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Theses: An estimated 69% of cigarette smokers want to quit smoking.

Many people are aware of the harmful effects, yet they continue to smoke. There are se eral methods to assist people to o ercome their addictions. !owe er the psychological effects from the cigarettes pre ent people from quitting successfully.

"ote #age $ %ource A

&ucito, 'isa M., 'aura M. (uliano, and )en*am+n A. Toll. ,-ogniti e .eappraisal And /0pressi e %uppression /motion .egulation %trategies 1n -igarette %mokers., Nicotine & Tobacco Research $2.$$ 324$45: $$667$$6$. Academic Search Complete. 8e9. 24 %ept. 24$:. $.#sychological effects of cigarettes 3topic5 "egati e affect is an important psychological factor in the promotion and maintenance of cigarette smoking, though the underlying factors that account for this relationship remain to 9e determined. ;ne possi9le mechanism may 9e smokers< emotion regulation strategies. #reliminary research among adolescents and young adults suggests that greater utili=ation of e0pressi e suppression ersus cogniti e reappraisal is associated with higher rates of smoking initiation. >irect ?uote #g. $ 2. #sychological effects of cigarettes 3topic5 &requent reappraisal was associated with weaker e0pectancies that smoking alle iates unpleasant feelings, greater positi e mood, and fewer depressi e symptoms. 1n contrast, frequent suppression was related to longer smoking history and greater attentional 9ias to smoking cues on an /motional %troop Task. Among the depressed su9sample, reappraisal moderated the effect of mood condition on smoking duration, num9er of cigarette puffs, and car9on mono0ide 9oost. >irect ?uote #g. $ :. #sychological effects of cigarettes 3topic5

%moking rates and nicotine dependence le els are ele ated among indi iduals with a history of depression or an0iety 3'asseret al., 24445. "egati e affect has 9een shown to increase smoking urge, latency to smoke, and cigarette puffs in la9oratory studies 3-onklin @ #erkins, 2446A &ucito @ (uliano, 2449A (uliano @ )randon, 24425. %mokers often report strong e0pectancies that smoking alle iates unpleasant emotions and greater smoking moti ation in response to negati e mood. >irect ?uote #g. $ B. #sychological effects of cigarettes 3topic5 %mokers may 9e less effecti e modulating the intensity of negati e emotional states 3e.g., infrequent reappraisal5 or may utili=e strategies that reduce resources to resist smoking 3e.g., frequent suppression5. .esearch on smoking initiation among adolescents and young adults supports this notion. &requent suppression is predicti e of 9oth 9eing a smoker and earlier smoking initiation 3Magar, #hillips, @ !osie, 244C5. >irect ?uote #g. 2 6. #sychological effects of cigarettes 3topic5 The primary results demonstrated that smoking duration and num9er of cigarette puffs was greater in response to the sad condition than to the neutral condition among participants with higher 9aseline depression scores and that changes in positi e mood partially mediated this effect 3p<s D .465. >irect ?uote #g. : 6. #sychological effects of cigarettes 3topic5 These results pro ide preliminary support that emotion regulation strategies may 9e associated with moti ational correlates of smoking as well as actual smoking 9eha ior among depressed smokers. >irect ?uote #g. $ E. #sychological effects of cigarettes 3topic5 /ligi9ility requirements included 9eing F$C years old and smoking F$4 cigarettesGday for F$ year. ;ne hundred and twenty7one participants 36$ men and 64 women5 were mostly -aucasian 3B6%5 and )lack 3BB%5, had a mean age of ::.EC 3%> H $B.CB5 years, smoked an a erage of $6.$4 3%> H 6.9C5 cigarettesGday for a mean of $B.6$ 3%> H $:.6B5 years, and had a mean score of $2.9: 3%> H 9.2C5 on the )eck >epression 1n entory 3)>15711 3:C% In H B6J met the cutoff score of F$B, indicati e of mild or greater depressi e symptoms5.

>irect ?uote #g. 2 C. #sychological effects of cigarettes 3topic5 This study pro ides preliminary support that adult smokers< emotion regulation strategies may 9e related to smoking maintenance, particularly among those ulnera9le to depression >irect ?uote #g. :

Theses: An estimated 69% of cigarette smokers want to quit smoking. Many people are aware of the harmful effects, yet they continue to smoke. There are se eral methods to assist people to o ercome their addictions. !owe er the psychological effects from the cigarettes pre ent people from quitting successfully. "ote #age 2 %ource ) Mayo Clinic. ".p., n.d. 8e9. $4 ;ct. 24$:. Dhttp:GGwww.mayoclinic.comGhealthG quit7smoking7productsGmy44EC$GmethodHprintK. $. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 ;nly a9out 6 percent of people who try to quit to9acco succeed without a quit7smoking product. )ut more than :4 percent can succeed when using a quit7smoking product. >irect ?uote #g.$ 2. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 "icotine patches are small and look like 9and aids and are meant to 9e put on your skin to soothe a nicotine cra e. The patches come in different le els of nicotine to help slowly put a nicotine addiction to a stop. They can ha e some negati e side effects like insomnia and i id dreams. Another con is the fact that a nicotine patch will not relie e a sudden cra e. #araphrase #g.$ :. Methods to ?uit 3topic5

"icotine gum is gum that contains a small amount of nicotine which enters a 9ody when chewed. 1t controls a cra ing for a ery short period of time. Another 9enefit of this method comes from it 9eing a non7prescription drug, and sold in the ma*ority of stores. There are multiple negati e side effects that can arise such as nausea, headache, and e0cessi e sali a. #araphrase #g.$ B. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 A nicotine inhaler is a de ice that shoots nicotine into you from a cartridge on the inside, the nicotine is a9sor9ed into your 9loodstream from the inside of your mouth. 1t is a great method for relie ing sudden cra es, 9ut is usually used with another quitting aid. The inhaler is a prescription medicine that is often not recommended for people who suffer from asthma. #araphrase #g. $ 6. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 )upropion is a prescription medication classified as a type of antidepressant. A sustained7 release form of 9upropion is appro ed for smoking cessation. Lnlike nicotine replacement therapy, 9upropion doesnMt contain nicotine. 1tMs thought to decrease to9acco cra ings and withdrawal symptoms 9y increasing the le els of certain 9rain chemicals. #araphrase #g. $ 6. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 1n (uly 2449, the &ood and >rug Administration 3&>A5 required 9upropion to carry a 9lack 9o0 warning N the strongest safety warning that the &>A can issue a9out a prescription medication. The warning is required 9ecause 9upropion may 9e associated with serious mental health pro9lems either while taking it or after stopping it, including an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or 9eha ior, hostility and depression. 1f you take 9upropion, report any changes in mood or 9eha ior to your doctor immediately and stop taking the medication. )upropion isnMt appropriate if you ha e a sei=ure or eating disorder, if youM e lost consciousness for more than an hour 9ecause of head trauma, if youMre already taking a medication containing 9upropion, or if you take a type of antidepressant known as a monoamine o0idase inhi9itor 3MA;15. >irect ?uote #g. $ E. Methods to ?uit 3topic5

-hanti0 is a prescription medication that was created to help relie e the withdrawals and cra es that come from quitting. The drug also 9locks nicotine receptors in your 9rain which make smoking a cigarette less en*oya9le, so doctors actually recommend that you continue to smoke when you 9egin taking the medicine. #araphrase #g. $ C. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 "icotine nasal spray is a prescription spray that is used to stop a nicotine cra e. 1t is a solution meant to 9e sprayed up your nose, doctors recommend using it up to : times in each nostril per hour. The nasal spray can 9e addicting. #araphrase #g. $

Theses: An estimated 69% of cigarette smokers want to quit smoking. Many people are aware of the harmful effects, yet they continue to smoke. There are se eral methods to assist people to o ercome their addictions. !owe er the psychological effects from the cigarettes pre ent people from quitting successfully. "ote #age : %ource ,-hronic 9ronchitis, emphysema and -;#> 3MsmokerMs lungM5., Netdoctor. ".p., n.d. 8e9. $4 ;ct. 24$:. Dhttp:GGwww.netdoctor.co.ukGdiseasesGfactsG smokerslung.htmK. $. !armful /ffects of %moking 3topic5 -hronic 9ronchitis is a chronic inflammatory condition in the lungs that causes the respiratory passages to 9e swollen and irritated, increases the mucus production and damages the lungs. >irect ?uote #g. $ 2. !armful /ffects of %moking 3topic5

-hronic 9ronchitis has symptoms are coughing and 9reathlessness which continue to get worse and worse throughout the years. #araphrase #g. $ :. !armful /ffects of %moking 3topic5 1n emphysema, there is a slightly different pro9lem de eloping in the lungs as the walls 9etween the tiny grape7shaped air sacs or al eoli are damaged and 9reak down. They then form into much larger airspaces and there is less surface for gas e0change, so o0ygen intake is less and the person feels 9reathless. >irect ?uote #g. $ B. !armful /ffects of %moking 3topic5 )oth chronic 9ronchitis and emphysema are considered to 9e a M-;#>M 3chronic o9structi e pulmonary disease5, which is used to descri9e lung damage that is causing airway restriction. #araphrase #g.$ 6. !armful /ffects of %moking 3topic5 %moking is the main cause of chronic 9ronchitisA C out of $4 people who suffer from the disease got it from smoking. Allergies and air pollution commonly make the disease worse. !ow serious the disease is depends on how much and how long the person has 9een smoking for. #araphrase #g. $ 6. !armful /ffects of %moking 3topic5 -;#> is a non7cura9le disease, howe er there are many treatments to help impro e the conditions. %teroids and theophylline are some oral treatments used to help 9reak up the stuff called sputum that clogs up air ways. #araphrase. #g. $ E. !armful /ffects of %moking 3topic5 Oictims of this disease are ery prone to getting upper respiratory infections. #eople suffering this usually ha e to 9e treated with anti9iotics and they e0perience se ere e0acer9ations. #araphrase #g. $

C. !armful /ffects of %moking 3topic5 Most people with chronic 9ronchitis caused 9y smoking do not go to their doctor until they start to 9ecome 9reathless, 9y which time much irre ersi9le lung damage has already occurred. >irect ?uote #g. $

Theses: An estimated 69% of cigarette smokers want to quit smoking. Many people are aware of the harmful effects, yet they continue to smoke. There are se eral methods to assist people to o ercome their addictions. !owe er the psychological effects from the cigarettes pre ent people from quitting successfully. "ote #age B %ource > "eporent, 'i=. ,6 Things Pou "eed to Qnow A9out /7-igarettes., ABCnews. ".p., n.d. 8e9. $6 ;ct. 24$:. Dhttp:GGa9cnews.go.comG!ealthGfacts7cigarettesG storyRidH24:B6B6:SallK. $. Methods to ?uit The electronic cigarette was in ented in the $964s, 9ut it didnMt really take off until a decade ago. There are currently o er 264 different 9rands of ,e7cigarettes, a aila9le in

fla ors such as watermelon, pink 9u99le gum and (a a, and are offered in many different colors. #araphrase #g. $ 2. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 A9out B million American now use 9attery powered cigarettes. The e7cigs to contain trace elements of ha=ardous compounds, including a chemical that is a main element found in anti7free=e. !owe er the &>A report found nine contaminants ersus the $$,444 found in an a erage cigarette. The le el of the ha=ardous traces is unknown. #araphrase #g. $ :. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 /lectronic cigarettes are effecti e in getting people to quit cigarettes. !owe er studies show that the ma*ority of people who use this method tend to 9ecome addicted to the electronic cigarette. #araphrase #g. $ B. Methods to ?uit 3topic5 There is no federal age restriction to prohi9it the sale of the electronic cigarettes to minors. This is leading many people to feel that these de ices are 9ecoming popular among the youth. %ome people are starting to call the e7cigs a gateway de ice to normal cigarettes. #araphrase #g. $

Theses: An estimated 69% of cigarette smokers want to quit smoking. Many people are aware of the harmful effects, yet they continue to smoke. There are se eral methods to assist people to o ercome their addictions. !owe er the psychological effects from the cigarettes pre ent people from quitting successfully. "ote #age 6 %ource /

'ukachko, Alicia M., and /li=a9eth M. 8helan. ,%moking -auses %ignificant !ealth #ro9lems., 2444. Chemical Dependency. /d. 'aura Q. /gendorf, %cott )ar9our, and !elen -othran. &armington !ills: )onnie %=umski, 244:. ". pag. #rint. $. !armful /ffects of -igarettes -igarette smoking is the main cause of cancer in the esophagus, laryn0, lip, mouth, pharyn0, tongue, kidney, pancreas, urinary 9ladder, and uterine cer i0. #araphrase #g. :4 2. !armful /ffects of -igarettes %tudies show that for men under the age of 66 who smoke are an independent risk factor for impotence, including erectile dysfunction. #araphrase #g. :4 :. !armful /ffects of -igarettes %mokers face a significantly greater chance of suffering from complications during and after surgery than no7smokers do. %moking also increases the risk for a num9er of other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and cancers of the prostate and stomach. #araphrase #g. :$ B. !armful /ffects of -igarettes /0posure to en ironmental to9acco smoke 3secondhand smoke5 also increase health risks. 1t also is associated with the irritation of eyes, nose, and respiratory tract, and e0acer9ation of asthma and emphysema. #araphrase #g. :$ 6. !armful /ffects of -igarettes /n ironmental to9acco smoke is pro en to contri9ute to lung cancer and heart disease. #araphrase #g. :$ 6. !armful /ffects of -igarettes %moking is also known for 9eing the cause of ma*or cardio ascular diseases including coronary heart disease, stroke, sudden death, an aortic aneurysm. #araphrase #g. :4 E. !armful /ffects of -igarettes

%mokers ha e 9een found to more commonly suffer from respiratory diseases like influen=a, pneumonia, colds, and 9ronchitis. The reco ery from these common illnesses tend to last longer for smokers. #araphrase #g. :4

Theses: An estimated 69% of cigarette smokers want to quit smoking. Many people are aware of the harmful effects, yet they continue to smoke. There are se eral methods to

assist people to o ercome their addictions. !owe er the psychological effects from the cigarettes pre ent people from quitting successfully. "ote #age 6 %ource & .owley, -hristine !. ,"icotine Addiction 1s the Ma*or -ause of To9acco Lse., 2444. Tobacco And Smoking. /d. Qaren &. )alkin and !elen -othran. ".p.: )onnie %=umski, 2446. 6E7E$. #rint. ;pposing Oiewpoints. $. #sychological /ffects of %moking "icotine is highly addicti e and has effects on the 9rain that are similar to heroin and cocaine. #araphrase #g. 6E 2. #sychological /ffects of %moking 8hen quitting smoking the smoker e0periences withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms are an indication of all the addicti e properties of nicotine. #araphrase #g. 6E :. #sychological /ffects of %moking Most people who smoke partake in this cancer causing ha9it regularly 9ecause they are addicted to nicotine. Addiction is characteri=ed 9y compulsi e drug7seeking and use, e en in the face of dangerous health consequences. #araphrase #g. 6C