You are on page 1of 1

Cheat sheet

Present simple Talk about things in general: The caf opens at 7.30 in the morning Talk about general facts Water freezes at 0 degree Talk about routine and habitual actions I read a book every week. Used in conditional sentences type 1 If I see him I will call you Present perfect Recently completed action He has just finished his lunch Recent action with result in the present I have washed the car (it looks fantastic now.) I have seen wolves in that forest.(it is possible to see them Action lasting through incomplete period (since, for + period, all day/night/week, never, recently, lately ) He has been in the army for two years I have lived in Tunis all my life Present continuous Talk about things started and not yet finished or actions happening now I am reading the newspaper For a finite arrangement in the future I am meeting my boss tonight At 6 I am bathing the baby With always : when the frequency annoys He is always losing his keys My wife is always complaining More probable and immediate actions He is going to build the house Verbs not used with the present continuous Senses and Involuntary actions : feel, hear, see, smell, notice, mind, hate, want ,value

Future simple Express opinions about the future I am sure he will come back I suppose they will sell the house In condition sentences If I drop this glass it will break Future with intention I will cut the grass this afternoon Future continuous Talk about an action that starts in the future and continues is the future On Saturday there is no class Bill will be playing tennis and Ann will be shopping with her mother Future without intention : casual not planned I will be seeing Tom tomorrow Simple past Action that happened and ended in the past The great war ended in 1945 I read that book two weeks ago Past perfect The past of the past When you started learning English I had started already teaching it. He said that he had been in the service sector for five years.(reported speech).

Conditional Type 1 -> probable If + present simple --- future simple If you run you will get there in time If the fog gets thicker the plane might/may be diverted .-> possible If your documents are in order you may/can leave .-> permission If you want to lose weight you must/have to/should eat less bread. -> Command. If you heat ice it will turn to water -> automatic habitual result. Type 2 -> unreality in the present If + past simple --- would + verb If I lived near my office I would be in time for work -> supposition contrary to facts If a burglar came into my room I would fight him -> not expecting it If you tried again you might succeed -> possible result If shops were open I could buy you some milk -> ability Type 3 -> unreality in the past If + past perfect --- would + have + past participle verb If Ben Ali had stayed in the country things would have been different.-> but he had left the country