Electronics is the study of flow of electrons in various materials or space subjected to various conditions. In the past, electronics dealt with the study of Vacuum Tubes or Thermionic valves, today it mainly deals with flow of electrons in semiconductors. However, despite these technological differences, the main focus of electronics remains the controlled flow of electrons through a medium. By controlling the flow of electrons, we can make them perform special tasks, such as power an induction motor or heat a resistive coil. Plumbing Analogy a simple way to understand electrical circuits is to think of them as pipes. Let's say you have a simple circuit with a voltage source and a resistor between the positive and negative terminals on the source. When the circuit is powered, electrons will move from the negative terminal, through the resistor, and into the positive terminal. The resistor is basically a path of conduction that resists the movement of electrons. This circuit could also be represented as a plumbing network. In the plumbing network, the resistor would be equivalent to a section of pipe, where the water is forced to move around several barriers to pass through, effectively slowing its flow. If the pipe is level, no water will flow in an organized fashion, since the pressure is equal throughout the pipe. However, if we tilt the pipe to a vertical position (similar to turning on a voltage source), a pressure difference is created (similar to a voltage difference) and the water begins flowing through the pipe. This flow of water is similar to the flow of electrons in a circuit. Electricity To understand electronics, you need to understand electricity and what it is. Basically, electricity is the flow of electrons due to a difference in electrical charge between two points. This difference in charge is created due to a difference in electron density. If you have a point where the electron density is higher than the electron density at another point, the electrons in the area of higher density will want to balance the charge by migrating towards the area with lower density. This migration is referred to as electrical current. Thus, flow in an electrical circuit is induced by putting more electrons on one side of the circuit than the other, forcing them to move through the circuit to balance the charge density. Electric Charge In normal conditions all matter has a neutral or has a zero net charge. When an object receives an electron the object becomes negatively charged. When an object gives up an electron the object becomes positively charged. Each charge possesses electric field lines and charge quantities. A positive charge possesses charge quantities of +Q and has electric field lines going outward. A negative charge possesses charge quantities of -Q and has electric field lines going inward. In general, like charges will oppose each other and opposite charges will attract each other. Hence, it is a property of matter.

Coulomb's Law The force of attraction between two charges can be calculated by Coulomb's Law. Below would be the calculation between a positive and negative charge.

F. For example. Electricity and Conductors Normally. The magnetic force on the charge is calculated by Lorennt's Law ElectroMagnetic Force The sum of Ampere's Force and Lorentz's Force exert on a charge is called EletroMagnetic Force Electricity and Matter All matter interacts with Electricity. Semi Conductors. Q. this is the force that gives rise to current.Ampere's Law The electric force. are related by Ampere's Law. within an electric field. and Non Conductors. Metals like Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) conduct electricity very easily. On an atomic basis. Lorentz's Law When a charge in motion passes through a magnetic field. they are used to make Non-Conductors. Non-Conductor Matter that does not conduct Electricity at all. Conductor Matter that conducts Electricity easily. Non-Metals like Wood and Rubber do not conduct electricity so easily. The magnetic field will push a positive charge upward and negative charge downward in the direction perpendicular to the initial direction traveled. they are used to make Semi Conductors. all conductors have a zero net charge . they are used to make Conductors. Semi Conductor Matter that conducts electricity in a manner between that of Conductors and Non-Conductors. and are divided into three categories: Conductors. E. Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) conduct electricity better than non-conductors but worse than conductors. Therefore. If there is an electric force that exerts a pressure on the charges in the conductor to force charges to move in a straight line result in a stream of electric charge moving in a straight line . Therefore. on a charge. Therefore.

it dissipates heat energy into the surrounding .PR . This results in a loss of electric energy transmitted . If the electric supply energy is PV and the electric loss energy is PR Then the electric energy delivered: P = P V . resistance of any conductor is found to increase with increasing temperature For Conductor R = Ro(1 + nT) For Semi Conductor R = Ro e nT When a conductor conducts electricity.Voltage The pressure the electric force exert on the charges is called voltage denoted as V measured in Volt (V) and defined as the ratio of Work Done on Charge Current The moving of straight lines of electric charges in the conductor is called current denoted as I measured in Ampere (A) and defined as Charge flow through an area in a unit of time Conductance Conductance is defined as the ratio of current over voltage denoted as Y measured in mho Resistance Resistance is defined as the ratio of voltage over current denoted as R measured in Ohm Generally.

Current stops increasing .f diagram Observation for f<fo Current increasing with increasing f . Release Radiant Heat Energy into the surrounding Experiment Connect a conductor with an electric source in a closed loop . The energy of the Light is quantized . A drawing meant to depict what the physical arrangement of the wires and the components they connect is called "artwork" or "layout" or the "physical design. for f=fo. A pictorial circuit diagram uses simple images of components. At Frequency f > fo . it can only have the value of multiple integer of fo ." 2 . including power and signalconnections. E = hf = h nfo CIRCUIT DIAGRAM It is a simplified conventional graphical representation of an electrical circuit. The Radiant Heat Energy is a Light Wave of dual Wave Particle characteristic. while a schematic diagram shows the components of the circuit as simplified standard symbols. a circuit diagram shows the actual wire connections being used. for f>fo. Arrangement of the components interconnections on the diagram does not correspond to their physical locations in the finished device. All conductor that conducts Electricity has a threshold frequency fo 2. Unlike a block diagram or layout diagram.Black Body Radiation Further experience with conductors that conduct electricity . Radiant heat is a wave travels at velocity v = c (speed of Light) carries energy E = h nfo Conclusion 1. Change in Temperature 2. Radiant heat is a wave travels at velocity v = c (speed of Light) carries energy E = hfo . sometimes it behaves like Wave 3. both types show the connections between the devices. The diagram does not show the physical arrangement of components. It is observed that all conductors that conduct electricity exhibit 1. Sometimes it behaves like Particle. Plot the value I at different f to have a I . Radiant heat is a wave travels at velocity v = λf carries energy E = m v . Current remains at the value of current at fo .

Three transistor audio amplifier Circuit Symbols . circuit diagrams are especially useful when visualizing different expressions using Boolean Algebra. In computer science.Circuit diagrams are used for the design (circuit design). and maintenance of electrical and electronic equipment. construction (such as PCB layout).

When the current flowing through an inductor changes. which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics. as in 'multistranded wire'.is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. Diode .(AC. which opposes the change in current that created it. usually cylindrical. Capacitor . Voltmeter . Wires are used to bear mechanical loads and to carry electricity andtelecommunications signals. Switch .which has the symbol A m or A·m is the SI unit for pole strength in a magnet. Standard sizes are determined by various wire gauges.also called a coil or reactor.(originally known as a condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy electrostatically in an electric a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric conductance. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely. the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. according toFaraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Resistor .is an instrument used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. the time-varying magnetic field induces a voltage in the a single.Alternating current . Each battery consists of a negative electrode material. digital voltmeters give a numerical display of voltage by use of an analog to digital converter. and terminals that allow current to flow out of the battery to perform work Wire . Battery . energy is stored temporarily in a magnetic fieldin the coil. Amperemeter .is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. a positive electrode material. it has low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction. .is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit. When a current flows through it. is a passive two-terminal electrical component which resists changes in electric current passing through it. also dc). It consists of a conductor such as a wire. Galvanometer . Analog voltmeters move a pointer across a scale in proportion to the voltage of the circuit. usually wound into a coil. an electrolyte that allows ions to move between the a type of sensitive ammeter: an instrument for detecting electric current. Direct current . Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands. Capacitors are widely used as parts ofelectrical circuits in many common electrical devices.(DC. Inductor . one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. flexible strand or rod of metal. It is an analog electromechanical actuator that produces a rotary deflection of some type of pointer in response to electric current flowing through its coil in a magnetic field. for example. or a cable in electricity. also ac).

EXAMPLE OF ANALOG AND DIGITAL DEVICES Analog devices: Record players 8-track tape players Cassette tape players Tube amplifiers Old electric organs (like the Hammond B-3) Digital devices: Compact disc (CD) players Digital Video Disc (DVD) players Synthesizers Computers Blu-Ray players .

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