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Processes, Patterns and Performances
By Dave Livingston, Managing Principal, Llinlithgow Associates (www.llinlithgow.com ) Dave is a management consultant primarily focused on improving enterprise performance by coupling strategy with execution thru the design and implementation of workable, integrated management systems. He blogs on this and related issues in Economics, Markets & Investments and specific industries and companies at www.llinlithwo.com/bizzx, his BizzXceleration blog.
There’s always been a lot of discussion, arm-waving and lip service about innovation, it’s role in social prosperity and business performance. Yet we’ve been in a fallow period where major Innovation that puts the Economy on major new paths increases jobs and creates entire new industries has bad declining and fallow for years now. In fact not since the great wave of major new industries were created after the Second World War have we seen the creation of major, deep and structural innovation. There are multiple causes which range from mis-understanding what Innovation, to how it works and functions inside a large organization to its role in society and the challenges and histories. Innovation is almost always confused with Invention – the Aha of a bright idea. That’s a part of it but a small part. Innovation in fact is the creation of new value, whether on a major or minor scale. The act of innovation doesn’t occur until the bright idea is turned into a product or service, until those are delivered to the market, until they cause actual change and until they deliver value to the business and society. It’s by those standards we say that it has been fallow for decades. Yet it has never been more important for two major reasons. First, it is the source of new jobs and wealth and general prosperity. Second, we’re facing a period where the world is in the process of catching up with us, rapidly, and we will have to deal with major disruptions in the structure of the world economy. Disruptions we are not prepared to face unless and until or business and socio-governmental organizations and institutions re-discover what innovation, how to go about it and begin to seriously commit resources and investments. For one thing, innovation is not minor cultural change within the matrix of an existing organization, though it’s often discussed as that. As in the innovative culture or organization. Real innovation operates differently than business as usual and requirements distinct management, control systems and executive commitment, usually to the point of being a stand-alone organization run in an entirely different chain of command. Here we discuss the nature and examples of innovation in business, the history of innovation and previous waves and the current strategic situation. We also discuss the extend to which existing organizations are prepare to seriously commit, or even capable of doing so. On the whole we the news is not particularly encouraging though some few major leading companies, from WalMart to P&G to Hewlett-Packard to Intel have clearly re-thought themselves, the role and importance of innovation and how they will manage it organizationally and strategically. For the long-run health of the economy, and society, it is necessary that the general understanding of what it is, how to go about it, now to manage it and why it’s so strategically critically be radically increase. And, more than that, why it’s so necessary for us to collectively commit to Innovation, as a major pillar of the future.
From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance
Table of Contents
1. Sailing Into the Storm: From Execution to Innovation 2. Tech Industry: Commodization, Consolidation, Consequences 3. Tech Industry: Innovators, Survivors & Also-rans 4. Tech Industry: APPL vs. MSFT vs. YHOO Wars 5. Disruption vs. Innovation: Change, Response, Resilience 6. Bidding Review: Macro-environment, Disruptions, Business Performance 7. Run For Daylight: Innovation, Innovation, Innovation 8. About Llinlithgow Associates 3 6 7 8 10 14 20 24
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance
Sailing Into the Storm: From Execution to Innovation
http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/2008/04/sailing_into_the_storm_from_ex.html Posted by dblwyo on April 27, 2008 Our normal sequence would call for taking up the market situation but that' not only too depressing, for several s reasons, but Sun. seems more suited to reflection on big issues. So we' going to focus on Innovation. Now re hopefully some previous posts have established the motivation for that, and they' listed below the break, but in re discussing sad, not so sad and good stores about business performance a couple of themes emerged. One of course was good execution and another was balancing strategy with operations. But if you review some of the readings sustainable long-term performance, by which we mean growth in revenue, profits and earnings, also requires adaptability and invention. Innovation in other words. And when you look at the examples from HPQ to P&G you can see where this is all born out. And conversely when you look at the sad stories where the counterexamples also support the argument. But in case you need more convincing or, better yet, you' like to d see it explained by somebody with a real track record of both sustained performance and sustained change management we' ll point you at the recent appearance of A.G. Lafley on Charlie Rose. http://www.charlierose.com/shows/2008/04/23/2/aconversation-with-a-g-lafley IOHO this ought to be required listening in every MBA program and executive suite in the country. As well as by every analyst mistaking this quarter for infinity and beyond. Another interesting exercise is look over the recently published list of the Fortune 1000 and see who ranks where by revenue, profit and return. You' have to do some eyeball work as the story behind the ll ranking won'just jump out but a couple of themes emerge. One t of course is energy and hot commodities. Another is folks who' ve been franchises and moats, e.g. WMT and MSFT, who continue to enjoy the fruits of the legacy for now. But you' also find some of our exemplars moving up those ll ranks as well. The other thing you' notice is that ten years it was all about "technology" per se. Now it' about ll s changing the way you do business, bring products to market and is beginning to appear across leaders in all industries. There' a lot of confusion about innovation, especially as distinct from invention and raw R&D. s We define Innovation as the ability to create new products, services and business models that deliver value to the customer profitably. And sustain that over a period of time. Enterprises that can do this are rare but they are the ones who'll do more than merely prosper in the coming storms. And notice some of the subtleties. Innovation is not number of patents, % of revenue spent on R&D or any of those similar metrics. Heck, by those measurements Ford is an innovative company. But what has it to show for it ? Or the Auto Industry in general. We were happy to hear Mr. Lafley not only has a similar view but is very eloquent both on how hard it is and how important. But also on how becoming an innovative company requires a fundamental change in every aspect of the company. In other words this is NOT about what happens in the lab but the ability to look at the market, develop new products, make them and then delivery them. And then repeat.
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance After the break we' share some of the conceptual framework we' developed over the last several years for ll ve what' required, what the typical problems are and what an integrated approach to innovation should look like. At s the end of the day this matters to investors, stakeholders, employees and any other related party because the closer a company gets to these "Should-Be" ideals the more likely it' be on the list in another ten years, or 20...or ll 30 or....well you pick your horizon. One warning note - right now US companies have something of an advantage in this business "software" but our friends in China, India and elsewhere know that and are taking steps to improve their own capabilities.
Product Development As-Is
The problem with most organizations is that innovation is viewed as an isolated, stovepiped process which occurs, to the extent it does, within the confines of the R&D organization. Which is itself isolated from marketplace and customer realities and disconnected from the downstream activities that turn bright idea into invention into profitable innovation. The picture of things as they are looks something like the chart at right. All to often the way products are improved or created starts with a "bright" idea (or just history for that matter) which is thrown over the wall to Design and Development. The result is then forced thru a manufacturing (make) and packaging process and then Marketing puts lipstick on the pig while Sales is handed the fun task of forcing it down the throats of the customers. In those few sentences we' just summarized, for example, the typical process in the Auto Industry. Which, sadly as ve some of the earlier readings, e.g. the story of the Taurus, show that they in fact know better. But don'do it on a t sustainable basis.
The Capabilities vs Knowledge Gap
The primary reason is that companies tend to focus on what they' done, if for no other ve reason than it' what they know, have the s current capabilities (here labeled technology) that' built up over years and ve decades, it' what they' always done and, s ve worst, have interests inside the company who' invested in continuing to do things as re they' always been done. ve Most of the bad performers on our previous lists suffer from this Customer Requirements vs. Inherited Capabilities Gap. Whether it' software companies s building applications that don'meet customer needs, auto companies building cars that no one wants to buy or t pharmaceutical companies making yet one more variation on old, tired drugs the inability to match marketspace value to capacities is the most fundamental barrier to Innovation. We' even go so far as to argue that this d describes the content generation processes (WRFest (Telemediatainment): The Content Who Would Be King) of the media and entertainment industries. Compare Disney and Pixar for example to the last bunch of multi-$M bombs :)!
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance
The Three Gaps
That fundamental gap is composed of three major breakdowns. The first and most fundamental breakdown usually lies in a lack of understanding of how customers actually function. That is a lack of understanding of how their businesses work in commercial and industrial sector or how customers live their lives in consumer sectors. So the first thing to repair is the focus on internally generated ideas with learning those things. In other words replacing "not-invented-here" with "how it works really". Related to that is the Marketing gap where most enterprises go to market with the story they want to tell rather than the story that explains how they' benefit their customers. ll This btw is a great index that any outside observer can use to judge how truly customer focused any company that claims to be innovative is. Do they truly understand and talk to their customers the way those customers would like to be talked to ? The twin of the breakdown in Marketing is a parallel breakdown in Sales where yet another salesman shows up to talk about the latest brochureware. As a friend of mine said, "no matter how busy I am any salesman who' there to talk about solving my problems will get s time. But most of them are there to sell me another pig in the poke where I have to figure out what it' worth". s Successfully innovative companies sell (and service and support) to their customers value propositions.
How It Should/Could Work
The chart at right shows how Innovation should work if it' done right. Here what s you see is an integrated, closed-loop and end-to-end view on Innovation. Which strangely looks more than a bit like what Mr. Lafley discusses in his interview. It starts with analyzing the markets and customers, translating that into a deep description of the real needs and characteristics of those customers and then turning those into high level product designs. That' then passed on to s operations in an integrated, not throw it over the wall fashion, where manufacturing and delivery requirements are incorporated at the earliest design stages. Not as afterthoughts. In other words innovation involves putting all the relevant disciplines onto the same team and operating concurrently, with feedback and feed forward. Not as one isolated stovepipe after the other. Again something Lafley emphasizes strongly.
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance Finally, with this deep understanding of the customer, the entire Go-to-Market and Service/Support operations inherit a basic of customer value propositions. The other thing that happens is that each stage is used as an information gathering and feedback mechanism to make sure that innovation is continuous and adaptive. Finally, as Lafley continuously emphasizes, you have to organize around these sorts of processes. Companies that put these sorts of innovation capabilities in place, invest in them and maintain them will be the ones who will establish long-term survivability and prosperity. These are the ones you want to invest in or work for or work with. Good luck.
Performance Assessment Basics: Five Fundamental Factors Business Performance II (Readings): Performance, Pain and Prospects Business Performance III(Readings): Sad Stories, Good Stories & "Fixes"
Tech Industry: Commodization, Consolidation, Consequences
http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/2008/04/wrfest_30mar08tech_industry_co.html Posted by dblwyo on April 3, 2008 In case noone' noticed the Technology Industry s as a whole has reached the point where it is mature, which we define as being able to provide products and solutions who' s capabilities exceed customer requirements. If that sounds a bit like Clayton Christiansen' s arguments in the "Innovators Dilemma" it should because it is. In fact we' on record as arguing re that the PC industry reached that point circa ' 99 when speeds and feeds were adequate 98/' for the software, e.g. Word, who' functionality s was well beyond any reasonable cutoff point, say 60/40 and meandering around the 95/5 or worse. Unfortunately costs tend to go up nonlinearly as you add bells and whistles. The chart at right traces out this industry dynamic. It' kind of simple but hopefully it gets s the point across. We show customer requirements slowly evolving over time along with two products which have high demand initially because the gap between requirements and capabilities is large and negative, that is customers want more than can be delivered. New products may have some special capability or vastly lower cost but not meet current requirements and have to be introduced in a niche. So does a company keep investing in old products or gamble on new and jeapordize the franchise and cash flow ? You have to apply this thinking to each major business segment in the stack as well because their history, status and outlook are all different. But for the bottom layers of the stack, by and large, capabilities vastly exceed requirements. The top layer, applications and business alignment are very different as the capabilities are vastly exceeded by requirements, especially in the SMB space. But NONE of the customers believes the industry can deliver value-enhancing, business-driven solutions. As you go thru each of the readings below you might keep all this in mind because a lot is explained. For example Dell is outsourcing much of its sourcing to China which it wouldn'do if innovation were still the main t driver. Similarly IBM has developed a reputation as the steady-goer but when you look at its' financials and
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance investor presentations most of the earnings growth comes from buybacks and other financial engineering. Similarly Oracle' acquisitions sprees are hallmarks of a mature industry. s For a short introduction to how the industry changed and evolved in the ' you can read and download this 90s re short note on industry evolution: Technology Industry Changes and Evolution. BTW just in case you' interested in understanding the history of the technology and consumer electronics industries, who the players were/are, how they did and why and how the ecology of the industry was shaped and evolved over decades we can'recommend enough Inventing the Electronic Century: The Epic Story of the Consumer Electronics and t Computer Industries, with a new preface (Harvard Studies in Business History) by Alfred D., Jr. Chandler. In or humble opinion a great, insightful and well-written book that any serious student (investor, employment, market player) would benefit from reading. For our prior posts on the stack, industry evolution, business vs IT alignment, et.al. issues see the industry archive where we' built up quite a "stack" of charts to help you with your analysis ve ala Buffett'that is understanding as best we can manage how the business works :). ;
Tech Industry: Innovators, Survivors & Also-rans
http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/2008/04/wrfest_27apr08tech_ind_innovat.html Posted by dblwyo on April 29, 2009 Here' an interesting accumulation of Tech-related readings (after the break) that are worthwhile in their own right s but also are perfectly illustrative of many of the themes we' tried to strike here. Both for the Tech Industry itself ve and for it' inter-actions with the larger economy. Most of us, myself included, have this wonderful, romantic view s of the Tech Industry as being its' own thing running on an internal dynamic. Unfortunately most of the major names are now mature companies struggling to find the NBT (next big thing). Worse many of them are experiencing severe organo-sclerosis in their core disciplines. Tech is not the only industry driven by Innovation however. In fact it is more central to the Pharmaceutical and Aerospace industries than what we traditionally think of us tech. And, as I hope we' established, innovation is returning as a fundamental requirement for survival let ve alone prosperity. Put all this together and you have two broad mis-conceptions to adjust: 1. Patterns of Innovation: Once a company or industry matures it is no longer driven by internal dynamics, e.g. the famous "S-curve" of fame and fortune. Worse when a company is used to living on the curve it gets both complacent and, with growth, harder to manage. Often its' core disciplines deteriorate as well, so that one ends up with desperate gamble after desperate gamble to recover the glory years. There are however key players who have managed, thru discipline, execution and insight, to find sources of renewal. 2. Business Cycles: once you' off the curve re then you become just another capital "equipment" supplier (or consumer supplier for those migrating into the entertronics industry). Which means normal business cycle consequences begin to show up. In this downturn, which we' barely ve seen the beginnings off, first consumer demand will slow and turn down, likely severely. And companies will cut their hiring and capital expenditure plans. All of which we' beginning to re see and more of which is coming. As IT budgets are constrained what do you think happens to IT
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance spending and tech industry outlooks? Wouldn'ask the analysts on the Street :) t The trick is to sort out the survivors from the also-rans who are going to struggle. And then sort the survivors into the so-so' and the real men. As you skim over the readings we think the portents for the future are s pretty clear. Which means in terms of evaluating investment and performance we' back to asking Economy re Industry - Company questions. You' hopefully looking for the companies with the skill, chutzpah and resources re to gain new high ground. And IOHO those are the folks who' re-made or are re-making themselves. Those will ve be the buying opportunities after we get thru this current unpleasantness. A perfect contrast is AMD vs. Intel. The former had a hit but failed to follow-up, sustain it or execute. Instead it made an acquisition gamble looking for the easy fix. In stark contrast Intel transformed itself by building on it' s base skills in chip design and manufacturing as well as operational excellence and is now extending those capabilities to whole new markets. (We can'recommend some of the last investor presentations highly enough t btw). MOT is the perfect poster child for what we' called decliners in the charts. IBM on the other hand could ve serve as the example, if not exemplar, for the sustainer. The real interesting contrast is APPL vs. MSFT. There are a lot of readings below but consider what we think is the most fascinating and powerful contrast. At it' heart MSFT is a software company and it' most fundamental s s discipline should be product development. Yet it delivers Vista late, emasculated, bloated, missing an ecology and buggy. What Longhorn was going to be and what Vista became reduces in large part back to Code Red - when internal development broke down almost completely and they had to do emergency surgery. In contrast Apple made a decision to create a new, elegant, powerful and portable OS that not only drives Max OSX but the iPod and iPhone because it' modular, componentized and scalable. (Shades of NEXT and it' s s object-oriented OS and application platform). That means that every product Apple makes runs the same software base and therefore can share applications, within limits of course. So MSFT is wrestling its' own kudzu and Apple has created a self-sustaining, evolving and growing eco-system. Which holds the most promise for the future do you think ? Of course there' many a slip ' s twixt cup and lip and MSFT is still a huge, tightly run profit machine and Apple will need to sustain it' innovations with the NBT on top of this wonderful foundation. Which merely makes it easier s and more likely. But it' looking like Apple joins Cisco and Intel in that pantheon of folks who' made the s ve necessary cultural changes to embed innovation in their DNA. (Sailing Into the Storm: From Execution to Innovation)
Tech Industry: APPL vs MSFT vs YHOO Wars
http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/2008/05/tech_industryappl_vs_msft_vs_y.html Posted by dblwyo on May 14, 2008 Let' take a look at the big tech news from the last week or so (deferring the HPQ/EDS discussion for now) and s focus on the APPL vs MSFT and MSFT vs YHOO campaigns. In both of which there was some big news everybody covered and some that may have passed you by. In an earlier post/survey (WRFest 27Apr08(Tech Ind): Innovators, Survivors & Also-rans) we introduced some ways/weighs of thinking about innovation and typical patterns. You may want to refer back to that as here we' going to build some more charts to dig into re some other patterns to set the stage for our discussion. You might also find reviewing the earlier discussion (Sailing Into the Storm: From Execution to Innovation) of innovation a worthwhile review, especially if you buy the argument that Innovation is not just an issue in the Tech Industry but is both a general requirement and the biggest challenge beyond Execution facing all businesses. And one that most are failing at. We think the framework for analyzing what works and is required vs the typical barriers applies to P&G just as much as to MSFT...a view which, judging from public statements and observable behaviors, P&G agrees with.
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance
So consider the chart at right, which shows how many companies face the "Renewability Challenge". Chrysler is almost the perfect poster child, along with MOT, of a company who lurches from breakthru hit to hit and hopes it survives the downturn. That behavior is apparently deeply seated in its' culture. What you' like to do is have d good strategy, translate that into excellent and ongoing execution and, on that foundation, build up a repeatable capability for innovation. And better yet embed that capability into the core of the Company. A path that Lafley at P&G appears to be well along on after close to seven years of hard and sustained effort. There are two big questions. First, can you get the Innovation process going on a regular and speedy cycle show that new products and offerings begin to take off before the old starts into decline. And second, and as or more important, is the question of what path is the Company on. That is are innovations moving the company forward, marking time or eroding despite apparent cleverness. When you think about the Big Three here you reach very different conclusions. Apple appears to have created a sustainable culture of Innovation with one hit following another. Admittedly largely due to Steve Jobs...yet none of the major innovations Apple has produced are from a one-man band but represent the efforts of entire teams. And even more interestingly, in a rather Disney-like fashion, Apple is beginning to see cross-feeds and synergies. The iPod effort led to the iPhone, which was and is a major breakthru in the entire Telecom business model. Both together are causing a rapid growth in Mac sales. Even more importantly big business is beginning to give serious consideration to Apple computers. A critical strategic enabler is a brilliant decision on the Operating System which is modular and scalable. All Apple lacks now is a portfolio of small business applications along with a good development platform. That would allow them to become a major player in the empty dumbbell space of ill-served SMBs. (WRFest 2Mar08(Technology): Small to Large - IT Industry Structure) In contrast MSFT has not only failed in its Yahoo acquisition - which you may recall we thought was a disaster from the get go.(B2C Wars:Yhoo/MS Merger - Disaster in the Making ?) But it really hasn'had any major t successes in any of its' new endeavors in years. Instead it' milking the cash cows and monopoly positions it s enjoys in OS share and Office Suites. And doesn'appear to have made much, if any, headway in the SMB t space. Largely we' given to understand because of a lack of cultural understanding of the applications re development process. Now apps are different from middleware, culturally as well as technically. Yet at the end of the day MSFT' core competence MUST be software development. Yet we ended up with a new OS (Vista) that s was grossly de-featured from the original innovations promised in Longhorn, has been rather badly received, even resisted as it doesn'provide significant advantages over XP and throws open the door to competitors. Particularly t in the business marketspace. How ' bout that YHOO ? Well after the initial breakout as the most successful portal, with a business built around display advertising it failed to find a way to grow that business. Terry Semel was brought into to provide a little adult supervision, which he did and effectively, but his "new media" initiatives, which presumed that increasing the portal attractiveness and thereby number of eyeballs, both built on the display advertising theme and failed. Meanwhile of course GOOG' wild, and unexpected, success with search-based advertising blind-sided them s completely. So what does Yahoo do now? So far it' failed to take its' s huge footprint and sustain it, failed in developing its' own superb search engine (though admittedly with major improvements) and faces an incredibly daunting uphill battle given Google' share, penetration and street cred. Nor can it tell us what it wants to be when s it grows up.
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance
Looking at the chart and the three different timepaths illustrated we could just about assign names to each path: Apple, Microsoft and Yahoo. These interesting times are really tough. From a stakeholders perspective you' d have to argue that Apple has found a sustainable path that appears to make it a great place to work but one that' s more than fully valued in the markets. That MSFT is suffering from Red Queen syndrome with major investment after investment that have not succeeded in major incremental growth opportunities. Which makes it an intermediate-term value play and a long-term question mark. For Yahoo the future is now - they appear to be locked into downward path that may metastasize into a death spiral if they don'pull themselves together, execute t enormously better and deliver value to existing users/customers and find new paths (visions, value props, strategies, business models) forward. At best this is a "turn-around" opportunity but it' take time, money, blood d and enormous effort.
Disruption vs. Innovation: Change, Response, Resilience
http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/2009/03/disruption_vs_innovation_chang.html Posted by dblwyo on March 15, 2009 On the "oh what an interesting, small world" topic a friend's post led me to an HBR post which in turn led me to a series by John Hagel, John Seeley Brown and Lang Davison on the coming "singularity" a major, discontinuous disruption in the business and geonomic environment. As it happens their diagnosis of the reason has to do with Technology - not a surprise given their backgrounds but a tad narrow. We happen to disagree with them on the trigger, agree with them on the singularity, think it' be even bigger than they say and ll involve more factors. The nature of the singularity - the appearance of continuous disruptions that will prevent a return to some sort of punctuated equilibrium – will continue for a long-time. Perhaps, and we think it likely, forever. Having spent the last six straight posts diving deeply into the dimensions of the Singularity and documenting it with big inventories of readings we won'review it but you may recall this "kitchen-sink graphic" that was our Mantra t Mandela...the mantra being Geo-politics/Economy/Industry/Company of course :). The accompanying graphic tries to represent the scope and scale of these disruptions we' been documenting on a firm, industry, economic ve and geo-political level as well as relate it to our on-going concern with enterprise and organizational performance. One of the interesting excerpts is a post by Irving Wladawsky-Berger on re-architecting the enterprise from a holistic perspective. Couldn'have put it better ourselves - in fact that' such a central concern of ours it shows up t s in most posts directly or in-directly and has it' own archive. s One of our key findings is that, with occasional exceptions, very few concerns are prepared for the changes they' failing to meet now, let alone the singularity. Which, btw, is a matter of leadership among other things, re which is why the readings start off with Cramer' recent startling Mea Culpa on the John Stewart Show. On the s other hand there are the WMT' and MickeyD' of the world who have started and made serious progress on s s "whole enterprise" re-factorings (WMT as Performance Exemplar: Re-Think, Re-Factor, Re-Energize); also a
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance matter of leadership! The readings contain excerpts from a bunch of the key posts on disruption and response and then another slew of carefully selected examples from just starting to profoundly well along. We' also point d to P&G as another exemplar for resilience and innovation (Sailing Into the Storm: From Execution to Innovation) as well as a host of the Tech Industry archives that dove deeper into various models of change and innovation. For the rest of this post, having discussed "big picture" and enterprise disruptions we' like to focus on d the lower R.H. component of the Mandela and talk about industry innovation and the Next Big Thing (NBT), which is a primary driver of all the rest and/or an enabler.
Innovation and Disruption
The History of the NBT: This little graphic illustrates the socionomic history of the US, and to some extent all developed economies depending on when and where they got on-board the train. As not quite a sidebar notice when you match these changes and their disruptions you get an amazingly good match to the 18 year cycles that the market mavens keep talking about. A correlation, and we think a causal linkage, which as far as we can tell hasn'been explicitly made elsewhere. But t one that explains an enormous amount about company, industry and economic performance as well as the associated socionomic changes. Post-WW2 Business Changes: if the previous chart tell us how technology, business and social change led to Industrialization and the emergence of Mass Markets this one breaks down some of the more recent history for how that evolved. Consider that post-WW2 we had four major new industries (Plastics, Pharma, Electronics, Transportation) that were based on pre-war invention, wartime investment and innovation and post-war implementation. The entire "golden" age of the ' 50s, which saw the rise of a prosperous middle class for the first time in human history was built on these foundations. At the same time all these disruptions matured and at minimum leveled off or began to decay. For example the Pharma industry has been pursuing mega-blockbuster hit derived from it' s chemistry-based R&D strategy and associated business models and strategies. Yet we' known and ve noticed that that model is beyond exhausted and there' no more major value being created. The industry is struggling with a disruptive shift to a s biology-based model and clearly hasn'found the way forward as yet. They' not alone either, as the top bar t re shows - between maturity, value saturation, a globalizing economy, et.al. you can sort and categorize the headlines and business book titles and consulting gurus of the last four decades. So what happens next ?
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance The Next Wave of Innovation: well here' where we think things are going. s This isn'an entirely ill-informed t prognostication but it' not cast in s concrete either. That said it' held up s pretty well over the last few years while we' developed and used it. Basically ve we see three phases which are probably more over-lapped and inter-dependent than shown but still representative. The current phase where enterprises need to re-invent themselves as WMT, et.al. have done, but few others; and which' exponentiate in the next decade ll as the foot-dragging and systemic disruptions accelerate. The emergence and evolution of new firms, worldwide competition and new industries and the morphing of old ones. For example this last two weeks has seen newspaper bankruptcy announcements galore but nobody has come up with a viable New Media business model yet. TBD and watch this space. (Key Postings Vb (Technomediatainment): Maturities, Barriers and Disruptions).
Putting It All Together
If you put all the pieces together into one chart here' what we end up with. s Disruption will indeed continue. Whether the Singularity will be continuous small- to medium-scale ongoing disruptions or drumbeats (Taiko anyone?) of major structural changes we' find out. But if you think there' ll s some merit and evidence so far for the historical accuracy and current assessment consider the last phase. Right now we' trapped in an re environment where there is no NBT because it takes years to go from idea to invention to innovation to investment to market/industry development. On the other hand that means that you can see a lot of it coming if you know where to look. The other huge disruptive force will be the need to face up to the narrow window of bringing all the world' people into a prosperous s middle class in a stable and effective geo-political environment. In other words this weekend' G-20 crisis conclave might just be a good rehearsal for the bigger changes coming s down the pike. And it' by no means guaranteed that we' work our way thru with style and grace. But considering s ll the alternatives let' hope so. On that assumption though think about the world we face from an opportunity point s of view - P&G circa the ' except for billions of people and whole new sets of consumer products and all that 50s implies for all the associated industries. Not to mention new biologics, energy and materials solutions and on and
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance on. Future generations may look back on it as a great age of romance, discovery and innovation. After all they' ll have to won'they ? Or not care at all ! But when you dig back into the last great age of exploration you find out t that things weren'so easy and romantic at all ! t
Readings and Observations
The last part of the readings brings us full-circle back to the questions of enterprise response to these crisis (Risks + Opportunities, right ?). Stories cover the range from manufacturer' struggles with lean to Chrysler' s s desperate gyrations to get itself out of a terrible box to the Pharma industry' metastasizing shakeouts that' s s crossing a cusp point this last week or so. Talk about punctuated equilibriums ! Or punctured as the case may be. On the other hand there' a great story on MickeyD' continuing renewal and adaptation efforts as well as the s s beginnings of Yahoo' long postponed ones. And then two of our favorites. One on how that big old stick-in-thes mud Exxon has suddenly woken up - or was it carefully positioning itself ? :) And then a really interesting new initiative from WMT in medical records that' startling and stunning in some ways but leverages existing s capabilities in others. In this era of needing to holistically re-think business management we' close with two final ll observations. One is that the ultimate arch-guru of management Peter Drucker provided the single best bible for rethinking the firm we' ever seen (Management: ve Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices by Peter F. Drucker). Sadly though he wrote it at the time and found that the pre-war innovations and post-war adoptions had reached saturation and we needed to move to a whole new level. Sadly ? Well he published that book in 1973 and as far as we can tell none of his breakthru ideas and approaches has been tried. The second is that, among all the other factors, you need to understand industry dynamics and structure (Key Postings V: Industry Analysis - Enterprise, Industry Ecology, Evolution). For example one reason that XOM is so brilliantly positioned is that it' built up huge s cash reserves, vast technological and management capablities and timed it just right. (Oil Industry II(Analysis): LT Supply-Demand, Outlook and Disruptions) You see when you look at the accompanying chart we' still in a world where, if growth resumes, demand will be re greater than supply and then is not the time to invest in exploration, reserves or acquisitions. NOW is !
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Bidding Review: Macro-environment, Disruptions, Business Performance
http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/2009/05/bidding_review_macroenvironmen.html Posted by dblwyo on May 19, 2009 Over the last several months we' been ve hammering away at various aspects of business performance from individual companies to whole industries to structural trends and disruptive changes in the macro-environment. Before going on to finish some deep dives we figured it was time to pause for an inventory and survey of some key results, findings and concepts. The graphic is our Table of Contents - or more accurately a structured inventory of the topics we repeatedly turn to because we think these are the key elements that MUST always be kept in mind when evaluating a business and it' performance. A downloadable s PDF version is available by clicking on the highlight. When we inventory the actual posts in key topics the major themes are the series on Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility - at which so many have failed so badly, obviously including the Finance Industry which is worsening a bad situation by denial, the Auto Industry going down the Maelstrom it created and taking the livelihoods and lives of so many with it but also many others. Which leads naturally to questions and assessments of Enterprise Performance - which was the focal topic of the last post so we won'repeat our and BCG' t s indictments. A key strategic issue is the scope and scale of disruption - not just within the firm but at the Industry, Economy and Geo-political levels; and how badly most are prepared or preparing for the multiple cusp points we' all going to be crossing over in the re next few years. The downloadable PDF version (http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/BizzCharts/BizzPerfor m2KeyPostUpdate.pdf )of this inventory is also available by clicking on the highlight. Sadly we confess that the blue-highlighted titles which should take you to a post don'since we haven'figured t t out the technique/technology that well. In the inventory though you' find pointers back at key exemplars of ll companies who are adapting (WMT, GE) and industries who are struggling or worse. Including Autos and Finance but also, and perhaps surprisingly, Technology.
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Guidance From the Master
In the rest of this post we want to spend some time focusing on key concepts and arguments that have accumulated in all those posts, starting with core principles that should guide business performance but don'appear to. For t those principles we' looked to our own work ve and techniques, Warren Buffett and, most especially Peter Drucker. When Prof. Drucker passed a few years ago the WSJ had a nice review of some recent survey work and gifted us with this summary of his key arguments (from which we think at least two key ones are missing but we' circle back later). ll Now we' also taken the liberty of creating a ve collection of this and other principles as well as other key charts from these posts that is also downloadable. In it you' find major graphics on Principles (Drucker, Buffett, ours), the composite mantra of "situationally aware" ll business management that monitors and acts on Geo-politics, Structural Changes, Economic Cycles and Enterprise Performance. Consider that a Table of Contents which has some key charts in each area. For example on industry structural change (Autos, Finance, Energy, Technology) and on a blueprint for analyzing business performance, based on our BizzXceleration Framework. That starts with simple questions and heads toward the engineering assessment tools. "Elements of Business Performance" (http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/DloadFiles/BizzPerformElementsCollect.pdf )is downloadable - happy reading.
Situational Awareness: Monitoring the Environment
The accompanying graphic is probably pretty terrible by Edward Tufte' standards let alone by Seth s Godin' Sorry about that but our key s. message is not so much as the specific content as trying to show all the things in one ideographic composite that a business must monitor and act on. The "Elements" download actually has the separate components plus additional ones so if you want to dissect them, again, dload the file. After all if you actually hired a consultant to do the work and customize it for your situation it' cost d a lot of money :). These are the major domains in which the world is under-going major structural changes, and only one of them is under the control of management. They are, moving around the clock, the Geo-political
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance Macro-environment, the Economic Crisis, Structural Changes in industries and the nature of business and the key components of the integrated and performing enterprise.
Welcome to the Storm: Scope and Scale of Disruption
Just to put a point on it, flat-footed as most have been caught, you have to wonder how many executives, investors or other stakeholders are really thinking about how many things are changing by how much. We' tried to map out what' going on in this graphic to illustrate those points. Most management teams have ve s grown up with a lot of churn and turmoil inside their firms but it' been a long-time indeed since this many things s have been disrupted this much, this fast. We' defined five levels of disruption ve that are going on simultaneously: 1) within the firm, 2) the need for treating the firm as a whole, not just piece-parts, 3) industry and sector changes, 4) worldwide economic changes and 5) geo-political changes. It' a sad fact that most efforts, such s as they are, are confined to #1 and ignore the other, and more important four! AT least IOHO!!
Business Performance and the Whole Enterprise
Like we said the key between things that can'be t controlled but must nonetheless be managed to is the way the firm faces these changes. To wrap-up the introduction let' return to the words of the s Master on what the primary tasks of management should be. It doesn'get any clearer than that, does t it? Management is charged with turning the component parts of the enterprise into a whole that' more than the mere sum of the parts. Ask s yourself, for example, why the USA Olympic Basketball Team did so well this last Olympics and so poorly in ' 04? It' because the latter was a collection of individual s stars who played their own game for their own advantage. The former was a team where every player was focused on the performance of the entire time. The results tell the story. The same is true of the enterprise. But that was just one tournament - a business is much bigger than a sports team and exists for a lot longer. No decision taken today can exclusively focus on today' best advantage, nor on tomorrow' Each decision must act to maximize the sustainable s s. performance of the enterprise on a balance between the short- and long-runs. The fact that Detroit is now a black
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance hole of subsidies, job losses and collapsing local economies as expedient short-term decisions bring home the consequences of ignoring the long-term impacts would seem to prove the argument. After the break you' find some more key exhibits along with discussions on several of these key points, if not all ll of them. But the bottomline here is that we are crossing over the boundaries into an era of the biggest changes in the macro-environment and performance requirements in many decades. A crossing which will impact us all and one for which we' seeing little concern or preparation. re We hope you find this summary, wrap-up and interpretation helpful. It' the end-result of several months of work s here and, taken all together, we hope it provides a useful toolkit for evaluating business performance in turbulent times.
Environmental Changes: Geo-politics and Industry Structure
In the "changes composite" two of the quadrants were concerned with geo-political factors and another was concerned with industry and business changes. On the former we' used the 4ve quadrant environment chart several times so we won'go back into it but do want to review the t industry structure chart, at right. Now we went thru a detailed chunk by chunk discussion earlier [Disruption vs. Innovation: Change, Response, Resilience] so our apologies is if this brief. The things to bear in mind here is that our modern economy has been shaped entirely by the rise of large business enterprises which have been the creators of our present prosperity. How well they function is crucial to the healt of society as a whole. Yet this position of structural dominance really only dates from the 1870s or so, at best. The center block shows the major evolutions in key industries and innovations along with the forms of business organization that went with them. The top chunk traces out the various sub-trends in business operations over the last decades while the bottom one looks ahead to the kinds of environment and innovations that are likely. Something very interesting to note but if you match up the periods of the industry changes to major periods in the stock market they' highly correlated. re
Business Cycle Outlook
As much time as we' spent dissecting the business ve cycle, economic data and the economic outlook we probably don'need to dive back in too heavily here, t right? However here' a relative recent version of the s business cycle with the alternatives and likely pathways laid out. The rapid V for vapid recovery scenario is one with the rest of the extinct memes while the 2nd Great Depression also appears to be fading. The lessons remain what they are and have been though:
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance 1) We haven't reached bottom, only starting slowing down, 2) there's a long-way to start growing again, 3) this will be a very weak, sustained and fragile recovery and 4) nobody's prepared for it because, for some reason, they don't see it this way or are locked into denial.
Mindsets, Tactics & Resiliences
With so much changing so profoundly and rapidly it all boils down to how executive leadership responds to the changes around them; in other words how do they see the world and what filters do they use to interpret it. This is really a time for re-thinking business models, strategies and core value propositions. And then translating those re-thinkings into fundamental changes in functional capabilities. The sad fact is that the necessary mental re-building, which precedes the actual activities in the real world, seems to be badly lagging behind events in all too many cases. Case in point would be the results of recent BCG survey work, which we reviewed earlier, but is worldwide across all industries and many different-sized companies and about six+ weeks old at this time. Judging from these results the "proper" response was anticipation, preparation and execution. Actual response was ignorance, denial, panic, meat-axe and it' still going on. If you look at the s second panel of this composite which traces out the response being prioritized by these companies the primary emphasis is on short-term responsiveness, not long-term re-positioning. It' be nice to have a little more detail but d a survey doesn'lend itself to that approach. Necessarily cost cutting and revenue maintenance are high priorities. t From the results it would appear that reprioritizing capital investments, continuing to support R&D, ensuring the viability of the supplier network and similar strategic positioning initiatives are getting shortshrift. Yet for those companies that have gone into this crisis with strong operations, good controls, good balance sheets and, in the best cases, already been refactoring themselves, this is an unparalleled opportunity to gain a major jump competitively. Just as a case in point we' suggest that, despite some d serious re-structuring efforts by Immelt at GE, he too long protected the Capital division and became over-reliant on it but is now in a political position, internally and with his board, to finally begin building the GE he' have liked to. s
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance Of course he' spent most of the last decade un-doing Jack Welsh' legacies. Bear that in mind. s s
Thinking Whole Enterprise
If we translate Drucker' Principles into s specific guidelines that can serve as an initial checklist of things to think about and timeframes in which to think about them we end up with something like this construct. HPQ just had its earnings announcement and call today. It' be a very interesting d exercise to go thru that call, line by line and division by division and ask each of these questions for each timeframe. For example PCs are down - what are you going to do in the next 10 months to maintain revenues, profits and market position? That' essentially an operational s improvement question. Then what are you going to do in the next 10 quarters? Go into new geographies, explore new distribution channels or introduce new products? And what about the next 10 years? In other words where do you envision the PC business going in that timeframe? If the answer is that' to s far away to be clear and too hard and fuzzy to investigate what are you doing to dig into it? We' offer up a gratis ll recommendation even - the form factor and functionality of the PC needs to be radically changed! Are we right or wrong? We think we' right but that' not as important as the question of whether or not HP is investigating re s alternatives. One only has to look at the work that Apple did beginning with Jobs' return and the re-design of the Mac and the subsequent iPod/iTunes to iPhone migration to get an example of how it should be done. Or consider what Lenovo has been exploring in the Chinese PC market. If you' like to see this approach applied to the Finance d Industry or the Auto Industry just click on the highlighted names.
Final Word and Case Theory
Let' wrap this whole chain of argument up by s coming back to Drucker' basic principles s which we' summarize as: 1) create value by ll focusing on innovation and marketing, 2) make the work productive and the worker effective, 3) set measurable and committable goals and control to them, 4) be aware of and manage your social responsibilities, 5) monitor and manage the impacts of the external environment and, finally, 6) act to optimize the balance between the parts and the whole along with the trade-off between the long- and short-terms.
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We leads us to this little "Theory of the Case". If you' like to see this approach applied to the poster child of nond performance and malfeasance, at least in a conceptual way, here' the chart for the Finance Industry. s
Run For Daylight: Innovation, Innovation, Innovation
http://llinlithgow.com/bizzX/2009/07/run_for_daylight_innovation_in.html Posted by dblwyo July 5, 2009 We' going to focus on innovation - what it is, re how it works, it' role in business performance s and broader trends and implications for the economy and society. Including the notion of how to judge it as a stakeholder. As it happens this is a theme we' been striking for some time and ve we' review the previous discussions later on. ll The gist of our hammerings are threefold: 1) Innovation is widely and broadly misperceived - all to often being viewed as an isolated pocket of activity and not as the broad multi-function, multiprocess and cross-enterprise set of inter-linked activities it needs to be. 2) Innovation is generally not well handled - most businesses will give lip service to the need for innovation but when push comes to shove they' ll cut the resources devoted to it. Given that they' ve already been doing it badly that may not be such a bad short-term idea but it' going to leave them terribly s positioned for the foreseeable future. 3) Performance and competitive pressures are going to see an accelerating macro-scale series of on-going disruptions from the functional to the company to the industry to the economy-wide scales for decades to come. Failures to grasp the widespread disruptions that are entrain will lead to the kind of "penalties" that the Auto Industry is paying, the Finance Industry paid and will keep on paying and will hit every other single industry in the developed world. The times they are indeed a' changing. Needless to say, with these recurrent themes in mind, we were absolutely tickled to see Business Week (long a loud and informed champion of good design and innovation) publishing a story a couple of weeks ago on the failures of innovation over the last decade. The graphic is borrowed from that story and nicely illustrates the point; and if you have trouble believing it then ask yourself why ' Larry-boy at Oracle has been feverishly consolidating ol things, why MSFT hasn'made any major breakthrus or why the pharmaceutical industry suddenly tipped over t into hard times about 6+ years ago (again something we' been arm-waving about for a long time). ve
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Re-Imaging the Airstream: Imagination in Action
While we were contemplating this post we ran across another TED Talk on the designer who helped to re-imagine the Airstream Trailer for this century instead of the last one. His engagement started out as an exercise to showcase how laminates could be re-thought for the interior. What he found was that the Airstream, originally conceived as a forward-looking icon of the open-road, freedom and innovation had received the interior of a ' 50s mountain-cabin. Not bad in and of itself but not consistent with the supposed strategic theme; and not likely to appeal to new markets, like active sports enthusiasts. Thereby locking Airstream into its old and dying marketspace. By (literally) taking the trailer down to bedrock they were able to build a prototype that reimagined the interior and then use to that to re-imagine a whole new and modern trailer with a completely rethought interior that was consistent, appealing and which created new value for new markets. There are some real lessons here that everybody who buys into our basis thesis needs to pay attention....or join the roadkill. (Chris Deam Re-imagines the Airstream)
Innovation As-Is vs. Should-Be: Going to the Movies
One of the interesting things the movie industry has started doing is loading up the DVDs they sell with all sorts of special features giving you the back-story on how the thing was conceived, developed and delivered. The first time we really paid deep attention was listening to all this was for Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow but since then we' made a special ve effort for every major movie that interests us. The preeminent example is Pixar and it' string s of hits. Two things we' point out about all that, d perhaps three. First, they' proven that they ve can keep it up time after time. Second, do you think it was an accident that (maturity aside) that after Jobs went back to Apple his longstanding interest in good design and innovation took a couple of quantum leaps? And third (something we gleaned from listening to the 2nd disc of the Ratatouille DVD set) the recent string from the Incredible to Cars to Up was conceived years ago at a restaurant lunch meeting and sketched on napkins. A familiar process for anybody who' ever had the joy and terror of playing on the bleeding edge. Of course from napkin to delivery to sales is a s long....long way.
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The graphic compresses the long discussions in a couple of prior posts and also captures 25+ years of sustained experience in trying to move from how it' typically done poorly to how it should be done well. Based on that s experience we guarantee that anybody who manages to get this blueprint in place will start having some real impacts and will, in fact, be able to create a sustainable habit of innovation. Contrawise you can use the blueprint as a diagnostic of failures. If you were to go back and re-visit the various movies that have been wildly successful you' find these arguments supported. You might, for example, compare and contrast Lord of the Rings with King ll Kong with typical run-of-the-mill summer thriller. Or consider Pixar or the Harry Potter series as other examples. All too often what you find in companies doing the lip service thing is that at some point in their history somebody had a bright idea that' thrown over the wall to Development and if it sticks (in the marketplace) all well and good. s After the original idea is turned into a product more or less then Marketing is called in to put lipstick and ribbons on a pig and it' handed over to Sales to push into the customer base. Over a period of time this becomes s embedded in the corporate culture and feature after feature that creates no appreciable new value from the customer' view is stuffed out there. s Two major problems exist on this level. First, invention is NOT innovation. Innovation turns invention into new products and services that create incremental new value, not move beyond the 80/20 cutoff point of death. Second, the transom-throwing is a Vegas crapshoot that' playing a numbers game. There' always going to be s s elements of uncertainty but you can change the odds in your favor dramatically by doing it right. Doing it right starts with understanding customer and market needs, wants, desires, values and characteristics. Stop me when the failures of Detroit come to mind. Let me stop you if they don'but pick your industry. THEN the t original problem identification goes thru a Design phase where the market-based, problem-solving goals are translated into product characteristics. Think about the LofR - Tolkien had a magnificent concept based on his life experiences and a lifetime of work in mythology and languages. That got us into the Design stage with the books if you would. Then the script-writing team spent years, literally, taking the books down to the next level of developmental detail. The extended edition DVD discussions on the subject are, IOHO, worth the price of the set for this alone. They' also worth it for the discussion of how special re effects, weapons and fighting, horsemanship, filming, production design, etc., etc. etc. were all brought together in a synergistic blend of functions into a cohesive cross-functional development and delivery team. And serve as a model for how real, deliverable innovation should be being done by business or any other organization that needs to create new value.
Innovation Is A Team Sport
That highlights another major facet and the review of the LofR DVD will flesh it out if you pay attention and really think about what you' re hearing. Innovation is not the result of any single innovator or even a small core. It' the result of a s team scaled to the size of the problem with a wide and appropriate range of skills all working together. Before we run on we suggest you run out and read Car: A Drama of the American Workplace by Mary Walton which discusses the design and development of the Taurus that save Ford when it first came out. A book that Ford tried to kill eventually after providing unprecedented access but perfectly illustrating our points - large and small. As well as Twenty-First-Century Jet: The Making and Marketing of the Boeing 777 by Karl Sabbagh about Boeing' creation of the 777. Guess who the s Program Manager was for that and what he' doing now? Now the graphic is adapted from the Technology s
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From Aha to KaChing: Innovation and Business Performance business and it' worked for us for a long time; and contrawise killed us when we couldn'get the required s t executive support. But if you check out those books you can map what Ford did and doesn'and what Boeing did t and still does (consider the Dreamliner) to the framework.
A Closing Thought: Tsunami's of Disruption
Just a brief closing thought, having run on at great length longer than intended. As the world continues to go thru massive re-alignments, new countries enter the mainstream of the developed world and make their own moves up the valueadd ladder of innovation we' all going to face re continuous disruptions. We can no longer count on the occasional miracle to save us, our jobs, our companies or our societies. On the other hand we' coasted for almost sixty ve years on the innovations that came out of WW2. Isn'it about time to do it again? In any case the t choices are not to avoid the problem - only how we deal with it. The graphic is from an earlier post that walks thru all this in some detail AND provides the evidence to back it up. In the readings below you' find some are on general ll principles and practices while others are on specific cases. We recommend, highly, at least skimmin them!
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About Llinlithgow Associates
Llinlithgow Assoc. is a management consultancy focused on evaluating businesses to reduce risk, leverage underdeveloped opportunities in operations and increase overall enterprise performance to improve investment return. Our approach is based on BizzXceleration, a proprietary framework with 25 years of development, to review and analyze Business Models and Strategy, key operating functions and supporting infrastructure and management systems. From there we develop comprehensive, integrated operating plans that tie all the components of the business into a highperformance enterprise.
Management System •Budgeting system •Management Controls •Operating Plans •Resource Development
Customer Problem • Value Proposition • Business Model • Strategy
Marketing, Sales & Service • Customer value focus • Process Discipline • Business-driven
Several years ago Michael Lewis published an interesting book on how the Oakland A’s took a systematic look at how the game really works, and what investments in players, strategies and tactics were most likely to result in the most wins for the lowest cost. Our approaches are similar in taking a systematic look at the whole business, each of the major components and the best way to tie everything together into a highperformance system. We start by looking at the basic core value proposition and it’s translation into the Business Model and Strategy. Typically we next examine Marketing and Sales operations, where it is possible to reduce operating costs by 30%, shorten the sales cycle by 30% and increase the closure rate by 30%. This is primarily the result of establishing good processes and discipline. BizzXceleration is comprehensive but integrated across the total reach and range of business activities and issues. And emphasizes a pragmatic, workable approach that results in a stepwise path to performance improvement. We believe that our approach mitigates business risks, improves operational performance and can lay the groundwork for 10-30% EBITDA improvements in post-deal execution. If you would be interested in further discussions, more detailed descriptions or the review and testing of specific opportunities we would enjoy hearing from you. We can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org .
Core Operating Functions • Functional Efficiency • Inter-function Integration •Value Alignment
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