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Page 603

Answers to Exercises
and Pre/PostTests

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Page 604

Section 0.10.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

Pretest 0.1
1. 1

23. 15x - 192/2


24. 1c - by2/a

2. -3

25. 1c - ax2/b

3. 3

26. 5/91F - 322

4. 7
5. -2/3

28. 12A - ah2/h

6. 59/158 L 0.37342

29. RW/1W - R2

7. 20

30. M = 19, L = 12

8. 45
9. 4/3

27. V/1pr22

31. J = 16, M = 21
32. 84

10. 12x - 52/3

33. w = 5, l = 13

Posttest 0.1

35. 531, 32, 336

1. 1
2. 2

34. 12 cm

36. 517, 19, 216


37. (a) 2 hrs
(b) 160 mi, 120 mi

3. -3
4. 15
5. 17/2
6. -32/7
7. 2/9
8. -270/109 L -2.47706
9. 13x - 92/4
10. 6 ft

Exercise Set 0.1


1. 16

38. 4 hrs
39. 4 hrs
40. 25
41. 150
42. 36
43. 5/14
44. 12/15
45. $6,480
46. 3 yrs.
47. 4%

2. -6
3. 0

Pretest 0.2

4. 0

1. 0, 5/4

5. 8/3

2. 0, 4

6. 4

3. ;7/3

7. -2/9

4.

8. 26/11

5. 2, -13/6

9. 59/21

6. ;2 22i

; 23
2

; 2 22
3

10. 2

7.

11. -3/7

8. 5 ; 3 22

12. -14/11
13. 12

9. 5 ; 3 23i
10.

5 ; 2 25
2

14. 15
15. 8/15

Posttest 0.2

16. 10

1. 0, 3/7

17. -33

2. 0, 9/2

18. 29/7

3. ;9/4

19. 19/18

4. ;3/2

20. 65/84

5. ;1

21. 755/9

6. ;2 25i

2. 119 + 2y2/5

7.

; 26
4

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Section 0.20.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


8. -3 ; 226

44. 5 ; 2 23i

9. 5 ; 223i

45.

10.

- 4 ; 2 23
5

Exercise Set 0.2


1. ;5
2. ;6
3. ;2
4. ;7
5. ;8
6. ;3
7. ;5
8. ;8
9. ;3
10. ;3
11. ;322
12. ;222

46.
47.
48.
49.

2 ; 5i
3
- 7 ; 6i
4
3 ; 2 26i
2
5 ; 3 22i
3
2 ; 2 23i
3

50. -3 ; 3 22
51.
52.
53.

2 ; 2 23
3
- 4 ; 5 25i
10
3 ; 2 25i
2

54. -7 ; 3 22
55.
56.
57.

- 7 ; 3 22i
2
15 ; 2 215
9
15 ; 2 215i
6

Pretest 0.3

13. ;223

1. 16

14. ;226

2. 9/4

15. ;5i

3. 5 ; 2 27

16. ;6i

4.

17. ;2i

5.

- 5 ; 3 25
2
6 ; 4 23
3

18. ;7i
19. ;3i

Posttest 0.3

20. ;4i

1. 36

21. ;225i

2. 25/4

2. ;222i

3. 6 ; 2 210
- 3 ; 3 25
2

23. ;4i

4.

24. ;322i

5. 2 ; 26

25. ;323i
26. ;223
27. ;422i
28.
29.

; 2170
10
; 2230
10

30. ;226i
31. -1, 5
32. -4, 5
33. -5/2, 3
34. -8, 2
35. -2, 10
36. -2, 5
37. -4/3, 4
38.
39.
40.
41.

7 ; 3 22
4
- 4 ; 2 25
5
3 ; 2 26
2
1 ; 2 22
3

Exercise Set 0.3


1. 1x + 222 - 4
2. 1x + 322 - 9
3. 1x - 322 - 9

4. 1x - 422 - 16
5. 1x - 522 - 25
6. 1x + 622 - 36

7. 1x + 3/222 - 9/4
8. 1x - 3/222 - 9/4

9. 1x - 5/222 - 25/4

10. 1x + 5/222 - 25/4


11. 1x - 7/222 - 49/4
12. 1x + 9/222 - 81/4

13. -1 ; 211, -4.317, 2.317


14. -3 ; 26, -0.551, -5.449
15. 1 ; 211, -2.317, 4.317

42. -3 ; 3i

16. 3 ; 26, 0.551, 5.449

43. 4 ; 4i

17. -3 ; 2 23, -6.464, 0.464

605

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Section 0.30.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

18. 4 ; 2 25, -0.472, 8.472

3. -1, 5/4

19. 6 ; 2210, -0.325, 12.325

4.

20.
21.
2.
23.

- 5 ; 3 25
, -5.854, 0.854
2
5 ; 3 25
, -0.854, 5.854
2
3 ; 213
, -0.303, 3.303
2
- 3 ; 213
, -3.303, 0.303
2

27. 1, 1/6
28. -1 ; 227, -6.29, 4.29
- 5 ; 239i
2
- 1 ; 2119i
12

6. 19, -4, 42

9. (5, 0, 11)

10. 17, -3, 02


11. 14, -9, 02

33. 5 ; 5i
34. 4 ; 2 25i
35. 2 ; 223, -1.464, 5.464
36. -3 ; 223i

39.

5. 15, 27, -102

8. 12, 0, -102

32. 6 ; 223i

38.

1. 11, 4, -112

7. 15, 10, -142

31. 3 ; 214i

3 ; 23i
2
- 5 ; 215i
2
- 4 ; 214
,
2

Answers in 115 are in the form (a, b, c)

4. 13, 7, -102

26. -7, 5

37.

Exercise Set 0.4

3. 15, -8, -122

25. -2, 5

30.

5. 7.129 sec.

2. 13, 7, -82

24. -1 ; 3i

29.

5 ; 223i
8

12. 13, -2, -132

13. 18, -14, -222

14. 160, -152, 712


15. 14, 5, -212

16. -1 ; 211, -4.313, 2.317


-3.871, -0.129

17. -3 ; 26, -0.551, -5.449

40. -2, 3/2

18. 1 ; 211, -2.317, 4.317

41. -3/2, 2/3

19. 3 ; 26, 0.551, 5.449

42. -3/4, 4/3

20. -3 ; 223, -6.464, 0.464

43. -5/2, -4/3

21. 4 ; 2 25, -0.472, 8.472

44.
45.

- 5 ; 255i
4
5 ; 2103i
8

46. -5 ; 221, -9.583, -0.417


47.
48.
49.
50.

9 ; 2321
, -0.743, 2.243
12
15 ; 2393
, -0.402, 2.902
12
- 2 ; 27
, -2.323, 0.323
2
5 ; 3 25
,
-0.171, 1.171
10

2. 6 ; 2 210, -0.325, 12.325


23.
24.
25.

- 5 ; 3 25
, -5.854, 0.854
2
5 ; 3 25
, -0.854, 5.854
2
3 ; 213
, -0.303, 3.303
2

26. -1 ; 3i
27. -2, 5
28. -7, 5

51. b = 8, h = 5

29. 1, 1/6

52. 2.34 sec

30. -1 ; 2 27, -6.29, 4.29

53. 16.2 m by 6.2 m

31.

Pretest 0.4
1.

2 ; 214
2

2. 2 ; 25
3.
4.

4 ; 234
9
3 ; 23i
3

5. 1.664 or 198.336 sec.

32.

33. 3 ; 214i
34. 6 ; 2 23i
35. -5 ; 5i
36. 4 ; 2 25i
37. 2 ; 2 23, -1.464, 5.464
38. -3 ; 2 23i
39.

Posttest 0.4
1.
2.

3 ; 241
8
1 ; 233
4

- 5 ; 239i
2
- 1 ; 2119i
12

40.
41.

3 ; 23i
2
- 5 ; 215i
2
- 4 ; 214
,
2

42. -2, 3/2

-3.871, -0.129

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Section 0.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


43. -3/2, 2/3

3. x -4 or x 3

44. -3/4, 4/3

4. -4 6 x 6 3

45. -5/2, -4/3

5. -5/3 x 7/4

46.
47.

- 5 ; 255i
4
- 5 ; 2103i
8

6. x 6 -5/3 or x 7 7/4
7. x -5 or x 3/5

48. -5 ; 221, -9.583, -0.417


49.
50.
51.
52.

9 ; 2321
, -0.743, 2.243
12
15 ; 2393
, -0.402, 2.902
12
- 2 ; 27
,
-2.323, 0.323
2
5 ; 3 25
,
-0.171,
1.171
10

8. -5 6 x 6 3/5
9. -4 6 x 6 5/2
10. x 2/3 or x 3/4
11. x 0 or x 5/2
12. 0 6 x 6 5/2

53. 5, 6, 7, or -7, -6, -5

13. x = -2 or x 3

54. 11, 13, 15, or -15, -13, -11

14. x 3/2

55. 16.971 in

15. x -3 or 0 x 2

56. 13.416 in

16. -5 x -1 or x 2

57. (a) 0.195 sec or 4.805 sec (b) 5 sec (c) 5.807 sec

17. x -3/2 or -1 x 5/3

58. (a) 3.062 sec (b) 3.536 sec (c) 3.953 sec

18. x -4 or x -3

59. 4ft

19. 2 6 x 6 5

60. 82 and 94 miles

20. x 6 -7 or x 7 6

61. (a) 3.584ft (b) 12.832ft by 16.832 ft

21. -4/3 x 3/2

62. 10 and 12 mph

2. x 6 -4/3 or x 7 3/2

63. 4 hr

23. x -3/2 or x 4/5

64. (a) 50, 150 (b) 100 (c) 5000

24. -3/2 6 x 6 4/5

65. (a) 18, 47 (b) 15, 50

25. x -5/4 or x 5/6

66. -4/3, 8

26. -5/4 6 x 6 5/6

67. -17/2, 3

27. -4 x 0 or x 4

68. 6/13, 4

28. x 6 -4 or 0 6 x 6 4

69. ;2

29. -5 x 0 or x 5

70.

2
312 2
3 36
2 , 3

30. x 6 -5 or 0 6 x 6 5

71. 512, 19683


72. ; 32

+ 110
2

= ; 34

+ 2 210
2

Pretest 0.5

31. -4 x 4
32. x 6 -1 or x 7 1
33. x -5/2 or x 4
34. -5/2 6 x 6 4

1. x -4 or x 2/3

35. -17/6 6 x 6 2

2. x 6 0

36. x -17/6 or x 2

3. x 3/2 or x 7 5

37. x -11/20 or x 1

4. -11/4 6 x 6 4/3

38. -11/20 6 x 6 1

5. x 6 -4 or 0 x 1 or 2 x 6 4

39. x -2 or 1 x 6 3
40. -2 6 x 6 1 or x 7 3

Posttest 0.5

41. x 6 2/3 or 5/2 6 x 6 4 or x 7 4

1. x -3/2 or x 2/5

42. 2/3 x 5/2

2. 3/4 6 x 6 1

43. x 0 or x = 3/2 or x 7 4

3. -3/2 6 x 5/2

44. 0 6 x 6 3/2 or 3/2 6 x 6 4

4. -4/5 6 x 6 3

45. x 6 3 or x 7 8

5. -5/3 6 x 0 or 2/3 x 6 5/3 or x 5/2

46. 3 6 x 8

Exercise Set 0.5


1. x 7 3/2
2. x 3/2

47. x 6 -3 or x 4
48. -3 6 x 6 4
49. 1 6 x 3
50. x 6 1 or x 7 3

607

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Section 1.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


8. 5/4, 1-12/5, 02, (0,3)

51. x 7 3

9. -13/47, 1-112/13, 02, 10, -112/472

52. x 6 3
53. x -6 or -5 6 x 6 5 or x 6

10. 0, 10, -19/42

54. -6 6 x 6 -5 or 5 6 x 6 6

11. y = -3x + 11

55. x -3 or x = 0 or 12 6 x 2

12. y = 12 x + 1

56. -3 6 x 6 -4/3 or -4/3 6 x 6 0 or 0 6 x 6 2 or x 7 2

13. y = 16 x

57. x 6 -9/2 or 7/4 x 6 2 or x = 0

14. y = 14x + 143/10

58. -9/2 6 x 6 -1/2 or -1/2 6 x 6 0 or 0 6 x 6 7/4 or x 7 2

15. y = 4.1x - 12.3

59. -222 x 2 22

16. x = -1

60. x 6 -2 22 or x 7 222

17. y = -6

61. 1 - 22 6 x 6 1 + 22

18. y = 2x + 4

62. x 1 - 22 or x 1 + 22

19. x = 12

63. x 6 2 - 325 or x 7 2 + 325

20. y = 8

64. 2 - 325 x 2 + 3 25

21.

65.
66. - q 6 x 6 q

Pretest 1.1
1. y = 2x + 5
2. 5/2
3. -9/2
4. 9/5
5. y = 3x - 11
6. x = 5
7. y = 2
8. 5x - 2y = 16
9. 3x - 2y = 8

2.

10. 2x + 3y = 27

Posttest 1.1
1. y = 3x - 3
2. -2/7
3. 12/7
4. 6
5. -3x + 2y = 38
6. y = 6
7. x = 5
8. x + 11y = 47
9. 2x + 5y = 5

Exercise Set 1.1


1. y = 2x + 4
2. y = -3x
3. y = -2
4. y = 12 x + 1/4
5. y = 14 x + 3

6. 3/4, 14, 02, 10, -32

7. - 12, 19/2, 02, 10, 9/42

23.

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Section 1.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


24.

28.

25.
29.

26.

30.

y = 19/4

27.
31.

609

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32.

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Section 1.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


36.

x = 1

37.
33.

38.

34.

39.

35.
x = 12

(12, 0)

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Page 611

Section 1.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


40.

611

54. 24
55. -2
56. 0
57. no slope
58. 4/7
59. x = 1
60. 7x - 5y = 59
61. 8x + 5y = 0.
62. y = 4
63. x = 12
64. y = 12 x + 3

41. (a) 2/5, (3,0), 10, -6/52


(b) y =

2
5x

65. 14x + 2y = 3
66. y = 24x - 9

37
5

67. y = -2x
68. y = -5
69. x = 12
(0, 37/5)

70. y = 47 x + 4
71. y = 3x - 8
72. (a) 2x - 5y = 16
(b) 5x + 2y = -18
73. (a) 3x + 7y = -18

(0, -6/5)

(b) 7x - 3y = 16
74. (a) 3

42. (a) -3/7, 1-14, 02, 10, -62


(b) y = - 37 x - 2

(b)

C2
2 AB

75. 5y + 2x = 20, 5y - 2x = 20.


76. y = -5x ; 20
77. (a) 291/5
(b) `

C
` 2A2 + B2
AB

78. (b) no
(c) examine the slopes
79. t = -0.05x + 4000
80. 130
81. 166
43. (a) y = -6/5
(b) x = 3

82.

(c)

44. (a) y = -6
(b) x = -14
45. y = 1, y = -7

(a)

46. x = 8, x = -4
47. no slope
48. 7/5
49. -8/5

(b)

50. 0
51. no slope
52. 12
53. -7

(d) They are horizontal translations of each other. Each graph may be obtained from (a) by moving it 3 units to the left or right.

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Section 1.11.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


11. D = 53, 4, 7, 116, R = 5 -5, 11, 196

83.

(b)

(a)

12. D = 5 -3, 2, 5, 196 R = 53, 5, 76


13. D = 53, 7, 96 R = 5 -5, 2, 5, 116
14. D = 52, 3, 5, 66 R = 5 -16

15. D = 54, 5, 96 R = 5 -22, 2, 3, 76


16. D = 51, 2, 3, 46 R = 556
17. (a) -5
(b) -8
(c) 1
(d) 6x - 5

(c)

(e) 3x + 3h - 5
18. (a) -1

(d) They are vertical translations of each other. Each graph may be obtained
from (a) by moving it 4 units Up or down.

(b) 7
(c) 1
(d) 18x2 - 1
(e) 2x2 + 4xh + 2h2 - 1

84.

19. (a) -1/3


(b) 0

(d)

(c) 4/3

(d) 12x + 12/14x - 32

(e)

(e) 1x + h + 12/12x + 2h - 32
20. (a) 0

(a)
(b)

(b) 0
(c) 12
(d) 48

(c)

(e) 4x22x + 1

(f) They are each obtained from (a) by moving it 4 units up or down and simultaneously moving it 3 units to the left or right.

21. 3

85. The second line is obtained from the first by moving it h units horizontally
and k units vertically.

23. m

87. (a) 2x + y = 6

25. 2x + h + 3

2. 5
24. 2x + 2h - 5

(b) 2x - y = 4

26. 4x + 2h + 3

(c) 4x + 3y = 2

27. 10x + 5h - 4

88. (25/14, 46/7)


B - b

28. 3x2 + 3xh + h2


29.

-2
x1x + h2

30.

-4
1x - 321x + h - 32

31.

1
1x + h + 3 + 1x + 3

2. Is a function

32.

2
12x + 2h - 1 + 12x - 1

3. Is a function

33. (a) - q 6 x 6 q

89.

2m2 + 1

Exercise Set 1.2


1. Is a function

4. Is a function

(b)

5. Is not a function

(c) - q 6 y 6 q

6. Is a function
7. Is not a function
8. Is a function

9. D = 5-1, 1, 2, 126, R = 53, 5, 9, 236

10. D = 52, 3, 5, 76, R = 5-5, 4, 9, 116

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Page 613

Section 1.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


34. (a) - q 6 x 6 q

40. (a) - q 6 x 6 q

(b)

(b)

(c) - q 6 y 6 q

(c) y 0

35. (a) - q 6 x 6 q
(b)
(c) y 5

41. (a) - q 6 x 6 q
(b)
(c) y 0

36. (a) - q 6 x 6 q
(b)
(c) y 4
42. x Z 3/2
43. x Z -5/2
44. x Z -4/3, 3/2
45. x Z -3, 0, 3
46. Not
37. (a) x 0

47. Is

(b)

48. Is

(c) y 0

49. Is
50. Is
51. Is
52. Is
53. Is
54. Is

38. (a) x -1/2


(b)
(c) y 0

55. (a) C1d2 = e

1.75
1.25 + 0.50d

d 6 1
d 1

(b) $6.25
80
56. (a) C1h2 = c 25 + 55h
67 + 48h
(b) $245

h 6 1
1 h 6 6
h 6

(c) $403

39. (a) x 4/3


(b)
(c) y 0

16 + 3a
57. h1a2 = c 28 + 2a
66
(b) 43 in
(c) 58 in
58. (a) 7x + 5
(b) -x - 9
(c) 12x2 + 13x - 14
(d)

3x - 2
4x + 7

x Z - 74

a 6 12
12 a 19
a 7 19

613

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Section 1.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

59. (a) x2 + 2x - 3

73.

(b) -x + 2x - 3
(c) 2x3 - 3x2
(d)

2x - 2
x2

x Z 0

60. (a) 2x2 + 3x + 4


(b) -2x2 + 3x + 10
(c) 6x3 + 14x2 - 9x - 21
(d)

3x + 7

x Z ;

2x2 - 3

26
2

74.

61. (a) x2 + 12 x + 11/2


(b) x2 - 12 x + 9/2

(c) 121x3 + x2 + 5x + 52
(d)
62. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

2x2 + 10
x + 1
7x - 4

x Z -1

x2 - 4
-1x + 82
x2 - 4
12x + 6

1x + 2221x - 22
3x - 6
4x + 2

x Z ;2

75.

63. (a) 2x + 9 - q 6 x 6 q
(b) 4x2 + 12x + 12 - q 6 x 6 q
64. (a) x + 2 x 1
(b) x2 + 2 - q 6 x 6 q
12 + 2x
65. (a)
x Z 0, 4
12 - 3x
121x - 32
(b)
x Z -2, 3
x + 2
66. (a) x

-q 6 x 6 q

(b) x

-q 6 x 6 q

67. (a) x

-q 6 x 6 q

(b) x

-q 6 x 6 q

68. (a) x

76. (a) 5
(b) -5
(c) 5

-q 6 x 6 q

(d) -6

(b) x x -1
69. (a) x

77. (a) 5

-q 6 x 6 q

(b) -5

(b) x x -3/2

70. 5x x is in the domain of f and f(x) is in the domain of g6


71. f1d2 = g1b2
72.

(c) 6
(d) -5
78.

3
2
1
1

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Page 615

Section 1.21.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


79.

615

92. (a) 864


(b) 1600
(c) 24x2y2 + 24xy 2 + 8y 2h2
(d) 16x3y2 + 8x3k
(e) 96y2 + 48hy2 + 8y2h2
(f) 48x3 + 8x3k
(g) 24x2y2, 96y2
(h) 16x3y, 48x3

80. For non integer values, Ceil1x2 = flr1x2 + 1

93. (a) 218


(b) -8

81.

(c) 2x + h - 2y2
(d) -4xy - 2kx - 9y2z2 - 9kyz2 - 3z2k2
(e) -6y3z - 3y3l + 2z + l

Exercise Set 1.3


1. (a) C1x2 = 2500 + 30x, R1x2 = 45x, $166.67
(b) 15x - 2500
(c) $266.67
82.

2. It reduces to $80
3. $500
4. $27
5. $33
6. C1x2 = 0.4x + 2000, R1x2 = 1.2x, P1x2 = 0.8x - 2000, x = 2500
7. C1x2 = 0.8x + 1000, overhead = $1000, Marginal cost = $0.80
8. $30 and $3800.
9. C1x2 = 0.75x + 4500, R1x2 = 2.25x

83. f1x2 = x18, g1x2 = 3x2 - 2x + 23

(b) $3.90 per item


10. p = -0.006x + 22.8

84. f1x2 = x54,


g1x2 = 2x8 - 11x5 - 2x + 19

11. A1t2 = -950t + 10,000, 5.26 yrs.

85. f1x2 = 1x, g1x2 = x - 3

12. House = $90,000, Land = $10,000

3 x, g1x2 = x4 - 7x2 + 3x - 2
86. f1x2 = 2

-7x - 3
2
13. f1x2 = d
2
6x - 22

87. f1u2 = 1u, u = 4x + 3x + 2x + 1x, u = 1w w = x +


3x + 2x + 1x, 8

x 6 1
1 x 6 3 f1 -22 = 11/2, f102 = -3/2, f122
x 3

w = x + 1v, v = x + 2x + 1x, v = x + 1r, r = x + 1x


88. x L 4 miles.

= 2, f152 = 8

89. x L 16 miles
91. (a) 3,

14. f1x2 = c

(b) -15
(c) 2x - 2y 2 + h
(d) -4xy - 2xk - 9y2 - 9yk - 3k2
(e) 4 + h - 2y2

(h) -4xy - 9y2, -4x - 9

x 1
1 6 x 2
x 7 2

f1 -12 = -3, f11.52 = 1, f142 = 3


(Either end points may have equality in 14 and 15.)

(f) -4x - 2xk - 9 - 9k - 3k2


(g) 2x - 2y2, 4 - 2y2

2x - 1
1
x - 1

15. f1x2 = c

1
-x
2x - 3

x -1
-1 6 x 1 f1 -22 = 1, f11.52 = -1.5, f152 = 7
x 7 1

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Section 1.31.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Testss

16. -2, 3, 0

6.5x - 19.5
6.5x - 13
24. T1x2 = d
6.5x - 65
6.5x

x 6 10
10 x 6 20
20 x 6 30
x 30

T119.9992 = $116.99, T120.0012 = $123.51 rather earn $19,999

Exercise Set 1.4


1.

(b) -1 (c) -1

2.

(b) 2 (c) 2

3.

(b) 3 (c) 3

4.

(b) -3 (c) -3

5.

(b) 1 (c) 1

17. 2,2,3,6,6

18. 1, -1, 1, 3, 1

19. (a) one intersection at (2, 1)


(b) two intersections at (0, 2) and (10, 6)
20. Three; (1/5, 3/5), (7/3, 5/3), (11/3, 7/3)
-300,000t + 1,000,000 0 t 20
21. V1t2 = e
-20,000t + 800,000
20 6 t 40
0.10x
0.15x - 700
0.25x - 6,380
22. T1x2 = f
0.28x - 9,819.50
0.33x - 18,554.50
0.35x - 24,793.50
0.08x
23. C1x2 = c 2 + 0.06x
22 + 0.04x

0 6 x 14,000
14,000 6 x 56,800
56,800 6 x 114,650
114,650 6 x 174,700
174,700 6 x 311,950
x 7 311,950

x 100
100 6 x 1000
x 7 1000

C(x)

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Section 1.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


6.

(b) -1 (c) -1

7.

(b) 1 (c) 1

8.

(b) -2, 0 (c) -2, 0

9.

(b) None (c) None

10.

11.

617

12.

(b) -1, 5 (c) -1, 5

13.

(b) -5.2, 1.2 (c) -2 ; 210

14.

(b) None (c) None

15.

(b) -3, 4, 1.4 (c)

- 2 ; 222
2

; 210
2

16.

(b) -5, 1 (c) -5, 1

- 8 ; 214
2

17.

(b) -1.2, 3.2 (c) 1 ; 25

(b) 1.4, 4.6 (c) 6

(b) -5.9, -2.1 (c)

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Section 1.41.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


(b) -3.7, 1.2 (c)

- 5 ; 297
4

24.

(b) None (c) None

25. (a) 144 ft (b) 6 sec


19.

(b) -1.3, 4.8 (c) 7

; 2145
4

26. (a) 276 ft, 2.5 sec (b) 6.65 sec


27. x = 360 ft, y = 900 ft
28. x = 375 ft, y = 500 ft
29. x = 777.501 ft, y = 363.332 ft
30. (a) 250 (b) $350,000 (c) $1400
31. (a) 100 (b) 31,000
32. (b) 71 (c) $1185
33. (a) b2 -4ac 6 0 (b) b2 -4ac 6 0 and a 7 0 (c) b2 -4ac 6 0 and a 6 0
34. y = 2x2 - 3x + 10

20.

(b) None (c) None

35. y = -3x2 + 5x + 8
36. (a) x2 = 4py (b) x2 = -4py

37. (a) 1x - h22 = 4p1y - k2 (b) 1x - h22 = -4p1y - k2


38. x2 + y2 - 2xy - 8xh - 8yh = 0

Exercise set 1.5


1. C13, 22 r = 2

21.

2.

(b) -2.5, 1.2 (c) 5

; 2217
8

(b) None (c) None

(3, 0)

2. C14, 22 r = 3

23.

(b) None (c) None

(4, -1)

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Section 1.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


3. C1-4, 32 r = 4

6. C1-3, -22 r = 3

(4,-1)

4. C13, -22 r = 5

7. C10, 02 r = 2

(3, -7)

5. C1-1, -42 r = 2

8. C10, 02 r = 5

619

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Section 1.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

9. C1-3, 52 r = 5

10. C11, -22 r = 2

11. C1-4, 32 r = 4

12. C13/2, 5/22 r = 2

13. C12/3, -4/32 r = 11/3

14. C13/2, -1/42 r = 2

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Section 1.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


15. 12/3, -5/62 r = 3

621

32.

(c)

(a)

(b)

(d) They are translations of the same circle

16. Contradiction

33. (a) y = 5/12xz +

17. Contradiction
18. Contradiction

34. (a) y =

19. Circle
20. Point

169
12

3 -25
x
4
4

169
12
x 33 (b) 34. (b) 35 (b) the y-values on the tangent line
5
5
and on the circle near the point of tangency are almost the same

35. (a) y =

21. Point
22. Contradiction
23. point

36.

24. Point

36.

25. Circle
26. (a) b2 + c2 -4ad 7 0
(b) b2 + c2 -4ad = 0
(c) a = 0, bc Z 0,
(d) b2 + c2 -4ad 6 0
27. (a) 223
(b) 4
(c) 223
28. (a) -223
(b) -4
(c) -2 23
29. (a) 3 + 215
(b) 3 + 225
(c) 3 + 27
30. (a) 3 - 215
(b) 3 - 225
(c) 3 - 27
31. (a) 5 + 226
(b) 5 - 226
(c) 8
(d) 2

37.

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Section 1.51.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

38.
42. (a)

3 221
5

(b) (c)

3 221
5

6 26
5

(d) -

6 26
5

43.

39.

44.

40.

Exercise Set 1.6


1. (a) Demand, x = 16, p = 4
41.

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Section 1.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


2. (a) Supply, p = 8

6. (a) Supply, p = 10

3. (a) Demand, x = 12, p = 6

7. (a) Demand x = 22, p = 4

8.

2p +x 300 = 0
4. (a) Demand, x = 110/7, p = 21

Demand

Supply
8p x 200 = 0

(c) (200, 50),


(d) R1x2 = - 12 x2 + 150x
(e) 10,000
9.

p +14x -490 = 0

5. (a) Supply, p = 40

Demand
Supply
-5p + 2x + 70 = 0

(c) (105/4, 94)


(d) R1x2 = -14/5x2 + 98x
(e) 2,444

623

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Section 1.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


17. x + 500p = 20000

10.

18. p = -20/3x + 80, x = -3/20p + 12

Supply
7p + 2x + 7

19. p = -1.5x + 110, 73.33 million, which would exceed population of NYC
(and capacity of system)

=0

Demand

(c) (7, 3)
(d) R1x2 = x216 - x
(e) 21
11.
20. (13/4, 107/8)
21. (140/9, 760/9)

Supply

2. (2, 9)
23. (50, 350)
24. (17/3, 35/3)

Demand

25. (3, 48)


26. 2x + 4p = 21
27. $4800
28. (a) 2300

(c) (11, 5)

(b) 12,000

(d) R1x2 = x236 - x

(c) 196

(e) 55

(d) c1x2 = x - 3 + 2300/x


(e) 120
(f) 1.5, 2297.75

12.

x2 +8x +220 -11p = 0

29. (a) 5040


(b) 99.18

Supply

(c) c1x2 = 100 + 2000/x


(d) 100.80

Demand
x2 + 6x 384 + 12p = 0

(e) 4.5, 894


30. (a) R = -20x2 + 1000x
(b) 0 x 50
(c) $220
(d) 25, $12,500

(c) (5.491, 26,742),


(d) R1x2 -1/121x3 + 6x2 - 84x2,
(e) 146.84

31. (a) R1x2 = x22000 - 5x


(b) 0 x 400
(c) 35.73
(d) 267, 11940

13. (a) $40


(b) $65
(c) Perhaps everyone has a radio.

32. 345, $345


33. (a) R1x2 = 201x
(b) P1x2 = 20 1x - 5x - 10

14. (a) 60 cords

(c) 4

(b) $25

(d) 10

15. 2x - 5p + 15 = 0
16. 7x - 600p + 2400 = 0

34. n =

400 - x
3

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Section 1.7 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

Exercise Set 1.7

5. -3, 0, 3

1. -3, 4

6. -2, 0, 2
2. 4, -3

7. -3/2, 0, 3/2, 3
3. No zeros

8. 0, 2
4. -2, 2

625

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9. -3

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Section 1.7 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


25. Both
26. y-axis
27. Both
28. Origin
29. Origin
30. (a) violates vertical line test
(b) Exercises 25 and 27
31. x = 5
32. x = 3
33. x = -3
34. x = ; 22
35. x = 5/2

10. -3, 3

36. x = 2
37. x = -2
38. None.
39. y = 2
40. y = 0
41. y = 0
42. y = 3/2
43. None
44. y = 2
45. y = 0
46. y = 0

11. 0, 1

47.

12. Even
13. Even
14. Neither
15. Odd
16. Neither
17. Neither
18. Odd
19. Odd
20. Even
21. Odd
22. Even
23. Odd
24. Origin

48.

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Section 1.7 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


49.

53.

54.
50.

(b) twice, x L -4.1106 and 6.2186

51.

55.

52.

56.

627

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Section 1.7 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

57. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

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Section 1.7 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


58. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

629

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Section 1.7 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

59. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

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Section 1.7 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


60. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

631

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Section 1.71.8 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

61. (a) x Z -1, 3/2

Exercise Set 1.8

(b)

1. (a)

(b)

(c) y -8/25 or y 7 0
(d) 11/4, -8/252
62. Observe

2x - 4
10
= 2 x + 3
x + 3
(c) 4267.7

64. f1x2 = 0
65. Yes, also symmetry with respect to the x-axis.

2. (a)

67. See Section 3.4, Theorem 2.


68. No
69.

x = 5/2

y = 2x 11
(b)

70.

(c)
y = 1108x + 10442

y = 4x2
x = 3

y = 688x + 6092

x=3
(d) Widening
(f) $9,810

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Section 1.8 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


3. (a)

(b) 1.608
(c) It is widening

633

7. (a)

(b) The money spent on each form of advertising grows changes the same
way.

4. (a)

(b) R = 0.985237

(c) It is unclear, the different forms of advertising could be reaching different


consumers.

(c) It was unattractive in the 1980s.


8. (a)
5. (a)

(b) 1077.3
(c) 1997
(b)
9. For 1977 to 1982,

(c) 0.976633
(d) 7.2

6. From the data, there is certainly some correlation between number of wins
and bating average.

For 1983 to 1986

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Section 1.8 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

10. (a) It changes after 1980 1x = 212

(c)

(b) f1x2 = e

36x + 428 if x 21
1100
if x 23
(c) Riding became safer (perhaps because of helmet usage, or some other reason.

11. (a)

(d)

(b) f1x2 = e

0.207x + 3.44
x 10
-0.067857x + 5.996 x 11
(c) The divorce rate in the 1980s decreased.

12. (a) f1x2 = e

4.28x + 137.6
x 4
-5.75x + 179.75 x 5
(b) Something in the country resulted in the decrease, perhaps better health

15.

care. (There is a lot of information on the web regarding this topic.)

13.

16.

14. (a)

Chapter Review
1.

(b)

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Chapter 1 Review Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


2.

14. All x except 2/3 and 3/2

y=4
x = 2

x=4

15. [-5/2, 32 or (3, 4) or [4, q 2


5 - 2x
3
16. (a)
, x Z
4 - 3x
4
5 - 8x
3
(b)
, x Z
3 - 2x
2
17. 24
18. 105
19. (a) The first is a supply and the second a demand function

y = 1

2
16
3. y = x +
3
3
4. y = - 12 x - 3

5. (a) (7/2, 0), 10, -7/32

(b) [2, 8]

(c) A 5, 23 B

20. (a) $790

(b) $330
21. x Z 3

(b)

6. y = 5/4x 12
7. 2x - 3y = 6
8. (a) 3x - 4y = 17
(b) 4x + 3y = 6
9. No, same x corresponds to different y
10. (a) -5/3
(b) 7
(c) 3
2

11. (a)
(b)

3x + 10x + 8
3 - 2x
x + 2

-6x2 + x + 12
(c) 3/2, -4/3

2. NA = not available
x
f(x)

-2

-1

-2

-3

NA

NA

-2

-3

(b) f1x + 22

-2

-3

NA

NA

(c) f1x2 + 2

-1

11

(d) f1x2 - 4

-1

-6

-7

-3

(e) f1x - 22 + 3

NA

NA

(f) f1x + 22 + 4

11

13

NA

NA

23. (a) V1-1, 102

(b) 5 + 2h
(c) 4x + 2h - 3
(d) same as before.
13. (a) x 3/4
(b)

(b) -3.2, 1.2, -1 ; 25


(c) y 0

(a) f1x - 22

(d) -2, 3/2


12. (a) 9 + 2h

(c) -2.4, 0.34, -1 ; 22

635

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Chapter 1 Review Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

24. 50, 100

33. (a)

25. (a) 194


(b) 2x - 200 + 600/x, 1.94
26. x2 + y2 -4x + 6y - 3 = 0.

T
Note: y-values are positive on 1 -3, -2.52
(b) Turning points are indicated in sketch by T. (There is also one in the interval 1-3, -2.52
34.

x = -1

x=1

27. C12, -32 r = 5

y=2

Zeros: x = 4, 3/2

35. (a) odd


(b) even
(c) even
28. C12, 32 r = 0, it is a point.

(d) odd

29. (a) y = 5/12 x + 169/12

(e) even

(b) on Tan. 11.995833 on Circle 11.995844


30.

y2
x2
+
= 1
16
25

36. (a)

31.

(b)

32.
(c)

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Section 2.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

Exercise Set 2.1

10. (a)

1. -1

2. 3/4

mPQ

4.99

4.999

4.9999

5.0001

5.001

5.01

.166713

.166710

.166710

.166710

.166662

.1666204

1.001

1.00001

0.9999

0.999

.299895

.30000

.300011

.3001051

3. -4/3
(b) 1/6

4. (a)

11. (a)
Q
mPQ

(1, 4)
(b) 0.3

(c) 2

12. 6

5. (a)

13. 0
14. 2
15. -5
16. 1/4

(2, 1)

17. 12
18. 2x - 7
19.
(c) -5

1
2 1x

20. -6x + 7

6.

21. (a) 0
(b) The TL is the line itself which has slope 0.
22. m

(3,2)

23. -3/x2
24. 2/x2
25.

1
+ 2/x2
2 1x

26. and

(c) 1/4

27. Connect the segments.


28. (a) 12, -72

7. (a)

(b) 13, -42


(c) 11, -42

29. (a) 1-2, 162, 12, -162

(2, 8)

(b) 1-3, 92, 13, -92

(c) 1-4, -162, (4, 16)


30. (a) (0, 0)
(b) does not exist

(c) 12

31. (a)

8. (a)
(c) 0

(1, 0)

y=0

9. (a)
Q

0.99

0.999

0.9999

1.0001

1.001

1.01

mPQ

1.99

1.999

1.9999

2.0001

2.001

2.01

(b) 4
(c) 1

(b) 2

(d) does not exist.

637

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Section 2.12.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

32. (a)

6. 14x6 +

12

21
-

x5

4x7/4

1
1
+ 7 + 128x3
32
3 x2
42
4 x3
8
32
8. 3/4 + 3 + 14v
v
v
7.

9. -32t + 256
10.

5
-5
- 2
12
u

11. 2x
(b) 2x

12. y = 88x - 129

(c) 1
(d) Does not exist
33. (a) (5/2, 0)
(b) -2

13. y =

145
575
x 3
3

14. y =

25
56
x 12
3

15. y = 72 x + 1

(c) 2

16. 1-3, 1092, 13, -1072

34. (a)

17. 1-2, -132, (0, 3), 12, -132


18. a

-b 4ac - b2
,
b
2a
4a

19. y = -

1
79
x +
11
11

20. (a) -6 6 x 6 0 or 0 6 x
(b) x 6 -6
21. (a) (64, 24),
(b) (0, 0)

(b) 2x + 7
(c) 9

22. Area = 2k

(d) 9

23. y = -6x + 13, y = 6x + 13

35. 1-4, -642 and (2, 8)

24. (a) y = 6x + 4, y = -6x + 16


(b) y = -16x + 81, y = 4x + 1

36.

25. (a) 2.828


h
mPQ

-.1

-.01

4.6416

21.544

mPQ -0.4642 -0.2154

-.001

-.0001

.0001

.001

.01

.1

(b) 0.162
-p22

100.00 464.16 464.16 100.00 21.544 4.6416


-0.1

-.0464

.0464

0.1

(c) x =

0.2154 0.4642

+ 3 22

(d) 0.177
1/3

in f1x2 = x , the slope is becoming infinite as h approaches zero for f1x2 =


x4/3 it approaches 0.

(e) 0.708
26. 57x56

38. (a) 0
27.

(b) m
(c) -3/x2

-2
28.

(d) 2/x2

Exercise Set 2.2

29.

1. 10

1
2 1x

31. 1/12
2

1/3

- 12x3 -

4. 15x4 - 3x1/2 +
5.

x3

30. 1, 114, 112

2. 2
3.

2
3x1/3

6x5 + 7x2 - 6
3x4

4
x

5
x6

16
4
x +
3
3
(b) 15.866667

32. (a) y =

(c) 15.866387
33. 3.9995
34. (a) 4

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Section 2.22.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


(b) 4

29. Function is undefined and therefore discontinuous at x = 5

(c) thy are the same

30. (a)

35. (a) 7
(b) (2, 5)
36.

r + s
2

Exercise Set 2.3


1. 5
2. 9
3. -9/2
4. 0.3

(b) nonremovable discontinuity at x = 0.

5. 3

31. (a) yes

6. 7

(b) no

7. -15

32. (a)

8. 5
9. 18
10. (a) 0
(b) 1
(c) -4
11. (a) 0,
(b) 6
12. 1/8

(b) x = 1

13. 9/2

(c) removable

14. (a) 7x2 - 3


(b) 2h - 3

33. Removable discontinuity at x = 3.


34. (a) 1

15. -1

(b) -1

16. 9/13

(c) -1

17. 1/6

(d) 1

18. - 12

35. (a) 0

19. 2

(b) 0

23
20.
6

36. (a) 25
(b) 25

21. 0

(c) 49

22. 16/25

(d) 49

23. 2x

(e) 59
1

24.

221 + x
25. (a) 1

(f) 60
(g) removable discontinuity at x = 5, non-removable one at x = 9.
(h)

(b) 0
(c) 1
26. (a) 1
(b) -1
(c) -1
(d) 1
27. (a) Any graph without holes or jumps will do.
(b) f1x2 = x is one such example.
1
28. There are many possibilities, for example, f1x2 =
or
2
2
1x
121x
- 52
1x - 121x - 252
f1x2 =
1x - 121x - 52

37. Continuous function


38. Non removable discontinuity at x = 2 and 3

639

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Section 2.32.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

39. Removable discontinuity at x = 1 and 2, non-removable at x = 3

66. No

40. Continuous

68. Everywhere discontinuous

41. Non-removable discontinuity at x = -2

70. (b) x = 27

42. Non-rem. disc. At x = 0

71. f102 6 0, f122 7 0

43. Non-rem. disc. At x = 5

72. (a) Follows from Ex. 68

44. Continuous

(b) it is possible, but not guaranteed by the theorem.

45. Continuous

73. (a) yes

46. Continuous

(b) yes
(b) possible but not guaranteed
74. Yes, it follows from Ex. 68
76. (a) 8
(b) -1
(c) max at x = 3, min at x = 0
77. C is continuous on 2

75 so Ex 75 is applicable

81. (a) 0.01,


(b) 0.001
(c) x - 3 6 P

47. (a)
(b) x = 1
(c) f112 = 1
(d) no.
48. f122 = 4, differentiable

82. (c) x - 2 6 min A 24 - P, 24 + PB or x - 2 6 min11, P/32 among


other choices

Exercise Set 2.4

49. non removable

1. 3/2

50. f122 = 4 not diff.

2. 5/6

51. f132 = 27, not diff.

3. 0

52. f122 = -1, differentiable

4. q
5. (a) q

53. (a) and


(b) (i) disc at x = 3 (ii) diff. everywhere except x = 3 (iii) f132 = 6 (iv) yes
(c) everywhere cont. and diff.
54. (i) non-remov disc. At x = 2 and 4 (ii) diff. except at x = and 4
55. Cont and diff for all x except x = 0.

(b) q
(c) q
(d) - q
6. (a) - q
(b) q

56. (a) and


(b) (i rem. disc at x = 3 (ii) not diff at x = 3 (iii) L132 = 2 (iv) not diff. at
x = 3

7. 5/2

(c) and (d) cont. everywhere not diff. At x = 3

9. (a) 0

57. Non rem. Disc at x = 5, diff everywhere except at x = 5.


58. (a) (i) continuous everywhere (ii) not diff. at x = 1
(b) (i) non-remov. discont at x = 2 not diff. there either.

8. - q
(b) 0
10. 8
11. 0

59. Non remov. disc at x = 0 continuous and diff. elsewhere.

12. 8/9

60. Continuous and diff. if -1 6 s 6 1

13. (a) q

61. (i) Rem disc at x = 0 (ii) Not diff at x = 0 (iii) d102 = 2 (iv) not diff.
62. (i) Cont. for x 7 1 (ii) not diff. at x = 3 and 4

14. (a) q
(b) q

63. (a) 6xy2

15. (a) q

(b) 6x y

(b) q

64. (a) 6x + 5

16. - q

(b) 4y - 11
1
65. (a) f1x2 =
1x - 121x - 22
(b) f1x2 =

(b) - q

1x2 - 121x2 - 42
1x - 121x - 22

17. (a) 0
(b) q
18. (a) 1/1000
(b) q

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Section 2.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


19. 1/4

(d)

20. (a) x = 0
(b) x = 1
(c) y = 2
(d)

24. (a) x = -2
(b) x = 4
(c) y = -2
(d)
21. (a) x = 2
(b) x = -1
(c) y = -1
(d)

25. (a) x = 0
(b) x = 3/2
(c) y = 12
(d)

22. (a) x = 3/2


(b) x = 1
(c) y = 2
(d)

26. (a) x = 0
(b) x = ;1
(c) y = 0
(d)

23. (a) x = - 12


(b) x = 3
(c) y = 2

641

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Section 2.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

27. (a) x = 0
(b) none
(c) y = 0
(d)

31. (a) 2
(b) -2
32. (a) 1
(b) -1
33. (a) x = -3/2, 2/3
(b) x = 0, 3/5
(c) y = 12/5
(d)

28. (a) x = 0
(b) none
(c) y = 4
(d)
34. (a) x = 0
(b) none
(c) y = ;2
(d)

29. (a) x = 0
(b) x = ;2
(c) y = 4
(d)

35. (a) x = 0
(b) x ; 1
(c) y = ;2
(d)

30. (a) x = 0
(b) x = -1
(c) y = 3
(d)

36. (a) x = -2, 1, 3


(b) x = -1, 3/2
(c) y = 1/8

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Section 2.42.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


(d)

44.

38. (a) x = 0.83585


(b) x = 1,

1 ; 217
8

45. Let f1x211 + 0.07/x25x, evaluate for large values of x.

(c) y = 2

46. x L -0.7590, 0.6738

(d)

47. x L -17.33, -1.577, 0.9851, 2.424

Exercise Set 2.5


1. 21x217x4 - 92

2. 2x3150x6 + 135x2 + 82
3. 2x13x4 + 4x2 - 72

4. x5120x4 - 21x + 242


5. -13/13x - 222
6. 2x/1x2 + 122

215
5
(b) x = -1.23297

39. (a) x = ;
(c) y = 0

7. -18/1x + 322
4x12x3 - 21x - 52
8.
12x2 + 722
9. -6/x3
10.

(d)

4x5 - 2x2 - 3
4x2
5

11.

2x - 3x2 + 16
3x5

12. y = -3x + 1
13. 3/17
14. y = 52/3x - 84/5
15. y = 6x - 2

16. (a) 1-1, -22, 11, 22

(b) A -1, - 12 B , A 1, 12 B

41. y = 2x + 3
42. y = 3x - 2
43.

17. (a) A 1, 12 B


(b) (1, 2)

18. 1-1, 02, (3/2, 625/16), (4, 0)


19. (a)

1 - x2

1x2 + 122

(b) y = x, y = 12, y = 0.12x + 0.64, y = 0.08x + 0.54


23. (a) y = -x - 2
(b) x = -2
(c) x1x - 221x + 22
25. (a) f1x2 = 21x + 321x - 121x - 52
28. (a) 12
(b) 4

643

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Section 2.52.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


-f1x2

, f and g have derivative zero at the same x-values, and the


1f1x222
y-values are reciprocals.

29. g1x2 =

23. 313t2 + 121t3 - 6t + 126125t4 - 59t2 + 4t - 142


24.
25.

Exercise Set 2.6

5t2 - 3

31t2 - 122/3
82
3 4t1t + 32
31t + 421/3

26. y = 108x - 189


27. y = 12 x

1. (a) x + 5

(b) 1x + 52

28. y = -296x + 8

3 - 2x
x
1
(b)
3x - 2

29. y =

2. (a)

-13
x + 16
6

30. (a) 7y6


dy

(b) 7y 6

3. (a) x + 2 1x + 1
(b) x + 1
3 - 2x
4. (a)
4x - 3
-1x + 42
(b)
6

dx

(c) 71x5 + 12y6

dy
dx

+ 5x4y7

31. (a) 3y2 + 6y


(b) 13y 2 + 6y2

dy
dx

5. (a) 1/x
(c) 30y1y + 221y3 + 3y2 + 429

(b) 1/x

6. (a) 12x3 - 3x + 723

32. 2x1x4 - 12

7. (a) x

33. 3x2 a

(b) 2x9 - 3x3 + 7


(b) x
9

8. f1x2 = x , g1x2 = 3x - 7
9. f1x2 = x3/5, g1x2 = 5x3 - 7x + 3
10. f1x2 = x3, g1x2 =

2x + 3
2x - 4

11. f1x2 = x + 5x + 5, g1x2 = 2x - 1


4

12. f1x2 =

, g1x2 = x
2x2 + 4
13. 1712x + 321x2 + 3x + 1216
3110x - 72
14.
415x2 - 7x + 221/4
-13t + 12
15.
13t2 + 2t23/2
312x2 + 12
16.
222x3 + 3x + 2
-100u
17.
15u2 + 923/2
18. 2x51x2 - 927111x2 - 272
12x11x2 - 122
19.
1x2 + 124

35.

22.

32r2 - 115r2 - 221/3

2x
x2 + 1

36. 2xS21x22

37. 13x3 + 923


38.

12 4
1x + 5213
13

39.

1 6
1x + 5211
11

40. (a) 10, -42; 10, 4102, 1;2, 02

(b) 13/2, -1/42; 13/2, -1/4152, (1, 0), (2, 0)

(c) [f1x2]N has horizontal tangents at the zeros of f and at the horizontal tangents of f.
41. (a) f1x2 = x1/2, g1x2 = 5x3 - x10, h1x2 = x2 - 4

(b) 5x551x2 - 423 + 1x2 - 42102-1/2131x2 - 422 + 21x2 - 4292


(c) f1g1h1x22g1h1x22h1x2

42. 6x2S212x32
43.

412x + x4211 + 2x32


3x2

3 +
2 +

-1
1x - 123/2 2x + 1
r135r2 - 262

x6 + 1

34. 2xE1x22

20. 41x2 - 321x2 + 2x + 82715x3 + 6x2 - 4x - 122


21.

x6 - 1

dy
dx

44.

1
1x

2 23x + 2 1x

2 32x + 23x + 2 1x
16689645 26
45.
32

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Section 2.62.7 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

Exercise Set 2.7

6.

1. (a)

(a) P1x2 = -

1 2
x + 40x - 1000
10

(b) 2000
(i) 1060.10

(c) P = -1/5x + 40

(ii) 1070

(d) 50

(b)

(e)
(i) 9.90
(ii) 9.90

(c) 0.002
(d) 10.70
2. 654, 656 (or 652)
3. (a)
(i) 240
(ii) 241.90
(b) 1.90
(c) 1.80 (or 2.00)

(f) 200, max. Profit

(d) 0.10 (or 0.20)


-5
4. (a) p =
x + 7
4
-5
-5 2
(b) R1x2 =
x + 7x, R1x2 =
x + 7
4
2
(c)

R(x) = -5/4x2 +7x

7. (a) 80
(b) 16
(c) 64
8. (a) 112
(b) 16
(c) -48
9. (a) s = -16t2 + 176t
(b) 112 ft/sec
(c) -32th - 16h2 + 176h
(d) -32t - 16h + 176

R' = -5/2x + 7

(e) -32t + 176


(f) (I) 144 ft/sec
(ii) 80 ft/sec

At x = 14/5, R is maximized
(d) $3.50, 2.8 million
1
5. (a) P1x2 = - x2 + 30x - 500
20
(b) 2000
(c) P = -1/10x + 30
(d) 35
5(e)

(g) 5.5 sec, time to reach maximum height


(h) 484 ft
10. (a) 576 ft
(b) 12 sec
(c) -208 ft/sec
11. (a) in 200 sec.
(b) 640,000ft
12. -128.996 ft/sec
13. 5.66 sec, -181.02 ft/sec
14. Each answer is 3, the rate is the slope.
15. m see 14.
16. 3
17. 20
18. 3
19. m
20. 5

5(f) 300, maximum profit

21. -5/48
22. -9

645

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Section 2.72.9 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

23. (a) 6t - 12
(b) t 7 2
24. (a) 8t - 8
(b) t 7 1
2

25. (a) 3t - 6t - 9
(b) t 6 -1 or t 7 3
26. a
28. (d)

v20
64

13.
14.

30. 8026 L 195.96 ft/sec


31. (a) 9x23x2 + 9
-3x1x2 - 122 23x2 + 9
(b)
x2 + 1
32. (a) 3x21x3 - 12

(b) 6x21x3 - 12/m


-3x21x2 - 1221x3 - 12
(c)
x2 + 1

33. (a) 3x2


(b) x/4
x
34. (a) 23
2
x
(b) 23
6
35. -20

x1/41240y10/3 + 168y4/3 - 162

16. (a)
(b)

211 - v32
3sv2
3sv2

211 - v32

17. (a) -s2/t2 or s1


(b) -t2/s2 or

1 s -

1
t
t
1

362
79
x +
373
373
3
25
19. (a) (i) y = - x +
4
4
3
25
(ii) y = x 4
4
7
1
20. (a) y = - x +
3
3
7
1
(b) y = x 3
3
18. y =

21.

15 22
8

22. (a) y =

3
5
x +
4
4

(b) a 2, ;

36. 3/16

217
b
3

(c) When tan line is vertical, f1x2 = x3 - 12x - 1 = 0, but f13) 6 0 and
f142 7 0, therefore f1x2 = 0 at least once on (3, 4)

37. -9
38. -5/72
39. (a) -2 + 25
(b)

4xy + 3x2y 2 + 5y 4 + 2y
y 1/31216x5/4 + 36x1/4 - 272

15. -1/3

+ S0

29. 6422 L 90.5 ft/sec

2x - 6x2 - 2y2 - 2xy 3

225 - t
(c) it becomes infinitely large

Exercise Set 2.8

23. (a) y = - a

k 1/3
b 1x - h2 + k
h

(b) x1 = a2/3h1/3, y1 = a2/3k1/3 distance = a

Exercise Set 2.9

1. -3/8

1. a = b = 110, g = 70

2. 1

2. a = b = 60, g = 120

3. 0

3. a = u = 115, b = d = h = 65

4. 1/4

4. 15/2, 9, 12

5. -x2/y2

5. 3, 4, 5

4x
6.
9y

7. 54in

7. -y/x or -7/x2
8.

2x - y
x
x15 + 6y22

y11 - 6x22
y 1/3
10. - 1/3
x
6x2y3 + 4y 2 - 6xy
11.
3x2 - 8xy - 6x3y2
2y211 + x3y22
12. 2
x 13 - 2x2y32
9.

8. (a) (2, 13/2)

(b) 1-9/2, 42

9. (a) 125/2, -17/22


(b) 1-3/2, -32

3
13
10. y = - x +
8
2
11. (a) 4.8 ft
(b) 12.8 ft
12. 2.4in, 3in, 4in
13. 80ft
14. (a) y =

4
5
1
1
29
30
,y = - x +
x + ,y = - x +
5
5
2
2
7
7

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Section 2.92.11 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

27. (a)

17. (16/5, 36/5)


ny1 + my2
nx1 + mx2
, ym =
m + n
m + n
7
13
1
2
21. (a) y = - x + , x = 5, y = - x +
3
3
6
2
(b) (5, 17/3)
18. xm =

647

dy

(b) 241, 229, 5 22


(c) (13/3, 11/3)

dy
=

dx

(b) -

dt
dx
dt

2x
3y2

11
8
8. y = - x +
5
5

Exercise Set 2.11


Exercise Set 2.10

1. (a) f112 6 0, f13) 7 0 so a root is in (1, 3)

1. 27

(b) y = 10x - 23, 2.3

2. 6

(c) y = 13.87x - 31.334, 2.2511896

3. -4

(d) y = 13.203564x - 29.8174032, 2.443357

4. 256/767

(e) 2.258259

5. ;5/2

2. 1.626577

6. 1/6

3. 1.903654

7. dx/dt = -3, dy/dt = 3

4. -1.4526269, 1.164035

dy
dx
+ y
x
dz
dt
dt
8. (a)
=
dt
z
(b) 50mph

5. -2.532089, -1.347296, 0.879385

9. (a) 8p L 25.133 sq. in/hr


(b) in either case at 2p L 6.28 in/hr

6. (a) -1.8143, -0.1461, 0.3399, 2.2207


(b) f1x2 L 51x + 1.814321x + 0.146121x - 0.339921x - 2.22072
8. f122 = 0, method will not work. If x0 7 2, iterates converge to larger root,
If x0 6 2 they converge to smaller root.
9. They are the same.

10. -2 in/sec

10. f132 = 0; -0.174802

11. (a) 1/12 in/min

11. f122 = 0; 3.259921

22
(b)
L 0.1179 in/min
12
12. decr.

10
L 0.1989 ft/sec
16p

13. 24/13 ft/sec


14. 5/6 ft/min
15. 48p L 150.796 sq ft/sec
16. (a) decreasing at 1/6 lb per week
(b) $0 per week
17. (a) 12, 49/6, 121/12 million

13. r = 7.56%

Chapter Review
1. (a) -2x - 2
(b) y = -4x + 7
(c) 1-1, 72
-4

1x + 122
1
7
(b) y = - x +
4
4

2. (a)

(b) 92/25, 828/3721, 3312/21025 million per year


18. (a)

(b) y =
(i) 820, 620, 320
(ii) 410, 15190/3, 9680/3

(b) 4690, -11019, -8155/18


19. 80,000 psi/sec
20. (a) 3p/5000 cubic km/day
(b) It will increase by 10 km
21. -35 units/sec
22. 4/p L 1.2732 ft/sec
23. 32/3 ft/sec
24. 8/3 ft/sec, shorter
25. Longer side is increasing at 14/3 cm/sec, shorter decreasing at 5/3 cm.sec
26. Both increase, shorter side at 4 m/sec, larger at 2 m/sec.

1
10
+ 3
2 1x
x
25
35
x 2
2
8
3x2/3
68
95
- x +
3
3

3. (a) 8x3 - 6x +

4. (a) -

20
x5

(b) y =
5. (a) 2
(b) 25/6
6. (a) 12

(b) -4/3
x17x3 + 42
7. (a)
2 2x3 + 1
(b) y = 20x - 28
x1x3 + 402
8. (a)
21x3 + 1023/2

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Chapter 2 ReviewSection 3.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

(b) y = 9. (a)

6/20/07

13
7
x 18
18
9x2

21. (a)

212x3 + 523/2 2x3 + 1

(b) 213x + 4251x2 - 124124x2 + 20x - 92


10. $24
3
11. (a) - x2 + 12x
5
(b) $3.60
12. (a) 6t - 12t2
(b) t = 0, 12; s = 614
(c) 0 6 t 6 12

(b) everywhere continuous


(c) not differentiable at x = 1

13. (a) 1320 ft


(b) 1332.25 ft

2. y =

(c) -292 ft/sec

7
25
x +
24
8

14. 16 ft

23. 1.25307

15. (100/13, 172/13)

Exercise Set 3.1

16. 3 ft/min
17. 5 ft/sec
18. y =

1.

9
5
x 4
2

19. (a)

2.

(b) -3, 3
(c) -3, 3

3.

(d) f1-32 = -1/6


20. (a)

4.

(b) 1
(c) 1
(d) f112 = 1

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Section 3.13.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


5.

25. (8, 4)
26. (0, 0)
27. (0, 4)
28. (a) M = 18, m = 6
(b) None
29. (a) M = 3, m = 2
(b) M = 6, m = 3
(c) M = 6, no min
30. (a) M = 14, m = -13
(b) M = 39, m = -121

6.

31. (a) M = 34, m = 2


(b) none
(c) No Max, m = 2
32. (a) M = 12, m = 0
(b) M = 12, m = - 12
(c) M = 12, no min
(d) M = 12, m = - 12
33. (a) M = 18, m = 9

7. (a) D

(b) M = 18, m = 2
4 26
9 ,

(b) C, G

34. M =

(c) B, D, F

35. (a) No

(d) C, E

m = 0

(b) No

8. (a)

36. (a) No
(b) No
(c) Min at (1. 1), Yes 1

(b) they are the same

37. (a) no Max, m = 1/4


39. M = 0, m = - 12

9.

40. (a) M =

324
3 ,

m = 0

(b) none

Exercise Set 3.2


10.
M = relative Maximum, m = relative minimum, N = neither
1. Always decreasing
2. (a) always increasing

11. (1, 2)
12. (0, 0)
13. A

b 4ac - b2
- 2a
, 4a

(b) always decreasing

14. 1-2, 732, 15, -2702


15. (3/2, 45/4), (2/3, 335/27)

3. Dec on x 6 1/3; inc on x 7 1/3


4. Dec on t 6 0; inc on t 7 0
5. Dec on x 6 0; inc on x 7 0

16. 1-1, -82, 10, -72, 11/4, -899/1282

6. Dec on t 6 -2; inc on t 7 -2

18. (0, 2)

8. Dec on 1 6 x 6 3/2; inc on x 6 1 or x 7 3/2

17. A -223, 0 B , A 0, 2 23 B , A 2 23, 0 B


19. 1-1, 32, 10, 52, 11, 32

20. 1-9/7, 137.5112, 1-3, 02, 11, 02


21. None

22. 1-3/2, -1/42, 13/2, 1/42


23. A 2, -4/9 B
1

24. 1-3, 02 A 0, 3 2
3 3 B , 13, 02

7. Dec on 1 6 x 6 3; inc on x 6 1 or x 7 3
9. Dec on x 6 0, inc on x 7 0
10. Dec on x 6 2; inc on x 7 2

11. Dec on 1-1/27 6 x 6 02 or ((0, 1/27); inc on x 7 1/27


12. Inc. everywhere except when x = -1
13. Dec on its domain 1- q , 42
14. inc on 1 -1, q 2
15. m(1, 2)

649

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Section 3.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

16. N(0, 0)

b 4ac 17. A - 2a
, 4a

b2

B is a m if a 7 0 is a M if a 6 0

29.

18. m15, -2702, M1-2, 732

19. m(3/2, 45/4), M(2/3, 335/27)

20. M10, -72, m111/4, -899/1282, m21-1, -82


21. m A 0, 223 B
22. m(0, 2)

23. M(0, 5), m1;1, 32


24. M1-9/7, 137.5112, m11, 02, N1-3, 02
25.

30.

31.

26.

32.

27.

33.
28.

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Section 3.23.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

651

15. v = 15t2 - 8, a = 30t

34.

16. (a) v = 8t - 4t3, a = 8 - 12t2


(b) 0, 22;
2/3

(c)

(0, 9 )

26
3

26
3

(d) 0
17. (a) v = 15t2 - 15t4, a = 30t - 60t3
(b) 0, 1; 0,

(-3,0)

(c)

(3, 0)

(d)

22
2
26
6

22
2

18. (a)

35.

(1, f(1))

(0, f(0))
(b) yes
19. (a)

(2, f(2))

(-1, f(-1))

(5,f(5))

(b) yes, it can have both.


36. (50, 50)

(c)

37. 6 * 12

I4

I5

38. 70 cents

I1

Exercise Set 3.3


1. 4x3, 12x2, 24x, 24, 0 for n 5

I3
I2
m

2. (a) 20x3 + 6

20.

(b) 24x2 + 6

I3

3. (a) -24/x5
-1
3/2
411 - t2

(b)

I1

I2

I4

(c) 6
213x2 + 521x4 + 10x2 + 12

4. (a)

1x - 12
8
2

(b) 201x + 12 119x + 12


2

5.

21. See 19(a)

- 24
3
13x + 12

6. (a) 0

22. Always CU

(b) 0

23. Always CD

(c) 18

24. (a) CU

(d) 0

25. CD if x 6 12; CU if x 7 12 I A 12, 1 B

(b) CD

(e) 0
7. 4a4x3 + 3a3x2 + 2a2x + a1; 12a4x2 + 6a3x + 2a2; 24a4x + 6a3; 24a4; 0;
they are all 0
4

8. 5a5x + 4a4x + 3a3x + 2a2x + a1; 20a5x + 12a4x + 6a3x + 2a2;


60a5x2 + 24a4x + 6a3; 120a5x + 24a4; 120a5; the rest are all 0
9. 3/x3/2
3/2

10. 3/x

11. -1/y3
12.
13.

-9
3
2y
-9
3
2y

14. v = 9t2 - 4, a = 18t

26. CU if x 6 5/6, CD if x 7 5/6

27. CD if -1 6 x 6 1; CU if x 7 1, I1 -1, -162 and (1, 2)


28. CU if -2 6 x 6 0 or x 7 1; CD if x 6 -2 or
0 6 x 6 1 I1-2, 1542, 10, 302 and (1, 28)
29. CU if x 6 -1, CD if x 7 -1
30. CD everywhere

31. CU if x 6 16, otherwise CD I A 16, 8 23


3 B
32. CD if x 6

- 3 23
2 ,

- 3 23
2

- 23
8

or 0 6 x 6

B , 10, 02 and A

3 23
2 ;

3 23 23
2 , 8

33. CD if -1 6 x 6 1, otherwise CU

CU if

- 3 23
2

6 x 6 0 or x 7

3 23
2 ,

Inf

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Section 3.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

34. CD on x 6 3

49.

35. CD on -3 6 x 6 3
36. Always CU
37. CD if x 6 0 or x 7 243 CU if 0 6 x 6 243 I10, 02 and (243, 27)
38. Always CU
39. CU if x Z 0
40. m(1, 2)
41. m(3/2, 45/4), M(2/3, 335/27)
42. m1-3, 1012, M1-2, 1082, m11, -272
43. m1-3, 02, M1-1, 162, m11, 02
44. m1-3/2, -1/42, M13/2, 1/42

50.

MA6

- 2 23 16 23
, 9
3

B, mA6

+ 2 23 - 16 23
, 9
3

45.

51.
52.

m at A ;2 23, -144 B

46.

53.

m at A ;2 23, -119 B

47.

54.
Additional x-intercepts at ;223
48.

22 567 22
22
I1 A - 3 10
, 5000 B , I3 A 3 10
,

- 567 22
5000

B other zeros x =

; 215
5

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Section 3.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


55.

653

59.

m A - 83 ,

- 16 23
9

60.

56.

I2(4/5, 2048/3125)

57.
61.

other zeros: x = ;2 22

62.

58.

Note: Vertical tangent line at (0, 0), zero at x = 32 Inflection at (243, 27)

I1 A - 3223 ,

- 23
8

23
B , I3 A 3 23
2 , 8 B

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Section 3.33.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

63.

69.

M(2, f(2))

(0, f(0))

m(-2, f(-2))
70.

M(-1, f(-1))

M(1, f(1))

64.

(-.5,f(-.5))

(.5,f(.5))

m(0, f(0))
65.
71. (a) neither
(b) m(2, 0)
(c) M(2, 0)
(d) neither at (1, 0), M1-3, 02, m1-5/7, -137.5112
73. (a) f1x2
(b) 2f1x2
76. (a) b2 - 3ac 7 0
66.

(7, f(7))

75. 3
80. a0 = 1, a1 = 5, a2 = 10, a3 = 10, a4 = 5, a5 = 1

(-1, f(-1))

Exercise Set 3.4


1. 36 * 36
3. (50, 50)

(5, f(5))

5. 15 * 15
7. (a) 100 * 200

67.

(b) 100 * 100

(2,7)
(0,5)
(-4,3)

(-1,1)

8. (a) 20 * 40

(5,2)

(b) 20 22 * 2022
9. 2400 ft.

m(-2,-2)

10. x = 60, y = 40
11. x = 20, y = 24

68.

12. radius = height of rectangle, x =

M(1, f(1))

13. 6 * 6 * 3
14. 5 * 5 * 2

(2, f(2))

15. (a) h = 2r; r =

3
2
3p

(c) doesnt look sleek.


16. d =

3
1/3 ,
p

h =

24
1/3
p

17. 2 cm

m(3, f(3))

18. (0, 0), (6, 0), (0, 10)

30
p + 4,

y =

60
p + 4

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Section 3.43.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


19. 15 * 10

16. $49.50 per thous.

20. 48 * 24 * 24

17. $4,000 per coat.

21. (a) and

Exercise Set 3.6

655

(b) 3 miles
1. (a) y = -2x + 5

(c) 1 mile from A

(b) y = 10x - 7

22. (61/25, 2/25)

23. (a) (4, 0), 1-4, 02


(b) A 12 ,
210
(c) A

4
210
8
12
,
213 213

24. (1, 1)

25. (a) A 6 ,
213

9
213

- 12 - 4
,
B , A 210
B
210
- 8 - 12
,
B , A 213
B
213
-6
, -9 B
B , A 213
213

26. (a) 222 * 22


(b) 222 *
27.

48
p + 4 in.

3 22
2

2. (a) y = 12x - 3
(b) y = -15
3. y = 13 x + 1
4. (a) y = 1 + 12 x
22
4 x

(b) y =
(c)

3 22
4

yes, f is not differentiable at -1

5. (a) 6.05

for square, p12p


+ 4 in for circle

(b) 2.93
(c) 6.05 is better because the 1 is closer to 1.01 than is 0

29. 125 ft.

6. (a) y = 54 x + 2

Exercise Set 3.5

(b) y = 56 x +

13
6

(c) 3.08 using (b)

1. (a) 25

7. (a) 4.00125 large,

(b) 97/4

(b) 3.9975 large

2. 11

8. (a) 3.037 large

3. 212
4. (a) No max

(b) 2.963 large

(b) 33.60

9. (a) 256.256 small


(b) 1.015 small

(c) 1406.25

10. (a) 253.44 small

(d) 50
(e) not a demand equation

(b) 8.006 large


11. (a) 2.9963 large

(f) 25

(b) -3.00741 large

5. 60.4
6. (a) p = -1000x + 10,000

12. (a) dy = 10x dx

(b) C = 2000x + 2500, P = -1000x2 + 8000x - 2500

(b) 10x x + 51x22

(c) 4

(c) 5 x
(d) (i) 100, 105, 5

7. 80
8. 6 23 - 1

(ii) 0.1, 0.1005, 0.05


13. (a) 9x2 dx

9. (a) 2 x 4
(b) 8/3, $32/9, $256/27

(c) 9x x + 31x22

10. 75

(d) (i) 900, 993, 93

11. 350 trees


12. (a)

(b) 9x2 x + 9x1x22 + 31x23

- 200 + x
4

(b) -

or

1100 - x22

(c) -2

2x
+ 1x
5

4p
200 + 4p

or

- 21100p - p2

or p-+2p1

13. (a) -1
(b) -23/2
(c) 0
(d) -1
(e) - 12
(f) -8/5
14. 17.8 thousands
15. Decreases by 4750

(ii) 0.09, 0.090903, 0.0903


(iii) -0.09, -0.089103, -0.0897

14. (a) 6x21x3 + 52 dx

(b) 6x21x3 + 52 x + 130x + 15x421x22 + 20x31x23 + 6x1x25


+ 101x23 + 1x26 + 15x21x24
(c) 130x + 15x421x2 + 20x31x22 + 6x1x24 + 101x22
+ 1x25 + 15x21x23

15. (a) dy = 14x + 22 dx

(b) 14x + 22 x + 21x22


(c) 2 x
(d) (i) 14, 16, 2
(ii) 0.14, 0.1402, 0.02

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1.2
0.4 dx
12x + 102
0.6

(b) 12x + 2 x + 12

(b)

(- f())

(2, f (2))

- 12x + 120.6

12x + 2 x + 120.6 - 12x + 120.6


x
2 3
0.7

17. (a) dy = 5.1x 1x + 12

- 1.212x + 12-0.4

m(, f ())

dx

(b) 11x + x23 + 521.7 - 1x3 + 521.7


(c)

Page 656

Section 3.6Chapter 3 Review Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

16. (a) dy =

(c)

10:25 AM

11x + x23 + 521.7 - 1x3 + 521.7


x
3

- 5.1x21x3 + 520.7

2. (a)

M(-1.3.5)

18. (a) 10.24p L 32.1699 cm

(-2,f(-2))

(b) small

(2.f(2))

19. At most 0.24 in


20. 0.0001 in

m(0,1)

21. (a) 5.75


(b) 0.1997%

(b)

M(1.2)
M(3, 4)

22. 60%/r
23. (a) 2x13x5 + 4x2 - 72 dx

(-4, f (-4))

(b) x5120x4 - 21x + 242 dx


24. (a)
(b)
25. (a)

- 21x2 + 3x + 22

1x - 22
2x
2
2 dx
1x + 12
-7
2 dx
12x - 32
2

(4, f (4))

dx

m((0, -5)
3. (a) 13, -62

(b) (0, 0), 1 -4, 322

(b)
26. (a)

312x + 12
3

2 32x + 3x + 2
- 100u
2
3/2 du
15u + 92
4 2
7

dx

(c) 12, -162, 1 -2, 162

4. (a) 11, -102, 13, -142

(b) 3x 1x - 92 17x2 - 152 dx

(b) (0, 0), A ; 22, -4 B , 10, 02

27. 11x + x22 + 423 - 1x2 + 423


(b)

5. (1/27, 2/9), 1-1/27, -2/92

x + P x

(c) D =

(b) (1, 0), (2/5, 108/3125), (0, 0)

6. (a) (0, 0), 1-2, -42

dy
dx

28. (a) 2s s + 1s22

(b) (0, 0), (1, 1/3)

7. (a) 1-2, -3/42, 12, 3/42

(b) 2s s
(c) and

(b) (0, 0)

(d)

8. (a) M = 16, m = -5.125


(b) M = 0, m = -648

s s

s2

s s

( s) 2

29. (a) 3s2 s + 3s1s22 + 1s23


2

(b) 3s s
17
12 x
1
12 1x

(b) M = 0, m = -4
(c) M = 2, m = -22
(d) M = 8, m = -4
10. See Exercise 16
11. See Exercise 17

31. (b) T = 2 +
32. (b) T1x2 =

(c) m = 0, M = 155
9. (a) M = -10, m = -30

- 92 +

12. See Exercise 28

1
40

13. See Exercise 27

(c) 8.7

14. (a) none

(b) 14, -1282

Chapter Review
1. (a)

(c) (0, 0)

M(-2, f (-2))

(-3, f (-3))

(7, f (7))

15. (a) 12, -122


(b) A ; 26
3 ,

- 20
9

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Chapter 3 Review Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


16. (a)

(c)

Zeros at x =

(b)

; 23
9

(d)

(c)
Inflection points at A 4
18. (a)

17. (a)

(b)

(b)

(c)

m1 A - 22, -4 B , m2 A 22, -4 B inflection points A ; 26


3 ,

- 20
9

- 26
,
10

0.0145 B and A 4

+ 26
,
10

0.01862 B

657

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Chapter 3 ReviewSection 4.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

(d)

28. (a)

19. (a) v = -32t + 64, a = -32


(b) 256
20. (a) v = 12t2 - 4t3 a = 24t - 12t2
(b) t = 0, 3; t = 0, 2
(c) 16

(b) I1 A 1 -

29. (a) 2 x + 1
(b) 1.0015

(b) x411 - x22315 - 13x22 dx


- 212x2 + 3x - 122
1x + 62
2

22. (a) (i) 10, 10 (ii) none


(b) (i) 40/3, 20/3 (ii) none

Exercise Set 4.1


1. Yes

23. 5ft. high, 3 1/3 ft. wide

2. Yes

24. (6, 6)

3. Yes

25. 12, 64

4. Yes

26. (a) 250

5. No

(b) 325/4

6. No

27. (a)

7. Yes
8. Yes
9. Yes
10. Yes
11. Increasing
12. Decreasing
13. Increasing
14. Decreasing
15. Neither
16. Neither

(b)

(b) 0.2496

- 768
5
12x + 12

- 3 23
8

B , I210, 02 I3 A 2 23, 3 23
8 B

17. Increasing
18. Decreasing
19. Increasing
20. Increasing
21. No
22. Yes
23. Yes
24. No
25. Yes
26. Yes

Inflection points A ; 2323 , 14 B

-0.42155 B , I2 A 1 +

30. (a) 114x - 15x22 dx

31. (a) 4.96

21. (a) 12x - 60x-6

I1 A -223,

3 25
5 ,

(c)

(d) 3
(b)

Page 658

27. No
28. Yes

dx

3 25
5 ,

0.30586 B

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Section 4.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


29. (a) 1- q , q 2

33. (a) x 0

(c) 1- q , q 2

(c) y 0

(f) 1- q , q 2

(f) x 0

(g) 1- q , q 2

(g) y 0

(h) f-11x2 = 1x

(h) f-11x2 = 1x + 32/2

(b)

(e)

v.

(b)
30. (a) 1- q , q 2
(c) 1- q , q 2

34. (a) x 0

(f) 1- q , q 2

(c) y 1

(g) 1- q , q 2

(f) x 1

(h) f-11x2 = 17 - x2/3

(g) y 0
(h) f-11x2 =

(b)

22x - 2
2

(b)
(e)

(e)

31. (a) x 4
(c) y 0
35. (a) x 0

(f) x 0

(b) y 7

(g) y 4

(h) f 1x2 = 1x + 82/2


-1

(f) x 7

(g) y 0
(h) f-11x2 = -

(e)

(b)
(b)
32. (a) x 3
(c) y 0
(f) x 0
(g) y 3

(e)

(h) f-11x2 = 16 - x22/2

(b)

(e)

27 - x
2

659

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Section 4.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

36. (a) 1- q , q 2

42. (a) 7/3

(c) 1- q , q 2

(b) 14/3

(f) 1 - q , q 2

43. (a) - 12

(g) 1- q , q 2

(b) -3/5

1
3 x
(h) f-11x2 =
2

44. (a) -9/11


(b) -15/7

(b)
(e)

45. f-11x2 =

x + 9
5

46. f-11x2 =

x - 1
2

47. f-11x2 =

22x - 6
2

48. f-11x2 = 37. (a) 1- q , q 2


(c) 1- q , q 2
(f) 1 - q , q 2

(g) 1- q , q 2
(h) f-11x2 =

x
8

215 - 5x
5

49. f-11x2 =

x2 - 3
,x 0
2

50. f-11x2 =

5 - x2
,x 0
4

51. f-11x2 =

3x + 7
9x - 2

52. f-11x2 =

11 - 5x
3 + 2x

61. f1x2 = 2 7 0

(b)

62. f1x2 =

(e)

-1
16 - 2x

6 0

63. f1x2 = -8x 6 0


64. f1x2 =
65. f1x2 =

2
2/3 7 0
3x
19
2
12x + 52
2

7 0

66. (a) f1x2 = 6x + 3 7 0


(b) 1/27

38. (a) 1- q , q 2
(c) 1- q , q 2

67. (a) f1x2 = 15x4 + 6x2 7 0

(g) 1- q , q 2

69. It is one-to-one

(b) 1/21

(f) 1- q , q 2

(h) f-11x2 = x3 + 1
1

(e)

(b)

70. It is one-to-one

39. (a) 3

(b) 4
40. (a) 7/3
(b) 4/3
41. (a) 1
(b) 5

71. No, see exercises 69 and 70.


72. Yes, see Exercise 57
73. (a) No
(b) only if they are one-to-one

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Section 4.14.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


74. f1x2 =

- 41x2 + 92
1x - 92
2

16.

6 0

(b) No, it is not one-to-one


76.
f is

f is

g is

increasing

Concave Upwards

Concave Downwards

increasing

Concave Downwards

Concave Upwards

decreasing

Concave Upwards

Concave Upwards

decreasing

Concave Downwards

Concave Downwards
17. See Exercise 14.

Exercise Set 4.2


1. 1.67789

18. See Exercise 15.


19.

2. 0.0069593
3. 0.242273
4. 7.99142
5. 0.126485
6. -3912.9874
7. -32165728.94
8. 7.10299
9. 0.06156706343
10. 1.632527

20.

11. 0.00179239
12. 0.003607
13.

21.

14.

22.
15.

661

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Section 4.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

23.

33.

24. y = 3x - 2
25. y = 3x + 2

34.

26. y = 3x + 2
27. y = 3x - 2
28. y = 3x - 2 + 3
29. y = 3x - 2 - 3

35.

30.

36.

31.

37. -3/4
38. 13/22
39. 7/13
40. 2/3
32.

41. 4/21
42. 19/2
43. -18/7
44. 11/4
45. They are symmetric about the y-axis

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Section 4.24.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


46. They are symmetric about the y-axis

663

64. 4.9062513.22x/10 L 4.9062511.123352x


65. 23.529410.852x/8 L 23.529410.979892x
66. 138.88710.722x/20 L 138.88710.9837092x
67. 11.14774711.2227092x, 508.541 million
68. (a) 366.07111.55552x
(b) 119.983x2.4257
(c) (i) 67438.53710.83842x (ii) 55732.2088x-0.3533; better information, better treatment, contraception, among other reasons.

Exercise Set 4.3


47. They are symmetric about the y-axis

1. 20.0855

48. They are symmetric about the y-axis

2. 0.1353

49. (a) 1261

3. 10.6974

(b) 530

4. 4.1133

(c) 223

5. (a) 716.02
(b) 716.64

50. (a) 1140

(c) 716.67

(b) 289

6. (a) 2110.66

(c) 19

(b) 2112.99

51. (a) 296.611.062t

(c) 2113.07

(b) 396.918

7. (a) 20,081.64

(c) 263.973

(b) 20,166.07

52. (a) $52,167.33

(c) 20,168.96

(b) $70,108.53
t

53. (a) 10.13910.9952

8. (a) 2,642.90

(b) 9.839 million

(b) 2,645.92

(c) 10.241 million

(c) 2,646.02

54. (a) 27.9203 lb

9. (a) 8041.95
(b) 8029.35

(b) 4.8615 lb
55. (a) 9.12673 lb

(c) 8028.92

(b) 8.07983 lb

10. (a) 1480.92

(c) 4.01007 lb

(b) 1479.88
(c) 1479.84

56. (a) 31.6875 lb


(b) 1.00971 lb

11. (a) 736.50


(b) 736.18

57. (a) $1628.89

(c) 736.17

(b) $3386.35
58. (a) 2

12. (a) 664.33

(b) 2

(b) 662.17
(c) 662.09

59. (a) 2x + 3
(b)

A B

13.

25 7 x
7 5
0.485427

(c) y = 5x
60. (a) 3x

(b) 3122x/2 L 311.4142x


(c) 3x
61. Power function
62. Linear(or power) function
63. 9.2307711.32x/5 L 9.2307711.0538742x

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14.

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Section 4.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


19.

15.
20.

21.
16.

17.
22.

18.
23.

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Section 4.34.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


24.

30. (a) 479 gm


(b) 326 gm
(c) 6.9 gm
32. 1.09861
33. -0.693147

Exercise Set 4.4


1. 2e2x
25.

2. -3e-3x
3. -e-x
2

4. 2axeax

5. 2xe2x1x + 12

6. x3e-3x1 -3x + 42
7. xex1x + 22
8.
9.
10.

26.

11.

1x2 - 2x - 12ex - 2x
1x - 12
2ex
x
2
1e + 12
4
x
-x 2
1e + e 2
2

2x[12x2 + 12e2x - 1]
1x + 12
2

12. xex
13. axeax

14. 12x2 - 2x + 62e2x


15.
16.

2x - ex + 2y
x + 2y
2e
- 1
2
x11 + ex 2
y11 + e 2
2

3 2

17.

3 2

9x + 2 - 6x4y2e2x y - 2xe2x y + 2ex - 3e2y


2

27.

3 2

2x y

4x ye

2y

+ 6e

+ 8y + 3

18. y = x + 1
19. y = -x + 1
20. y = 2x - 5

21. y = e-11-2x + 32
22. y = x

23. y = e316x - 52
24. (a) inc on x 6 1/3, dec on x 7 1/3
(b) CD on x 6 2/3, CU on x 7 2/3
(c) (1/3, 4e-1/3)
(d)

28.

29. (a) 98.8 gm


(b) 29.8 gm
(c) 4.9 gm

(e) Max at 11/3, 4e-1/32, inflection at 12/3, 8e-2/32

665

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Section 4.44.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


(b) dec for x 6 0, inc for x 7 0

25.

(c) CU for all x


(d) rel min at (0, 1)

M(1/4, e-1/2)
I(, e-2)

(f) (0, 1) is the minimum point.


29. (b) inc for all x
(c) CU for x 7 0, CD for x 6 0
(d) none
(e)

26.

M(1, e-2)
I2

(f) none (0, 0) is an inflection point

I1

30. 1/a
32.

2
A ae

Exercise Set 4.5


m(0, 0)
Note: I1 a1 -

1. log3 81 = 4

22
22
, .293b , I2 a1 +
, 1.707 b
2
2

2. log3 1/9 = -2
3. log2 16 = 4
4. log8 12 = -1/3

27.

-3

M(3/2, 27e /8)


I2

I3

I1(0, 0)

5. log6 1 = 0
6. log16 8 = 3/4
7. log1/3 1/9 = 2
8. log9/16 27/64 = 3/2
9. 23 = 8
10. 8-4/3 = 1/16
11. b0 = 1
12. 10-2 = 1/100
13. 102 = 100
14. 33 = 27

3 - 23
3 + 23
, 0.0717b , I3 a
, 0.1167b
Note: I2 a
2
2
28.

15. 11223 = 1/8

16. 12/324 = 16/81


17. 2
18. 2/3
19. 4
20. -3
21. -2/3

(e)

22. 5
23. 3
24. 3/2
25. 2
26. 1/16

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Section 4.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


27. 81

40.

28. 8
29. 5
30. 1/8
31. (a) 11.5 base
(b) 3.6 acid
32. (a) 4.4 acid
(b) 5.1 acid
33. (a) 7.2 base, almost neutral

41.

(b) 6.9 acid, almost neutral


34. (a) 7.1 base, almost neutral
(b) 8.6 base
35. (a) 10.3 base
(b) 4.1 acid
36.

42.

37.

43.

38.

44.

39.

45. 1/x
46. 1/x
47. 1/x
48. 3/x
49. 5/x
50. -3/x

667

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668

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Section 4.54.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


64. (a) -0.023609 + 1.030215 ln x

51. n/x
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.

Page 668

6x
2
4 + 3x
5x4
5
x + 12
51ln x24
x
e-2x11 - 2x ln x2
x
e2x + x2 + 1 - 2x ln x1e2x + x2
2x

x1e

+ x + 12

1
x ln x

(b) -0.023609, 2.11866


65. (a) 0.075 - 1.4599 ln x
(b) 0.075, -2.96076

Exercise Set 4.6


1. log 3 + log x
2. log3 2 - log3 y

58. y = 2x - 2

59. y = e-21-7x + 112


60.

3. log2 x + 2 log2 y
4. log x + 2 log y
5. 1 + 2 log x + 3 log y
6. 3 ln x + 4 ln y - 5 ln z
7. 3 ln x + 4 ln y + 5 ln z
8. 12 ln x + 2 ln y
9. 12 log x + 3/2 log y
10. 5 ln x + 3/4 ln y
11. 10 log4 x + 1/3 log4 y - 1/4 log4 z
12. 5 log6 x + 1/3 log6 y + 5 log6 z - 12 log6 w - 5 log6 v - 9 log6 r

m(1/e, -1/e)

13. 0.6020
14. 1
15. 1.3010

61.

16. 1.398
17. 1.204
18. 2.6020
19. log3 8
20. log6 45
21. log5 16
22. ln x3y2
23. ln

m(2, 2-2ln 2)
62.

x2

y4
1xy2
24. log 3
z
25. log

x = 0 is V.A.
26. ln

63.

M(1.7632, 0.0973)
I(2.552, .07299)

29. ln

y2 2
3 w2

1
4 x2
3 y2z3
w4 2
5 v2

27. log

28. ln

x4 1z

x5 1
3y
z 2
5 w2
17

2
4 1x + 323 2
4x + 1
2x + 5
x7

B 1x + 127

30. log3

x + 1

1x - 128

31. 3.58496

x = 0 is V.A.
y = 0 is H. A.

32. 1.77124
33. 1.729716
34. -1.63093

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Section 4.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


35. 1.86135

64.

36. 3
37. 2
38. 2
39. 3/4
40. -3/7
41. -1
42. 5
43. 211

65.

44. 2.26178
45. 3.15465
46. -0.231544
47. 1.04317
48. 0.74901
49. 3
50. 1
51. 0.635777
52. 15y 3m 22d

67. 1/x

53. 13y 3m 7d

68. 1/x

54. 10y 6m 16d

69. 6/x

55. 3y 10m 18d

70. 9/x

56. (a) 6y 5m 21d

71. 6/x

(b) 6y 4m 20d

72. 5/x

(c) 6y 3m 29d

73.

(d) 6y 3m 19d

74.

(e) 6y 3m 19d

75.

57. (a) 13y 8m 24d


(b) 17y 3m 29d
58. 7.44%

76.

1
2x + 1
5
315x + 72
2
x ln 3
5
x ln 7
2x

77. 2 ln 313 2

78. 6x ln 2123x 2
2

59. 3.65%

79. x242x12x ln 4 + 32

60. 5.62%

80.

61. 6.10%

81.

62.

82.

83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
63.

- 2x4-2x 121x2 + 12 ln 4 + 12

1x + 12
317x + 22
2x13x + 12
4111x22 + 452
5x12x + 92
1 + ln x
x ln x
- 112x2 + 252
2

x13x + 52

- 18x2 + 92
2

x ln 214x + 32
3
x
2x
x + x2 + 4 - 3x2 + 7
3
8
5x
x + 2x + 1 - 5x2 + 4
7
60x
2x
x + 3x2 + 8 + 2x2 + 5

89. A

8x
2
x + 5

90. A 3x 24-

+
+

5
215x + 72
2
4x - 1
2x

93. y =

15
4

x - 7

94. y = 1
8
95. y = - 53
x +

69
53

50x4
5
2x + 9

3x
2
213x + 12

B A 1x2 + 524 25x + 7 B

91. 211 + ln x2x

92. ex11 + x ln x2xe

-1

2x
2
x + 1

BA

13x - 228 24x - 1


2

x + 1

669

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Section 4.7Chapter 4 Review Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

Exercise Set 4.7


1. (a) 10,919,630
(b) 0.549 hours
2. 5.74 hours
3. 9.04 billion
4. (a) P1t2 = 149000e0.0155109t
(b) 2016
5. (a) 3.59 billion
(b) 4.46 billion

(e) 0.527 billion


(f) 7.9 * 109 billion
38. (a) 170.8F
(b) 23.3 minutes

Chapter Review
1. (I) (a) 1 - 1
(b) - q 6 x 6 q ; - q 6 y 6 q
(d)

(c) 2.51 billion


(d) 1.02 billion
6. 2535.69
7. (a) 5040.60
(b) 5.96 years
8. 8.54%
9. (a) -0.01474781
(b) 17.6 kilograms
10. (a) 9.1796 1grams
(b) 1620 years

(e) f-11x2 = 12x - 5/2


(II) (a) 1 - 1

11. 79.45%

(b) - q 6 x 6 q ; - q 6 y 6 q

13. 19,030 years

(d)

14. 28,980 years


15. 11.85%
16. 43,220 years
17. 5.98 years
18. 1.096 years
19. After 10.3 weeks
20. 11.4 days
21. 4.03 weeks
22. 5.6
23. 6.3
24. 4.6
25. 5.1
26. 2.82 * 1019 ergs
27. 5.62 * 1022 ergs
28. 7.08 * 1021 ergs

(e) f-11x2 = A x

(III) not 1 - 1, dec when x 6 0, inc when x 7 0


(IV) not 1 - 1, dec for x 7 0, inc for x 6 0
(V) not 1 - 1, dec for x 6 0, inc when x 7 0
(VI) (a) 1 - 1
(b) x 0, y -2
(d)

29. 3.16 * 1017 ergs


30. 5.01 * 1018 ergs
31. 3.55 * 1024 ergs
32. 178 times
33. 1000 times
34. 5623 times
35. 177,828 times
36. (a) 3.468 billion
(b) 4.01 billion
(c) 5.68 billion
(d) 2.24 billion

- 4 1/3
2

(e)

1
2

2x + 2

2. (a) f1x2 7 0
(b) -1
(c) 1/8

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Chapter 4 ReviewSection 5.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


3. (a) 941.95

3.

(b) 2341.61

4.

4. Call 2004t = 0,

5.
6.

(b) 8.95

7.

(c) 6.39

8. 2 1x + c
9.

6. $1057.94

10.

7. 5.21%

11.

8. y = -3e-21x + 22

12.

9.

M(1/3, 2e -1/3)

I(2/3, 4e -2/3)

17.
18.

y = 0 is H.A.

19.
20.
21.
22.

12.

3x212x2 + 13x22 + 12ln13x2 + 122


3x + 1
2
e-x 5x 5+ 2 - 2x ln12 + 5x2

23.

t8
4

+ c

+ c

15. 16.

c
c

4 7/4
+ c
7x
7 2/7
w
+ c
2
2 5/2
s
+
c
5
4 9/4
+ c
9x
1/3

13. 3x
14.

11.

c
c

(a) P1t2 = 7.211.022

5. f1x2 = 4.3546511.224742x

10.

-1
2 + c
2x
2 3/2
+
3x
2 3/2
t
+
3
3 4/3
+
4x
4 5/4
t
+
5

1
2
4w

+ c

r4
3
2 + r + 4r + c
5 3
4 3/2
- 3x +
3x + 3x
27x4
+
c
4
4x3
2
3 + 2x + x + c
t5
2t3
5 + 3 + t + c
2 22 3/2
+ c
3 x
-4
7
1
+
3 4 + c
x
3x
2x
7
4
2t - 2t - 12
+ c
2
4t

24. 4 ln x + c
25. 2 ln x + c
26. 7ex + c
27. 2et + c
28. 5 ln x - 2ex + 7x + c
29. 2et 4

3t5
5
x

+ 7 ln t - 12t + c

30. x - 9e + 8 ln x - 5x + c
32. (a) 12 e2x + c
(b) -e-x + c

I
m(e - /2, e -1/8)
-3/2
I( e /2 ,-3e -3/8)

(c) - 14 e-4x + c
33. (a) ln x
(b) ln x
34.

13. 1.892789

35. They differ by a constant

14. ln 8 L 2.079442
15. A 3x 12-

16. -4x5

1
a + bx

x
2 - 21x2 + 92
-2x2

ln 5

17. 12 + ln x2

1x - 12

- 22
B A 13x
B
2
2
4x + 9
4

Exercise Set 5.2


1. x2 - 3x + 7
2.

x3
3

- x2 + 9x + 2
x

3. 2e - 4x3/2 + 2x + 2
2
x

18. 5,380 yrs

4. 3ex +

19. 4.89

5. 2x + 5 ln x + 1

20. (a) basic (11.42)

6. 3x - 2 ln x +

(b) acidic (3.54)

Exercise Set 5.1

+ x + 4 - 3e2

2. x4/4 + c

5
3

7. x + 2
8.

x3
6

19
6
+ 14
3 x

- x2 + 3x -

9. -2 ln x 1. 3x + c

x3
3

1
2
6x

10. 3e + x - 6x - 2

199
24

+ 2 ln 2

671

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Section 5.25.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

11.

20. x2 + 50x + 5000


21. (a) -2x2 + 8x
(b) -2x + 8
22. P1x2 = -0.05x2 + 830x - 800
23. y = -

1
3
x + c
4

24. y = 3
5 5x2 + c
25. y = 2
3

-5
5
9x + c
x

26. y2 = 8e + c

27. 3x3y4 - 9x3 = -3xy2 - 4y2 + cx3y2


28. x3y3 - 16x3 = 2x3y ln x - 2y + cx3y

12.

29. If n = 1, y = cekx otherwise, y1 - n = k11 - n2x + c


axN + 1

30. M = 1, N Z -1 y = ce N + 1 ; M = 1, N = -1 y = c xa
M Z 1, N = -1 y1 - M = a11 - M2 ln x + c;
N+1
M Z 1, N Z 1, y1 - M = 11 -+ M
+ c
N ax
31. -x2 + 2xy + y2 = c
33. y = 43 x3/2 3

34. y = x 2

2
3
7 2
2x
2

+ 5x

35. 2y = -x + c2
36. (a) 2 -2gs102
13.

(b) v =

g11 - e-kt2
k

37. If it has constant velocity, its acceleration will be zero

Exercise Set 5.3


1.
2.
3.
4.

12x3 + 322
+ c
2
1
3/2
6 14x + 142
13x5 + 129
+ c
9
12x + 1210
+ c
10
2x2

5. e

+ c

+ c

6. ln 2x + 1 + c

14.

7.
8.
9.
10.

1
2
6
36 13x + 22 + c
13x6 - 2210
+ c
180
1
3/2
+ c
3 12x + 12
1
3
3/2
+ c
6 14x + 32
4

11. - 21 - x + c
12.
13.
14.
15. 96 ft/sec

15.

16. (a) 282.84 ft/sec

16.

(b) 282.84 ft/ sec

17.

(c) gravity acts the same way in both cases.

18.

17. (a) 3.953 sec

19.

(b) 1.768 sec

20.

18. (a) 78.33

21.

(b) 143.53

22.

19. (a) 62.26 ft/sec

23.

(b) 62.76 ft

24.

1 -x3
3e

+ c

-1
3/2
4 + c
813x
+ 4x + 12
1
2
2 ln 3x + 4x + 1 +
1
5
3
2
2 ln 4x - 2x + 3x
1
2/3 2
4 12 + 3x 2 + c
1 4x3
+ c
12 e
2 3x5 + 7
+ c
3e
1 4x3 + 2x2 + 1
+ c
4e
1
2x 3/2
11
+
3e
2
+ c
9
1
2 ln1x2 + 12 + c
ln153x + 22
+ c
3 ln 5
- 2x 1 2 + c
41e + 12
1
2x
+ 12 + c
2 ln1e

c
+ 8x + 5 + c

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Section 5.35.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


25. - 18 A 3 + x2 B 4 + c
26. 4x 27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

1
2
2 ln1x

x2
2 - x +
1

a ln ax +
1 ax
+ c
ae
1ln x24
+ c
4
42x
+
c
2 ln 4
2
54x
+
c
4 ln 5

16. (a) 3.3125


(b) 3.6875

+ 12 + c

(c) 3.5

ln x + 1 + c

17. (a) 2.125

b + c

(b) 1.875
(c) 2
18. 19.773438
(b) 20.898438
(c) 20.332031

33. ln ln x + c
34.
35.

1ln x2N + 1
N + 1 + c when N
(a) 43 x3 + 6x2 + 9x
(b) 16 12x + 323 + C

Z -1

19. 10.6875

+ c

20. (a) 3.40625


(b) 3.59375
(c) 3.5

(c) They differ by a constant.


36.

625 17
17 x

250 14
7 x

150 11
11 x

37. If n = m - 1 and am Z 0
38. (a) -ln11 + e-x2 + c1
x

(b) x - ln1e + 12 + c2
(c) they differ by a constant

Exercise Set 5.4


1. (a) 0.5
(b) 0.2
(c) 0.02
2. (a) 0.75
(b) 0.3
(c) 0.03

3. 50, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 26


4. 53, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 56

5 8
2x

x5
5

+ c

21. (a) 2.0625


(b) 1.9375
(c) 2
22. (a) 20.052734
(b) 20.615234
(c) 20.333008
23. (a) 0.32779589
(b) 0.31579589
(c) 0.32172789
24. (a) 20.288350
(b) 20.37835
(c) 20.333325
25. (a) 0.0833
(b) 0.0833
(c) 0.08335

5. 5.75

26. (a) 6.3253785

6. 7.75

(b) 6.4531596

7. 6.625

(c) 6.3889496

8. 8
9. 10
10. 11

27. (a) 2.5243268


(b) 2.5659156
(c) 2.5452056

11. (a) 3.125

28. 10

(b) 3.875

29. 3.5

(c) 3.5

30. 2

12. (a) 2.25


(b) 1.75

31. 20.34375

Exercise 5.5

(c) 2
13. (a) 19.21875
(b) 21.46875
(c) 20.328125
14. (a) 13.953125
(b) 18.703125
(c) 16.210938
15. 10.75

20
1
1. a
i=1 i
23

2. a 12i + 12
i=2
19

1
3. a
2i
i=1
5

4. a 15i - 42
i=1

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Section 5.55.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

6
5
i - 1
i
5. a
or a
i = 2 2i + 1
i = 1 2i + 3

40. lim a ei/n n1


n: q
i=1
n

6. a 2i - 1

41. lim a ln A 1 + ni B n1
n: q

7. a ari - 1

44. (a) a

12
i=1
n

i=1
n

i=1

xi
8. a
i=1 i

(b)

9. 105
(c)

10. 32

n1n + 12

2
n1n + 1216n3 + 9n2 + n - 12

30
n21n + 12212n2 + 2n - 12
12

12. 8

47. Consider the interval [0, 1], with the partition 50, 1/10, 1/10 + 9/110n2,
1/10 + 2 # 9/110n2, 1/10 + 3 # 9/110n2, , 16

13. 240

48. (a) 2/3

11. 3457/840

(b) lim a A ni B 1/2 n1


n: q
n

14. 228

i=1

15. 8270
16. 850,745

49. (a) 3/4


(b) lim a A ni B 1/3 n1
n: q
n

17. 791,910

i=1

18. 292,320
19. (a) 62
(b) 2,097,150
(c) 2n + 1 - 2

Exercise Set 5.6


1. 10
2. 20

20. an + 1 - a1

3. k1b - a2

21. an + 1 - a1 + an - a0

4. (a) 15/2

22. (a) 50
(b) 500
(c)

n + 1
2

23. 81,159,640
24. -358,192,305,872
25. -19,961,022
26. 1
27. 1
28. 20/3
29. 75/4
30. Region bounded by y = 3x2, y = 0, x = 0 and x = 1
31. Region bounded by y = 4x3, y = 0, x = 0 and x = 1
32. Region bounded by y = 6 + 2x2, y = 0, x = 0 and x = 1
33. Region bounded by y = 5x3, y = 0, x = 1 and x = 2
34. 8

(b) -15/2
5. (a) 6
(b) -6
6. -2
7. 38/3
8. 195/4
9. 18
10. 11/2
11. 8/3
12. 1793/12
13. 3
14. 11/5
15. 14/3
16. 7/9
17. (a) ln 2

35. 2/3

(b) ln 2

36. 1/4
37. (a) 11/2

(c) ln 2
18. (a) ln b/a

(b) 5/6
(c) 10/3
38. 14/3
39. (a) 15/4
(b) 1/4
(c) 12
(d) 17/4

(b) ln b/a

19. 121ln 5 - ln 22
20. e - 1
21.

e-2 - e-4
2
2

22. 21e - e2
23. 13/2
24. 13/3

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Section 5.6 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


37.

25. (a)

3
1
(b) 7

14x + 12 dx

26. (a)

1x2 + 12 dx

(b) 22/3
2

27. (a)

14 - x22 dx

-2

(b) 32/2
2

28. (a)

3x

1/2

dx

38.

(b) 8 A 22 - 1 B
1

29. (a)

4
x dx

(b) 4 ln 3
2

30. (a)

e-x dx

(b) e-1 - e-2


31. 81/2

39.

32.

x dx = 7/3

1
3

33.

ex dx = e3 - e2

2
5

34.

12x3 - 3x2 + 12 dx = 192

35.

y=5
40.

x=1

x=3

36.
41.

x=4

x=9

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Section 5.65.8 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

42.
9.
10.

1ln 222
2
1
2
2 ln1e

+ 12

11. 0
12. 0
13. 6
14. 0
15. 0
16. 9

43.

17. 0
18. 9/2
19. 956/15
20. 26/5
21. 16/3

22. 1 - e-1
23. ln 10
24. ln 5
25. 12 ln 17

44. 63/2

26. (a) 0

45. 9

(b) 0

46. 18

27. (a)

47. 9

(b)

48. 2 ln 3

28. (a) 1/3

49. 2 ln 3

(b)

50. 3 ln 2 + 4

29. (a)

51. 31e2 - 12

30. (a)

53. 8

1 - e-4
4

31. $6082.69

57. (a) 3/16 6 A 6 3/8


(b) 0.24535037
ln13/42
6

p 23
18

32. $1107.01
33. x2

L 0.254353

ln 2

6 A 6 1
22
(b) 0.56226116

34. 21 - x2
35. x4 2
3 1 - x2
36.

60. ;0.466221
61. -0.517999

65. 0.32174914 (using n = 100)

Exercise Set 5.7


1. 1/5
2. 38/15
3. 1

3 5
2x
x

(c) ln A A 25 + 2 B A 22 - 1 B B L 0.562262

a 11 + x 224 - x - 2x
2

39. ;0.674537

11 + x222

24 - t2 dt b

42. f1v1x22v1x2 - f1u1x22u1x2


43. 2x2x4 + 1
44.

3x5
6
x + 1

2e4x
+ 1

4x

Exercise Set 5.8


1. 9

5. -2 ln 3

2. 32

6. 12 ln 5/2

3. 32/3

7. 0

4. 9

e2 - e-2
6

37.

4. 0

8.

5/2

(b) 0.262997 or 1.287403

54. 28/3

58. (a)

1
13
1
2 ln

(b) 1.52846

52. 21e2 - e-22

(c)

m1a + b2 + 2d
2
1
21a + b2

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Section 5.8Chapter 5 Review Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


xe

5. 9
6. 1331/750

40.

D1x2 dx - 1xe - a2pe

7. 8

41. 1xe - a2pe -

8. 32
9. 37/6

xe

S1x2 dx

10. 1

Exercise Set 5.9

11. 6
12. 9/2

1.

13. 9

2
15 1x

+ 123/213x - 22 + c

2. 2 2x - 11x + 42 + c

14. 27/2

3. 1209/14

15. 25.1771

4.

16. (a) 10,000


(b) 2500

7.

(b) 180

8.

18. (a) 11/3

9.

(b) 7

10.

19. (a) 17/3

- 123/2115x2 + 6x + 22

5. -40224/1105
6.

17. (a) 1260

1
105 12x

3
2x
+ c
4 12x - 12e
211 - 4e-32
9
- 14 12x2 + 2x + 12e-2x
1
3
2
128 132x - 24x + 12x
1
- 4 12x4 + 4x3 + 6x2 +

+ c
- 32e4x + c
6x + 32e-2x + c

11. 2 ln 2 - 3/4

(b) 6.59

12.

20. (a) 16.75

13.

(b) 21.02
21. (a) $63,138.58
(b) $77,892.69
22. (a) $93,174.11

14.

(b) $23,613.00
24. (a) $152,996.22

e - 5e
4

ln12x + 32 - x + c

- x ln x + 12 B + c

1ln x22
2

A x-

xn + 1
n + 1 ln
2
-2

16.

+ c
1
n + 1

e - 5e
4

if n = -1

B + c if n Z -1

17. 2 ln 2 - 3/4
18.

(b) $278,777.29

(b) 0.424367

25. $688,338.79
26. (b) 12

15. e

(b) $309,348.92
23. (a) $12,969.09

1
2 12x + 32
x2
2
2 1ln x2
2
-2

(c) 0.575633
19.

27. (b) 5/32

(b) 0.353093

(c) 11/32

(c) 0.381282

(d) 11/16

20. 1.11537

(e) 27/32 (f) 12

21. 16/7

28. (b) 0.731059

Chapter Review

(c) 0.268941
(d) 0.731059

1.

9n4 + 10n3 + 21n2 - 64n


12

2. (a) 13/2

29. (a) 12

(b) 19/32
30. 1.17157

(b)

12x3 + 4x2 + 7x - 12 dx

31. 0

3. 416 - 4

32. 0.28311

4. (a) 204

33. 0

37. A = T C e r D
rt - 1

e1j - r2t - 1
38. T0 c
d
j - r

(b) 452
(c) 310
5. (a) 311.0592
(b) 320.9792
(c) 315.9904 exact area is 316

677

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(c)

7. (a) 196 ft

13.
14.
15.

(b) 10
2

(c) 10ex

9. y = ;

12.

31 - ln11 + x 2
1
11
+
4t223/216t2 - 12
40
3
3 9 - 16
4 92
1
4 - 2e-5u + c
ln
10
1
3
3 1ln 22
1ln 322 - 1ln 222

21ln 32 1ln 22
45 - 327e-2
8

16. (a) 0.0202


(b) 1.41683
17. 93/5
18. 32/315
19. (a) 0.8758057
(b) 4/3

- y2 - 2yk - k2

11. (a) 0

x + h
y

10. (a) 10

(b) -112 ft/sec


8. p = 29 - x

11.

Page 678

Chapter 5 ReviewSection 6.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

6. 15

10.

10:25 AM

+ c

(b) 0
(c) 25 ln 2x2
12. (a) 100 213
(b) 100 243
13. 247,028
14. (a) 2y - 6xy3
(b) 2x - 9x2y2
(c) 2y - 12y3
(d) 2x - 9x2
15. (a) 2x - 9x2y
(b) -2y - 3x3
(c) 4 - 36y
(d) -6 - 3x3

20.
(b)

7 214 - 22
48

16. (a) 4x - 3y2

(c) 0.836667

(b) -6xy - 6y2z2

(d) 0.163333

(c) -4y3z + 2z

21. (a) $329,226.55


(b) $1,269,966.90
22. (a) $167,957.60
(b) $557,638.86
23. x21 - x2
24. 2x3 21 - x4

Exercise Set 6.1


1. (a) -8
(b) -20
2. (a) 3

17. C1x, y, z2 = 5xy + 4xz + 4yz

Exercise Set 6.2


1. 4x + 12x2y4 + 9
(b) 6y + 16x3y3 - 2
2. 12x3 - 14xy5 + 16x
(b) -6y2 - 35x2y4 - 3
3. 9x2 - 16x3 + 15x2y5 - 7
(b) 25x3y4 + 18y
4. (a)
(b)

(b) -77
3. (a) 800
(b) 5400
4. (a) 150
(b) 900
5. (a) 400
(b) 2400
6. (a) 4
(b) -2
7. (a) 432
(b) 800
8. (a) 143
(b) -4
9. (a) 3/2
(b) 2/3

4xy2

1x + y 2
2

2 2

- 4x2y

1x + y 2
2

2 2

5. (a)

- 4xy

1x - y 2
2

2 2

(b)

4x y

1x - y 2
2 2
2

2 2

6. (a) 3x 1x + y223111x2 + 3y22


(b) 24x3y1x2 + y223

7. (a) 80xy312x2 + 3y424

(b) 12y212x2 + 3y42412x2 + 23y42


2

8. (a) 16xe-2y

(b) -32x2ye-2y

9. (a) 2ye3xy13xy + 12

(b) 2xe3xy13xy + 12

10. (a) 6xy3e-4x y 11 - 6x3y22


3 2

(b) 3x2y2e-4x y 13 - 8x3y22


3 2

11. (a) 60x2y212x3 - 3y424

(b) 4y12x3 - 3y42412x3 - 33y42

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Section 6.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


12. (a) 12x2y215x4 - 2y325145x4 - 2y32

31.

(b) 40x y15x - 2y 2 1x - 4y 2


3

13. (a)
(b)
14. (a)
(b)

3 5

4x
2
2
2x + 3y
6y
2

2x + 3y

3x2
3
2
21x + 2y 2
2y
3

x + 2y

15. (a) 4xy3 A

+ ln1x2 + y22 B

x2
2
2
x + y

(b) 2x2y2 A

2y2
2

x + y

16. (a) 8x + 3

+ 3 ln1x2 + y22 B

32.

(b) 6y2 - 2
(c) 25z4 + 11
17. (a) 8x3 + 16x - 4xy3z4
(b) -15y4 + 6y2 - 6x2y2z4
(c) 60z3 - 8x2y3z3 + 5
18. (a)
(b)
(c)
19. (a)
(b)
(c)

4x
2
2
2
2x + 3y + 4z
6y
2

2x + 3y + 4z
8z
2
2
2
2x + 3y + 4z
2x
2
2
2
x + y + z
2y
2

33.

x + y + z
2z
2
2
2
x + y + z
3 4 2x2y3z4

20. (a) 12xy z e

2 3 4

(b) 18x2y2z4e2x y z

2 3 4

(c) 24x2y3z3e2x y z

21. (a) 124x5y6z5 + 4xy4z32e3x y z

4 2 2

(b) 112x y z + 8x y z 2e
6 5 5

2 3 3

3x4y2z2

34.

(c) 112x6y6z4 + 6x2y4z22e3x y z

4 2 2

22. (a) 100


(b) -149
23. (a) -16/25
(b) -8/25
24. -564e-32
(b) -732e-32
25. (a) -32/5 - 32 ln 5
(b) 64/5 + 24 ln 5
26. 11; 22; 36
27. 2/3; 1/3; -1/3
28. -96e16; 72e16; 192e16
29. (a) 1040
(b) -472
30. (a) y = 56x - 57
(b) y = 63x - 64

35.

679

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680
36.

37.

38.

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Section 6.2 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


40.

41.

42. 12, -22


43. (3, 3)
44. (4, 4, 5)

45. 112, - 12, -1/32


46. (a) 4 + 24xy4

(b) 6 + 48x3y2
(c) 48x2y3
47. (a) 36x2 - 14y5 + 16
(b) -12y - 140x2y3
39.

(c) -70xy4
48. (a) 18x - 48x2 + 30xy5
(b) 100x3y3 + 18
(c) -75x2y4
49. (a)

- 4y213x2 - y22
1x + y 2
2

2 3

(b)

4x213y2 - x22

(c)

- 8xy1y2 - x22

1x + y 2
2

2 3

1x + y 2
3
2
2

2 3

50. (a) 240y 12x + 3y42316x2 + y42

(b) 24y12x2 + 3y42314x4 + 192x2y4 + 759y82


(c) 240xy212x2 + 3y42312x2 + 19y42
2

51. (a) 16e-2y

(b) 1-32x2 + 128x2y22e-2y

(c) -64xye-2y

52. (a) 120x12x3 - 3y423114x3 - 3y42

(b) 412x3 - 3y42312079y8 - 432x3y4 + 4x62


(c) 120x2y12x3 - 3y42312x3 - 27y42

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Section 6.26.5 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


53. (a)
(b)
(c)

- 412x2 - 3y22
12x + 3y 2
2

2 2

612x2 - 3y22
12x + 3y 2
2

2 2

- 24xy

12x + 3y 2
2

2 2

54. Both are 48xy2z


55. Both are 24x2yz
67. 1
68. 12
69. -1
70. Not homogeneous
71. a + b
72. 6
73. 5
74. a + b + g

Exercise Set 6.3


rm = relative minimum, rM = relative maximum,
sp = saddle point, TF = test fails.

3 4
31. x = y = z = 2
32. (6, 11)
33. $1912 at (4, 6)

3 4, 2
3 4, 52 2
3 4B
34. A 2
35. (36, 18, 18)

36. 10, ;2, 02, 1;2, 0, 02, (0, 0, 2)


37. f1x, y2 = 8 - 2x + 12 y

38. f1x, y2 = 10 - 12x + 12y


43. Max = 7 min = -11
44. Max = 60, min = 20
45. Max = 2, min = -2

Exercise Set 6.4


1. 9/2
2. 27/4
3. 7/4
4. 12
5. 108

1. rm 1-5/2, 3, -107/22

6. -4 22

3. rm 12, -2, -182

8. 8

2. sp 1-2, -5, 192

7. -24

4. TF (0, 0, 0)

9. 2.4

5. rm 13, 3, -532

10. 48

7. sp (3, 2, 0)

12. 72

8. rm (2, 2, 12)

13. 243/10

9. rm (1, 2, 6)

14.

6. rm 1;4, -2, -5172 sp 10, -2, -52

10. rm (4, 1/4, 6)

11. 12

8 26
9

15. 48

11. rM 1-1, 2, -62

16. 108

13. sp 10, ;2, 42

18. 6912

15. TF (0, 0, 0), sp (18, 0, 0), sp (0, 12, 0), sp 16, 4, -2802

20. A -2 23, -223, -223, -623 B , A 2 23, 223, 223, 623 B

12. rm 12, 2, -11 sp10, 0, 522

17.

14. sp (0, 0, 0), rm 16, -18, -1082

19. 1-2, 0, -2, 42, (2, 0, 2, 4)

16. sp (0, 0, 0), sp ((12, 0, 0), sp (0, 16, 0), rM (4, 16/3, 1024/3)

21. 158, -13, -35, 132182

17. TF (x, 0, 0) for all x, TF (0, y, 0) for 0 y 12 at other y it is a sp, rM(4, 6,


6912)

18. sp (0, 0, 0), rm 13, 3, -272

19. sp (0, 0, 0), rm 1-2, 2, -322, rm 12, -2, -322


20. rm 12/3, 1/4, 2 + ln 242
21. rM (0, 0, 1)

22. rM 1;1, 0, 2/e2, rm (0, 0, 0), sp 10, ;1, 1/e2


24. 14, 4, 5, -1552
25. 11, -1, 0, -22
26. 11, 2, 3, -452

23
324

22. 1-1/3, -2/3, 5/3, 10/32


23. 1-5, 4, 4, -702

24. Length = 125/2 yd. radius =

125
2p yd.

25. (4, 4, 4)
26. (S/3, S/3, S/3)
27. (2, 2, 5/2)
28. (36, 18, 18)

29. 1-3, 4, 4252, (3, 4, 425), 1-4, 3, -2002, 14, -3, -2002
30. (400, 500)

Exercise Set 6.5

28. (4, 4, 4)
29. (s/3, s/3, s/3)

1. Comp

30. All variables appear symmetrically.

2. Sub
3. Sub

681

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Section 6.5Chapter 6 Review Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

4. Neither

22. Same as 21

5. Comp

23. Bounded by y = x2, and y = 1x, see Fig. Ex. 14

6. Comp

24. Same as 23

7. Comp

25. Bounded by y = x, x + y = 4 and y = 0, see Fig. Ex. 15

9. (5, 2)

26. Same as 25
27. Bounded by y = 2x2, y = 8 and x = 0, see Fig. Ex. 16

11. (a) (16, 81)

28. Same as 27

(b) $1728

29. Bounded by y = 3x2, y = 4 - x2 and y = 0, see Fig. Ex. 17

12. (a) (25, 800/243)

30. Same as 29

(b) $1,000

31. 64

13. (a) (2500, 2500),

32.

(b) 25,000,000
14. (200, 600)
0p1
0p1
0p2
0p2
7 0 then sub, if 0y 6 0 and
6 0 then comp,
17. (a) if 0y 7 0 and
0x
0x
0p1 0p2
if 0y # 0x 6 0 then neither

1.
2.

34. 9/7
35. 224/3
36.

1
2 ln 5
e4 - e - 3
2

38. 36

Exercise Set 6.6


y3
3xy4
2
3 - 4 + 2x y
3
2x
3x2y3
+ xy2
3 2
x
2
y

33. 216

37.

(b) neither

1
30240

39. 1
+ 3y + c1x2

40. 4/3

+ 3x + c1y2

41. 96

3. 3e + x - 2xe - 3xy + 5x + c1y2


3y2
2
2
2
2
x1x + y - 12 21 - x - y2
3
y1x2 + y2 - 12 21 - x2 - y2
3

42. 7/6

4. 3exy - 2ey + 2xy -

+ 5y + c1x2

43. pa2h

5.

+ c1x2

44. (a) 1/16

6.

(b) 15/64

+ c1y2

45. (a) 1/186624

7. 22/3

(b) 323/60279552

8. 22/3

46. 1/4

9. 528
10.

13897
168

47. 1/4
48. 1/128

11. (a) 8

50. 18

(b) 512/3

51. 3

12. (a) 36
(b)

14148
5

52. 4
53. 256/3

13. (a) 9

54.

(b) 9

188
35

55. (a, d)

14. (a) 1/3

(b, d)

(b) 37/21
15. (a) 4
(b) 16

(a, c)

16. (a) 32/3


(b)

56. 64

2048
21

58.

17. (a) 8/3


(b)

59.

1504
105

60. -19/2

18. (a) 28/3


(b)

e4 - 1
2
1
2 ln 2

61. 6

3016
15

19. (a) -1 x 3, and 2 y 4

62. 1/144

Chapter Review

20. 2 x 3 and -1 y 2
2

21. Bounded by y = 6x and y = x see Fig. Ex. 12.

1. (a) 21
(b) 4

Value =(b - a)(d - c)


(b, c)

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Chapter 6 ReviewSection A.1 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


2. (a) 64

18. -8002/105

(b) -64

19. 18
2

3. 6x12x4 + 7x2 + 32ex


4.

- y2

- 3y12x3 - y32
3 2

5. 24xy2z +
6.

20. 32/3
21.

21x + y 2
3

22.

16xyz

1x + y + z 2
2

2 3

1 - e-64
8
(a) 12

(b) 1/16
23. 10/3

Exercise Set A.1


1. (a) (i) -3
(ii) -2
(iii) 45
(iv) 3
(v) 9

(b) 11, -3, 45, 32


3
(c) 8

7.

1
2

(d) 3 * 4
2. (a) 4 * 5
(b) 58
43
5.31

(c)
35
54
3
3. (a) -6
27

8.

-6
-420
(b)
0
-2
3
2

(c)

105
0
1
2

135
1.5
243

-9
0
3

3
2

22
-0.62
-74
-22

-94
-18
- 12
-10
47
2
9
2
1
8
5
2

9
24
-108
-10
4
-86

- 11
2

27

21
2

0.155

5
2

37
2
11
2

-1
43
2

9
2
57
2

-42
-24

-18
-114

4. (a) 15.2, 2.7, 3.4, -0.5, 2.1, 0.82, 13.1, 1.9, 0.9, 1.2, -1.67, -0.22
(b) (8.3, 4.6, 4.3, 0.7, 0.43, 0.6)

9. y = 4x - 7

10. rel min 14/3, 2, 182


1

11. saddle point (0, 0, 0), rel min 16, -9, -1082
12. (a) rel max (7/3, 5/3, 17)

(b) f17/3, 5/32 - f17/3 + h, 5/3 + k2 = h2 + 1h - k22 + k2 0

13. Substitutes
14. (a) (20, 640)
(b) $3200
15. (4, 8)
16. (216, 108, 24)
17. (2, 12, 16, 416)

(c) the corresponding entries are the same.


70
5. (a) J = 40
45

10
3
12

105
(b) T = 70
125
4,200
(c) Jc = 2,400
2,700

35
F = 30
80

7
8.5
9

17
11.5
21
600
180
720

2,100
Fc = 1,800
4,800

7. x = 1, y = -7/3, z = 0, w = -14

420
510
540

683

7360639_ANS_603-686.qxd

684

7
10

13
16
- 13
b
- 13

1
1

1 12
17 a

B = a

Exercise Set A.2


1. (a) Undefined
-2
-15
(b)
-3
-20
-2
-9
2. (a)
0
-23

(b) a
4. (a) a
(b) a

9
15
z
-5
49

-1
b
-5

2
4

10
b
14

-1
14
-9
-11

1
20
5.
9
55

7
25

5
37

-2
b
-4

1
-1

4
b
22

-31
-15

40
-176

6. Undefined
-12
10
10.
35
-47

6
-28

-29
35

-6
-25
11.
-5
-36

20
70

14
104

-28
-49
12.
15
-169

0
1

19
b, B =
-43

35

12. x = -3/7, y = 16/7

3. (a) a

Page 684

1
32
13.
15
49

-1
0

1
2

5
8
9. R =
11
14

11. A =

10:25 AM

Section A.1A.3 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

0
1
8. R =
2
3

10. A = a

6/20/07

43
45

-36
212

- 23

4b
3

1
17 a

9
-12

10
b
-11

-27
-35

20
-152

14. a

5
-25

28
b
66

15. a

93
263

94
b
76

16. a

-1
-2

-5
12

17. a

1
-7

10
b
23

18. a

-34
76

0
11

-1
b
-13

12
b
-44
-1
HG = -3
-5

19. GH = 25,

-3
-2
20. GH = 15, HG =
-1
-5

2
6
10
9
6
3
15

4
12
20
21
14
7
35

3
2

1
5

21. x = 3 or 9
1
25. (a) 1
3

2
x
3
3 y = 5
2
z
0

-1
-2
-1

(b) x = -3/2, y = 12, z = 5/2


1
27. (a) 2
-5

2
5
-10

-2
x
3
1 y = -2
9
z
12

(b) x = -305, y = 127, z = -27


(c) u = 35, v = -18 w = -164
29. a

.32
b
.36

.68
.64

(b) a

.6672
.6656

(c) a

.66666752
.66666496
2

(d) a 32
3

.3328
b
.3344
.33333248
b
.33333504

1
3
1b
3

Exercise Set A.3


Answers are in the order (x, y, z, w, t) unless otherwise indicated.
1. 19, -12

2. 196/31, -85/312
3. 1-1, 3, 22
4. 1-2, 7, 42

5. 1-1, 1/2, -1/32


6. 1-2, 1, -32
7. 11, 2, -42
8. 11, -1, 22

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Section A.3A.4 Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests


9. 11, -1, 22

-55
36. (a) 23
-5

10. 1-2, -9/2, 1/22


11. (8, 9, 6, 0)

12. 1-2, 1, 3, 5/22

14. 16, -3, 7, 4, 12

15. 1c, v, a2 = 13, 5, 72


16. a = 700, b = 100, c = 70
17. 20 type A, 2 type B, 8 type C
18. 594
19. 385
20. 24 dimes, 34 nickels, 36 pennies
21. 35/qt.milk, 90/doz. eggs, 45/loaf bread.
1 -2
4a

3
b
-1

23. a

92
1
37. - 16
98
138

-30
131
23

38. X = a

-17
b
-12

1
0

1 -11
9a

26.

1
4 -4

4
b
-1

2
0
-1

-2
4
-1

6
3
-9

29
2
9

20
(b) 14 -20
-16

0
4
4

-8
10
7

20
-12
-10

1
15 -8

3
-1
-8

2
-7
1
-2
5
21
-28

8
5

-9
12

-47
51
1
30. 66
14
25

-12
6
12
12

-14
18
14
-8

43
-27

-10
1

-11
b
-9

5
5

1 -9
10 a

-5

(c) 15 a

35. (a)

2
-5
-6

(c) there will be a unique solution as long as the lines are not parallel.
44. Show T - I is singular.

20
-25
-35
30

16
3

6
7
6

43. (a) ad - bc Z 0

-16
15
1
29. 50

43
-24

34. a

-2
Y = 14 -5
2

(b) -a/b, -c/d

4
1
28. 19
5
2

(b)

-8
4
8

4
b
-4

41. A-1B

27. None

31. (a) a

-7
10

11
8
6

40. (a)

24. None
25.

Y = a

1
-7
-2

-2
39. X = 14 2
8
4

1
b
0

0
1

-12
5
-1

x
-1
(b) y = 2
z
4

13. 1-1, 2, 7, 3, -42

22.

-2
1
0

2
b,
1

-4
3

6
b
4

7
1
2
26
-5

-2
(b) X = 13 2
-1

-1
0
-1

47. (a) 14, -6, 112


-6
(b) X = -3
2

4
2
-1

-2
1
0

-3
-2
1

Exercise Set A.4


1. Inconsistent

11
b
5

-3
1

46. (a) 12, 1, -32

2. Inconsistent
1 4
2a

-16
14
4

x
1
(b) y = 1
z
-1

3
b
1

3. (1/2, 3/2)
4. Inconsistent

5. 113/4 + k/4, 5k/4 + 1/4, k2


6. Inconsistent

17
-10
-1

7. (13/10, 21/10)
8. 12, 1, -12
9. 12, 1, -12
10. Inconsistent

11. 117/3 + k/3, 4k/3 - 1/3, k, -22

12. 1-2 - 7k/3 + 6l, 7 - k/3, k, l2


13. (1, 3, 3)

685

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Section A.4Chapter Review Answers to Exercises and Pre/Post Tests

14. 11, 1, -12

15. 1-103 - k, k, 96, 232

16. 19 + 2k - 5l, -5 + 3k + 4l, k, l2

17. 123/2 + 2k - l/3, -27/4 + k/2 + 2l/3, k, -6 + 2l/3, l2


18. Let x, y, z be the number of $1, $2, and $4 ties respectively,
x = 2000 + 2k, y = 5000 - 3k, z = k, where k = 0, 1, 2, , 1666. If
y = 2000, then x = 4000 and z = 1000.
19. (a) c = 7 and k Z -2
(b) c Z 7
(c) c = 7 and k = -2

(d) 112 - l, -7/2 - l/2, l2


20. (a) c = 4 and k Z 8
(b) c Z 4
(c) c = 4 and k = 8
(d) 12 - l, 2 - l, l2

Chapter Review
1. A =

1 23
a
17 -9

2. a

6
2

1
6

3. a

22
-15

2
23

15
b
22

B =

1 -4
a
17
6

-7
13

7
b
-8
-15
b
29

4. (a) AB = I

(b) 1-269, 114, -232

5. 12, -3, 32
7. A-1 =

-2
1 2
5
A - A + 2I = 1
4
4
-3

8. No solution
9. a -

20
6
26
1
z, +
z, zb
11
11
11
11

10. (a) c = -95 and k Z 88/37


(b) c Z -95
(c) c = -95 and k = 88/37

(d) 14/37 - 13z, 68/37 + 67z, z2

6
-1
6

6
-2
7

7
b
-10