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Questions and comments from the audience reveal a misunderstanding of some aspects of the disease. Various members of the audience have made all of the following statements. Which one is accurate? a. Mammography is the most reliable method for detecting breast cancer. b. Breast cancer is the leading killer of women of childbearing age. c. Breast cancer requires a mastectomy. d. Men can develop breast cancer.
7. A female client with cancer is receiving chemotherapy and develops thrombocytopenia. The nurse identifies which intervention as the highest priority in the nursing plan of care? a. Monitoring temperature b. Ambulation three times daily c. Monitoring the platelet count d. Monitoring for pathological fractures
2. Nurse Meredith is instructing a premenopausal woman about breast self-examination. The nurse should tell the client to do her selfexamination: a. at the end of her menstrual cycle. b. on the same day each month. c. on the 1st day of the menstrual cycle. d. immediately after her menstrual period.
8. Gian, a community health nurse is instructing a group of female clients about breast self-examination. The nurse instructs the client to perform the examination: a. At the onset of menstruation b. Every month during ovulation c. Weekly at the same time of day d. 1 week after menstruation begins
3. Nurse Kent is teaching a male client to perform monthly testicular selfexaminations. Which of the following points would be appropriate to make? a. Testicular cancer is a highly curable type of cancer. b. Testicular cancer is very difficult to diagnose. c. Testicular cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in males. d. Testicular cancer is more common in older men.
9. Nurse Cecilia is caring for a client who has undergone a vaginal hysterectomy. The nurse avoids which of the following in the care of this client? a. Elevating the knee gatch on the bed b. Assisting with range-of-motion leg exercises c. Removal of antiembolism stockings twice daily d. Checking placement of pneumatic compression boots
4. Rhea, has malignant lymphoma. As part of her chemotherapy, the physician prescribes chlorambucil (Leukeran), 10 mg by mouth daily. When caring for the client, the nurse teaches her about adverse reactions to chlorambucil, such as alopecia. How soon after the first administration of chlorambucil might this reaction occur? a. Immediately b. 1 week c. 2 to 3 weeks d. 1 month
10. Mina, who is suspected of an ovarian tumor is scheduled for a pelvic ultrasound. The nurse provides which preprocedure instruction to the client? a. Eat a light breakfast only b. Maintain an NPO status before the procedure c. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes for the procedure d. Drink six to eight glasses of water without voiding before the test
11. A male client is diagnosed as having a bowel tumor and several diagnostic tests are prescribed. The nurse understands that which test will confirm the diagnosis of malignancy? a. Biopsy of the tumor b. Abdominal ultrasound c. Magnetic resonance imaging d. Computerized tomography scan
5. A male client is receiving the cell cycle–nonspecific alkylating agent thiotepa (Thioplex), 60 mg weekly for 4 weeks by bladder instillation as part of a chemotherapeutic regimen to treat bladder cancer. The client asks the nurse how the drug works. How does thiotepa exert its therapeutic effects? a. It interferes with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication only. b. It interferes with ribonucleic acid (RNA) transcription only. c. It interferes with DNA replication and RNA transcription. d. It destroys the cell membrane, causing lysis.
12. A female client diagnosed with multiple myeloma and the client asks the nurse about the diagnosis. The nurse bases the response on which description of this disorder? a. Altered red blood cell production b. Altered production of lymph nodes c. Malignant exacerbation in the number of leukocytes d. Malignant proliferation of plasma cells within the bone
6. The nurse is instructing the 35 year old client to perform a testicular selfexamination. The nurse tells the client: a. To examine the testicles while lying down b. That the best time for the examination is after a shower c.To gently feel the testicle with one finger to feel for a growth d. That testicular self-examination should be done at least every 6 months
13. Nurse Bea is reviewing the laboratory results of a client diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Which of the following would the nurse expect to note specifically in this disorder?
a. Increased calcium b. Increased white blood cells c. Decreased blood urea nitrogen level d. Decreased number of plasma cells in the bone marrow
c. Teach the client and family about the need for hand hygiene d. Insert an indwelling urinary catheter to prevent skin breakdown
14. Vanessa, a community health nurse conducts a health promotion program regarding testicular cancer to community members. The nurse determines that further information needs to be provided if a community member states that which of the following is a sign of testicular cancer? a. Alopecia b. Back pain c. Painless testicular swelling d. Heavy sensation in the scrotum
20. The home health care nurse is caring for a male client with cancer and the client is complaining of acute pain. The appropriate nursing assessment of the client’s pain would include which of the following? a. The client’s pain rating b. Nonverbal cues from the client c. The nurse’s impression of the client’s pain d. Pain relief after appropriate nursing intervention
15. The male client is receiving external radiation to the neck for cancer of the larynx. The most likely side effect to be expected is: a. Dyspnea b. Diarrhea c. Sore throat d. Constipation
21. Nurse Mickey is caring for a client who is postoperative following a pelvic exenteration and the physician changes the client’s diet from NPO status to clear liquids. The nurse makes which priority assessment before administering the diet? a. Bowel sounds b. Ability to ambulate c. Incision appearance d. Urine specific gravity
16. Nurse Joy is caring for a client with an internal radiation implant. When caring for the client, the nurse should observe which of the following principles? a. Limit the time with the client to 1 hour per shift b. Do not allow pregnant women into the client’s room c. Remove the dosimeter badge when entering the client’s room d. Individuals younger than 16 years old may be allowed to go in the room as long as they are 6 feet away from the client
22. A male client is admitted to the hospital with a suspected diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease. Which assessment findings would the nurse expect to note specifically in the client? a. Fatigue b. Weakness c. Weight gain d. Enlarged lymph nodes
17. A cervical radiation implant is placed in the client for treatment of cervical cancer. The nurse initiates what most appropriate activity order for this client? a. Bed rest b. Out of bed ad lib c. Out of bed in a chair only d. Ambulation to the bathroom only
23. During the admission assessment of a 35 year old client with advanced ovarian cancer, the nurse recognizes which symptom as typical of the disease? a. Diarrhea b. Hypermenorrhea c. Abdominal bleeding d. Abdominal distention
18. A female client is hospitalized for insertion of an internal cervical radiation implant. While giving care, the nurse finds the radiation implant in the bed. The initial action by the nurse is to: a. Call the physician b. Reinsert the implant into the vagina immediately c. Pick up the implant with gloved hands and flush it down the toilet d. Pick up the implant with long-handled forceps and place it in a lead container.
24. Nurse Kate is reviewing the complications of colonization with a client who has microinvasive cervical cancer. Which complication, if identified by the client, indicates a need for further teaching? a. Infection b. Hemorrhage c. Cervical stenosis d. Ovarian perforation
25. Mr. Miller has been diagnosed with bone cancer. You know this type of cancer is classified as: a. sarcoma. b. lymphoma. c. carcinoma. d. melanoma.
19. The nurse is caring for a female client experiencing neutropenia as a result of chemotherapy and develops a plan of care for the client. The nurse plans to: a. Restrict all visitors b. Restrict fluid intake
26. Sarah, a hospice nurse visits a client dying of ovarian cancer. During the
visit, the client expresses that “If I can just live long enough to attend my daughter’s graduation, I’ll be ready to die.” Which phrase of coping is this client experiencing? a. Anger b. Denial c. Bargaining d. Depression
3. Answer A. Testicular cancer is highly curable, particularly when it’s treated in its early stage. Self-examination allows early detection and facilitates the early initiation of treatment. The highest mortality rates from cancer among men are in men with lung cancer. Testicular cancer is found more commonly in younger men. 4. Answer C. Chlorambucil-induced alopecia occurs 2 to 3 weeks after therapy begins. 5. Answer C. Thiotepa interferes with DNA replication and RNA transcription. It doesn’t destroy the cell membrane. 6. Answer B. The testicular-self examination is recommended monthly after a warm bath or shower when the scrotal skin is relaxed. The client should stand to examine the testicles. Using both hands, with fingers under the scrotum and thumbs on top, the client should gently roll the testicles, feeling for any lumps. 7. Answer C. Thrombocytopenia indicates a decrease in the number of platelets in the circulating blood. A major concern is monitoring for and preventing bleeding. Option A elates to monitoring for infection, particularly if leukopenia is present. Options B and D, although important in the plan of care, are not related directly to thrombocytopenia. 8. Answer D. The breast self-examination should be performed monthly 7 days after the onset of the menstrual period. Performing the examination weekly is not recommended. At the onset of menstruation and during ovulation, hormonal changes occur that may alter breast tissue. 9. Answer A. The client is at risk of deep vein thrombosis or thrombophlebitis after this surgery, as for any other major surgery. For this reason, the nurse implements measures that will prevent this complication. Range-of-motion exercises, antiembolism stockings, and pneumatic compression boots are helpful. The nurse should avoid using the knee gatch in the bed, which inhibits venous return, thus placing the client more at risk for deep vein thrombosis or thrombophlebitis. 10. Answer D. A pelvic ultrasound requires the ingestion of large volumes of water just before the procedure. A full bladder is necessary so that it will be visualized as such and not mistaken for a possible pelvic growth. An abdominal ultrasound may require that the client abstain from food or fluid for several hours before the procedure. Option C is unrelated to this specific procedure. 11. Answer A. A biopsy is done to determine whether a tumor is malignant or benign. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan, and ultrasound will visualize the presence of a mass but will not confirm a diagnosis of malignancy. 12. Answer D. Multiple myeloma is a B-cell neoplastic condition characterized by abnormal malignant proliferation of plasma cells and the accumulation of mature plasma cells in the bone marrow. Options A and B are not characteristics of multiple myeloma. Option C describes the leukemic process. 13. Answer A. Findings indicative of multiple myeloma are an increased number of plasma cells in the bone marrow, anemia, hypercalcemia caused by the release of calcium from the deteriorating bone tissue, and
27. Nurse Farah is caring for a client following a mastectomy. Which assessment finding indicates that the client is experiencing a complication related to the surgery? a. Pain at the incisional site b. Arm edema on the operative side c. Sanguineous drainage in the Jackson-Pratt drain d. Complaints of decreased sensation near the operative site
28. The nurse is admitting a male client with laryngeal cancer to the nursing unit. The nurse assesses for which most common risk factor for this type of cancer? a. Alcohol abuse b. Cigarette smoking c. Use of chewing tobacco d. Exposure to air pollutants
29. The female client who has been receiving radiation therapy for bladder cancer tells the nurse that it feels as if she is voiding through the vagina. The nurse interprets that the client may be experiencing: a. Rupture of the bladder b. The development of a vesicovaginal fistula c. Extreme stress caused by the diagnosis of cancer d. Alteredperineal sensation as a side effect of radiation therapy
30. The client with leukemia is receiving busulfan (Myleran) and allopurinol (Zyloprim). The nurse tells the client that the purpose if the allopurinol is to prevent: a. Nausea b. Alopecia c. Vomiting d. Hyperuricemia
1. Answer D. Men can develop breast cancer, although they seldom do. The most reliable method for detecting breast cancer is monthly selfexamination, not mammography. Lung cancer causes more deaths than breast cancer in women of all ages. A mastectomy may not be required if the tumor is small, confined, and in an early stage. 2. Answer D. Premenopausal women should do their self-examination immediately after the menstrual period, when the breasts are least tender and least lumpy. On the 1st and last days of the cycle, the woman’s breasts are still very tender. Postmenopausal women because their bodies lack fluctuation of hormone levels, should select one particular day of the month to do breast self-examination.
an elevated blood urea nitrogen level. An increased white blood cell count may or may not be present and is not related specifically to multiple myeloma. 14. Answer A. Alopecia is not an assessment finding in testicular cancer. Alopecia may occur, however, as a result of radiation or chemotherapy. Options B, C, and D are assessment findings in testicular cancer. Back pain may indicate metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. 15. Answer C. In general, only the area in the treatment field is affected by the radiation. Skin reactions, fatigue, nausea, and anorexia may occur with radiation to any site, whereas other side effects occur only when specific areas are involved in treatment. A client receiving radiation to the larynx is most likely to experience a sore throat. Options B and D may occur with radiation to the gastrointestinal tract. Dyspnea may occur with lung involvement. 16. Answer B. The time that the nurse spends in a room of a client with an internal radiation implant is 30 minutes per 8-hour shift. The dosimeter badge must be worn when in the client’s room. Children younger than 16 years of age and pregnant women are not allowed in the client’s room. 17. Answer A. The client with a cervical radiation implant should be maintained on bed rest in the dorsal position to prevent movement of the radiation source. The head of the bed is elevated to a maximum of 10 to 15 degrees for comfort. The nurse avoids turning the client on the side. If turning is absolutely necessary, a pillow is placed between the knees and, with the body in straight alignment, the client is logrolled. 18. Answer D. A lead container and long-handled forceps should be kept in the client’s room at all times during internal radiation therapy. If the implant becomes dislodged, the nurse should pick up the implant with long-handled forceps and place it in the lead container. Options A, B, and C are inaccurate interventions. 19. Answer C. In the neutropenic client, meticulous hand hygiene education is implemented for the client, family, visitors, and staff. Not all visitors are restricted, but the client is protected from persons with known infections. Fluids should be encouraged. Invasive measures such as an indwelling urinary catheter should be avoided to prevent infections. 20. Answer A. The client’s self-report is a critical component of pain assessment. The nurse should ask the client about the description of the pain and listen carefully to the client’s words used to describe the pain. The nurse’s impression of the client’s pain is not appropriate in determining the client’s level of pain. Nonverbal cues from the client are important but are not the most appropriate pain assessment measure. Assessing pain relief is an important measure, but this option is not related to the subject of the question. 21. Answer A. The client is kept NPO until peristalsis returns, usually in 4 to 6 days. When signs of bowel function return, clear fluids are given to the client. If no distention occurs, the diet is advanced as tolerated. The most important assessment is to assess bowel sounds before feeding the client. Options B, C, and D are unrelated to the subject of the question. 22. Answer D. Hodgkin’s disease is a chronic progressive neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue characterized by the painless enlargement of lymph nodes with progression to extralymphatic sites, such as the spleen
and liver. Weight loss is most likely to be noted. Fatigue and weakness may occur but are not related significantly to the disease. 23. Answer D. Clinical manifestations of ovarian cancer include abdominal distention, urinary frequency and urgency, pleural effusion, malnutrition, pain from pressure caused by the growing tumor and the effects of urinary or bowel obstruction, constipation, ascites with dyspnea, and ultimately general severe pain. Abnormal bleeding, often resulting in hypermenorrhea, is associated with uterine cancer. 24. Answer D. Conization procedure involves removal of a cone-shaped area of the cervix. Complications of the procedure include hemorrhage, infection, and cervical stenosis. Ovarian perforation is not a complication. 25. Answer A. Tumors that originate from bone,muscle, and other connective tissue are called sarcomas. 26. Answer C. Denial, bargaining, anger, depression, and acceptance are recognized stages that a person facing a life-threatening illness experiences. Bargaining identifies a behavior in which the individual is willing to do anything to avoid loss or change prognosis or fate. Denial is expressed as shock and disbelief and may be the first response to hearing bad news. Depression may be manifested by hopelessness, weeping openly, or remaining quiet or withdrawn. Anger also may be a first response to upsetting news and the predominant theme is “why me?” or the blaming of others. 27. Answer B. Arm edema on the operative side (lymphedema) is a complication following mastectomy and can occur immediately postoperatively or may occur months or even years after surgery. Options A, C, and D are expected occurrences following mastectomy and do not indicate a complication. 28. Answer B. The most common risk factor associated with laryngeal cancer is cigarette smoking. Heavy alcohol use and the combined use of tobacco increase the risk. Another risk factor is exposure to environmental pollutants. 29. Answer B. A vesicovaginal fistula is a genital fistula that occurs between the bladder and vagina. The fistula is an abnormal opening between these two body parts and, if this occurs, the client may experience drainage of urine through the vagina. The client’s complaint is not associated with options A, C, and D. 30. Answer D. Allopurinol decreases uric acid production and reduces uric acid concentrations in serum and urine. In the client receiving chemotherapy, uric acid levels increase as a result of the massive cell destruction that occurs from the chemotherapy. This medication prevents or treats hyperuricemia caused by chemotherapy. Allopurinol is not used to prevent alopecia, nausea, or vomiting.
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