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## TABLE 17-1 Piping Heat Loss

(Btu/hr. Per Lineal Ft. For 140 0 F. Water Temp and 70 0 F. Room Temp.) Bare Pipe TypeK Brass, Sched.40 Insulated Pipe Nominal Copper Copper, T.P. Steel (Yt Fiberglass) Pipe Size 19 26 35 yt 15 26 32 43 17 r." 32 38 53 19 1" 39 46 65 21 1f' 46 53 73 25 1W' 58 65 91 28 2" 68 75 108 32 2Y/' 81 90 129 38 3" 103 113 163 46 4" 127 138 199 55 5" 149 161 233 63 6" 188 201 299 80 8"
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An assumptiolllllust be made in order to use the values ill Table 17-l. There are two choices: a. Assign sizes to the circulating mains equal to one-half the size of the accompanying hot water main, and assign a y./I size to all circulating risers. b. Assume the heat losses of the circulating mains and risers to be two-thirds the heat loss of the accornpanyillg hot water maills and risers when both supply and circulating piping are bare or both are insulated. Assume one and one-third the heat loss of the supply piping when the supply is insulated and the circulating piping is bare. The latter assumption is favored by the author and seems more compatible with the procedure outlined. By utilizing this assumption, the heat loss rates for the circulating piping can be established for all parts of the system at the same time that the hot water supply heat losses are established. The calculations are thus simplified and expedited. 3. Calculate the circulation rates for all parts of the circulating piping and the total circulation rate required. To find the required circulation rate in any part of the circulating piping, the heat loss rate for that part is divided by 10,000 Btu/hr. This will give gallons per minute of !low re(juired. The 10,000 Btu/llr. figure is obtuilled ill the following manner: 1 gallon of water weighs 8.3 Ibs. 1 Btu is equal to the heat necessary to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit
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It is good practice to design a pumped circulation system at a temperature differelltial of 20 F. Thus, for a circulation rale of 1 gprn: tl.3 lbs./min. x 20 F = 166 13tu/min. and Hi6 Btu/min. x 60 min. = 9960 Btu/hr. For ease of calculation, 10,000 Btu/hT. can be used without introducillg a significant error in the results. If the total heat loss of all the piping is 300,000 Btu/hr., then the required circulation rate to overcome this heat loss is 300,000 -;- to,OOO = 30 gpm. 4. Determine the allowahle uniform friction head loss and the total head required to overcome friction losses when water is flowing at required circulation rate. The uniform friction head loss can be established in two ways: a. Take the total circulation rate established in Step 3 and select an efficient pump of that capacity from a manufacturer's catalog. From the curves for the [lump selected, note the discharge head. This will be the total head available. Divide by the eqUivalent length of run of the longest run of piping to obtain the uniform friction head loss. The longest run of piping is taken from the furthest point of connection to the hot water supply and thence back to the source of the hot water supply. The length of run of the hot water piping is not included because the pressure drop ill the hot water piping is inSignificant. The size of the hot water piping has been established for extremely high quantities of flow as compared to the circulating flow, so that when only the circulating rate of flow is occurring in the hot water piping the friction loss is extremely low and can be ignored. The measured length of run is the developed length. To obtain the equivalent length of run, the resistance of valves, fillillgs, etc., IIlllst be converted to equivalent lengths of pipe. Since sizes are Stillllot known, a reasonable assumption is to add 10 per cent of the developed length to the measured developed length.

b. Establish the uniform friction head loss empirically. The uniform friction head loss can be selected for a minimum of one foot per hundred feet to a maximum of ten feet per hundred feet. This will permit economical pipe sizes at reasonable velocities of flow and still not create too great a discharge head for the required circulation pump. Select a circulation pump of the capacity established in Step 3 and a discharge head equal to the selected uniform friction head loss times the equivalent length of run divided by 100. 5. Calculate the rates of flow for variolls pipe sizes which will give the uniform pressure drop selected in Step 4. This can be done from available charts or can be calculated by means of the following formulas:

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