e for |ts performanoe, ma|ntenanoe and oonf|gurat|on oontro|.

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220 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
A speo|a||sed orew of eng|neers w||| ma|nta|n the |nstruments (prevent|ve and pred|ot|ve ma|ntenanoe,
pump|ng oryostats, eto.} and w||| support the |nsta||at|on of new |nstruments. These eng|neers w||| be part
of the |a S|||a Parana| |nstrumentat|on support group.
5.4.4.5 TE|ESOOPE AND DOME SBSYSTEMS PREvENTlvE MAlNTENANOE
Exo|ud|ng the te|esoope and dome as systems on the|r own, the subsystem ma|ntenanoe tasks |no|ude:

Pre-fooa| stat|on meohan|sms and opt|os;
|asers, remote oheok of status, shutter and other e|eotro-meohan|oa| funot|ons, servo |oops,
d|ode ourrents, ooo||ng basep|ate temperatures, orysta| temperature, opt|oa| powers, eto.;
Oa||brat|on of re|at|ve power meter, wavemeter, serv|oe too|s, eto.;
|aser |aunoh te|esoopes through in situ |nspeot|on, f|ne-tun|ng of servo |oops, ex|t opt|os o|ean-
|ng (|f not sea|ed}, prevent|ve rep|aoement of parts (d|odes, eto.} based on |ogged performanoe,
data rep|aoement, safety system oheok;
Ouaternary and M5 oa||brat|ons and ma|ntenanoe;
Seoondary and tert|ary m|rror aotuator |nspeot|on and regu|at|on;
S|te mon|tor|ng fao|||t|es;
Genera| oontro| system.

The aot|v|t|es |no|ude serv|o|ng and reoa||brat|ng the servo |oops and |nteraot|on matr|oes for the deform-
ab|e m|rror and t|p-t||t system, updat|ng the |ook-up tab|es for the pr|mary m|rror, |mprov|ng (updat|ng}
the po|nt|ng mode| based on observat|ona| data and genera| optomeohan|oa| support of the subsystems.
5.4.4.6 OOMMlSSlONlNG AND DE|lvERY OF NEW SYSTEMS
The |a S|||a Parana| Observatory prooedure that |dent|f|es the steps for the handover of systems w||| be
augmented, |f neoessary, to oover speo|a| needs for the E-E|T. Th|s |no|udes a prooedure of how oom-
m|ss|on|ng teams hand over systems and how the Observatory aooepts the system.

Any new system that |s de||vered to the Observatory w||| |no|ude:

Operat|on and ma|ntenanoe manua|s;
System transfer dooument (|no|ud|ng the oomm|ss|on|ng report that w||| rema|n the referenoe
dooument for the system performanoe ma|ntenanoe of the Observatory};
The fu|| as-bu||t dooumentat|on, |no|ud|ng opt|oa|, meohan|oa| and e|eotr|oa| draw|ngs;
A prooedure to ver|fy the operat|ona| system performanoe on s|te;
A prooedure to ver|fy the operat|ona| system oonf|gurat|on.
5.4.4.7 POST-EARTHOAKE lNSPEOTlONS
The Observatory ma|nta|ns a se|smometr|o stat|on to reg|ster and o|ass|fy the strength of earthquakes.
Depend|ng on the measured strength (|.e., peak ground aooe|erat|ons} post-earthquake |nspeot|ons of
the |nsta||at|ons and the systems are oarr|ed out to |dent|fy poss|b|e degradat|ons or damage and to |n|t|-
ate oorreot|ve measures.
5.4.5 MAlNTENANOE OPERATlONS
5.4.5.1 PRlMARY MlRROR SEGMENT EOHANGE
Th|s operat|on |s oarr|ed out by a ded|oated orew tw|oe dur|ng the day. The orew fo||ows the segments
baok to the storage fao|||ty |n the dome and |s respons|b|e for the|r storage and refurb|shment (ooat|ng,
oa||brat|on eto. of the segment}.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 221
5.4.5.2 TE|ESOOPE MONT lNSPEOTlON, MAlNTENANOE AND REG|ATlON
The fo||ow|ng operat|ons w||| ooour aooord|ng to a oond|t|on-based ma|ntenanoe sohedu|e:

Enooder o|ean|ng and oa||brat|on;
Hydrostat|o pad |nspeot|on and regu|at|on;
Reo|rou|at|on pumps and ooo||ng o|rou|t |nspeot|on;
M1 subassemb|y, edge sensors, aotuators;
M1 segment oranes;
Other m|rror pos|t|on aotuat|on systems;
E|eotr|oa| and oompressed a|r system ma|ntenanoe.
5.4.5.3 DOME lNSPEOTlON, MAlNTENANOE AND REG|ATlON
The meohan|sms of the dome sha|| be |nspeoted and regu|ated regu|ar|y. The fo||ow|ng aot|v|t|es are
foreseen:

Observ|ng-door |nspeot|ons and adjustments;
vent||at|on system (|ouvers eto.} |nspeot|on and adjustment;
A|r-oond|t|on|ng p|ant regu|at|on and |nspeot|on;
Dome rotat|on system ma|ntenanoe;
Dome orane and ||ft|ng p|atform ma|ntenanoe;
Other e|evator and orane ma|ntenanoe;
Maoh|nes and equ|pment;
|ubr|oant and wear part|o|e ana|ys|s;
v|brat|on mon|tor|ng;
lnfrared thermography.
5.4.5.4 lNFRASTROTRE SPPORT
The observatory |nfrastruoture ma|ntenanoe (oh|||ers, power generat|on and d|str|but|on, eto.} w||| be oon-
traoted out. The sk||| sets requ|red are not observatory-speo|f|o and therefore are oheaper and more
effeot|ve|y prooured on the open market.
5.4.5.5 GENERA| MAlNTENANOE
Genera| ma|ntenanoe w||| |no|ude ref||||ng of oryostats, oheok|ng vaouum systems and rep|ao|ng ||ne
rep|aoeab|e un|ts. The use of |Rs reduoes in situ repa|r and a||ows for a o|ear stook of parts w|th
def|ned and testab|e |nterfaoes.

Exper|enoe at Parana| has shown that |f the dev|oe |s oustom-bu||t, the expert|se |n ma|nta|n|ng and oa||-
brat|ng |s qu|ok|y |ost at the supp||er. We therefore a|so foresee the need to repa|r on s|te some of the
|Rs.
5.4.5.6 HARDWARE OORREOTlvE MAlNTENANOE
The ROM (Re||ab|||ty Oentred Ma|ntenanoe} d|so|p||ne w||| be |mp|emented to estab||sh the m|n|mum oor-
reot|ve effort requ|red to |norease |n oost-effeot|veness, te|esoope upt|me, and a better understand|ng of
the |eve| of r|sk. The resu|t |s a ma|ntenanoe programme that foouses resouroes on those |tems that
oause the most d|srupt|on when they fa||.

ROM emphas|ses the use of predictive maintenance teohn|ques |n add|t|on to trad|t|ona| prevent|ve
measures. Th|s approaoh, a|ready the base||ne of operat|ons at Parana|, |eads to the m|n|mum reaot|ve
ma|ntenanoe needs.
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222 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
5.4.5.7 THE PROB|EM REPORTlNG SYSTEM AND OOMPTERlSED MAlNTENANOE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The operat|ons-w|de Prob|em Report|ng System (PRS} ourrent|y |n use at Parana| a||ows the exohange of
|nformat|on among a|| operat|ons groups, regard|ess of the|r |ooat|on. lt |s ||ke|y that th|s too| w||| be
obso|ete by the t|me E-E|T oomes on-||ne. lrrespeot|ve of |mp|ementat|on, the PRS a||ows prob|ems to
be oommun|oated and doouments any matters requ|r|ng oorreot|ve aot|on, |n wh|oh a generator and an
addressee oan be |dent|f|ed (be|ng e|ther a group or an |nd|v|dua|} and where a reso|ut|on |s needed.

The PRS generates t|okets, ass|gns them to one or more group heads, |dent|fy|ng the area of operat|ons
to wh|oh the |tem be|ongs, and keeps traok|ng of aot|ons unt|| the |tem |s reso|ved. Eaoh t|oket |s |ogged
|n a searohab|e database.

Th|s too| oou|d poss|b|y be |ntegrated |nto the Oomputer|sed Ma|ntenanoe Management System (OMMS}
so that the PRS and the OMMS oommun|oate w|th eaoh other, thereby prov|d|ng a s|ng|e entry |nto the
system whereby the oreat|on of a prob|em w||| a|so generate the work order, w|th the |nventory oontro|,
property oontro| and traok|ng of a|| E-E|T equ|pment. The oreat|on of a prob|em report by any of the
operat|on groups sha|| f|na||y |no|ude everyth|ng ||nked to |t, |no|ud|ng the doouments, the prooedures, the
order of the spare parts needed to f|x |t, and the t|me requ|red to so|ve the prob|em.

E-ma|| and PRS/OMMS-based prooedures sha|| ensure that a|| matters oonoern|ng on-s|te operat|ons are
seam|ess|y transm|tted amongst sh|fts on the mounta|n and rema|n ava||ab|e for future referenoe. The
OMMS too|k|t ourrent|y used by Parana| w||| a|so be used for |nventory oontro|, property oontro|, oorreo-
t|ve, pred|ot|ve and prevent|ve ma|ntenanoe oontro| and traok|ng of a|| E-E|T equ|pment.

Th|s too| w||| not manage dooumentat|on, but w||| be oonneoted and ||nked to the dooument manage-
ment database. Dooumentat|on and produot data w||| be managed by a PDM (Produot Data Manage-
ment} system, made ava||ab|e by ESO Headquarters.

lnventory oontro| of a system |s the superv|s|on of the supp|y, storage and aooess|b|||ty of the system
|tems |n order to ensure an adequate supp|y w|thout exoess|ve oversupp|y.

For the E-E|T, the |nventory oontro| |s requ|red suoh that at any t|me the status, oonf|gurat|on and |ooa-
t|on of equ|pment down to the |R |eve| |s known. The property oontro| |s the |dent|f|oat|on of the owner-
sh|p (Oonsort|um, Oontraotor or ESO} of an |tem.

The ma|ntenanoe management system |s based on the e|aborat|on of job p|ans for a|| ma|ntenanoe tasks
and on the generat|on of work orders:

Automat|o work orders for p|anned proaot|ve ma|ntenanoe aot|v|t|es suoh as regu|ar |nspeot|ons,
prevent|ve and pred|ot|ve ma|ntenanoe aot|v|t|es;
Manua| work order generat|on for oorreot|ve aot|v|t|es aooord|ng to the resu|ts obta|ned from the
proaot|ve p|anned aot|v|t|es and ev|dent presenoe of fa||ures;
A oommon ma|ntenanoe management system w||| be used to traok the ma|ntenanoe of a||
|nventor|ed |tems.

As a goa| for ESO overa||, but not neoessar||y a de||verab|e of the E-E|T projeot, w||| be to have one s|n-
g|e software too| oapab|e of perform|ng the PRS and OMMS requ|rements together, ||nked to the doou-
ments and draw|ngs PDM (Teohn|oa| Aroh|ve} |n Garoh|ng that w||| oonta|n a|| the doouments, prooedures
and draw|ngs of the |nsta||ed dev|oes.
5.4.5.8 TEOHNlOA| WAREHOSE
The hand||ng of goods |ns|de eno|osed spaoes |s performed by e|eotr|oa| fork||fts. The hand||ng of goods
|n the outdoor area |s performed by fork||fts. The Observatory has ded|oated areas to store ohem|oa|s,
f|ammab|e mater|a|s, eto. The warehouse |nventory and proper oontro| of |tems (the|r stook, |ooat|on, eto.}
v|a a OMMS, a|ready |n p|aoe at Parana|, w||| be emp|oyed for the E-E|T. Th|s a||ows the ma|ntenanoe
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 223
orew to fo||ow the turnover of spare parts, estab||sh the need for re-stook|ng and ensure that the
requested spares are a|ways |n stook as we|| as oontro|||ng the spare parts de||very.
5.4.5.9 SOHED|lNG OF TEOHNlOA| TASKS
Teohn|oa| and ma|ntenanoe tasks are |dent|f|ed as |ns|de and outs|de the dome aot|v|t|es and are sohed-
u|ed aooord|ng|y. ln F|gure 5.4 and F|gure 5.5 the sequenoes of tasks outs|de and |ns|de the dome
d|str|buted over a work|ng day are shown. From these oharts the t|ght presenoe sohedu|e of the teoh-
n|oa| operat|ons staff |s der|ved.



Figure 5.4. Plan for the execution of the preventive maintenance tasks inside the E-ELT dome.


Figure 5.5. Plan for the execution of the preventive maintenance tasks outside the E-ELT dome.

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224 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
5.4.6 |OGlSTlO OPERATlONS
|og|st|oa| and adm|n|strat|ve support on s|te w||| |no|ude:

Genera| warehous|ng for off|oe supp||es, veh|o|e ma|ntenanoe and genera| non-te|esoope speo|f|o
needs that the observatory has;
Staff oommut|ng (organ|sat|on and support};
Reoept|on;
On-s|te proourement;
Board and |odg|ng;
S|te, road and bu||d|ng ma|ntenanoe;
Seour|ty;
F|rst a|d.
5.5 E-E|T OPERATlONS STAFFlNG
Th|s seot|on a|ms at prov|d|ng an aoourate est|mate of the tota| number of staff that w||| be requ|red for
the operat|on of the E-E|T as part of the Observatory. These numbers def|ne the requ|red share of the
staff for E-E|T operat|ons and therefore are not a pure add|t|on to the ourrent|y ex|st|ng Parana| Obser-
vatory staff s|noe, due to the synergy and opt|m|sat|on, some sav|ng on the tota| staff for the future
observatory oan be aoh|eved.

E-E|T operat|ons w||| start forma||y after the oomm|ss|on|ng of the te|esoope. p to th|s t|me, s|te opera-
t|ons and Alv aot|v|t|es w||| be part of oonstruot|on. The Alv team w||| have to be reoru|ted and tra|ned |n
||ne w|th the Alv p|ann|ng. Some of Alv team members w|th f|tt|ng qua||f|oat|ons w||| be taken over to the
operat|ons or w||| be rep|aoed by operat|ons staff.

Operat|ons are assumed to start |n m|d-2022. lt |s p|anned to have a|| the operat|ons staff ava||ab|e
beg|nn|ng of 2020 so that they oan fam|||ar|se themse|ves w|th operat|ons on the v|T as we|| as dur|ng
oomm|ss|on|ng of the E-E|T.

The tra|n|ng p|an w||| fo||ow the v|T exper|enoe, w|th an Alv orew that fam|||ar|ses |tse|f w|th the hardware
as |t appears |n the |ntegrat|on phase at the manufaoturers. Then, the staff taken over from the Alv w|||
a|ready be tra|ned. A few other key operat|ons staff w||| be tra|ned at the oontraotors prem|ses dur|ng the
oomp|et|on of the manufaotur|ng phase, a||ow|ng them to beoome fam|||ar w|th the systems and subsys-
tems and the|r deta||ed oharaoter|st|os and behav|our. Th|s w||| be eas|er when the systems are st||| |n the
hands of the manufaoturer. Th|s w||| form a sma|| orew of |nternat|ona| sen|or eng|neers who w||| then tra|n
and transfer the|r aoqu|red knowhow to younger, |ooa| eng|neers.

As a po||oy, an operat|ons team w||| a|ways be tra|ned on any new un|ts or upgrades e|ther at the oon-
traotors prem|ses or dur|ng the|r |nsta||at|on on the s|te.

ln eaoh of the fo||ow|ng seot|ons, two tab|es are presented that show the p|anned staff needed to oper-
ate the E-E|T. The f|rst tab|e shows the da||y staff effeot|ve|y on s|te, work|ng for E-E|T, and the|r regu|ar
work|ng |ooat|on. The seoond tab|e, based on the sh|ft/turno faotor, shows the tota| number of staff
needed to ensure a oont|nuous presenoe on s|te.
5.5.1 SHlFT/TRNO SYSTEM
lnstead of the da||y oommut|ng opt|on, the operat|on of the E-E|T w||| adopt the sh|ft/turno system |n
p|aoe at the ourrent |a S|||a Parana| Observatory for the fo||ow|ng reasons:

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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 225
Most oost-effeot|ve operat|on of the fao|||ty resu|t|ng |n a m|n|mum down-t|me;
Ou|ok |ntervent|on at n|ght, |f needed;
A||ows a o|ose |nteraot|on among operat|ons un|ts (e.g., eng|neer|ng and so|enoe operat|ons};
Be|ng on s|te for seven days a||ows f|ex|b|e work|ng t|me;
|ong d|stanoe from p|aoe of res|denoe (|n part|ou|ar from Sant|ago};
Trave|||ng oost and r|sk.

For the staff work|ng on an 8 6 sh|ft system, a sh|ft/turno faotor of 2.5 |s app||ed to fu||y oover the da||y
staff on work p|anned. Th|s oovers a|so |eave and s|ok |eave. Twenty-s|x sh|fts/turnos per year m|nus four
sh|ft/turnos vaoat|on m|nus one sh|ft/turno s|ok |eave = 21 sh|fts/turnos per year. Therefore, to oover 52
weeks per year, 2.5 peop|e are needed.

The FTEs of so|ent|f|o personne|, who have a fraot|on of the|r t|me (between 20% and 50%} reserved for
so|ent|f|o researoh, a|ready |no|ude the so|ent|f|o researoh t|me. Therefore, no oorreot|on faotor ana|ogous
to the turno faotor needs to be app||ed |n th|s oase.
5.5.2 DlREOTORS OFFlOE

Table 5.1. Planning of staff on daily work.


Table 5.2. Planning of positions after application of shift/turno factor (FTEs).

Safety manager: Th|s person |s respons|b|e for the overs|ght of the aot|v|t|es re|ated to med|oa|, emer-
genoy, f|re, aoo|dent and genera| |oss prevent|on and for th|s reason w||| be an ESO Staff pos|t|on.

Configuration manager: The ro|e |s to perform oonf|gurat|on management aot|v|t|es, def|n|ng and |mp|e-
ment|ng oonf|gurat|on management too|s and ma|nta|n|ng oonf|gurat|on management prooesses and
po||o|es. The oonf|gurat|on manager w||| part|o|pate |n ||a|son w|th a|| the oonoerned teams |n the |nsta||a-
t|on and troub|eshoot|ng of new|y deve|oped systems before handover to the Observatory. He/she w|||
aot as a po|nt of oontaot between ESO Garoh|ng and the Observatory to ooord|nate a|| the neoessary
aot|v|t|es to prooess, ana|yse and oomp|ete ohanges and upgrades to the Observatory.

Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up
Director's Office PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Director 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.0 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.50
Safety Manager 0.50 0.50 0.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00
PA/Configuration manager 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 2.5 1.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.50
IT specialist 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00
Administrative assistant 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.0 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.50
Director's Office Total 3.00 0.50 0.00 3.50 - 5.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.75 3.50
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up (turno applied)
Director's Office PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Director 0.50 0.50 1.0 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.250 0.50
Safety Manager 0.50 0.50 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.25 2.50
PA/Configuration manager 0.50 0.50 2.5 1.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.625 1.25
IT specialist 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00
Administrative assistant 0.50 0.50 1.0 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.50
Director's Office Total 3.00 0.50 0.00 3.50 - 5.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.88 5.75
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 225 16/12/2011 18:32
226 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
IT (Communication and network) specialists: They are respons|b|e for ma|nta|n|ng the oommun|oat|on
||nks between the Observatory and the externa| wor|d and for network seour|ty. These pos|t|ons are
requ|red a|so to ensure oommun|oat|on to the s|te |n the event of pr|mary system outage. M|n|mum qua||-
f|oat|ons for these posts shou|d be an eng|neer|ng degree |n |nformat|on and oommun|oat|ons
teohno|ogy.

The Administrative Assistant w||| pr|mar||y prov|de seoretar|a| and adm|n|strat|ve support to the D|reotor
but w||| a|so undertake other seoretar|a| dut|es and ooord|nat|on aot|v|t|es ass|st|ng so|ent|f|o, eng|neer|ng,
and v|s|t|ng staff. Funot|ons w||| |no|ude ooord|nat|on and ||a|son w|th |og|st|o and other un|ts of the Obser-
vatory as we|| as other ESOs oomponents and externa| oounterparts.
5.5.3 SOlENOE OPERATlONS

Table 5.3. Planning of staff on daily work.


Table 5.4. Planning of positions after application of turno factor (FTEs).

Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up
Science operations PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Day astronomers 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 3.5 3.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Night astronomers 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 3.5 3.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Telescope operators 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Instrument operators 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Data handling administrator 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 2.5 1.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.50
On-site Total 4.50 0.00 0.00 4.50 - 13.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.50 4.50
Off-site
User support astronomer 0.00 0.00 3.00 3.00 1.0 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 3.00
Quality control 0.00 0.00 2.00 2.00 1.0 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 2.00
Archive operators 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 1.0 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.50
Archive management 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Operations technical support 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Off-site Total 0.00 0.00 7.50 7.50 - 7.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.50 7.50
Science operations Total 4.50 0.00 7.50 12.00 - 20.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.00 12.00
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up (turno applied)
Science operations PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
On-site
Day astronomers 1.00 1.00 3.5 3.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.50 3.50
1.00 1.00 3.5 3.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.50 3.50
Telescope operators 1.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.50 2.50
Instrument operators 1.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.50 2.50
Night astronomers
Data handling administrator 0.50 0.50 2.5 1.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.25 1.25
On-site Total 4.50 0.00 0.00 4.50 - 13.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.25 13.25
Off-site
User support astronomer 3.00 3.00 1.0 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 3.00
Quality control 2.00 2.00 1.0 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 2.00
Archive operators 0.50 0.50 1.0 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.50
Archive management 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Operations technical support 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Off-site Total 0.00 0.00 7.50 7.50 - 7.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.50 7.50
Science operations Total 4.50 0.00 7.50 12.00 - 20.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 19.75 20.75
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 227
The so|enoe operat|ons staff oons|sts of teohn|oa| and so|ent|f|o personne| w|th expert|se |n a var|ety of
areas. The fo||ow|ng funot|ons are |dent|f|ed:

On-site staff:
Day and night astronomers: M|n|mum qua||f|oat|ons for these posts are a PhD |n astronomy or
astrophys|os, and some exper|enoe w|th observat|ona| astronomy. lt |s assumed that the astron-
omers, as |n todays oonf|gurat|on on Parana|, w||| have 105 n|ghts a||ooated for s|te operat|on
due to the oonstra|nts set by the t|me devoted to so|ent|f|o researoh. Th|s |mp||es a sh|ft/turno
faotor of 3.5 |nstead of 2.5.
Telescope operators: Experts |n us|ng the ma|n te|esoope subsystems, understand|ng the|r funo-
t|ons, and ab|e to d|agnose and troub|eshoot the most oommon|y enoountered prob|em s|tua-
t|ons w|th the te|esoope. Oua||f|oat|ons for these posts shou|d be a masters degree |n phys|os,
astronomy or re|ated so|enoe, or an eng|neer|ng degree.
Instrument operators: Experts |n the use of one or more |nstruments and the|r subsystems,
understand|ng the|r funot|ons, and ab|e to d|agnose and troub|eshoot the most oommon|y
enoountered prob|em s|tuat|ons w|th the |nstrument. Oua||f|oat|ons for these posts shou|d be a
masters degree |n phys|os, astronomy or re|ated so|enoe, or an eng|neer|ng degree.
Database handling specialists: ln oharge of |ooa| databases needed for operat|ons, superv|s|on
of data transfer to the aroh|ve and of the rep||oat|on of database oontents between Headquarters
and the mounta|n, ensur|ng ava||ab|||ty of on-s|te data storage needs. Oua||f|oat|on for these
posts |s a degree |n software eng|neer|ng, w|th extens|ve baokground on database teohno|og|es.

Off-site staff:

User support astronomers: ln oharge of support|ng the user oommun|ty |n prepar|ng the|r
observ|ng proposa|s, va||dat|ng observat|ons to be exeouted, and post-observat|on support.
A|so the |nterfaoe between the user oommun|ty and the observatory. Oua||f|oat|ons for these
posts shou|d be a PhD |n phys|os, astronomy or equ|va|ent, and exper|enoe of observat|ona|
astronomy.
Data processing and quality control specialists: ln oharge of oarry|ng out deta||ed qua||ty oontro|
of data, |nstrument hea|th oheoks and trend|ng, ensur|ng the oa||brat|on needs of eaoh so|enoe
observat|on are met, sett|ng speo|f|oat|ons for the qua||ty oontro| and hea|th oheok parameters
de||vered by p|pe||nes and prov|d|ng |nput for the|r further deve|opment |n o|ose oo||aborat|on
w|th p|pe||ne deve|opers. Oua||f|oat|on for these posts shou|d be a masters degree |n phys|os,
astronomy or equ|va|ent, and exper|enoe of observat|ona| astronomy.
Archive operators: Respons|b|e for ma|nta|n|ng the data aroh|ve and to ensure the|r |ntegr|ty.
Oua||f|oat|ons for these posts shou|d be an advanoed teohno|og|oa| degree w|th some exper|-
enoe |n software, aroh|v|ng and database teohno|og|es.
5.5.3.1 FE||OWSHlP AND STDENTSHlP PROGRAMME
The so|ent|f|o fe||owsh|p and studentsh|p programme w||| prov|de the opportun|ty for fe||ows and students
to oarry out funot|ona| work |n support of the Observatory operat|ons. lt w||| prov|de substant|a| tra|n|ng
opportun|t|es to young astronomers |nterested |n front-||ne observat|ona| astrophys|os and enhanoe the
oonneot|on between the Observatory and the oommun|ty.

S|m||ar|y, |n the eng|neer|ng d|so|p||nes, student programmes w||| be used to g|ve opportun|t|es to young
eng|neers |nterested |n state-of-the-art teohno|ogy. Th|s w||| a|so g|ve ESO the opportun|ty to |dent|fy
oand|dates w|th the potent|a| for growth w|th|n the Observatory.

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228 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
5.5.4 TEOHNlOA| OPERATlONS

Table 5.5. Planning of staff on daily work.


Table 5.6. Planning of positions after application of turno factor (FTEs).
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up
Technical operations PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Mechanical engineers 0.00 4.00 0.00 4.00 2.5 10.00 0.20 0.20 1.00 4.00 4.00
Mechanical technicians 0.00 4.00 0.00 4.00 2.5 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.00 4.00
Electrical engineers 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Electrical technicians 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Electronic engineers 0.00 2.00 0.00 2.00 2.5 5.00 0.20 0.20 1.00 2.00 2.00
Electronic technicians 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
Software engineers 2.00 1.00 0.00 3.00 2.5 7.50 0.00 0.20 0.20 3.00 3.00
Optical engineers 0.00 2.00 0.00 2.00 2.5 5.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 2.00
Optical technicians 0.00 2.00 0.00 2.00 2.5 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 2.00
Administrative assistant 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00
Technical operations Total 3.00 18.00 0.00 21.00 - 51.00 0.40 0.60 3.20 20.50 21.00
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up (turno applied)
Technical operations PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Mechanical engineers 4.00 4.00 2.5 10.00 0.50 0.50 2.50 10.00 10.00
Mechanical technicians 4.00 4.00 2.5 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.00 10.00
Electrical engineers 1.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.50 2.50
Electrical technicians 1.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.50 2.50
Electronic engineers 2.00 2.00 2.5 5.00 0.50 0.50 2.50 5.00 5.00
Electronic technicians 1.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.50 2.50
Software engineers 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.5 7.50 0.00 0.50 0.50 7.50 7.50
Optical engineers 0.00 2.00 2.00 2.5 5.00 0.00 0.00 2.50 5.00 5.00
Optical technicians 2.00 2.00 2.5 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 5.00
Administrative assistant 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00
Technical operations Total 3.00 18.00 0.00 21.00 - 51.00 1.00 1.50 8.00 50.50 51.00
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 228 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 229
Mechanical engineers w||| oarry out on-f|e|d |ntegrat|on of the meohan|oa| and optomeohan|oa|
systems, ma|nta|n|ng, f|ne-tun|ng and |mprov|ng the meohan|oa| systems of the te|esoope,
|nstruments and fao|||t|es (a|r oompressors, oh|||ers, eto.}, wh|oh |no|ude hydrau||o and pneumat|o
systems, e|eotromeohan|oa| meohan|sms and dr|ves. Meohan|oa| eng|neers are a|so requ|red to
ma|nta|n the oo-generat|on fao|||t|es for heat|ng and hot water as we|| as to oa|| |n off-s|te support
oontraotors when requ|red. The Head of Eng|neer|ng w||| most ||ke|y be a meohan|oa| eng|neer
s|noe meohan|oa| operat|ons are the most r|sky ones.
Mechanical technicians w||| prov|de teohn|oa| support for the operat|on of the te|esoope, keep|ng
the performanoe and ava||ab|||ty of the te|esoope systems on the h|ghest |eve|, as we|| as sup-
port|ng the assemb|y, |ntegrat|on and ver|f|oat|on of new te|esoopes and systems. They w||| have
exper|enoe |n advanoed meohan|oa| and hydrau||o systems w|th e|ther a un|vers|ty or a teohn|oa|
|nst|tute degree, and exper|enoe |n produot|on p|ants or teohn|oa| serv|oe oompan|es. Oapab|||-
t|es requ|red |n advanoed hydrau||o and pneumat|o, preo|s|on meohan|os, tr|bo|ogy and |ubr|oa-
t|on, we|d|ng, too| maoh|n|ng, metro|ogy, fa||ure ana|ys|s and bas|o know|edge of e|eotr|o|ty and
oontro|, as we|| as bas|o PO oomputer ||teraoy |n word prooess|ng and spreadsheets.
Electrical engineers w||| be |n oharge of the superv|s|on of the oontraots for the power stat|on
systems and energy d|str|but|on: H|gh, med|um and |ow vo|tages, un|nterrupt|b|e power supp|y,
oarry|ng out the neoessary ma|ntenanoe, troub|eshoot|ng and |mprovement aot|v|t|es |n order to
supp|y the Observatory w|th the needed e|eotr|oa| energy. These eng|neers w||| a|so be |nvo|ved
ma|n|y |n the serv|oe troub|eshoot|ng and ma|ntenanoe of the power stat|on, |ts oontro| system
based on P|Os, |ts |nsta||at|ons and the neoessary |ntervent|ons on power d|str|but|on. M|n|mum
qua||f|oat|ons for these posts shou|d be a un|vers|ty degree |n e|eotr|oa| eng|neer|ng.
An electrician must be present on s|te at a|| t|mes to ensure the operat|on of the power d|str|bu-
t|on. Th|s or|t|oa| operat|on |s a|so a safety |ssue and th|s w||| be a staff pos|t|on. M|n|mum qua||f|-
oat|ons for these posts shou|d be e|ther a teohn|oa| un|vers|ty or a super|or teohn|oa| degree or
a|ternat|ve|y at |east e|ght years of re|evant exper|enoe |n work|ng w|th advanoed e|eotr|oa|
equ|pment.
Electronic engineers: There w||| be at |east two d|so|p||nes that w||| requ|re th|s expert|se, one fu||y
e|eotron|o and another o|oser to the so|ent|f|o |nstruments. The former pos|t|on w||| |nvo|ve trou-
b|eshoot|ng, |mprovements and oorreot|ve ma|ntenanoe aot|v|t|es for d|g|ta| and ana|ogue e|eo-
tron|o equ|pment used to oontro| the te|esoopes and the|r eno|osures. The oontro| systems are
based on vME (v|rtua| Maoh|ne Env|ronment} oomputers and P|Os and |nvo|v|ng h|gh-preo|s|on
mot|on oontro| |oops as we|| as |ndustr|a| oontro| systems. For the |atter one, these persons w|||
be respons|b|e for the ma|ntenanoe, oa||brat|on, adjustment, troub|eshoot|ng and |mprovement
of severa| |nstruments |n oo||aborat|on w|th other team members. M|n|mum qua||f|oat|ons for
these posts shou|d be a degree |n e|eotron|o eng|neer|ng.
Electronic technicians w||| be requ|red to serv|oe and troub|eshoot d|g|ta| and ana|ogue e|eotron-
|os equ|pment, be respons|b|e for the adjust|ng, troub|eshoot|ng and mon|tor|ng of so|en-
t|f|o/astronom|oa| equ|pment, perform genera| e|eotron|os work assoo|ated w|th oab||ng and oon-
neot|on, prooure e|eotron|os equ|pment and oomponents and ma|nta|n the e|eotron|os |aboratory
work areas. These persons w||| have e|ther a teohn|oa| un|vers|ty or a super|or teohn|oa| degree
or a|ternat|ve|y at |east e|ght years of re|evant exper|enoe |n work|ng w|th advanoed e|eotron|os
equ|pment.
Software specialists are respons|b|e for software troub|eshoot|ng, deve|opment and ma|nte-
nanoe of |ooa||y used too|s, and system adm|n|strat|on of oomputers runn|ng te|esoope and
|nstrument subsystems. M|n|mum qua||f|oat|on for these posts shou|d be a degree |n software
eng|neer|ng.
Optical engineers w||| take oare of the ma|ntenanoe and a||gnment of the severa| opt|oa| oompo-
nents of the te|esoopes and |nstruments |no|ud|ng the|r opt|oa| qua||ty oontro| by us|ng |nterfer-
ometer or wavefront-sens|ng equ|pment. Th|s ma|ntenanoe task |no|udes OO
2-o|ean|ng, wash|ng
and ooat|ng teohn|ques. M|n|mum qua||f|oat|ons for these posts shou|d be a degree |n opt|oa|
eng|neer|ng w|th few years of on f|e|d praot|oe exper|enoe.
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 229 16/12/2011 18:32
230 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
Optical technicians w||| be |nvo|ved |n the ma|ntenanoe and a||gnment of the opt|oa| oomponents
of the te|esoope and |nstruments. Th|s ma|ntenanoe task |no|udes OO2-o|ean|ng, wash|ng and
ooat|ng teohn|ques. As part of the regu|ar tasks there w||| be a month|y mon|tor|ng of the ref|eo-
t|v|ty of the M1 m|rror as we|| as s|te dust mon|tor|ng and |ts ma|ntenanoe. M|n|mum qua||f|oa-
t|ons for these posts shou|d be e|ther a teohn|oa| un|vers|ty or a super|or teohn|oa| degree or
a|ternat|ve|y at |east f|ve years of re|evant exper|enoe |n work|ng w|th opt|oa| equ|pment.
The Administrative Assistant w||| have teohn|oa| adm|n|strat|ve stud|es or equ|va|ent un|vers|ty
eduoat|on. Oomputer ||teraoy |n m|n|mum PO word-prooess|ng and spreadsheets w||| be neoes-
sary. Th|s person w||| support the Eng|neer|ng Department and v|s|t|ng eng|neer|ng/teohn|oa|
staff, and w||| ||a|se w|th the Adm|n|strat|on Group of the observatory for var|ous department
aot|v|t|es (trave| arrangements, sh|pp|ng/reoe|v|ng}. The Adm|n|strat|ve Ass|stant w||| a|so be
respons|b|e for prepar|ng purohase requests us|ng speo|a||sed software, organ|s|ng and ma|n-
ta|n|ng oorrespondenoe, superv|s|ng the |nterna| reports ||brary and |ts e|eotron|o aroh|ve,
exeout|ng b|||ngua| trans|at|ons and genera| dut|es ass|st|ng teohn|oa| work.
5.5.5 MAlNTENANOE OPERATlONS

Table 5.7. Planning of staff on daily work.


Table 5.8. Planning of positions after application of shift/turno factor (FTEs).

Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up
Maintenance operations PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Mechanical engineers 0.00 6.00 0.00 6.00 2.5 15.00 0.00 0.20 0.20 6.00 6.00
Mechanical technicians 3.00 7.00 0.00 10.00 2.5 25.00 0.00 0.20 0.20 10.00 10.00
Electrical engineers 2.00 1.00 0.00 3.00 2.5 7.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 3.00
Electrical technicians 3.00 1.00 0.00 4.00 2.5 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.00 4.00
Electronic technicians 0.00 2.00 0.00 2.00 2.5 5.00 0.00 0.20 0.20 2.00 2.00
Administrative assistant 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.0 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.50
Maintenance operations Total 8.50 17.00 0.00 25.50 - 63.00 0.00 0.60 0.60 25.25 25.50
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up (turno applied)
Maintenance operations PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Mechanical engineers 0.00 6.00 6.00 2.5 15.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 15.00 15.00
Mechanical technicians 3.00 7.00 10.00 2.5 25.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 25.00 25.00
Electrical engineers 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.5 7.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.50 7.50
Electrical technicians 3.00 1.00 4.00 2.5 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.00 10.00
Electronic technicians 2.00 2.00 2.5 5.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 5.00 5.00
Administrative assistant 0.50 0.50 1.0 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.50
Maintenance operations Total 8.50 17.00 0.00 25.50 - 63.00 0.00 1.50 1.50 62.75 63.00
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 230 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 231
Mechanical engineers: One w||| a|so be the Head of th|s Department and w||| organ|se the
department to exeoute on t|me a|| the p|anned ma|ntenanoe tasks. He/she w||| a|so be |n oharge
of |dent|fy|ng fa||ure r|sks, key |nd|oators, and |ntervent|on t|me to opt|m|se and m|n|m|se the
resouroes need. The meohan|oa| eng|neers w||| oarry out on-f|e|d meohan|o and optomeohan|oa|
ma|ntenanoe tasks, ma|nta|n|ng, f|ne-tun|ng and |mprov|ng the meohan|oa| systems of the te|e-
soope, |nstruments and fao|||t|es (a|r oompressors, oh|||ers, eto.}, wh|oh |no|ude hydrau||o- and
pneumat|o systems, e|eotro-meohan|oa| meohan|sms and dr|ves. Meohan|oa| eng|neers are a|so
requ|red to ma|nta|n the oo-generat|on fao|||t|es for heat|ng and hot water as we|| as to oa|| |n off-
s|te support oontraotors when requ|red.
Mechanical technicians w||| prov|de teohn|oa| support for the ma|ntenanoe of the te|esoope,
keep|ng the performanoe and ava||ab|||ty of the te|esoope systems on the h|ghest |eve|. They w|||
have exper|enoe |n meohan|oa| and hydrau||o systems w|th e|ther a un|vers|ty or a teohn|oa|
|nst|tute degree. Exper|enoe |n produot|on p|ants or teohn|oa| serv|oe oompan|es |s a|so requ|red.
Oapab|||t|es |n the fo||ow|ng f|e|ds are requ|red: advanoed hydrau||o and pneumat|o, preo|s|on
meohan|os, tr|bo|ogy and |ubr|oat|on, we|d|ng, too| maoh|n|ng, metro|ogy, fa||ure ana|ys|s and
bas|o know|edge of e|eotr|o|ty and oontro|. Bas|o PO oomputer ||teraoy |n word prooess|ng and
spreadsheets.
Electrical technicians: The m|n|mum qua||f|oat|ons for these posts shou|d be e|ther a teohn|oa|
un|vers|ty or a super|or teohn|oa| degree or a|ternat|ve|y at |east e|ght years of re|evant exper|enoe
|n work|ng w|th advanoed e|eotr|oa| equ|pment.
Electronic technicians w||| be requ|red to serv|oe and troub|eshoot d|g|ta| and ana|ogue e|eotron-
|os equ|pment, be respons|b|e for the ma|ntenanoe, adjust|ng, troub|eshoot|ng and mon|tor|ng of
so|ent|f|o/astronom|oa| equ|pment, to perform genera| e|eotron|os work assoo|ated w|th oab||ng
and oonneot|on, and to prooure e|eotron|os equ|pment and oomponents. They w||| have e|ther a
teohn|oa| un|vers|ty or a super|or teohn|oa| degree or a|ternat|ve|y at |east f|ve years of re|evant
exper|enoe |n work|ng w|th e|eotron|os equ|pment.
Administrator/Planner for the CMMS |s respons|b|e for prepar|ng the sohedu|e of the da||y tasks
for eaoh member of the ma|ntenanoe department, tak|ng |nto aooount prevent|ve, pred|ot|ve and
other ma|ntenanoe needs. He/she w||| be fam|||ar w|th the OMMS too| and the software too|s to
oontro| the spare parts needs and ava||ab|||ty on s|te to exeoute the ma|ntenanoe tasks.
5.5.6 |OGlSTlOS OPERATlONS

Table 5.9. Planning of staff on daily work.


Table 5.10. Planning of positions after application of shift/turno factor (FTEs).
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up
Logistics PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Procurement officer 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0
Controller 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0
Board & Lodging Manager 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5
Transport Manager 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.5 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0
Administrative assistant 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.5 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0
Logistics Total 4.5 0.0 0.0 4.5 - 8.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 4.5
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up (turno applied)
Logistics PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Procurement officer 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00
Controller 1.00 1.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00
Board & Lodging Manager 0.50 0.50 2.5 1.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.25 1.25
Transport Manager 1.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.50 2.50
Administrative assistant 1.00 1.00 2.5 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.25 2.50
Logistics Total 4.50 0.00 0.00 4.50 - 8.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.00 8.25
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 231 16/12/2011 18:32
232 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The |og|st|os staff|ng |s based on an extens|ve use of oontraotors. ESO pos|t|ons are just|f|ed on the bas|s
of e|ther the superv|sory nature, or the|r or|t|oa| nature for essent|a| serv|oes and operat|ons. The serv|oes
oover on-s|te proourement, f|nano|a| oontro||er, board and |odg|ng, transport and adm|n|strat|ve
ass|stanoe.
5.5.7 OFF-SlTE DEvE|OPMENT AND MAlNTENANOE

Table 5.11. Planning of positions after application of shift/turno factor (FTEs).

Staff from Garoh|ng w||| be a||ooated to support E-E|T operat|ons as for the v|T operat|ons. Te|esoope,
|nstrumentat|on, teohno|ogy software deve|opment w||| be oovered. The |nvo|vement of DMO staff |s
aooounted for separate|y under off-s|te operat|ons support.
5.5.8 PGRADE PATHS (NEW SYSTEMS}

Table 5.12. Planning of positions after application of turno factor (FTEs).

The |mp|ementat|on of new systems and upgrades to ex|st|ng ones w||| fo||ow the same p|ann|ng,
approva| and deve|opment prooedures as app||ed to E-E|T oonstruot|on. Te|esoope, lnstrumentat|on,
Teohno|ogy, Software Deve|opment and DMO D|v|s|ons w||| be |nvo|ved.
5.5.9 STAFF SMMARY
The fo||ow|ng two tab|es g|ve an overv|ew of the staff needed for the E-E|T operat|ons for eaoh ma|n
aot|v|ty group.


Table 5.13. Planning of staff on daily work.
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up
Off-site development & support PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Various technical disciplines 6.0 6.0 1.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 6.0
Off-site development & support 0.0 0.0 6.0 6.0 - 6.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 6.0
Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up
Upgrade paths (new systems) PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Various technical disciplines 12.0 12.0 1.0 12.0 6.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 12.0
Upgrade paths Total 0.0 0.0 12.0 12.0 - 12.0 6.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 12.0
Daily staff on work Daily staff on work ramping-up
Operations staff staff PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Director's Office total 3.00 0.50 0.00 3.50 - 5.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.75 3.50
Science operations total on-site 4.50 0.00 0.00 4.50 - 13.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.50 4.50
Technical operations 3.00 18.00 0.00 21.00 - 51.00 0.40 0.60 3.20 20.50 21.00
Maintenance operations 8.50 17.00 0.00 25.50 - 63.00 0.00 0.60 0.60 25.25 25.50
Logistics total 4.50 0.00 0.00 4.50 - 8.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 4.50
On-site operations staff Total 23.50 35.50 0.00 59.00 - 141.25 0.40 1.20 3.80 55.00 59.00
Science operations total off-site 0.00 0.00 7.50 7.50 7.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.50 7.50
Off-site development & support 0.00 0.00 6.00 6.00 - 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 6.00
Upgrade paths ( new systems) 0.00 0.00 12.00 12.00 - 12.00 6.00 8.00 8.00 10.00 12.00
Off-site operations staff Total 0.00 0.00 25.50 25.50 25.50 6.00 8.00 8.00 19.50 25.50
Operations staff staff Total 23.50 35.50 25.50 84.50 - 166.75 6.40 9.20 11.80 74.50 84.50
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 232 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Operat|ons 233

Table 5.14. Planning of positions after application of shift/turno factor (FTEs).

Tab|e 5.13 and Tab|e 5.14 g|ve an overv|ew of the staff oategor|es p|anned for the E-E|T operat|ons.
Tab|e 5.14 presents the tota| operat|on staff, |no|ud|ng the upgrade path.
5.5.10 OONTRAOTORS
Serv|oe oontraots w||| oomp|ement the operat|on |n a|| operat|ons areas where th|s opt|on |s deemed to
offer advantages over staff|ng w|th ESO emp|oyees.

Daily staff on work Staff ramping-up (turno applied)
Operations staff staff PAR ARM GAR Total
turno
factor
Total
FTE 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Director's Office 3.00 0.50 0.00 3.50 - 5.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.88 5.75
Science operations on-site 4.50 0.00 0.00 4.50 - 13.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.25 13.25
Technical operations 3.00 18.00 0.00 21.00 - 51.00 1.00 1.50 8.00 50.50 51.00
Maintenance operations 8.50 17.00 0.00 25.50 - 63.00 0.00 1.50 1.50 62.75 63.00
Logistics 4.50 0.00 0.00 4.50 - 8.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.00 8.25
On-site operations staff Total 23.50 35.50 0.00 59.00 - 141.25 1.00 3.00 9.50 135.38 141.25
Science operations off-site 0.00 0.00 7.50 7.50 7.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.50 7.50
Off-site development & support 0.00 0.00 6.00 6.00 - 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 6.00
Upgrade paths ( new systems) 0.00 0.00 12.00 12.00 - 12.00 6.00 8.00 8.00 10.00 12.00
Off-site operations staff Total 0.00 0.00 25.50 25.50 25.50 6.00 8.00 8.00 19.50 25.50
Operations staff staff Total 23.50 35.50 25.50 84.50 - 166.75 7.00 11.00 17.50 154.88 166.75
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234 Operat|ons E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 234 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Eoonom|o lmpaot 235
6 EOONOMlO lMPAOT
6.1 lNTRODOTlON
lt has a|ways been the oase that the next generat|on of astronomy fao|||t|es |s demand|ng, both teohn|-
oa||y and |n |ts need of resouroes. Onoe the ourrent generat|on |s approaoh|ng the ||m|ts of |ts d|soovery
spaoe, |t |s |nev|tab|e that major progress oan on|y be made by open|ng a new observat|on w|ndow, per-
haps by mov|ng to new wavebands on|y aooess|b|e |n spaoe, or by step ohanges |n angu|ar reso|ut|on
and sens|t|v|ty by bu||d|ng |arger aperture te|esoopes or b|gger |nterferometr|o arrays. The E-E|T |s no
exoept|on, and |t |s |mportant to show that suoh expend|ture oan be just|f|ed not on|y |n the searoh for
know|edge, but for w|der soo|eta| and eoonom|o benef|ts. These benef|ts oan range from d|reot |ndustr|a|
oontraots, to deve|opment of new teohno|ogy that oan be used by other f|e|ds and to the |ess tang|b|e,
but perhaps most |mportant, |nsp|rat|on of new generat|ons of eng|neers and so|ent|sts.

The E-E|T w||| be the b|ggest opt|oa|/|nfrared te|esoope |n the wor|d. lt w||| have enormous |mpaot by
enab||ng astronomers to probe and understand a who|e range of phenomena from p|anets around
nearby stars (perhaps |no|ud|ng p|anets where ||fe may ex|st} to the most d|stant fa|nt ga|ax|es at the edge
of the observab|e n|verse. Astronomy and the wonder of spaoe are part|ou|ar|y appea||ng to the genera|
pub||o and, as suoh, the E-E|T w||| be a beaoon of |nsp|rat|on for the next generat|on, |ead|ng to oareers
|n so|enoe, eng|neer|ng and teohno|ogy. The E-E|T w||| a|so have d|reot eoonom|o benef|t to Europe |n
terms of oontraots to |ndustry, oommeroe and researoh |nst|tutes. ln phase B th|s a|ready tota|s about
40 Mt and |t |s expeoted to exoeed 860 Mt by the end of the programme. |ess pred|otab|e, but none-
the|ess oonorete, eoonom|o benef|ts w||| aoorue from oapab|||ty bu||d|ng |n |ndustry, part|ou|ar|y for preo|-
s|on opt|oa| surfaoes, and from the |nnovat|ons needed to meet the teohno|ogy targets presented by th|s
projeot.

Wh||e hard to quant|fy, suoh eoonom|o benef|ts are expeoted to be many t|mes the va|ue of d|reot oon-
traots. For examp|e, key teohno|og|es be|ng deve|oped for b|g te|esoopes are assoo|ated w|th the|r adap-
t|ve opt|os systems needed to oorreot for turbu|enoe |n the atmosphere. These advanoements and |nno-
vat|ons are a|ready be|ng app||ed to so|ve a var|ety of |mportant prob|ems aoross many seotors, |no|ud|ng
enhano|ng the |ongev|ty of art|f|o|a| knee jo|nts, ass|st|ng |n the d|agnos|s of vasou|ar d|seases of the eye,
|mprov|ng the performanoe of |ndustr|a| |asers, and |aser fus|on researoh.

A h|gh|y tang|b|e outoome from bu||d|ng th|s g|ant te|esoope w||| be a oohort of h|gh|y aooomp||shed eng|-
neers and so|ent|sts (w|th sk|||s honed on th|s great oha||enge} that w||| be oapab|e of app|y|ng the|r ta|ents
to a broad range of areas, of great benef|t to the Member State eoonom|es and soo|et|es.
6.2 THE lNTERAOTlON BETWEEN ASTRONOMY, lNDSTRY AND
lNNOvATlON
R|ght from the beg|nn|ngs of astronom|oa| te|esoopes |n 1609 there has been a strong oonneot|on
between |ndustry and advanoes |n astronom|oa| |nstrumentat|on. ||pperheys adopt|on of teohno|ogy
from the Dutoh speotao|e |ndustry |ed d|reot|y to the te|esoopes that enab|ed Ga|||eo to make h|s break-
through observat|ons of the moons of Jup|ter. |ater, the favour was returned when the astronomer
George A|ry used h|s know|edge of opt|os as app||ed to astronomy to deve|op speotao|e |enses to pro-
v|de ast|gmat|sm oorreot|on, |n th|s oase d|agnosed |n h|s own eyes. Another breakthrough |n astronom|-
oa| te|esoope teohno|ogy oame from the German ohem|oa| |ndustry when Justus von ||eb|g deve|oped
new methods of depos|t|on of s||ver, wh|oh were used by |eon Fouoau|t |n h|s p|oneer|ng s||vered-g|ass
te|esoope |n Marse|||e. Th|s teohno|ogy soon overtook meta| m|rrors, beoom|ng the dom|nant teohno|ogy
for researoh te|esoopes and |s st||| used today.

The next great advanoe |n te|esoope teohno|ogy aga|n oame from the adopt|on of teohno|ogy from an
|ndustr|a| f|e|d. The great te|esoopes of the f|rst ha|f of the 20th oentury used naut|oa| eng|neer|ng teoh-
n|ques deve|oped to bu||d Dreadnought batt|esh|ps. The heavy but preo|se eng|neer|ng needed to bu||d
g|ant gun turrets was app||ed to the preo|s|on traok|ng and st|ff struotures requ|red for |arge te|esoopes,
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 235 16/12/2011 18:32
236 Eoonom|o lmpaot E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
reaoh|ng a p|nnao|e |n the 200-|noh Ha|e te|esoope |n 1949, not to be surpassed unt|| the |nvent|on of
aot|ve opt|os by Ray W||son of ESO |n the |ate 1980s.

The prooess of br|ng|ng nove| teohno|ogy |nto astronomy from |ndustry, perfeot|ng |t |n pursu|t of
demand|ng astronom|oa| requ|rements and then push|ng |mproved teohno|ogy baok |nto other |ndustr|a|
and researoh seotors oan be regarded as a oyo|e of |nnovat|on.
6.3 lMPAOT
lt |s o|ear that a projeot of the s|ze and teohno|og|oa| oha||enge of the E-E|T w||| have s|gn|f|oant eoo-
nom|o, ou|tura| and so|ent|f|o |mpaot; pred|ot|ng that |mpaot |s more d|ff|ou|t. The ourrent state of researoh
|nto the |mpaot of major so|enoe projeots |s patohy and, of oourse, any sort of quant|tat|ve pred|ot|on |s
prob|emat|o. lndeed, |t |s very d|ff|ou|t to understand the effeot of past |nvestments, |et a|one pred|ot
future |mpaot. Two |mportant oontr|but|ng faotors are the |mportanoe of serend|p|tous d|soovery and the
t|me taken between fundamenta| d|soover|es and exp|o|tat|on. For examp|e, no one wou|d argue that the
d|soovery of the e|eotron was mot|vated by the need to deve|op oomputers. However, we oan make
some pred|ot|ons of the potent|a| |mpaot.

Eoonom|o |mpaot oan be def|ned as:

An action or activity has an economic impact when it affects the welfare of consumers, the profits of
firms and/or the revenue of government. Economic impacts range from those that are readily quantifia-
ble, in terms of greater wealth, cheaper prices and more revenue, to those less easily quantifiable, such
as effects on the environment, public health and quality of life.

Henoe the |mpaot of researoh oan be both tang|b|e and |ntang|b|e and oan be exper|enoed by the gen-
era| pub||o, |ndustry and government |n add|t|on to those oommun|t|es d|reot|y assoo|ated w|th the
researoh. Eoonom|o |mpaot oan happen over vary|ng t|mesoa|es w|th some researoh tak|ng ten or twenty
years to y|e|d tang|b|e returns.

lmpaot oan be both d|reot and |nd|reot, w|th v|s|b|||ty at reg|ona|, nat|ona| and |nternat|ona| |eve|s, the |at-
ter be|ng part|ou|ar|y true w|th mu|t|nat|ona| |arge-soa|e fao|||t|es. A fam|||ar examp|e |s the now a||-
pervas|ve |aser, wh|oh oame from fundamenta| researoh on m|orowave oso|||ators, |no|ud|ng natura|
mo|eou|ar oso|||ators |n spaoe, and for many years was regarded as a so|ut|on |ook|ng for a prob|em.
6.3.1 OATEGORlES OF lMPAOT
The E-E|T w||| generate |mpaot |n the broadest sense of the word |n the fo||ow|ng oategor|es:

Generat|ng know|edge: understand|ng the n|verse and our p|aoe |n |t;
Prov|d|ng |nsp|rat|on: the ou|tura| and symbo||o |mpaot of do|ng |nsp|rat|ona| so|enoe, essent|a| for
attraot|ng the next generat|on |nto oareers |n so|enoe, teohno|ogy and eng|neer|ng;
lnoreas|ng the sk|||s base: for so|ent|f|o and teohno|og|oa| prob|em-so|v|ng, espeo|a||y deve|op-
ment of tra|ned graduates;
Bu||d|ng |ndustr|a| oapao|ty: oreat|ng new f|rms, and attraot|ng |nward |nvestment;
St|mu|at|ng |nnovat|on: deve|opment of teohno|og|es wh|oh oan u|t|mate|y |ead to new goods and
serv|oes; and
lmprov|ng the qua||ty of ||fe: through new teohno|og|es that address the grand oha||enges of the
21st oentury.
6.4 GENERATlNG KNOW|EDGE
The E-E|T w||| expand our know|edge of the n|verse. lt w||| have a major |mpaot, a|| the way from the
ear||est phases of star and ga|axy format|on as the f|rst ||ght was generated, to stud|es of exop|anets
around nearby stars. Wh||e the E-E|T pushes towards these grand a|ms, |t w||| a|so generate s|gn|f|oant
know|edge of benef|t to |ndustry and other seotors of so|enoe.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Eoonom|o lmpaot 237
6.5 PROvlDlNG lNSPlRATlON
A reoent study of how to attraot young peop|e to oareers |n eng|neer|ng stated:
Young people will be impressed if we can demonstrate the crucial role engineers play on big, iconic pro-
jects; they add glamour, longevity, respect and fame to engineering. It also added that, currently, there is
little aspiration or allure attached to engineering, but that this could be enhanced. This is certainly an area
where the E-ELT can contribute with high impact.
6.6 lNOREASlNG THE SKl||S BASE
Deve|op|ng and us|ng the E-E|T |s a major endeavour |n so|enoe, teohno|ogy and eng|neer|ng. Partner-
sh|ps between |nst|tutes, un|vers|ty groups and |ndustry are a|ready form|ng to bu||d and exp|o|t th|s te|e-
soope, |ts systems and |nstruments. A major |mpaot of th|s w||| be to deve|op a oohort of tra|ned so|en-
t|sts and eng|neers w|th sk|||s and knowhow honed by the oha||enges of th|s huge and oomp|ex maoh|ne.
Hundreds of so|ent|sts and eng|neers w||| be emp|oyed on the projeot |n the Member States. These w|||
|no|ude new graduates and post-doos who w||| transfer these sk|||s to future oha||enges aoross a range of
d|so|p||nes. These sk|||s are app||oab|e to many of the grand oha||enges of the 21st oentury.

Therefore, the prooess of des|gn|ng, oonstruot|ng, operat|ng and exp|o|t|ng the fao|||ty w||| oreate |arge
numbers of h|gh|y tra|ned peop|e. ln a reoent survey of K graduates from 2000 to 2003, ha|f were our-
rent|y emp|oyed |n the pub||o (non-un|vers|ty} or pr|vate seotors w|th ro|es spann|ng a broad range,
|no|ud|ng government posts, teaoh|ng, f|nano|a| serv|oes, manufaotur|ng, oommun|oat|ons, and the
defenoe |ndustry.
6.7 Bl|DlNG lNDSTRlA| OAPAOlTY
The E-E|T programme w||| |nvest some 820 Mt |n |ndustry. ln ||ne w|th ESOs proourement po||oy, the
bu|k of th|s |nvestment w||| be made |n the Member States and Oh||e. These oontraots w||| not on|y st|m-
u|ate Member State |ndustry, but oou|d a|so p|aoe the same |ndustr|es |n a pr|me pos|t|on for other future
oontraots for other seotors, suoh as |aser fus|on, u|tra-preo|s|on opt|os for ||thography |n sem|oonduotor
manufaoture, and Earth observat|on systems.

The E-E|T programme w||| a|so generate oommero|a||sat|on opportun|t|es. For examp|e, there are poten-
t|a| sp|n-out opportun|t|es |n the f|e|ds of |aser teohno|ogy, denta| oare, med|oa| |mag|ng and turbu|enoe
mon|tor|ng. There have a|ready been severa| sp|n-out oompan|es from astronomy teohno|ogy.

The emergenoe of new oompan|es, both |n response to the proourement requ|rements of the fao|||ty and
from teohno|ogy sp|n-offs, are expeoted to be a key |mpaot of the E-E|T. The va|ue of these new |ndus-
tr|es and oompan|es to the Member State eoonom|es oannot be pred|oted aoourate|y, but |t |s poss|b|e
to sketoh a perspeot|ve on potent|a| eoonom|o return. A reoent market study suggests that the wor|d
market for adapt|ve opt|os |n b|omed|oa| and oommun|oat|ons app||oat|ons oou|d potent|a||y grow to over
500 Mt per year w|th|n ten years. Deteotor deve|opments, ourrent|y funded to prov|de better opt|oa| and
|nfrared deteotors for E-E|T |nstruments and adapt|ve opt|os systems, oou|d a|so expand th|s market by
severa| hundred m||||on euro per year. An even |arger potent|a| market wou|d be opened up |f |aser fus|on
|s suooessfu| as a new energy generat|on teohno|ogy. The deve|opment of systems ||ke the H|PER |aser
fus|on oonoept and |ts suooessors oou|d prov|de market opportun|t|es |n the range of hundreds of b||||ons
of euros.
6.8 STlM|ATlNG lNNOvATlON
Some examp|es of potent|a| oyo|es of |nnovat|on that oou|d take p|aoe dur|ng deve|opment of the E-E|T
and |ts |nstruments and systems fo||ow.
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238 Eoonom|o lmpaot E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
6.8.1 ADAPTlvE OPTlOS
The suooess of the E-E|T |s dependent on deve|opment of adapt|ve opt|os teohno|og|es and systems
w|th oha||eng|ng requ|rements. Adapt|ve opt|os |s be|ng |noreas|ng|y app||ed to b|omed|oa| |mag|ng suoh
as the d|agnos|s of vasou|ar d|sease |n the eye, opt|oa| oommun|oat|ons, seour|ty, and |aser systems.
6.8.2 DETEOTORS
The E-E|T |s push|ng the requ|rements on sens|t|v|ty, p|xe| oount and speed. H|gh-performanoe opt|oa|
and |nfrared deteotors have w|de-rang|ng app||oat|ons outs|de astronomy, espeo|a||y |n b|omed|oa| |mag-
|ng and seour|ty soann|ng.
6.8.3 |ARGE PREOlSlON OPTlOS
The E-E|T pr|mary m|rror requ|res a|most one thousand preo|s|on segments (|no|ud|ng spares}, push|ng
the deve|opment of rap|d produot|on and metro|ogy teohn|ques. Suoh |arge opt|oa| e|ements have app||-
oat|ons |n, for |nstanoe, |aser fus|on researoh. The nove| teohn|ques be|ng deve|oped to enab|e us to
make over a thousand pr|mary m|rror segments at reasonab|e oost wou|d be needed to manufaoture
m|rrors to foous terawatt |asers on to pe||ets of deuter|um and tr|t|um to br|ng about fus|on (oreat|ng
he||um, neutrons and huge amounts of energy}. These h|gh-power |asers oause damage to the opt|oa|
surfaoes, w|th the oonsequent need for rout|ne rep|aoement, |mp|y|ng a need for eoonom|o mass pro-
duot|on of preo|s|on m|rrors. The very same gr|nd|ng maoh|nes be|ng deve|oped for the manufaoture of
E-E|T m|rror segments resu|t |n |ow subsurfaoe damage and henoe potent|a||y |ower susoept|b|||ty to
|aser damage. Of oourse, there are many prob|ems to be so|ved before |aser fus|on oou|d be regarded as
a praot|oa| power souroe, but a ser|es of test fao|||t|es are now be|ng bu||t and p|anned (e.g., Nat|ona|
lgn|t|on Fao|||ty, |aser Megajou|e, H|PER} that oou|d resu|t |n zero oarbon em|ss|on power generat|on
w|th|n the next f|fty years. lf th|s were to oome about, the raw mater|a| requ|rements are |mpress|ve.
Deuter|um oan be extraoted from seawater, and tr|t|um bred from natura| ||th|um. A ||fet|me of e|eotr|o|ty
for one person at the |eve|s of oonsumpt|on by western eoonom|es wou|d on|y requ|re a bath-fu|| of sea
water and the ||th|um used |n one |aptop battery.

Another app||oat|on of preo|s|on surfaoe-form|ng |s the manufaoture of art|f|o|a| knee jo|nts, where jo|nt
||fet|me oan be enhanoed by us|ng a hard-on-hard bear|ng oomb|nat|on that requ|res |mproved surfaoe
f|n|sh. The need to keep up w|th Moores |aw |s a|so push|ng sem|oonduotor ||thography towards shorter
wave|engths and henoe h|gher-preo|s|on opt|oa| surfaoes.
6.8.4 lNSTRMENTATlON
The E-E|T needs |arge, oomp|ex opt|oa|/|nfrared |nstruments, |nvo|v|ng oha||enges |n mater|a|s, meoha-
n|sms, oryogen|os and opt|oa| oomponents. These are gener|o teohno|og|es, w|th app||oat|on |n a w|de
range of so|ent|f|o |nstrumentat|on, from Earth observat|on sate|||tes to |nfrared speotrosoopy for med|oa|
d|agnost|os.
6.8.5 PHOTONlOS
Adopt|on |n future |nstruments of photon|o teohno|og|es from the te|eoommun|oat|ons |ndustry w||| oyo|e
|nnovat|on baok |nto |ndustr|a|, env|ronmenta| and b|omed|oa| app||oat|ons.
6.8.6 lMAGE AND DATA PROOESSlNG
Oha||eng|ng requ|rements for the extraot|on of |nformat|on from no|sy and oomp|ex |mages st|mu|ates
deve|opment of new teohn|ques, wh|oh are be|ng app||ed to b|omed|oa| |mag|ng app||oat|ons suoh as
h|stopatho|ogy and magnet|o resonanoe |mag|ng (MRl} soann|ng.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Eoonom|o lmpaot 239
6.8.7 STROTRA| ENGlNEERlNG
The E-E|T |s a mass|ve smart struoture w|th preo|se a||gnment requ|rements. |essons |earned oou|d be
app||ed to many h|gh-preo|s|on, aot|ve struotures, |no|ud|ng |aser fus|on systems.
6.8.8 lMPROvlNG THE OA|lTY OF |lFE
Many of the most d|reot |mpaots on qua||ty of ||fe der|ved from astronomy and |ts enab||ng teohno|ogy
have been ment|oned |n other oontexts above. Teohno|og|es from opt|oa| and |nfrared astronomy are
a|ready be|ng app||ed to med|o|ne and the ||fe so|enoes, and the new teohno|ogy we are deve|op|ng for
the E-E|T |s ||ke|y to have even more |mpaot. For |nstanoe, ret|na| |mag|ng to he|p d|agnose maou|ar
degenerat|on, wavefront sens|ng to enab|e des|gn of more aoourate |nteroou|ar |ens |mp|ants, and med|-
oa| data ana|ys|s for |nterpretat|on of bra|n soans. ||ghtwe|ght and oontro||ab|e opt|oa| surfaoes oan be
app||ed to severa| areas wh|oh oou|d have |mpaot on the env|ronment and our oarbon footpr|nt, from
understand|ng o||mate ohange through Earth observat|on systems, to reduo|ng oarbon em|ss|ons through
the use of so|ar power and, u|t|mate|y, |aser fus|on systems.

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240 Eoonom|o lmpaot E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 240 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Outreaoh and Eduoat|on 241
7 OTREAOH AND EDOATlON
7.1 THE vA|E OF RESEAROH lNFRASTROTRES FOR SOOlETY
Beyond the obv|ous benef|ts for so|ent|f|o researoh and for the eoonomy, |arge-soa|e researoh |nfra-
struotures suoh as the E-E|T a|so have an |mportant added va|ue for soo|ety. Th|s added va|ue oan be
d|v|ded |nto three broad areas: |arge-soa|e fao|||t|es oan have a social mission; they oan oontr|bute to
social innovation; and they p|ay an essent|a| ro|e in informing and educating the wider public.

Regard|ng the f|rst aspeot: the soo|a| m|ss|on of a fao|||ty oan be one that seeks an |mmed|ate |mpaot
(e.g., numerous examp|es ex|st |n the b|omed|oa| doma|n} or one that a|ms at a |ong-|ast|ng |mpaot on
soo|ety. The E-E|T |s a pr|me examp|e for the |atter: |t |s one of the, |f not the, f|rst fao|||ty that oou|d
deteot ||fe beyond the So|ar System |f |t ex|sts. W|th the potent|a| of suoh a d|soovery, the E-E|T oou|d
have a most profound |mpaot on soo|ety. The answer to the quest|on Are we a|one? |s one that has
faso|nated human|ty for oentur|es. An answer does not on|y have deep ph||osoph|oa| |mp||oat|ons, but
a|so re||g|ous ones. The potent|a| d|soovery of ||fe on an exop|anet wou|d profound|y and permanent|y
ohange the peroept|on of our p|aoe |n the n|verse.

Wh||e the above |mpaot on soo|ety |s as unoerta|n as |t wou|d be profound, |arge-soa|e fao|||t|es have rou-
t|ne|y had a muoh more |mmed|ate |mpaot on soo|a| |nnovat|on. The most famous examp|e |s oerta|n|y
the |ntroduot|on of the wor|d w|de web |n 1991 at OERN whose |mpaot on the |nnovat|on of soo|ety
does not need to be expanded on. The h|story of so|enoe |s f|||ed w|th other more or |ess prom|nent
examp|es (e.g., the wor|ds f|rst oyo|otron |n Berke|ey |n the 1930s wh|oh |ed to todays oommon rad|o-
aot|ve pharmaoeut|oa|s; or the reoent Gr|d oomput|ng at OERNs |arge Hadron Oo|||der that |aunohed
the era of o|oud oomput|ng}. The E-E|T projeot |s |nnovat|ve |n many teohno|og|es (opt|os, e|eotron|os,
oommun|oat|on} and pushes European |ndustry to the teohno|og|oa| ||m|t, requ|r|ng oreat|v|ty and exp|ora-
t|on. lt |s thus expeoted that the teohno|og|oa| deve|opments |n the ESO Member States and/or the
E-E|T |tse|f w||| generate a number of byproduots that w||| a|| oontr|bute to |nnovat|on |n our soo|ety.

Arguab|y the most |mportant |mpaot of |arge-soa|e researoh |nfrastruotures |s the|r ro|e of |nform|ng and
eduoat|ng the w|der pub||o. Major so|ent|f|o projeots appea| to peop|es |mag|nat|on. They are |dea| p|at-
forms to pub||o|se so|enoe and |ts benef|t to soo|ety. Astronomy p|ays a |ead|ng ro|e |n th|s endeavour as
|t eas||y oonveys the beauty and mystery of so|enoe through the fantast|o |mages of the n|verse sur-
round|ng us. The E-E|T w||| prov|de |mages f|fteen t|mes sharper than those from the NASA/ESA Hubb|e
Spaoe Te|esoope |t |s easy to p|oture the|r effeot on the pub||o when |ook|ng baok at the transforma-
t|ona| ro|e that the HST has p|ayed |n the peroept|on of the n|ght sky. The E-E|T w||| undoubted|y draw
the pub||os attent|on to so|enoe.

The ro|e and added va|ue of |arge-soa|e researoh fao|||t|es, w|th emphas|s on the|r va|ue to soo|ety, were
reoent|y stud|ed by the Taskforoe to Promote |arge-Soa|e Researoh Fao|||t|es and by the Dutoh M|n|stry
of Eduoat|on, Ou|ture and So|enoe. The key resu|ts on the soo|a| effeots of |arge-soa|e researoh fao|||t|es
are summar|sed |n F|gure 7.1, taken from the|r f|na| report

(Feb. 2011}.

http://www.teohnopo||s-group.oom/resouroes/down|oads/reports/1379_Report_|arge-soa|e_Researoh_
Fao|||t|es_EN.pdf
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 241 16/12/2011 18:32
242 Outreaoh and Eduoat|on E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 7.1. The social effects of large-scale research facilities. Source: Web Survey of Large-Scale Research Facili-
ties, Technopolis Group (2010).
7.2 THE lMPAOT OF THE E-E|T ON EDOATlON AND PB|lO
OTREAOH
The need to |ntens|fy so|enoe |nformat|on to and eduoat|on of the pub||o, |n part|ou|ar of the young peop|e
|n Europe, |s reoogn|sed |n a|| Member States.

The 2007 report

to the European Oomm|ss|on on So|enoe Eduoat|on states: In recent years, many


studies have highlighted an alarming decline in young peoples interest for key science studies and
mathematics. Despite the numerous projects and actions that are being implemented to reverse this
trend, the signs of improvement are still modest. Unless more effective action is taken, Europes longer-
term capacity to innovate, and the quality of its research will also decline. Furthermore, among the
population in general, the acquisition of skills that are becoming essential in all walks of life, in a society
increasingly dependent on the use of knowledge, is also under increasing threat.

As out||ned above, |arge-soa|e fao|||t|es suoh as the E-E|T represent un|que opportun|t|es to reaoh out to
the pub||o, to |nform and generate enthus|asm amongst young peop|e for so|enoe through astronomy
and to he|p reverse the trend of a deo||n|ng |nterest. W|th |ts strong mu|t|d|so|p||nary oharaoter and pow-
erfu| pub||o appea|, astronomy oan p|ay an |mportant ro|e |n modern so|enoe eduoat|on. The stunn|ng
so|ent|f|o resu|ts from ESOs te|esoopes a|ready prov|de |nva|uab|e treasures for so|enoe teaohers.

http://eo.europa.eu/researoh/so|enoe-soo|ety/dooument_||brary/pdf_06/report-rooard-on-so|enoe-eduoat|on_en.pdf
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 242 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Outreaoh and Eduoat|on 243

Figure 7.2. Total number of physical science graduates in selected countries. Source: Science Education NOW
see above link to the full report.
7.2.1 ESOS EDOATlON AND OTREAOH PROGRAMME
Astronom|oa| d|soover|es |n genera|, espeo|a||y those that w||| ar|se from the E-E|T w||| be a tremendous
too| for |noreas|ng the genera| pub||os |nterest |n so|enoe, by show|ng often qu|te dramat|o wonders of
the n|verse through pretty p|otures and v|deos.

The E-E|T outreaoh aot|v|t|es are oarr|ed out by the ESO eduoat|on and Pub||o Outreaoh Department
(ePOD}. As part of the Department, European outreaoh for the NASA/ESA Hubb|e Spaoe Te|esoope pro-
v|des oomprehens|ve |nformat|on about th|s te|esoope and |ts so|ent|f|o d|soover|es. A|so the lnternat|ona|
Astronom|oa| n|on (lA} Press Off|oe |s hosted at ESO as part of the Department. The E-E|T eduoat|on
and outreaoh aot|v|t|es are |ntegrated |nto the programme a|ongs|de the ex|st|ng observator|es and te|e-
soopes: |a S|||a, v|T, the survey te|esoopes and A|MA.

A w|de range of programmes and aot|v|t|es are used to meet the speo|f|o requ|rements of te|ev|s|on, pr|nt
and on||ne med|a, suoh as press re|eases and broadoast mater|a| for the med|a. ePOD embraoes a mu|-
t|med|a approaoh to pub||o outreaoh, as seen |n, for examp|e, the ESOoast, the Hubb|eoast, soo|a| med|a
eto. ePOD produoes h|gh-qua||ty pr|nted mater|a| suoh as broohures, books, annua| reports, news|etters
(The Messenger, CAPjournal} posters, eto.

ePOD pub||shes around 50 press re|eases per year for ESO, and over 25 press re|eases for ESA/HST,
and the lA oomb|ned. ESO a|so |ssues over 100 announoements per year for sma||er, but st||| news-
worthy stor|es.

ln the past, some |mpress|ve events have been oovered by the department, suoh v|T F|rst ||ght, Astron-
omy On-||ne, and the |mpaot of Oomet Shoemaker-|evy 9. Some famous eduoat|ona| oampa|gns suoh
as venus Trans|t, So|enoe on Stage and So|enoe |n Sohoo| have a|so oome out of the department.

ePOD a|so organ|ses exh|b|t|ons |n so|enoe museums and p|anetar|ums, as they are amongst the best
oondu|ts for d|ssem|nat|ng astronomy more w|de|y to the |nterested pub||o. ESO has produoed two p|an-
etar|um shows so far. The f|rst was fooused on the ESO observator|es |n Oh||e and |s ent|t|ed Mysteries
of the Southern Sky. lt was re|eased |n 2002 |n f|ve |anguages and has been a|red |n about 40 |ooat|ons
|n seven European oountr|es and |n the SA. The seoond, |n fu||dome format w|th extens|ve 3D an|ma-
t|ons, |s ent|t|ed In search of our Cosmic Origins and was re|eased |n 2009. lt |s ava||ab|e |n |east e|ght
|anguages and has been shown |n more than 65 p|anetar|ums. lts story revo|ves around the A|MA
fao|||ty.

Other |nteraot|ons w|th so|enoe museums and the genera| pub||o |nvo|ve the (oo-}organ|sat|on of more
than 60 annua| events and exh|b|t|ons |n wh|oh ESO oont|nues to be |nvo|ved. Exh|b|t|on pane|s and
exh|b|t|on mode|s of the E-E|T have been produoed, some of wh|oh are on |ong-term |oan to so|enoe

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244 Outreaoh and Eduoat|on E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
oentres |n Europe. For examp|e, ESOs part|o|pat|on |n a new n|verse Spaoe at the Deutsohes
Museum |n Mun|oh means that the E-E|T |s extens|ve|y featured there, a|ong w|th the so|enoe |t w|||
address. Pr|nt mater|a| has a|so been produoed, and has been d|str|buted to so|enoe oentres and p|ane-
tar|ums wor|dw|de, as we|| as to the pub||o dur|ng exh|b|t|ons.


Figure 7.3. The E-ELT compared with the Pyramids.

A |arge oo||eot|on of photos (5000+} and v|deos (1500+} oan be found |n the ESO Pub||o lmage Ga||ery,
|no|ud|ng footage |n unoompressed HD qua||ty, d|reot|y usab|e for broadoast|ng.

ESOs presenoe on the |nternet |s mass|ve and st||| |noreas|ng. The number of v|s|ts to the eso.org s|te
exoeeded three m||||on per year |n 2010.


Figure 7.4 Visits per year on the ESO website.

The ESO So|enoe Outreaoh Network (ESON} trans|ates ESO news and baokground |nformat|on |nto
19 d|fferent |anguages and pub||shes |t on 27 d|fferent m|n|-s|tes. ln add|t|on to prov|d|ng the trans|at|ons,
the ESON representat|ves serve as |ooa| oontaots for the med|a and the genera| pub||o |n oonneot|on w|th
ESO deve|opments, press re|eases, exh|b|t|ons eto. They promote ESO |n var|ous ways |n the Member
States and add s|gn|f|oant|y to the v|s|b|||ty of the organ|sat|on.
7.2.1.1 ESOS EDOATlON PROGRAMME
Astronomy |s often ||tt|e taught at seoondary sohoo|s |n Europe, desp|te |ts strong eduoat|ona| va|ue and
|ts faso|nat|on for the youngest, and not so young m|nds, for the astronomy/spaoe doma|n. lt |s w|de|y
reoogn|sed that the key aot|on ||es |n offer|ng ever more astronomy-re|ated tra|n|ng oourses for teaohers
|no|ud|ng praot|oa| observat|ons, modern top|os and examp|es. Th|s g|oba| |ssue |s essent|a||y |n the
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Outreaoh and Eduoat|on 245
hands of the M|n|str|es of Eduoat|on |n the European states or reg|ons, but |t |s |mportant that ESO
rema|ns |nvo|ved on a regu|ar bas|s |n that area.

ESO supports astronomy and astrophys|os eduoat|on, espeo|a||y at the h|gh-sohoo| |eve|. Th|s |no|udes
teaoh|ng mater|a|s, oourses for teaohers and speo|f|o eduoat|ona| projeots, often |n oo||aborat|on w|th
partners suoh as the European Assoo|at|on for Astronomy Eduoat|on (EAAE}, the ElROforum, the Euro-
pean Oomm|ss|on and others.

ESOs eduoat|ona| programmes a|m to st|mu|ate |nterest |n the natura| so|enoes, and |n astronomy and
astrophys|os |n part|ou|ar, among European youth. W|th the|r |nternat|ona| d|mens|on, they oomp|ement
efforts by nat|ona| eduoat|on author|t|es, un|vers|t|es and |nd|v|dua| sohoo|s and teaohers.

These efforts are oont|nued and strengthened through jo|nt ElROforum aot|v|t|es, w|th programmes suoh
as ||fe |n the n|verse and Oou|dnt be w|thout |t! target|ng sohoo| oh||dren, and the Phys|os on Stage
and So|enoe on Stage programmes, wh|oh are d|reoted towards European so|enoe teaohers. W|th |ts
partners |n the ElROforum, ESO a|so pub||shes Europes f|rst |nternat|ona|, mu|t|d|so|p||nary journa| for
so|enoe teaoh|ng, Science in School.

ESO has a|so been the |ead|ng foroe beh|nd severa| h|gh-prof||e eduoat|ona| p||ot programmes, often
oarr|ed out |n oo||aborat|on w|th partners |no|ud|ng the European Oomm|ss|on, suoh as The Future
Astronomers of Europe, Astronomy On-||ne and the Sea & Spaoe projeots, a|| oarr|ed out |n the frame-
work of the European So|enoe and Teohno|ogy Weeks.
A ||st of ESOs prev|ous programmes |s ava||ab|e at:
http://eso.org/pub||o/outreaoh/eduoff/prev-programmes.htm|

Target|ng the attent|on of the young generat|ons, ESO suooessfu||y bu||t up a |ead|ng presenoe |n soo|a|
med|a among astronomy |nst|tut|ons through ohanne|s suoh as Faoebook and Tw|tter.


Figure 7.5. Numbers of fans and followers on social media.
7.2.1.2 |OOA| OTREAOH lN OHl|E
ln|t|a||y through the |a S|||a Observatory, then the Parana| and the A|MA observator|es |n Northern Oh||e,
we have d|reot exper|enoe on the |mpaot on the outreaoh and eduoat|on va|ue of bu||d|ng and operat|ng
major astronom|oa| observator|es |n a host oountry outs|de of our d|reot oonst|tuenoy.

The key aspeot has been to forge ou|tura| ||nks at many |eve|s between ESO and Oh||e. Speo|f|o aot|ons
|no|ude annua| funds for the deve|opment of astronomy |n Oh||e and more speo|f|oa||y for astronom|oa|,
teohn|oa| and ou|tura| deve|opments |n the two reg|ons where the observator|es are |ooated. As host
oountry, Oh||e |s |n add|t|on gett|ng a s|gn|f|oant fraot|on of te|esoope t|me not on|y on ESO fao|||t|es
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246 Outreaoh and Eduoat|on E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
(10%}, but at other observator|es as we||: th|s huge|y |noreases the appea| of Oh||ean astronom|oa|
departments wor|dw|de, |no|ud|ng |n other South Amer|oan oountr|es. Oonsequent|y, astronomy depart-
ments and ourr|ou|a have been stead||y deve|oped at a|| major Oh||ean un|vers|t|es over the |ast deoade.
Astronomy has beoome a major branoh of so|enoe and a magnet for students at Oh||ean un|vers|t|es.

But the eduoat|ona| system |s not the on|y th|ng to prof|t from the presenoe of ESOs wor|d-|ead|ng te|e-
soopes |n Oh||e. The Parana| Observatory now f|gures |n a|| major trave| gu|des as attraot|on |n the
Ataoama Desert. The resu|t |s an |norease |n the number of v|s|tors at the s|te. Through the regu|ar week-
end v|s|ts, o|ose to 10 000 tour|sts per year v|s|t the s|tes. ln add|t|on, every year more than 500 vlPs and
representat|ves of the med|a v|s|t the ESO s|tes, spread over 200 days throughout the year.


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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Management P|an 247
8 MANAGEMENT P|AN
8.1 OONTET
The E-E|T projeot w||| be exeouted by ESO and w||| be based |n the ESO Garoh|ng Headquarters. ln
order to suooessfu||y de||ver a projeot of th|s s|ze together w|th the oont|nu|ng |nstrumentat|on pro-
gramme for the |a S|||a Parana| Observatory, and w|th A|MA near|ng oomp|et|on and start|ng so|enoe
operat|ons, ESO has been reorgan|sed to make opt|mum use of |ts resouroes. The E-E|T projeot w||| be
|ns|de the E|T D|v|s|on of the D|reotorate of Programmes. However, many of the staff w||| be matr|xed to
the projeot from other d|v|s|ons and d|reotorates. ln part|ou|ar, muoh of the eng|neer|ng effort w||| oome
from the reoent|y oreated D|reotorate of Eng|neer|ng.

ESO w||| fo||ow a s|m||ar proourement ph||osophy to that |t emp|oyed to bu||d the v|T, name|y to out-
souroe as muoh as poss|b|e at system |eve|. Th|s ph||osophy has been extended for the E-E|T to reduoe
r|sk |n the programme through us|ng the Front End Eng|neer|ng Des|gn prooess and extens|ve prototyp-
|ng of or|t|oa| oomponents.
8.2 GOvERNANOE
The D|reotorate of Programmes reports to Oouno|| at eaoh ord|nary Oouno|| meet|ng about the status of
the E-E|T programme.

The report |s a Oouno|| dooument that |s a|so subm|tted tw|oe a year for |nformat|on and oomments to
the F|nanoe Oomm|ttee ord|nary meet|ng that preoedes the Oouno|| ord|nary meet|ng. The (rev|sed} ver-
s|on wh|oh |no|udes the oomments from the F|nanoe Oomm|ttee |s sent to Oouno|| for |nformat|on and
d|souss|on.

The report, whose f|nano|a| seot|on |s oonf|dent|a| and wh|oh |s va||dated by ESO F|nanoe, |no|udes pro-
gress reports, s|gn|f|oant |ssues (r|sks} and f|nano|a| reports and projeot|ons. lt |s organ|sed aooord|ng to
the work breakdown struoture. The sohedu|e report |dent|f|es the or|t|oa| path and any tasks w|th |ess
than one month of s|aok. The f|nano|a| report|ng |no|udes the use of ESO manpower, and, exp||o|t|y and
separate|y, the usage of oont|ngenoy funds. F|nano|a| report|ng fo||ows the ESO aooount|ng ru|es |n foroe
at the t|me of the report.

The D|reotorate of Programmes a|so g|ves, tw|oe a year, a verba| presentat|on about the status of the
E-E|T programme to the STO and to any suboomm|ttees that the STO deems neoessary.
8.3 PROJEOT TEAM STROTRE AND RESPONSlBl|lTlES
The E-E|T programme estab||shes a oonstruot|on aot|v|ty (the projeot} managed by a projeot manager,
and other aot|v|t|es that |nvo|ve |nteraot|ons w|th the oommun|ty, the pub||o eto. that are managed more
g|oba||y w|th|n the D|reotorate of Programmes. lnterfaoes w|th other D|v|s|ons and D|reotorates are
addressed |n the re|evant seot|ons be|ow.

The organ|sat|on shown be|ow |s des|gned to prov|de the projeot manager w|th the d|reot author|ty
neoessary to exeoute the projeot and support her/h|m |n th|s ro|e at the so|ent|f|o and strateg|o |eve|.

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248 Management P|an E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|

Figure 8.1. The E-ELT project org chart.
8.3.1 DlREOTORS OF PROGRAMMES AND OPERATlONS
The D|reotorate of Programmes exeoutes the E-E|T programme and the D|reotor, supported by the pro-
gramme so|ent|st, ensures that the h|gh |eve| so|ent|f|o a|ms and strateg|o goa|s of the organ|sat|on for
th|s programme are met. The D|reotor of Programmes |s the ||ne manager for the E-E|T projeot manager
and |s the penu|t|mate author|ty (the u|t|mate be|ng the D|reotor Genera|} on matters of safety and qua||ty
oontro|. The D|reotor of Programmes |s supported by ESO genera| support serv|oes |n the areas of re|a-
t|ons w|th Oh||e, human resouroes and |ega| adv|oe.

The E-E|T |s to be oonstruoted and operated at the |a S|||a Parana| Observatory. The strateg|o ooord|-
nat|on of the programme needs and the observatory requ|rements are managed at the |eve| of the
D|reotor of Programmes and the D|reotor of Operat|ons, supported by the programme so|ent|st. The
deta||ed |mp|ementat|on |s managed at |ower |eve|s (see be|ow}.

The D|reotor of Programmes |s supported |n operat|ona| overs|ght of the E-E|T projeot by the ESO
Management Team augmented as neoessary by the programme so|ent|st and members of the D|reo-
torates of Operat|ons and Eng|neer|ng.
8.3.2 PROGRAMME SOlENTlST
The programme so|ent|st reports to the D|reotor of Programmes and |s respons|b|e for ensur|ng that the
de||vered E-E|T |s oapab|e of suooessfu||y oarry|ng out |ts so|ent|f|o a|ms. The programme so|ent|st |s
aot|ve|y |nvo|ved |n a|| aspeots of the des|gn and oonstruot|on of the E-E|T. Speo|f|oa||y, the programme
so|ent|st approves a|| so|enoe-re|ated dooumentat|on.

The programme so|ent|st:

Re|eases the top-|eve| requ|rements;
Owns the so|enoe and s|te operat|ons p|ans; and
ls respons|b|e for (supported by ESO genera| serv|oes} outreaoh and the web presenoe of the
programme.
8.3.3 PROJEOT MANAGER
The projeot manager |s respons|b|e for de||ver|ng the E-E|T w|th|n t|me, oosts and speo|f|oat|ons. The
projeot manager reports to the D|reotor of Programmes and |s a fu|| member of the ESO Management
Team w|th d|reot aooess to the D|reotor Genera|.

E-ELT
Project Manager
Optomechanics
Project Science Systems Engineering
Control
Project Control
Oversight
Director General
Director of Programmes
Programme Scientist
Chief Engineer
Systems Scientist
Main Structure/Dome Civil/Infrastructure
SYSTEMS
Instruments
QA
Science advisory
working group
Operations
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Management P|an 249
The projeot manager:

|eads the team and ensures that the resouroes neoessary to exeoute the projeot are ava||ab|e;
ls respons|b|e for report|ng on a regu|ar bas|s on progress, oost and sohedu|e var|at|ons and
r|sks;
Re|eases a|| teohn|oa| and manager|a| dooumentat|on generated w|th|n the projeot;
ls the so|e author|ty for approv|ng ohange requests and requests for wa|ver, |rrespeot|ve of the|r
or|g|n or urgenoy;
Supported by, and |n oonsu|tat|on w|th ESO F|nanoe, subm|ts the annua| foreoast and man-
power request to the D|reotor of Programmes;
ls supported by ESO genera| serv|oes |n the areas of f|nanoe, oontraot|ng and proourement and
|og|st|os; and
ls the po|nt of oontaot for |nteraot|ons w|th the |a S|||a Parana| Observatory that are not of strate-
g|o nature. ln th|s oontext the projeot manager |s respons|b|e for ensur|ng that the d|srupt|on of
the operat|ons of |a S|||a Parana| |s m|n|m|sed and the benef|ts max|m|sed.
8.3.4 PROJEOT SOlENTlST
The projeot so|ent|st reports to the projeot manager and heads the E-E|T so|enoe off|oe that ass|sts |n
|dent|fy|ng aspeots of the te|esoope, |nstrumentat|on or operat|ons that need to be mon|tored or |nvest|-
gated through s|mu|at|ons and ana|ys|s. The projeot so|ent|st and the members of the so|enoe off|oe are
matr|xed |nto the E-E|T projeot from the D|reotorate of So|enoe. Th|s matr|x arrangement a|so prov|des
the projeot so|ent|st w|th a degree of |ndependent report|ng to the D|reotor of So|enoe.

The projeot so|ent|st:

Oha|rs the so|enoe adv|sory work|ng group that |s popu|ated by members of the astronom|oa|
oommun|ty;
lnteraots o|ose|y w|th the projeot manager on operat|ona| aspeots; and
Owns the top-|eve| requ|rements dooument.
8.3.5 SYSTEMS SOlENTlST
The E-E|T systems so|ent|st reports to the projeot manager and ensures that the so|enoe requ|rements
of the projeot are fu||y ma|nta|ned and traoked w|th|n the projeot. He w||| a|so ensure that the ver|f|oat|on
prooess |s deve|oped and ma|nta|ned to ensure that a|| requ|rements oan be ver|f|ed, and that the ver|f|-
oat|on |s o|ear|y traoked through the projeot dooumentat|on and DOORS. He w||| work o|ose|y w|th the
projeot eng|neer to ensure that th|s work |s ooord|nated w|th systems eng|neer|ng. He w||| be the so|ent|st
respons|b|e for oonf|gurat|on oontro| and s|t on the projeot ohange oontro| board. The systems so|ent|st
w||| a|so be respons|b|e for |ead|ng the p|ann|ng of Alv and oomm|ss|on|ng.
8.3.6 PROJEOT ENGlNEER
The E-E|T projeot eng|neer reports to the projeot manager and |s respons|b|e for ensur|ng that the eng|-
neer|ng effort ut|||sed on the projeot |s ooord|nated and that the te|esoope error budgets, stroke budgets,
operat|ona| soenar|os, |nterfaoes, requ|rements and oonf|gurat|on are up to date and oompat|b|e w|th the
des|gn. The projeot eng|neer ver|f|es that a|| speo|f|oat|ons for subsystems are oompat|b|e w|th the overa||
des|gn of the te|esoope and meet the requ|rements. The projeot eng|neer |eads a team that |no|udes at
|east one of, a requ|rements ana|yst, |nstrument systems eng|neer and an |nterfaoe and oonf|gurat|on
manager. The projeot eng|neer |s respons|b|e for the ana|ys|s of the performanoe of the te|esoope and
|nstrumentat|on, the ver|f|oat|on of the speo|f|oat|ons and the requ|rements and the deve|opment of a||
ano|||ary |nformat|on neoessary (e.g., error budgets, operat|ona| soenar|os eto.}.

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250 Management P|an E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
8.3.7 PROJEOT OONTRO||ER
The projeot oontro||er reports to the projeot manager and pro-aot|ve|y manages the oosts and sohedu|e
and r|sks of the projeot. The projeot oontro||er uses earned va|ue too|s and soph|st|oated projeot p|ann|ng
and traok|ng too|s to oont|nuous|y update the status of the projeot and generate the neoessary reports
for management. The sohedu|e manager reports to the projeot oontro||er.

The projeot oontro||er |s supported by and supports ESO F|nanoe |n ensur|ng that foreoasts as we|| as
ourrent status are oorreot|y ref|eoted |n the status of the programme.
8.3.8 AOTlvlTY MANAGERS
Aot|v|t|es are def|ned at |eve| 2 of the work breakdown struoture. The aot|v|ty managers report to the
projeot manager and are respons|b|e for de||ver|ng the work |n the work-paokages that are |no|uded |n
the|r areas. S|x major aot|v|t|es are foreseen as per the struoture above (optomeohan|os, dome and ma|n
struoture, o|v||/|nfrastruoture, |nstrumentat|on, oontro| system, so|enoe data operat|ons}. The aot|v|ty man-
agers fo||ow a|| oontraots |n the|r area and ensure that oontraot|ng and sohedu||ng do not oonf||ot.
Furthermore, they ensure that the max|mum benef|t |s ga|ned from the stream||n|ng of oontraots and
so|ut|ons. The aot|v|ty managers enab|e the ooord|nat|on of the work suoh that oonf||ots that may ar|se
due to over|oad|ng of oontraotors (e.g., aooess to oranes} or o|ashes of resouroes w|th|n ESO have the
m|n|mum |mpaot.

They manage a team of eng|neers matr|xed |nto the projeot from other d|reotorates and d|v|s|ons of ESO
that support the aot|v|t|es |n the|r area. They are supported by the systems eng|neer|ng team and the
projeot oontro||er. The aot|v|ty managers ooord|nate the aot|v|t|es of the ESO eng|neer|ng teams to pr|or|-
t|se work aooord|ng to the needs |n the|r area. Aot|v|ty managers, supported by projeot oontro|, subm|t
the|r manpower, oash foreoasts and sohedu|es to the projeot manager aooord|ng to the ESO budget
preparat|on prooess.
8.3.9 WORK PAOKAGE MANAGERS
Work paokages are at |eve| 3 or be|ow of the work breakdown struoture.

The work paokage managers report to the aot|v|ty managers. They perform the fo||ow-up of |ndustr|a| or
aoadem|o oontraots for supp||es of the E-E|T. They are respons|b|e for the smooth exeout|on of the oon-
traots and the t|me|y report|ng. They are ass|sted teohn|oa||y by the systems eng|neer|ng team and the
aot|v|ty eng|neer|ng team and manager|a||y by the projeot oontro||er. The work paokage managers, sup-
ported by staff from ESO oontraots and proourement, attend a|| progress meet|ngs w|th the oontraotors,
prepare and support a|| rev|ews and aot as the teohn|oa| oontaot for oontraots. They draft the teohn|oa|
speo|f|oat|ons and statements of work for a|| jobs assoo|ated w|th the|r work.

The work paokage managers subm|t manpower, rev|sed foreoasts and sohedu|es to the aot|v|ty manag-
ers and projeot oontro|, aooord|ng to the ESO budget preparat|on prooess.
8.4 DOOMENTATlON
The dooumentat|on of the programme fo||ows the E-E|T dooumentat|on p|an. Speo|f|oat|ons, statements
of work and |nterfaoe oontro| doouments are generated |n aooordanoe w|th referenoe doouments. Speo|-
f|oat|ons are to be drawn from w|th|n the DOORS database. Teohn|oa| reports and ano|||ary dooumenta-
t|on support|ng teohn|oa| speo|f|oat|ons are not o|assed as speo|f|oat|ons.

The DOORS database |s struotured aooord|ng to the work breakdown struoture thereby assur|ng the
h|erarohy and traok|ng requ|rements. The usage of DOORS as a requ|rements management too| assures
the ver|f|oat|on of the requ|rements. The va||dat|on of the requ|rements and the ||nks between them |s a
prooess that |s undertaken on a month|y bas|s. The rev|ew|ng prooess for dooumentat|on va||dates the
requ|rements. A report |s generated by the requ|rements manager on ohanges to the database and the
||nks there|n and systems eng|neer|ng va||dates these ohanges. Dooumentat|on app||oab|e to oontraots
a|ways takes preoedenoe, for the part|ou|ar oontraot, over future or past dooumentat|on.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Management P|an 251
The so|e va||d souroe of |nformat|on |s the ESO teohn|oa| aroh|ve. A|| doouments have an owner (typ|oa||y
the author}, an approv|ng ent|ty (typ|oa||y the work paokage manager} and a re|eas|ng ent|ty (typ|oa||y the
projeot manager}. The re|ease of a|| doouments requ|res, as a m|n|mum, two s|gnatures. Add|t|ona||y,
teohn|oa| speo|f|oat|ons oan on|y be re|eased w|th the approva| of systems eng|neer|ng (see be|ow} and
so|enoe-re|ated doouments oan on|y be re|eased w|th the approva| of the programme so|ent|st.

Souroe oode and mode|s used to generate data regard|ng the projeot are oons|dered to be dooumenta-
t|on and w||| be aroh|ved appropr|ate|y. S|m||ar|y, souroe oode and exeoutab|e oode used |n the operat|on
and oonstruot|on of the E-E|T are a|so oons|dered dooumentat|on and w||| be aroh|ved and managed
appropr|ate|y.
8.5 WORK BREAKDOWN STROTRE
The work breakdown struoture |no|udes a|| de||verab|es by the projeot. The WBS |s shown sohemat|oa||y
be|ow. |eve| 1 |s the E-E|T projeot and the |eve|s |norement be|ow that. The projeot work breakdown
struoture |s estab||shed a|ong produot ||nes and opt|m|sed to take |nto aooount the |ooat|on of aot|v|t|es,
the m|n|m|sat|on of |nterfaoes and the |nteraot|ons w|th the oontraotors and other part|es.


Table 8.1. Work breakdown structure.
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Ma|n Group ro[ecL Group AcLlvlLy 1lLle AcLlvlLyIC8 nLADLkuepL 1lLle uepL IC8 !C8
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 MC ro[ect Management C 01 I42.01.01 ro[ect Management 01 ro[ect Management S110
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 MC ro[ecL ManagemenL C 01 I42.01.01 ro[ecL ManagemenL 01 ro[ect Contro| S111
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 MC ro[ecL ManagemenL C 01 I42.01.01 ro[ecL ManagemenL 01 k|sk Mgmt S112
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 MC ro[ecL ManagemenL C 01 I42.01.01 ro[ecL ManagemenL 01 ro[ect Safety S113
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 MC ro[ecL ManagemenL C 01 I42.01.01 ro[ecL ManagemenL 01 ro[ect Assurance S114
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 MC ro[ect Management C 01 I42.01.02 ro[ect Lng|neer 02 ro[ect Lng|neer S120
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 MC ro[ecL ManagemenL C 01 I42.01.02 ro[ecL Lnglneer 02 SystemLng|neer|ng S121
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 MC ro[ect Management C 01 I42.01.03 ro[ect Sc|ence 03 ro[ect Sc|ence Cff|ce S130
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 DMS Dome & Ma|nstructure 02 I42.02.01 D&MS Act|v|ty Lead 01 D&MS Act|v|ty Lead S210
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 DMS uome &MalnsLrucLure 02 I42.02.02 D&MS Contracts 02 Dome S221
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 DMS uome &MalnsLrucLure 02 I42.02.02 u&MS ConLracLs 02 Ma|nstructure S222
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 C1MLCn Cptomechan|ca| 03 I42.03.01 CptoMech Act|v|ty Lead 01 CptoMech Act|v|ty Lead S310
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 C1MLCn CpLomechanlcal 03 I42.03.02 M|rror Systems 02 M1 Un|t S321
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 C1MLCn CpLomechanlcal 03 I42.03.02 Mlrror SysLems 02 M2 Un|t S322
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 C1MLCn CpLomechanlcal 03 I42.03.02 Mlrror SysLems 02 M3 Un|t S323
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 C1MLCn CpLomechanlcal 03 I42.03.02 Mlrror SysLems 02 M4 Un|t S324
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 C1MLCn CpLomechanlcal 03 I42.03.02 Mlrror SysLems 02 MS Un|t S32S
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 C1MLCn CpLomechanlcal 03 I42.03.03 Subs|d|ary systems 03 refoca| Stat|ons S331
!42 LL1 C1MLCn CpLomechanlcal 03 I42.03.03 Subsldlary sysLems 03 Laser & Laser ro[ect|on Subun|ts S332
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 CCN1kCL Contro| 04 I42.04.01 Contro| Act|v|ty Lead 01 Contro| Act|v|ty Lead S410
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 CCN1kCL ConLrol 04 I42.04.02 Contro| Lng|neer|ng 02 Wavefront Contro| S421
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 CCN1kCL ConLrol 04 I42.04.02 ConLrol Lnglneerlng 02 1e|escope Contro| S422
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 CCN1kCL ConLrol 04 I42.04.02 ConLrol Lnglneerlng 02 Metro|ogy S423
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 CCN1kCL ConLrol 04 I42.04.02 ConLrol Lnglneerlng 02 Instrumentat|on Iramework S424
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 CCN1kCL ConLrol 04 I42.04.02 ConLrol Lnglneerlng 02 S|te Mon|tor|ng S42S
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 CIVIL C|v|| 0S I42.0S.01 C|v|| Act|v|ty Lead 01 C|v|| Act|v|ty Lead SS10
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 CIVIL Clvll 0S I42.0S.02 C|v|| Infrastructure 02 S|te reparat|on SS21
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 CIVIL Clvll 0S I42.0S.02 Clvll lnfrasLrucLure 02 1emporary Infrastructure SS22
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 CIVIL Clvll 0S I42.0S.02 Clvll lnfrasLrucLure 02 ermenant Infrastructure SS23
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 GLN INIk Genera| Infrastructure 06 I42.06.01 Support|ng Systems Act|v|ty Lead 01 Support|ng Systems Act|v|ty Lead S610
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 GLN INIk Ceneral lnfrasLrucLure 06 I42.06.02 Support|ng Systems Construct|on 02 L|ft|ng and nand||ng S621
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 GLN INIk Ceneral lnfrasLrucLure 06 I42.06.02 SupporLlng SysLems ConsLrucLlon 02 Wash|ng and Coat|ng S622
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 GLN INIk Ceneral lnfrasLrucLure 06 I42.06.02 SupporLlng SysLems ConsLrucLlon 02 ower - GenSet and D|st S623
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 GLN INIk Ceneral lnfrasLrucLure 06 I42.06.02 SupporLlng SysLems ConsLrucLlon 02 Cryo, A|r and Ch|||ers S624
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 LCGS S|te Log|st|cs 07 I42.07.01 S|te Log|st|cs 01 Log|st|cs Support S700
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 LCGS SlLe LoglsLlcs 07 I42.07.02 SlLe LoglsLlcs 02 Log|st|cs Supp||es S710
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 LCGS SlLe LoglsLlcs 07 I42.07.02 SlLe LoglsLlcs 02 Log|st|cs Serv|ces S720
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 AIVC AIVC 08 I42.08.01 AIVC 01 AIV Lng|neer|ng S810
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 AIVC AlvC 08 I42.08.01 AlvC 01 Comm|ss|on|ng S820
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 SDC Sc|ence Data Cperat|on 09 I42.09.01 Sc|ence Data Cperat|ons 01 Sc|ence Data Cperat|ons S910
LL1 Construct|on I42 LL1 INS Instrumentat|on 10 I42.10.01 Instrumentat|on Management 01 Instrumentat|on Management S010
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.02 Instrumentat|on SystemLng|neer|n 02 Instrumentat|on SystemLng|neer|S021
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.02 lnsLrumenLaLlon SysLem Lnglneerln 02 Instrument standards & standard sS022
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.03 Instrumentat|on Deve|opment 03 Instrument enab||ng techno|og|es S031
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.03 lnsLrumenLaLlon uevelopmenL 03 Instrument spec. deve|opment S032
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.03 lnsLrumenLaLlon uevelopmenL 03 Instrumentat|on Infrastructure S033
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.04 Instruments 04 Instrument 1 Contract S041
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.04 Instruments 04 Instrument 1 LSC S042
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.04 lnsLrumenLs 04 Instrument 2 Contract S043
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.04 lnsLrumenLs 04 Instrument 2 LSC S044
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.04 lnsLrumenLs 04 Instrument 3 Contract S04S
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.04 lnsLrumenLs 04 Instrument 3 LSC S046
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.04 lnsLrumenLs 04 Instrument 4 S047
LL1 Construct|on !42 LL1 INS lnsLrumenLaLlon 10 I42.10.0S Instrumentat|ons M|sc 0S 1est Camera S0S1
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252 Management P|an E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
8.6 WORKF|OW
The workf|ow of the projeot |s based on a o|ass|oa| deve|opment p|an w|th requ|rements ana|ys|s, system
des|gn and aroh|teoture des|gn oomp|eted. The deta||ed des|gn of the te|esoope oomponents |s we||
advanoed and the oonstruot|on projeot |s on the f|na| des|gn and oonstruot|on, ver|f|oat|on and va||dat|on
traok. The teohn|oa| speo|f|oat|ons ar|s|ng from the phase B aot|v|t|es are to be used to prooure the f|na|
des|gn and oonstruot|on. The requ|rements for a|| speo|f|oat|ons are extraoted from the DOORS data-
base. ln pr|no|p|e no mod|f|oat|ons to these speo|f|oat|ons are p|anned un|ess they generate a oost or
sohedu|e sav|ng.

Fo||ow|ng ESO proourement prooedures, a|| s|gn|f|oant work w||| be put out to tender and the ESO
F|nanoe Oomm|ttee w||| approve the awards of oontraots. Month|y progress meet|ngs at the supp||ers
prem|ses take p|aoe and the m|nutes of these meet|ngs are oommun|oated to projeot management,
|no|ud|ng oontraots and proourement, and systems eng|neer|ng. Sohedu|e progress and dev|at|ons are
reported to projeot oontro|.

A|| aot|v|t|es generat|ng a oomponent to be |nsta||ed at the E-E|T, whether |nterna| to ESO or oontraoted,
undergo des|gn rev|ews. The rev|ew struoture fo||ows the ESO norms for pre||m|nary des|gn and f|na|
des|gn rev|ew. ln exoept|ona| o|roumstanoes, and w|th the approva| of projeot management, |norementa|
rev|ews are perm|tted. Des|gn rev|ews are organ|sed aooord|ng to the ESO prooedures and def|n|t|ons.
The rev|ew board members oan |no|ude externa| experts and rev|ew boards oan request support from
externa| bod|es (e.g., oonsu|t|ng serv|oes}. Projeot management w||| prov|de suff|o|ent resouroes, both
f|nano|a| and manpower, to support the rev|ew|ng prooess. The oha|r and members of the rev|ew board
are to be se|eoted to ensure max|mum poss|b|e |ndependenoe from both the rev|ewees and the projeot.
Eaoh rev|ew has a rev|ew author|ty who has the author|ty to aot on the reoommendat|ons of the rev|ew.
A|| rev|ew board reports a|so go to the D|reotor of Programmes.

A|| staff are ent|t|ed and requ|red to generate a red f|ag report |f they beoome aware of a fa||ure to meet
the top-|eve| requ|rements of the projeot or the speo|f|o requ|rements of the aot|v|ty or work paokage |n
wh|oh they are |nvo|ved. A|| red f|ag reports are oop|ed verbat|m to the D|reotor of Programmes. Oost and
sohedu|e dev|at|ons oan a|so generate red f|ag reports, but typ|oa||y these w||| be reported through pro-
jeot oontro|.

A|| oomponents of the te|esoope, whether manufaotured |n |ndustry or oreated at ESO, w||| undergo pro-
v|s|ona| aooeptanoe before sh|pment to or aooeptanoe by the observatory.

The projeot management re||es upon the eng|neer|ng manpower prov|ded by the D|reotorates of Eng|-
neer|ng, So|enoe & Operat|ons, and the lnstrumentat|on D|v|s|on. P|ann|ng for these resouroes |s
requested w|th|n the overa|| projeot p|an and |s updated on an annua| bas|s as part of the ESO man-
power a||ooat|on prooess. Projeot oontro| ensures that the request |s oompat|b|e w|th the overa||
sohedu|e of the projeot.
8.7 OOMMNlOATlONS
The projeot oommun|oat|ons, |no|ud|ng teohn|oa| or so|ent|f|o oonferenoe prooeed|ngs, fo||ow the doou-
ment re|ease prooedures d|soussed above. Press re|eases from ESO are managed through the ESO
approva| prooess, wh||e oommun|oat|ons by supp||ers are governed by the oontraots |n p|aoe. The
approva| by ESO for oontraotor oommun|oat|ons rests w|th the D|reotor of Programmes.
8.8 STAFF EFFORT
A|| manpower work|ng on the E-E|T programme |s aooounted for |n E-E|T work paokages. The aot|v|ty
managers are respons|b|e for the oorreot a||ooat|on and traok|ng of the use of manpower and report|ng to
projeot oontro| on dev|at|ons.

Teohn|oa| support |no|udes the prov|s|on of standard|sed so|ut|ons to the extent that they f|t w|th the
deve|opment p|ans and needs of the E-E|T projeot. The E-E|T projeot does not |no|ude the deve|opment
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Management P|an 253
of standard so|ut|ons for oomponents that ||e outs|de |ts own d|reot needs. The so|e exoept|ons to th|s
ru|e are requ|rements ar|s|ng from the |ntegrat|on of the E-E|T |nto the ex|st|ng Parana| |nfrastruoture.

Teohn|oa| support w||| be oontraoted outs|de ESO for the fo||ow|ng aot|v|t|es:

Oonsu|t|ng eng|neer|ng serv|oes for |ndependent ana|ys|s, va||dat|on and superv|s|on;
As a m|n|mum the dome and ma|n struoture oontraot w||| be supported by suoh serv|oes;
Produot assuranoe and qua||ty oontro| serv|oes at the manufaoturers prem|ses
lndependent software va||dat|on and ver|f|oat|on of ESO supp||ed oomponents, the |ntegrated
te|esoope oontro| system and at the supp||ers prem|ses for |ooa| oontro| un|ts.
8.9 SAFETY MANAGEMENT
Safety management fo||ows ESOs standard po||oy and the speo|f|o |mp|ementat|on for projeots, The
ESO safety assessment prooedure, |s app||oab|e to a|| oontraots. Produot safety |s managed through the
RAMS prooess that |s |no|uded |n qua||ty and produot assuranoe. The ESO safety assessment prooedure
speo|f|es the methodo|ogy for the assessment of hazards.

S|te safety |s managed by the |ooa| s|te safety off|oer (|n the oase of Armazones, the Parana| safety eng|-
neer} supported by safety eng|neers operat|ng on beha|f of the oontraotor that |s respons|b|e for |ts own
safety |nfrastruoture, and add|t|ona| oonstruot|on safety eng|neers operat|ng on beha|f of ESO.
8.10 ESOA|ATlON
Off-s|te safety and qua||ty oontro| |ssues are automat|oa||y reported to the D|reotor of Programmes who
w||| adv|se the Head of Adm|n|strat|on and D|reotor Genera| as neoessary.

S|m||ar|y, s|te safety and qua||ty oontro| |ssues are automat|oa||y reported to the D|reotor of the Opera-
t|ons and the D|reotor of Programmes who w||| adv|se the Head of Adm|n|strat|on and D|reotor Genera| as
neoessary.

No esoa|at|on prooedure |s foreseen for these |ssues.

As a matter of pr|no|p|e, a|| staff are a||owed and enoouraged to esoa|ate the|r oonoerns to the h|ghest
|eve| they oons|der neoessary. The D|reotor Genera| |s the u|t|mate author|ty |n suoh esoa|at|on and
her/h|s deo|s|on |s f|na| and w|thout appea|. The projeot w||| not p|aoe obstao|es to the esoa|at|on
prooess.
8.11 PROJEOT OONTRO|
The E-E|T w||| be oontro||ed, as was the v|T and |s ourrent|y A|MA, w|th a f|xed Oost to Oomp|et|on.
The annua| budget w||| be managed w|th|n the ESO Enterpr|se Resouroe P|ann|ng (ERP} system and w|||
be |nf|ated aooord|ng to the annua| |ndexat|on of the ESO budget (th|s w||| not |norease the tota| funds
a||ooated to the projeot as the base||ne oosts are estab||shed |n 2012 euros}.

The report|ng of the projeot w||| |no|ude aotua| and foreoast expend|tures as we|| as peroentages of work
oomp|eted and earned va|ue. ln add|t|on to |nform|ng and adv|s|ng the projeot management, projeot
oontro| w||| generate the projeot|ons for eaoh years annua| budget |nput prooess based on the pred|oted
progress.

The budget and sohedu|e system sha|| be oompat|b|e |n order to produoe EvM (Earned va|ue Manage-
ment}. Earned va|ue metr|os w||| be produoed month|y |n oonjunot|on w|th month|y sohedu|e updates.
Wh||e the oont|ngenoy w||| be he|d outs|de the projeot (see be|ow} the oa|ou|at|on of the oost and sohed-
u|e to oomp|et|on w||| |no|ude projeot|ons of usage of oont|ngenoy. The metr|os w||| be generated both
w|th and w|thout oont|ngenoy.

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254 Management P|an E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
The sohedu|e w||| be updated and pub||shed month|y and w||| have suff|o|ent deta|| to g|ve enough |nfor-
mat|on to desor|be the major aot|v|t|es, espeo|a||y those w|th |nteraot|ons between work paokages and
aot|v|ty areas. As a m|n|mum, the |ntegrated sohedu|e sha|| traok the fourth |eve| of the work breakdown
struoture (|.e. typ|oa||y at one |eve| be|ow that of the oontraots} and to the |owest pub||o |nterfaoe |eve|.
Part|ou|ar attent|on w||| be pa|d to key aot|v|t|es on or o|ose to the or|t|oa| path. The sohedu|e w||| have a
base||ne sohedu|e to measure dev|at|ons aga|nst. S|gn|f|oant ohanges to the base||ne sohedu|e sha|| be
managed by the same ohange request prooess as for budget ohanges.

Sohedu|e and oost dev|at|ons, |rrespeot|ve of the|r oause, sha|| be |no|uded |nto the projeot management
oontro| system. The re-a||ooat|on of funds from one aot|v|ty to another, |rrespeot|ve of the |mpaot on the
oost to oomp|et|on and |rrespeot|ve of |ts |no|us|on w|th|n a s|ng|e work paokage or aot|v|ty sha|| be |noor-
porated |nto the projeot management oontro| system and w||| ut|||se a forma| Ohange Request Manage-
ment (ORE} approva| prooess. The projeot manager oan approve ohanges that do not requ|re the re|ease
of oont|ngenoy.
8.11.1 OONTlNGENOY
Oont|ngenoy may be used to burn down r|sk, reoover sohedu|e and for m|ss|ng soope. lt may not be
used to reoover soope |n oases where the soope was removed as a resu|t of an approved ohange to
speo|f|oat|ons. The status of the oont|ngenoy w||| be reported on a month|y bas|s and w||| be expressed
both |n euros and as a peroentage of the projeoted rema|n|ng oost to oomp|ete.

Oont|ngenoy |s he|d at the D|reotorate of Programmes |eve|. Author|sat|on for re|ease of oont|ngenoy fo|-
|ows the same forma| ORE prooess def|ned above.
8.12 RlSK MANAGEMENT
E-E|T programme management reoogn|ses that manag|ng r|sk |s an essent|a| and or|t|oa| oomponent for
|noreas|ng the suooess of the E-E|T programme. ldent|fy|ng objeot|ves and understand|ng the r|sks that
need to be managed to aoh|eve those objeot|ves w||| enhanoe managements ab|||ty to make better deo|-
s|ons, aoh|eve programme de||very and operat|ona| performanoe targets, proteot reputat|on and dr|ve
end user va|ue.

R|sk management bu||ds on ex|st|ng projeot management methods to prov|de a framework w|th|n wh|oh
key r|sks oan be |dent|f|ed, assessed, treated and reported |n a v|s|b|e, struotured, oons|stent and oont|n-
uous manner. Th|s supports deve|opment and |mp|ementat|on of t|me|y and oost-effeot|ve management
aot|on p|ans and underp|ns sound p|ann|ng and performanoe management deo|s|on mak|ng.

The E-E|T r|sk management p|an desor|bes methods for the |dent|f|oat|on, assessment and report|ng
r|sks and for the deve|opment of appropr|ate response p|ans w|th|n def|ned r|sk to|eranoe |eve|s. lt a|so
|dent|f|es the organ|sat|on for the management of r|sk |no|ud|ng speo|f|o respons|b|||t|es and the doou-
ment|ng, mon|tor|ng, and report|ng prooesses to be fo||owed. As part of th|s prooess, r|sks are esoa|ated
to the appropr|ate |eve| of author|ty.

A|| major supp||ers are oontraotua||y ob||ged to keep an up-to-date r|sk reg|ster and report on r|sks to
ESO on a regu|ar bas|s.
8.13 OONFlGRATlON AND OHANGE MANAGEMENT
Oonf|gurat|on oontro| and ohange management are ded|oated aot|v|t|es w|th|n the projeot and form part
of the systems eng|neer|ng prooess.

The oonf|gurat|on of the projeot |s def|ned |n the oonf|gurat|on |tem data ||st, oonta|n|ng a|| pert|nent
|nformat|on that desor|bes the oonf|gurat|on of the projeot at a|| |eve|s and maps on to the work break-
down struoture. The requ|rements are managed us|ng the DOORS paokage and speo|f|oat|ons are gen-
erated from w|th|n the DOORS paokage to ensure traoeab|||ty. Oonf|gurat|on oontro| for souroe oode and
exeoutab|e oode |s managed as a|| other de||verab|es of the projeot.
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Management P|an 255
Ohanges to the oonf|gurat|on are poss|b|e and a ohange request prooedure |s estab||shed wh|oh def|nes
the Oonf|gurat|on Oontro| Board (OOB}, |ts membersh|p and |eve|s of author|ty. The OOB adv|ses the
projeot manager. On|y the projeot manager oan approve a ohange request or request for wa|ver. A||
ohanges are hand|ed v|a the ORE prooess, but as not a|| ohanges may have the same |eve| of |mpaot,
the prooedure foresees a s|mp||f|ed path for m|nor OREs w|th a ||m|ted |mpaot. For urgent OREs, a fast
traok prooess |s offered.
8.14 lNTERFAOE MANAGEMENT
lnterfaoe management |s a ded|oated aot|v|ty w|th|n the projeot and forms part of the systems eng|neer-
|ng prooess. The |nterfaoes are oreated between subsystems and based on speo|f|ed temp|ates. ESO
reta|ns ownersh|p of a|| |nterfaoes |no|ud|ng those between two or more oontraotors and a|so |n the
exoept|ona| oase where a s|ng|e oontraotor |s prov|d|ng the serv|oes on both s|des of the |nterfaoe. Pub||o
|nterfaoes are ones between subsystems, are |eve| 3 of the work breakdown struoture and are used to
def|ne the projeot N
2
d|agram. The |nterfaoe does not oonta|n speo|f|oat|ons beyond the narrow bounds
of |ts app||oab|||ty.
8.15 OA|lTY MANAGEMENT
The qua||ty management assures that the E-E|T produot assuranoe and qua||ty oontro| prooesses and
prooedures are app||ed both w|th|n the projeot and by the oontraotors. The qua||ty management fo||ows
the E-E|T produot and qua||ty assuranoe prooedures and |s app||oab|e to a|| oontraots. The projeot,
through the aot|v|ty and work paokage managers, regu|ar|y updates the D|reotor of Programmes on
qua||ty and RAMS |ssues. The qua||ty management |mposes a RAMS ana|ys|s of a|| aot|v|t|es, whether at
ESO or at the oontraotors. A|| oontraotors are therefore requ|red to deve|op and operate aooord|ng|y. The
qua||ty management prooess |s supported by oontraoted speo|a||st f|rms as we|| as ded|oated |n-house
personne|. The oontro| of de||verab|e dooumentat|on, tra|n|ng, spares, hand||ng equ|pment and speo|a|
too|s and test equ|pment w||| be ooord|nated through the |ntegrated |og|st|o support manager. He/she w|||
be respons|b|e for mon|tor|ng |nd|v|dua| oontraots to ensure that the requ|rements of the f|na| user are
met w|th|n the de||verab|es.
8.16 AOOEPTANOE AND OOMMlSSlONlNG
The projeot aooepts, on beha|f of ESO, subsystems de||vered by the oontraotors for |ntegrat|on |nto the
E-E|T. The aooeptanoe prooedure fo||ows the ver|f|oat|on matr|x oreated dur|ng the exeout|on of the
work by the oontraotor or by ESO and ensures that the oomp|ete aooeptanoe data paokage meets the
qua||ty standards requ|red by the oontraot and that the oontraotua| and oommero|a| ob||gat|ons have
been oono|uded appropr|ate|y. The teohn|oa| aooeptanoe prooess |s |ed by the systems eng|neer|ng
team. Oontraotua| matters are a|ways hand|ed exo|us|ve|y by the ESO adm|n|strat|on.

For subsystems deve|oped by aoadem|o |nst|tutes, or |nterna||y at ESO, the same prooesses and prooe-
dures app|y.

A s|m||ar prooess w||| aooept the E-E|T observatory at the end of the projeot |n order to demonstrate
oomp||anoe w|th the top |eve| so|enoe requ|rements. Systems eng|neer|ng w||| a|so |ead th|s prooess. The
f|na| aooeptanoe of the E-E|T observatory |nto Operat|ons w||| be a reoommendat|on made jo|nt|y to the
D|reotor Genera| by the D|reotors of So|enoe, Operat|ons, Programmes and Eng|neer|ng.

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256 Management P|an E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Sohedu|e and Budget 257
9 SOHED|E AND BDGET
9.1 SOHED|E
The f|ve most or|t|oa| paths to the handover of the te|esoope (w|th two |nstruments oomm|ss|oned} to
operat|ons are f|rst|y the availability for commissioning of Instruments #1 and #2. Th|s |s fo||owed by
delivery of the M4 unit, delivery of the polished M1 unit glass for ooat|ng, and availability of the main
structure for |ntegrat|on of the m|rror un|ts and f|na||y the availability of the M2 unit for pre-a||gnment on
the ma|n struoture. The f|rst four or|t|oa| paths are eaoh w|th|n one month of eaoh other and oan be effeo-
t|ve|y oons|dered oonourrent; over a 12-year per|od one month |s w|th|n a marg|n of unoerta|nty. The f|fth
or|t|oa| path (M2 un|t} |s three months ear||er than the f|rst four.

Exam|nat|on of the peroentage of r|sk and unoerta|nty of the or|t|oa| path |tems p|aoes them |n the order:
M2 unit (25%}, M4 unit (19%}, M1 unit (11%} and main structure (on|y 5%}. The h|gher unoerta|nty va|ue
of the M2 and M4 un|ts mean these tasks need to be part|ou|ar|y o|ose|y mon|tored. The M1 un|t po||sh-
|ng phase has a ~ 12-month sohedu|e marg|n |no|uded to buffer the effeot of de|ays |nourred wh||e the
ma|n struoture |s seen to be |ow(er} r|sk. The |nstrument programme has for reasons re|ated to |ts fund|ng
mode| not been ass|gned an unoerta|nty va|ue.


Figure 9.1. Project schedule.

Other |mportant, but |ess or|t|oa|, parts of the programme, see F|gure 9.1, have been sohedu|ed w|th
oons|derat|on g|ven to resouroe oonstra|nts of both man power and fund|ng by p|ann|ng the|r oomp|et|on
to be when str|ot|y neoessary to support suooess|ve tasks. For examp|e the wash|ng and ooat|ng p|ants,
|aser systems and pre-fooa| stat|ons are a|| started as |ate as poss|b|e wh||e |eav|ng a reasonab|e marg|n
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258 Sohedu|e and Budget E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
to the suooessor aot|v|t|es. The o|v|| |nfrastruoture and rema|nder of the support|ng systems programme
essent|a||y fa|| |nto two phases. Those at the Armazones (ARM} s|te oom|ng f|rst s|noe these are needed
to support the ear|y oonstruot|on effort. Fo||owed by the fao|||t|es needed both at ARM and Parana| (PAR}
for |ntegrat|on, oomm|ss|on|ng and eventua||y operat|ons.

The adm|n|strat|ve |oad on the Oontraots and Proourement Department as we|| as the F|nanoe Oomm|t-
tee has a|so been taken |nto aooount so as not to overwhe|m the prooess. lt |s foreseen that there w||| be
E-E|T-re|ated proourements brought to the FO eaoh year from 2012 to 2019. Of the major prooure-
ments (> 500 kt} the major|ty w||| obv|ous|y be |n the ear|y stages, nonethe|ess there |s a heavy work|oad
for severa| years. ln 2012 there w||| be four oontraots (M4 un|t, software deve|opment and ver|f|oat|on,
p|atform and road oonstruot|on}, 2013 n|ne, 2014 four, 2015 n|ne, 2016 s|x, 2017 and 2018 three eaoh
and f|na||y one (software deve|opment} |n 2019.

The |nstrumentat|on programme starts as soon as poss|b|e, and |n|t|a||y runs somewhat |ndependent|y of
the te|esoope, w|th three out of the four |nstruments progress|ng |n para||e| from 2013; the fourth w||| start
|n 2016. Th|s ref|eots the deve|opment nature of the lnstrument programme where there are teohn|ques
and teohno|og|es to be brought to matur|ty before oomm|tt|ng to outt|ng meta|. The f|rst |nstruments
phys|oa||y meet the te|esoope for |nsta||at|on towards the very end of te|esoope system test|ng. Oomm|s-
s|on|ng of the te|esoope (w|thout |nstruments} then takes p|aoe wh||e the |nstrument |s |ntegrated and
read|ed for E-E|T oomm|ss|on|ng |n of the te|esoope and f|rst ||ght |nstruments. Overa||, the prooess oon-
o|udes w|th the |ntegrat|on and oomm|ss|on|ng of the th|rd and fourth |nstruments, but handover to oper-
at|ons w||| ooour at the oomp|et|on of oomm|ss|on|ng of the f|rst two |nstruments; at th|s po|nt the E-E|T
oonstruot|on phase |s oomp|ete.
9.2 BDGET
Tab|e 9.1 g|ves a summary breakdown of the projeot budget.

Oont|ngenoy of 100 Mt has been app||ed to the projeot and |s d|soussed |n Seot|on 1.7. As many of the
budgets are based on the resu|ts of FEED stud|es (desor|bed |n Seot|on 1.4} the peroentage that oont|n-
genoy |s of the est|mated budget |s exp|a|ned |n Seot|on 1.5.

The budget fo||ows the WBS (Seot|on 8.5} but |s shown here oondensed |nto few groups to g|ve a more
oono|se overv|ew. The budget |s presented |no|us|ve of staff oosts.


Table 9.1. Summary breakdown of the project budget.
M Lu8
1e|escope
uome and Maln SLrucLure 349
CpLomechanlcal SysLems 366
ConLrol SysLem 47
Infrastructure
Clvll and SupporLlng lnfrasLucLure S8
Management, Log|st|cs and Integrat|on
ro[ecL Cfflce 38
AlvC, SlLe loglsLlcs and uaLa CperaLlo 2S
Instrumentat|on 100
Sub-1oLal 983
L-LL1 ro[ect Cont|ngency 100
1ota| 1,083
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Sohedu|e and Budget 259
Tab|e 9.2 g|ves an overv|ew of the sohedu|e foreseen oash f|ow dur|ng the exeout|on of the projeot. Th|s
foreoast |s the bas|s for the Performanoe Measurement Base||ne (PMB} aga|nst wh|oh a|| f|nano|a| and
sohedu|e performanoe are measured and ohanges w||| be managed.


Table 9.2. Overview of the schedule.
9.3 OPERATlONA| OOSTS

The est|mated operat|ona| oosts based on the assumpt|ons g|ven w|th|n Ohapter 5 assum|ng that the
aot|v|t|es are ooord|nated w|th|n the Parana| operat|ons are shown |n Tab|e 9.3.


Table 9.3. Operational costs for E-ELT.
1e|escope Infrastructure Management,
Log|st|cs and
Integrat|on
Instrumentat|on 1ota|
2012 3 1 12
2013 24 10 4 S 43
2014 68 9 S 7 88
201S 11S 6 S 6 131
2016 126 4 6 6 141
2017 104 S 7 14 129
2018 69 8 7 9 92
2019 79 S 8 12 103
2020 92 S 9 17 123
2021 31 2 7 10 S0
2022 47 1 3 8 60
2023 4 0 0 1 S
2024 - - - S S
202S - - - 0 0
762 S8 63 100 983
Operations cost incl upgrade paths Site GAR
Total
Budget 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025
Other cost k k k k k k k k k k
Investments 1,830 11,695 13,525 1,100 3,400 3,900 6,860 9,425 9,925 13,525
External services 3,700 750 4,450 20 50 100 2,375 4,650 4,850 4,850
Travel 1,230 320 1,550 70 115 470 1,190 1,500 1,550 1,550
Materials 6,210 370 6,580 0 10 25 2,845 5,680 5,780 5,880
Other operations 1,150 0 1,150 0 0 0 575 1,150 1,150 1,150
Other cost Total 14,120 13,135 27,255 1,190 3,575 4,495 13,845 22,405 23,255 26,955
Staff cost 10,735 2,933 13,668 830 1,253 2,163 12,590 13,668 13,668 13,668
Operations cost incl upgrade paths Total 24,855 16,068 40,923 2,020 4,828 6,658 26,435 36,073 36,923 40,623
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260 Sohedu|e and Budget E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| Aoknow|edgements 261
10 AOKNOW|EDGEMENTS

Many |nd|v|dua|s from the fo||ow|ng |ndustr|a| oompan|es, ageno|es and so|ent|f|o |nst|tutes have made
|mportant oontr|but|ons to the work reported |n th|s proposa| and we shou|d ||ke to thank a|| of them most
s|noere|y.

lndustr|a| oompan|es:

Aot|ve Spaoe (Portuga|}, Aot|ve Spaoe Teohno|og|es (Portuga|}, ADS (lta|y}, AMOS (Be|g|um}, AROADlS
(Oh||e}, ARP (K}, ASDEA (lta|y}, Boosteo (Franoe}, Brashaer (SA}, Bronto Sky||ft (F|n|and}, OESA
(Spa|n}, Ol|AS (Franoe}, OlRA (lta|y}, O|soo Systems (Germany}, Oorn|ng (SA}, Oosy|ab (S|oven|a},
Or|t|oa| Software (Portuga|}, OSEM (Sw|tzer|and}, Demont (lta|y}, DS| (Oanada}, e2v teohno|og|es (K},
EAl (Spa|n}, ElE/O|mbo|a| (lta|y}, Foga|e (Franoe}, Foroe Teohno|ogy (Denmark}, Frank||n & Andrews (K},
Gerb (Germany}, He|nmade (Nether|ands}, |ZOS (Russ|a}, lOAFA| (Oh||e}, lDOM (Spa|n}, lNES
(Sw|tzer|and}, lSO (Portuga|}, lTT (SA}, K|rkho|m (Denmark}, KN Systemes (Franoe}, |AM (Franoe},
M|oroEps||on (Germany) , M|orogate/ADS (lta|y} , M|oromega (Be|g|um}, Mott MaoDona|d (K}, MTM
(Germany}, Na||ateoh (K}, Nat|ona| lnstruments (SA}, NTE (Spa|n}, Observatory So|enoes (K}, ONERA
(Franoe}, Opt|o-G|yndwr (K}, ORO (F|n|and}, Phys|k lnstrumente (Germany}, R|s|ko (Oh||e}, Rovs|ng
(Denmark}, Sagem (Franoe} , Sanrof (SA}, Sohott (Germany}, So|Sys K (K}, Soott-W||son (K},
So|v|ng (F|n|and}, Spaoe Systems F|n|and (F|n|and}, Tha|es (SESO} (Franoe}, Threon (Germany}, TNO TDP
(Nether|ands}, Tome||er| (lta|y}, Topt|oa (Germany}, KATO (K}, Weatherpark (Austr|a}, vD|
(Nether|ands}.


lnst|tutes and ageno|es:

ASTRON, OEA Sao|ay, ORA|, OSlO-DAMlR, ETHZ, European n|on, FlZEA, GEPl, lAO, lNAF-lASF-
M||ano, lNAF-Brera, lNAF-OAA, lNAF-OABo, lNAF-OAPd, lNAF-Tr|este, lnES-ZHAW, loA, lPAG, K-
|euven, |AOG, |e|den Observatory, |ESlA, MPE, MPlA, NBl Oopenhagen, NOvA ASTRON, NOvA
|e|den, OAP, Obs. Geneve, Obs. Haute Provenoe, OPTlOON (E}, PO, RN, STFO RA|, T|S
Tautenburg, K ATO, n|v. treoht, n|v. ||ege, n|v. Amsterdam, n|v. Bo|ogna, n|v. Durham, n|v.
Gron|ngen, n|v. Oxford, ppsa|a Observatory, SM, n|v. of Ar|zona.
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262 Aoknow|edgements E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| ||st of Aoronyms 263
11 |lST OF AORONYMS

ADO Atmospher|o D|spers|on Oorreotor
AH A|r Hand||ng n|t
AlT Assemb|y and lntegrat|on Team
Alv Assemb|y, lntegrat|on and ver|f|oat|on
AlvO Assemb|y, lntegrat|on, ver|f|oat|on and Oomm|s|on|ng
A|MA Ataoama |arge M||||meter/subm||||meter Array
AO Adapt|ve Opt|os
AOO Adapt|ve Opt|os Oa||brat|on n|t
Aquar|us M|d-|nfrared deteotor array
ATO K Astronomy Teohno|ogy Oentre
AT|AS |TAO modu|e
A Astronom|oa| n|t
Bep|Oo|ombo ESA m|ss|on to Meroury
B|gBOSS Ground-based dark energy exper|ment to study baryon aooust|o oso|||at|ons
OAN Oontro||er Area Network
OARP Propr|etary po||sh|ng prooess
OOB Oonf|gurat|on Oontro| Board
OOD Oharge Ooup|ed Dev|oe
OEA Oomm|ssar|at |'energ|e atom|que et aux energ|es a|ternat|ves
OERN European Organ|zat|on for Nuo|ear Researoh
OFD Oomputat|ona| F|u|d Dynam|os
OFRP Oarbon-F|bre-Re|nforoed Po|ymer
OGH Oomputer-Generated Ho|ogram
Ohandra NASA -ray Observatory sate|||te
OlD| Oonf|gurat|on ltem Data ||sts
OMM 3D-ooord|nate measur|ng maoh|ne
OMMS Oomputer|sed Ma|ntenanoe Management System
ONO Oomputer|sed Numer|oa| Oontro|
OODE H|gh reso|ut|on v|sua| speotrograph
OoRoT OOnveot|on ROtat|on and p|anetary Trans|ts
OP Oo||apse Prevent|on ||m|t state
ORA| Oentre de Reoherohe Astrophys|que de |yon
ORE Ohange Request Management
OSlO Oonsejo Super|or de lnvest|gao|ones O|ent|f|oas
OTE Ooeff|o|ent of Therma| Expans|on
OTlO Oerro To|o|o lnter-Amer|oan Observatory
DO Damage Oontro| ||m|t state
DDS Data D|str|but|on Serv|oe for rea|-t|me systems
DES Dark Energy Survey
D|R Damage ||m|tat|on Requ|rement
DM Deformab|e M|rror
DMO Data Management and Operat|ons D|v|s|on
DOORS Requ|rement management software
DRM Des|gn Referenoe M|ss|on
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264 ||st of Aoronyms E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
DRSP Des|gn Referenoe So|enoe P|an
EAAE European Assoo|at|on for Astronomy Eduoat|on
EAG|E AO-ass|sted Mu|t|-|ntegra| F|e|d NlR Speotrometer
EE Ensquared Energy
E-E|T European Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope
E|T Extreme|y |arge Te|esoope
E|T-OAM E-E|T near-|nfrared oamera
E|T-HlRES E-E|T h|gh reso|ut|on near-|nfrared |nstrument
E|T-lF E-E|T |ntegra| f|e|d speotrograph
E|T-MlR E-E|T m|d-|nfrared |nstrument
E|T-MOS E-E|T mu|t|-objeot speotrograph
E|T-POS E-E|T p|anetary oamera and speotrograph
EPlOS P|anet lmager, Speotrograph and lmag|ng Po|ar|meter w|th Extreme Adapt|ve Opt|os
ePOD eduoat|on and Pub||o Outreaoh Department
EPO| Exop|anet po|ar|meter for EPlOS
eROSlTA extended ROentgen Survey w|th an lmag|ng Te|esoope Array
ERP Enterpr|se Resouroe P|ann|ng (Adm|n|strat|ve |nformat|on system}
ESE E|T So|enoe and Eng|neer|ng suboomm|ttee
ESO European Southern Observatory
ESON ESO So|enoe Outreaoh Network
ESPRESSO Eohe||e SPeotrograph for Rad|a| vE|oo|ty Super Stab|e Observat|ons
ESRO E|T Stand|ng Rev|ew Oomm|ttee
ETD Enab||ng Teohno|ogy Deve|opment
ETHZ E|dgenoss|sohe Teohn|sohe Hoohsohu|e Zr|oh
EO|lD ESA dark energy m|ss|on
Euro-50 Proposed extreme|y |arge opt|oa| and |nfrared te|esoope
EvA|SO Enab||ng v|rtua| Aooess to |at|n-Amer|oa Southern Observator|es
EvM Earned va|ue Management
FO F|nanoe Oomm|ttee
FDR F|na| Des|gn Rev|ew
FEA F|n|te E|ement Ana|ys|s
FEED Front-End Eng|neer|ng Des|gn
FlZEA European lnterferometry ln|t|at|ve
Fov F|e|d of v|ew
FPGA F|e|d-Programmab|e Gate Array
FTE Fu||-T|me Equ|va|ent
FWHM Fu|| W|dth at Ha|f Max|mum
Ga|a Astrometr|o sate|||te (ESA}
GEPl Ga|ax|e Eto||e Phys|que lnstrumentat|on, Observato|re de Par|s
GlANO |tra-stab|e lR speotrometer for the Te|esoop|o Naz|ona|e Ga|||eo
GlF Grav|ty lnvar|ant Foous
G|AO Ground |ayer Adapt|ve Opt|os
GMM Geometr|oa| Measur|ng Maoh|ne
GMT G|ant Mage||an Te|esoope
GTO Gran Te|esoop|o Oanar|as
GTO Guaranteed T|me Observ|ng
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E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| ||st of Aoronyms 265
HARMONl S|ng|e F|e|d lntegra|-f|e|d Speotrograph
HARPS H|gh Aoouraoy Rad|a| ve|oo|ty P|anetary Searoher (3.6-metre}
HATNet Hungar|an Automated Te|esoope Network
Hersohe| Far-|nfrared and subm||||metre spaoe te|esoope
HETDE Hobby-Eber|y Te|esoope Dark Energy Exper|ment
H|PER H|gh Power |aser Energy Researoh fao|||ty
HST Hubb|e Spaoe Te|esoope
Hv H|gh vo|tage
HvAO Heat|ng, vent||at|on, A|r Oond|t|on|ng
l/O lnput/Output
lAO lnst|tute of Astronomy Oambr|dge
lA lnternat|ona| Astronom|oa| n|on
lFS lntegra| F|e|d Speotrograph
lF lntegra| F|e|d n|t
lMF ln|t|a| Mass Funot|on
lNAF lst|tuto Naz|ona|e d| Astrof|s|oa
lSO lnternat|ona| Organ|zat|on for Standard|zat|on
lSvv lndependent Software ver|f|oat|on and va||dat|on
lT lnformat|on Teohno|ogy
JP| Jet Propu|s|on |aboratory
JWST James Webb Spaoe Te|esoope
kt Thousand euros
Kep|er NASA exop|anet spaoe observatory
KMOS K-band Mu|t|-Objeot Speotrograph (v|T}
|AM |aborato|re dAstrophys|que de Marse|||e
|AOG |aborato|re d'Astrophys|que de |'Observato|re de Grenob|e
|BT |arge B|noou|ar Te|esoope
|ESl |aborato|re d' E|eotron|que, S|gnaux, lmages
|GS |aser Gu|de Star
|HO |arge Hadron Oo|||der
|lSA |aser lnterferometer Spaoe Antenna
|PO |a S|||a Parana| Observatory
|PS |aser Projeot|on Subun|ts
|R ||ne Rep|aoeab|e n|ts
|SST |arge Synopt|o Survey Te|esoope
|TAO |aser Tomography Adapt|ve Opt|os
|TSl ||near T|me and Spaoe lnvar|ant
|v |ow vo|tage
Mt M||||on euros
MAORY Mu|t| Oonjugate Adapt|ve Opt|os modu|e
mas M||||aroseoonds
MOAO Mu|t|-Oonjugate Adapt|ve Opt|os
MEarth Trans|t survey of ~ 2000 nearby M-dwarfs (super-Earths}
METlS M|d-|nfrared lmager and Speotrograph w|th AO
MlOADO lmager and S||t Speotrograph
MlR M|d-|nfrared
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266 ||st of Aoronyms E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
MlRl M|d-lnfrared lnstrument (JWST}
M|E Max|mum ||ke|y Earthquake
MMT Mu|t|p|e M|rror Te|esoope
Mn M|rror =n
MOAO Mu|t|-Objeot Adapt|ve Opt|os
MOND Mod|f|ed Newton|an Dynam|os
MOS Mu|t|-Objeot Speotrosoopy
MOSFlRE Keok NlR mu|t|-objeot speotrograph
Mo Memorandum of nderstand|ng
MPE Max-P|anok lnst|tute of Extraterrestr|a| Phys|os
MPlA Max-P|anok lnst|tute of Astronomy
MRl Magnet|o Resonanoe lmag|ng
MTBF Mean T|me Between Fa||ures
MSE Mu|t| n|t Speotrosoop|o Exp|orer
Mv Med|um vo|tage
NASA Nat|ona| Aeronaut|os and Spaoe Adm|n|strat|on
NBl N|e|s Bohr lnst|tute
NOR No-Oo||apse Requ|rement
NGS Natura| Gu|de Star
NlR Near-|nfrared
NOvA Nether|ands Researoh Sohoo| for Astronomy
NSF Nat|ona| So|enoe Foundat|on
ONERA Frenoh Aerospaoe |ab
OPTlOON Opt|oa| lnfrared Ooord|nat|on Network for Astronomy
OPTlMOS-DlORAMAS lmager and s||t mask-based mu|t|-objeot speotrometer
OPTlMOS-EvE Opt|oa|-NlR F|bre-based MOS
OW| Overwhe|m|ng|y |arge Te|esoope
PA Produot Assuranoe
PAOT Pos|t|on Aotuators
Pan-STARRS Panoram|o Survey Te|esoope and Rap|d Response System
po Parseo
POB Pr|nted O|rou|t Board
PDM Produot Data Management too|
PDR Pre||m|nary Des|gn Rev|ew
PDR Pre||m|nary Des|gn Rev|ew
PGA Peak Ground Aooe|erat|on
Pl Pr|no|pa| lnvest|gator
P|anok ESAs m|orowave observatory
P|ATO P|Anetary Trans|ts and Oso|||at|ons of stars
P|O Programmab|e |og|o Oontro||er
PMB Performanoe Measurement Base||ne
ppb parts per b||||on
PRS Prob|em Report|ng System
PSD Power Speotra| Dens|ty
PSF Po|nt Spread Funot|on
PO Pont|f|o|a n|vers|dad Oato||oa de Oh||e
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 266 16/12/2011 18:32
E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa| ||st of Aoronyms 267
R&D Researoh and Deve|opment
RA| Rutherford App|eton |aboratory
RAMS Re||ab|||ty, Ava||ab|||ty, Ma|nta|nab|||ty and Safety
ROM Re||ab|||ty Oentered Ma|ntenanoe
rms Root mean square
RTO Rea|-T|me Oomputer
SA State Ana|ys|s
SAO Sagem propr|etary prooess
SOAO S|ng|e Oonjugate Adapt|ve Opt|os
S|O S|||oon Oarb|de
SlMP|E Oross-d|spersed Eohe||e Speotrograph, |ong-s||t Opt|on
SlNFONl Speotrograph for lNtegra| F|e|d Observat|ons |n the Near lnfrared (v|T}
SKA Square K||ometre Array
S| Serv|oeab|||ty ||m|t state
SMP Stressed M|rror Po||sh|ng
SOFlA Stratospher|o Observatory for lnfrared Astronomy
SPHERE Speotro-Po|ar|metr|o H|gh-oontrast Exop|anet Researoh |nstrument
Sp|tzer NASA Sp|tzer Spaoe Te|esoope
SR Streh| Rat|o
SSAO S|te Se|eot|on Adv|sory Oomm|ttee
STO ESO So|ent|f|o and Teohn|oa| Oomm|ttee
SWG So|enoe Work|ng Group
TBO To Be Oonf|rmed
TBD To Be Done
T|S Thuer|nger |andessternwarte Tautenburg
TMT Th|rty Meter Te|esoope
ToO Target of Opportun|ty
TR| Teohno|ogy Read|ness |eve|
|E |tra-|ow Expans|on g|ass (Oorn|ng}
PS n|nterrupt|b|e Power Supp|y
SM n|vers|ty Observatory Mun|oh
T n|t Te|esoope
treoht n|vers|ty
vES v-v|sua| Eohe||e Speotrograph (v|T}
vEOSE|s vert|oa| Externa| Oav|ty Surfaoe-Em|tt|ng |asers
vlSlR v|T M|d-lnfrared lmager Speotrometer
vlSTA v|s|b|e and lnfrared Survey Te|esoope for Astronomy
v|T very |arge Te|esoope
v|Tl very |arge Te|esoope lnterferometer
vME v|rtua| Maoh|ne Env|ronment
vPH vo|ume Phased Ho|ograph|o
vST v|T Survey Te|esoope
WBS Work Breakdown Struoture
WEB W|nd Eva|uat|on Breadboard
WFE Wave Front Error
WFlRST W|de-F|e|d lnfrared Survey Te|esoope
E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 267 16/12/2011 18:32
268 ||st of Aoronyms E-E|T Oonstruot|on Proposa|
WFS Wave Front Sensors
WlSE W|de F|e|d lnfrared Survey Exp|orer
WMAP W||k|nson M|orowave An|sotropy Probe
AO Extreme Adapt|ve Opt|os
MM-Newton -ray Mu|t|-M|rror sate|||te (ESA}
Zn Zern|ke ooeff|o|ent of order n
as m|oroaroseoonds

E-ELT-Construction-Proposal_print-cmyk.pdf 268 16/12/2011 18:32
THE E-ELT
CONSTRUCTION PROPOSAL
The E-ELT Project offce
European Southern Observatory
Karl-Schwarzschild-Strae 2
85748 Garching bei Mnchen
Germany
Phone +4989320060
www.eso.org
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