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Founding Thoughts - "What is that life worth which cannot bring comfort to others"
The purpose of the article is to understand the life of an organization which is considered as one of the largest FMCG of our country. It follows the past, the present and the future of the organization, where it stands in respect to corporate social responsibility. It also tracks the employee practices, product portfolio and management style, business strategies and community leadership of the organization. The article would give a holistic picture of the management practices in the organization by understanding their operations.
A. (Etymology) –Brief history
B. Products of Dabur i. Consumer Care Division ii. Consumer Health Division C. . Share of different segment of business in the revenue i.
ii. Dabur manufacturing facilities in India Change in Total income (in crores)
D. Visionary Leadership
E. Management Style
F. Business Strategies
G. HR Practices H. Community Leadership I. Corporate Social Responsibility
i. ii. iii. iv.
Corporate citizenship Social initiatives Commitment to environment Women empowerment
J. Future Initiatives K. Conclusion L. Personal Note
A. (Etymology) –Brief history
The evolution of Dabur is quite interesting and its root takes us back to the 19 th century where it all started in Bengal by a visionary by name Dr. S.K Burman, a physician by profession. His mission was to provide effective and affordable cure for ordinary people in far-flung villages. With missionary zeal and fervour, Dr. Burman undertook the task of preparing natural cures for the killer diseases of those days, like cholera, malaria and plague. Soon the news of his medicines travelled, and he came to be known as the trusted 'Daktar' or Doctor who came up with effective cures. And that is how his venture Dabur got its name - derived from the Devanagri rendition of Daktar Burman. The name is formed by joining the first half of Daktar and Burman. a) Milestones Set up in 1884 to produce and dispense ayurvedic medicines to a wide mass of people who had no access to proper treatment. 1896 - With popularity of Dabur products increasing, Dr. S.K. Burman expands his operations by setting up a plant for mass production. Early 1900s – Entered the specialised area of nature based Ayurvedic Medicines(for which there was no standardised drugs were not available)
1919 – Establishment of research laboratories (The need to develop scientific processes and quality checks for mass production of ayurvedic medicines led to the establishment of research laboratories) 1920- Expanded further by setting up manufacturing units at Narendrapur and Daburgram and distribution spread to neighbouring states like Bihar and north-east. 1936 – Dabur became a full-fledged company [Dabur India (Dr.S.K.Burman) Pvt. Ltd.] 1972 – Shifted operations to Delhi by setting up a manufacturing plant in Faridabad. 1979 – Dabur Research Foundation (launch of full-fledged research operations in the field of health care and also setting up Sahibabad factory for commercial production. 1986 – Public Limited Company (Dabur India ltd. came into being after reverse merger with Vidogum limited) 1992 – Entered a strategic partnership with Agrolimen of Spain.( To manufacture and market confectionery items in India) 1993 – Entered specialised health care area of cancer treatment with its oncology formulation plant at H.P 1994 – Raised its first public issue, due to market confidence in the company shares issued at a premium were oversubscribed 21 times. 1995 – Joint ventures with Osem of Israel for food and Bongrain of France for cheese and other dairy products. 1996 – Three separate divisions were created according to their product mix – Health Care products division, Family products division and Dabur ayurvedic specialities limited. 1997 – Dabur entered the nascent processed food market with the creation of Food division / project stars, strive to achieve record successes. 1998 – Professionals to manage the company to inculcate a spirit of corporate governance and for the first time, a non-family member became the CEO of Dabur. 2000 – Entered the august league of large corporate businesses along with market leadership and a turnover of 1000 crore.
2003 – Dabur demerges pharma business from the FMCG business into a separate company so as to concentrate on both the business. 2005 – Acquired Balsara and entered the oral care and household healthcare market in India. 2005- Company announced a 1:1 bonus share to its shareholders. 2006 – Dabur crossed the 2 billion US dollar market capitalisation and adopted US GAAP in line with its commitment to follow global best practices and allow a transparent work culture. 2007 – Forayed into organised retail, H&B stores ltd. and also Dabur India merged with Dabur foods. 2009 – Celebrated 125 years of existence. (source: www.dabur.com)
B. PRODUCTS OF DABUR
Dabur India Limited has marked its presence with some very significant achievements and today commands a market leadership status. The story of success is based on dedication to nature, corporate and process hygiene, dynamic leadership and commitment to our partners and stakeholders. The results of the policies and initiatives speak for themselves.
Leading consumer goods company in India with a turnover of Rs.2233.72 Crore (FY07) 2 major strategic business units (SBU) - Consumer Care Division (CCD) and Consumer Health Division (CHD) 3 Subsidiary Group companies - Dabur Foods, Dabur Nepal and Dabur International and 3 step down subsidiaries of Dabur International - Asian Consumer Care in Bangladesh, African Consumer Care in Nigeria and Dabur Egypt. 13 ultra-modern manufacturing units spread around the globe Products marketed in over 50 countries Wide and deep market penetration with 47 C&F agents, more than 5000 distributors and over 1.5 million retail outlets all over India
a. CCD(Consumer Care Division), dealing with FMCG Products relating to Personal Care and Health Care
Product Category Hair oil Shampoo Baby & Skin Care Digestive Health Supplements Oral Care Home Care
Products Vatika, Amla, Sarso (Anmol coconut) Vatika heena conditioning, Anmol-natural shine, silky Vatika fairness, Gulabari, Vatika fairness face pack Janmaghutti, Olive oil, Gripe water, Dabur laltel Hajmola range, Hingoli, Pudin hara Chyawanprash, chyawanshakti, Dabur Honey, Glucose Babool (rural market), Meswak (unani method), promise, Lal paste, Binaca, Promise Odomos, Odonil, Odopic, Sanifresh
Leading brands Dabur - The Health Care Brand Vatika-Personal Care Brand Anmol- Value for Money Brand Hajmola- Tasty Digestive Brand and Dabur Amla, Chyawanprash and Lal Dant Manjan with Rs.100 crore turnover each Vatika Hair Oil & Shampoo the high growth brand Strategic positioning of Honey as food product, leading to market leadership (over 40%) in branded honey market Dabur Chyawanprash the largest selling Ayurvedic medicine with over 65% market share. Leader in herbal digestives with 90% market share Hajmola tablets in command with 60% market share of digestive tablets category
Dabur Lal Tail is the 2nd Largest Brand of Baby Massage Oil with 33% Market Share
b. CHD (Consumer Health Division), dealing with classical Ayurvedic medicines
Has more than 250 products sold through prescriptions as well as over the counter Major categories in traditional formulations include: - Asav Arishtas - Ras Rasayanas - Churnas - Medicated Oils Proprietary Ayurvedic medicines developed by Dabur include: - Nature Care Isabgol - Madhuvaani - Trifgol Division also works for promotion of Ayurveda through organised community of traditional practitioners and developing fresh batches of students. (source: www.businessworld.in/DaburINDIA)
C. SHARE OF DIFFERENT SEGMENT OF BUSINESS IN THE REVENUE:
(Source: www.sharetipsinfo.com/dabur india) Consumer care division (CCD) has shown a YOY growth of 13.9%. Consumer health division (CHD) has shown YOY growth of 24.9%. International business (IBD) grew at rate of 40%.
Dabur manufacturing facilities in India
Change in Total income (in crores)
D. Visionary Leadership
The vision statement of Dabur reads as ―dedicated to the health and well being of every household‖. The organization which is celebrating its 125th anniversary currently religiously followed this philosophy since inception. This dedication can be attributed to the culture and values that were institutionalized by its visionary leader; Dr. S.K.Burman.He started the enterprise with a mission to provide effective and affordable cure to ordinary people in far-flung villages and this drive, fervour, zeal was inherited by his followers. His commitment and ceaseless efforts resulted in the company growing from a fledgling medicine manufacturer in a small Calcutta house, to a household name that at once evokes trust and reliability. (Source: www.daburindia.com)
E. Management Style
Dabur has a participative style of management which can be inferred from the HR policies of the organization, Dabur has always been a family run business but recently it tried to adapt itself to the changing business environment. It has successfully handed over the reins of the company to an outsider CEO. This change in management style from being a family-run business to a professionally-run organisation has brought in more effectiveness in the management practices. Call it a change in management that has turned things around for Dabur, but surprisingly, even during times when most pharma companies are being weighed-down by losses, Dabur‘s financials sit pretty, having posted a smashing year on year top line growth of 19.9% for Q3, FY 2009 to touch Rs.779 crore. But look beyond numbers and what you can see is a fundamentally strong management system that may not really be able to boast of being time-tested, but can certainly take credit for positive numbers even when times are not the best globally. So what’s the key word to define the management system at Dabur? ‗Transparency‘, which is something that S. K. Burman, introduced more than a century back, and something that has been maintained well till date. It was in 1998 that an outsider (Sunil Duggal) took charge of Dabur for the first time. The claim that the burmans did a good job in handing over the reins to an outsider is further substantiated by research statistics that proves the theory ―when ‗descendants‘ (of founders or founding families) serve as CEOs, firm value ‗is‘ destroyed!‖. The paper further went on to prove that
descendant CEOs ―destroy value whether or not the family has controlenhancing mechanisms.‖ Today, professional CEOs, independent directors and sacrosanct corporate governance are what Dabur is proud of, and they do have a strong reason to. Dabur focus on corporate governance and there are four independent directors from the family who are a part of the board but the majority of the board members do not belong to the Burman family. Good corporate governance and transparency in actions of the management are key to a strong bond of trust with the Company‘s stakeholders. Dabur understands the importance of good governance and has constantly avoided an arbitrary decision-making process. The company initiatives towards this end include:
Professionalization of the board Lean and active Board(reduced from 16 to 10 members) Less number of promoters on the Board More professionals and independent Directors for better management Governed through Board committees for Audit, Remuneration, Shareholder Grievances, Compensation and Nominations Meets all Corporate Governance Code requirements of SEBI (Source: www.4psbusinessandmarketing.com)
F. Business Strategies
Dabur India Ltd. (Dabur), a leading Indian fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) company, was established in 1884 as a small pharmacy based in Calcutta (now Kolkata). Since then, it had gone on to become a Rs. 22 billion company (as of 2007).Its product range included Toothpastes and Toothpowder (Dabur Red and Lal Dant Manjan), Hair Oils (Vatika), Shampoos (Vatika) , Digestives (Hajmola), Fruit Juices (Real), Nature Care Isabgol, Medicated Oils, Ayurvedic products (such as Churnas, Asav Arishtas, Ras Rasayanas, and Chyawanprash), and Honey. It had two major strategic business units - Consumer Care Division and Consumer Health Division. Its products were produced in 13 manufacturing locations in Nepal, Nigeria, Egypt, Dubai, and Bangladesh and it products were sold in more than 50 countries.
The company had adopted a combination of the organic and inorganic routes in fuelling its growth. Organically, the company started serving the southern region of the country in 2002, which was neglected earlier, to increase its sales. Further, it enhanced its product portfolio in the various product categories. For instance, Homemade cooking pastes like ginger, garlic, tomato puree, etc. were added to the food business. On the inorganic growth front, the company acquired the Balsara group of companies in 2005. This acquisition gave Dabur new brands in toothpaste (Promise, Babool, and Meswak), mosquito repellants (Odomos), toilet cleaners (Sani Fresh), and air freshners (Odonil). The acquired toothpaste business balanced the oral care products portfolio as Dabur's sales came from the northern and the eastern parts of the country while Balsara's were from the southern and the western parts of the country. Analysts felt that the combined manufacturing facilities were also likely to yield synergistic effects for Dabur. Besides, the acquisition was expected to result in exploiting economies of scale in marketing, sales, and distribution. Dabur was a market leader in herbal digestives, branded honey, and Chyawanprash and had a significant share of 26% in baby oil in 2007.The Company had more than 30 brands in its portfolio. Some analysts saw this as a cause for concern. They said that the company should focus on a few champion brands. Otherwise, its efforts to sustain so many products and brands would be dissipated. This line of thought was substantiated by the fact that Dabur was not a category leader in any of the consumer products category where it was present. Sunil Duggal, CEO, Dabur India, in fact, points out a startling contrast in an exclusive interview to B&E, "Three to four years ago, when the economy was on a strong growth path with 9% growth, FMCG sector was seeing no growth, in fact there was some contraction happening in the sector." That does not seem to be the case at the moment, if Dabur's results for the quarter ending September are anything to go by. The company posted sales of Rs.5.88 billion, a growth of 13% yoy. Net
profits were Rs.1.06 billion, which is a growth of 18.1% yoy. The credit for this growth, of course, does not go to the resurgence in the FMCG sector alone. Dabur has decisively broken away from two legacies that had constrained it in the past – the legacy of family led business and the legacy of a portfolio that predominantly had ayurvedic medicines, which had serious limitations with respect to driving growth. The results are quite visible, with sales growing from Rs.11 billion in FY 2000-01 to Rs.23.96 billion in FY 2007-08, which means a CAGR of 11.76%. The imperative now is to take this growth story further through carefully planned out expansions, organic or inorganic, in new and interesting areas. Duggal, who particularly admires Lakshmi Mittal for the way he spots opportunities, is a firm believer in what management guru C. K. Prahlad does not stand for, i.e. core competency. Duggal is of the opinion that if he had not moved from the ayurvedic medicine portfolio, Dabur would not have crossed Rs.20 billion in turnover the way it has crossed today. And consumer health, the division for ayurvedic medicines accounts for just about 5-10% of that portfolio, which shows how much the company has reinvented itself. Dabur‘s ''Vision 2010'', which it had unveiled way back in 2006, was to double its turnover by FY 2009-10. The company is clearly targeting growth at a breakneck pace. But as we have seen in the case of HUL in the 1990s, breakneck growth comes at a price. HUL had become quite large and unwieldy, and saw some very difficult times in the early part of this century when its growth stagnated and it had to cut down on its brands phenomenally. Does Dabur's growth story have the makings of another HUL? Or would Dabur‘s new war, led by Duggal's firm belief in expanding horizons (although he does say that Dabur does not want to be reckless) have dramatically different consequences, and lead to Dabur India actually creating history in the Indian FMCG space? For that, we have to go deeper to understand the dynamics of Dabur‘s new war. Dabur India has recently opened their chain of retail outlets across the country. It has announced the appointment of Peter Gerard Baker as CEO for its newly formed retail subsidiary H&B Stores Ltd. Baker will look after the new retail initiatives of Dabur India, including establishing the new subsidiary and stores on a pan-India footprint.
G. HR Practices
I. The culture at Dabur gives full autonomy to its employees. Various training and development programs like Young Manager Development Program, Prayas, Leading and Facilitating Performance, Campus to Corpora and a balanced scorecard approach for performance evaluation. These policies help the employees in realizing their potential.
In the year 2001, the company started putting HR systems in place to ensure that organisational and individual goals were aligned. It began institutionalising empowerment in the workplace
A whistleblower policy was put in place. It sought to put a cap on business practices that were out of character with Dabur‘s values. Employees can report such matters to the heads of HR and investor relations, and the CFO. The policy is completely confidential and has been running for three years now. To prohibit initiation of adverse action against an employee or business associate or failing to take an otherwise appropriate action, as a result of the employee‘s good faith disclosure of alleged wrongful conduct to the “Standing Committee on Whistle Blowing” herein after referred to as the Standing Committee.
Recently, Dabur has adopted an innovative HR program of offering ESOPs to new engineering and management trainees at the time of joining. This system is quite unique in itself.
Also in 2005, Dabur gave Bonus to its employees after 12 years. This boosted the employee morale further.
Recruitment is an integral and ongoing process in any organization. This holds true for Dabur also. The company have a two-pronged approach in recruiting dynamic professionals - lateral recruitments and the Management Trainee / Engineer Trainee recruitments at entry level. The Management Trainee / Engineer Trainee Programme have been a focus area to induct young and vibrant professionals at the entry level. With every passing year, upgradations are made to it to make the learning experience more enriching and rigorous with a greater focus on functional and conceptual inputs and an objective learning evaluation system.
Dabur was listed as a ―Great Place to Work‖, in a survey conducted by Grow Talent & Company and Great Place to Work Institute, USA. Dabur was listed as the 10th ―Great Place to Work‖. The results were published in Business World dated February 2006. (Source: 10 great place to work)
H. Community Leadership
1. People Development Dabur considers people as its most important asset. They add value through result driven training, encourage and reward excellence. At Dabur, this principle guides the relationship of the employer with employees. They believe that employees are key contributors to the company‘s status as the top brand in the business field. They provide special training and skill upgradation programmes to keep the employees constantly abreast with current business demands. Dabur believes in nurturing a familial bond with its people by creating a harmonious and value based work environment that encourages team spirit, and also rewarding individual initiative. i) Promote equity across all levels - If 90 per cent of the corporate target is not met, no one in the organization no one earns variable pay irrespective of the levels. Hence, there is no disparity among its members.
ii) Self manage - A team with no chain of command takes care of problems. This helps the employees develop a sense of ownership. The purpose of such an initiative is to develop leadership skills in its employees. iii) Empowerment of employees Various employee empowerment programmes were started to motivate them in their work WE DARE: Dabur‘s Duggal and career. They provided employee (front), seen here with stock option benefits (ESOPs) to members of the employee make employees feel like referral programme, has shareholders. The scheme is empowered the employee democratic by industry standards and not based only on seniority, but also on the importance of the assignment of the employee. . iv) An incentivised employee referral programme was kicked off, whereby existing employees could refer candidates they thought to be suitable. Incentives would be provided to such employees that not only provides employee with monetary benefits but also builds a relationship based on trust and reliability. Also in 2005, Dabur gave Bonus to its employees after 12 years. It announced issue of 1:1 Bonus share to the shareholders of the company, i.e. one share for every one share held. This boosted the employee morale further.
v) Young Managers Development Programme (YMDP) -Recruitment is an integral and ongoing process in any organization. This holds true for Dabur also. The company have a two-pronged approach in recruiting dynamic professionals - lateral recruitments and the Management Trainee / Engineer Trainee recruitments at entry level. The Management Trainee / Engineer Trainee Programme have been a focus area to induct young and vibrant professionals at the entry level.
With every passing year, upgradations are made to it to make the learning experience more enriching and rigorous with a greater focus on functional and conceptual inputs and an objective learning evaluation system. This need led to the Young Managers Development Programme (YMDP) being conceived.(Source: Case study – Dabur over the years, www.Businessworld.in) .
I. Corporate Social Responsibility
Giving back to the community is a part of the corporate culture at Dabur. Today Dabur‘s social responsibility initiatives extend across five states in various villages. In fact social responsibility, at Dabur, is an integral part of the business model. i. Corporate Citizenship
When the Founder Dr. S. K. Burman first established Dabur, he had a vision that saw beyond the profit motive. In his words, "What is that life worth which cannot bring comfort to others." This ideal of a humane and equitable society led to initiatives taken to give back some part of what Dabur has gained from the community.
Major initiatives in the Social sector include: Establishment of the Sustainable Development Society, or Sundesh, in 1993 - a non-profit organisation to promote research and welfare activities in rural areas.
Sundesh is the resource centre that works towards the development and upliftment of the rural population. It offers a range of facilities from health posts to skill development for the rural community. It also acts as an in house training and information centre for farmers Sundesh has several programmes such as Adult literacy, diagnostic and healthcare facilities, organising health camps, cutting and tailoring, training, bee keeping, animal husbandry and self help groups for farm
development and reducing poverty. One of the key programmes is promotion of SHGs through NABARD. The mission of this group is to promote sustainable and equitable agriculture and rural prosperity through effective credit support, related services, institution development and other innovative initiatives. Under this initiative finance is provided for farm activities like minor irrigation, animal husbandry, farm mechanization, land development, horticulture, plantation and medicinal crops. Even nonfarm activities like rural industries, artisans, handicrafts, handlooms, rural housing etc are financed under this programme.Today there are 94 active groups with SUNDESH under NABARD, of which 54 groups had been graded, while 48 groups are linked to the bank. Jayanti Gramin Vikas Swarojgar Yogjna- An initiative which was designed for the economic development and upliftment of families living below the poverty line. Today, the programme boasts of over 63 SHGs influencing the lives of over 700 poor people and 48 groups that are credit linked. The total number of groups under this project has topped 63. Of this, 55 groups were 1 st graded by the bank and CCL was done for 49 groups. About 29 other groups had been 2 nd graded and 27 groups were sanctioned loan by the bank.
Promoting health and hygiene amongst the underprivileged through the Chunni Lal Medical Trust; To improve and expand access of affordable, quality health services to rural areas, Dabur formed the Chunni Lal Medical Trust in 1991. Presently, the trust provides medicare services and conducts mass awareness drives in 12 adopted villages across the country Organising the Plant for Life programme for schoolchildren - to create environmental awareness amongst young minds. Dabur is increasingly concerned about the devastating impact of ecological degradation, caused largely due to unsustainable modern lifestyles. The best way to set the balance right is to build awareness amongst young minds and instil the moral fiber for environmental protection and regeneration. With this in mind Dabur launched an awareness programme for school children in 2001.
iii. Commitment to Environment
From times immemorial, Indian sages and men of wisdom have understood and appreciated the value of nature and its conservation. Our ancestors recognised that if we grabbed from nature beyond what was healthy, it would lead to all round degradation, and even the extinction of humanity. That is why nature was sanctified and worshipped in the form of gods and goddesses. Dabur upholds the tradition Dabur values nature's bounty and its richness. Without the fruits of nature, the vision of Dabur would never have been fulfilled. And that is the reason for their unfailing commitment to ecological conservation and regeneration. They follow the principles of our ancient texts, which say: "Dehi me dadami te" - "you give me, and I give you".
Back to Nature Rare herbs and medicinal plants are two of the most valuable resource for Dabur, from which all their products are derived. Due to overexploitation of these resources and unsustainable practices, these plants and herbs are fast reaching the point of extinction. In view of this critical situation, Dabur has initiated some significant programmes for ecological regeneration and protection of endangered plant species. Plants for Life They have set up the "Plants for Life" project in the mountainous regions of the Himalayas. Under the project, a high-tech greenhouse facility has been set up for developing saplings of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Fully computer-controlled and monitored, this greenhouse maintains the highly critical environmental parameters required for their survival. They are also developing quality saplings of more than 20 herbs, 8 of them endangered, through micro propagation. In addition, satellite nurseries spread across mountain villages and contract cultivation of medicinal herbs helps in maintaining the ecological balance. These measures have also helped provide local cultivators the scientific knowledge for harvesting herbs and a steady
source of income. So that they are not forced to exploit the environment to earn a livelihood.
iv. Women Empowerment Women are important agents of sustainable development and their equality and empowerment through education, better health awareness and skill development are central to a holistic development of the society. With this in mind, SUNDESH has rolled out a host of educational initiatives that focus on preventing gender bias in the family and giving equal opportunity to the girl child. Workshops are also organized to make the community aware about the importance of the girl child and prevent female foeticide. (source - www.daburindia)
J. Future Initiatives (VISION 2010)
After the successful implementation of the 4-year business plan from 2002 to 2006, Dabur has launched another plan for 2010. The main objectives are:
Doubling of the sales figure from 2006 The new plan will focus on expansion, acquisition and innovation. Although Dabur‘s international business has done well — growing by almost 29 per cent to Rs.292 crore in 2006-07, plans are to increase it by leaps and bounds. Growth will be achieved through international business, homecare, healthcare and foods. Southern markets will remain as a focus area to increase its revenue share to 15 per cent. Also taking their retail (H&B stores) to the next level.
With smoothly sailing through its previous plans, this vision seems possible. Time and again, Dabur has made decisions that have led to its present position. However, if Dabur could be more aggressive in its approach, it can rise to unprecedented levels. (www.Cillibreeze.com) K. Conclusion
Dabur as an organization stands for various qualities which include commitment to society,transparency,empowerment etc. It always gave extra attention for its stakeholders (employees and consumers). Even after the onslaught of foriegn companies, they were able to withstand the challenge and maintain their position in the industry as an organization which provides service of the highest quality. The name dabur has created a halo around it over the years and it is a dream employer for many prospective employees. This reputation has been carefully crafted and created over the last century through its employee friendly and empowerment policies. The innovative HR policies of the firm is a revelation for the industry and many of the management students who consider it as one of the best places to work. Dabur has always tried to change the organizational structure according to the changing environment and they were extremely successful in adapting to those changes also.
L. Personal Note
The exercise was an insightful one which helped me to understand and learn some processes that were unknown to me which include elements like whistle blowing practice. Most importantly,the participative style of management which the company follows to date is one factor which speaks volumes of the organization. The organization is a perfect case study for a mangement student on participative style of management. Factors such as employee relations, transparency,corporate governance, Sundesh programme for rural india are chip in the shoulders of the organization.The exercise literally took me through the annual report of the company which detailed on minute aspects that are not only informative but interesting too. To conclude, it is essential to understand to what an organization stands for and what goes into the building of a great organization like Dabur.
Bharathidasan Institute Of management Bangalore
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