: 

  .   
  . 
!   . 

 –    


2004

drshahoot@yahoo.com
P. O. Box 40099 Khoms-Libya

‫א

‫ ‬
‫      

‫ ‪6 .................................................................................‬‬
‫‪10 ................................................................ 
 
 
1.1‬‬
‫‪11 ..............................................    
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‫‪15 ......................................................................  
3.1‬‬
‫‪16 ...........................................................   
  4.1‬‬
‫‪20 .....................................................................  " ! 5.1‬‬
‫‪21 ................................................................... 

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‫  

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2004/02/01 ,2

4 

    

 

,2 G A   '#.  ,2 5  + #! ( A # 

>#! ; + <B 7 4 ! C#* % 
)  ! 
< "O + 
,2  M  0  5 +& (A" (,+/+)  
"#    .  KS + 
5 +  4@   &
% >  * " JT2 !2 (()   0) * 85+
M9 0! M ()  6 !  G   !M  + E
4 " D< 0 !M  & 
 + ("9 2 .1  " ,2 0 
 + >  * "
,2 .  )7  5 , #+  " 5 #B ' " 
+ " C !2 5#"  & @+2   
5" < 7 ?G 
'.  , #+  "   " 40  (  5" D< C" 
 + 07   & @+2 8 ;< .+ ?G   , ' "
,G 5+ '*) , G)  "   . V UB&  ( # 
5 ;< %9 2 )9 .= !M >  * %9 " 
  ,* 8 
5 ' ! , "O G A    ,2 0+   
5 

9" 5 #  1905   V   7 < .() 
KS + 
+    
-  ,2 8 M 5" ( A 7
D< 9 ."  
-   C" ,2 5 %! )  581  
D< C  V + 6 !     59   7 6 !
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KS ; 
, @   & < "& %# F* #! ( A
%9 C)B 57  2 4()  "& D< KS  7 <9  .G*
.1 B  ( A

υ
()  c 

+ ( A 

( A

(+ 0 "  ) 
+ ( A

0

10-14 m 

#! ( A

10-10 m

r 

( A C7 :) 0+  

:) *  01  (, 01 <  0 
%#  !  ,2 () ,!# 2 4' *# # 5#+ 5 19 # 
" () *  $ ! & ' " #! ( A  !*
.# . / 
+ 
+    
-  ;<+ , #+  
" %9 2 )9 01  5 ,2 # &  " ) 7 
< ,2 5   , C) '  52 ,2 ' *# 6  +  
.01
6 

:‫   מ‬1-1
0  ,52   ( A ,2 5 C)  1 B    
X <+ . ! 0/B ! ( A ,2 G K   

1 B ,2 ! !7 
/ *  7   D< <"
.* ,2 #B FG 7 5+# ,    

D<  ( # "  07  5  7 FG 7   9
,G   A @ @    C" 6 ! 6/# ,*   * 
!7 .   D<    @ ;#  5 M9 5  
0 +9 %#  7 5 5 G A "   ;< 01
.!  
9 .< 5  ,  +- + @81  " %# 5
/ 
7 * 1  6"   KS %9 5#" + E 
B  " D<
.  
!# ;# 1 1 B     !# + 
7 9
59 01 + M ,   KS D<  M  <B  <9 4   
+ M G ) Y1 % 
4 M "& %# ' " " <9
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%#   ><  
M < 5    < ( A C
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* 5"    F " + 
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, 1 B    ,2 G2 + @1 5!* + +
# 
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 + 5  &  +2O * C 
.   G * ! UB  "   N  

7

r
υ %9      
,2 ;#

m0 

+ =#+ 6 " 
: +2

r
r
P = m 0υ

r
P

%9 6   6 BA
(1-1)

= > 4  
+  +
#  7 =1 + " BA 9  
"  !#8 " ." B @7 " %#  Q   6  %!
.6   
6 ) %! "# ,#+ BA Z2 4J C 5)  ! E 

r

: + " %# @ Q @! , F  + <Z2

r
r dP
F=
dt
r
r d
r
r

F = (m 0 υ) = m 0
= m 0a
dt
dt

(2-1)
(3-1)

:,N + "# + 
7 *   . " 0"

ε = 1 m0 υ2 =
2

p2
2 m0

r
a 

E

(4-1)

r
r
l
F 
Z2
%9    D "  = 
A9  + " %#
@7   <9

= ,2 8 01 
<9 + 
=7 * ,2 8 >  =# A" 08 
+2
rr 1
1
F .l = m 0 υ 22 − m 0 υ12
2
2

r

r

υ2

%9

r

υ1 

(5-1) 

: ‫ א  א  א‬2-1 

"  Z2 " %# F  @7   <9 = 
)[  F
,2 +  +  
"  <Z2 A C " @1  AM  <B
r
r

F = m0
dt
F
F
∴ υ=
dt =
t
m0
m0

: + t = 0 A 
#
(6-1)
(7-1)

.A C 8 M #+  J
8

@! =#        '+ " 0" <9 + 
\ ;< + 052 .A  #* @ 
=# 01 
+ " B  5 5#" + B  " 9
D< 0  0" C* 5* , N " N  .+-  
B , /"  
 (1L1) 0+ .6"   KS %9  "
. " D< 0" 
#" !*  

+^ E   

A-  

+
E
4  +- F/* A $ 7 A 5" ,**B  :(1L1) 0+
.5" F2 * 0" ,+ E    +M F#* 

5" F2 * 0" 41  q 5 0+  
,  +- F#* 
 #*  D "    +- D< A2 V ]0  ,G 5+
.& 0B 5 !M A @ 2  5 
+ 
!* ( 5  +9 0+   X 7 * 
7 
:,N + G 5+  + 7 *  !  5 
+ 0"
qV =

1
m0υ2
2

(8-1)

:  .=#+ m0  +- 5+ ,  υ  E

q = 1.6 × 10−19 C
m 0 = 9.11× 10−13 kg

:>  ' " X
9 ,2 *#S V 5" F2 
1Mv=106 v

9

:%9   7 +-  + <
υ2 =

2 qV 2 x 1.6 x 10 −19 C
=
= 3.6 x 1017 m 2 /s 2

31
m0
9 x 10

∴υ = 6.0 x 10 8 m/s

;  01 
 0 
M !    %#  D<    
9
C F M ,52 " D< ,2  ! # ?G   . 
( *B
:,N + " (!  +  
l = 8.4 m :& 0*
t=3.08×10-8 s : 0 !M @2

:%9   +^  !  + <9
υ=

l
8.4 m
=
= 2.7 x 108 m/s
−8
t 3.08 x 10 s 

7 ;#  81 , 6 #  !   @B& " 
/ 
5  ' "  ## ("9  6 
)  +  
1 @1 6   
5" @ A 
,2 = 
! .#B #" 5" 52 B ,
. ,2 ##7 @ A ? #"
υ 2 x 1016 m 2 /s 2
υ2 =

2q
V
m0

2.0

3.0

10
9
8
6
4
2
0

1.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

V(Mv)

'7 :) . +- 7 * + υ2– " ?G  :(2L1) 0+

(` ,2 () ) c  υ

10 

 7 %9 01 + M G 5  ;   (2L1) 0+ ,2
/
, G 5 ! F *  D< 9 .  #" 5"  B 5
: %9  

υ2 

+ 

υ 2 = 9.0 x 1016 m 2 /s 2
υ = 3 x 10 8 m/s

6 5 6 '# "   + , 5 ()  ,  D<
. " +
,2 6 ) + = ()   UB 2 *!2 $
( ! ; +)    52 :1 M , !*  F#  

F* ! ; + 2 ()  %9 01   KS + 
 "#
'
>  5+ + G* KS + 
 " 
,2 *!2
:  7/
υ2 =

2q
V
m0

(9-1) 

+ 6 ! 6 *B 0  (9L1) 7/ 4# 
/ ' " C 6 !
D< ,2 @  " 9 .01& *!  >< (2L1) 0+ ,2 :) 
6     +
7 * 81 #+ 7 * 0 
+9 0+  , "
KS  < ,

qV >

1
m0 υ2
2 

  7 "  +  <9 4 q V %9

>#!  +  9  ()   57 '! ,

υ

1 
81 7 * 5+
(   0 
7  +-   :
1 . ε = 2 m o υ 2

.6 !
M ;<  :) 2 + 
81 . XB

11 

−: ‫ א‬3-1 
%# ; 02 4A+  0  ( # 5 7 , ' "   !  

0B  !#   ,   + " * = ()
@  ()   0+  =9 01  ;< +  A 4' *!M
.* 85+  " 
U 1M  #  ,2  !B D< "   9
@   & " K Z+ @  ()  01 
, E M
C K - 0  !#   0+ +   G)5+
." * ()# +    + M .   D<.@  
+ <9 BV +  V 5 7 , ' "  ;< + ( "
.  D< 
1
c ` ,2 7 5 ν  %# @ .   () 9
07  7 * 5 0! A
0+ %#  () . 3 ×108 m/s %9  
4;/  h  E
hν >  G) A 
,2 0 
 + 7 *
P 6 BA ;<+ =  0 
.  7 * , + A 
D<

ε = hν = cp

:, 7/ =7 * *
(10-1)

@A5"  2  <9 = 
+ ()  A
D >< BA < 9
% 5# *! , * %# 6 *8) *# ()  
E
!7
.K - *8) @   
 " G) A
,2      /BM 9  
J8 c 6 G ,  2 . Z =  M  +- + 
7 * +2        07  ! 7 * +  
"  C C)B A 
,2 " *  
+  

A +-   [ 7 +- %# " , ' "  .
.c   D< '7  7 * =# A  07  +
12 

, 1eV + 
=7 * ><    2 0  0 %#2 

,2 .()  = 6 ) 1MeV + 
=7 * ><  ()
>< +-   07 1eV + 
=7 * >< +-   " 
+-  #+ "  ?  /BM < 41MeV + 
=7 *
.#   5 .
:    4-1
=B  @+ #  < >1 A 5" #+  0B $ !
.= 0 
 #+  ,G A   07  
+ 5" A" %9 G) A
GA" %# @! = A 5"
=M    ()# ," 0* $ ! A 5" B .0B a<
6 !  J2 *   & % F#* `2 0/B J& +

( ) 0/B ()    6 ) ;<V D"  + (, 0+ 0#B
* %9 a  
1  " 0  ()  "  !  + E
.` 
.  M >  

" !

M2

R 
" 

C  

1 
" "A

P

s

υ 

! 

" "A  
1 
2  1 



T  

., #+  A 5" ,**B  :(3L1) 0+

13

M1

%# s 1  () *! E
4A 5" < (A" (3L1) 0+ :)
M1 %9 01 
9 G) A
%9 A"2 2  1 " "A  
1 

   M2 %9 01 P  5 +  XB& A 
$+
.$+ c " "A  
1 
K< D< ,2 () 0" >)  
1 D< " 9   
.!2& K< ,2 () =*! >< ;< 6   6 " "A 6 + C*!
P *!  0B 5 01 
V   +  G)  A 

.G)   ,2 /B/ " 
V  5 *!  M2 S 6   >  P  M1 S  + <9 
+ .M2 %# F* R , M1 @1 Z2 5) %# 6      
M1  P  l 2  M2  >  M l 1  M1  :1 <9
.T   0B Q 0 " ) 0B '   M2 %# 6    
! 8 ,G)   F2 Z2

λ
2

>  2  M1 @V ; 


'5 0 
0 
0B a< ) 6 G) 6   01 
(6  9 6  <) λ
.0B a< +
   M1 @V ; 
.=  " BN 
Q 0 " ,2  *!   , '& D<  * <Z2
:  E
M1 @V 5+ 
, @81 2  ' 
 +
2(l 2 −l 1 ) = mλ

(11-1)

'M  m  E 

Z2 υ >    M1 %9 P  =" ; 
A 5"  )2 <9
,2 :) + A 5"#   5   $+  D "M  ; 
 &
c− υ

%9   + M1 @V D "  ()  <9 .(3L1) 0+

%9 () 01 ,+ . c+ υ %9   + P D "  ="  =  

. A  
 ,G) K # ,8 P *!  M2 @V 
XB& 5" ,2 = # ! *! %9     %9 5  D<
14

01#    %# '#8 4A >  D "  :  =#2 5  
()  #1 
+ $ & < %# .*! ;# %9
.(4L1) 0+
M 4 c 2 − υ 2 %9

υ

c

c2 − υ2
01 () 9 :) ,**B  :(4L1) 0+ 
,G) K # M # ! *! %9

. A  

6  9 6  < PM1 2  C*! () =78 >< A t1  J N

∴ t1 =

l1
l
2l 1 /c
2l1
υ2
(1
)
+ 1 =

+
c− υ c+ υ 1 − υ 2 /c 2
c
c2

(11-1)

.6  9 6  < PM2 2  C*! ()# A/ A t2  6 ) J

∴ t2 =

2l 2

=

(c 2 − υ 2 )

2l 2 /c
(1 − υ 2 /c 2 )

2l 2
c


υ2
 1 + 2
 2c

:%9 6   G) A 


∆t = t 1− t 2 =

∆t

2l υ 2 l υ 2
2
(l 1 − l 2 ) + 1 3 − 2 3
c
c
c




(12-1) 

A ,2 F + =#

(13-1)

D "  PM2 K< + E 
90o ! A =# + N A 5"  <9
: E
∆t ′  A ,2 " F2 ? + 

15

∆t ′ = t 1′ − t ′2 =

= ?

∆t − ∆t ′

l υ 2 2l υ 2
2
(l 1 − l 2 ) + 1 3 − 2 3
c
c
c

(14-1)

>  
 ,A F ,2 01 
>< 8 9

: E
'& 
c(∆t − ∆t ′)
δ=
δ=

δ

>  ! 0B a< ,2  
A9
(15-1)

λ
( l1 + l 2 ) υ 2

(16-1)

λc 2

:N 81  " D<   + 2

l1 = l 2 = l

2(υ/c )2
δ=
λ/ l 

#+  :)  \

υ 

+ <9

(17-1) 

7  + 2 c l 

λ 

0+ 7 9 

. 3 × 104 m/s  
,2 J&  %9    D< + 
:N # ?G  N
υ = 3 × 104 m/s J& 
c = 3 ×108 m/s

() 

λ = 6 x 10 −7 m B ()# ," 0*
l = 1.2 m A 5" K< 0*

:%# 01 
?G  D< 
υ
= 10 − 4
c
λ
= 5 × 10−7
l

:  " 17L1 7/ F*
δ = 0.04 

 .  .0B a< ,2 01 
,  
A- ! " D< 0    

>< #+  A 5" B  $ !# 0 7 = M9 6" 81 <  
.D/ !   + 07  
A9 $ !   
 
 
A9     360o 0/B A 5"  #+  
5  1/B  + , D  #+  07  @  "
16 

.  & %S * " @+2  a M  # ?G  %# 01 

, G     # " D< 9 . 5+ ,8  

1
.1 B    5# A+ 
:  !‫ "א‬5-1 
/1 
5Z2 +

,2 "  $ !     
9 .Bb    ; 
 
 + <9 #B ?G  %#
.   % 5 > 07   ! 
+ ;   x , 
M D "  υ  ; 
6 *7 N 
. u >     *! +
D "  ; 
BN $ "  
=#B
; 
BN '+ ;<   =Z2  *! ' " ! 6 1B  )2 <9
;<  + <9 #B + D< " .x , 
M D " 

u+υ

>   

#+   <9 <9 . *! + 
$+  D "M  ; 
BN '+ 
" ( *9  + = ><     6M #   
6A5"  + <9   > .=7  
 BV    ;# 
<+ . -  
=  * =Z2 A   
A^ $ 7   
7 =2 X"T   + ,2     
9  =  -  

.  ;< ) " +
 #B
s

s′
υ

xo′

x ′p

P

xp
O

O' 

5 s,s` -  
:(5L1) 0+

.υ X  

17

x,x'

s A   *! ' " ! >< UB  9  
N A
0+ ,2 :) + s ′ A  υ  ; 
 *!  9    

,2 +

,2 '+ C7 0  P *!  J .(5L1) 
! s  -  
  *! ;# C7 , xp 
/ . s ′  - 
*!   ! s ′  -  
  57 x ′p  O 01& *! 
,2 x o′ >  O 01& *!  O′ 01& *!   + <9 . O′ 01&
:Z2   

x ′p = x p − x o′

(18-1)

: " t = t ′ A#     ,2* 0)  # ("Z
u ′x = u x − υ

,2 '+  0 

u ′x 

(19-1)

s  
,2 '+  0  u x  <9

D  +   *! ,2 $ " '+  %9 @ - " . s ′   

<  *!#  61 >  =  <9 s ′  -  
,2 6 
a B 7 UB 4 *! 0B '+   
><   
>  =  <9 s  -  
,2 6  D  +   *!
%9   
< ,2  *!   
><  J& %9  61
.J& 
:  %#$" 6-1
*! >< " 
 *7  "O = 0/B # . " ! 
6 ) " 5 7   5 ')  1 7  @
@1
?2   ; 
 +    + ( 5 , " D<
18 

"& C"   .  7 ;< ,2 +   9 + M J&  
" 
*! <9 . ! *B ,2 0& %9 6  *! @
@1 *7 
.# + 
 
*)  1  + M  1 @ 7 
s

s, s ′

s′

υ

y′

y

υt

x`

x, x ′
O

O, O ′

t = t′ = 0

z, z′

z
(a)

P
x

x, x ′

O′
t = t′ ≠ 0

z′
(b)

t = t`= 0 A ,2 5) ,#  !* (a) s`,s  -  
:(6L1) 0+

.t = t` ≠0 A  x , 
M D "  5)  /1 (b)

;  E
#B  9 > 
,2 " 
*! 
N $ 
,2   07  
" 
*!  J 5  
*! " 
 X %&  
,2 .J& %#   07  ;<+
C*7 0+ %# 6  6<B *! = X    
,2  @1
*!   .  = +  +    5"  .(,2 +
0" ! F# 2 G2 + %! ?G  +  
,2 #B " 

,2 8 M , + %!  ; + 7  > 0"#  @!
. -  
C" 
#B  9  
,2 
/ , + " + 
!#   ! 9 
M  D< 9 .# . / 
% 1 B M  5  +  
9  
,2 " 0"  A C)  F#   7 *

19 

5 A XB  9  
,2 5 ! *   7 C s A  5 A 
+ s  -  
 x , 
M D "Z υ   ; 
s` A 
:,N + 0 
M   + N +  (6L1) 0+ ,2
/
x ′ = x − υt
y′ = y
z′ = z
t′ = t
u ′x = u x − υ
a ′x = a x

,

,

x = x ′+ υt 





u x = u ′x + υ 



(20-1)

01 
+   1 B 0 
M   D/ / 
,2
/ 
> 8  %! >< A#   0)  # ("9  5#
:+2 t = t ′
dx ′ dx
dt
=
−υ
dt ′ dt ′
dt ′

(21-1)

:Z2 dt = dt′  
u ′x = u x − υ

(22-1) 

7/ Z2 =# 4 
D< 0  ,2 8  %! 0"  6 )
/ 
<9 #B  9  
,2   @1 5  0"    7
.A %9 2 )9 %& E/  M  *

20 

#
#"$
:(1)  "
=2*  
 E M =#+ L =* + 
,2 0A F1 
#+  + F1  BN * 
(   0) K 9 

! 6  4[(7L1) 0+
M] ε =7 * m >  K -
2
. ε = mc  ?9 BA 7 *

:

ε K - 7 * *

M 

7/ '
=BA

L

c 

<9

p =ε /c 

 .()

∆x

52  )2 " –   F1 :(7L1) 0+
,#1& =7  F1  :)

F1# ,#+ BA
K - ( 07 =2 
=BA Z2 61 > 

.K - *8)   " ,G 5 =7 %9

−ε / c

%9 6   +

:Z2 F1 9  υ  + <9 46@  K - ( 59 
∆t F8 A Z2 L 2  K - C*7   . υ = −ε / Mc

. ∆t = L/c :> 
D "Z F1# 6 2 6 *  * ') K -  2 ;<
,*c >< C2 ;< D "^ $+  !  >  C2 < K -
.F1# 6M
D<5 " + 
%9 01 F1 0"2 ,  C2 
: E
∆x >  2  F1 ; 
#
∆x = υ∆t = −

21

εL

Mc 2

=  
C F1 #+ A+ Z2 6MA  + ="   
.m >  #+ = 0! 7 K -  > 4,#1& =7  A
:%# 01 
BA 
 7 F*
m

L
∆x
+M = 0
∆t
∆t

mL + M∆ x = 0

∴ − M∆ x = mL

: " D/ 7/   - 

εL = mL
c2

∴ ε = mc 2

(2)  "  

,2 =  + <Z2 ." B @7    
; 
m =#+ "

ε #+ =7 *  #! ; + 7  ?9 .υ %9   

ε

=

:7/  %*

ε0
1 − υ 2


2 
c

. " UG 1B   +

ε 0  E

:

=7 * " #+  7/ ;   (1) 0  ,2 
)  F
:7/  " BA    ; + ,2 4 ε = mc 2 4#+
p = mυ

m=

p
υ

:,N >  4=BA M

ε = p c2
υ

22

ε " 7 * <9
(1) 

8 Z2 " %# F " B @7   <9 4>#! ; + 7 
:@! D< * 0< 08 >  #+ =7 * ,2
d ε = Fdx
dP
∴dε =
dx = υdP
dt

(2)

:%# 01 
J 5) C (2) (1)   ')

ε d ε = c 2 pdp
:? @B&   ,2* 0 + # ("Z

ε 2 = c 2 P 2 + ε02
. " UG 1B   +

ε0

(3) 
E

:%# 01 
(3)   ,2 P = mυ  J 

ε2

= c 2 (m υ )2 +
=  mc

 υ2
=  2
 c

ε

=

2






2

ε 02

 υ2

 c2


 +

ε 02

ε 2 + ε 02
ε0

 1 − υ 2 /c

2



:(3)  " 
#+  0B $ ! ,2 @V 5+ 
 '" , 2  '
9
=" 0* () Q 0 "  (,) ' 2000 ; 
 
.606 nm
:
2(l 2 − l1 ) = mλ

2 ∆ l = mλ

23

: 7/ B

2 ∆ l = 2000 x 606 x 10 −9 m

∆ l = 606 x 10 −6 m

∴ ∆ l ≅ 0.61 mm

(4)  "
100V D! 5" F2 0/B =#"  9.11×10-31kg =#+ +9
.!2 =" 0* '
9

υ=5.93 ×106 m/s 

G 5  '+Z2
:

:+2 P " BA 6M B
P = mυ = 9.11 × 10 −31 × 5.93 × 10 6 = 5.40 × 10 −24 kg . ms −1

:!2 " 0*  " + , 7/ 
h 6.626 × 10 −34
λ= =
= 1.23 × 10 −10 m

24
p 5.40 × 10

= 0.123 nm

(5)  "
400m/s >  

x-y X ,2 s  M  
,2 ; 
"  

,2 = " .x , 
M C 60o ! A C1 D " 
.80 ms-1  M > 
    6 # s`  M
:
:+ # . / 
F*
u ′x = u x − υ = u c os 60 − υ = 200 − 80 = 120 ms −1
u ′y = u y = u sin60 =
u ′z = u z = 0

24

3
x 400 = 200 3 ms −1
2

∴u′ =

(u ′

2
x

)

+ u ′y2 =

(120)2 + (200

3

)

2

= 366.6ms −1

∴ tanθ ′ =

u ′y

200 3
120

=

u ′x

∴ θ ′ ≅ 71o

:(6)  "
=#"  +M (Ao) "M @ 
, " 0*  
: V >  5" F2 0/B + 
λ = 12.27

V

:
:, 7/ 
λ=

h
=
p

h

=

2 m e eV

h
2 me e

.

1

( 6.626 ×10 J.s )
2 ( 9.11× 10 kg )(1.6 × 10

=

V

−34

λ=

−31

λ=

6.626 × 10−34
5.4 × 10

−25

.

1
V

−19

C

)

= 1.227 × 10−9.

1

.

V

1
V

m=

12.27
V

Ao

(7)  "
% 6   0" 5"  + +M /" ' " X 
,2
D<  7 \>#! ; + B   +M   .0.255MV
.   07  7 ;# C "

25

:
()   '! = >< "# #+ 7 *    !
: < ε > 

ε = mc2
m=

m0

(1 − υ

2

/c 2

:>  , 4+

,2 " #+ m  E

)

,7 * K"  + #+ =7 *  2 4+

,2 "  
:>  + 
7 *  2 ;< 4+ 
+
T = ε − m0 c 2
= mc2 − m0 c2

∴ T = m0 c2  1 − υ2 /c2

(

)

−1/ 2


− 1

D/ 7/ '" %* 1 B    ,2 + 
7 * <9 
+ 
7 *  F  (8-1) 0+  :) ,  
:TR  + 
7 * TC #!
T


TR = m0c2  1−υ2/c2

(

)

−1/2


−1

Tc =

c

1
m0υ2
2

υ 

 #!  
,2  C + 
7 * % 
:(8L1) 0+ 

"  '!  T  !  C  /B ;  <
T M υ2    % a  
?G  D< 7  .() 
:+2
26

T + m 0 c 2 = mc 2 =

m0c2

(1 − υ /c )
2




1
∴ υ 2 = c2 1 −
 
T
 1 +
2
  m0 c

2





2
 
 
  

G 5+  + 7 * ,2 8 >  T + 
7 *  
: 2 4 T = qV



1
υ2 = c 2 1 −
 
qV
 1 +
2
  m0 c





2
 
 
  

! +  4V 5" υ2  C  7/ , 
 
" 7  < 6 !  :) + (8-1) , 
C , 
:(9-1) 0+ 
/2 >  , 
 .
υ2
c2
υ2 =

2 T 2 qV
=
m0
m0

υ2=c2




1
υ2 = c 2 1 −
 
qV
  1 +
2
  m 0 c





2
 
 
 

V 
5  .=# *# 5"  "#  C , 
:(9L1) 0+

.6+ 5"  + 5 c  υ '7 1 B , 

:+ >#! ; +#   <

27

υ2 =

2 qV 2 x 1.6 x 10 −19 x 0.255 x 10 6
=
m0
9.11 x 10 −31

≅ 9 x 1016 ms −1
∴ υ = 3 x 10 8 ms −1 = c

: 2 1 B    7 B  






1

∴ υ 2 = c 2 1 −
2
 


 1 + qV  
  m 0 c 2  


qV
0.255 MeV 1

=
=
2
0.51 MeV
2
m0c








2
1
 = c 2 1 − 1  = 5 c
∴ υ 2 = c 2 1 −
2
  9 
9
  1 + 1 
  
  2  
  4 
∴υ =

5c
3

:(8)  "
0+ + 
7 *  + < 4+M # ," 0* ' 

.10MeV 5
:
Tp=10MeV # + 
7 *  0 F! 
 '" :6M

:ε0 + =7 * C + 
=7 *  ! ;<  .    

7 * < Tp<<ε0 < 938.3 MeV >  
 
# ε0   
B + ;< + =7 *  !   M 
: . 7/

28

λ=

h
=
p

h
2 m 0 Tp  

 7 * 0 
 '"2 4$ !  
@  '" :6  •
: J % MeV
10 MeV = (10 ×106 eV)(1.6 × 10−19 J/eV) = 1.6 × 10−12 J

∴λ =

(6.626 × 10−34 j.s)
2 × (1.673 ×10−27 kg)(1.6 × 10−12 J)

= 9 × 10−15 m 

+M 7 *  @  C 4+O   *B $ F* 
B '" ;< 4 Te>>ε0  > 0.511 MeV >  ε0 +
: 7/
λ=

∴λ =

h
h
hc
=
=
p Te /c Te

(6.626 × 10−34 )(3 × 108 )

1.6 × 10 −12
λ = 12.4 × 10 −15 m

(9)  " 
+  ; 
2 F !  @7 =#   m0 +  =#+ "
0/B " 5*7 , x 2  " .t=0 A ,2 x , 
M D " 
.t >  A @2

:
=# @ Q @! >  "# ,*B BA ,2 ,A 8 0
:,    7 '

dp
dt
∴ p = Ft + A
F=

29

t=0 
# ,2 p=0  #  
*  . + A  <

: 2 ;< .A=0 :<
Ft = P =

m0u
 u2
1 −
 c2

(1)




.t >  A  "  u  E

: " @B& 7/ 
F

 m t
0

u=


1 +  Ft

m
c
0 

(2)

2 

 < >#! '" 0  *  7/ D< 
/
X  + M u 0" , !  XB 5"  .c>>(F/m0)t
. u → c  2

t →∞ 

> 4() 

:+2 (2) 7/# 0 + # >" x  "M
F
x=
m0

t


0

tdt
1 + ( Ft m 0 c )

2

m0c2 
2

∴x =
1 + ( Ft m 0 c ) − 1

F 
 

x=

1
( F/m0 ) t 2
2

(3)

>#! d2 + C*!  6 ) = !  ?
.(10-1) 0+ ,2 :) + GA C*7 N

x 
#! + 

(d2 + C*7) 

+ 

(GA C*7)

ct 
"  + 
 #! + 
, 
:(10L1) 0+
. @7    

30

E 
.GA C*! +
%  @7    
+
  2 <+
0 " ,2  
" C)  40  0 %# @  + 
D<
.  ,G 5+

31 

&  '  
. @  0/ 
 2.135x10-13J >  7 * 2 F#* .1
\,* 85+ K M < " 0*  
(3.222x1020 Hz):a
(9.31x10-13 m)  

! D< M ' 
:6M .mυ =BA υ = m =#+ " .2
6M* ;# ><  7 *  :6  . "# , " 0* 
 ; 
< :6  \ "# ," 0* % 6   6 "
0* % ]  ," 0* = ><  7 *  5x104ms-1
.2 +M $ 7 @ 
; "   \# ," 
#+  0B A 5" 0   " ,2 5 0+    .3 
) 6  986  = 6 @V ; 
 =#   
"2 
BN ( " 633nm ," 0* A A 5" B  Q 0 "
0 " ) 6  986  D 
@V ; 
 N =#  "2
=" 0* >< 1 () B  
D< ,2 + Q
:6  .  
,2 @V 5+ 
, 2  :6M ' 
.589nm
. 5+ 
@2 0/B @V#  
A& #1 

x-y X ,2 60 ms-1  ; 
s  M  
,2 " .4 

s`  M  
  .x , 
M C 37o A C1 
%#& % 6  ; 
s` ,2 "   ,+ s  &  

\ 
< ,2 " 
0.5nm =)  F %# *!   +&  A
.5 

2   + < 2 .F  20cm  A"
%# 
a< +2
32  

+M BA ' 
2.1cm >   " #   > 
.+ 
57 * *7 
>< 1 ()  1    ,2       .6
\ 589.3 nm >  ()# ," 0*  6 # 100 W =7

33 

 
(     )
.  

.     
.   –   

.     !
."# $   $
.& –   – $ % "# 

.   
' () *+ , 
." () -   

.'
.(. /0  

1.2
2.2
3.2
4.2
5.2
6.2
7.2
8.2

    
:  
1−2
1  
2/' 2 .3 4 *(, 5  6 & ) '   ' 7 
2/# 2 
829 () * : ; / & . <=  4; 6  : 6
?829 62  2, 2  6 8   , > ' .(   
:9  :  +) 4 6  6 6 ' #6' 6)   
' B' .62A 2 
2   =)  *  0  $   ' : 
2 ! 1 (9  4 9 C     $ . *  0 /#  
. B' ()   () 
' B' .6A  
  () c B  &6 
D0 () *+  :  

2 2 
2 ' 42 6  1  69,    . *+ 
.69, ' 6/ 
2
F) *+   E       8;
H

2/  C <=  ( :' G 
6) H1 
?89 . () I/ 1   C
.  2, > ( +) 4 J6    
?89 4  6 #6   *)
6; B 
()  69,    
K &8#    ' L $
38

E2 ' E2 (υ B2 :     ' N
)H s ′, s  0 #
:! /
x = ax ′+ bt ′

(1-2)
(2-2)

x ′ = ax − bt

.: ) (!   b , a ' N 

() :+ 4    s ′, s 6A B 
' P Q0
(2)  =+ &,; 6/ G 
?89 () t = t' = 0  ()   , /'
.(a 1%2) , () I+  H R

y,y`

y

y`

s,s`

s

υ

s` 

=+ &,; 

x,x`

o,o`

o

o`

(a)

x`

`

t≠ t ≠0

t = t` = 0

z,z`

x

z

z`

(b)

t = t`= 0  () :$ 
() (a) s`,s 6A  
:( 1%2 ) ,
.t ≠ t`≠0 6 x (.6
1 ?  :/0 
() (b) 

+ 4;   6$ s`  
 t ≠ t` ≠ 0     & ) 6
&,A  & 0 R # H(b 1%2) , ()  x (.6
1 ?  6 6
:4;   x (.6
1 ?  ) s () $ 6$ 43  =+
x = ct
(3-2)
:4;   ) Hs` 6A  
() Hx` (.6
1 ?  $
x` = ct`
(4-2) 
2 c 42;  2 (29    *+  ' 4; &,A 6  
S (9  o` /3   .( .   , >  +)) 6A B 

39

(2%2) 26 (2) x`=0 2+ :  / 
  s () 69,  

2/ 
2  s` () 69,  S (9  o /3  
: ) (1%2) 6 () x=0 + : 
x x` b
=- = = υ
t
t` a

(5-2)

x  + 1  (1%2) 6 () (4%2) 6  x`  $ Q   P

:' <  (3%2) () :   (1%2) ()
ct = at`(c-υ)
:' /
(2%2) 6  .
ct` = at (c+υ)
:' <  :+ ()   #3  6 E+
c2=a2(c2-υ2)
.E+      (  6 () () tt` 6  # " N

:4 / 
& #3 $ 
a =

∴b =

1
1 − υ 2



c2 

υ

(1 − υ

2

c2

)
: γ 9 #T a  6 

γ=

1

=

1 − υ 2



c2 

1

(6-2)

(1 − β )
2

υ

H β = c ' 8;
:( P (2 – 2)  (1 – 2)  
( 6   
x = γ (x`+ υt` )

40

(7-2)

x`= γ (x − υt )

(8-2)

s 42; s` 2 N6
$  
A (.6
; 
(7 % 2) 6 . N

.s` 4; s   
A (.6
; 
(8 – 2) .  
F2) x (.6
1 ?   .     
:  6A B 
' 
:' B' H  
  #  ! 1  #P  .6
A
y = y` , y` = y

z = z` , z`= z 

(9-2)

62 2  
( 6 4 / 
t`  t  
P  6 (
.(8 – 2)  (7 – 2)  6  1
: ) (7 – 2) 6 () :   (8 – 2) 6 () x  Q
x` = γ [γ (x` + υt` ) − υt ]
= γ 2 x` + γ 2 υt` − γυt

(

)

∴ γυt = γ 2 − 1 x`+ γ 2 υt`= γ 2 β 2 x`+ γ 2 υt`

υ 

∴ t = γ t`+ 2 x`
 c

(10-2)

:' .;   .
υ

t`= γ t − 2
 c


x

(11-2)

Hs 42; s` 62A 2 
  N6 
 
(10 – 2) 6 . 
 
P E .s` 4; s   
(11 – 2) 6 . 
:( P

41

x = γ ( x`+ υt`)

,

y = y`

,

z = z`

,



t = γ  t`+ 2 x` ,
c

υ

x`= γ ( x − υt ) 

y`= y


z`= z


υ 

t`= γ  t − 2 x 
 c  

(12-2) 

:‫ א א‬2–2
:   
s`

s

t`1
t1

o

t`2

t2

o`

x

x`1

x`2

(a)

(b)

69, (b) H 0 #   () 6 
$ ()  .6
/
(a) :(2 – 2) ,

.    C   ()  0 #  $ ()  .6 
G 


2 () x 9 6 
$ () s 6A  
() .6
/
6$ U' Q0
s`() 69,  ' .[(a 2 – 2) , G
1] Hs () 69,  t2 H t1 
2 t`1 , t`2  0 #   () x`1 , x`2  0 #  $ () :.6
G 
)
:' 6   
"6#  .(b 2 – 2) , ()
υ 

t`1 = γ  t 1 − 2 x 
c


υ 

t`2 = γ  t 2 − 2 x 
c

 

9 I
/  C . .6 
    & 0 (9 t = t2 – t1 9 (0 )
.s` ()  .6 
    & 0 (9 t` = t`2 – t`1
:' <    #3  6   L   *F
42

t`= γt =

t

(13-2)

1 − υ 2 


c2 

() 69,  S  .6
    & 0 ' & #3 $  <  
(2) 69, $  :     & 0  /$' (9 s ()    

' B' .s 62A 2 
 υ  .  R
B8 s` 6A   



()  8;  .6
  '    )    $ &:'
.  L/1 * 8 9 H  
() U  (9 
: !" : 

s

s`
υ

(x1,t)

o

(x`2,t`2)

(x`1,t`1)

(x2,t)

o`
(a)

(b)

(b) H6 
 () " ()  .6
;  $ U  s () 69, (a) :(3 – 2) ,

. 0 #   ()   " ()  .6
;  $ U  69,

(2) s (2) 69, $  s` () R
"  .6
;  $   
42 U2 72 s` 62A  
() J +$ ' Q0 .t 9 6 

U2 ) 6
'  $ ' Q0 (b 3 – 2) , () G 
9  x` (.6
1
692, $  t`2  () " 6$ x`2 #P U)  $ t`1  () " 6$ x`1

t 29 62 
 () x2  x1 9 U0 E + ()  $  8F) .s` () 
162  21 62  H(a 3%2) , ()  Hs () 69, $ 
:' 
x`1 = γ (x1 − υt )
x`2 = γ(x 2 − υt )
∴ x`2 − x`1 = γ(x 2 − x1 )

43

:8; HL=x2-x1 9 (0  C  L`=x`2-x`1 9 (0 "  P
L

L`= γL =

(14-2)

1 − υ 2 


c2 

(2) 692,   

()  8; E + ) R8 1 < γ ' 
.U 
?   E + 6 F)    

.  
‫ 
א–א‬3−2
:#$%  :
r

H 2 ?2  u`  R
s` 6A  
()   ' Q0
r 
2    V  s 6A  
() u U  E
E 
2 
  ":0 (  .υ B x (.6
1 ?  6A B  

.62
A ?2  2:   4; H 
B' ()   
'   (!
: ) x,y,z &6 

r
r
r r
u = i ux + j uy + k uz
r
r
r r
u`= i u`x + j u`y + k u`z

∴ux =

dx
dt

, u`x =

dx`
dt`

,

dx dx dt
=
.
dt` dt dt`

:4 / 
  
"6# 
x = γ(x`+ υt`)

dx
= γ(u`x + υ )
dt`

,

υ 

t = γ t`+ 2 x`
 c

dt
υ


,
= γ1 + 2 u`x 
dt`
 c

υ


∴ γu x 1 + 2 u`x  = γ(u`x + υ )
 c

44

∴ux =

u`x + υ
υ
1 + 2 u`x
c

(15-2)

:' .;   .
u`x =

ux − υ
υ
1− 2 ux
c

(16-2)

:E    0
uy =

dy dy/dt`
=
dt d t/dt`

=

dy`/dt`
υ


γ1 + 2 u`x 
 c

∴uy =

u`y /γ
υ
1 + 2 u`x
c

(17-2)

:' 6 X#' & :0   W F
uz =

u`z /γ
υ
1 + 2 u`x
c

(18-2) 

21 62 u` 16 u        u 2 = u 2x + u 2y + u 2z :' 
: ) ?'  
16

u

2

u`x + υ )2 + (u`2 − u`2x )/γ 2
(
=
υ


1 + 2 u`x 

 c

2

(19-2)

:&'   : 

r

?2  s` 6A  
() a` 9 "G    R
"   8;
r 

2 
() a U  6 A  
16 "6#    ) H 
.s 6A
45

: P $ P E 

 


du x du x dt` d  u`x + υ  d  
υ  
ax =
=
.
=

. γ t − 2 x  
υ
dt
dt` dt dt` 
dt
1 + 2 u`x    c  
 c
 
 

2  42; 2/ 662 
E   H  #1 +0    *; 6
: =:
ax =

a`x /γ 3
υ


1 + 2 u`x 
 c

(20-2)

3

r
a y     :, 
16 4 / 
    0
r
r
r
:4 / 
(19 – 2) $  . a` 16 a   E
".  a z 
2
 u`2 u`2x  2
 u`x υ 
+  + 2 − 2  γ

c
c
c
c 


1 − u 2 /c 2 = 1 −
2
υ


1 + 2 u`x 
 c

: P  
6 4; / & #3 $ ?89 
 u2
1 −
 c2

(

)


1 − u`2 c 2
=

 γ1 + υ u` 
x
 c2

(21-2)

" 2 (2  2$   
() "6#  8; H: & #3 $ ?89
.7
1 6 () : ,$

46 

:‫ ! 
א א‬4–2
u`y

y`

y`

s`
u`x 

s`
u`x 

-u`y

u`y 

-u`x

o` 

-u`x

-u`y

x`

"6/  6

o`

x`

"6/  $

"6/  6 $    WS   69, N
s` 6A  
:(4 – 2) ,
."   "6/  ; Q0

u1 y
y

υ1

s 

y

u 1x

s 

-u1y 

-u2x

υ2

o

u 1x

υ1

u2 y

υ2

-u2x

-u2y

X

"6/  6

o 

X

"6/  $

"6/  6 $    WS   69, N
s 6A  
:(5 – 2) ,

."   "6/  ' Q0 

2  
 .V  0 (9  3 V 6 ' P  61
.  X    8; "    
 $ 4  
N2 
2 " "6/  ' Q0 H .     "6/ 6 
2 
(2) J69, ' Q0 .( :$ ()  ! 6   6  
2 2 42 2#P  96
' E     G 
s` 6A

47

N6
' $ (4 – 2) , ()  H           
.:  "6/ B' 
   $2   Y/ 6$ .x`,y` X  () J    
N6 

42 (-u`x,u`y)  (u`x,-u`y) 22 "62/  $  =6 1 :    
(2   ?2  (2) J2  "6/  6     (  .E   
6 2  ) x` (.62
1 ?  9   ' Hy` (.6
1 ?  : 
(u`x,u`y) 29 "62/  62 :   =:    8; . !
.(4 – 2) , () I+ 9  (-u`x,-u`y) 
62A  
() 69, $  G 
9  "6/  0 ( Y/
(u1x,-u1y) 42;  2 "62/  2$ 3 "       ) Hs 
 2  ( "6/  6 .(-u2x, u2y) (. "      
2   42 2  y (.6
1 ?  () :  (   ?  () J 
2, (2) G2 
29  x (.6
1 ?   ! 6 :  
6 J) .(-u2x,-u2y)  (u1x,u1y)    8;   =: " ) .(5 – 2)
:"6/  6 3 "   4 / 
  

u`x =

u1x − υ
υ
1 − 2 u1x
c

, u`y =

u1 y γ
υ
1 − 2 u1 x
c

:"6/  6 (. "   4 / 
.
− u`x =

− u2 x − υ
υ
1 + 2 u2 x
c

, − u`y =

− u2y γ
υ
1 + 2 u2 x
c

:' <  $ ?89  u`y  u`x Y8
6
u1y
u2y

u −υ
= 1x
=
u 2x + υ

1−
1+

υ
c2
υ
c2

u1x
u2x 

2  Q2 *2; 62 / 
& #3 16 ?89  υ )8
8;
: P $ 4 H 
48

u1y

(1 − υ

2
1

c2

)

u2y

=

(1 − υ

2
2

c2

(22-2)

)

:' N

υ12 = u 12x + u 12y
υ 22 = u 22 x + u 22 y

G 
$  &69, (9  u2y B 1 u1y ' & #3 $  <  
.υ2  υ1   Y #1 R8 "6/  6 s 6A  
() 
2#   u2y  u1y   ) H     S   Z  8; H8; 
2' R82 .G20 
(2# "# 6   Y B' H    C 
2 ' Q20 ' 2  ' (# "# G0
$ 8 ' ; H #
82  J16 .  69,  "   
4    6  " 
.#P 6  # (# "# $  

() S (9  υ1 U  B8 3 "   ' P Q0 
89 () S (9  υ2 U  B8 (. "  m1 4;   s 6A 
2 
(2)     "# G0
$ 7 .m2 4;    

:y (.6
1 ?   ) s 6A
− m1u 1 y + m 2 u 2 y = − m 2 u 2 y + m1u 1 y

(1 − υ
(1 − υ

u2y
m
∴ 1 =
=
m 2 u1y 

' H 2 62 " 2 

2
2

c2

2
1

c2

)
)

(23-2)

Hυ2=0  6 m2 = m0 ' P Q0

.u B  R 
"   Hυ1= u  6 m1 = m

m
=
m0

m=

1

(1 − u

2

c2

m0

(1 − u

2

c2

)

)
(24-2) 

2 ! 2 42
 . 4 "   ' +)  U'  8  6 
.JG0 
4 1 "# G0
$ F) HU 
49

(

)

(

∴ m − u1y + u 2 y = m − u 2 y + u1y

)

H2: ; 2/ (  & #3 $ Q$ 89 u1y= u2y :' <  89  
2 !  '   ' 61 8; .(12 % 2) $ B' u1y≠ u2y ' : ) .
.G0 
"# G0
$ '  J 
:‫מ‬#‫א‬$‫ 
א‬$ ‫א‬5–2
r 

2 
A 2 8F) . f &$ U  .' Hm0   U  J   ' Q0
r
d
:4; J    dw  !, F) l (9 & ? 
r r
dw = f . d l = fd l

:F) dT  
$ 4; 
6$ !, 89 '   8;
d
(mu )d l = d(mu ) d l
dt
dt
∴ dT = u d (mu )
dT = fd l =

∴ dT = u 2 dm + mudu

(25-2)

. 
A ?  "   u ' 8;
:' 
m0

m=

(1 − u

2

c2

)

∴ m 2 c 2 = m 2 u 2 + m 02 c 2

:4 / 
$ ?89 
c 2 dm = u 2 dm+ mudu

(26-2)

:' <   (26%2)  (25%2)  $ 
dT = c 2 dm

:' /
& #3 $ ?89 ()     *V
m

T=

∫c

2

dm = c 2 (m − m 0 )

m0

∴ T + m 0 c 2 = mc 2

50

(27-2)

" 2   $ 4 m0c2 ' "     $ 4 mc2 ' N

: P $ E  U 

ε = T+ m 0 c 2
ε = mc 2 =

m 0c2

(1 − u

2

c2

(28-2)

)

T = ε − m0c2

r

r
m 0u

r
r
p = mu =

(1 − u

2

: "  "# 9 p ' +) 8;
c2

(29-2)

)

: /
<  (; m 02 c 2 )+; "Z. & #3 6 ()   
p 2 + m 02 c 2 =

m 02 u 2
+ m 02 c 2
2
2
1− u c

:<  c2  & #3 6 ?89 () E+
2

(

2

c p + m 0c

)

2 2

=

m 02 c 2 u 2
2

1 − u /c
=

∴ε = c

(P

2

+ m 02 c 2

+ m 02 c 4

2

m 02 c 4
2

1 − u /c

2

=ε 2

)

(30-2) 

2  2$   *  0  + ()   8; J6 : $ ?89
.  ' U# Y 6 "     $ E 

:4 / 
"#  (30 – 2) 6 () +0    *F

=
dp

pc

=

(p 2 + m 02 c 2 )


=u
dp

51

pc 2

=

c (p 2 + m 02 c 2 )

:' < 

r
r
p=mu

pc 2

ε 
' 

ε = mc2 

' 

(31-2) 

:%‫א‬− ‫א‬−$‫א‬−‫מ‬#‫  
א‬6–2
:)*  
:( P s 6A  
() "  "#   E 
:B x (.6
1 ?  "#  
m0ux

Px = mux =

(1− u /c )
2

2

:! / s` 6A  
() "# 89 E 
m 0 u`x

p`x = m`u`x =

Q u`x =

∴ p`x =

(1 − u` /c )
2

ux − υ
υ
1− 2 ux
c
γm 0

(1 − u

2

2

1

,

/c

2

(1 − u` /c )
2

)

2

υ


γ1 − 2 u x 
c

= 
1 − u 2 /c 2

)

.(u x − υ) = γ(mu x − υm)

:4 / 

υ

p` x = γ(p x −

(

c2

Px = mu x

ε) 

ε = mc2 ' 
(32-2)

:' .'   .
p`

y

= p

y

p`

z

= p

z

:#+   : 

(2) px U2# ε B s 6A  
()    U $ J  ' Q0
p`x B U# ' ε` B s` 6A  

∴ε `= m`c2 =

m0c

2

(1 − u` /c )
2

2

υ


γm0 c 2 1 − 2 u x 
 c

=
1 − u 2 /c 2

(

υ


= γmc2 1 − 2 u x  = γ mc2 − υmu x
 c

(

52

)

)

∴ ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x )

(33-2)

: P $ .;     0 

ε ′  

υ

p x = γ  p `x + 2
c

p y = p `y







p z = p `z

ε

(ε `+ υ p ` )

= γ

x

(34-2)

:E  '   (30 – 2) $ 

ε

2

c

− p 2 = m 02 c 2

2

:E  '   s` 6A  
() .

ε `2
c

2

− p` 2 = m 02 c 2

:' <  89 

ε2
c

2

− p2 =

ε `2
c

− p`2 = m 02 c 2

2

(35-5)

2
ε 
2 
    ! 6 4 2 − P 2    ' "6  <  
c

.m0   U  "  6A
:#" ,  :  

r

U2   u B2  R
s 6A  
() J  ' Q0
U   6 m` (;   U   s` 6A  
() .m B
r
:F) "  8:     . m0  8F) . u` (;  
m=
m`=

m0

(1 − u

2

/c 2

)

m0

(1 − u`

2

/c 2

)

:4 / 
(21%2) $  1 

53

m′ = m

(1 − u c ) =
(1 − u` c )
2

2

2

2

υ


∴ m`= γm 1 − 2 u x  
 c


υ


m = γm` 1 + 2 u`x 
 c
 

(36-2)

.-  : '
r

s` 62A 2 
() S (9  "  4 &. f ` & ' 
r

: p ` "  "# () /
B8  !  6 B

r d pr `
f `=
dt`

:'  
6  (32%2) 6  < 
υ dε 
 dp
γ x − 2

dp`x dp`x dt
dt
dt 
c

f `x =
=
=
υ dx 
dt`
dt` dt

γ1 − 2

 c dt 
υ d
fx − 2
c dt
∴ f `x =
υ
1− 2 ux
c

ε 

2 
()   "     $ ()  !  6 . ddtε ' N

:' 6 ( R   () .s 6A

ε 2 = c 2 p 2 + m 02 c 4
∴ε

r r
= c 2 p . p+ m 02 c 4
r

2 dp r
=c
.p
dt
dt

r
dε r  p  r r

= f .  = f . u
dt
m

ε = mc2 '  

(&6)  &6 
() & ? B8 !, 6 . $ ?89 

54

υ r r
u .f
2
c
∴ f `x =
υ
1− 2 ux
c

fx −

(37-2)

:4 / 
  0 W F 
fy γ
υ
1− 2 ux
c
fz γ
f `z =
υ
1− 2 ux
c
f `y =

(38-2)

(39-2)

&2$  '  $ '  I+ :; 9 (37 – 2) 6 7  ) G 

&2 R  &6  &6  $ ( s`  
  6;  
() 
' H(   R   () 96 '   1 0/ ?89 #> 6;  
() 
2 
2 & 
. ?' 16 ' 4; &,A 6  .B6   
' 2  s (; s` 6A  
 &  
' 6' 8; s` (; s 6A
. ) υ &,;   

.  &'()*‫א‬+ ‫א‬7–2
S

S`

υ 
% #$%
u`=

u
/0 #$%

O

(a)

c
n

/0 #$%

O`

(b) 

! (b) .u  x (.6
1 ?  R
*+ (a) :(6 – 2) ,
.s` () 69, [$  S (9  u` 4; *+ 

55 

962
; 2  HW2S   0 (    () J   6
(2) *2+ 2,  V ()   ?89 7 . D0 () *+ 
.  
'
B2  .  R
* ' \ J)0, J 
 6 ' Q0 
2 ' Q20 .(b 6-2) , () I+  s` 6A  
U. υ 
 8F) .u` B  
89 () 69, [$  S (9  *+
:F) n 9   
u`=

c
n

s (2) 69, $  S (9  u *+    

:4;  
u =

c/n + υ
1 + υ/nc 

 R ". υ/c   6/ X 6 89 R)    c >> υ ' 
: 3 6 
 4' (9 (  66 

c 
υ 
1 υ 
∴ u =
1+ n
1+



n 
c 
n c 
=

∴ u =

−1

c 
n υ 
υ

+ ... 
1 +
1 −
n 
c 
nc

c 

υ 

1 +

n 
c
nc 
c
1 

+ 1 − 2  υ
n
n 

.*+ E 
 ) 

(40-2)
1 

1 −

n 2 
 

6 (

7 (    (;  /'   WS    ' Y X 8 9 
' ": 2 2 8;  .3 W+ () / # #>  ) :  /
'
56 

2 2  U ; Y +' J* '   R *+ V J 0 
( R   :G $ .(40-2) $ U
+  U ) ,  B8 B6 
2  .2  C  9 0 ' & 
: &9G ?89     , P 
2 G D 4 6 J   J6    R F)   , P 
./#   
:‫('אמ‬, 
‫א‬8–2
(2) J ! G
1 6) 1728  (6 ( 0 $  -  &9G 0, 
4; 89 X' 6$ .  0 #    ) # " B9G + 
0  ' 6$ ., 
96 () R
(9 Q5 &66 
 
2)    
"6#  "   G  &9G ?89 
2 ! B' (2) R2, 1  .3 '   4    G  R8
., (;  Q3  ?  () /


"

s
ux=-c cosα

t 

r
u

O 

α 

() Q3 
 

 
()

u`y

r
u` ? 

? 
*+ 

G

*+

O` 

α`1

x

(b) 



()

u`x

uy=-c sinα

r
υ 

"

r
υ

s` 

() Q3 


x`

(a)

(b) .s` () 69,    
() Q3  

() " (a) :(7 – 2) ,

.s () 69,  9 () R
Q3     
() "

57 

"

s

r
u

r
υ

O   

s` 

 
()

ux=-c cosα  

:,' 6+t

" 


()

u`x

u`y

uy=-c sinα

r
u` ? 

? 
*+

*+ 

G

α

r
υ 

:,' 6 6

O` 

α`2 

() Q3 


x

(b)

x` 

() Q3 


(a) 

() " (b) .  Q3 H:,    6 "  
(a) :(8 – 2) ,
.  
Q3 H:,    . '  6  

Q0 .  , "  U ) B8 s 6A  
'  
I2+  x (.6
1 ?  s 6A  
()

υ 

R
Q3 '

Q20 . 2 8; Q3  s` 6A  
() H(b 7 – 2) , ()
42 s`,s (2) α`1,α   E x (.6
1   *+ ' J+ ' 
2 ' 62 s 6A  
() .(a 7 – 2) , () I+  ( 
: P   : *+
u x = − c cosα ,

u y = − c sinα , u z = 0

:G 
s` 4; s  WS 
16 
ux− υ
− c cos α − υ
=
υ
1 + β cos α
1− 2 ux
c
u y /γ
− c sin α/γ
u` y =
=
υ
1 + β cos α
1− 2 ux
c
u` x =

, β =

υ
c

:( P 4 / 
:+ 4  6 
tan α 1′ =

58

u`y
u`x

=

tan α / γ
1 + β sec α

(41-2) 

2G #6 *+ 80 (  x` (.6
1  G  α`1   . 
. 2, (2)   ? 1  

() Q3  6 ? 
? 
.α`1< α ' G 
 
2 
2
() Q3  :,'   B   & )  6
()  !  89 .(b8 – 2) , ()    , 4;    ? 1 
2 B82 62A  
  

() G  ' 6 ? 1 
2 -υ 2 R
#> 6;  
(; s 4;  +υ  J  

x` (.62
1   "  "6 *+ ) :,'    6 .s 4;

:' 8; H(a 8 – 2) , () I+ 9  Hα`2 B 0 #  
tan α`2 =

tan α/γ
1 − β sec α

(42-2)

Q3 42   9 B8 G  
 ) α`1 B 1 α`2 ' 
.   () " * 6 '  :,'   & ) #  ! ' E
: 
υ = 3 x 10 4 ms −1 , c = 3 x 108 ms −1

γ ≅1 

' B' H:9;  

∴ tan α 1′ = tan α (1 + βsecα

υ2
c2 

+  66 
)

)− 1

β tan α
cos α
− β tan α
∴ tan α 1′ − tan α =
cos α
∴ tan α 1′ = tan α −

tan α1′ = tan(α+ ∆α) , ∆α << α

(43-2)

:P 

Q tan (α + ∆α ) ≅ tan α + ∆α sec 2 α
∴ tan (α + ∆α ) − tan α = ∆α sec 2 α

(44-2)

:' 6 (44–2)  (43–2)  6 
∆α sec 2 α = −

β tan α
cos α

υ
∴ ∆α = − sin α
c

59

(45-2) 

α  $'    ' E G) U  α  $' α`1 ' ( 89
I+ ? 1  

() Q3  6 s` 6A  
() 7)3
:F) :,'    6 . (b 7–2) , ()
∆α =

υ
sinα
c

(46-2) 

2  s` 6A  
() 7)3  G  
   
?89 ()
.α     
(2) (6 $  ,$ (  -   G 
' "6  <  
"6# 2 U ; /   
(9    G :G $ $ R8
.6A  
  

60

:1" #" 

(1)    

() S (9  x`-y` B  ()   
() l0 : 7
s 62A 2 
() .x` (.6
1 

3
sin −1  
5 

 /  s` 6A 

2 (29  : .x (.6
1  45o   / 7 ' G 

^ s () 7   : 
^6A B 
   
:

S`

S

υ
l

l0
45o

O

θ

X

X`

O`

(a)

(b)

() 7 (b) .x (.6
1 ?  R
7(a) :( 9 – 2 ) ,

.x` (.6
1  θ   /    

(2) 7 ' υ    :  s`,s 6; B 
I+ (9 – 2) ,
υ   

() 69,   HI
/  9 l0 :   s` 
2 Hl B2 2 
89 () : ' Q0  s () x (.6
1 ?  
2 96 4     
?  96  7 ' 6 (14 – 2) $
.: 
( B6 ?  (9
∴ l 0 cosθ = γ l cos 45

(1)

l 0 sin θ = l sin 45

(2)

:

:' /
(2) 4 (1) 

61

4
3

γcot 45 = cotθ =
∴1 −

υ2

c2

=

9
υ2
7
⇒ 2 =
16
16
c

υ
7
=
c
4

:<  : ". (2)  (1)  6 ()    :  

l 20 =

(

)

1
1
1+ γ2 l2 =
2
2

∴ l

2

∴ l =

18
25

=
3

2
0

l

2

16  2
25 2

l
1 +
l =
9 
18

l

5

0

(2)   

2$   s 6A  
() t=0  () 6 
> () .6
69,
.(x,0,0) 2 () (. N6 
$ (0,0,0)  () 3 N6 

(29  .6 
    & 0 ' G
1 s` 6A  
() #' 69,S
6A B 
     ' .'   
"6#  .T
. υ = c(1 + x 2 c2T2 )

−1 / 2

(9
:

:  
K   
J1' E 
x ′ = γ(x − υt)

,

υ


t′ = γ t− 2 x 
c

:' 6 s 6A  
()
t1 = t 2 = 0 , t 2 − t1 = 0
x1 = 0 , x 2 = x

, x 2 − x1 = x

:' 6 s` 6A  
()

62

t` 2 − t`1 = − T
υ
υ




= γ  t 2 − 2 x 2  − γ  t1 − 2 x 1 
c
c




υ
υ
∴ −T = − γ 2 x

∴ T = γ 2 x
c
c
−1 / 2
1
Q γ = 1 − υ 2 /c 2

= 1 − υ 2 /c 2
2
γ

(

1
T

2

)

c4

=

2

υ x

2

(1 − υ

2

/c

2

)

:4 / 
& #3 $ ?89 

(

υ = c 1 + x 2 /T 2 c 2

)

−1 / 2

:(3)  

B2 =)  :' 6  B X#'  A  6  =+)  
A 2     Q3 4 69, $  S (9  0.7c 

2  2 B    (9  .U0 ? 1   0.9c B
^A
:
S`

S
υA=0.9c

υB=0.7c

A
O

υ=0.9c
υ`A=0
υ`B=?

B
Q3

O

A   

 .s () 69,    
() Q3 (a) :(10 – 2) ,
69,    
() A   (b) .6 
? 

. 

() B   .s` ()

63

s` 6A  
' Q3 . s 6A  
' X (10 – 2) , ()  

(;  x (.6
1 ?  υ = 0.9c  R
B8 A   . 
2   8; .s` ()   
()  A   ' N
Hs 6A
.A    :  (9 s` () B
: ) s` (; s  WS 
16 P 7
υ` B =

υB − υ
0.7 c − 0.9 c
=
υ
0.9 c
1 − 2 υB
1−
.0.7 c
c
c2

∴ υ`B = − 0.54 c

:(4)   

2 60o 962 2  / ?  s 6A  
() R 
"
c ' 8; 3GeV/c U2# 62 5GeV    U $   x (.6
1
62 ."#2 $ 
16 J6#  .D0 () *+  
2    '  8; s` 6A  
() U#    U $
0.8c 6A B 

:
γ =

1

(1 − υ

2

/c2

)

=

1

(1 −

0.64

)

=

5
3

: s` 4; s  $ 
16 7  

ε `= γ (ε − υp X )
∴ ε `=

5
3

5 − (0.8 c) cos 60  

3
c


∴ ε `=

5
(5 − 1.2 ) = 6.33 GeV
3

:' 6 (25 – 2) $  .s` 6A  
() "  $ (9

64

ε `2 − (cp`) 2 = ε 2 − (cp) 2
2

2

∴ ( 6.33 ) − (cp`) 2 = ( 5 ) − ( 3 )

2

∴ p`= 24.11GeV/c

(5) :  

2  ?2 2# /  s 6A  
() R
ε U $  )
62 ."#2 $ 
16 J6#  .y (.6
1  θ 96
43  
R
 0 69, N
s` 6A  
()  0 $
G
1] ^6A B 
     (9  .y (.6
1 4 J
.[(11 – 2) ,
:

s`

s

ε

υ

?   
0

c

ε`
c

?   
0

θ

O

X

O`

X`

R
s` () y  θ   Y 
s ()  0 :(11 – 2) ,
.y ? 

:' B' y (.6
1 ?   ! 6 ( "#
p y = p` y

ε
c

cos θ =

∴ ε `=

65

ε

ε`

c
cos θ

: ) s`(; s  x (.6
1 ?  "# 
6 P 7
υ 

∴ p`x = γ  Px − 2 ε 
c

p`x = 0 F) s` 6A  
() y (.6
1 ?  R
 0 '  
∴ px =

ε

υ
c2

ε

υ
c
c2
∴ υ = c sin θ
sin θ =

ε

:(6)  

u B2 &62 
   ,   6 
> ()   7 

2 α   / ?  #P x (.6
1 ?  R
96
'   
2
2:   2
2 2
2 ' 2
2.' . cosα =

u2
c2

u 

' N2
2
x (.62
2
1

(2 + u

(1 + u

2

2

/c

/c
2

2

)

)

:B

S`

S

u=υ

ε,p u 

α 

ε`,p`
u` 

u  

, %

O

X

O`

X` 

 ,   &6 
    7 :(12 – 2) ,

.  
() s` ()    6
' .s ()

:
.(12 – 2) , () I+  s 6A  
     ' Q0 
2 
 x (.6
1 ?  u=υ  R
B8 s` 6A  
()
66 

2 R
 "  '   
()  "  ' G 
.s 6A
s (2)  " 2 "# $ pHε ' Q0 . , () I+ ? 1 u`
.s` () "  "# $ p`H ε` '
∴ ε = mc2 = γm 0c 2

x (.6
1  α   U9  / B8  "      m0 ' 8;
:'
γ=

1

, β=

(1 − β )
2

u
c

ε ′ = γ( ε − υp x )

(

= γ γm 0 c 2 − u 2 γm 0 cos α

)



u2

= γ m 0 c 2  1 − 2 cos α 
c


1
u4
ε′ =
2

= γ 1 − 4
m0c2
1 − u ′ 2 /c 2)
 c
2

(

)

1

(1 − u ′ /c )
2

2





u2 
=  1 + 2 
c 

:' 6 & #3 $ ?89 
u′ =

u

(2 + u

(1 + u

2

2

/c 2

/c 2

)

)

.        (9 u` ' N

:(7)   

2#> x (.62
1 ?2   2 200 MeV U $ J ) '  8; 
8: (  "#    $ ) y (.6
1 ?    100MeVU $
"#2 89    $ ?89 R  J60 J  ' +) 8; ^"G
^U  (9  R
?  BV   U  (9 ) ( 

67

: 
42 y (.62
1 ?2  x (.6
1 ?   0 $ ε2Hε1 ' Q0
."G (  "# p  "G    $ ε  ( 

ε = ε 1 + ε 2 = 200 + 100 = 300 MeV
2
2
(200) 2 + (100) 2
 ε1 
ε2 
2
p =  +
 =
c2

 c 
 c 
∴ p = 224 MeV/c

:' 6 (30 – 2) $ 

(M c ) = ε
2 2

2

0

− (cp) 2

.p U# ε U $ B8 "      M0 ' N

(

∴ M 0c 2

)

2

= (300) 2 − (224) 2 = (200) 2

∴ M 0 = 200 MeV/c 2

x (.6
1  "  8: "# :/ (    (9 θ ' P Q0
py

∴ tan θ =

px
−1

∴ θ = tan

=

100
= 0.5
200

0 . 5 = 26 . 5 o

:P
M = γM 0
∴γ =

Mc 2
M 0c

∴β2 = 1−

∴υ =

2

,

ε = Mc 2

=

300 3
= =
200 2

1

(1 − β )
2

1
4 5
= 1− =
2
9 9
γ

5
c = 0.745 c
3

:(8)   

2         9    B , A  =+)   
2$   9  100 m :    :+    

68 

2  &:' ,' X#3 96
; 6 .:0   #6 69,
2 2  B   6 "  ' 4; A   ()  $6 
2  2 2 (29  :  5x10-6s B A   
J2 &6 
 B   6 ()  _ : 
^   
29 6  U  B8   .A   6 9 *.'
.A   &#
:
s

s`

υ = -u

.A  

A
u

u

B
u`

B
O`

O

()      9  &6 
      :(13 – 2) ,

.  
() s` ()    X6
; .s 

2 u B2 s 62A  
()      ' Q0 :
?2  (2) R2
B82 s` 6A  
() .(13 – 2) , () I+ 
'   A   ' 6 s 6A  
 υ = -u  x (.6
1 
2 (29 2 ?89 . , () I+ ? 1 u`  R
B
:B        
u′ =

69

100
= 2 × 10 7 m s − 1
−6
5 × 10

u′ = 2 ×107 m s−1 

R
B   6 ()  .  '  :  

$ "6#  .A   () 69,  /$'    )  :F)
:' 6 (13 – 2)
⇒ t B=

t A = γt B

1
tA
γ

 4 ×1014 
∴ tB = (1− u′ /c ).(5×10 ) = 1−
5×10−6 = 4.99 ×10−6 s
 9 ×1016 


2

2

(

−6

)

4.99x10-6 s + &6 
 :   8;

:(9)  

.s 6A  
() ux=±0.9c      9   
 
^#5     6
'  (9 
:
62 
2 2 s 62A  
() ' Q0 ' E V ?89 

B s 4;  s` 6A  
 I/ 96 .ux=-0.9c    
2 s 62A  
() ux=-0.9c U  B8 "  ) R8 .υ =0.9c
:4;   s` 6A  
() U 
u ′x =

ux − υ
υ
1− 2 ux
c

−1.80 c
1 + ( 0.9 )

2

=

−1.80
c = −0.994 c
1.81

.c *+   $         ' 9 G 

6A  
() +c  R
 )  6   U H9  8  6  
2 2 96 H+c  s 4;  s` 6A  
R
 s` 
; .+2c 2   +c 2) B2 s 6A  
() E$ E
 0 

()   $ \      6
4 6  89 6
.J   0 U )  6;  
6 1 U G 
 .
70

:(10)  

R2
 x (.62
1 4 U 7  l0=5m (/3 U E +$
B' 62 .x (.62 
E ? 1 () s 6A  
() u 
[(15%2) , G] .l=3m U I/ s 6A  
() u 
:
:   $ E

s

Q l = l 0 1 − u 2 c2
0

1

2

3

4

∴ u = c 1 − (l l 0 )2 =

5m

4
c
5

u

0

1

2

3m

.x (.6
1 ?   

() E +$ :(15%2) ,

:(11)  

s 62A 2 
() B   E +$ E u  R
A E +$
& 0 6' . l0 (/3  0   +   [(16%2) , G]
42S  XS   : ()   + ( : 7 G 
  ∆t  
.s 6A  
()

A
B

u 

96
' H    /3 91  +$ :(16%2) ,

. 

() #P    
()

71

:
:B s 6A  
() R 
A E + 
l = l 0 1 − (u c )2

:B    & 0 ' ) :  ?' , #  
∆t = (l 0 − l ) /u = 1 − 1 − (u c )2

l u
 0

:(12)  

4 
2 
(2) u = 5 c 2 0  ? 1 0 ()  
  
2 . ∆t = 5 x 10 −9 s ( 70   
4; + 6 s 6A

(2)   69, N
s` 6A  
()      ) (9
^  

:
(9 ∆t '   .l B s 6A  
()      ) ' Q0
R8 H[(a17-2) , G
1]  
89 () 69, $     & 0
:)
l=u∆t
s`

s

l
"6/1 G 

(a)  



4
υ= c
5

l0 
 



(b)

.  
 
6 
?   
  :(17%2) ,

72 

R 

4
?2  υ = 5 c 2 R2
B82 s` 6A  
4; P N6 
 
89 ()   69, .(b17-2) , () G 
9  E x (.6
1

R2
)  
' .l0 B :  ) '    
() :'   

2    7  )  .x (.6 
E ? 1

4
c
5

B 

:$  1  
l0 = γl =

∴l0 =
∴l0 =

73

l

(1 − υ

2

c2

u∆ t

(1 − υ

2

c2

)

)

4 c× 5 × 10 −9
= 5
1 − (4 5)2

4 x 10 −9 x 3 x 10 8
= 2m
35 

   
R2
X2#3  2 962
;  2   '6 A 69, %1 
2 R2
B 2#> 69, .  0 :' 6) 0.995c  
2S &     (9  . 

() (  &
^B 69, $  S &  (; A 69, $ 
(0.088) :\

?2  2 
2
(2) (9 2 m : s 6A  
() 7 %2
:J1' 6' .x  30 o 96   /  0.96c  x (.6
3
:J2 . H 2 2
() 7 69,Z N
s 6A  
() :
.s` () x` (.6
3  7 :/ (   
t=0  () (0,0,0)  () 3 s 6A  
() .6
69, %3

6A  
 E
' .t=4s  () (5c,0,0)  () (.
.6 
$ () .6 
69,S N
s` 
2  s 62A  
() t = 0  () 6 
> () .6
69, %4 
2 (2) (2. N6 
$ /3  () 3 N6 
$ 
2 2  & 0 ' G
1 s` 6A  
() #> 69, .(x,0,0) 
2 )2 ' <      
"6#  .t B  .6 

. (x 2 + c 2 t 2 )

12

B s` 6A  
()  .6  

:+    M0 :      B,A .    %5
βc B2  R  : R , 6 
"   # () Q 
2   2$ 62 .s 6A  
() 69, $  S (9 

74

U ) 69, N
6;  
() 69, $   (9  B " 
.  
() A " 
?2   2 0 #  2.  2  
b  a   $   %6 
2:  6  G 
&/ :+ 4   x (.6
3
J $  a    )     & ) 6 .J0/ B J $
J2 $  (  b $  Z   =+ + : . Ta B 
962
;  ' . . =+ + :  G 
() Tb B
. c (T b2 − T a2 ) (T b2 + T a2 ) :B X#3 4;  
92   2 1.6x10-27kg 2: 2   2     %7
E 
:  .0.6c : 6     ,       

J6#  : 
H  ,  4;  : B' "# $
.#P 4;  : B' "# $ E
' 
62 . 12 ε  
$ ε   $ s 6A  
() R
"  %8
(2) 2   U2 $ : 

H U# : 
H"  8:     : 
p "#2  8; : ' H ε

2c

B U#  8; s` 6A   

2 p` :2/ (2  2  6) x (.6
3  30o   /
.0.8c B 6A B 
     V J x` (.6
3 
2 
J#/ ' Q5  &   R
 =+)   %9
42 &62$ () E$ . =+0    0.84c  Q3
B2 962) Q3 2 E  `/  $ Q3
?829 ' 29 Q52 2  =+0    (9  .0.36c
^ Q3    "' &6  R
 
75 

2 E2 x (.6
3 ?    s 6A  
()   %10
4  

 s` 6A  
 υ 6 . 5 c (. 

3
c
5 

3 

62  2   2  2   69, N
s 6A
.? 1    
5
7

( c ) :\

2  s 62A 2 
() /3  ?    ε U $  ) %11
: 6 .(18 %2) , () I+   y (.6
3  α 96    

J   R
 0 69, N
s` 6A  
()  0 $
B 
  υ    6 :  
HE y (.6
3 ?  03
.6A
( c sinα

,

ε cosα ):\

y  

2 & 

ε
α
O

X

/3   
R
 ) :(18 – 2) ,

.y (.6
1  α   Y 


J# 5GeV B   $ U '   6;  
() "  69, %12
:  .x (.6
3  30o (;     / ?  3GeV/c B
J  J# U ' "  69,S N
#> 6;  
()    U $  
2S  2 U2  (29  : 
^"# 89 ?   ^4GeV/c 4;

76 

2 : 3 

^ 1amu=1.66x10-27kg V J H(amu)  8   6 

^6A B 
     (9
157.24 0 H

4 2 GeV

(1) : \

0.876c (3) H 403 amu (2)

I2+  p  6 /   o   .  =+ + %13
l B2 op     s 6A  
() (19 – 2) , ()
: 62 s` 62A  
() .x (.6
3  θ 96   / 
*2+ N2 2G 
 2 l` /0 ) :  
Ht`   & 0
.U//  G 

P

l

O

θ

X

o /3   6/  =+ + :(19 – 2) ,

.P  6 ://  "  x  θ  

77

‫الفصل الثالث‬
‫)نظرية التصادم(‬
‫‪1.3‬‬
‫‪2.3‬‬
‫‪3.3‬‬
‫‪4.3‬‬
‫‪5.3‬‬

‫
 


 ‪.‬‬
‫    
‪.‬‬
‫     
‪.‬‬
‫  
‪.‬‬
‫  
    ‪.‬‬
‫ 
 
‪.‬‬
‫
   ‪.‬‬ 

 

  
‫אא 
 א‬1–3 


"  # $ " %   

"!
&' '(%  
)*  

.  $  "  &"
' 
)'  '",
)*    )+ 
"#  
)+  

  "-
)&+   


.s` 
  & 
 ( ` )  
' 
)'-  


  


.s 
  . / &
.0     

s

r
V1′

s`

m1 

m1

r
υ1

m2 ϕ1

r
υc

r
υ1′
m1

2ϕ2

(1 " "# 

2&

2 m2
x
(a) 

m1
c.m. θ
θ

r
V2′

r
υ′2

o

r
V1

m2

2

m22

o`

x`
(b)

. 

(b) 8  

(a) :(153) 3

79

r
V2

r
υ 1 / '" = '  m1 <  ; 
"#   9:  (a 1-3) 3

' 
)+ B*   .m2 <  " 2 A @# 
x ) > ? #   
 ); <* # /  "# 2  .xy C " 
)+ s   

. 3 )+ 9:

ϕ2   2 "# 2  ϕ1  
'  y,x '  

* '#E "  1 (     1 D(
:F/
x ) E "      1
m1 υ1 = m1 υ1′ cos ϕ1 + m 2 υ′2 cos ϕ 2

(1-3)

y ) E "      1
o = m 1 υ1′ sin ϕ 1 − m 2 υ ′2 sin ϕ 2

(2-3) 

1 (    1
p 12
p 1′ 2
p ′22
=
+
+ Q
2 m1
2 m1
2m2

(3-3)

' H  ' '
/  1 G     $%   *  E
J 'I" + 0 '"; B* F/ .)"  H% =  
 1 F/  
/ 
' 


8 c >> υ "# / "  H L : / "  %
K(  
r 

' ' 
p1   8  G J I"      $> 
D( B2 '"# ' p′2     "#  p1′ 8  1  "#
' F'-  E 
# .  # 1 ( )+ % Q    
'
'   
     F- 3     
  B
.% >   )+ $>  ?B* F- D (" .  

80

r r 

1 v 2 , v1
*  

)+ 
"# )/ "  A M 
r r
F'/ " J I" 2  
v′2 , v1′
*   
&/ "  
:   s`  

)+  " F%  
 /
r r
r
v1 = υ1 − υ c
r r
r
v 2 = υ2 − υc

(4-3)
(5-3)

r r r

' 
)+ )  F/  

"# J I" )* υc , υ 2 , υ1  
: + : + @" N  " F% 2&  
.  

r
υ2 = 0

r
r
∴ v 2 = − υc 


/ " * %
)+  "
/ " "  =  2&  H
.( b1-3) 3 )+ 9:

  

)+
:+  
/ " 2  

r
r
r
r
m 1 υ1 + m 2 υ 2
m 1 υ1
υc =
=
m1 + m 2
m1 + m 2

:O (553) (453) )+  
% ?B* M  /
r
v1 =

r
m 2 υ1
m1+ m 2

r
v2 = −

r
m 1 υ1
m1+ m 2

(6-3)
(7-3)

m2   (753)   
)+ ( m1   (653)   
)+ ( @ :

:  

81

m 1m 2 r
υ1
m1+ m 2

r
m 1 v1 =

 m 1m 2  r
r
 υ 1
m 2 v 2 = − 
 m1+ m 2 
r r
r
r
∴ m1 v1 + m 2 v 2 = P1 + P2 = 0

(8-3) 

'   '1 
.N  H "   1   

)   H
. : N       

)    
r r
r
r
∴ m1 v1′ + m 2 v′2 = P1′ + P2′ = 0

(9-3) 

   
  

  % 
"#  %

O"
((1 '" '"#) m1 '* 
"#     " 
* #  </ 
'  
(+ 1 ( 

.  1 ); ? "
/ 2 
: 
P12
P22
P1′ 2
P2′ 2
+
=
+
+Q
2 m1 2 m 2
2 m1 2 m 2

(10-3)

:  (953) 8 (853)   


r
r
P1′ = − P2′

,

r
r
P1 = − P2

P1′2 = P2′2

,

:9 (1053)   
)+

P12 = P22
r r
P2′ , P2 2B

:B 
1E  * " 

P12
P1′ 2
=
+Q

(11-3)
m m

1 2
. 
 F
" µ = m + m  
1
2 

'3 )'+ 9:

(1 " "# J I" 
" A  



r

(453) '1E ' > 8 V1′ = υ1′ − υ c   ' '
/  #  (253)
r

r

.  
/ 1 (1 " "# & & 3 

82

r
υc

r
V1′

θ

r
υ1′

ϕ1

.  
/  (1 " "# J I" 
:(253) 3

r

r

r

:F/    

* #  v 1 , υ 1′ , υ ′c J " $ &#
 
r
υ 1′ sin ϕ 1 = v 1′ sin θ
r
υ 1′ cos ϕ 1 = v 1′ cos θ + υ c

:F/   1E  * 

sin θ
λ 1 + cos θ

tan ϕ 1 =

(12-3)
λ1 =

υc
v 1′

: 

: + )  "#  B-
tan ϕ 2 =

sinθ
λ 2 − cos θ

(13-3)
λ2

υ
= c
v ′2

: 

J '" P'
#  0 " F/ $"  ?B*   
/  B  # 

. ' E N  %    P
# F% B* L : / "  %
K( 
1 ( )+ %+ #  > 8Q=0      
   )+
∴P1 = P1′

,

v1 = v1′

:A  
% λ1 F( B*
λ1 =

m1
m 2

:Q+ (1 " "#   %
 2&  H m2 >> m1 $  B- 

83

λ1 ≅ 0

: # (1253) 1E 

tan ϕ1 = tanθ

∴ ϕ1 = θ

. 

  

)+ (1 " "#    C " H
:Q+ m1 = m 2 :$  B-
λ1 = 1
sin θ
θ
= tan
1 + cos θ
2
θ
ϕ1 =
2

∴ tan ϕ 1 =

H '"   

)+    (1 " "# 2     H
. 

)+    2 ;   2
.(π-θ) H '"  

)+ 2& 2    Q+   

:F-  "
ϕ2   

)+ 2& 2      /
ϕ 2 = (π − θ) / 2
∴ ϕ1 + ϕ 2 =

π
2

)'+ ' 

* #   "    
  
/  
"#  H
.  
 

:‫ א 
מא‬2−3 
' P'# ] 8 '
    
&/  ) $ " % 

C " & # = 
"#  N# N   )(  (" 8[(452) 
/ '" B'* ."# / " u   "  m0  

m0

(1− u /c )
2

2 

'  '%
  P:  < 
" . %  R 2  L (/ F/
."   L : F/   
"#

84

2 ' . 
'"# '  
   "  A H #"
)'* $ '1 ( P'
#  8 "  1 ( /  MG 8 
 
)'( '  '  ?B* )+ M  .   1 8 $ 1 (  

'"#  M !+ BQ+ .   L  1   
  1 (
8 '  )+  
"#  "  Q+   L 
&  G >  

ε

= T+ m 0 c 2 

1 ( $  BQ+ .   1 G   F% 

/  
F%"  
"# B&  1 ( J
#
Q+ 8  E 
' <1 (
r
P2

r
P3

r
8 P1

. 
< 
m01 )*  " < N N 
"#  M 

<' 
m02  '" <' ' R "# 
(% )+   ε 1
'
& 
 'I %  
"#      ε 2  <1 (
.)  F/ ε 4 ε 3
&1 (

r
P4 

' s  ",
)+  
1 ( )(  
NE  * M 
'
)+   1E F/       1 D( .  
r r
r r
r
P1 + P2 = P3 + P4 = P

:s  ",
(14-3) 

'  .s  '", '
)'+  
"# B&  
J
#

r
P 



:F/    $ 
> (1453)   

P1 x + P2 x = P3 x + P4 x = Px 

P1 y + P2 y = P3 y + P4 y = Py 

P1 z + P2 z = P3 z + P4 z = Pz 

ε1 + ε 2 = ε 3 + ε 4 = ε

(15-3)

:F/   1 (    1 

(16-3)

ε4 , ε3 '
NE'    1 "# 1 (
&
  
ε2 , ε1  
)'%

ε , PZ , PY , PX  <' E
'#

.   "# 1 (   

B' 8 ε = mc 2 : C   "# "  .s  ",
)+   &
#
:F- K+ 
(1653) 1E  
85

m1 + m 2 = m 3 + m 4
m4, m3

(17-3) 

 ' '1 (2),(1)  
"# " 

m 2 , m1 

 

' '   1  . ; 1E ?B* .)  F/   
* 
: 
."
υ

p ′x = γ  p x − 2
c

ε



:  .  F/ s` )- s  ",

px  
   

υ  
υ


Px′ = P1′x + P2′ x = γ P1x − 2 ε1  + γ P2 x − 2 ε 2 
c
c

 

υ


∴ P x′ = γ  P1 x + P 2 x − 2 (ε 1 + ε 2 )
c


υ


∴ P x′ = γ  P x − 2 ε 
c


r

s`  ",
)+  
"# ) 
J
# 
H " 
 <#
p ′  
r
r r
p ′4 x , p ′3 x '/ : ">  
  
. p ′ = p 1′ + p ′2 : H 8  1

:  + % "  $E   "> 
υ


′ + P4x
′ = γ P3x + P4x − 2 (ε3 + ε 4 )
P3x
c


υ 

= γ  px − 2 ε 
c 

υ 

∴p1′ x + p′2x = p′3x + p′4 x = γ px − 2 ε  = p′x
c 

(18-3)

.s`  ",
)+  
x ) > ? #   
  E B*
p ′y = p y

: 

p ′z = p z

H s` s  ",
)+ G   F% "# y8z ? #   
 +
S .......

′ = p1y
p1y

: 

:F/   B*
p1′ y + p′2 y = p′3 y + p′4 y = p′y = p y 

p1′ z + p′2 z = p′3 z + p′4 z = p′z = pz 

86

(19-3) 

'"  s`  '", '
)'+ N ' 
)% )   # </
8s` F'- s 
 
"#  1 (   )* ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x ) :1E
:  $ 1E    

ε1′+ ε2′ = γ(ε1 − υp1x ) + γ(ε2 − υp2 x )
= γ[(ε1 + ε 2 ) − υ(p1x + p2 x )]
∴ ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x )

(20-3)

'
)'+  E
)* 
 
"#  1 ( J
#
ε`  

: #   
.  1 s`  ",

ε 3′ + ε 4′ = γ[(ε 3 + ε 4 ) − υ(p3x + p4 x )]
∴ε ′ = γ(ε − υpx )
:F/   </

ε ′ = ε1′+ε2′ = ε3′ +ε4′ = γ(ε − υpx )

(21-3) 

' ' '1 ( $'% B- s` )+  
 1 (  C  B*
: 
.s )+   

S ... ε 1′ = m1′ c 2
:)   . ; 1E @
m 1′ + m ′2 = m ′3 + m ′4 

' ' 1 s` )+  
"# "  )*

(22-3)

m′4 , m′3 , m′2 , m1′ 



.    1 (2253)   
 
)  F/ 
)+  
"#  1 ( J
#
 J
#
 %

O" 
' 1 (   &+ ) % ( 0 s` F- s 
   
'  '% ( $: ( ) 1 (    1 - . 
"# 
 
OK  D%   % ?B* $  -   "   P
D
. #   
&/  #, )G % / K"; M F%

87 

'
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L)3 &" " 
&
"
A "
'& %
 
)   OK  M F/  " N  
1 (  
'  J I"  % 
" $  />  B" . # OK  
.    
"#    
/ $
B@# 
x ) > ? #  =  * m0
"#  "  M 

ε1

8m0  '" <' R "# (
r
P2 = 0 <' 
8(353)

r

r 

1 ( P1  u 1 / " 

'3 )+  E
* 
s   

)+  " 

'  s`  '",
)+ =B   B*  . ε 2 = m 0 c 2  <1 (
r
r
? '#  υ / " 
B* =  .N   
"# P ′ )   
' '

8s`  ",
F/ D() .s  ", 
" x ) >
.( 

8N % "
:   s    
:H "

r
m 0 u1

r r r
r
p = p1 + p 2 = p1 =

(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

)

r
= px

=

∴ε

ε1 + ε 2

= 1 +

m 0c 2

=

(1 −
1

(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

)

u 12

/c

2

)

F  (1
(23-2)

:H "

ε

r
P

ε 

1 ( (2

+ m 0c 2


 m 0c 2

(24-2)

:   s`    
r

r r r
p ′ = p 1′ + p ′2 = 0

:H " P ′ )  (1
(25-3)

x 8 y8 z 
? #  < 
 ) B&+ N  H " )   

: H8 : N  H "
88

p ′x = p ′y = p ′z = 0

:F/   s` F- s 

   $> 
"  (2
p ′y = p y = 0
p ′z = p z = 0
υ 

p ′x = γ p x − 2 ε  = 0
c

∴ υ =

c2p x

(26-3)

ε

'
/ " )( (2653) 1E .   1 ( ε = ε 1 + ε 2   


)+ )     s  ", 
" s`  ",
.N  N  "

:H " ε ′  1 ( (3

ε ′ = ε 1′ + ε 2′

(

)

(

∴ε ′ = c p1′2 + m02c2 + c p′22 + m02c 2

)

(27-3)

: 

r
r
p 1′ = − p ′2
r
r
∴ p 1′ 2 = p ′2 2 

'
O' 8 "
     )+  
"#  "   

: (2753) 1E

ε 1′ = ε 2′
∴ ε ′ = 2ε 1′ = 2ε 2′ 
' > 8N  "     1 s  ",
)+ )  "#  
(4
r
r  
",
)+ u ′2 / "  ) B&+ u 2 = 0  H 8(a3-3) 3
r
r
u ′2 = − υ

∴ε ′ = 2ε1′ = 2ε 2′ =

89

2 m0c2

=

:H "   1 s`

2 m0c2

(1− u′ /c ) (1− υ /c )
2
2

2

2

2

(28-3)

∴ ε 1′ =

ε 2′ =

m 0c2

(1 − υ

2

/c

2

)

= γm 0 c 2

(29-3)

: O (2853) 1E 
F( ε 1′  
(5
u1′ = − u′2 = υ 

'
  %   1 s`  ",
)+  
"#  O" B*
* 
8? #>  " 
%  
 "
/ " M
&:
.(b 353) 3 )+  E

s

s

r
u3

m0 

"
m0

r
u1

m0 

r

ε3 , pr 3 
θ
ϕ

2r

ε2 , p 2 = 0

ε1 , p1

r

r
u2

m02 ε 4 , p 4
r
u4

o

o  
1

s` 

 

(a)

s`

r
υ 

r
υ = u 1′

m 0 , ε1′, p1′  



r
υ 

r
r
u ′2 = − υ

2

α

m 0 , ε ′2 , p ′2  

1

α

2
r
u ′4

o`

m 0 , ε 3′ , p 3′

r
u ′3

o`

m 0 , ε ′4 , p ′4  

 



(b)
(b) .   
   1 (s  ",
)   

(a) :(3-3)‫الشكل‬
.   
   1 (s`  ",
)  

90

:   s`    
r

H  ' ' N  H " N  
F% p ′ )   (1
:
r
r
r
p ′ = p ′3 + p ′4 = 0
r
r
∴ p ′3 = − p ′4 , p ′32 = p ′42 

' %

* #    1 υ / "
&
    
"#  H
.  1
&* # 
: +  
    A  
F% ε`  1 (  (2

ε ′ = ε 3′ = ε 4′ =

2 m0c 2

(1 − υ

2

(30-3)

)

/c 2

'   '"
 
"# 
  "   p ′32 = p ′42  

:   

∴ε ′ = 2ε 3′ = 2ε 4′ =

∴ ε 3′ =

ε 4′ =

2 m0c2

(1 − υ /c )
2

2

m 0c 2

(1 − υ

2

/c 2

)

(31-3)

: D " )+ 
O" B* 

r
u ′3 = − u ′4 = υ 

'/ '    s`  ",
)+  
"#  C  B* 
3 )+ 9:

? #>  " 
% 
)+  "
 

&:
.(b 3-3) 
'  x )' > P
P ? #  $3 ; "#  M  (3
. 3 )+  E
* 
   α * %

:)-  "
</ "   ; "# $ 
  Bu ′3 x = υ cos α
u ′3 y = υ sin α

91

u ′3 z = 0

x`-y` H " 
)+     
/  : +  F- * . 3, #

.s`  ",
)+
:F-  "
</ " $ 
  )  "# "  (4
u ′4 x = − υ cos α
u ′4 y = − υ sin α
u ′4 z = 0

F'- s`  ",

; "# J I"   
/ L #Q (5
:      s  ",

u ′3 x + υ
υcosα + υ
=
υ
υ2
1 + 2 u ′3 x
1 + 2 cos α
c
c
u ′3 y /γ
υsinα
=
=
υ


υ2
1 + 2 u ′3 x

γ  1 + 2 cos α 
c
c

u3x =

u3y

u3z = 0

∴ tanθ =

u3y
u3x

=

sinα
γ(1 + cosα )

(32-3)

s` ‫ إلى‬s '
) ' "# J I"   
/ C  .
H # (6
:‫فيكون‬
− υcosα + υ
υ2
1 − 2 cos α
c
− υsinα
=


υ2

γ  1 − 2 cos α 
c

u4x =

u4y

u4z = 0

92

− u4y

∴ tan ϕ =

=

u4x

sinα
γ (1 − cosα )

(33-3)

:O
&: (3353) (3253)   
@ :
tan θ tan ϕ =

sin 2 α

(

γ 2 1 − cos 2 α

)

=

1
γ

= 1 − υ 2 /c 2

2

: C  (2653)   


υ=

c2px

ε

=

m 0 u 1c 2

(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

)

.

1

1 +

1

(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

)


 m 0c 2

u1

∴ υ =

(1 − u

1+

∴ 1 − υ 2 /c 2 = 1 −

2
1

/c 2

(34-3)

)

u 12 /c 2
1 +


(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

2

∴ tanθ tan ϕ =

1+

)

2

≤1

1

2

=
1+

1

(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

)

(35-3)

(1 − u /c )
2
1

2 

/ '" ' %
K( </ "   (1 " "#  H u1<<c $  B-
: + )"  H% =  
)+   )* 
L :
tanθ tan ϕ = 1

(36-3)

: 

tanθ tan ϕ
≅∞
1 − tanθ tan ϕ
π
∴ θ+ ϕ =
2

tan ( θ + ϕ ) =

93

' 
)'+  

* #   
"# $3 K(  J I"  )+ H
L ': / " 
 1  / J I" $  B- 
.   s   

tanθ tan ϕ =

2
1 + γ1

:Q+

: 
2 cot θ cot ϕ = 1 + γ 1

γ1 =

1

(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

)

(37-3)

:  

'   

 
 $ 
"#  $3    N 
/ $ %
.   π/2 H " u1<<c   8 &  G .L  

 +  )+ 
'# % .π/2 
1

θ+ ϕ  

 +  /  
1 $B u1 $  B- 

.L ' 

 +  )+ 0.94c 0.82c  &/ " T   ) $  ,
'% 
π/2 '
1      $3 #   #" ;  G
( '
 '
 ' & F/ * "  
> OK  ?B* - .   10o 
F'- 3

θ+ ϕ  

 E 
% + 8  H /> =  
 %

$L # %+   "    1  
   N % N (  = *
.  ?B* P
N 

%
OK 

*   
"#    HB  
$3 N : U1    



)' =' & '3
% (  

)+  "
   "  
'" '
*  & '3
 
"#   
   )+ $ 
"
H '" ' 

)+   1  
"# )  .  " 

'
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& +  "

&  "   
N  N :
N 
    B- . 

)+  "
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&:
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"#    

'"#   "  &+  C  N 1 ( = *  F- 3  )G 
'  
' 
&+ " > ?B* D (  "    "


94 

'1 (   1 D( 
> D ( $ G
&
. 

.  $ 
/ E  
F   1 ( F%    

.‫ א 
מ א‬3−3 
1  1 (     
  )+ < D "  )+  : 
)'+ 2  

. "  1 ( />  BV  B- B* 8  
E' ' 
'
K F'% >   1 (    H /> =  

)+ $   .  F-  1 ( ?B* 
N
"1    N   + 8  
'    1   . 
1 ( F-   1 (  1 C    
D'( =B'  
  H /> =  
 1 
: <%(  
N
K 1 
A ' 
. '/> ' 1 (  P
# $B B- 1 (    1 
'  )   $> )+ 
/ .   1 (   1 D(
.' 
. ':    1 (   >  1 (  / $ 
"#  
'  1 (     
 
    D N> 
A B
.   N   "
s`  ",
)+
s

r
υ

s`

‫قبل التصادم‬

‫قبل التصادم‬

m0

r
u1

r
u2

m0

ε 1 , pr 1

m0

ε 2 , pr 2
2m0

ε , pr
o

r
u′

r
u′

ε 1′, pr 1′

ε 2′ , pr ′2
2m0

υ

‫ساكنة‬

‫بعد التصادم‬

x

ε ′, pr ′
o`

(a)
.s` )+  
"#   
   
/ (b)

‫بعد التصادم‬

x`
(b)

.s )+  
"#   
   
/(a) :(453) 3

95

m0

r
u′ 

/ '"
*' - = '  m0
&
  "    
r  

M  s`  ",
)+ @# 
x ) ; ? #  − u ′ C ;
.(b4-3) '3 )+ 9:
* 
   *   

  
. '   3
() .   
&: P
%    
N ' 
' L '%  )+ N  H "   1 F   

.s`  ",
)+ N  H "     3 
.  / "   
:H " )&+ s` )+   1    1 ( 

ε ′ = 2 m′c

2

=

2 m0c 2

(1 − u′ /c )
2

2

= 2 m 0c 2 + T′

(38-3)

'
)'+  ' '1  
"#   1 ( J
#
T`  
.s`  ", 
' 8.  ' )'-  s` )+   1 (   A M + B:F-  "
s` )+ " %
)* 
  B* )+ .  
.  
Q′ = T′ = ε ′ − 2 m 0 c 2

(39-3) 

/ '" = '  ' s  ",
)+   B* 0 A 
r 

E
* 
s`  ", 
" x ) E @# 
? #>  − υ   

' '+ 

< "  
s )+   )  + .(a 4-3) 3 )+  
$> 

"    1 . 3 
s` )+   1 ( )
: + s F- s` 
H 8 ", H
 1 (    
υ


p x = γ  p′x + 2 ε ′ 
c

:   s` )+   H " )   

p ′x = p ′y = p ′z = 0
∴ px = γ

υ
c2

ε′

(40-3)

: Q`=T`  )+   (3953)   
)+ . ( 
ε`  
1 / : "> 

(

)

(

p x = γυ 2 m 0 + T ′/c 2 = γυ 2 m 0 + Q ′/c 2

)

(41-3)

:@   

96

p y = p ′y = 0
p z = p ′z = 0 

'"  & '" ' 
  1 s )+  1 (  # N :   

:    $> 

ε = γ(ε ′ + υp`x ) = γ(ε ′ + 0) = γ ε ′
'1 s )'+  1 ( F/   (3853)   
)+ ε` / : "> 
:H "  

ε ′ = γ (2 m 0 c 2 + T ′ )

(42-3)

υ / '" =  s` )+  " )* )  3 
      E 
'  '  P1    
/ E . 
L + H    BQ+ .s )+ 
' s )+ )( )  9 2m0 F-  "
 3 
.   "
r
px =

:F- N  "
 

r
2 m0υ

(1 − υ /c )
2

2

r
= 2 γm 0 υ

(43-3) 

'"  $   < # (4153) 1E P
. ; 1E ?B*  % 

)'+ N ' 
 F% ) .  E N  
 F% > 2m0 )*
)* C   (4353) 1E )+ 2m0  "  )G s  ",

:  M0
M0 = 2 m0 + Q′/c2

)' .   # & 1

(44-3)

(γυ Q ′/c ) F- H " 
)(  + </
2

.  '  ?B'* - .s )'+ N  
F%   M    E $  
'  F- K+ 
& 
  s )+ υ / "  3 
 P
= 
F-  " 
"  s  ",
)+

(γ Q ′/c )
2

F-  " 
" 

s )+  3 
  1 (   B* .s`  ",
)+ Q ′/c 2
:  1E  Q` P
( 
97

γM 0 c 2

F-  "
 

‫)‪(45-3‬‬

‫)‪ε = γM 0c 2 = γ(2 m0c 2 + Q′‬‬

‫ ‪='B  
)%  1 (  # (4553)8(4253)    
$ 1 B-‬‬
‫;‬

‫‪T′ = Q′‬‬

‫‪.s`  ",
)+‬‬

‫‪L ': F/ )G   H )+ N  
   B- < %

 E‬‬
‫  "       (  
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# ' ∗ %‬‬
‫ ( ‪ 'G <%+  8∆ε 
1 ( )+ G H  M !+    1‬‬
‫‪:  ∆m  )+‬‬
‫‪∆m = ∆ ε /c 2‬‬

‫ ‪1 ( )+ G H   
/ < + 1 (  P
# 1E ?B* $  -‬‬
‫;‪?B'* '#  


.0     =B  %  G 8  H‬‬
‫‪ '/>  B'V   $ 
"#  "  F/ D(   
/ ./ %‬‬
‫ ‪ H)    V+  B*   - .$>  P
# )+ 1 (   V+‬‬
‫ ( ‪.N  # < - @# <+ 8 
  
N   (1‬‬
‫ ‪' .1932 " )+ $  ∆ ε = ∆mc2 1E $ , $ #  #‬‬
‫‪$    ?B* <#   * 0.25MeV &1 ( $  F $    $#I/‬‬
‫ 
‪1 ( ." 
* #   
"#  + 2&   .
2% #‬‬
‫‪:H " /  B* )+ " 
1 ( B- 8.6MeV    "#‬‬
‫‪2x8.6-0.25=16.95 MeV‬‬

‫   ‪: * /  J    .(1 "      1 ( )* 0.25MeV‬‬
‫‪P + 37 L i → 2 α‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫  " ‪:∆m  
@ "  
 B  1‬‬
‫∗ الكتلة القصرية )القصورية( ھي نسبة الزخم الخطي إلى السرعة و يقصد بھا أيضا الكتلة النسبية وھي تتغير مع السرعة حسب‬
‫‪m0‬‬
‫العالقة‬
‫=‪ ، m‬حيث أن ‪ m0‬كتلة السكون‪.‬‬
‫‪1-u 2 /c 2‬‬

‫)‬

‫(‬

‫‪98‬‬

∆m=( /  )+   J
#
)-( /  / #   J
#
)
1
7
1 P +3

Li − 2 α = 0.0154 ± 0.003a .m.u . 

BQ'+ 14.3±2.7 MeV H '" 1 ( )+ N 1 + W+   )+ 2E> B* . ' P'
N ' 

D' # ?B* Q+ .  

∆ ε = ∆mc2 

1E $ 

.16.95 MeV F-  " 
  1 ( )+   
'1 ( %  


80
3 
M ; F-  ) 1 ( " 
:) 
0
3 
 

:  </

4 × 10 26 Js −1

∆m =

∆ε
c

2

:H "   )+ 0
3 
 
1 (  
=

4 × 10 26
16

9 × 10

= 4.4 × 109 kg
≅ 4, 4 × 10 6 tons 

' ?B'* .   )+ ( E
   
1  0
3   H
:)  % ) 0
3   %
N# . G
2.1×1027 tons
1.98×1030 kg  

.    

4−3

N    &+ #    = 
L :  ;  )+   D"

r
N 
'1 ( '
< 2  =  <# 
  1 ( % #
  

G'  @' '  )'+ 
/ .  T (" . E 
)
r

r

)'"( G 
# 
<#
H )K  & # 
<#
E  

r r r
N = E× H

)'"( G
)K ' & #
@BB * B- L : + ."( G
& # 

C ' '  
.L : / " )* .  / " D( 
X  )+ %
)'+ '%  ' 
1 ( 1  $ 
3 1 ( % N / 3- L : 
$ 5h   8 ε = h ν H "   
   1 ( )* K :   

F'/ $(%" B- ) $    
" L : B- .J 3,  5ν =E

99

?B'*    . + $ 
" % .J 3, (G: F
" </ N (G:   9(" 
"# J 3- 
. 
P
J 3, /  % 
K  *   "
F'/ ν ? ' L : (%" BQ+ . 
 K : & . *   "; 
' 
  
/ . 
$   9(" 
" 
.
9("  

$  Y   1 (  +  3R " @# 
$    ?B&
= '" L ': ="  / 3 . 
G3  ϕ  B- h ν − φ H "
. 
P
</  /  "#; = " =" 8? 3 L  $ #  

'%% A $  L : / " " 
$   +  # . + :  m0  " < "#+ . %
 #

m =

m0

(1 − u

2

/c

2

)

,

r
m 0u

r
p =

(1 − u

2

/c

2

)

ε

,

=

m 0 c2

(1 − u

2

/c 2

) 

B- ' '
 '% 
)+ % 
@ % L : / " 
u @ %   

'
?E/ $  
?B* 
 9  
N :  "  $ 1
 
m0 @ % c L : / " 
u @ % 
/ < : + BQ+ . 
%
k C '"  
% ?B*  M  ..
 
1 B

(

m 0 / 1 − u 2 /c 2

) % 
F%
: +

m

(1 − u

0
2

/c

2

)

= k

r
r
∴ m = k , p = kc ,

ε = kc 2

:    ε = h ν :   1 (  

k=

100


c2

,

p=


c

<'1 ( HB'  '   C    "   L : F/ B* 

') . hν

c2

F'-  "
 1  hν c F- N  "
)(  <   

+ L : / " " $    ?B*  
.(N  H "     " 
' TE(' + B*  " $    <+    "-
 #-  " 

'1 '
T '# ?E/   $ 
" % .   ? /  
>  "
. 
 A 2 
*
"   

'
 '    
(%" 
/ <  # .   
 % 
' '
'1   $3 J 3, Q+  "  - F/ " 3; 
'3 )'+ 9':
' 

/ "  +  , 
8(1 " J 3, 
'
/   
M + %+ . *  ?B& N> %
NE )( ) .(a5 –3)
.  -  
  +  
  &# 
 
?B* $3
? #  = 

ε1
c

=


c 

ε 1

= hν1

)* (1 "    1 ( M 

'
)'+ m0  " <  "  - P
( @# 
x ) >
θ '  P ? # 

ε3

= hν3

$3 
   1 (  M  .s  ",

P'
ϕ '  P ? #  =   ,     x ) > P

' 
. ε 4 H " 1 (

r
p4 

"  , 1 ( 
+ .

H " 

ε3
c

=

hν 3
c

r
u4

F-  "
/ " x ) >

H " &+       

r

.(553) 3 )+ 9:

8 p 2 = 0 < 
ε 2 = m 0 c 2 H "   1
D'( D '( ?B* C -  ( 
# )-   D ( ./ = * 
'"    '  '
   / F/  1 (   1 

 
. 

  

H s,s`  ",

$> '
 ",
" :+ %+ "    J I" P 

' ' 
 1 (  />  BR 1 (   
.   )+    
)

101

ε3, ε3
c
‫ فوتون‬ε 3 = hν 3

s
‫فوتون‬
‫ساقط‬

ε1, ε1
c
ε 1 = hν1

r
υ

s`

c

ε 3′ = hν ′3

‫مشتت‬

‫الكترون‬
‫ ساكن‬θ
ϕ
2

‫ فوتون‬ε ′ , ε 3′
3

ε 1′, ε 1

α

‫فوتون‬

m0c = ε 2
r
p2 = 0

‫الكترون‬

c.m. α

c

ε 2′ , pr ′2

‫الكترون‬

ε 4′ , pr ′4

ε 4 , pr 4
‫الكترون‬
‫مشتت‬

o

o`

x

(a)

x`

(b)

(b) . "  - F/ (1 "   + $3 (a) . 
 :(5 – 3) 3
.  E 0 N  "
)     . 
 

8 "  )+  - P
  +   
/ 9:  (5–3) 3
:   +   1 s  ",
)+  1 ( )   
r
r
r
r
r
p = p1 + p 2 = p1 = p x

∴ p

x

=

ε1

hν1
c

=

c

(46-3)

ε = ε 1 + ε 2 = hν1 + m 0 c 2

(47-3)

:F- N  "
   )    s`  ",
)+
r r r
r
p ′ = p′3 + p′4 = 0 , ∴ p ′x = 0

:H "  1 (

ε ′ = ε 3′ + ε 4′
:@ s F- s` 
1 (     
 "> 

ε
∴ε

= γ

(ε ′ + υ p ′ ) = γ ε ′
x

ε
4′ + ε 3′ =

γ

=

hν1 + m 0c 2
γ

(48-3)

: + s` )+    N  H " )   

r
r
p ′3 = − p ′4

p ′32 = p ′42

102

2

ε′
ε′ 
∴  4  − m 02 c 2 =  3 
 c 
 c 



ε 4′ 2 − ε 3′ 2

2

= m 02 c 4

(49-3)

: O (4853)   
F/ . ;   

"%

ε 4′ − ε 3′ =

γm

2 4
.0 c

(50-3)

h ν1 + m 0c 2

:)/   (4853)   

(5053)   
T (

(

m 02 c 4 λ 2 − m 0 c 2
2ε 3′ = λ −
=
λ
λ

)

2

(51-3)

: 
λγ = hν1 + m 0 c

hν1 + m 0 c 2
, λ=
γ

2

:1E 
@" + υ " / " 

υ=

c2p x

ε


chν1
c2
=
. 1 =
2
c
hν1 + m 0 c
hν1 + m 0 c 2

∴β =

hν1

(52-3)

hν1 + m 0c 2

λγ

∴ β =

1

:  E $3 
   s` F- s 
1 (     
 "> 

ε 3′ = γ ε 3 (1 − β cos θ)
2
2ε 3′
λ 2 − (m0c 2 )
2ε =
=
3

1

ε3

γ(1 − βcosθ)

=

λγ(1 − βcosθ)

2 λγ (1 − βcosθ

(

λ 2 − m 0c 2

)

)

2

: + (" )+ HB % 
A B

103

2λ γ (1 − βcosθ

) = 2λ γ  1 −


hν 1
cos θ 
λγ

(

)

= 2 hν 1 + m 0 c 2 − 2h ν 1 cos θ
= 2h ν 1 (1 − cos θ ) + 2m 0 c 2

:H "  % 
)+ HB % 

(

λ 2 − m0c 2

) = (hν + m c ) (1 − β ) − (m c )

(h ν )
= (h ν + m c ) 1 −

(h ν + m c )

= (hν + m c ) − (hν ) − (m c )
2

2 2

1

2 2

2

0

0

2

2 2

1

1

0

2 2

1

2 2

1

0

(

)

2

2 2

2

0


 − m 0c2

1

0

= 2h ν 1 m 0 c 2

Q

1

ε3
1

=

h ν 1 (1 − cos θ ) + m 0 c 2
h ν1 m 0c 2

1

ε 3 ε1
1

1

ε 3 ε1

=

hν 1 (1 − cosθ ) + m 0 c 2
hν 1 m 0 c

=

2

1
(1 − cosθ )
=
hν 1
m 0c2

λ 3 λ1 λ 3 − λ1 ∆λ
=
=

hc hc
hc
hc

∴ ∆λ =

h
(1 − cos θ )
m 0c

(53-3) 

('"  θ     + $3 B- < F/  (53 5 3) . ;   
'#
( 
 λ3 $3 
   #
(  +  Q <   

/ % M    0.0242 (1-cos θ) Ao H " % 
(1 "   
'& '# . 
$  Y   $ 1 ( $"1 % .c,m0,h 

N ' 
 '   M  <  > B* . " 
 # % P
D
.. *  ?B&  L (/- 
 
 
hν 1 ( hν/c H "

104 

. 
‫א 
אא‬5−3

s

s`

ε 2 , pr 2 = 0

ε1, ε1

ε1,

‫قبل التصادم‬

c

‫فوتون‬

ε 3 , pr 3
‫جسيم‬
‫متحرك‬

o

β 3c
2m
′ ε1′

(a)

c

‫فوتون‬

‫جسيم‬
‫ساكن‬

‫جسيم‬
‫متحرك‬

M0

r
M0 , p3 = 0

ε 3′ = M 0 c 2

‫بعد التصادم‬

β 3c

ε 2′, pr′2

‫جسيم‬
‫ساكن‬

o`

x

x`

(b)

. "  )+ "# )/ <( %" /   +   
(a) :(6 5 3 ) 3
N  N  "
)       +   
(b)

. 
> 
/ E

. :
8M0  '" <' (.   . B)  "  )+ N 
"#   M  
B'* ("  N  <  
 s  ",
)+ ε1 <1 (   + </ (%"
β3c H '" / '"  '
> 
/  # "# @" 1 ."#

ε 3 = M 3 c 2 = γM 0 c 2 H "  1 (
M3 =

M0

(

1 − β 32

)

= γM 0

:  

' '1 'G   $%+  "  
.(a6-3) 3 )+ 9:


.M0 H "  
> 
/ 
'1  '",
"  # "# β3 @"   A /
)'+ .  
  )* ?B*  
> 
/  M  1 (  
.β3c H '"   / " =  < (b6-3) 3 )+  E s`  ",

105 

 H "   )   N  

B* )+     B: + s )+  1 (    1 A D( .   1

ε = ε1 + ε 2 = ε 3
r r r
r
p = p1 + p 2 = p 3

∴ε = ε 1 + M 0 c 2 = γM 0 c 2

(54-3)

: + s` )+ 1 (     1 C  .
D(

ε ′ = ε 1′ + ε 2′ = ε 3′

r r r
r
p ′ = p1′ + p ′2 = p ′3 = 0

∴ ε ′ = ε 3′ = M 0 c 2

(55-3)

p ′ = p ′x = 0

:F/   s F- s` 
    
" 
υ

p x = γ p ′x + 2
c

c 

ε ′ = γ 0 + β 3 ε ′ 

Ρ x = Ρ1 + Ρ2 = Ρ1 =

β 3 = υ/c  

ε1

: 

c

∴ ε 1 = γβ 3 ε ′ = β 3 γM 0 c 2

: O (5453) 1E   "> 
∴β 3 =

ε1

(56-3)

M 0c2 + ε1

: 
β 3 ≅ ε 1 /M 0 c 2

106

M 0 c 2 >> ε 1 

: + B- 

'
/ E' 'G   <' F'% HB "#  B* 
O"
M0 '  M + F/ ε 1 /c H "    1 
N + F(  
>

.  = 
)+  )* 
  E G >
.!  : 

s

s

ε 0 , pr 0 = 0

ε1, ε1

ε 2 , pr 2

M0

c

‫ذرة مرتدة‬

‫ذرة ساكنة‬

o

x

‫قبل االنبعاث‬

M 02

o
‫بعد االنبعاث‬

‫فوتون متحرر‬

x  

. "  )+ "# 
  +   :(7 – 3) 3
. >  "#  "  )+ N G 

' + '&
' ε0 &1 ( M0  " &  " . B  A 

ε2  1 ( p2  N  )  . B > %    ?B* .ε1 <1 ( 
' '1 (753) 3  > .M02 F-  "  )+ G B* / O
. >
0' '  

N :  
HB s *    "-
* "
@# )  

F
"
 s`  ",
" . : 
..% 
$ 1E M
: +     1 A D( :
r r
r r
p = p 0 = 0 = p1 + p 2

ε1 − p

2 =0
c
c p 2 = ε1

(57-3)

:F/  + 1 (    1 D( : 

107

ε = ε 0 = ε1 + ε 2
∴M 0c 2 = ε1 + M 2c 2

(M c )

2 2

2

(58-3)

(

= (cp 2 )2 + M 02 c 2

)

2

(59-3)

: # (5953) (5753) 

(M c ) = ε + (M
2 2

2
1

2

02 c

)

2 2

(60-3)

:F/   (6053) (5853) 1E 

(M

02 c

(

) = (M c − ε ) − ε

2 2

∴ M 02 c 2

2

2

0

1

) = (M c )
2

2 2

0

2
1

− 2 M 0 ε1 c2

(61-3)

& K & K>   )+ . B  " 1 (
* M 02 c 2 , M 0 c 2 A
:  1 ( H "
& D   . 
 
1

ε = M 0 c 2 − M 02 c 2

(

∴ M 02c 2

) = (M c − ε ) = (M c )
2

2

2

0

2 2

0

(62-3)
− 2 M0c 2 ε + ε 2

(63-3)

: O (6353) (6153) 1E  % 


ε 1 = ε 1 − ε



2 
2 M0c 

(64-3)

>- )# 
(  %    +   P
@"     1 (   
'1 ( )( )  > 
&
. B $  
B- )* .   )+
. > 
/ E  
   )- &
#  ε .  

C ' ' 
-    &; 
&
K + $ / & OK  ?B* . '&   J 3, ( )  (    
C  .
 %  $ B
)K ' & [    J 3Y "  )+ 9 
/ / H  
' "" )+ 
8<   )( 2( ( ) J 3Q  % < + 8NE

N> '(  
(     .   ( ( ( ?B* - .# &
108 

'%% '/  * ( ( ?B* D: - .N# D: C

: #

.'
 H 8K 3/ 1 ( $  "
)+ #   P(" > &" $ B 
' - .$  '" 
?B* 
%: "" (
  & (( /) 
'%! < % (i < f ) i H " 
F- f H " 

% 
/ . B 
  + 
B'* 2 ' BQ+ .(6253) 1E < 
. B ( ) 1 ( )+ 

)'+ P'% '

C  . B 8hν * %
1 ( 
HB  
  
F'- . B = P+  +  1 ( ?B*   +  "  )+ )* i H " 

8. B   1 ( F/ 2\ I 1    1 ( 
N G NL# ; f H "   

> $ 
/ E . B H >  />  BV  )G =B
H >  "  "
   1 % .(853) 3  
 
> 
'
 
 8)   >  
> $ 
/ E C  $ B
?B'* F
'" 8= ' 
P3

"  C   > 1 ( F/ @G
"
. *  . *    

f

εR

f  

hν 

> 1 (

i

i
(a)

(b)

.$ B )+ (b)  
> (a)  > 
/ 9:  :(853) 3

: >   > 1 )     1 
+
0=M υ-

109


c

(65-3)

‫    ‪'1  '" . B  F/    
"; L# )+‬‬
‫‪ .' 
. B  &+   

 
; L# )+ Mυ 
 > 
/‬‬
‫‪hν‬‬
‫‪c‬‬

‫     

 ‪.(953) 3‬‬

‫الفوتون‬
‫المنبعث‬

‫ارتداد‬
‫الذرة‬

‫‪hν‬‬
‫‪c‬‬

‫‪hν‬‬

‫‪Mυ‬‬

‫الذرة‬
‫ساكنة‬

‫‪εR‬‬
‫قبل‬
‫االنبعاث‬

‫بعد‬
‫االنبعاث‬

‫الشكل )‪ :(9-3‬يوضح عملية االرتداد الناتجة عن انبعاث فوتون من الذرة‪.‬‬

‫ 
  
; ‪:H " . B   / "  # .‬‬
‫‪hν‬‬
‫‪Mc‬‬

‫=‪υ‬‬

‫ 
 ( ‪'  / '" 
B- 8. B   1 ( H " εR  > 1‬‬
‫‪:) 
 > 1 ( @ "  
. B‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪hν‬‬
‫‪ε R = Mυ2 = M  ‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2  Mc ‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫) ‪hν‬‬
‫(‬
‫‪ε2‬‬
‫=‬
‫=‬

‫‪2Mc 2‬‬

‫‪2Mc2‬‬

‫‪$'  B- ' 
. ' %: 1 ( $  "
$  B- < O" NB‬‬‫‪N+ 3   $ B ?B* Q+  "  )+ < 
 J 3,   ) $ B‬‬
‫‪'  'G! )  # $  /  MG &
 HB J 3Y‬‬
‫) ‪ > $  ( )    . , / #     $‬‬
‫‪.* 
>   > $ 
/ E $ B‬‬
‫* لمزيد من المعلومات عن ھذه الظاھرة يمكن مراجعة كتاب "مقرر بيركلي" في الفيزياء الميكانيكا المجلد األول الصفحات ‪.553-551‬‬

‫‪110‬‬

: " " 
: (1)  
(' )'+  " 2.4GeV/c2
&
  "  8E 

 
"#
-0.6c ) ' / '" 0.8c ; / " .x ) E ^
  %"

'
s '  


"
.  
 
&  
/ '" (2) 8s )+   1
&
  (1) :@"  s`   

'1 ( (4) 8s` )'+  ' 1
&
  / " (3) 8 

x ) > /
&
 2  (5) 8s` )+   
&
  
' x` )' > '/ '
&
 2    N 
/ .s )+   
.53o H " s` )+  
:
:H " <  + s )+   1 ; "# "  (1)
m0

m1 =

(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

)

=

2.4 GeV/c2

(1 − 0.64)

= 4 GeV/c2

:H " < Q+ )  "# " 
m2 =

2.4 GeV/c2

(1 − 0.36)

= 3 GeV/c2

:H "    )+  
"#  
/ " (2)
υc =

m1u1 + m 2 u 2 (4 × 0.8 − 3 × 0.6) GeV/c
=
= 0.2 c
m1 + m 2
(3 + 4)GeV/c2  

'"# )' ' <'+   HB s`  ",
/ " : )*
.N  H "    

:H " </ "  + s` )+   1 ; "# "  (3)
u 1′ =

( 0 .8 − 0 .2 ) c
u1 − υc
=
= 0 .7 c
υc
0 .2 c
1−
.0 .8 c
1 − 2 u1
c2
c
:H " s` )+ <

111

2.4 GeV/c 2

m 1′ =

(1 − (0.7) )

= 3.4 GeV/c 2

2

: +   1 s` )+ )  "# " 
u ′2 =

(− 0.6 − 0.2) c = −0.7 c
0.2 c
1 − 2 (− 0.6 c)
c

:H "   1 s` )+ <
m′2 =

2.4GeV/c2

(1 − (0.7) )
2

= 3.4GeV/c2

s` )'+   1  
"# 
  1 (

ε 2′ , ε 1′ 
 $  B- (4)
: +   
&
  1 ( ε 4′ , ε 3′ 
ε 1′ + ε 2′ = ε 3′ + ε 4′ = ε ′ = (m 1′ + m ′2 ) c 2

9'+ s` )+ N :  "
 "  $ 1 ( B-  "
  

ε 1′ = ε 2′    1 
: 

ε

= c

p

2

p ′32 = p ′42

=B

r r
r r
p1′ + p ′2 = p ′3 + p ′4 = 0

+ m 02 c 2

ε 3′ = ε 4′ = 1 ε ′ = 1 (m1′ + m′2 )c 2 = 3.4 GeV
2 



2

u1′ = − u′2 , u′3 = − u′4  

: ) B*

s` )+   
/  1  "
 
"#  $ 1 ( P
# $  

: H %  
 "
J I" P
#  =B / O
u 1′ = u ′3 = u ′2 = u ′4 = 0.7 c

:H "    s` )+  
"# 
   + B*
p ′3 = m ′3 u ′3 = 3.4 × (+ 0.7 )GeV/c = +2.38 Gev/c
p ′4 = m ′4 u ′4 = 3.4 × (− 0.7 ) GeV/c = −2.38 GeV/c

112  

 s )+ ; "# 2  θ  M  (5)
υ

∴ p 3 cos θ = γ  p ′3 cos α + 2c
c

ε 3′ 

p 3 sinθ = p ′3 sinα 

' >]    s` )+ ; "# ? # & )   α  
.α = 53o * [(3 5 3) 3
∴ p 3 cos θ = γ (2.38 × 0.6 + 0.2 × 3.4 )
p 3 sin θ = 2.38 × 0.8

∴ tanθ =
γ=

1

(

1 − υ c2 /c 2

)

2.38 × 0.8
2.108 γ
1

=

:  

≅ 1.0206

1 − (0.2)

2

∴ tanθ = 0.8850

∴ θ = 41.5 0  

 s )+ )  "# 2  ϕ  M 
υ

∴ p 4 cos ϕ = γ p ′4 cosα + 2c
c

ε 4′ 

p 4 sin ϕ = Ρ ′4 sinα
∴ tan ϕ =

sinα


υ ε′ 
γ cosα + 2c 4 

c p ′4 

= 2.4755

∴ ϕ = − 68 o

:(2)   
' <' 

"# (

2 2 m0c

< 
m0  " < "#  

'", 
N "
. 3
 N  
   <
  + N  " 
' (2) . 3 
 / " (1): # . 1 (   %
."#  "

113

:
:    1 s  ",
)+

ε = ε 1 + ε 2 = (cp)2 + (m 0 c 2 )2 + m 0 c 2

(

= 8 m0c 2

) + (m c )
2

2 2

0

:N> 

+ m0c2

∴ε = 4 m 0 c 2

(1)

:F/   s F- s` 
1 (     
 "> 

ε = γ(ε ′ + υp′x ) = γ ε ′
. "  )+  3 
  + s F- " υ / " =  s`  
.(453) 3  >
∴ε

′= ε

γ

=

4 m 0c 2
γ

: #     


υ
γυ


p x = γ  p ′x + 2 ε ′  = 2
c
c


2
 γυ  4 m 0 c 
= 2 
= 4 m0υ
γ 
 c 

ε′

2 2 m0c
c
=
4 m0
2
1
1
=
= 2
 1
1 − υ 2 /c 2
1 − 
 2

∴υ =

γ=

(

)

: N  

:     s`  ",
)+
Q′ = Τ′ = ε ′ − 2 m 0c2

Q′
c2

=

ε′ −2m
c2

= 2 m0

114

(

0

=

)

2 −1

4 m0
4 m0
− 2 m0 =
− 2 m0
γ
2

(

(

)

)

∴ε = γ ε ′ = γ 2 m0c 2 + Q′ c 2 = γ 2 m0 + 2 2 m0 − 2 m0 c 2

ε = 4 m 0 c 2 :H " ε  1 (  (1)   
)+ 
C  .
 E
∴ M0 =

ε
γc 2

=

4 m0 4 m0
=
= 2 2 m0
γ
2

:(3)  
<' 

R "# P
( 8< " 1 ( H "   <1 ( "#
<1 ( # .45o   E <* # 2    B& # 8N  "  
.m0 H "  " <  N 
/     
:@ s )+ u1 </ " HB (1 " "# "  : 

ε = mc2 = Τ+ m0 c 2 = m0 c 2 + m0 c 2 = 2 m0 c 2
∴m = 2 m0 =

m0

(1 − u

2 2
1 /c

)
: # 1E ?B* 

3
c
2

u1 =

)+ )    s` s  ", H
 " / " υ $  B:  N  H " s`
υ=

u1

(

1 + 1 − u 12 /c 2

∴ υ =

c
3

115

)

3
c
2
=
 3
1 + 1 − 
 4

= u 1′ = − u ′2

'1 s`  '", '
)'+ )  F/  
"# / "

− u ′2 , u 1′ 


. 

γ=

1

(1 − υ

tan θ =

2

/c 2

)

1

=

sin α
γ (1 + cos α )

3

=

 1
1 − 
 3

2
sin α

, ∴ tan 45 =
3

(1 + cos α )

2

∴ 5 cos 2 α + 6 cos α + 1 = 0

:F/     
?B* 
α = 180 o

, 101.5 o 

' )'+ A  "
*   

 
"#    
   

:@   




ε 3′ = ε 1′ =

m 0c2

(1 − υ

2

/c 2

)  

",
)+    1 (1 " "#  1 ( ε 3′ , ε 1′  
.s`
∴ ε 3′

=

m 0c 2
1

1 − 
3

3

=

2

m 0c2

:      (1 " "# s )- s` 
1 (    



3 3
c
m0c2 +
p′ 

2  2
3 3 x 

ε 3 = γ(ε 3′ + υp3′ x ) =

ε 32 − (m 0 c 2 )2

Q cp ′3 =
∴ p ′3 =

1
2

=

m0c

 1
m 0 c − 
 5
2
1
=
m 0 c(− 1)
2

∴ p ′3 x = p ′3 cosα =

116

(

3
m0c2 − m0c2
2

1 

)

2

(1)

)'+ s` )'+ (1 '" '"# x ) > ? #   F ;  
% M 
:F/   (1)   

ε 3 = 7 m 0 c 2 = T3 + m 0 c 2
5

∴ T3 =

2
m0c 2
5

:F/   (1)   
)+    
% M 

ε 3 = m 0 c 2 == T3 + m 0 c 2
∴ T3 = 0

:(4)   
1 

I ( 8x ) > ? #  = 

2 m0c2
3

<1 (   + 

' . '3 
'"# / '" ? # %
# .m0  " < "#
.   <  

: 
'" /  


s  ",
)+  1 (    1 D(
s`  ",
"   > B-  =B 
@( B- >- s`  ",

.$  "  / &"
: 
> 
/ 1  1 (    1 

ε = ε1 + ε 2

2 m0 c2
5 m0 c2
2
=
+ m0 c =
3
3

: + . 3 
 
> 
/ 

ε

= γM 0 c 2

:  
>  "#  "  M0  
γ=

117

1

(1 − υ

2

/c 2

)

5 m0c2
3

∴ γ M0c2 =

(1)

:   1 

r r r
r
p = p1 + p 2 = p3
∴ p = p1 x =

ε1
c

2 m0c
= γM 0 υ
3

=

∴ γM 0 =

2 m 0c

)'+ γM0 '/ M  ' . 
> 
/  "# / " υ  
:F/   (1)   

5 m 0c 2 2 m 0c3
=
3

2
∴υ = c
5 

; x ) > ? #  )&+  
> 
/  "#  ? # 

.N  H " y ) > ? #  
:(5)  
'
)+ o ; (% ? #  "


5 c2 

" < ε <1 ( "# 

"# 1 ( # .y ) > P
30o * %
  <* # 
s  ",
y '
? '#  ";  N  
"# * 3I    "-
)+

. ", H
 " / " )*
8@ "
s

‫اتجاه‬
‫الجسيم‬
30o

o

r
υ

s` y`
‫اتجاه‬
‫الجسيم‬
ε ′, pr ′

ε , pr
x

o`

)+ y ) > P
30o   N  
* 3 "# :(953) 3

. ";  N " N  
"# * 3 s` )+ .s

118

x`

:
:  s  ",
)+

ε 2 − p 2 =  3ε

2

 2
 c
2
 5c 

c2

r

P'
30o * %
  P HB s  ",
)+ "#  p  
∴p =

.(953) 3  > 8y 


5c

: # y ) > ? #  s` F- s 
   $> 


p ′y = p y = −
∴ p ′y = −


cos 30
5c

2 3ε
= p′
5c

' 
P` .@ " y ) > ? #   
? #  )  " . 3,
.s`  ",
)+ "# ) 
υ 

∴ p′x = γ − p sin 30 − 2 ε  = 0
c


1 4ε
×c2
×
2
∴υ = − 2 5c
= − c = −0.4 c
5
ε

:# s` F- s 
1 (     
 "> 

ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x ) = γ (ε − ( − υp
γ=

1

(1 − β )
2

∴ε ′ =

119

=

1
4 

1 − 
 25 

sin 30 ) )

=

5
21

5 
4ε 1 
× 
 ε − 0 . 4c ×
5c 2 
21 
4.2ε
∴ε ′ =
21

: 

:(6)   
'  '1 ( P
(    

)+   K   1 (
:'A '1E @" "    )+  

)+ K*

. 
/ " V      M  B-

K = K* +

1
MV 2
2

F'- '  B*  N : 9: ."   )+  

 
'
' '1 )* J I" P
#  />  B_ B- ?E/ #
.X  )+ L : / "
:
9':   A /

K = K* +

1
MV 2
2 

1E $ - R 
)+ 
@( 1
:);  &# "  

'"#  '   

)+     1 (  
K   

'
+  '"  ' )  "#  @# 
x ) > ? #  = 
;
: 3    1 ( ?B* /   

K=

1
m1 υ 2
2

: 3  K* /   


+  

)+ 

K* =

1
1
m1 v12 + m 2 v 22
2
2 

'"# / '" ' v2,m2  ; "# / "  v1,m1  
: + 
?B* )+ N  H " )   
.)  F/ ) 
m 1 v1 + m 2 v 2 = 0

∴ v2 = −

m1 υ1
= −v
M

. ", H
 " / " v  M=m1+m2  
∴ v1 = −

120

 m  m υ  m υ
m2v2
= − 2  − 1 1  = 2 1
m1
M 
M
 m1 

2

2

m1m 2 υ12
 m1  m 2 υ1   m 2  m1 υ1 
∴K = 

 +

 =
2M
 2  M   2  M 
*

2

m1m 2 υ12  m1 + m 2  m1υ1 
1
1
2
 = m1 υ12
∴ K + MV =
+

2
2M
2
2

 m1 + m 2 
1
∴ K = K * + MV 2
2
*

:  "   )+ A

ε

= γε *

Q ε = K + M 0c 2

M0=m01+m02  

ε * = K* + M 0 c 2
K* + M 0 c 2

∴K =

(1 − V

2

/c

2

)

− M 0c2

: +
 V2
1 −

c2




−1 / 2

≅ 1+

V << c 

A : + BQ+

V2
2 c2

 V2 
∴K = K + M0c 1+ 2  − M0c2
 2c 

(

*

2

)

≅ K* + M 0 c 2 +

 v2
1
K*  2
c
2

∴ K ≅ K* +


 − M0c2 + 1 M0V 2

2

1
MV 2
2

."    )+ M=M0  

:(7)  
437 MeV '  <'1 ( 8@'# 
x ) > ? #  =     

'  '  
NE  $ 
/ BQ+ .N  "   < 

` (

121 

' . ' 
  @"  . a  "
 1 ( = 
 
.
&* #
:
(1 '"     m  8   
H;  "  m0  M  
 1 (

r
p1 , ε 1 

N : M  .T = 437MeV   <1 ( HB

. "      1 (

r
0 = p 2 ,ε 2

ε1 +ε 2 = ε 3 +ε 4 

(1 "   

:@ 1 (    1 

(1)

.s '  
' 
)+        1 ( ε 4 , ε 3  B' ' '

" >  
B* )+  F- . 3, #  
? '   ' 
B'* % ( 9:     ; =B F- # 
. 1 (      $> 
)- L #
r r
r r
p1 + p 2 = p 3 + p 4

:@     1 

(2)  

    

r r
p 4 , p3 

B-

: 

ε 1 = Τ1 + m 0 c 2
ε 2 = m 0c 2

ε3 = ε4
:  
Τ 1 + 2 m 0 c 2 = 2ε 3 = 2ε 4
∴ε 3 = ε 4 =

p 32

=

p 42

Τ1
+ m 0c 2
2

(3)

2
2
ε
ε
3
2 2
4
=
−m c =
− m 2c2

c2

0

c2

0

(4)

: # (2) 1E 

p 12 = p 32 + p 24 + 2 p 3 p 4 cos θ
r
r
p 4 p 3 

122

.  
  θ  B-

∴ p12 = 2 p 32 (1 + cosθ ) = 2 p 24 (1 + cosθ )
∴ p 1 = 2 p 3 cos
Q p12

θ
θ
= 2 p 4 cos
2
2

(5)

2
2
(
T1 + m 0 c 2 )
ε
2 2
1
=
−m c =
− m 2c 2
0

c2

0

c2

2

∴ p 12

T 
=  1  + 2 T1 m 0
 c 

(4) 1E 

2

 T1

 + m 0 c 2 
 2

p 32 = p 24 =
− m0c 2
2
c
2

∴ p 32

=

p 24

T 
=  1  + T1 m 0
 2c

(6)

:  E (5) 1E 

θ  p1
=
cos
2  2 p 3
2

∴ cos

2

 T1

 c

2


 + 2 T1 m 0


1
 =
×

2
4

 T1 

 + T1 m 0
 2c

θ
=
2

Τ1 + 2 m 0c 2
Τ1 + 4 m 0c 2

:H "     " 1 (  

Q m 0 c 2 = 939.4 MeV

:  B
cos

θ
=
2

437 + 939.4 × 2
437 + 939.4 × 4
∴ θ = 84o

123

:(8)  
2 m0c2
3

F'-  "
1 ( @# 
x ) > ? #  =    + (%"

); <* # /    2  + m0  " < N  "   "# F/ 
' s  ",
)+ < 
$3 
   1 ( @"  .90o  
.N  N  "
)     s`  ",
)+ <1 ( #
:
:@+ s  ",
)+ 1 (    1 N>  D(

ε1 + ε 2 = ε 3 + ε 4
p2 = 0 ,

ε 3 = cp3

,

: 

ε1 = cp1

2 m 0c 2

+ m 0 c 2 = cp 3 + ε 4
3

(1)

: #     1 D(
r r
r r
p1 + p 2 = p 3 + p 4
2 m 0c
= p 3 cos 90 + p 4 cos ϕ
3
p 3 sin 90 = p 4 sin ϕ

(2)
(3)

.(1 "    ? # / "# & 2  )   ϕ  

ε 42 = (cp 4 )2 + (m 0 c 2 )2

(4)

:F/  
&
#  (3) (2) P 

(cp 4 )

2

= (cp 3 )

2

 2 m0c2
+
 3




2

(5)

:O (4)   
)+ (5)   

(cp4)  
1 M 

ε

2
4

(

− m0c

)

2 2

= (cp 3 )

2

 2 m0c2
+
 3




2

(6)

:# )-  (6)   
)+ (cp3)  
1 M  (1)    
 "> 

124

2

5

2
2
 m 0 c − cp 3  − m 0 c
3

(

)

2

= (cp 3 )

2

 2 m0c2
+
 3




2

:F/   . ;   
 
2
m 0c
5
2
= cp 3 = m 0 c 2
5

p3 =

∴ε 3

:  s`  ",
)+ N  H " )   

2
m c2
cp x cp1 3 0
2
β=
=
=
=
ε ε 5 m c2 5
0
3
1
∴γ =
= 1.09 ≅ 1.1
1− β 2

(

)

: O s` F- s 
1 (    


ε 3′ = γ (ε 3 − βcp3x ) = γ ε 3
2

∴ ε 3′ = (1.09 ) m 0 c 2 
5

:H " s` )+    1 ( B∴ ε 3′ = 0.44 m 0 c 2

:(9)   
 ' . '- &
D( 
/ %"
( )+ =  $  . B
P' ? '# 

6
c
7

H '" / " &" . B "  D(  ,

. B' '"   "  )+ * 3I
. & ( P
60o * %
 
H '" *# +  , . B  (    0%  J ("
.. B / " @"  .30o

125

s

r
υ

s`

ε e , pr e , υr e

ε e′ , pr ′e , υr ′e = 6 c
7

‫إلكترون‬

‫إلكترون‬
30o

60o

r
υ

‫ذرة‬
‫متحركة‬

‫ذرة‬
‫ساكنة‬

o

x

o`

x` 

* 3 s` )+ .s )+  
. B 
 - DE( :(1053) 3

.<* # G P
N  
 , F%  " . B

:
r

D( x ) > ? #  s  ",
)+ υ / " =  . B  M 
)+ .(1053) 3  > 8x ) > P
30o * %
  P  - &

r

. B' 9 s  ",
F- " υ / " =  HB s`  ",

.x` ) > P
60o   
 , B- . "  )+
: # s )- s` 
1 (   $> 
" 
cp e sin 30 = c p ′e sin 60

(

cp ecos 30 = γ cp′e cos 60 + β ε e′
∴ tan 30

)

1

β
γ  cot 60 +
sin 60

3
∴γ =
 ε′ 
1 + 2 β e 
 c p′e 

 ε e′

 cp′
e






:@  1 (  1E 

ε e′2 = ( cp ′e )2 + ( m 0 c 2 )
 ε′
∴ e
 cp ′e

126

2

2


 = 1+  m0c
 cp ′e





2

2

:  E 

cp′e = cγ ′e m 0 υ′e
1

γ ′e =

 ε′
∴ e
 cp ′e

(

1 − β ′e2

)

: 

υ ′e =

6c
7

: 

2

2

 = 1 + 1 = 1 =  7 

γ ′e2 β ′e2 β ′e2  6 

3

∴γ =

7
1 + 2 β 
6
1 3+7β
=
γ
9

∴1− β

2

=

9
3+7β

 3 + 7β 
= 

9

2

∴130 β 2 + 42 β − 72 = 0

(5 β− 3)(26 β+ 24) = 0
∴β =

3
5

υ=

3c
5

:(10)  
(10MeV<< ε 0 ) ε 0 F'-  '"
 / 1 ( = 
$    
 

'  '3 
Q  '  1 (  O" .  
  $&# 
ε 0 (1 " $    1 ( F/  
> . 
F/ &( %"  2
.Q  
1 #

127

:
$ '   &
&"   . 
F/ $    ( %" / < M 
.(1153) 3 )+ 9:

$    ? #> N " 
&* #  
: +   
   M  1 (    1 A D(

ε 0 + m 0 c 2 = Q + γm 0 c 2

ε0
c

(1)

:    1 

=−

Q
+ γβm 0 c
c

∴ ε 0 + Q = γβm 0c 2

(2)

Q γ 2β 2 = γ 2 − 1
2

∴ (ε 0 + Q )2

2

( ) − (m c )
+ (m c ) = [(ε − Q ) + m c ]

∴ γ 2β 2 m02 c 4 = γm0 c2

2

0

2 2

2

0

0

2

0

:   . ; 1E ?B* 

Q =

1 2 m 0c2
1+

1 2 m 0c

2

1
m 0c2
2

ε0

:)A 

1
m 0c2 <<
2

ε 0  $ -  



1
9.11 × 10 −31 × 9 × 1016
= 0.25 MeV
m0 c2 =
2
2 × 1.6 × 10 −19

128

‫ 
‬

‫‪10 MeV << ε 0‬‬

‫"‪"  O‬‬

‫‪1/ 2 m 0 c 2‬‬

‫‪ε0‬‬

‫'‪'    ' %
. G‬‬

‫ ‪.(1 " $    1 ( F/  
>
^ F- Q   B* 89‬‬

‫‪ε1 = γm0c2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪p1 = γm0 υ‬‬

‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪Q ,‬‬
‫‪c‬‬

‫الكترونات‬
‫متحركة‬

‫فوتونات مرتدة‬

‫بعد سقوط الفوتونات‬
‫على المادة‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪ε‬‬

‫‪= m‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪p = 0‬‬

‫‪ε‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪0 /‬‬

‫‪ε‬‬

‫فوتونات ساقطة‬
‫الكترونات‬
‫ساكنة‬
‫قبل سقوط الفوتونات‬
‫على المادة‬

‫)‪  $3 
   .. 
)/   + ( %" :(11 – 3‬‬

‫‪.(1 "    1 ( F/ <1 (  
> 2‬‬

‫‪129‬‬

!  % &  

'
'
)+  
"# 
    

  1 (  $ 51
υ  ' 
'

µ 

'

1 2
µυ
2

H "   1 

.L : / " " K( J I" / . 
"#  " / " 
( .0.6c H " x ) > ? #  </ " m0  " < "# 52
.– 0.8c / " N : x ) > ? #  "   < 

R "#

  

"  
  N 3 
    BQ+ 
'
'
)'+   1
&
 / " @ "   

b  1  

)+
&
 
.
:c

(V1=-V2=0.71c)
(M1=M2=1.43 m0)

<'  "  )+ "# ( υ </ " m1  " < "# 53
. 3
     #   

/  + m2  " 
' </ '" '  
"#  "  #  ", 
N "

. 
> 
/
m 2 = m12 + m 22 +

2 m1m 2

1 − υ 2 /c 2
m1υ

V=
m1 + m 2

:c

(1 − υ /c )
2

2 

'  '  1 ( $ +  "  - P
( hν <1 (   + 54 
'  P' ? '#     B* " BQ+ hν/2 F-  "
 
b   B* J 
.ν   %
# ); <* # P
60o * %

ν = 2.45 × 10 20 Hz 

3
130

:c  

'" ' )+  - P
(

4c
5 

/ " "      55

F'/ D(
( )+ " 
* #     * 3    +  + 
, 
  "  m0  $ 
/ BQ+ .(1 " "# "

.  
   
 1 ( # 8  
2 m0c 2

:c
2
m 0c2
3

r

'  "  p
&
  s  ",
)+ b, a  
"# 56
@'# 
x )' > ? #  %"
( )+ a "# =  m0
& 

'  P R %"
( )+ ?  =  HB b "#  (
s`  '",
)+ b "# 1 (  $ .x ) > P
θ * %

H ''"  ''" '' )''+ a ''"# <''+ ''& HB''

2 p2

m02 c 2

ε b′ = m0 c2 1 +

cos 2

θ

2 

H " (1 "    P
$3 
   & )   $  B- 57 
'  ? '# P
 , & )    :N>  O" 90o 
'Y '  1 (  :N   8 cotθ = 1 +


m0c2

:H " (1 "

:1E  &/  $3 

ε

131





 hν 
1



= hν

2
m c 
hν 
 0  1 +

2 

m
c
0

(1 '"    ? # /  , 2    )* ϕ  M + B- 58 
', '1 (  $ +  
J  
  )+ hν <1 ( HB
:A 1E @# 
F(   
T  
T =hν

2 α cos 2 ϕ

(1 + α )2 − α 2 cos 2 ϕ

. α = m c 2 : 
0

* '%
' / ' '1 ( )'- $    # #
" 59
0.938GeV H '"  '   " 1 (  $ 
/ BQ+ .200GeV 

'# ?'  ' 
x "# M0c2  " 1 (  
1 F/ @"   
'" ' )'+    P
1 (  / $    ?B*    
p+ p → p+ p+ x

:A /  
/ @"
.   
 p : B-

M 0 c 2 = 17.58 GeV

:c

. '" * 3 
"

3c
5 

/ " =  M0 <   3 "# – 10

8($   +)
# 3 * "#  * 3 
B* 1 
 
."#  ( P
60o   ? #  M0c2 &
      1 ( 
#  J 3, 
/ 

3
M0
4

$ "#  "   O"
. * %
.# </ " 2   

υ=

132

7c
4

:c

'R '"# ( 2m0c2   <1 ( m0  " < "# 511 
'# '"#  "  # .< D + 2m0  " <  "
.  
   N : 

M 0 = 17 m0 :c

133

‫الفصل الرابع‬
‫)الفضاء ذو األبعاد األربعة والمتجھات الرباعية(‬
‫‪1.4‬‬
‫‪2.4‬‬
‫‪3.4‬‬
‫‪4.4‬‬
‫‪5.4‬‬
‫‪6.4‬‬
‫‪7.4‬‬

‫
‪.‬‬
‫      ‪.‬‬
‫   
 ‪.‬‬
‫
   ‪.‬‬
‫ ‪. !" #$   
%‬‬
‫ '& ‪.‬‬
‫‪. $ (! ) *+ $,‬‬
‫ & ‪.‬‬‫ ) ‪. %‬‬ 

 
 
    

.‫א 
א‬1−4
(x,y,z) ,/+  0/ )- )/$  1+ 23 4, %& 4 5- 

-  ,  : )$  ,7 "  89: .4 .6 4 t )  
/" > /#- 5- =  <   " ) ;  6 
/-  93 @ A ,  ) B 9: )3 .?  . 

.C  $> .+  - C$   & D-  $ ,
)/ ! )/ r2 /  )- F/ E  ;3 D-  . 

:)- 5- ?    " ) ; (x2,y2,z2)  (x1,y1,z1)
r 2 = (x1 − x 2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 + (z1 − z2 )2

= (x1′ − x′2 )2 + (y1′ − y′2 )2 + (z1′ − z′2 )2 

/ / / & (2) ! s ?    & (1) ! $ 9H  
: )7 " ) ; r )- 91 % =)   r A s` ? 
# )K ) )- )$  ) .? 5 $   ,   6
.    " #- 5- #   # )$ > r )135 

/ o %/7 /! ) !  ) 4, @1+ @+   
%/  *+ )3 .(6L1) %$2   $ o ; ! o` # $   F
:)$  s`  s )  $ c  # 
.
)
x 2 + y2 + z2
t2

x ′ 2 + y ′2 + z ′2
=
= c2
2
t′

(4-1)

)  (x`,y`,z`) ! ;3 % t )  (x,y,z) ! ;3 *+ %
: )$ t`
x2 + y2 + z2 − c2t 2 = x′2 + y′2 + z′2 − c2t′2 = 0

! /  4 57 (x`,y`,z`)  (x,y,z) &? )- D   
::  6, #+, .
x2 + y2 + z2 − c2t2 = x′2 + y′2 + z′2− c2t′2

:r 2 − c 2 t 2 = r′2 − c 2 t′2

(2-4)

89: )3 .   " ) )93 ;

x 2 + y2 + z2 − c2t2 

$ 

/2 / .+ (x,y,z,t) ,7 &? ) ! >  
.  ) B 9: ;3 
/  # ! %  $ .- ) 0' 
- ) 
89/: %/& )3 ." ) ; !  $ #F (x,y,z,t)  $ # %
. 
# M! .-  $ ) $   
-   
/# 
     # %&   - )- %6
r 

  r 8  r .+  
4 9 @>- 0, )-  
θ :/ /  z /: ), &3 % (x,y,z) &? ) 

.(x`,y`,z`) &? ) D- 
;3 % 

136

y

y`

x

B

θ

x`
r
r

θ

y` θ

y`

θ

x`

x

=5 ,  %  ;  ,- &&  % :(1 – 4) %$2

.  : θ ) 

=/ K >,  0 ) ) B 9: ! &? % )3
:(1 – 4) %$2 F>
x ′ = x cos θ + y sin θ 

y ′ = − x sin θ + y cos θ 

z′ = z

(3-4)

4 θ   z   % &? )   ) 59 %  9: )3
)/$  ) 93 " )

r
r

  O x`,y` ;3 x,y &? %

: K 6, ; (3 – 4) >,  ) % )x 2 + y2 + z2 = x′2 + y′2 + z′2

%/  / M! ,- &&  %  , %& : (3 – 4) >, 
)/$  )/  ." )

r
r

  C   % : .5 ,  

// $ //  93 //,- @//,- % //2  //! 89//:  //
/ .) / *+ &3  , . %&

x 2 + y2 + z2 − c2t2

: K$ 89: ,7 &? 0,
x1 = x , x2 = y , x3 = z , x4 = i ct

: K  ; )93  $ P $ . i =
137

−1

)- 4

4

∑x

2
µ

= x 12 + x 22 + x 32 + x 24

(4-4)

µ =1

./, !/2 /     " ) ;  $ 89:
C9/$ ; /O /,7 ,7 9 *+ )- ;3 % 
9:  2?   

6 *+ 9# @!!  
- 59 $$ , ;3  " 
" *+ 
/#- ;/ /  % , *+ 9:  .  
/ 
/$ : (x1,x2,x3,x4) &?    $ 5 , %
.,7 ,7 59 *+   
: ‫ א אמא‬2–4 
/,7 59 *+  5 ,  %  26 *2 %$ %6  " 
/,7 /,7 9 */+ % 2 %  ) B 9: R1  M! & &&
.x4 . &? 0+ )' C9 
/# /,  )/$ - 93 &/? )  
@! %  )$
:   ; 7 &?
x 1′ = a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x 3
x ′2 = a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x 3
x ′3 = a 3 1 x 1 + a 3 2 x 2 + a 3 3 x 3

i = 1,2,3
j = 1,2,3

:4

x ′i =

2
i

a ij x

j

(5-4)

j 

/   ,  ) 
%&

∑x

:-

a ij

)- ! %  ;  %  9:

/ 
  93 @ , %  9: A .%  9: 0
:)$ @ , @ %& 7 ,  )- S 9H ." )

∑ x′ = ∑ x
2

i

i

138

k

2
k

(6-4)

:)-   

(x ′j )2 = ∑∑ a ij a ik x j x k
j

k

∑ (x ′ ) = ∑ ∑ ∑ a
2

i

i

j

k

ij a ik x j x k

(7-4)

i

:)$   (7L4)  (6L4) ) 6, D 
0 ⇒ j ≠ k
a ij a ik = 
1 ⇒ j = k


i

∑a

= δ jk

ij a ik

(8-4)

i

)/  (8 L 4) 6, M )- " @ , @ $9 0T %  %, 

.8- !2 .+ (3 – 4) ,  %&  %  )- &3 )$ 
: K  ;  $ )$  (5 L 4) 6, !, 59 %  )3
(9-4)

X ′ = AX

X )- (x 1′ , x ′2 , x ′3 ) / $ ./ %  .+ 
%& X` )- 4 

/ %/& A )- (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) / $ . 7 .+ 

:P $  a ij :, % 
 a 11

A =  a 21
a
 31

a 12
a 22
a 32

a 13 

a 23 
a 33 

(10-4)

:P $ )- $    , )  $ X,X` )# 
& 93
 x 1′  

 
 x ′2  = 
 x′  
 3 

a ij

 x 1 


 x 2 
 x 
 3 

(11-4) 

/! )- @ $9  $ .%  9#  )  : a ij  
/,7 59 */+ / #! )$      89: % 
rr
l 2 = l.l

139

.,7
, *+ 9: 
%! l )- S

:P $ )- )$ 
l2 = x 2 + y2 + z2 − c2t 2
= x 12 + x 22 + x 32 + x 24 

 " ) C O l )-    7 

∑ x′ = ∑ x
µ

2

µ

:)- 5- 
2
λ

λ

: K  ;  >,  $ )K )$  )
x 1′ = γx 1 + (0)x 2 + (0)x 3 + i βγx 4 

x ′2 = (0)x1 + (1)x 2 + (0)x 3 + (0)x 4 

x ′3 = (0)x 1 + (0)x 2 + (1)x 3 + (0)x 4 
x ′4 = −i βγx 1 + (0)x 2 + (0)x 3 + γx 4 

.s`,s ? 5 )   υ = β =

(12-4)
υ
c

)-

γ=

1

(1 − β )
2

)- 4

:%$2   "   ) ,  )$ 
 x ′1   γ

 
 x ′2   0
 x′  =  0
 3 
 x ′   − i βγ
 4 

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

i βγ
0
0
γ

 x 1 


 x 2 
 x 
 3 
 x 
 4 

(13-4)

)- 5- 5/ , %/ /: (13 – 4) /6,   %   )3 
/E    # )7 % ,  # : .(8 – 4) 6, .+ : 
$  # 3 5 )  !   )> C9  
y ):
>   t`  x` ;3 )>  t  x )-  
9$: .x   8 

.%  9# )&'  > z

140 

/ )/$  )- )$  (12 L 4) ,  %&   % )3  
, ) : )$  ψ )  )H  89:  .x1x4 D  
:)  K % 
x 1′ = x 1 cos ψ + x 4 sin ψ 

x ′4 = − x 1 sin ψ + x 4 cos ψ 

x`4

(14-4)

x4

x1

B

ψ
x`1

x`4

x`1

x4

ψ
ψ

x1

O

ψ )  .,- ,-  % :(2 – 4) %$2
.  :

:)-  A+  (12 – 4) 6, (14 – 4) 6,  
tan ψ = i β = i (υ/c )

(15-4)

%/ )- %/ @+ =   )  )- R   9$:
%/ ) /- >3 =/,- ,- 59 5 , *+  @  , 
:)- R   %  >,  (15 – 4) 6, ) . 
cos ψ = γ

,

sin ψ = i βγ

:   ; %    $ $  )93

141

 cos ψ

 0
A=
0

 − sin ψ

sin ψ 

0 
0 1
0 

0 0 cos ψ 

0 0
1 0

(16-4) 

  ,  P$   
,     1 :- )
.  P+ !  , %# 93 

' , )$      
)-   R  
4/ =( A µ ) /: ./7 / $

r
A 

/: 
)$ 93 = $ .7 

/# %/ /  #/ ! % .7  $ 89: = µ =1,2,3,4
: K %  , P $ 9$: .    xµ &?
A′µ =

∑a

µν A ν

(17-4)

ν

:)- 4
a µν




= 

−

γ
0
0
i βγ

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

i βγ
0
0
γ







(18-4)  

.‫ אא 
א‬3–4
89  59 ! .,7 ,7 59 *+  C  @ 
)- S
)/, 3   8 )$   , ! ;  $ %  

∆xµ M )H C9 @ .
$ % F>  $   xµ &? 

/

∆x µ
∆t 

/ )- >3 @/+- 
: ! 9: ; ) ! )

.  3     @ 6 9' ∆t     )7 @ @#

142

)       ;  ∆τ D-     
3 )K %
89: ; % .?  . 
 " ) ;    )&
: K ! .   
:P $ (2 – 4) 6, )

(∆x)2 + (∆y)2 + (∆z)2 − c2 (∆z)2 = (∆x′)2 + (∆y′)2 + (∆z′)2 − c2 (∆t′)2
(∆r)2 − c 2 (∆t)2 = (∆r′)2 − c 2 (∆t ′)2
1

2

1  ∆r  
∴ ∆t1 − 2   
 c  ∆t  

2

1  ∆r ′  
= ∆t ′1 − 2 
 
 c  ∆t ′  

2

1

2

::       )$ C9 @

(

∆τ = ∆t 1 − u 2 /c 2

)

1

(

= ∆ t ′ 1 − u ′ 2 /c 2

2

)

1

2

(19-4)  

  u`  u )- ." ) ; ∆τ )- 7 6, ) F
:  ; s`  s ?  
:) µ=1,2,3,4 =Vµ .7  $    
)$ 93

∑V

2
µ

=

µ

∑ V′

λ

λ

2

(20-4)

:)- 4
Vµ =

dx µ

(21-4)

.xµ / $  %&  
# %    # ! %  
9:
./  
-     
# C9
: K$ P  89: $ 

143

dx
V1 = 1 = 1 − u 2 /c 2

(

)

V2 =

dx 2
= 1 − u 2 /c 2

V3 =

dx 3
= 1 − u 2 /c 2

(

(

−1

)
)

dx 4
= 1 − u 2 /c 2
V4 =

(

2

−1

−1

)

dx
=
dt

−1

2

(1 − u

dz
=
dt

2

/c 2

)

y&

dy
=
dt

2

2

x&

(1 − u

/c 2

)

/c 2

)

2

z&

(1 − u

2

 d (ι ct ) 
=
 dt 

ic

(1 − u

2

/c 2

)

















(22-4)

:)- R  . 
  *
3 U& >,  89: ) , %$ ! . 

(x& + y& + z& ) − c = u − c

(1− u /c ) (1− u /c ) 1− u /c
∴ ∑ V = −c
2

2

Vµ2 =

2

µ

2

2

2

2

2

2
µ

2

2

2

2

2

µ

(23-4)

:6,  $ $  
$ %   $  

∑ V′ = ∑ a
µ

µ

µv V v

µ 

/ )$ (18 – 4) 6,  :  $  aµν   , >
:  $    K %  >,
v 1′ = γ (v 1 + i βv 4 ) 

v ′2 = v 2


v ′3 = v 3

v ′4 = γ (− i βv 1 + v 4 )

(24-4)

:   ;    #  $ )$  (22 L 4) >, 


vµ = 


r
u

(1 − u

2

/c 2

,

ic

) (1 − u

2

/c 2

)






.5 > *+   


144

(25-4)
r
u

%& 4 

. ‫א 
א!מ‬4–4
. !"   # : 

:6,    0,

pµ = m 0vµ = m 0

dx

µ

= m

dx

µ

(26-4)

dt 

9: $ P $ . 
$  $ m0 )-   Vµ )- 4
: K$ 

p1 = m 0

dx 1
=

p2 = m0

dx 2
=

p3 = m 0

dx 3
=

p4 = m0

dx 4
=

m 0 x&

(1 − u

2

/c 2

)

m 0 y&

(1 − u

2

/c 2

)

m 0 z&

(1 − u

2

2

)

/c 2

)

/c

m 0ic

(1 − u

2






= m y&




= m z&


iε 
= i cm =

c 

= m x&

(27-4) 

/$ @/  /2 5 >   $ )- 8- >,  ) F 
/ $ /: % ,  )$ ,7 ,7 59 *+     

.)$  $ ) @> 
:)7 )$ )- P 
 $ " ) ;    

∑p

2
µ

(

)

= m 2 x& 2 + y& 2 + z& 2 − m 2 c 2

µ

(

m02 u 2 − c2
=m u −m c =
1 − u 2 /c 2
2

∑p

2
µ

2

2 2

= −m 02c 2

(

)

)
(28-4)

µ

:P $ " ) ;  $ 89: )-  
145

∑p

2
µ

∑ p′

=

µ

= −m 02c 2

2
λ

λ

(29-4)

:6,  $ $  
$ %     )$   

∑ p′ = ∑ a
µ

µ

µν p ν

(30-4)

λ

:   
$   %  >,  A 9$:
p 1′ = γ (p 1 + i β p 4 )
p ′2 = p 2
p ′3 = p 3







p 4 = γ (− i β p 1 + p 4 )

(31-4)

:   ;    P $ (27L4)>, 
p 

$   -

 r iε
=  p,
c

µ

p 3 , p 2 , p1



$  5 > *+   
p %&  4

. p 4 = c # ,
r 

/# , )- )$  ε $ 6! )- @+ )$ (28 L 4) 6, )
: K$   >

∑p

µ

2

=

p12 +

p 22 +

p 32 +

p 24

=p

2

2
ε

c

µ

∴ε =

(c p

2 2

+ m 02 c 4

2

)

= − m 02 c 2

(32-4)

) 6!  %  , )- (31L4) >,  ) @+- A+ ) 
:5- , 6, ) # % )$  s` ;3 s ? 
p ′4 = γ (− i βp 1 + p 4 )

∴i

ε ′ = γ  i ε
c

 c

−i

υ

px 
c

p1=px :)- 4
∴ ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x )

146 

/ " ) ; S, . #+  # 
)- $9 )- 
.&$ %1 %   )- )$     

  6! )- S =) 
  M,  %&  )K . 

m 02 , m 01 

#$/ /  $ . p 2 , ε 2 &  
  6! 

/ 

r
p 3 ,ε

r

3

r
p1 , ε 1

%7

%7 / 
  6! )$   , .  ;
r

)      %   6! F )6 M!  . p 4 , ε 4 &
: K$    # 
  )$  )
p 1µ + p 2 µ = p 3 µ + p

(33-4)

r iε 
r iε
p1µ =  p1 , 1  , p 2 µ =  p 2 , 2
c 
c


r iε 
r iε
p 3µ =  p 3 , 3  , p 4 µ =  p 4 , 4
c 
c

:)- 4





 

*
3   " ) ; 6 )V$ >,  89: ) 
.%$2 (33L4) ,   $ , C9 A+  .'  89# , 
p1 µ + p 2 µ − p 3 µ = p

[(28 – 4) 6, F>] : )$ ,  89: ! . 
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
− m01
c − m02
c − m01
c + 2 p1µ p 2µ − 2 p1µ p3µ − 2 p 2µ p3µ = − m02
c

∴ m 01 c 2 + p1 µ p 3 µ + p 2 µ p 3 µ − p1 µ p 2 µ = 0

(34-4) 

/ &  
 F 4 s ?   % 6    ,
:)K  A =  %6 )$ 

147

r
, p2 = 0

ε2 = m02c2

:5 (34 – 4) ,      %&  5, P+ %
r r
p 1µ p 3µ = p 1 .p 3 −

ε 1ε 3
c

p 2µ p 3 µ = − ε 3 m 02

2

= p 1 p 3 cos θ −

ε 1ε 3 

p 1 µ p 2µ = − ε 1 m 02

c 2 






(35-4)

89/: S/,  /  , (%7) !6  
 2   θ )- 4
:R  (34 – 4) ,   6,

cos θ =

ε 3  ε21 + m 02  − ε 1 m 02 − m 012 c 2
c


p1 p 3

(36-4)

.    )  
6! >  2   !, 7 6, 
/  M,    #2 6 P $ )- .!  # ! B H 
.&  
ϕ  2 
 ε1

2
 2 + m 02  ε 4 − m 02 c
c

cos ϕ = 
p1p 4

(

)
(37-4)

:&
'"   # :  % 
/ / 
- /  ; O Fµ @
@ #
%
:& )  )   ,  )$ 91 .
Fµ =

dp µ

(38-4)

:  %$2 6, 89:  $ )$ 

(

Fµ = 1 − u 2 /c2

148

−1

)

2

d  dxµ
m
dt  dt




(39-4)

r 

/ ;7 4& $  )93 .  $ m = 
 u )- 4
:P $  f  >  ;3 P 
fx

F1 =

(1 − u

2

/c 2

F2 =

,

)

fy

(1 − u

2

/c 2

,

)

fz

F3 =

(1 − u

2

/c 2

)

: , $   C9$
F4 =

ic

(1 − u

2

)

/c 2

dm
i
= .
dt
c

1

(1 − u

2

/c 2

)


dt

(40-4)

./6!  $ -  
 $  " 59   %,  3 F4 P )93
:)- 5- " ) ;    
)-   )K

∑p

2
µ

= − m 02 c 2

µ

:)- %

dp µ

µ

∑p

=0

µ

Fµ = 0

(41-4)

µ

(41 – 4) /,  / $  .Fµ  Pµ )  , "$ C9  )$ 

:R   P4F4   23 %,
 $  "
Ρ 1 F1 + Ρ 2 F2 + Ρ 3 F3 = − Ρ 4 F4

fx

(1 − u /c )
2

2

. mux +

fy

(1 − u /c )
2

2

. muy +

dε r r
= u .f
dt

fz

(1 − u /c )
2

2

muz =

:W$ 89:
− (i cm) i d ε

(1 − u /c ) c dt
2

2

(42-4)  

>   
59 %,  : ε =mc2  $   "  %, )93
r  

.6!  $ ) 6, ) $U9  . M  : . 
; @"2 f 

%  >,  $ $  
$ %   ).

149

‫‪F1′ = γ (F1 + i βF4 ) ‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪F2′ = F2‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪F3′ = F3‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪F4′ = γ (F4 − i βF1 )‬‬

‫)‪(43-4‬‬

‫‪/, ; % (43 – 4) ) , ,    $ )K A+‬‬
‫ ‪.6! %‬‬
‫‪υ‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪Q F 4′ = γ  F 4 − i F1 ‬‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪dp x ‬‬
‫‪dt ‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪−1‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪ u2‬‬
‫‪dε‬‬
‫‪− i β 1 − 2‬‬
‫‪ c‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪−1‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪i  u2‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪= γ 1 − 2‬‬
‫‪c  c‬‬
‫‪dt ′‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪dε ′‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫‪dt = dτ‬‬

‫‪ u2‬‬
‫‪′‬‬
‫‪dt = 1 − 2‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ c‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫‪−1‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪i  u ′2‬‬
‫‪∴ 1 − 2‬‬
‫‪c ‬‬
‫‪c‬‬

‫‪ u2‬‬
‫‪Q 1 − 2‬‬
‫‪ c‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪dp ‬‬
‫‪dε ′‬‬
‫‪ dε‬‬
‫‪= γ‬‬
‫‪−υ x ‬‬
‫‪dτ‬‬
‫‪dτ ‬‬
‫‪ dτ‬‬

‫∴‬

‫) ‪∴ ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x‬‬

‫‪& 5–4‬א  א‪ ."# $%‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪p‬‬

‫ ‪&& ,7 59 *+  5 >   )- M   X‬‬
‫‪ r iε ‬‬
‫!‪$ @ .  p, c  @ @#
$  : )$   
ε $ 6‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ ‪/  
C C ∗, 0F   )  ) C 6!  $‬‬
‫ ‪:;3 Y   )  9# )$ 0$‬‬

‫]
‪[M % ) (4L3)  .‬‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪r hν‬‬
‫‪p = n‬‬
‫‪c‬‬

‫!‪:;3  6‬‬
‫‪=hν‬‬

‫‪ε‬‬

‫∗ وفقا ً لفرضية آينشتاين يمتلك الفوتون صفات االزدواجية الموجية‪-‬الجسيمية عند االنتشار و الحي‪9‬ود و الت‪9‬داخل‪ ،‬فتظھ‪9‬ر ص‪9‬فاته الموجي‪9‬ة‬
‫و تختفي الجسيمية‪ .‬أما عند تفاعل الفوتون مع المادة كما ھو الحال في الظ‪9‬اھرة الكھروض‪9‬وئية و ت‪9‬أثير كمبت‪9‬ون فتظھ‪9‬ر ص‪9‬فاته الجس‪9‬يمية‬
‫وتختفي الموجية‪.‬‬

‫‪150‬‬

.)  $ 8 



s

r
n

C & h =  ν )- 4
r
υ

s`
hν c
‫حركة الفوتون‬

hν ′ c
‫حركة الفوتون‬

θ

θ`

o

o`

x

x` 

"  .s  x . θ  . 8 
C  )  :(3 – 4) %$2

.x` . θ`  . s`  )  )

 r h ν ih ν 
,

c
c 

. n

%$2

 r iε 
 p,  
 c

  $ $  )    

s ?   x-y D    C  @ @  )K S
./ θ`,θ )  / / $ 8/ 
./ 4 s` ?   x`-y` D  
r
A

)/$ 93 .(3 – 4) %$2   $ ;  ; s`,s ? 5  x`,x )&>
:) @ @#







υ


A ′4 = γ  A 4 − i A 1  
c

 
υ

A 1′ = γ  A 1 + i A
c

A ′2 = A 2
A ′3 = A 3

4

(44-4)

:; % )     ; >,  89: M! 

151

υ 

ν ′ cos θ ′ = γν  cos θ −  
c 


ν ′ sin θ ′ = ν sin θ


υ



ν ′ = γν  1 − cos θ 

c

(45-4) 

/ c / / !" #$  
*+ )- )K   93 
  
89:  ν  - ?  . 
  : Z 
/: ν` )-  x &> . θ :  .+ #: 
s ? 
)'/ /& )- $ > x` &> . θ` . #: 
s` ?   
>/, /: / # 
  #3  ;  8 >,  
>, )  .s` ?  ;3 s ?  )      
% 
:/ / /6         
2  8 
)- 0$ 89: %  
/  
2  8 



r
n

r

)- 4 (nν, i ν ) : @ @#
$

.(4 – 4) %$2 F> .: ν )-   
s

s`
r

o

r
υ

‫العمود على‬
‫جبھة الموجة‬

r
n ′ν ′

θ

‫العمود على‬
‫جبھة الموجة‬

θ`

x

o`

x` 

# #
  , .   !" #$  
:(4 – 4) %$2

.θ`   s`  # #
  , . .s  θ

;/3  /    
 
%  h/c   )K + 93 
/6!   / )- */+ / F 9$: .  n λ ,

r h i hν 
  
c 

152 

"

%/! )- / $

 r iε 
 p,  
 c

 $  : )$  )  )1, 

"/ @/ @#
$  : )$       
    

.  n λ ,

r h i hν 

c 

)/ /&$- /, 5-) =1923     [, ( 6  
B,2> )$ 9 - (C 6!  $ $ #F ; )  ) ) 
/6 /  )- S - )$  )  =@ 
@$ C 6 0F S,   

)  S   .D- Y0F  @ 
@$ @+ C
%/! )  (   
)> 0, )  
# =( $>)  
89/: X ) .)  #2    . P      
89:
/ 
/$ 6! .     )- .6  *+ .   =+
 r iε 
= 
  
)1,      
%!      p, c   

 

/

r
n

)- 4/ =  n λ ,

r h i hν 
 /  

c 

 

 $ =.6 :  $

. 
    
2  8 


)/$    ε

=hν

C 6 )$ 6 ' C9$  ( 6

89/: /  / 
    
 : ν 4 =  
; #!
 r h iε 
n ,
 "/ /  /  
/ 
P $ )- )$  
λ c

:5   )' @+ .6  )- $  
-

 r iε 
 p, 
 c  

  

r rh
p=n
λ

λ =

h
p

(46-4) 

/6 4 =# 6 )  . , @
 &U    6 : 
#!/   $7  :2  1927   
 ) ) ,

153

‫; !‪\/ 7  
; .! % ) #     %$ )  A‬‬
‫  ‪. :F  , # :  $‬‬
‫  ! ‪:5    
υph‬‬

‫‪h ε ε‬‬
‫= ‪.‬‬
‫‪p h‬‬
‫‪p‬‬

‫)‪(47-4‬‬

‫‪c2‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪u‬‬

‫‪m 0c 2‬‬

‫‪m0u‬‬

‫) ‪(1 − u /c‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫= ‪υ ph = λ ν‬‬

‫) ‪(1 − u /c‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫= ‪∴ υ ph‬‬

‫  
‪:5 # υg \ 7‬‬
‫‪dν‬‬
‫‪d (hν ) d ε‬‬
‫=‬
‫=‬
‫‪dp‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪h‬‬
‫‪d  d ‬‬
‫‪λ‬‬
‫‪λ‬‬

‫)‬

‫‪1/ 2‬‬

‫)‪(48-4‬‬

‫‪dε‬‬
‫‪=u‬‬
‫‪dp‬‬

‫‪dω‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪dk‬‬

‫= ‪υg‬‬

‫(‬

‫‪Q ε = c p 2 + m 20c 2‬‬

‫= ‪∴ υg‬‬

‫‪)/ C9/ .u  
 5    
υg  
 )93‬‬
‫‪   (\ 7 ) 
-)    
5   
%& $‬‬
‫‪.@    # ∗  %   #‬‬
‫‬
‫‬
‫‪ .'( 6–4‬‬
‫‪) /+  #/+, )$ 9 *   
-    #  P 
)3‬‬
‫ ) ‪)- F/ ./$   D - 9 ) &,  ,27‬‬
‫  ‪/  )/ / /$ ;/  , ,2> 89# 5:F‬‬
‫ ‪.:2‬‬
‫∗ تتحدد الصفات الجسيمية بالطاقة ‪ ε‬و الزخم ‪ ،p‬أما الصفات الموجية فتتحدد بالتردد ‪ ν‬و الطول الموجي ‪ .λ‬و يربط ثاب‪9‬ت بالن‪9‬ك ‪ h‬ب‪9‬ين‬
‫الصفات الجسيمية و الموجية أي بين الطاقة و التردد بالعالقة ‪ ε=hν‬و كذلك بين الزخم و الطول الموجي بالعالقة ‪.p=h/λ‬‬

‫‪154‬‬

s

r
υ

s`

B`

B
r
r′

r
r

o

θ

‫المصدر في‬
‫حالة حركة‬

υ

o`

x

θ`

x`

‫المصدر في‬
‫حالة سكون‬

)  t : B ;3 2? % ) .s  C   :(5 – 4) %$2
)$ s`  .'  )  : (t-r/c) : o  #&,

.r`/c )  % ,6 " > @$   

/  o` %7 !  )$   @! @*+ @  ,
r 

F :  $ x` &> 8 
υ  F   C  59 s` ? 
/$ / / 1+   )$ s ?   .(5 – 4) %$2
r 

/  /F  4, *+ )- )K S .x &> 8 
υ 
*/+ )- S .t=t`=0 )  o` ; ! o %7 ! # $
t )/ / s /?   )$   B !  :2  %

) , .(5 – 4)%$2  F :  $ t` )  s`  B` ! %
:$   

:" s ?   
ψ=

A
cos 2 πν (t − r/c )
r

:" s` ?   
ψ=

A′
cos 2 πν ′(t ′− r ′/c )
r′

s ?  )    $   
%  # ! B H
ν    %  >,  $ $  =[(45 – 4) 6, F>] =s` ;3

: K$ ν` 

155

ν ′ = γν (1 − β cosθ )
ν ′sinθ ′ = ν sinθ
ν ′cosθ ′ = γν ( cosθ − β )

:; % ;7 ; & ,   
sin θ

sin θ ′ =

γ
1 − β cos θ

(49-4)

:; % && ; & ,   
sin θ

tan θ ′ =

γ
cos θ − β

(50-4)

r 
/ /   $ 8 
. r 
#,     θ )- 4
r
;/3 5    8
> . r ′ 
#,     θ` ) s ?
r
υ
D/H  &' !,  8- 4& >,  ) ;7 ,  P $U .

:) "
ν =

‫أو‬
ν =

ν ′ 1 − υ 2 /c 2
υ
1 − cos θ
c

ν ′ r 1 − υ 2 /c
r r
υ.r 

 r−

c 

(51-4)

2

(52-4)  

/ 5- / ,    &' )& (52 – 4) =(51 – 4) ) , 
)- / $ .:/2     ) $ ! 8 
 *+  )$
*+ 4, F  :2  .6 8 
   $ : υcosθ
.%7 !    )$   5- =  )
%  6   )$ :2  .6 ;3 *+  % 59 6  
/ " ; 6   )$     89: %  ,6 ) VE
;/7 1/+ /2? # &,   F  .6  ;  . $ 
/6, )/  ; ,6  $ .
)- D 9 .  '  .6  
/ / (t-r/c) 8/6 )  '    .6 ;3 , (52 – 4)

156

%/6 )     :      : %&  ν`  s ?
;3   '  .6  ) 
:

r
r

 .s` ?   :2
.F  !

(51 – 4) /,  )/ # % )$    
%!  )3 

/  *+  )-   .  
%!   ) 6,  
:)$ s`  s ? 5
λν = λ ′ν ′ = c

∴ λ = γ λ ′(1 − β cos θ )

(53-4)

r

r

)/ @/    )$ s ?   r ;3   υ )$  
:" ;3 (51 – 4) ,  %  .cosθ=+1 =θ=0 )$ :2 
c+ υ
c− υ

ν = ν′

(54-4) 

93 %/&  .:2  ) @    )$     *+  )- 5=θ=π )/ */+ 4/, /  :2  ) @, @$   )$
:" ;3 (51 – 4) ,  %   cosθ=-1
ν = ν′

c− υ
c+ υ

(55-4) 

/! / :2 %6 )  :  $ %  89:  *+  )- 5! ;     $ =θ=90o   .s ?   F 
:) F  !   .6 ) %
ν = ν′ 1 − β 2

(56-4)

=γ 5 % , ν` ) %6- 5:F   )- 5-

(

γ = 1− β2

157

)

−1 / 2

:)- 4 

.% -", )*‫א‬%+‫א‬7–4
%/! )/ $   $ A! ; 1+ B,2 !  
C/9 !6/   
%! @ ,  5- ="  $,  *+   

.  @, - 1+ B,2 8 
C  A! )$ 93    ,
(!/ / */+  $,? )6  )- )K 
) 6,/ /&       
% >,  , > , $ 
.(50 – 4) =(49 – 4)
y

s

y`

r
υ

s`

‫الضوء الساقط‬

‫الضوء الساقط‬
λ ′, ν ′

λ1 , ν1

o

α1
α2

r
υ
λ2, ν2
‫الضوء‬
‫المنعكس‬

o`
x

α
α

x`
λ ′, ν ′
‫الضوء‬
‫المنعكس‬ 

s  $ T  !6 *+   
%! "  :(6L4) %$2
.s`  $ T ) $,   " )  $ $, 

/ 8 / ; 5  8 
@$ *+ @$ @!  ,
)- S/ .(6 – 4) %$2  A+ :  $ s ?  

r
υ 

F  

 D   A! 9: ; ! λ1 
%! ν1 8 @1+ @,2
%/! ν2    , ) α2   $, B,2 )- S  α1 !
)H s ;3 

r
υ 

F   C  59 s` ?   .λ2  

/ .%$2  A+ :  $ )$   )$ D   $, A! 
/ )/$  s` /?    > $,? )6 M! )$ 

158

.λ` / 
%/! ν` *+  )- $,?  ;3  α !
:!6 *+ 
:)-  
s` ?   : 

θ′ = π + α

: )- 4
sin θ

tan θ′ =

γ
cos θ − β

:)-  
s ?   :  %
θ = π + α1

:)- 4
:‫ نكتب‬s`،s ‫ بالنسبة للضوء الساقط في محوري اإلسناد‬
ν ′ = γν(1 − β cos θ )

tan (π + α ) =

sin (π + α1 ) γ
cos (π + α1 ) − β

∴ tan α =

sin α 1 γ
cos α 1 + β

∴ ν ′ = γν1 [1 − βcos (π + α1 )]
∴ ν ′ = γν 1 (1 + βcosα 1 )

(57-4)

(58-4)

:‫ نكتب‬s`=s ‫ بالنسبة للضوء المنعكس في محوري اإلسناد‬
θ′ = − α
θ = −α2
sin (− α 2 ) γ
∴ tan (− α ) =
cos (− α 2 ) − β

∴ tan α =

sin α 2 γ
cos α 2 − β

ν ′ = γν 2 (1 − β cos α 2 )

(59-4)
(60-4)

:6,  $ $  ( 59L4) ( 57L4) ) 6, ) 
sin α1
sin α 2
=
cos α1 + β cos α 2 − β

159

(61-4)

%/6 ) O :  $ $,>  !   ) !   6, : 
/ F   C  $, A! )- D 59 s ?   :2
r

.!6 B,2 ) @  x &> 8 
υ
.α2<α1 )- (61L4) 6, ) F

:; % (60 – 4) = (58 – 4) ) 6, ) 7 0!  
ν1 (1 + β cos α1 ) = ν 2 (1 − β cos α 2 )

ν 1 1 − β cos α 2
=
ν 2 1 + β cos α1

(62-4)
ν1λ1 = ν 2 λ 2 = c

:)-   

λ1 1 + β cosα1
=
λ 2 1 − β cosα 2

(63-4) 

,2]   $  .+   # >,  89: )3
.$   $ (! ) $, 
1 >> β , υ << c

:)-  

λ1
−1
= (1 + β cosα1 )(1 − β cosα 2 )
λ2
≅ 1 + β (cos α 1 + cos α 2 )

:)K .+

λ 2 = λ 1 + δλ 1

δλ 1
= λ 1  1 +
λ1




:R  (63L4) 6,  S, 
λ1

δλ 
λ 1  1 + 1 
λ1 

≅ 1−

δλ 1
= 1 + β (cos α 1 + cos α 2 )
λ1

∴ δλ 1 = − λ 1β (cos α 1 + cos α 2 )

:)$
α1 ≅ α

2

cos α 1 ≅ cos α 2
160

1 >> β )-  

;/ $,> 4 , *+  
%!  % 59 "  )  
/  )/U : υ  F   !6 B,2 ) P  $ A!
:)- 4 δλ1
δλ 1 = −2 λ1β cos α1

(64-4)

)/$ υ  F   !6 B,2 ) @,  $, A! )$  
:;3  *+  
%!   C:
δλ1 = 2 λ1β cos α1

(65-4)

S/, %6 ) 
-    
   . @  M R1  89: )3
..+  89:  )   * ,

161

:
"( "%
:(1) ) % 
/  / !  C  ε1 $ 6! m01 $  $ 

57 $ 6! 
.m02 $  $ )$   
  F  
/# 
@  / /  %6  $ $   )  
)
.6!   
: ),,,(
P/ $ )- /$  " ) ;  # 
) P+ % )-  
: K P+ %

(p1µ + p 2 µ )(. p1µ + p 2 µ ) = (p1′ µ + p′2 µ )(. p1′ µ + p′2 µ )

(1) 

/ 
/ 
p2µ )- !6  
 
p1µ )- 4 
)  
) )# 
p`1µ = p`1µ )-  .s ?   )$
.s` ? 
:)-  
6!    # 
<1 ) 
 r ε +ε2 
p1µ + p 2µ =  p+ i 1

c 

 r ε ′ + ε 2′ 

p1′ µ + p′2 µ =  p′+ i 1

c 

r r r
r
r r r
p = p1 + p 2 = p1 , p ′ = p1′ + p ′2 = 0
r
r
∴ p1′ = − p′2

, p1′2 = p′22

r
, p2 = 0 ,

:)- 4

ε 2 = m02c2

:; % P+   *
H

ε 
ε
p − 1 + 2 
c 
 c
2

162

2

ε ′ ε ′
= − 1 + 2 
 c
c 

2

 2 ε 21
p −

c2


2
 − m 02
c 2 − 2 m 02

ε 1 = − ε ′2

2

c

ε ′ = ε 1′ + ε 2′
2 2
2 2
∴ − m 01
c − m 02
c − 2 m 02 ε 1 = −

:)- 4

ε ′2
c2 

/?   F $ 6! ; 7 6, 89: ) % C9
:)- 5- s`

(

ε ′ =  m 01c 2

) + (m
2

02 c

)

+ 2 m 02 c ε 1 


2 2

1

2

2

(2)

:5 -  
(1) ,  %&  P+ % ;3 D-  . 

p1µ . p2µ = p1′ µ . p′2µ
∴−

ε1 ε 2

ε1′ε 2′

= − p 1′ 2 −

c2

∴ m02 ε1 = p1′ 2 +

c2

ε1′ (ε ′ − ε ′) = p′ 2 + ε 2′ (ε ′ − ε ′)
1

c2

 2 ε 1′2
=  p 1′ − 2

c


+

2

c2

2

ε 1′ε ′
c2

m 02 ε1 = m 2 01c 2 +

ε1′ε ′
c2

:; % 7 6, ) 

ε ′ = (m c ) + (m c )ε
2 2

2

01

1

02

1

ε′

:)-  
%& 

ε ′ = (m c ) + (m c )ε
2 2

2

02

2

163

01

ε′

1

:(2) ) %
@,/23 3  - $ 
)   
F  S,   
/7 )/$ 9H/ 0.8c 5  # @,   )$ S7  
  ) 4,   1200Ao 5  
%! ! !!
.^$  
F  0!  ! 9:  
%!   .)$
: ),,( 
9/ =B,/2?  59   % :2  )  
,    -  
:6,  
ν = ν′

c− υ
c+ υ

c
c
=
λ
λ′

c− υ
c+ υ

λ = λ′

c+ υ
= 1200
c− υ

1.8
0.2

∴ λ = 3600 A o

:(3) ) %
C/   T ; 5  %$2 6000Ao 
%! *+ !
:P- .3x107ms-1  !6 *+ 8 
) @, 
.$,  *+  
%!  % "  :@>:P- .45o 5 !   $  T  ; *+ ! 93

.$,  *+  
%!  % "  :@>.$,>  :@&

164

: ),,(
:6, M! :@>λ1
1 − β cos α 1
=
λ2
1 + β cos α 2

α1=α2=0o :)-  

λ1
1−β
0.9
9
=
=
=
λ2
1+ β
1.1
11

∴ ∆λ = λ 2 − λ 1 =

11 λ 1
− λ1
9

2
2
λ1 =
× 6000
9
9
4000
=
= 1333 A 0
3

=

:@&
∆λ = 2 λ 1 β cos α 1
= 2 x 6000 x 0.1cos 45

= 840 A o
λ1 1 − β cosα1 1 − 0.1× 0.7
=
=
λ 2 1 + β cosα 2 1 + 0.1cosα 2

:@&&

6
0 .93
=
6 .84 1 + 0 .1 cos α 2

:)-  
7 6, 89: ) 
α

2

= 53

o

:(4) ) % 
/" ) ; ∑ Vµ2 )- R    @ @#
%&  Vµ )$ 93
µ

.  

165

:),,,(
/ 
/# %/    # ! %   =
Vµ )-  
:)- 5- xµ 
V 1′ = γ ( V 1 + i β V 4

)

V 2′ = V 2
V 3′ = V 3
V 4′ = γ ( − i β V 1 + V 4

)

:; % . 
  *
3 & )  >,  89: ! . 

∑ V′

µ

2

[(

)

) ] +V

(

= γ 2 1 − β 2 V12 + 1 − β 2 V42

2
2 +

V32

µ

= V12 + V22 + V32 + V42

∑ V′ = ∑ V
µ

2

2
λ

µ

λ

:)-  
r

u
ic

Vλ = 
,
 1 − u2 /c2
1− u 2 /c2

(

) (

u 2 − c2

∑ = (1 − u /c )
∴ ∑ V′ = ∑ V = − c
Vλ2

)





2

2

λ

µ

µ

2

2
λ

2

λ

:(5) ) %
%/ , s ?   %7 !  8 
 ε 6! )  
/  
%/ >/, @   .y &> . α : 
.
   
@   C  )  :2 4 s` ?   )  6! :@>.P y &> 8 
%7
.? 5 )   :@&

166

:),,,(
s y

r
υ

s`
‫اتجاه الفوتون‬

‫اتجاه الفوتون‬

α
θ

θ`

o

x

o`

x`

α 

:2 s  y &> . α    8 
. )  :(7 – 4) %$2

.s`  y & P 8
> %7  @$

=ε`=hν` )- S/ .s /?     ν )- 4 ε=hν )- S 
/  
%/ >,  , > .s` ?     ν`)- 4
:P $    !" #$

ν = γν ′(1 + β cos θ ′ )

(1)

ν cosθ = γν ′ ( cosθ ′ + β )

)/  ) : S,  . θ ′ = 2 

(2)

θ=


−α
2

)-  
(7 – 4) %$2 ) 

:; % (2)  (1) ) ,  

 3π
hν = γh ν ′ 1 + βcos 
 2

∴ε = γε
 3π
h ν cos 
−α
 2



 3π

=
γhν
cos


 2


∴ −ε sin α = + γ ε ′ β

167





(3)


+
β



:)- R  (3) 6, ) ε = γε` )-  
β = − sinα

υ = − c sinα
∴ γ =

∴γ =

1

(1 − β )
2

1
cos α

∴ε

168

′=ε

cos α

- ). /  
9H/ .@ $ )$ T )  . ! ε $ 6! C  . )  L1 
# 
  R   .m0 : )  )$  $ )-  
s`  $ $     %6 F $ 6! )-   6!

. [2 m0c2 (ε + m0c2 )] 2 :5
1

0/ /  9/#   
@$ )$  %& T . 
! L2
5   %6 $ 6! )-   9H .30o   !6  

/ 6! )- /6!  /  # 
  & . $ 6!
.  , 4& ;3 %  $
@   .m0  # %$ $  $ =)& ) 
)  % – 3 
/,  #: 
)     
6!    # 

.s ?  -         
/# 
./
) 
 @1+ @,23 % 1+  – 4 
C    )$ 9H .s`  :2   )$   :
!/  - / /:   s  :2   c/3 5  F 
.  )      0 + 59 1+ 
/, s /?   P  
x &> 8 
2  1+  
– 5

x 

/# 
%/ >/, @   . y = A sin 2 πν t − c  ,  #
 

/?     
 ν` )- 4 ν`  ν ) 6, 

.s ?    υ  F   C  59 s`

169 

/ )$ :2 )   C $ 9 ) 4, B,23 F – 6
C/ ) 4,  B,2?  )-   9H .1015Hz 5 B,2? C9 
9/ / P/- .5x1014Hz 5 )$   : 9
.$ 

υ=0.6c :\ 

& @  #! ;  , s` ?    &   T – 7 
/$, /& T  A! ; x`y` D    1+   ! .x` 
/O :  $ $,>  ϕ )- !  : θ $ 9H . 
:,  ;!, ϕ  θ )   ) 6, )- R   .s ?  
cos ϕ =

2

)

+ c 2 cos θ + 2 υc

υ 2 + c 2 + 2 υc cos θ

.? 5 )   υ )- 4
5 / /- ;  59  
- 0!  $ , ! ! – 8
%/!  2 0!   ! )$  3968.20Ao  
%!  )$
.3968.49Ao   

/ )/$ %:  2 F   
C9 ,U2  :  :@>^P 6 - ,  
@ ,U2  5  
C9 +,    )-   93 :@&
,/+ "   ' 1+  4.3 5  2 ) 8, )- 
^ 10 % *   
/:  /$ / - #$ )- P 
     :@ &&  

/  %! "  F ! ; (+,  ) @  C
C9 ) *+  )$  %:  0.29Ao   (3968.49Ao) 5 >
^5  -  
) 4,  *+
@  22kms-1 :>
@ - 

:@& :\ 
, =3600kms-1 :@&&
0.01o

170

‫الفصل الخامس‬
‫الجسيمات األولية(‬
‫) ُ‬
‫‪1.5‬‬
‫‪2.5‬‬
‫‪3.5‬‬
‫‪4.5‬‬
‫‪5.5‬‬

‫  
 ‪.‬‬
‫  
‬
‫       
‬
‫   ‬
‫      ‬
‫"
!  
‪.‬‬
‫
 ‪#
 $‬‬ 

     

.  ‫ אא 
א‬1−5 
)  ' *$"  *$"  
( % 
&   ' 
  " 
1/ 20  &  3   '- . /0 .% ! + ,
!'"  

1/ 1 210 17   03  '0" 4  " 56 , 
%1 " ( 6   ! # " ( 6 %3 , ( 9  
: 58
(1 103 : 
=   
> 6  " ?" : < ;&  '   

(;" : 1932 . 6   D 5 @ 5' " A3B C ;  / 
" C1 +1 .% 20 %  
  
E  D37 F
& :  ' >3 
1 1
%1 ' 2' .G ;  % 
' %3 
20 ; 5: 
. %5 ?:   H8 ;8  
 
.9 
1   
 ( 


20 D3 8 %6  0 5' ;C / 
1
41 * 20 ; $" 9)   : ; 2 ' 85    
F1$
! 
;" ! : <2   I  
>" 
5 6

 
172


;
 
 ‪ .1  
1  1  20  
 8 :  3‬‬
‫‪./   B!'" ? 
' H   >3 2 E 85J‬‬
‫‪H 1 
 8  / 20 %  
? ,
. $ 6 E 85J 3B‬‬
‫ 
@  
 ? ‪1' H K1 ( 6 ;  ' 
2‬‬

‪ 1; / . 2 ? %;   9:   =   
: ;
C8‬‬
‫( ‪.   .    
 8  /‬‬
‫ ‪21B  1
' 6 H8 .  ( 6  
8    
@$‬‬
‫‪H8 D3'  (T3) =' 
(T) >C . ( 0  ! 
 23 .‬‬
‫‪1  
1  + 
20 FN
;C 2 %  
' 6‬‬
‫"'!‪.2  8 2  8 D3' *  2
' 8 B F 65 B‬‬
‫  )‪   
:(1O5‬‬
‫الصنف‬

‫أسم الجسيم‬

‫الفوتونات‬

‫الرمز‬
‫الجسيم‬

‫اللبتونات‬

‫الميزونات‬

‫البايونات‬
‫الكايونات‬
‫الباريونات‬

‫الكتلة‬

‫الضديد‬

‫‪MeV‬‬

‫البرم‬

‫الشحنة‬
‫معدل العمر‬
‫‪s‬‬
‫الجسيم الضديد‬

‫فوتون‪ ،‬جاما‪ ،‬كم‬
‫الكترون‪ ،‬بوزيترون‬
‫نيوترينو الكتروني‬
‫ميون‬
‫نيوترينو ميوني‬
‫بايون متعادل‬
‫بايون مشحون‬
‫كايون متعادل‬
‫كايون مشحون‬

‫‪µ+‬‬
‫‪νµ‬‬

‫)?( ‪0‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪π0‬‬

‫‪135‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪-16‬‬

‫‪π-‬‬

‫‪139,6‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪-8‬‬

‫‪498‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪K‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪γ‬‬
‫‪-‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫مستقر‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪0,511‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫مستقر‬

‫‪νe‬‬

‫‪νe‬‬

‫)?( ‪0‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫مستقر‬

‫‪µ−‬‬
‫‪νµ‬‬

‫‪105,7‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫‪2,2.10‬‬
‫مستقر‬

‫‪π0‬‬
‫‪π+‬‬
‫‪0‬‬

‫‪K‬‬

‫‪-6‬‬

‫‪1,8.10‬‬

‫‪2,6.10‬‬

‫‪-10‬‬

‫‪0,9.10‬‬

‫ھايبرونات‬

‫‪K0‬‬
‫‬‫‪K‬‬

‫‪493,7‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪1,2.10‬‬

‫بروتون‬

‫‪P‬‬

‫‪P‬‬

‫‪938,3‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫مستقر‬

‫نيوترون‬
‫المبدا ھايدرون‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪939,6‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪920‬‬

‫‪Λ0‬‬

‫‪Λ0‬‬

‫‪1115,6‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪Σ+‬‬

‫‪Σ+‬‬

‫‪1189,4‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪Σ0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪Σ‬‬

‫‪1192,5‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪−‬‬

‫‪Σ‬‬

‫‪−‬‬

‫‪Σ‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫‪Ξ0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪Ξ‬‬

‫‪1315‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪Ξ−‬‬

‫‪Ξ−‬‬

‫‪1321‬‬

‫‪1/2‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪+1‬‬

‫سيجما ھايدرون‬
‫كساي ھايدرون‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪1197,3‬‬

‫‪-8‬‬

‫‪-10‬‬

‫‪2,6.10‬‬

‫‪-10‬‬

‫‪0,8.10‬‬

‫‪-20‬‬

‫‪6.10‬‬

‫‪-10‬‬

‫‪1,5.10‬‬

‫‪-10‬‬

‫‪2,9.10‬‬

‫‪-10‬‬

‫‪1,64.10‬‬

‫   )‪>1 +   
 
; 
 .C8
 (1 – 5‬‬
‫‪ 1   10 (1 1$ 
  
( 6   20  
8‬‬

‫‪173‬‬

‫ 
   < ‪<.  ( 6 )  . 
 
(8 2 ! 
8‬‬
‫"
‪ 
0 <A .  ( 6 )  . 
 
( 6 >0 + ! 
8‬‬
‫ 
)‪A1 .  5 .  ' #  #
 , :%
6‬‬
‫‪1  3B (0 . 
 
8 8
280 ,  
8
" .2 ( 6‬‬
‫ 
 
 
   
   ‪1' B
6" )8
 D3 
8‬‬
‫   
‪1 6 1 6    )R   
% ,
 /‬‬
‫‪1  1
' C   I
8   / .(10-23s)  2B /‬‬
‫‪2 1$ .1   ' ; 2   
    
  ( 6‬‬
‫ ; ' ‪16 (1  F 5
2 $ .  '   20  ' 8
5‬‬
‫‪. 1
' '5 ( 6 :  ( ' 
B  '  >" 2 $ .   ;& /‬‬
‫‪.  
= 5 "  .  ! 
>3  
( 6  , S: . :‬‬
‫‪(1 4 1  %1  H8 6  . " @5' 1933 . 6 20‬‬
‫‪.1 
15 1' ;  'J  ' = "  >3 ' 85‬‬
‫
‪6 ( .  3B "  (e+)  
 =  
  .  3B 2‬‬
‫‪1:  =1 1
;
'  0 6  3;    (e-) 'J  =& /‬‬
‫)‪ ' 

 
.( ") 'T '  :  2B (0.511MeV‬‬
‫   ;   ‪5) 1 20 ;5 . 2    
6‬‬

‫– ‪+1   
D3'   'J ' " ' 


.(5‬‬
‫‪H8 20 ' .(*)(νβ) 2')   ( 

 ' 90‬‬
‫  ‪# = 2" . B  
  
F) (µ-)  
+8‬‬
‫‪1 ' 1/ %1
(207)  8 2 '  = ' 6
'J & $‬‬
‫‪.H8 /8
' /! ' =" >" 'J‬‬
‫‪1 K ?
( 6 :  ' 85 " @5' 1936 . 6 20‬‬
‫> ‪(1 1
) 1 (1 4    'J    
2B  
( 6‬‬
‫'(< 
" )‪1 .  B (µ+) V0 <'T  .  B (e+‬‬
‫)*(‬

‫الرمز )‪ (νβ‬أو )‪ (νe‬للداللة على النيوترينو االلكتروني أما الرمز )‪ (νµ‬الذي سيرد الحقا ً فيدل على النيوترينو الميوني‪.‬‬

‫‪174‬‬ 

1
F)1 < 1
(1 6 % 1 
> ) 3 
<N   B <

@$ 
8  ' (   
 B D3 ( 6 4  W 'J
:2  ) 4  <(1.5x10-6s)
µ − → νµ + e− + νe

.21 ( 6 2 
 (νµ)  2'J   
( ν e ) + 
 ') 4 $ >3 (νe)
B  
6 ;C ( 8 3B 

!  
6

X: 

;0 5' . +   
4 $ >3 (νµ) 
2    (
Y (µ-,e-,νe,νµ)   
A3B  .1963 . 6 ;'
1; <(2 – 5) 1 20 ;5: 
. 2 8  6   
.     (1O)    'T (1+)  6"
. (1947) . 6 3
0      2;0 8& 5   ;
" 

6 ; ;
(21) @5' + %/ 
G   ; 
' 6 @ 5'
.6 / %  20  ' ;
 0 3 <(10-10s)  @$ 
1 
15        

B   ; 
 6  
,1 +1 ?   
) F & ; F   ' A3B  
(1O)  1  1  (1+) = 
: ' 2  8 C  /

.     
=158 
6 " " F$ >    B6"  0   

" 
1
1/7 >     ' "  (K)   '  (π)    2B    

1 1B π-  (π-,π+,π0)    
E" !!   .  ' 
1B π-  π+ 11 @1$ 
6 "  =   B π0 "  π+ 1 
(1.8x10-16s) A1/
@1$ 
8 0 (  = 0 π
" <(9.6x10-8s)
0

.(π-,π+)  
E " ; 6 " ( 6  3B

175

. 18 -1  1 @ 5' 
F
6 56 " : >" 1936 . 6 20 
6  / 
   ' /0 2 ; ' D3'       ' 2   
1
%16 >  :   '  20  8 
    B
91 16 ' 85 20   @5' 1947 . 6 20 .0 '
.9& : 20 C 2 ;

1
B 61 1    ' 1/2 >   ' ; 0   '
"
(1.2x10-8s) B K+ 1 @$ 
6 ( K 0 , K − ) 2B  ;  
(K0,K+)

.(0.9x10-10s) B K0 1 
1;V0 3   %0 [8 2B    ; ( 
   H8  
1
/!" '   
," 2B  6 / %  20  
D
A31B , 
(Ω)  
"  (Ξ) > '  (Σ)
'  (Λ)  
2B   
1 '  18  1  8Y D3  <  ' 4 $   

. D3 4  .(10-23s)  

%
1014 1 :"  
 G F
"
.* C  : ,
. 18  10 < 1  8
I      20 >" 1955 . 6 20  
1  %1 @$/ \ >3 P   5' =6
 
5 
1 210 E 
3B    .6 GeV >  ' ; :   
(4-5) 

18
1  . (n) 1  @5' /0 1956 . 6 20
"
;1    ' 
 ' =  F " 5  8
A  0 5
.   2B  
) \ "   "  =& / 6 (  
 
‫אא‬2–5
.1 8 1:  I 0 / ,    
" @8 


?1: @$ ( 6  : ' "  6 2*   
A3B  .; 2' 
6 1 A3B ( 6 I I / 
) 3 . ; 
0 $ 2 6 

176 

 
')     ; . 2   * 
;' 6  :2B 
1 '  (π)      . +  6  (  * 
;' 
1 1; .1 6 1 @81" 21B 2  : ! 6  .(K) 
1
E1 31; ;0 . :  (2 : !  

') <(G)  0]
(F!1
.  ') %' ' 3 .   + 6  A3B .6 

.F %'  8 ;8 6
.10    
E" H8  + 2 8 6 
" 
31; ;0 . 
' 2B   
A3B   . ; (W)   
 
.D3 K (2 – 5)   6  
E
.  6  (2O5)   

   

   

%/
1 

6  
111/ 



10

-2  

* 
;'

(ω) .

10-13 

8

(G) 0]

10-40 

: !

(γ) 1  (P) 1 (e-) 1'J <1   
 

B & $ ; ( P )    (e+)  <   

>1 .1  ('  :  ") '   ' % 
& ;' 5 ' 

1 2B  
  
A3B " + ) : 
8 8
 . 
1  210 K

' 2& ;) 
6 8
; 2& /  )  %/

.(3 – 5)

177

.   
H8 & $ H8 :(3O5)   

8 

' 
'  : 
MeV
me ' 

. 

5 %
(e)

1

0

0

0

(γ) 

1/2

-1

0.511

1

(e-) ')

1/2

+1

0.511

1

(e+) 

1/2

+1

938.256

1836

(p+) 

1/2

-1

938.256

1836

(p+)  

s 
8

.  

6 1 1  1  1 ' K  3B 20 2'
3-1 +1 (1) / 6       <  * 
;' 
1' K1   * 
;' 6  ( 6  !
' '  6 
A 1/ 210 'J " C (1 – 5) '5 20 .
;     

 ( 'J 0 Pγ 2 . εγ >  :  F 
B F 0 +8 
3B  $ 
.  

8
%0 8 (u << c) u >  6  
61   1 
( B8  >3 B / 20   
'J :  

1 18 1 1: F
& C
2 . " H0  <u ;  
1'J    
(∆εγ) :  4  
) D3 K . 
.(∆t)  
%0  
1:  1' A 1/ 20   
'J 
2
B  + 8 :
. " H0   .'T (ε0)  ' '  :  6 % 6 2B . C 
1'J 2 F 
K 
@  + 8  0 F$ >  2 ' 2
:" >" (Pe) A/

P e = mu = P γ =

εγ
c

(1-5)

.=6 u  'J  ' m " +

178 

1: + 8) 8 ε  ' :  4  ' 


:  C  : 9
:2B   $
) 
6 +

ε = ε0 + εγ 
!- 
B   20

+T

1 mu 2
2

(2-5)

>  'T ' :  T " +
. 
:>  'J    
:  3

∆ ε = ε − ε 0 = T+ ε γ =

1
mu 2 + ε γ
2

(3-5)

:"   (1 – 5) :8  

εγ

= cp

γ

= muc

(4-5)

:( 6 $ (3 – 5)  8 
20 (4 – 5)  8 
H8
1
mu 2 + muc
2
 u

= mu 
+ c
 2

∆ε =

(5-5)

ε

(6-5)

∴ ∆

∆ ε = muc = ε γ

:( %  8 
 u<<c " 

(7-5) 

1 2
B  :  2B   
:  " (7 O 5)  8 

\ 
(*) 

1 ! =*$ D ; / "
   .∆t ( 
 
%0
.∆ε :    ;  . 2  
% A3B 4  ' 



∴ ∆t =

h
h
=
∆ε
εγ

(8-5)

: 0 εγ=1eV " 6 3
∆t =

10 − 34
= 10 − 15 s
− 19
1 × 1.6 × 10

. ∆t∆ε ≥ h ‫و الثانية ھي‬

179

∆x∆P≥ h

(9-5)

‫)*( ھناك صيغتان لمبدأ الاليقين لھايزنبرك األولى ھي‬ 

10 3'B .10-15s  B     
" (9 – 5)  8 

C
4  ' 


 .   "  
(   :" :  2B 2  
:2^ ' ∆x 'J  $ 0
'"
∆x ≤ c∆ t ≤ 3 × 10 8 × 10 − 15 ≅ 3 × 10 − 7 m ≅ 3000 A o

t
∆t 

B

A

x
.'    * 
;' 6       :(1 – 5 '5) 

D13 31'B 
1 
B    0 " B B C 
   
1  =1$ $ 
.1  0 <%5 
%$ ;  ' 
)  
.A 'J X: 
=! 8 C 
F %$:  
%0 8 B 'J
4  ' <:  C / , ) 
B   " '3 " 2* 
1 1;'  
2 %& :   0 ∆t  
% *$  / "

. ∆ ε ≈ h / ∆ t :8   ! 

=:  4  20 / 
:" 2B
O1 

"  O  3- 0 /  6     
"

.D3 K (2 – 5) '5 < ;      ' K (' 

180

p

t

p
π0

n

p

t

t

n

B

B

π+

p

A

π-

n

A
p

p

p

A

p

B

n

x

x

x

(O) / 6        :(2 – 5 '5)

.(O) (O)

%1/ 16 @1  1; 0 31 ?1 
%$:  %/ " @8 
 

0 1 
210 F$ 
K$  %/  .? 
    *  

1
$: '       
 0 3 (*)(1.4f) 2 
'" 2B 2
% ' (c) I 6  /   " 0  .     

:( 
 6  
  
      

R
1.4 × 10
=
c
3 × 10

∆t =

− 15

1
× 10
2

8

− 23

s

:(∆ε)   
:    ' 


/ "
.  
∆ε =

h
10 − 34
=
∆t
1 / 2 × 10 − 23
= 2 × 10 − 11 J = 60 MeV

::8 
   '   ' 
3

επ
∴ mπ

= m πc2

ε
= π
c

2

=

∆ε
c

2

=

2 × 10 − 11

(3 × 10 )
8

2

= 2 × 10 − 28 kg = 200 m e

1f=10-15m (‫ – )فيرمى( أو في بعض المصادر )فيمتو‬f (*)

181 

1 ' 1/ %1
200 >  %
 '    "    A3B 
C
.$     & $  (4 – 5)   <'J
.   & $ :(4O5)  

π0

π-

π+

264,30

273,3

273,3

(me) '   '

134,97

139,58

139,58

(MeV) '  : 

0

-1

0

0

+1
0

0

0
1,8.10

-16 

$ 

(e) 5
.

0

2,6.10

-8

2,6.10
+

2  * 
.8
-8

(s) 
8 8

+

π 0 → γ + γ (98.8%)

π − → µ − +ν e

π → µ + ν µ (99.99%)

π 0 → e + + e − +ν e (1.2%)

π − → e − +ν e

π + → e + +ν e (0.01%) 

) 3 

@81 6     %/ 
G    
.C8
 
1  1 ^ H8  (10-23s) > 6    /
  
6- 
1 
  
A3B 
 (10-16s) 2 
6  2  * 
;' 6  
1 D31'  5 
G 5 
  ' 5 
   
K 2   ! 
.5 
G  5 
  ;  A
:  ( (K+)
π

K

+

→ π+ + π0

0

γ+ γ 

'1   20 (K+) .  =0 '    
20  3- ;  
:2B (0.1c) 6  π0 .  ; D 2 0 
" 
x = 0.1ct = 0.1× 3×108 ×10−16 = 3×10−9 m = 30Ao

.1  ;C 3 <6 / %  20 ( ;N ' 
) %*$ 0 
A3B 
:0  π+ ( %5 
 >3 (K+)

182

K

+

→ π+ + γ+ γ

:2 
' @8 6     ;V0 5 
  
"
µ − + νµ

µ + + νµ

-

π+

π

e− + ν

e

e+ + νe 

1 = 0 π0
" <(2.6x10-8s)  2B π-  π+ 
' @$ 
6 
.(10-16s)  @$ 
6 = 2  * 
;' 6    0 (
210 " '   20 2B  %/ 
G    
 
6
. C :  
B  ' 
C)
'  
80 <'   
1B F 15
F 
1  ! 
 ( 6 8 .:  ,
 ' C 2 

20 x 2!) A   υ 
C
6  '   20 B  (π+)   
3B  
80 .(a 3 – 5) '5 20 K

' ( 
  
) s   J
,1
θ  ,$ >3 (µ+)  
B 7 5
. (  . 
x 2!1) ,
ϕ  ,$ >3 (νµ) 2 
 ( x 2!)

.(b 3 – 5) '5 20
'
s`  1 J 1
(  
.  / A3B ) 
6   8 
 

1/0 .x 2!) A   υ 
C
6  D >3 ( ' '
 
)
A 1 ) #' 18
A 1   +8  
" ( 6   
3B 20 . C 
'15 20 K

' x 2!) ,
α 
;
' ,$  
) : s`   J 
20 ' ;0  
" .) 8 (b 4 – 5)
.(a 4 – 5) '5 20 K

' 
"  1
16-  s`  1
1 J 1
1
21
10 1
1) 1
1
6 ^ #1
1
2 ( 6   
  
' '  ' 2B (mν, mµ, mπ)
.21 (1 6 1 1 
     ' :  ε ν′ , ε µ′ , ε π′ " 
183 

1: 
.

ε ν′ >   . p ′ >   
. " H
µ
c
:4' . C

r
r
p ′µ + p ′ν = 0

(10-5)

::  C : 


ε µ′ + ε ν′ = ε π′ = mπ c2

(11-5)

ε µ′2 = p′µ 2c 2 + (mµ c2 )2

(12-5)

ε ν′2 = p′ν 2c 2 + (m ν c 2 )2

(13-5)

:" +

s

s 

µ εµ ,pµ ,mµ

επ,mπ

θ
ϕ

υ

π
20   
'   

ν εν ,pν ,mν=0

o

o

x

x
‫( بعد االنحالل‬b)

‫( قبل االنحالل‬a) 

(b) .) : υ 6  '   20   (a) :(3 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.   8   

:( 6 $ (10 – 5)  8 


c 2 p ′µ 2 = c 2 p ′ν 2

:" \ (13 – 5) <(12 – 5) :8   8 )  

εµ′2 − (mµc2 )2 = ε ν′2 − (mνc2 )2

(

)

∴ε µ′ 2 − ε ν′ 2 = m 2 µ − m 2 ν c 2

184

(14-5)

:( 6 $ F 7 (14 – 5) <(11 – 5)  8 


(m
ε′=

π

(m
ε′=

π

2

)

+ m µ2 − m 2ν c 2

µ

2mπ
2

(15-5)

)

+ m 2ν − m µ2 c 2

ν

(16-5)

2mπ 

1 1 
.   ' :  ! 
  8 
" C
210 B    .  =0 + >3 s`   J 
20 2 ( 6
.'   

20 p′ν   p′µ  

' . 4  ^ ' 



:"  0 s`   J
c p ′µ =

ε µ′ 2 − (m µ c 2 )2

(17-5)

c p ′ν =

ε ν′ 2

(

(18-5)

− m νc2

)

2

m π c 2 = 273.2 m e c 2 

2
2
m µ c = 206.8 m e c 

m ν c2 = 0


m e c 2 = 0.511 M eV 

:" 


D3   T v′ ' :  
 T µ′ ' :  4  ' 

:'0 (16 – 5) <(15 – 5)  8 
  8 ) 
Tν′ = ε ν′ − m ν c 2

ε ν′ = 29.8 MeV

∴ Tµ′ = ε µ′ − m µ c 2
= m π c 2 − ε ν′ − m µ c 2

(

)

∴ Tµ′ = m π − m µ c 2 − ε ν′

:( 6 $ % 1 8 
20
Tµ′ = 4.1 MeV

185

m µ c 2 , m π c 2 , ε ν′ 

' .: H8

.1  = 1  ' 
10 1) 8  
  

' .
"
:'0 (18 – 5) <(17 – 5)  8 

p ′µ = p ′ν = 29.8 MeV/c

(3 – 5) '5 20 K
B
' ='   (π+) .  

υ

s`

s`
π

ε µ′ , p ′µ , m µ

α 

'  

o`

υ
α

µ 

ε ν′ , pν′ , mν

ν 

o`

x` 

) : (a) 

) 8 (b)

=0

x` 

  8 (b) .) : '   20   (a) :(4 O 5) '5 

 
 ' 8
B     

./ 
 

1
20  
  

' .   ' :  4  ' 
3 

:   .   ) 8 
 8 ) 8 ( 
  
) s   J
:2 
'  s ( s`    

υ

p µ cosθ = γ  p µ′ cosα + 2
c

p µ Sinθ = p µ′ Sinα

εµ

(ε ′ + υp ′ cosα )
µ

µ

ε µ′  







(19-5)

210  . " x` 2!) ,
(µ+) .  ;8$ 2 α   
'3    
 .) E ( 8 F*
F
6 8 s`   J 

.7  
( /
G . >"     K$   3B "

186 

1 ' m02  m01 "   
.  '   ' m0 " 0 3 0
(16 – 5) <(15 – 5)  18 
 10 <) 
  
  ' 

:  *$   '  ! 
 ( 6

(m

)

2
2
+ m 01
− m 02
c2 
ε 1′ =

2m0


m 02 + m 02 2 − m 02 1 c 2 
ε 2′ =

2m0

(

2
0

)

(20-5)   

 ‫א א‬3–5 
!  
90 . : 80 <0$ 9 6 %  0 5' ;C /
@1$: + 90 ? : .;
6- 9 8  
4   
2 <(    ') < (K − )   
  6 / %  20  ;
?1 1! 
(5 O5) '5 <   8
  H* 3; B . 

81  ; 1$0 '
" 2 ' 
  
08 
; / . 2 $
.(8 /
  *
 & ;' )
) 6  

  * 


+1  
1
$ 3" 2  *

20 8 6 / %   
 
, 
.  5 # : ( 6 !  6

< ;0  $ 2
./
  !  ; 
2
(1 6  
20  6 / 0 !'   "  
3B 20 @ " 2*  

( 6 3B 6    
6  F / F/ (6" :   
 

1
210 . 
8 3B " ( % 5J   . % 
  
6

0

,P

)  1  1
1'  
1  A31B "  ;'

.(1 – 5)   20 ;$& $  2 (K0,π+,π-)   

187

-

π+

π

P
-

π
-

π

π+

Λ0

Ξ
K

-

- 

:     '   6 / %  20  ; @$: 
6 :(5 – 5) '5

.  * 
& ;' )
.  ' 
  
$0 .

K1 1$    C I ( 6    
  5:   

3 @1$/ 1 
15 15
π+ E1 1
 
 ' 
6  
6 4'  .:   6     ' @;'  ;
:2^ '
P1 + P 2 → P + N + π +

' π+   N  P 
;6 \ P2,P1  
$ 
  
0 F / ;  '   '
;    " 
.A6" K

.140MeV >     %& 8 D  2B   
'  :  
" '1 1  210 1' >3 @; B P2  6 3 ' 
1' I 6J _Y : %' ' :   0 <' . = P1 :  
.%  
 ;  
' 
) 3 '    

 
 
$  

B 6 ' 
P2  P1 " 0 
"
.1  . 1$  ' :   0 A ) 20  ' 8
 / 
20
.  
  
 ;8


188

481$" 8  ' 8
B  20  
$
 

.  
6 
41  
1  
%  
.  " 
(/) 
8   

.F ' F 0B
βc

s`
P1

βc

s`

υ1=βc

υ2=βc

m,p

o`

P2

P

N

π+

m,-p

m0,0

m0,0

mπ,0

x`

(a)

o`

(b)

x` 

: 2 ' . . ' 8
B    '   (a) :(6 – 5) '5
. '   20  
!! (b) .F$ >  6 
.6  
6 8 B

+1 <s`  1 J 
20  ' 8
B      ^ 8
.(a 6 – 5) '15 C1) F$ >  . $ 
6  2 ' . ' 
0 / 
 βc >  . $   20  
' 6 " 0 3
βc ( 
' " 4  4  
x 2!) A   s`   J 
6 

8  '   20  " =0 B 5  >3 s   J 
(   
'15 20 K

'  β1c >   ! 6  A D ^ <@;
.(7 – 5)
s 

D

m1,p1

β 1c  

' 

m0,0

o

x
20 !

7  D  :(7 - 5) '5

.s 20 @; 8 '  

189 

 20 ;8
% 
  
" . $ 8 <s`   J 
20 C 
1 ' 

:" :   ;0 '   2B  .(b 6 – 5) '5 '
.=  H*  @$ ) ' :   ) =    

E 3B
:'0 s`   J 
20 :  C  : ^ 9

ε

= 2 mc 2 = 2 m 0 c 2 + m π c 2

(21-5) 

" 1 
> '   ' m0 "  . C   ' :  ! 
ε " + 
'1  1 ' mπ "   ' 20 @ @) 6 C H* 
.5 
  
:"   2m0c2 ( 6 %  8 
20 
/
m

= 1+
m0
2 m0

(22-5)

:" 

mπ=273me
m0=1836me

: 0 'T '   ' me " +
m
= 1.074
m0
m0
= 0 . 93
m 

" 

1
1' β 61  1! 08 
%  
/ A3B .  3 ' 
0
.( ' '
 
) s`   J 
20  
$ 

Q

m
= γ =
m 0

1

(1 − β )
2

2

m 
∴ β = 1 −  0  = 0.135
 m 
∴ β = 0.37
2 

 0 ( 
  
) s   J 
20 F ' p2   ' 3 
.F / 1 1'3
' s   J  
  β 6  D " 4  s`   J
190

=  ' 
0 s   J 
20 β1 6 = ' p1  "   3'B
(1 s` 
E   .   .s`   J 
20 β ( 
6
:"   s
β1 =

β+ β
1+ β2

=


1+ β2

= 0.65

:( 6 $ 3B 

m =

m

0

(1 − β )
2
1

:( 
' π+     
T ' :  3
T = mc 2 − m 0 c 2
=

m 0c 2

(1 − )
β 12

− m 0c 2

= 0 . 31 m 0 c 2

:" 

m 0 c 2 = 938 MeV
∴ T = 290 MeV 

1
F1 : 1'" :  A3B .6  3B !
+ '

:  :" 2B 
( 
     
:  A3B  .   %& 8 '  :  @8 
0 ' G '  
/ A3B 
:" :  -0 <6  
8  
8 :  
1!' ( 6" ;:    .  D3 <  

E 3B !
 J
.6   
8 :    

‫א‬4–5 
18
210    8
.  =6 @5'     . / 
1/: 1   
 `  3B :  .1955 . 6 2 ' 20  ' 
1 1  ( 6 : " ( 6 $ . ' 85 6  H8
.

191

210 K  ..  3B  F 6 : !'" D3 ,
8     '
4 1  $    C 20   J  
.  '  3B  ;
..  3B  J  
8 :  
1 ' >  = ' F  F 
D B " ( 6  : =6 

5 \&  
I1  8  .=   . π- E 
40000 2  
  
>3 4  .  3B  ' " 8/
%$  .   ' /  :
F / F 08
 ' >3  .   .  ' 
F : =0 5' .
=1" 1!  
) 3B ' 4   ; " B  $ 
A3B =  
1'T 1  :  
 D3 )  A3B !
20 F # 
18 , 
A
 =8
'J I / " 6  A3; F 8 ' 
1"   '   .  \;  # / 
5 . : / .F F*$ ' 
1 
.  :  )  
%0  % 
  
6 # : >" 
B
' 4.3GeV 2 6 $ 
4/ \;  "    / \& 

" .  
' " 4   A3B " \  3B 
 .,:

:2^ 6  4  2;0   C 2 I 0J 
6
Ρ + P → 4 π + + 4 π − + xπ 0 

85" & ;   ' +  %6 20 D3 8     . 
1:  (1 % 1 
 2    A3B      ' 

.&  
'  
20   =8
 .
=  ' 
)   " " " 9
. $     –    ' 


. 6) =$& $
:2^ 6  4   
Ρ1 + Ρ 2 → Ρ1 + Ρ 2 + Ρ + Ρ 3

.> 6) 20 J  P3    Ρ " 3
192

βc

s`
P1

υ1=βc

υ2=βc

m,p

o`

βc

s`
P2
m,-p

m0,0

o`

x`

(a)
. $ :

P2

P1 

' '
 

P

m0,0 m0,0

P3
m0,0

x`

(b)
. $ 8 

6  : 2 ' . . ' 8
B    '   (a) :(8 – 5) '5 

6 8 '   20  
8" (b) .F$ > 

.F C
2 ' . I / ,
6 

>"     20 %3 
D  ; 5
6  
E 3B  J /  

20 6  8 '   20   
,
;0 ' 2   20 
1
6 1 (8 – 5) '5 . ' '
 
2B   
A3B .8
   
1:   <F$ F 
2 ' . ' + s`   J 
20 . $ 
'1  1:  1
'" " ( 
' " 2*  
3B 20  '
:" $ 8 :  6 3 .8

(*) 

 ' 

ε = 2 mc2 = 4 m0c 2

m
= γ =
m0

∴ β2 =

1

(1 − β )
2

= 2

3
4 

1
210 '   20 @;  B P2 " ?" %
0 3 
=1   1 J 1
210 p1 :     
6   0 s   J
[(9 – 5) '5 C)] :> 

.‫يطلق على البروتونات والنيترونات داخل النواة بالنيوكلونات‬

193

(*)

s
P1

P2

βc 

D

o   

'

x  

   

^ @; B '
B"   :(9 - 5) '5
.s 20 A D

β

1

=

2 β
1 + β

2

1
4β2
∴ 2 = 1 − β 12 = 1 −
γ1
1+ β2

(

∴ γ1 =

1+ β2
1− β2

(1 − β )
(1 + β )

2 2

)

2

=

2 2

= 7

:" + ε1 ( 
 ' =:  ' " 4  P1 .$ 
 3

ε 1 = γ1m 0 c 2

= 7 m 0c 2

:( 
T1 ' =: 
T1 = γ1 m 0 c 2 − m 0 c 2 = 6 m 0 c 2
Q m 0 c 2 = 0.938 GeV

:( 
:    ' :  ' 3
T1 = 5.62 GeV 

" F / 1 '3
' 2 ' 8
2B   8
 H8 ' 
/ A3;  
1
 / ( 6" >" <6GeV >  ' :   8
  ( 6 $
.6  +  
8 : 

194 

‫אא
א‬5–5 
1 6  10    ' 
   ' 



B1 16 ;  :   '  
 'J " C .: 
<1 ' ( F 7  =   " ^ $ ;0 .
D 1B " 3 \1  . F 1C
. ' ) A3B   = 
3B 
" 0 3V0 .3 % ' " F) 
!'  ' ' : 7 F 

C1 1: 91 6  ; '    0 % B  
, .  
1 
"  F' F 
4 ' ; 0 %' %  ' ) <:  .
. B  
:    
 6 :  
1' 1:  "   '   / $  \&  ( 6  
6) 
A31B 8 ' 
3 ..  2 . p " 3

Ρ2
2m

>  m = ' .  

1 :  .C8
" / K$ 3'B .%' m $" 3 %*$ : 
.1 1 ( 6 % 
8 
  'J 
' ( /
.. $ 
6  2
) 1:   6  0      
E 3B " F 
6 C /
I215 >"  )  ; 
:  :" " .G  'J ( 6 /0 $/ 
1  1J 1 
(1.022 MeV) 18 :  
!' ( 6" B 7
:'5  4' 6  
6  < –'
γ → e+ + e− 

1 
6 #'6 B 6 ' 
?" 
6 D B " B '3      

1J 1) .! <=  .  .    
6  2B O  
1 1
F  
; 6  6 'J  0 .85
: 
:2^ ' ' 6  
6 .F C
. I / F F 0 #

195

e+ + e− → 2 γ 

eO 'J 6 @5' # " ( 6 
8    @ 

21 8 
$ 20 .  
6  .=  : 20  3  e+
,15 
3B   .90o >  
85" ; 6 /  2 ,5 
(  

1 .2& ;' # *
2:  %$ 
I; 
G
%  
D31 2
1 
A ) 20 % 6    C   

' 
1 1^   
B" D0 2  * 
 
   0 
1
6 210
85  ' :  " 
.  

;5     

:    
 ' :   '   ' :  (   
21 :   0 3 (0.511MeV) 2B   'J 
' ' 
.F / '3
' (1.022MeV) 6 / ) " 4 
85" ;'  

196

:  
:(1)   

B) '   ' < 
(  '   20 M0 = ' . 
:  4 " .(10O5) '5  K

'  1/4M0 R  1/2M0
.
;
' '
:

s

s

M0

. 
'

1
M0
2

ε 1 , pr 1

ε 0 , pr 0
1
M0
4

ε 2 , pr 2

o

o

x

x

+  ' 8
B    
( '   20 .  :(10 -5) ‫الشكل‬

.) 
6  F$ F 
2 ' . '

:( 6 $0 :  C  : F)" 9

ε1 + ε 2 = ε 0

(1)

= M 0c2

:( 6 $0 . C  : 9
Ρ1 + Ρ2 = Ρ0 = 0

:"
(2)

c 2 Ρ 12 = c 2 Ρ 22

:' / 
   
 
 
  
 
2

ε 1 −  1 M 0 c 2  = ε 2 2 −  1 M 0 c 2 
2

4

3
∴ ε1 2 − ε 2 2 =
M 0c 2
16

2

2

(3)

:\ F 7 (3) <(1)  8 
 

197

ε 1 = 19 M 0 c 2

32
ε 2 = 13 M 0 c 2
32
1
Τ1 = ε 1 − M 0 c 2
2
=

19
1
M0c 2 − M0 c 2
32
2

3
M0c2
32
1
Τ2 = ε2 − M0c2
4
13
1
=
M 0c 2 − M 0c 2
32
4
5
∴ Τ2 =
M 0c 2
32
∴Τ1 =

:(2)    
1
210 4  
x 2!) A   D <m0 '  = ' π  
3
m0
4 

' 1  =1 ' µ 1
(1 

4c
5

>  6  s   J

y 2!1) A 1   ) 8 D  " C .ν 
.s   J 
20  :  4 " .4  

:
s

D
 
π

s
4c
υ=
5

ε , m0
o

(ν )

ε ν , pν , mν

(µ) 

x

o

ε µ , pµ , mµ
x 

( s   J 
20 '   20    
6 :(a 11 O5) '5

.F C
2 ' . C
 ' :  (/ + <

198 

1  210   B 5  + s`   ) 
20 ) 
6 F)" # 

6  F$ >  2 ' . '  <(b11 – 5) '5 C) <'
.)

s`

υ=

4c
5

υ=

s`

π 
 
'

µ

o`

4c
5

ε ′ν , p ′ν , m ν

εµ′ , p ′µ , m µ

o`

x`

ν

x` 


( s`   J 
20 '   20    :(b 11 -5) ‫الشكل‬
. 2/ + / 
20  
 
 ' 8
B  
.F$ F 
. C  2 '

∴ ε ν′ =
∴ ε ν′ =

(

m 02 +

m 2ν −

m µ2

2 m0

)

 2 9 m 02
 m 0 −
c2
16
= 
2 m0

 2
 c

7
m 0c2
32

: 0 .  :   ) 8
.  

ε ν′ = γ (ε ν − υp x ) = γ ε ν
.(a 11 – 5) '5 20 K

' Pν=Py  <  px=0 " +
:" 

γ =

1

(1 − υ

2

/c 2

)

7
5
m 0 c 2 =  ε ν
32
3
21
∴εν =
m 0c 2
160

199

=

5
3

:(3)   
E1 
(  s   J 
20 '   20 K E  

8 '   20 ^ '   20  
" " 
6 3V0 .π 
'  :  - F
6 .π  

 ' :  2B
0 )
.137MeV >  π  
 494MeV >  K  

:
:'0 :  C  : F)" 9

ε

K

= ε 1 + ε 2 = m 0c 2 + m 2c 2

∴ T K + M 0c 2 = m 0c 2 + T 2 + m 0c 2 

' 1  1 ' M0 "   
 

' '   ' m0 " 3
(1 6 K 1
 π 1 
1' : 
;0 TK  T2
" <K  

.2

s

s

ε K , pK 

'

M0

o

π

ε1, m0 π

K

x 


ε 2 , p2

D

o

x 
 

20 ) : x 2!) A   D K E 
:(12 -5) ‫الشكل‬ 
 20
B" π E  
) 8  .s   J
.'   20 ^ '

:"   . C  : 

(12 – 5) '5 C) <PK=P2
∴ TK − T2 = 2 m 0 c 2 − M 0 c 2

200

(1)

ε K − ε 2 = m0c 2
εK2 − (M 0 c 2 )

2

(2)

(

= ε 22 − m 0 c 2

)

2

(3)

:( 6 $ %  8 
A3B 


εK2 − ε22 = (M 0 c 2 )

2

(

− m0c2

)

2

(4)

:$ (2) ( 6 (4) 
/

εk + ε2 =  M 0  M 0 c 2 − m 0c 2

(5)

 m0 

:\ (5) <(2)  8 


ε 2 = 753 MeV
ε K = 890 MeV
∴ TK = ε K − M 0 c 2 = 890 MeV− 494 MeV

∴ TK = 396 MeV

T2 = ε 2 − m 0 c 2 = 753 MeV − 137 MeV

∴ T2 = 616 MeV

:(4)   
(1 6 1;;  6 γ 85" .   –'   .
:^ 6  
6 4  <' '
γ+ e− → e− + e+ + e−

W+ '


8 A3B 8  γ 85" ; 
:  :" 2B

:
. 1$ 8 : . C  2 ' . =0 ' >3 s`   J 
20 
' 2' '   20 % 
  
,
" $ F$ > 
.' 

:" 6  3;  
:  85 : 
:( 6 $0 s`   J 
20 :  C  : 9

ε ′ + γm 0 c 2 = 3 m 0 c 2
201

(1) 

1:  ε` "   
 'T '   ' m0 " +
:> 0 (1)  8 
20 γ / 

" .γ 85"
s` <s   J >
   6  υ  β=υ/c + < γ =

1

(1 − β )
2

.s` 20 . $ : 'J 6 >  
:"   . C  : 


ε ′ − γβm
c

(2)

=0

0c

:' (2) <(1) :8  

γβm 0 c 2 + γm 0 c 2 = 3 m 0 c 2
∴ γ(1 + β ) = 3

(

∴1 + β = 3 1 − β 2

)
:" \ % :8 A3B  

β=

4
5

∴γ =

1

(1 − β )
2

=

5
3

:( 6 $ s ( s` 
:  .  ) 8
.  

ε = γε ′(1 + β ) = γ 2 β(1 + β) m 0 c 2
2

 5   4  4 
∴ ε =    1 +  m 0 c 2
 3   5  5 

ε = 4 m0c2
0.511MeV >  'T '  :  " 

∴ ε = 2.044 MeV

:(5)   
>  ' :   4  
x 2!) A   D P  
.s  1 J 1
20 '   20  ' P F  4 <2/3GeV
202

( p + p → γ 1 + γ 2 )  10 10 1 $ 6  
6 

.4  
x 2!) A   ^  4  x 2!) A    
B"
P 

1 1 P 1 1
' '  :  " 
6 3V0
.1GeV > 
W 
 
' : 
:
W
;
' D A  >- :  

s

ε 1 , p1

s

p2 = 0

β

P  

o

ε4,ε4

ε 2 = m0c 2

c

P  

' 

C
. $  

0
γ2

x 
!" 

ε3, ε3 

c 

0
γ1

o

x 
  !"  

: s   J 
20 '   D   :(13 -5) ‫الشكل‬

. ' 8
B    0  . $ 8 .. $

:
. ε1 :    K <) 
6 : < (13O5) '5 
) 
6 8 .ε2 =:  '   β 6  D p1 
:  γ2 2 !  
 D
ε3/c .  ε3 :  γ1   0
.A6" '5 20 K

'    H  D
ε4/c . ε4
:'0 :  C  : ^ 9

ε 3 + ε 4 = T1 + 2 m 0 c 2

(1)

T1 "  1 1  1 
' '  :  m0 " +

.  ' : 
:4' . C  : 9 
203

ε3 − ε4
c

γ

c

=

(2)

= γβm 0 c = p1

:" +

1
(1 − β 2 )

ε 3 − ε 4 = γβm 0 c 2 = cp1
2
ε12 = ( cp1 )2 + ( m0 c2 )
Q T1 =

(3)

2
GeV
3

∴ε 1 = T1 + m 0 c 2

=

2
5
+ 1 = GeV
3
3

2

4
5
∴ cp1 =   − (1)2 =
3
3
ε3 −ε4 = 4
3

(4)

:( 6 $ (4) <(1)  8 


ε 3 = 2 GeV
ε 4 = 2 GeV
3

A      D γ2    
 D γ1  " >"
A 1   p1 .1 D1 1  " 0 " 8 <x 2!
.4  
x 2!
:(6)    
1 ! 

 
1 !! (  <'   20 M0 '  = ' . 
'  
    
8 5N 
;
 ! .mo . ' '   '
.A " '5 20 K
B
' F B  F6
.M0/m0    :F  ! . .  6  A  4  :F)"

204

:
β3 

ε 3 , p3 , m0

ε 1 , p1 , m 0
4
β1 =
5

θ 

β2 =

3
5

ε 2 , p2 , m0

< ! 

 
!! (  '   20 . :(14O5) '5
.θ 
;6 @ + ! 
8
 !

.. C  : 9 ' 


(14O5) '5   8 ) 
∴ p 3 sin θ = p 2

(1)

p 3 cos θ = p 1

(2)

:" x 2!) 6  .  @  θ " +
P1 = γ1β1m0 c

γ1 =

P2 = γ 2β 2 m 0 c ⇒ γ 2 =
P3 = γ3β3 m 0 c ⇒

γ3 =

1

(1 − β )

=

2
1

1

(1 − β )
2
2

1

1 − ( 4 / 5)
=

5
3

=

5
4

2

1

1 − ( 3 / 5)

=

2

1

(1 − β )
2
3

:\ (2) ( 6 (1)  8 

/
tan θ =

p 2 γ 2β 2 ( 5/4 )( 3/5 ) 9
=
=
=
p1
γ1β1 ( 5/3 )( 4/5 ) 16

∴ sin θ = 0.49
∴ θ=29.34o

205

:( 6 $ (1)  8 
 

γ 2β 2 m 0c
sin θ
γ β
(5/4)(3/5) = 1.53
∴ γ 3β 3 = 2 2 =
sin θ
(0.49)
p 3 = γ 3β 3m 0 c =

∴ γ32β32 = γ32 − 1 = (1.53)
∴ γ3 = 1.83

⇒ β3 =

2

υ3 1.53
=
= 0.48
c 1.83

∴ υ3 = 0.84c

::  C  : ^ 9
M 0 c 2 = γ1m 0 c 2 + γ 2 m 0 c 2 + γ 3 m 0 c 2

M0
5 5
= γ1 + γ 2 + γ 3 = + + 1.83
m0
3 4

M0
≅ 4.75
m0

:(7)    
" 1
6 3V10 <
26 8Y5 (  1GeV ' =:  π0  

%$ 
 2B
0 135 MeV 2B 
 '   ' : 
,1
 
 
8 B   !8
;" H)
26 85
W(
 2 $ A )
: 
1:  m0c2 " ' =:  T " 
  ' :  ε " H
1
26 81Y5 1:  ε2 ,ε1 " H D3'  .
 '   '
r

r r

.1 .1 p " 1
B 
p 2 , p1 " ) 
6 
 

. 

206

:'0 :  C  : ^ 9

ε = ε 1 + ε 2 = T+ m 0 c 2
∴ε 1 + ε 2

= 1 + 0.135
= 1.135GeV

(1) 

1
 2 $ A ) ,
 
  8$ 6 8Y5 "  

/ 
 p1 = p 2  ε 1

=

ε 2 :" \ 

p 2 = p12 + p 22 + 2p1p 2 cos θ

.6 85  %$ 
 θ " 3
∴ p 2 = 2p12 (1 + cos θ ) = 4p12 cos 2
∴ cos 2

θ
2

θ
p2
= 2
2 4p1
2

ε
Q p =   − (m 0 c )2
c
2

2

p12

2
 ε1 
0.5675


=  =

 c 
 c 
 

(

θ ε 2 − m 0c 2
∴ cos
=
2
4ε 12
2

∴ cos 2

θ
= 0.9858
2

)

2

=

1.27

(4)(0.5675)2

⇒ θ ≅ 14 o

:(8)    
6  4  
x 2!) A   D m0 '  = ' 5
.
> 1  ' 1  =1 ' 5

B"  
(  < 4 c > 

5 
8 D .  3B " C m02=0 '  = ' ^ m 01 = 2 m 0
3

.  A  ;8$ 2   .4  
y 2!) A   )
.^ .  ' :  4  <5 

207

: 
'
  
(s   J  
)  
  
  8 ) ' 

 

: '   20 5 
.  B 5  + (s`   J  
)  '
.F$ F 
. C  2 ' . ' <) 
6
>31 (16 – 5) '15 s   J  
! 
>3 (15– 5)'5 C)
.s`   J  
! 

s

s

ε 2 , pr 2 , m 02 = 0

4
υ= c
5

θ

ε , pr , m 0

ε 1 , pr 1 , m 01 = 2 m 0
3

o

o

x 



x 



B"  
(  s 20  ! 6  D . :(15 -5) ‫الشكل‬

.θ  =6 @
^ x ( 6 >
6

s`

υ

s`

ε ′, pr ′, m 0

α 

5
. 
'

o`

υ

ε 2′ , pr ′2 , m 02 = 0
α

ε 1′, pr 1′ , m 01 = 2 m 0
3

x` o`

x` 

 
  

(  .! ) : s` 20 '   20 .  :(16 -5) ‫الشكل‬

.F C
2 ' . 2/ +

208

:'0 s`   J 
20 :  C  : ^ 9

ε 1′ + ε 2′ = m 0 c 2

(1)

:. C  :  

r r
r
p1′ + p′2 = p′ = 0

(2)

:4' (2)  8 



(cp1′ )2 = (cp′2 )2

(3)

:' 3 < ε

ε 1′2 −  2 m 0 c 2 
3

2

∴ ε 1′2 − ε 2′2 =

= ε 2′ 2

4
m 0 c2
9

(

)

=c

(p )2 + (m 0c )2 :" 

(4)

2

(5)

:( 6 $ (5) <(1)  8 


ε 1′ = 13 m 0 c 2
ε 2′

18
5
= m0c2
18 

1/  8 ) 8 <F$ >  ^ .  '   ' " 

:4' (2)  8 
<. C

ε 2′ = cp1′ = cp′2 =

5
m0 c 2
18

(6)

ε 2′
cp ′2

=1

:( 6 $ .  :   ) 8
. 

(cp 2 )x

(

)

= γ c p ′2 cos α + β ε 2′ = 0

∴ cos α = -

β ε ′2
4
= −β = −
c p ′2
5

:" \  % :8  

3

sin
α
=

5


1
5
=
γ =
3

1 − β2

(

209

)

:'0 5 
.  . :   ) 8
?" %
9

( cp1 )x

= γ  ( cp1′ )x + β ε 1′

(

∴ cp1 cos θ = γ -cp1′ cos α + β ε 1′

)

−cp1sin θ = −cp1′sin α
sin α
γ
∴ tanθ =
 ε′ 
-cos α + β  1 
 cp1′ 

ε 1′

(13/18 )m 0 c 2 13
=
c p 1′
(5/18 )m 0 c 2 5
( 3/5)( 3/5 )
9 25
∴ tan θ =
=
.
4/5 + ( 4/5 )(13/5 ) 25 72
=

1
8
θ=7.12o

∴ tan θ = 

'1  :  ; F 0 
' :  >   ' :  " 
^
:V0

ε2 = T = cp 2
Q cp 2 = cp ′2 sin α

∴ T = (5/18 )(3/5 )m 0 c 2
∴T =

1
m0c2
6

:(9)   
F ' 1  1' 1' ,
.$ 0.511 MeV ' =:   
 D3 8 <' /  . %3 . $ 3B   0
1
:F 1 ! W. %3 6
:F)" .
26 85 ( %3 A3B
WA 8  ;'  
:  

:  .C6"

210

:

ε3,
ε 2 , pr 2 = 0

ε 1 , pr 1

c 

θϕ 

' 
' 

ε3

.

ε4,

ε4
c

. $ 8 .' '   ! 6  D
 :(17O5 ) '5
.γ 26 85 (  .! . %3 

% 1 
C  :  
.) : . 6 cβ " H
> 1  1) 1: . $ 8 %5 
%3 A3; '   ' -0
(17O5) '5 . " 'T '   ' m0 " + <2m0 

10 (1 ) 
6 .Y!  
. $ 
6 + ' K 
1' 2 $ A ) ,
θ  
8 ε3/c = 
ε3
B" : 
D13 ,1
ϕ 1 1
8 ε4/c = 
ε4 =:  ^ 
.A )
:V0 M >  '   20 .  ' " ^ 0 3
M = 2γ m 0

1

γ=

(1 − β )
2

, β=

υ
c

:" 3

:V0 ε >   ' =:   ' 3

ε = ε 3 + ε 4 = Mc 2 = 2 γm 0 c 2

(1)

:4' ) : . C  : 9
r r r
p = p1 + p 2

211

r
r
[(18O5) '15 C)] p 2 = 0 " 
.. %3 . p " 3
r
r
p1 = p 

'
(2)

∴ p12 = p 2

s

ε1,

s

ε , pr 

θ
ϕ 

. %3

o

o

x 



ε2,

ε1
c

ε2
c 



x 

8 .) : s 20  ! 6  D . %3 :(18 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.γ 6 85  ) 

'_ 
3B  . 2 
>   (2)  8 

:^ :8  '
 ε1 
2
  − m 02 c 2 = (2 γβm 0 c )
 c 
2

(3)

Q ε 1 = T1 + m 0 c 2
2

T

2
∴  1 + m 0 c  − m 02 c 2 = γ 2β 2 ( 2 m 0 c )
 c

(

) (

)(

∴ T12 + T1 2 m 0 c 2 = γ 2 − 1 2 m0 c 2

)

2

:" \ % :8 A3B  

 T1
γ = 1+ 
 2 m c2
0

2

  T1
+
  2 m c2
0
 




2

(4)
2m0c2=1.022 MeV :" 

212

 T1
∴
 2 m c2
0

 0.511
=
= 0.5
 1.022

 T1
∴
 2 m c2
0


 = 0.25

2

:"   (4)  8 
20 H8 
γ 2 = 1.75
∴ γ ≅ 1.33
∴ β ≅ 0.65 

81  .0.65c >  . $ 8 %5 
. %3 6 3
(19O5) '5 20 K

'  ' '
  
^

s`

ε1′
c

r
p 1′

s`

ε ′, pr ′ = 0

2m0

α

%3
. 
'   20

o`

ε1′, 



ε 2′,

x` o`

α

ε 2′
c

r
p ′2 



x` 

8 .) : s` 20 '   20 . %3 :(19 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.F$ F 
2 ' . 2/ +  0  ) 

1   
 "  
3B 20   . C  : 

r r
∴ p 1′ + p ′2 = 0

. ./
 20  ' 8
B  
(5)

:4' :  C  :  

ε 1′ + ε 2′ = 2 m 0 c 2

(6)

:V0 / 
   
 
" 

ε 1′ = ε 2′ = m 0 c 2
:\ s` ( s 
.  :   ) 8
. 

ε 1′ = γ(ε 1 − β ε 1cos θ )
= γ ε 1 (1 − β cos θ )
∴ε1

213

m0 c2
=
γ(1 − βcos θ )

(7) 


θ  ' 
6 2B   %& 8 ε1 :    
: .C6"
.(7)  8 
20 θ=0 " >" F$
∴ ε 1max
∴ ε 1max

m0c 2
0.511 MeV
=
=
γ(1 − β ) 1.33(1 − 0.65)
= 1.1 MeV

:(10)    
1 '  
1 ( '   20  M0 '  = ' 5
.
(m01+m02) 1
1'" M0 " +1 m02 a  m01
B '  

1:  C1 1/ .1  6   ;  
 F 8
.∆M / 

(18  
  

> Ti ' :  " \  .
::8 
 m
∆M 

Ti = ∆M1 − 0i −
M
2M
0
0

, i = 1,2

:
∆M = M 0 − (m 01 + m 02 )

(1) 

" 1) ) 8  
 
 ' :  E

  

 ' F$ >  . C  2 ' . " 
. ∆Mc 2 > 
.A )   ' 8 
/ 
   
 

r
r
r
∴ p1 = − p 2 = p

: :  C  :  

ε1 + ε 2 = ε

(2)

:" >"
2 2
2 2
c p 2 + m 01
c + c p 2 + m 02
c = M 0c 2

(3) 

1 210 1 
6 =0 $ . C . :  C  : 
:2  '5  .  6   ;  
  8 ) 8 = ' ' 
 

214

p µ = p1µ + p 2 µ

(4)

:" +

ε
r
p 2 µ =  p 2 , i 2
c


r ε 
r ε 
 , p 1 µ =  p 1 , i 1  , p µ =  p, i 
c 
c


:" 6   ;  
A3B   




p1µ ⋅ p1µ = − m 021c 2 

p 2 µ ⋅ p 2 µ = − m 022 c 2 

p µ ⋅ p µ = − M 02 c 2

(5)

:4' (4)  8 
 

(

)(

p 2 µ ⋅ p 2 µ = p µ − p1 µ ⋅ p µ − p1µ

)

2 2
2 2
c = − M 02 c 2 − m 01
c − 2 p µ ⋅ p1µ
∴ − m 02

=;  
& 8 2&  I  2 3 <'   20 M0 . C " 

:" $  6 26 

εε
  ε1 
 = − 2 1 = − M 0 ε 1
 ⋅  i
c
  c 

 ε
p µ ⋅ p1 µ =  i
 c

(M + m − m )c
∴ε =

(M + m − m )c
∴ε =
2
0

2
01

2
02

4

1

2
0

1

2
01

2
02

2

(6)

2 M0

ε = (M

2
0+

2

:( 6 $ ! 


)

m 022 − m 021 c 2
2 M0

(7)  

1  T2  T1 '1 : 1 @18 " F 1 "  


. ε2  ε1  ' :  @8 " 
 

∴ T1 = ε1 − m 01c

2

(M + m
=
2
0

2
2
01 − m02 − 2 M 0 m01

)c

2

2 M0

:" >"
 2 M0
 2
 c

215


2
2
2
 T1 = M 0 + m 01 − m 02 − 2 M 0 m 01

(8)

Q ∆M = M 0 − ( m01 + m02 )
2

2
2
∴ ( ∆M ) = M 02 + m01
+ m 02
− 2 M 0 m 01 − 2 M 0 m02 + 2 m 01m02

: " \ (8) :8  % :8  / 

 2 M0
 2
 c


 T1 = 2 M 0 (M 0 − m 01 − m 02 ) − 2 m 01 (M 0 − m 01 − m 02 ) − ∆M 2

= 2 M 0 ∆M − 2 m 01 ∆M − ∆M 2


m
∆M
= ∆M1 − 01 −
M0 2 M0
c

T1
2




:^ :8  ' ' 

6 %$ 

210


m
∆M  2
c
Ti = ∆M1 − 0i −
M 0 2 M 0 

2  K$ ! 
∆M 
2 M0

(9) 

" % :8 A3B 
C

.  !- ;0 3N ) 2 \& 
"µ" 1 
. ( "π"   .   9 8 F) !
5:  " 9
:(9) :8 .  '  ^ \&  ^  ."ν" 
∆Mc 2 = 33.9 MeV
M 0 c 2 = 139.6 MeV
m µ c 2 = 105.7 MeV
m νc2 = 0

33.9 
 105.7
∴ Tµ = 33.91 −

 = 4.1 MeV
 139.6 2 × 139.6 
Tν = ∆Mc 2 − Tµ = 33.9 − 4.1 = 29.8 MeV

:(11)    
B 1    1' B  A  ! 1 

17  
( . " 
.1  
+8 .! < 1 c
;
' /
 
6   ' 8

4 

1 ,1
60 1 =  .  F   /

o

216

4
c
7 

6  ' B 

" <'   20 A .  =0 B 5      
F  \  .='
.B .  ' A  ,
30o B/
 ,$ 'J ' A 
:
1
c
4

s`

s

A

o

e

1
c
4

1
c
4

1
c
4

s``

4
c
7

e

60o

B

θ

B
‫ساكن‬

x

υe

A
‫ساكن‬

o`

B ‫اتجاه الحركة‬

o``

x`

x``

20 B 
' +8 .s 20 B  A 7  
( . N  :(20 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.'   20 A B 5  s`` 20 .s`

210  ' 8
B    ' B  A   
"  (20O5) '5
210 B .  
+8 
'J 6 u " H .s   J 

.uy  ux
B ='
"  
3B
:"   s ( s` 
6   ) 8
. 
4c
c
cos 60 +
u ′x + υ
c
7
4
ux =
=
=
υ
c/4  4c
 2
1 + 2 u ′x 1 + 
cos
60



c

 c 2  7
u ′y
γ
uy =
υ
1 + 2 u ′x
c

:" +
γ=

1

(1 − β )

, β=

2

∴γ =

217

1
1 − 1 / 16

=

4
15

υ 1
=
c 4

 4c
 15 
 sin 60 
 7
 4 
∴u y =
 c/4  4c

1 +  2  cos 60 

 c  7
∴u y =

c
5

>3 s`   J 
20 x 2!) ,
60o  ,$ 'J B 5
>3 s``   J 
20
" .s   J  
   c/4 6  D
D1 1'J B 50 s   J  
   –c/4 6  D 
" 1! " ^  6 .B .  ' A  ,
θ  ,$ A  
.θ=30o
K
B
' s`` ( s 
6   ) 8
?" %
. 
:'0 '5 20
 c  15 




 4 
2 3c
 5 

υ e sin θ =
=
9
 − c/4  c 
1 −  2  
 c  2 

c
− (- c/4 )
2c
2
υ e cos θ =
=
 − c/4  c  3
1 −  2  
 c  2 
∴ tanθ =

2 3c 3

9
2c

∴ θ = 30 o

218

⇒ tan θ =

1
3

# $ !% &' " 
' 1  1 '  
(  '   20 M0 '  = ' . – 1
.
;
' ' :  4  . 2 M a
5

T1=0.16M0c2

0

1

5

M0

B

:

2

T2=0.24M0c 

B15 10 (1  βc =6  m0 '  = ' π0 E 
– 2
41  .1
 2 $ A ) ,
θ=0o  ,$ A   D
B" 
1 
B 5  +    
20 =   :  
. 3B : 
W) : '   20
41  
x 2!) A   ./
 20 D m0 '  = ' . – 3
B1/
  8$ B     0 (  s   J 
20
> 1  1) : .  6 " \  ../ 
 2 ( 6 60o
. 
' :  4  .! . 1 c
2

ε = m0c : 
2

3 

' 1 ' 1 .1$ <=' :  >  ' =:   – 4
.1! <1' /  . %3 . $    0 
G F 
$ 
1:  .1C6"
: (  W. %3 6
: .0 2  
WA 8  ;'  
:  

c
3

, 1.20 MeV

: 

 20 B  
(  s`   J 
20 m0 '  = ' . – 5 
1
1' . :  .0.5m0 a 0.3m0
B '   ' <'
219 

-1 F 1
6 s  1 J 
20 px .  $
:   . 
  

.0.6c >  s`  s   J >
   6 
px =

3
m 0c
4

:

(1 1 41  
x 2!) A   s   J 
20 D . – 6
.) 8 '   20 ^ '   20 2/
B" π E  

- F
6 ) 8 D 
 
:  ) : .  :  4 
.0.14GeV/c2 '   
 ' 0.5GeV/c2 '  .   ' 
3V0 .0 ( = I !"  u =6  m0 '  = ' π0 
– 7
2 1$ A 1 ) ,1
θ B1/
 ,$  
 "  '
:  :8 4  
(8 hν =:  " ! .

hν =

(

m0 c 2 1 − u 2 /c2

1/2

)

2 (1 − u cos θ/c ) 

1
210 4  
x 2!) A   D

3
m0c2
2

D1 B15 10
B"  
( 

3
c
2 

' =:  . – 8
>  6  s   J

θ 1 ,$ A   D m0 '  = ' ^ x 2!) ( 6 F 
6

+1 s`  1 J 1
20  . :  :F)" 4  .x 2!) ,

.s   J 
20  . :  :F  ! <) : F ' .  B 5
ε1′ = 11 m0c2
ε1

60
11
=
m 0c 2
75

11
m 0c
60
11
, p1 =
m 0c
75
, p1′ =

:

> 1  1' 1:  41  
x 2!) A   D p  – 9 
1 J 
20 '   20  ' >3 p   4 5/3GeV 
1 (1 6  ' 8
B    '  0  6  
6  .s`
220 

  
' '  :  " 
6 3V0 .x 2!) ( 6 9 

1: 
:   W 
 
' : 
:  .1GeV >   
1  210  B 5 + s   J 
20  
 
'
W6  : '
s` 2GeV, 2/3 GeV

:

. C : 'N b a  
(  '   20 x . – 10
> 
B . /
"  ' 8
B    '   
3B "
:" \ " .a & 8 . /

pa = pb =

[

c
m 2b − (m a + m x )2
2mx

] [m
1/ 2

2
b−

(m a − m x )2 ]

1/ 2

.2 ( 6 b, a, x  
 '  ' ! 
mb, ma, mx " 3
41 " .F ' F  4 <4  
x 2!) A   D   – 11
:) 6  
6 + .    8 .
π+ p → K + ∑

m π c 2 = 150 MeV

m k c 2 = 500 MeV

2
m p c = 900 MeV

m ∑ c 2 = 1200 MeV
1133 MeV/c

221

: 

:- F
6

‫الفصل السادس‬
‫)النسبية والكھربائية المتحركة(‬
‫‪ 1.6‬‬
‫‪. 
 
    2.6‬‬
‫‪.     
    ! 3.6‬‬
‫‪. " #  $
% 
 4.6‬‬
‫‪. 

&# ' "( ' 5.6‬‬
‫‪  ) 
+    %   )* )
6.6‬‬
‫
  ‪. " #‬‬
‫‪.%   )#    7.6‬‬
‫‪. 
",‬‬
‫  ‪ - +‬‬ 

 
  
  

‫א‬1–6 
.%  "/    0! 1- & 23 + 3 - 
96. 78. 7 . , 23 2*(4 5 , + +   )   
.  &.# ># # & ", =< 3 $8 %   : 
;  
.
. @  ) .
.@ ?.   ).
. * +.
. .
.3 .
.  . .
. ,
&. - !  C3 +, CD  .()   %   
.! +. C !  @  F8 3 )"E +, * >=  @  $ D.1888 C# %   )  )", 78 5 4 C3 

.   @  ;  )3 78 

G %    @   3 

:. 
+  #   D- + > "

 C3 H ! :
?- 

+ I C3  -   ? 
) 
    
).=  F8.4 ;.
 -    @  )=  ) 
-, .3
&. F3    %   +  % C= * >3 >4 C 
. 
J. . 0%   
- +  , 7, ?>=, 5 +   
.%  .5 ). +, 7 %  
 )"  . E

223 

% $8 K- &# ' 3 + %    +
). "  --  # +    %G + J 0%
7. % + 8L .+ 
 %G F84 +  #  " σ,∈, µ
. 
. υ  " #  > 
+ s`  E  
 + 
 
.-    @  # J=  )*3 )  8 .s  E
.> 
7 % + ; 78 s  E  
  
- +  L
:
s`  E  
  3 ' K- +, & '  E +  4 * 
. @  )
0% + + ;# ?+ 
 7 % +
:
s  E  
  
- + )*3 &# -
 -  
+M C .  % F84 + . " #  

 7 % 4 
.%   ) 1    
.  
‫א 
 אא‬2–6
+. .# , $ . 
+ 
C  
 
+ +
: M ; 3 + 78 

+ ! +  
)  

    !   
 
  Q  
  

8.4 + . 
,)  

A "#$ %  & 
'#( )*+ 
.! +.

r
E 

 

r
E     

C" +  s  E  
 )" O%

?t . 5 @ 
 O% += (x,y,z) % ,  #  
84  4 
.;  E  
     
&# ' "( '  1 3 
C . +4  % t +5  
%   H
+M + + 
. A O% +,  . @ 
 O% $8 % J &# C4   
.- 
%. .    + + s  E  
 + 

:!3 %3P Q   
+L
Q
=
∈0

224

r r
E . da

A(t)

r r
E 
+ ! H 
. ∫ . da
A(t)

(1-6)

)!. .
H.  * C@     
+/ 3%! , $ 4
.)5 ) 8 C    3  % ;# * * +  

.@  = 1%G + $8 Q , /  
F84 & -  + 
# + '   )    
 @ 
1   :
 - # 

.  . 0   F  +  7, @ 
C 1% %%  
.  
&# *  3 * 

+  
%   +, &# H   ) ", 

* ;.  ) F84 # &# A O%    
) #
;. L '. 
   
 > 

- 3  84 + 8 . 
&#  3
..-    @  )=  >% Q G  E  
  O-
. 
  υ #  $ 
s` 4 M  E  
+, +M   # 8
C.G %. 
t` +5. . # s`  A` 0 O% $ 4 + s  E
:+L s  E  
 t +5  # A O%  %
,      

r r
E
∫ ⋅ da =
A(t)

r r
E
∫ ′⋅ da′

(2-6)

A′(t′) 

.  
 
‫ אא‬3–6 
.* $ 
C 
 C# ) ",      )@ 
3
"/. ).
. "  
&     03 !#  +
s  .E  
 4  

! 8L . E  
J  

4.  ; 78    4  ?+3 +5  #

 )

r
E

>  >*

s  E  
  υ 7  " #  $ 
78 s`  E  


R   5 @ 

+.5 s  E  
 +  + 
8/ ( 84 &# S 
.  
. +, U   (1 – 6)    O= 4  (x,z) Q 

225 

.  " +, : 
+ 
&#    ' - 35 C ! Q 4 
.Xσ M W &# +σ 4
, &# 
%
F.  .   ' 

+, + s  E  
 4 
:& > F y "
*

Ey =

σ
∈0

(3-6) 

H x "
* F  υ #  $ 
78 s`  E  

. F. * 8.4 . +-  + 
73< +, @ 
s  E   

8.4 )
 + & Q   
+,  . β = υ/c +, :

(1 − β )
2

1

2

. σ &.# 5 . σ` 
%.  
" + ) 
+ Y 
:+, 7, ? (1 − β 2 )

−1

σ′ =

2

σ

(4-6)

(1 − β 2 )

: M s`  E  
 E′y      + 8
E ′y =

Ey
(1 − β 2 )

= γE y

------------------------+++++++++
+++++++++

y

s

(5-6)

υ

y`
s`

+ 
 + 

o
z

------------------------+++++++++
+++++++++ 


 + 

x

o`
z`

s  x "
S +5 + 
 ?+  
+5  + 
:( 1 – 6 )  
.x "
Z H F * + 
  s` & : 
 

226

x`

s`

+ 
 + 

z 


 + 

x

o

-------------------------

υ

y`

+++++++++++
+++++++++++

s

-------------------------

+++++++++++
+++++++++++

y

o`

x`

z` 
# .s  + 
 4 x "
E &# +# + 
:( 2 – 6 )  
.x "
S H F * + 
  s` & : 
 

x "
G &# +  
+  + 
3   #   
 ! 

+, F8.4  
+ + ?(2 – 6)    O=  s  E  

:F  x F  >  >*  
84  4  
Ex =

σ
∈0

(6-6)

s`  E  
 + 
&# #5 
%  
" O- 8 # 

.  .  : 
* + 
73< +G s  E  
 $  
. ).
  *   84 >   3P   4   
:+L 8 ?x "
* F   
E /x =

σ′
σ
=
= Ex
∈0 ∈0

∴ E′x = E x

227

(7-6)
(8-6) 

. 
  # 
D- + + (8 – 6)  (5 – 6) + 3 +
. 3   s  E  
     ) 
F  7,   
r 

# . $ . 
78. s`  E  
8/  . E    > -
s  % ,  #    
C" s  E  
  υ @ 
υ F.  &# # Q G E II 4 υ F * 5 &G :+   &

. E ⊥ 4 
.E  


r
E′

;# # Q G 

  
   5 @ 

E ′II 

 

4 υ F * 5 &G :>=, +   & s`

:H  (8 – 6)  (5 – 6) + 3  3 *
E′II = E II
E ′⊥ = γE ⊥

r
E ′⊥ 

4

(9-6)
(10-6)

+.#      )* O-  )*3 +, 8  + 
 ) 
)  8 , .s  E  
     ) 

+.=  +, .* s`  E  
  +L s  E  
  

?.%      4 s  E  
 +  3
.- 84 +  
   ;  9 * 84 
. "#   

!4–6
x ".
* F.  υ  " #  $
Q % 
 U    

E  
 -G %  # )  t = 0 +5   
F84 +, H
0%   * 

  
+,  .(a3 – 6)    O=  s 
%  xy Q   % ,     ' H 
C + !
r
+ ! 0% J%   .@ 
$   
J! + r 3 &# N(x,y)
78. s`  .E  
4 I    
& : 
 +,  # C

228

@ 
 
84  4  + .s  E  
 υ  " #  $ 

@.
* ?+. 
 ?(>  8   + &  ) Q  
+,
.(b 3 – 6)  
y

r
Ey

s

υ

y`

r
E

r
E′y

s`

N(x, y)

r
E′

r
E ′x

N(x ′, y ′)

r
Ex

r
r

r
r′
υ

θ

Q ‫متحركة‬

θ`

x

(a)

Q ‫ساكنة‬

x`

(b)

E >   >*  s  E  
 x F   
Q % 
(a) :(3 – 6)    
Q %   
+  s` & : 
  (b) .N(x,y) %   #

.N(x`,y`) %   # E` >  >*    

. #

E ′y 

E ′x 

.    H 
C + ! 0% +M + +
r

.   
J! + r ′ 3 &#
∴ E ′x =
∴ E′x =

N(x ′, y ′) 

% 

kQ
kQ
x′

cos
θ
=

r ′2
x ′2 + y ′2 r ′

(

)

kQx ′

( x ′ + y′ )
2

2

(11-6)

32

r ′ = x ′ 2 + y′ 2
k=

:+, 8

1
4 π ∈0

.[   
4

∈0

)" +, :

:H  +,   "
229

E ′y =

kQy′

(12-6)

(x′ + y′ )

2 3/ 2

2

r
E

+, .  E y , E x ;   

  ' H
+, +M   , 8 

.% . Q  
J! + :
t = 0 +5 
s` & s +

 )
C 

 )
H P  
F84  .s  E  
 -G
: 
x ′ = γx 

y′ = y 
z ′ = z 

(13-6)

:+ (8 – 6) ?(5 – 6) + 3 >%
E x = E ′x =

kQ(γx )

[(γx )

E y = γE ′y =

(14-6)

]

3/2

2

+ y2
kQ(γy)

[(γx )

2

+ y2

:H  s  E  


(15-6)

]

3/2

r
E 

  ' - 
E

E 2 = E 2x + E 2y
2

∴E =

(

k 2Q2 γ2 x 2 + y2

(γ x
2

∴E =

2

+ y2

)

3

)=

(

k 2Q 2 1 − β 2

(x

2

+y

)

2

2 2

)

β 2 y 2 

1

x 2 + y 2 

3

(1 − β )
2

kQ

(

(16-6)

)

r 2 1 − β 2 sin 2 θ 3/2

r = x 2 + y2
Sinθ =

y

(x

2

+ y2

)

=

:+, 8

y
r 

3 + (1 >> β +  # 7,) % Y < 
 @ 
+,  
: M - & 5  (16 – 6)
E=

230

kQ
r2 

.   H
  H%  # ># # -
    4
$. J.! +. r .3 &# %  s  E  
   %  

. 

.D O.- (10 – 6) , (5 – 6) .!3 +, &  4 '  E + *
. 
   s  E  
  
 
)  8 0%   
.!3 + >*

E y = γE ′y 

!3   84      L $8 s`  E

$ .
Q  
+, O= 78 (3 – 6)    @ 
4 

E ′y = γ E y

.s`  E  
   &  s  E  
 H x "
* F   

.  
$#%
"&‫א‬%‫א‬5–6 
. ! % ,     ' H
 &  - +, 3 
.  ' 9  +M + +  " #  

 % 
+
. 
Q , % 
    % 
 U 3 
. . . 
 
 +    
8/ +, + + 
, + 
.  + 
. + $ 
    
F84 + ! .  )

@. 
 4 . ' 8 '  % 
78 C  += $ 
>  
>
+ .    
"  3    
     - +,
.C5  - 
78   3 7  
F84 &# ' "( ' 
. # . $ . 
78 s`  E  
 3 ' F84 H  

 + 
C +, Q   
84  4  7, +8 .C #  
. # . 

3 F * $
4  Q G ) 
, .+  

 
&# ' "( ' + 8 .υ 7   C #   

.  J!  #    ' E` +, :
?qE` &  + q
:  U  $8 O=  .s`  E  


231 

"
Z H F * $
- 
& Q % 
+, •
.s  E  
 x 
 $
 * 
& q 4  
 
> +, •  
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84  t = 0 +5  u #  Q  

.(a 4 – 6) 
4. 
?.# + "(. + .! + 

  * 
)  8
.%  Q G  
y

r
u

t=o
q

s

r
u′

υ

y`

q

(x, y, o)

s`

t` ‫زمن‬

(x ′, y ′, o)

r
r′

r
r

υ

Q  

x
(a)

Q  

x`
(b)

q  *  
.x "
* F  

 Q - 
(a) :(4X6)  

: 
   # (b) .t = 0 +5  u #  Q  += $

+  
F84    - 
O- I    
&

.C + ! 0%

s`  .E  
& : 
 %, O=, ' -  
F84

 

.(b 4 –6) .   O=  x "
G F  υ  " #  $ 
78
)   *  
+ 
 - 
+, 4 <  
84 
'. +L   Q  
+,  .   O= F *

r
u′

&  # 

+. C. + ! +8 .%   '! 4 q  * 
&# ' "(
.J! $8   
$ &# "(   ' H 
)* 
F84  ;%
:H   " -    - +, 0   ' 
)*3 +
232

2

υ/c
υ
1− 2 u x
c
f y /γ

f x′ = f x −

f y′ =
1−



u yf y + u zfz 











(

υ

ux
c2
f z /γ
f z′ =
υ
1− 2 u x
c

)

(17-6) 

:' ‫ 
א(') 'א‬
r

. u = 0 +, 7, + 
 s  E  
 4  * 
1./0 
. t = 0 +5 

r r
u = uy 

#  

 4  * 
1. 
2
.(x,y,0) J!  ;  E  

: M - & (17 – 6) )*3 5  &G  
 


fx = fx 

fy 
f y′ = 
γ
f 
f z′ = z 
γ 

(18-6)

7. +5   C5 - 
78   3 +  " +  + ! +
:  (18 – 6) )*3 +8 H  .C &# ' "( '
dp′x dp x
=
dt ′
dt
dp′y 1 dp y
=
dt ′ γ dt
dp′z 1 dp z
=
dt ′ γ dt

(19-6)
(20-6)
(21-6)

+. .-  
 
F  &# +#
H.  
.  .
F  

r
px

r
r
pz ? py

+5 +, 

r

C5 , . p ⊥ 4  
C5 3
r

: M H   + 3 & ' G "" )*3 5  84 . pII -

233

r
dp′II dp II
=
dt ′
dt
r
r
dp′⊥ 1 dp ⊥
=
dt ′
γ dt

(22-6)
(23-6)

:&# -
(10 – 6) ?(9 – 6) + !3 >%

r
r
r
d p ′II
= q E ′II = q E II
d t′
r
r
r
d p II
d p ′II

=
= q E II
dt
dt′

(24-6)

:$8

r
r
1
 1
dp′⊥
= qE ′⊥ = q E ⊥  = (qE ⊥ )
dt ′
γ
 γ
r
r
q

dp
dp′
∴ ⊥ = γ ⊥ = γ E ⊥ 
dt
dt ′
γ

r
r
dp ⊥
= qE ⊥
dt

(25-6)

' "(. .  ' +, (25 – 6) ?(24 – 6) + !3 + C  \ 
Q.! %% ; s  E  
 + 
 + 
C &#
7. C $8 + H   
 
+   %    
.   '  C $8  
   
 H = -

)*3 C   (5 – 6)    3  "  
O=  .C J!  #
s +. # . 
)*3 $8  s & s`  E  
+ ' 

:+ s` &
uy
u ′x =

234

uy
ux − υ
γ
= − υ , u ′y =
=
υ
υ
γ
1− 2 ux
1− 2 ux
c
c

, u ′z =
1−

uz
γ
υ
c2

=0
ux

y

r
u

t=0
q

s

r
u′

υ

y`

q

(x, y, o)

s`

r
r

(x ′, y ′, o)

r
r′

υ

Q  

x

Q  

x`

u #  

  *  
.s  

 - 
:(5X6)  

+ 
 - 
O- s` & : 
  .y "
* F 

.C + ! 0% + 8  

E  
 C &# ' "( ' )  >*, H 
'   ,
:  s`
f x′ =

kqQ x ′
,
r ′3

f y′ =

kqQ y ′
,
r ′3

f z′ = 0

:' - ' 
)*3 +M H 
f x = f x′ +

υ/c 2
υ
u ′y f y′ + u ′z f z′ = f x′ + γ 2 u y f y′
υ
c
1 + 2 u ′x
c

(

)

:+, \  t = 0 +5 

 )
+

x′ = γx , y′ = y

:' - ' G 3 H  84
fx =

γkqQ 
υ

 x + 2 uy 
3
r′
c

(26-6)

: y  
F  '   ,
f y′ /γ
f y′ /γ
=
= γf y′
2
2
υ
1

υ
/c
1 + 2 u ′x
c
γkqQy
∴fy =
r′3
fy =

235

(27-6)

fz =

f z′ /γ
= γf z′ = 0
υ
1 + 2 u ′x
c

:$8 

# . &.#  3 s  E  
 + 
C &# ' "( ' +8
. - 

&# ># 4  + 8 C
:+ (+ 
  
+, 7,)
fx =

u = uy = 0

+, +M  =  

γkqQx
r ′3

:+, :

r′ = γ 2 x 2 + y 2 

. # . &#  3 '! ;# "(  
F84  + 
C +, 7,
.% -
+5 +   f x ' +, @ 
+3L (26 – 6) !3 & +M  @ 8
:4
:' - H  C &# ' "(   '! " G •
γkqQx
r ′3

fe =

(28-6)

: ' - H   C &# ' "( %  '! "  " •
γkqQ uυ
⋅ 2 y
r ′3
c

fm = 

. F. 78.

r
Β

(29-6) 

%   F  +, (5 – 6)   + @ 

..!  &# 7# ]  F  4 q  * 
J!  # Q -
:+, 7,

r r
u× Β

J H  x "
* F  + %  ' +8

r
r r
f m = q( u × B )

(30-6)

∴ f m = quB

:+, \  (30 – 6) ?(29 – 6) + 3  

B=

( )
(γ x + y )

γkQ υ/c 2 y
2

2

2

3

2

(31-6) 

&# "(    +, @ 
(28 – 6) ?(27 – 6) + !3 +
:7  *

236

γkQr

E=

2

x2 + y2

)

3

(32-6)

2

(

r = x 2 + y2 

. J.!  #

r
r

F 

r
E 

z F 

r
B

)

1

2

:+, :

+, (5 – 6)   + +M @  

.  . '.  %  U " ;  H  8 .q  *
:' -

( )
)

r
γkQ υ/c 2 y
B=
3/2
γ2x 2 + y2
r
γkQ
E=
3/ 2
γ2x 2 + y2

(

(

)

r
⋅k
r
⋅r

r

r 

. .Q  
J= ;  r +, z "
* F  ;  ' 
k +, 8
+G 1 % +,  %  U " ' G 3  @   !
:+, 7, z F 

;    4

r r
υ× r

r
υy k

;  +=   

r
r r
υ × r = υy k

+. $8 O=  > - 7    y  x F  + G +   ,
. υ×
r

r
r 

4 * H = -
$
:- 8/  Q , ' 

r
γkQ
1
B= 2
c γ2x 2 + y2
r 1 r r
∴ B = 2 υ× E
c

(

+.  &# ># +

r
B

)

3/ 2

H 

r r
υ× r

U " ;  + ' G !3 F8 >%

.y  x +"
E C= 78 Q  &# 7# ; , 7,

237

r
B

r
E 

r
υ 

,++++‫'א‬++++++++ ‫ א‬++++ !  
‫א‬,-++++‫א‬, ++++ 6–6 
. "#   

‫א  
א‬
.. 
) 
#  &#  3 '! $ 4 +,  3 0 
+
.) 

,   )   F - %   +  ' F84
).^ P!  8 %  &# "(   )   +,      ) 6 !
+. .#  +.# H  + I , C3 1  ! +5 $8 3 . 
>      
+5  + H8 + $8 O=    )  
. M ; 
78 F *  

> 

;. , &#   )   %  "/  K  C +, J% 
+, )
=,   -    @  )=  , C +  3%  
.%  ) "/.  + 8  E  
J   + &  

J.  

+   +  - 
 #  5
& @ F84 
8.4 +. 0.     
F84 ) ! ! ?  H  Q , )

.- 
. >.  >   
$ + H  q   
$
 #
'.! .@  %    + & U 3  L +3    

:- H   H   )
=, 
r
r
r r
f = qE + qu× B 

. '

r r
B, E

 ' & # "(
(33-6)

+, +3 J!   3 @ 
  
# 

r
u

+, 8

.  &# J! $8  #   %  U "   
.  )*.   )  +# / %  +, +  
%    +    +, $8 + O=  . 
)  

.  .%   . +. ;.# .. 
+. +   4 
. . .  

+ ?)    4

Bz , B y , Bx , E z , E y , E x

. 
    H
 O= C ! .     

238 

   84  O=  .- 84 + (3 – 6)       
. I & +3    
+ ! %   )* 
. "/. )
s  E  
 $ 
>  
> +M U 
r 

.   
 + 8L . B ;= " %  

r
E

;   

$. 7. . 
84  ;# ' "( ' + q 7 C  

.C # 
F *

r
υ

r
u

+, :
(33 – 6) !3 "  

" #  $ 
78 s`  E  

:Q  

r
f′

&

r
f

r
r
B′  E ′

H 

' 
+,  # x` "
Z H

r
r
r r
f ′ = q E ′+ q u ′× B ′

(34-6)

r

r
r
r
r
B′  E ′ * B  E +# 3   %3 !3 F84
r r
(33 – 6) .3  u× B   H = -
$ # 2  3
r
: M x? y?z '3  )"
E F  f ' )    + +

. υ $8

)]
[ (
f y = q [E y + (u z B x − u x B z )]
f z = q [E z + (u x B y − u y B x )]
f x = q E x + u y Bz − u z By

(35-6)
(36-6)
(37-6)

:+,  s` & s + ' 
)*3 +
f x′ = f x −

f y′ =

υ/c 2
u yfy + u zfz
υ
1− 2 ux
c

(

)

fy

υ


γ 1 − 2 u x 
c


fz
f z′ =
υ


γ 1 − 2 u x 
c

: M )*3 %3 #  3 
ux =

239

u ′x + υ
υ
1 + 2 u ′x
c

(38-6)

(39-6)

(40-6)

 ) 

(41-6)

uy =

uz =

u ′y

(42-6)

υ


γ 1 + 2 u ′x 
 c

u ′z

(43-6)

υ


γ 1 + 2 u ′x 
 c
 

.  &. .- ). 
2 .G %  
+ (39 – 6) 3  (36 – 6) 3 +

fy

f y′

' +M , 

! U3 3 .%

(43 – 6) ?(41 – 6) + .3 +.   u z  u x +# =3 * C"P

: M 3  & -

υ


f y′ = q  γ E y − υΒ Ζ + u ′Ζ B x − u ′x γ  B z − 2 E y  
c



(

) 

+ 
C &# ' "(

r
f′

(44-6)

' "   (34 – 6) 3  8, 8

:7 y "
G F  ' F84   + s`  E  

(

f y′ = q E ′y + u ′Ζ B ′x − u ′x B ′Z

)

(45-6)

:+, \  (45 – 6) ?(44 – 6) + 3  

(

E ′y = γ E y − υΒ z

r
E

)

(46-6)

B′x = Bx

(47-6)

υ


B′z = γ B z − 2 E y 
c

(48-6) 

.  + & 3 )    + ""  +M  3%  +8
.s`  E  

:4 + , +    %3

(

E ′z = γ E z + υΒ y

)

f z′

r
B 

%  U "

'     )% Y L
(49-6)

υ


B ′y = γ B y + 2 E Z 
c

(50-6)

: M -  
 3 +, 3

f x′

H
+,  #

E ′x 

E

u y = uz = 0 

8.4 + .x "
G F  $ 
s  E  
 + 
C +, 7, 
. 
)*3 +G  - 
    &# "( * U *
240

&.# * C. # . &.#  3 * %   )* -
: ' G  
3 '   %3 84 .;4 
E ′x = E x

(51-6)

s & s` + >*,  M  ' - H  F84  
)*3 J '#L

:s` & s + CP"


γ E ′y + υ Β ′Ζ


γ E ′z − υ Β ′y


B ′x

υ


γ  B ′y − 2 E ′z  
c


υ


γ  B ′z + 2 E ′y  
c



E

x

= E ′x

E

y

=

E

z

=

Bx =
B

y

=

Bz =

(
(

B ′x =
B ′y =
B ′z =

(52-6)



Ζ


γ E z + υΒ y


Bx

υ


γ B y + 2 E z 
c


υ


γ B z − 2 E y  
c



E ′x = E x
E ′y = γ E y − υΒ
E ′z =

)
)

(
(

)
) 

.  
+  * "/ *  
F 

(53-6)

r
r
B E

)  +, Q 84

+. @    : 
 
&# 3 )  +, * ? I &
.  )*3 J , & 5  +    
)*3

241

r
E ′II
r
E ′⊥
r
B′II
r
B′⊥

r

= E II

r
r
r
= γ E ⊥ + υ× Β


r

= B II

1 r r 
r
= γ B ⊥ − 2 υ× E 
c



(

)

(54-6)

r

). 
υ # . &.# 3 5 )   3

⊥  II

+, 8

: s  E  
& s`  E  
+ Q G ) 
, . 
r
E II
r
E⊥
r
B II
r
B⊥

+  4

r
B

r

= E ′II

r
r
r
= γ E ′⊥ − υ× Β′


r

= B′II

1 r r 
r
= γ B′⊥ + 2 υ× E ′ 
c



( 

% 

)

r
E

(55-6) 

  +, + 4    @ 

.Q G &# 4
,  3 *

_25., +.=     +, @ 


 4  + 
4.  ! + 4
C +8

r
B 

% 

r
E 

 + 

 
 4  @  &#  3   @ +, O= +.+ 
, K.    & O
- & 3 3  * ; , +3  
J  +4  J ; 8 >! >  F  # + K %  
+., . / +.- .%    +* . E  

.+5 
H .  ( υ 2 /c 2 )  + ( υ << c 7,) % Y < +, +M  =  8 
.
)*.3 5.  C . -  
F8 . γ ≈ 1 +, 7, - +
: M - H P  %   )*

242

r
E ′II
r
E ′⊥
r
B′II
r
B′⊥

r

= E II
r
r
r 
= E ⊥ + υ× Β
r

= B II

r

= B⊥

r
E⊥

(56-6)

r
B⊥

r
E

r
E II

r
B

r
B II

r
υ

r r
υ× E

r
υ

r r
υ× B

?υ #  &# 7# 5 F  %    + )  :(6 – 6)  
r

r

r

. υ #  J B  E +  +   H = -
F  @ 

r

. υ J.    = - 

r r r r
υ× E = υ× E z

( )

$8.

r
r
B⊥ = By 

r r
B ?E
r
r
E⊥ = Ey

+ )  + (6 – 6)   
.3 

E z = Bz = 0 

3= 

r r r r
r r
r r
>. .4 υ × B ‫ و‬υ × E + ?.  . O=  υ× B = υ× B z 

( )

r

. υ &# +# 
.  !  
‫א‬,# ‫א א‬7–6
'. H.
 

G 4 C + ! +, + +M > 3 O-, 

'! + ) 
$ )
8 + .  ) 
&# ' "(  
$.8 O.= C ! %  ' 4 C '! & 1=P  @ '
+ . + 4 +,   ;  @  > 3  1905 C#  + I U  .>
' ." H . ) a, ! .  ' + +` %   

243 

8.4 J.=  # H- &# + + I C3 +, )"   F8 03
% .  .%   ' >3   C +  + 4 + .U *
.C +  > > 

- %3 %  '! @ +,    0"
+. .  Q.!  4 :
  %  4@ J + 
. .

 )  8 '   
/ . 
  )  

. ., &.# %  ' "(  84 +, .>%  >* 

'.)  . .  '. . 1= ;  
Q ,  
.+  C, 

   2 + 
+ @   (   
$., .
.    )   & @ 
F84  
0 % C
.'     ) 
&# ' -      C@3 )  -
+ .! +. %  ' 9     84  O=   L +M ,
.   @  
q

 ) "/  C

υ

s
u

r

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
)  
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +    ) 

o

x  

 )   
)   7 
- $ :(6 – 6)   
#   ' 3 . 
% 
q .s 

.> - 7 

.  '. 3 + (6 – 6)    O=  C +  >%
>.  >   
- + H  υ #  $
q 
&# ' "( 
5   + % + 
+G .> - 7 s  E  

+.  3 + -    @  H .Q G 4
, "/
244

K %   υ 7 1   #  $
  -  )   

)  Z
λ+

λ− 

%  
" +8 . (1 − u 2 /c 2 )

+1 / 2 

.%  
" &  

.% 
.  "

λ0

(1 − u

+, :

2

/c 2

λ+ = λ0

)

−1 / 2





 5   
84 

+, 7,  +  ) 
.+ 
  ) Z

$ . 
78 s`  E  
& +M : 
   & - 
+ .(7 – 6) .  . O.=  x "
Z H F * υ # 
$ J! + r 3 &# + 
 q +, @ 
 
84  4  


 4   ) G , . u′ #  $
)  * +,
.x "
Z H F * υ # 
υ

s`

q  

r

u′

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
)  
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +  
 ) 

υ

o`

x′ 

5 * )  * +, @ 
s`  E  
 :(7 – 6)  
F * $
 ) * ) 
-, 


.+ 
  q  
, .x " 
H

: M  
84    % ) 
" H P

(

λ + = λ 0 1 − υ 2 /c 2

(

)

−1/ 2

λ − = − λ 0 1 − u′ 2 /c

(57-6)

)

2 −1/ 2

(58-6)

:+ s` & s + #  )
+
u′ =

245

− u− υ

1 +
c2

:- 

1 >>

u ′ = − (u + υ )

u
c

+, U 
(59-6)

:\  (58 – 6) 3  (59 – 6) 3 + u` ! U3 
λ−


(
u + υ )2
= − λ 0 1 −
c2






−1/ 2

(60-6)

:+ $  %   
λ +,  =  8
λ = λ+ + λ−

(61-6)

:7 q  
J!  # E    ' +, 
2 kλ 2 k
=
(λ + + λ − )
r
r

E=


2 kλ 0 
∴E =
1 − υ 2 /c 2
r 

(

)

−1 / 2


(u + υ )2 
− 1 −

c 2 


−1 / 2




(62-6)

:+
 υ2 
1 −

 c2 

 

+ ! +

−1 / 2

≈ 1+

1 >>

1 υ2
2 c2

υ
c

+, 

(63-6) 

.-
(62 – 6) .3  (63 – 6) 3 + +G 1 % U3 
:&#
E=

2 kλ 0
r

 
υ2

1
+

2c2
 

2
 
 − 1 + (u + υ )

2c2
 

 

 

 kλ u 
= −  02  (2 υ + u )
 rc 

:+
E = −

2 kλ 0uυ
rc 2

υ >> u

+G

(64-6)

:7 q  
&# ' "( ' +8
F = qE = −

246

q υ  2 kI 


c  cr 

(65-6) 

3   '  E , .$     7

I = λ0u

+, : 

. + %  ' "  H8 '! 4 ' +, &   (65 – 6)
– 6) 3 J (65 – 6) 3   .>  >   
$  

:7 B %  U " +, \  (33
 2Ι 
B = k 2 
c r 

.% )
. 

(66-6)

. K 7 C# H ; , C  \  

. 
.  3  + >  >   
78 $ +  
+, >.=, \ . . I    
 >  
+ ;  +3    

$. +. :.
s`  -   ' $ 
H8 q   

  '! 3 C $ ' +, * + 
 q  
+  >    

.   '  #*  8, 8 . 
3  $ + :
s
.%  ' 4 Q , '!  +=  L   J (   ) 
8 ",   / +  Q , - (65 – 6) 3 H  +, + + 
. 

k=

1
4 π ∈0 

c2 =

1
∈0 µ 0

H.  7,   k +# c2 +#  =#
:& (65 – 6) !3

µ Ι
F = −  0  qυ
 2 πr 

(67-6)

$. .%  U " " ' G 3  + +  

 '! + # -
  $ 4 F ' +, % C  -
.[(33 – 6) 3 @
*] s  E  

+5.  +.% + + %  ' H
+,   +M O-, 
 I` F  >   "  
I F  >  G  
r   
+. +8     ) 
" +,  .(8 – 6)  
&.# "( >%  >*    > + >  >* + *  
.+  $
'
)    M
:- H    (67 – 6) !3  3 * ' H 
,
247

µ Ι
F = − 0  υ ′dq ′
 2 πr 

(68-6)

r .3 &# x "
G F  υ′ #   
  
dq ′ +, 8

.I 7  ;  78 G $ J! +#

...............
d l ′ ..

)  E F  2
r

υ′
Ι′

1

Ι

7* >   
4
, +5  +- + :(8 – 6)  
. 
F  +   +, * ? M ; 
78  

I` F . >  >  '  " $  $
 
F84   # 8

:+    O= F *
Ι′ =

dq ′
dt

:7  " $ + 8/   - # 4 Ι′d l′ +M
Ι′d l′ =

dq ′
d l′
d l′ =
d q ′ = υ′d q ′
dt
dt

:- & (68 – 6) !3 
υ′dq′ + >*
µ Ι
F = − 0  I ′d l ′
 2 πr 

Ι′d l′

U3 

(69-6) 

.%  . H. % ' 
 " $ &# ' "( ' +8
:7 G $ +  
f =

µ I I′
F
= − 0
d l′
2πr

(70-6)

I`  I + .  +G $8 H8 '!  , + Q   "( ' F84

7, . +   
, 

3  8  '! & ' F84  
. 
F  4

H . J l ;% -! $  I   8 # ' - .+ +

248

J.!  #

r
B

;= " >%  >* ;
 >   
% $ + 

.-    + + +
r
r r
F = I l×B

(

r
F

  , H8  '! + - $
: M  

)

(71-6)

&.# . >4  ;  
 , CD >  

I   +, & '  E  

+ "  0% !   F * C  O%- 4  ) 


F  
C  .  ) 

F  ;  
1  #

r
F

r
l 

, ." 
H 

' F  &   CE +, 8 &   '#! %

+. Q . .

r
F

J. 

r
B

;  &

r
l

r
F

'

;  +  J-, 
.+5 

249 

# #20
:(1)  2
υ .@  # . $
x "
* &# %   %  

.% '. 
 
" λ +, )# 8L H x "
G F 
:/
U. ." :> " ?(0,y,0) %   E    ' :>*,
&. %  U "  :>"" ? %   # % 
.B/E 7, ?   '
:
s

t = 0 ‫الزمن‬

q  

s`

υ

q

υ

y

r

y`

r`

υ 
%  



o 

%   

x λdx

o` x` λ`dx`

.s  

 % 
+ H    q % 
:( 9 – 6 )   
%   
  %  
O-  s` & : 
 

.%  
5 F   

. 
 o %  + x 3 &#  
- # λdx +, U  :>*, 
%   
+# r  3 (9 – 6)    O=  s  E
.(0,y,0) J!  q

(

∴ r = x 2 + y2

)

1/ 2  

+,  .λ`dx` O- s`  E  
 84  
- # +
:+  + &
λ′dx ′ = λdx

250 

. .%  
+G C + ! 0%   s`  E  

.(9X6)    O=  + 

λ ′dx ′  

- # + q  
&# "( 

+, +8 U 

dE ′

:+
d E ′=

k λ ′d x ′
=
r ′2

kλdx

(x ′

2

+ y ′2

)
:+, 

y′ = y , x ′ = γx
∴ dE ′=
λ ′dx ′

kλdx

2

x 2 +y 2

) 

.  .- # +   
&# "(

dE ′

,  $ 4

.o` %   & J x` 3 &# 

"
G F  , > -  x "
G F   - 
+
:7  L y
2 kλdx

d E ′y =

γ2x

2

+ y

2

.

y′
r′
2kλydx

=

∴ E ′y =

2k λydx


0

2

x 2 +y 2

)

3/2

=

E

2

x 2 +y2

3/2

)

2 kλ
γy
y

=

2 kλ
y

+L

Ε ′y =

1
Εy
γ

+, 

0.% (0,y,0) .%  . # B %  U " H 
:>  "
F  $ 

Ι = λυ

F  >  >  +,  # 7  , + !
.;
>%  >*  ; L H x "
G
:&# -
, + ! 0% 

B=

251

µ 0λυ
2πy 

. ]  F  !  &# 7# %  $  #  84 F 
.s  E  

∴B =

2 kλ υ
c2 y

:& 

B/E  

+ :>""

B 2kλυ y
= 2 .
E
c y 2kλ

B υ
=
E c2

:(2)  2
$ 
q ; 
m0   ;   C  %! 1-  !# \  
.%  . &# #  #  T 7 
!%
.B ;= "
:
r
r r
F = qυ× B 

. +. 8

r
.B

:7 C &# ' "( ' +
(1)
r

&.# .# .4 C #  υ +, 8  

 O=  >  >  $ C + >@  % 
:+ 8 75  H8 ' U 3  (10 – 6)
mυ2
= q υB
r

:+ C C5 4 p +,  =  8
p = mυ

∴ p = qBr

252

(2)

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

r

x x x x x x x x x x xF
xxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xrx x

υ

q 

%   += $ 
  
 
C :(10 – 6)  
.C #  F  &# 7# ;4  C@ 

:+, 

ε 2 = (cp)2 + (m0c2 )

2

(

= T+ m 0 c 2

)

2

∴ (cp) 2 = T 2 + 2 Tm 0 c 2

(3)

:H  !3 F84 +
Βrqc = cp = Τ 2 + 2 Tm 0 c 2

(4)

1
Τ 2 + 2 Tm 0 c 2
qc

(5)

∴ Βr =

:(3)  2 
.!% ).    5. 
;.
78. %  U " 
+.   + !% +/ ># 10m F %! 1-   100MeV
.938 MeV 7

: 
.!3 ?(2) "  B %  U " 

! ' 
)  8 

.! ). 
. 3  8 )
 +L   4 ?(4) 
! ' 
+

m 0c 2 

.
.  MeV

+ !% T  
!% +, 7,  
.! ) 
+  + 4 )! 8 . 

. 
C . +,  # .MeV & 3 F84 + G 1 %
: M
253

1Me V = 1.6 ×10−13 J

:- (5) 3 H  +8
 1.6 × 10 −13
Br = 

qc

 2
 T + 2 Tm 0 c 2


1.6 × 10 −13
=
 1.6 × 10 −19 × 3 × 10 8

∴ Br = 1.5


 (100) 2 + 2(100)(938)

∴ B = 0.15 T *
.( ) %  U 

! ' 
4 X T *

:(4)  2 

. Q  s  E  
 (0,y,0) J!      
q
r

+. t = 0 +5    x "
G F  υ #  $
-
.@ 
$   * 
&# "(   '  .-G %

y′

y
t = 0 +5

S

q  

r
υ

S′
q

y′

y

Q

z

:

r
υ

r
υ
(a)

Q  

x
z′

x′

(b)

 
& : 
P (b) .   *  
 
- 
(a) :(11 – 6)   


  *  
  - 
+, 4  :
I  

.C + ! 0% + 8

254

q . * 
&# ' "( ' H 
C + ! 0% + * 

. ;# .

 - 
+G $8 s  E  
 
8.4  .(b 11 – 6)    O=  s`  E  
& :  

# . $
 *  
  - 
+, @ 
 

r 

+, @  
(a 11 – 6)    , .H x "
G F  υ
. 
-  
+ 
  *
' "(. ' )  H 
s`  C + ! 0% + + +8
:4 (0,y`,0) J!  q  
&#
f x′ = f z′ = 0, f y′ =

kqQ
y′2

:+, 
f x′ =

f y′ =

f z′ =

υ r r
(u . f)
c2
υ
1− 2 ux
c

fx −

f y /γ
υ
1− 2 u
c

x

f z /γ
υ
1− 2 ux
c
γ=

1
(1 − υ 2 /c 2 )

:7 s  E  
 q &# ' "( ' )  +
fx = fz = 0
fy =

255

f y′ /γ
f y′ /γ
=
= γ f y′
υ
1 − υ 2 /c 2
1 + 2 u ′x
c

(

)

:+L t = 0 +5 
x ′ = γx ,

y′ = y

∴ fy = γ

z′ = z

,

kqQ
y2

:(5)  2
F.  $
t = 0 +5  (0,0,0) J!  Q 4  % 

r
q Q , % 
.s  E  
 υ 4  #  x "
G

.u 7 #  y "
Z 5 F  $
(x,0,0) J! 
.q  
&# ' "( ' H 

:
y′

y
t = 0 +5

s

r
υ
t ′ ≠ 0 +5

s`

r
u′

r
u

r
υ

Q 



z

Q

x

q

x  

x`

q

z` 
s  +3  +4  + 
 *  
- 
:(12 – 6)   

O- s`  . M +#    #  $   
. 
 * 
&    -

256

x`

:+,  s  E  

ux = uz = 0

?

fy = fz = 0

? u .f = u x f x + u yf y + u zf z = 0

uy = u

r v

:&# -
s` & s + #  ) 
 3 *
u ′x =

ux − υ
= −υ
υ
1− 2 ux
c

u ′y = u y /γ =

1
u
γ

u ′z = u z /γ = 0

:+,  s` & s + ' )
+
f x′ =

υ r r
(u . f)
kqQ
c2
= fx =
υ
x ′2
1− 2 ux
c

fx −

f y′ = f y /γ = 0

f z′ = f z /γ = 0

:+ t = 0 +5 

x ′ = γx

+, 

fy = 0
fz = 0
fx =

kqQ
γ2x2

+ 8  * 
#  &#  
F84   3 * ' +8
.x "
G &# ># t = 0 +5  4 
:(6)  2
)
. .y ,  "
G &# +# +5  + 
)8 3 
).
8L. ±σ + 
. &# 
%  
" )  3 
r

)* H 
x "
Z H F * υ @  #  3 
. 
 '  %   
257

:
@. 
 
84  >4  +, s  E  
 3  +,  3
r

.(a 13 – 6)    O= F * υ @  #  $
 ,

y

r
υ 



s

r
υ

y`
a

σ
---------

s`  

a

σ
---------

++ ++++
++++++

++ ++++
++++++

o

x

o`

x`
(b)

(a) 

(b) .

 4 x " 
+5 +  
+ 
(a) :(13 – 6)  

.+ 
 +5  + 
4  :
I    
& : 

+. s  E  


r
υ 

#  $ 
78 s`  E  
 

.  ) 
+  
F84  .+ 
 + 3  
. 7, . 3.  * s` . 4.  7,   + 
&# 
. O=  y` "
* F  >  >* $ 4 + % 
:+,  s`  E  
 +8 (b 13 – 6)  
B′x = B′y = B′z = 0
E ′x = E ′z = 0

?

E′y = E′

.3   
+     

E′

+, :

:H  s & s` + %   )* 
)*3 +
E x = E ′x = 0

(
)
E z = γ(E ′z − υB′y ) = 0

E y = γ E ′y + υB′z = γE ′

258

B x = B′x = 0
υ


By = γ  B′y − 2 E′z  = 0
c


υ


 υ
B z = γ B′z + 2 E ′y  = γ 2
c


c


 E′

(1) 

8 .", O.=  
)*3 + #  -
  \  F84 +
.s`  E  
      #
: +   3  +, 
E′ =

σ′
∈0

(2) 

. +M .+5.  + 
&# 
%  
" σ` +, : 

. 

1
γ

. .-, + 
 
+, @ 
s  E  

 σ` + , σ 
%  
" +    
+ 

:+, 7,
σ = γσ′

:+, 7, ? γ 
E=

E ′ +

(3)

, + E    +L 8

σ γσ′
=
= γE′
∈0 ∈0

(4)

:+L s`  + 
 % +  0 
E′ =

γ

φ′
a

φ′

+, +M U  8
(5)

. 
.  + &  F84 .+ 
+  a +, 8
.y ,  "
G &# %   G s`  s  E
:\  (4) ?(3) + 3  
E′ a = φ′ 

E a = γφ ′

(6) 

. +. &#, 4 s  + 
+  +, (5) !3 + \ 
. γ  s`   

259

.3.  
 '  %  )* +# 8 +M 
. 
%.   )  $ 4 +, 8 +,  # $8 O=  
.  / js 
%   " 1 3  .x "
G '5  

'8/. %G ' 
&# # ' -  "      

:+ 1 3  84 H .O% +
j s = συ

(7)

F. * +   %   +    '#! %
:+ , + ! + F  H 
z "
Z H
Bz = µ 0 js = µ 0συ
∴ B z = µ 0 (γσ′)υ = γ (∈0 µ 0 )υE′
∈0 µ 0 =

1
c2

:+, 

 υ 
∴ B z = γ 2  E ′
c 

C . .#  -
  (1)  !3 4 ' G !3 F84
.%   )* 
)*3

:(7)  2
Q.! %.% &# # ' - E     Q! %%
r

r 

%   )* F84 +, )# 8L . B = " % 
s` .I    
 .s  E  
 xz  xy +   J

.  Q %% ; C3 :

260

:

y
s
r r
E = E⊥

r
υ

y`

r
EII = 0
r
BI I = 0

s`

r
E′ = 0
r
B′I I = 0

0

r r
B = B⊥

x′

O′

x
r
r
B′ = B′⊥

(a)

z

(b)

z′

+# =3 &# +3  %  U "    (a) :(14 – 6)   
%  U " > - 7    (b) .x "
* #

.x` "
* # 7#

. 
 x "
G &# +# 4

r
B

&# #

E

+, 

:+, - 
s  E
r
EI I = 0

r
BI I = 0

?
،

r r
E = E⊥
r r
B = B⊥ 

. y ,  "
G F 

r
E 

  +, +M U   

., .(a 14 – 6)    O=  z "
G F 
+,

r
E′ = 0

r
B 

% 

+, 4.  ; s`  E  
O= (b 14 – 6)  
r

. B′ ≠ 0
:H  s` & s + %   )* 
)*3 C 
r
r
E′I I = E I I = 0

261

(1)

r
r r r
E′⊥ = γ E⊥ + υ× B⊥ = 0
r
r
B′I I = BI I = 0
r
1 r r 
r
B ′⊥ = γ  B ⊥ − 2 υ× E ⊥ 
c

(

)

(2)
(3)
(4)

:+ (2) 3 +
r r r
r r r
E ⊥ + υ× B⊥ = E + υ× B = 0
r r r
∴ − E = υ× B

>.  > =

r
B

(5) 

%  U " (5) 3  % H =
:- 

r r r r r
E× B = B× (υ× B)
r r r r r r
= (B . B) υ− (B . υ) B

\  (a 14 – 6)    O= 

r
B

&# 7#

r
υ

;  +, 
:+, 

.

r r
E× B
B2

r r
r
E× B = B 2 υ

7. s`  .E  
#  )  8 ; , +8 \ 

)*. C3  @ 
 
84  4  7, + s  E  

.%  )*  % 3   

:(8)  2
)
(0,0,0) J!  + + $
?q   
 
C
r

r 

. Bz = B C@  %  

r
r
Ey = E

C@     "/

C.@ &. .
# >  + 
C ; 78 
r

. E = 0 +, ; 4  @ 
 )"  

. 
.# Q ., '  C  C" >*, C@  $8   
. c >> υ +,  # .-G C@  & Y 

262

:
:H  # ?(56 – 6)  
)*3 C   
r
E′I I = E I I = 0

r
r
B′I I = BI I = 0
r
r r r
E′⊥ = E ⊥ + υ× B⊥ = 0
r
r
B ′⊥ = B ⊥

+,  y ".
G F. 

r
r
E⊥ = E

+, @. 
(a 15 – 6) .  +
.z "
G F 

r
B

r
= B

r r r
∴ E + υ× B = 0

y
s

(1)

r
υ

y`

r
EII = 0
r
BI I = 0

s`

r
E′ = 0

r
E

r
B′I I = 0

r
υ

r
B

q ‫ساكنة‬
t = 0 ‫في زمن‬

x

r
B′

q  

(a)

x′

(b)
z′

z

+3  + "/ )
-G %  q   % 
(a) :(15 – 6)   


 q %   
(b) .B %  E  

. 

# 7# % %   "/ )

:  7 υ #  +,  (1) !3 +
υ =

263

E
B

(2)

:+, \  (b 15 – 6)    O=

S′  

E  


r
E′ = 0
r
B ′I I = 0
r
r
r
r
B′ = B′⊥ = B ⊥ = B

+. 8. ..- %  '! 4 s`  C &# ' "( '
"/. ).
R 4 %! 1-

x ′y ′

Q   '   $ 
C

. υ Q   " #  5  '!
mυ2
∴ qυ B =
R

:+ C 5 #  ω +, :

ω=

υ = ωR

+, 

qB
m

(3)

:7 s`  t` +5 7,  C &# ' "( '
r
r r
F′ = qu ′× B′

. υ  7  '   $ 
78 C # 
:&# -

r r
u ′× B′

)

+, 8  

H = -
$

r
r
r
F′ v
= i u ′y B′z − u ′z B′y + j(u ′z B′x − u ′x B′z ) + k u ′x B′y − u ′y B′x
q

(

r
u′

(

)

r
r
F′ v
∴ = i u ′y B′z − j u ′x B′z
q

:+
B′z = B′⊥ = B

u ′y = y& ′ ? u ′x = x& ′

m
&x& ′ = By& ′
q
m
&y& ′ = − B x& ′
q

: M - + G + 3 H  (3) !3 +
&x&′ = ωy& ′
&y& ′ = − ω x& ′

264

(4)
(5)

:+, 

c >> υ

+, U 

 ) 
 3 *

x ′ = (x − υt )

x& ′ = x& − υ ? &x&′ = &x&
y′ = y

y& ′ = y&

:&# -
(5) ?(4) + 3   
84 U3 
&x& = ωy&

(6)

E

&y& = ω − x& 
B

(7)
(2) !3 + υ = E/B +, : 

. % = +/ $8 > I + =  + 3 + 4 
+ + 
.3   
0 %.   . 

x&

&y&

+# U3 C" + t +5 J (6) 3  

.=  =  3  
C C" ?(7)

: M  
&#   - 
 3 = 
y = c1 cos ω t − c 2 sin ω t + c 3
E
x = c 2 cos ω t + c1 sin ω t + t + c 4
B

(8)
(9)

?+. 
 >@ 
?-G %  C + t = 0 +5 
:H   * %  F84 +
y& = x& = 0

y=x=0

. c 4 , c 3 , c 2 , c1 3 G )" C! 
%  F84
E
(ωt−sinωt)
ωB
E
y=
(1 − cos ωt )
ωB

∴x =

(10)
(11)

:+, 
υ = ωR =
∴R =

265

E
ωB

E
B

(12)
(13) 

.%  C  cos ωt 

sin ωt  

=  ""  
18 

:+, 

sin 2 ω t + cos 2 ω t = 1

(x− Rωt )2 + (y− R)2 = R2

(14) 

.%  . J. 45  ?R 4 %! 1-   '  3 F84
.(12) 3 "  " #  x "
G F  $ 
(Rωt,R,0)
%. 
&.# .% +   $ 
C +, C  \ 
υ 7.  " #  x "
G F  9 
R 4 %! 1- #
(16 – 6) .  . >
.= P 
 
 %  $ C 

. &
y
r
E

o
x
z

r
B

)
+ 
C ;  78  & 
:(16 – 6)  

.%    +3  + "/

266

6  78   

F.  $ .
t = 0 +5  (0,0,0) -G %  Q % 
.1
&# ' "( '  .s  E  
 υ 4  #  x "
G
(x,0,0) %   J  
84  + 
 q % 

f y = f z = 0, f x =

kqQ
γ2x2

:

9

r

H. F. * υ # .  

+
Q  q + % +
.2

&# Q  
%   ' H 
.s  E  
 x "
Z
&.# (0,0,0)  (x,y,0) .4 Q  q +
.  )". 
+/ ># q
.  
# . $ .
s  .E  
 -G %  Q % 
.3
r 

. &.# ' "( '  .x "
Z H F * υ @ 
$ . 
Q  
+ l 3 &# x "
G &# J q Q , %
r
.x "
Z H F * υ @  # 
f y = f z = 0, f x =

kqQ
γ2 l2

:

9

.    
 %    +*
r
B 

,

r
E

+, )# 8 .4

; +    
(1)  +,  
% 7, )
O=

+5.  +4. 
r
E

r
r
B E

r
B 

r
E

;. +    
(2) ?> - >

;. +  E  
(3) ?y "
G &# 0%  F * +
r

. B &# >#

267

H F * $
t = 0 +5  -G %  Q % 
.5
q Q , % 
.s  E  
 υ 4  #  x "
Z

7 @  #  x "
Z 5 F  $
(0,b,0) J! 
.q  
&# ' "( ' H 
.u
fx = fz = 0/ f y =

45 0

γkqQ 
υ 
1

u

b2  c2 

:

9 

5   s  E  
   ?+5  + 
)8 3  .6

+ 
. &.# 
% 
" 3  
.x G "
G J
.s  E  
 υ 7 #  $ 
s`  E  
.±σ
r

.s    
.s`    

r
E 

:*
> ,

r
E′ 

:> "

Rx` G "
G J + 
3 -   5 4  :> ""
R+ 
&# 7# s`     +, 4 :> 3
+  .  +     
 4  ! +  ' H 
.7
+ 8 1mm    +5  +% &# H  & >  + 

.1MeV :> " ?1eV :>*, :&  
!%  
  
(1)2.31×10 −22 N
(2)7.80 ×10 − 23 N

:9

+, .%  .  )* 
)*3 >  \  .8
.  )
)
 + +

r r
(B . E) 

(B 2 − E 2 /c 2 )

+   

E  
 x G "
G &# J λ  " % % 
.9 
q   
.υ  " #  x F  $
%  
F84 .s 

. &# % '  .' 
D #  $
(0,0,0) J!

268 

%    + +, O=    C  C" q  *
r

r

. B = υ× E/c 2 !3 =3 J +%  (0,0,0) %   #
>.  > .  
N Q % ' 
;  #  5
1 .10
Q. 1. . .%  U " )  8L ?I F 
9 . .

r
B 

r
E

+  ! H 
.> - ;  

B = µ 0 NI

1. +  # + 
 4  ! + < 4  1
.;% &# 7# F  υ @  #  >  

.
. 4 r    +5  +% &# +3 ±q +
.11 
. O=  F * + 3   +   + #  

.(+q) &# (-q)  
%   ' 4  .(17 – 6)  
y
υ

+q

r

x
υ

-q
z
(17 – 6)  

269 

‫  א א
א‬
‫القيمة‬

‫الرمز‬ 



8

3x10 m/s

c 

 


6.626x10-34 J.s

h 



1.055x10

-34

J.s

h

1.602x10-19 J

eV 



1.602x10-19 C

e 



9.109x10-31 kg

me 

  

1.673x10-27 kg

mp 

  

1.675x10-27 kg

mn 

  

273.2 me

mπ± 

  

206.8 me

Mµ± 

  

0.511 MeV

mec2 

  

938.6 MeV

mpc2 

  

939.6 MeV

mnc2 

  

139.6 MeV

Mπc2 

  

105.7 MeV

Mµc2 

  

8.854x10-12 C2/N.m2

∈0 



4πx10-7 wb/A.m

µ0 

!

8.987x109 N.m2/C2

1/4π∈0

1.661x10-27 kg

U 

! # $%

9.8 m/s2

g  

& #'(

6.672x10-11 Nm2/kg2

G 

!' 

"   k 

1.99x1030 kg

) 

5.97x1024 kg

* 

7.35x1022 kg 

+ 

6.38x106 m
1.381x10-23 J/K
271

*   ,-
k 

. 

‫מ   א
א‬
 –  
(0)
Speed

2 

Radiation

3(4

Absorption

5-

Emission

6(

Wave Propagation

' 

Deviation

,

Displacement 

.4

Ether 

0

Direction

7'

Reflection

)(

Light Signal 

8
$4

Refraction  

Cosmic Rays 

(0

Coordinates 

%4

Beta – Decay 

#

Pair Production

9. 94

Electron 

4

Annihilation

:4

Horizon

20
(;)

Pion
Baryon
Positron
Proton
Spin
272   

. 

"

Isospin

<= "

Intrinsic Spin 

! " 

Experiment 

'

Acceleration

#'(

Compton Effect 

>

Apparent Frequency

<?= %%

Galilean Transformation 

@ 

Velocity Transformation  

#

Time Transformation 

. #

Time dilation 

. 

Length Contraction

#  5+

Momentum Transformation

"A. #

Energy Transformation 

 #

Mass Transformation 

#

Acceleration Transformation
Elastic Collision
Inelastic Collision
Dispersion
Lorentz Transformation

#'( # 
"%- 
@ "%- 

) 

Geometrical Representation 

%? #

Orthogonal Transformation

<%( #

Doppler Effect
Symmetry 

% >
#

Nuclear Interaction

< # 

Gravitation Interaction 

# 

Magnetic Effect
Current

273  

B > 

Surface Integral 

#

Force Transformation

$+ #

Twin

"0

Attraction

;!'

Repulsion 

Surface Current 


(6)

Constant 

Time Constant 

. 
(9)
%C'

Potential
Astronomical Body 

" '

Elementary Particle 

0 " '
:<.'

Molecule 

B  '

Strangeness Particles

" '

Particle

% 
" '

Anti Particle

<. ;!'

Central Attraction 

!'

Gravitation
(D)
Incident

6%

Relative Motion  



Bubble Chamber 

+ $'

Electromagnetic Induction  

BC 6

Diffraction

%
(%)

Function

274 

%

Thermodynamic 

%

Impulse

E%

Work Function

#B %

Invariance 

B %
(!)

Atom

$!
()

Nuclear Films 

2

Schematic Diagram 

 A " 
(.)

Angle 

.

Rotation Angle 

% .

Complex Angle 

%+ .

Real Angle 

++ .

Momentum

"A.
())

Velocity
Relative Velocity   



Group Velocity 

' 

Phase Velocity 

 

Plane Surface

<  F

Light Year 

8


Closed Surface

2B F

Conducting Wire

#- 

Drift Velocity
Permittivity of Medium
Permittivity of Space

275

,'  
 


(G)
Charge 

Source Charge 

%- 

Test Charge 

A 

Work

#B

Light Ray 

8
3(

Moving Charge 



Field Intensity

#' $%

Stationary Charge 



Linear Charge 

A 

Point Charge 

+ 

Figure

#
( )

Energy 

Kinetic Energy 



Total Energy 



Stationary Energy  



Phase 

Spectrum

,

Exchange Energy 

% 

Threshold Energy 

( 

Potential Energy 



Wave Length 

' # 

Gained Energy  



Emitted Energy 

( 
(=)

Phenomenon

276

$?=

Photoelectric Phenomenon 

8 
C $?=
(3)

Moment

".

Element 

-

Matrix Element 

- -

Current Element 

-

Differential Element  

-

Atomic Number

<! %%

Infinitesimal Element 

B- ? -

Perpendicular

<%(

Lepton Number 

%%(

Baryon Number 

%%(

Strangeness Quantum Number 

B  %%(
(,)

Vacuum 

Flux

*

Potential Difference

%C' 2

Photon 

Phase Difference 

2

Space

: 

Four Dimensional Space

%(&   : 

Proper Time Interval  

. $

Interval

$

Magnetic Flux  

B *
(2)

277

Force

$

Central Force 

. $

Classical Value 

%+ +

Exchange Force

#% $

Gauss's Law

) 

Mass Conservation Law 

= 

Energy Conservation Law 

 = 

Coulomb's Law

" 

Lorentz Force

) $

Right-Hand Rule

H % $% 

Rod

; 

()

Mass 

Atomic Mass 

! 

Density 

Current Density 



Linear Charge Density 

A  

Surface Charge Density 

  

Flux Density

* 

Vector Quantity

C' 

Rest Mass  



Kaon 

(#)

Lepton
Lambda Hybron

278  

? %

(")
Substance

$%

Infinity 

C

Vector

I'

Displacement Vector 

. I'

Capacitor

( 

Field

#'

Vector Diagram 

?'

A

Coefficient

#(

Resistance 

+

Curve

H

Conductor

#-

Conserved

=

Source 

%-

Electrons Source
Uncertainty Principle
Electromagnetic Wave
Spectrometer 

%- 
+ 0%  
BC '
, 

Equivalent

J

Parallel

<.

Meson 

.

Optical Path 

8
 

Period 

!! $%

Mirror

$K

Reference Frames
Equation
Transformation Equations

279

% 4  
%(
# %(

Proper

; 

Observer

%?

Orbit 

%

Spaceship 

8 


Laboratory System 

A 

Center of Mass System 

. 

Muon 

Accelerator

#'(

Four Vector  

I'

Position Vector

E 
I'

Point Source 

+ %-

Transformation Matrix

# -

Rotation Matrix 

% -

Four Velocity  

  I'

Four Momentum

"A.   I'

Four Acceleration

#'(   I'

Four Force

$+   I'

Debrogly Wave 

% '

Spherical Wave 

'

Plane Wave  

'

Observer Position

%? E

Retarded Position 

A> E
()

Relativity  

S.I. Units 

% % "=

Nucleus

$

Neutron 

Neutrino 

280

Origin

#- +

Nucleon 

Wave Theory 

' =

Telescope 

=

Coordinates System 

% "=

Isolated System

#.( "=

Diffraction Pattern

% 9!

Charge Carriers 


(L?)

Hyperon 

C

Hydron 

%C
()

Unit
Unit Vector
Atomic Mass Unit
Medium
Conducting Medium
Moving Medium
Stationary Medium

281

$%
I' $% 
!  $% 

#  
 


‫المراجع‬
1. Kacser C. Introduction to the special theory of relativity, prentice-Hall
Englewood Cliffs, N.J 1967.
2. Griffths D.J. Introduction to Electrodynamics, Prentice-Hall Inc
Englewood Cliffs 07632, 1981.
3. Reitz J.R. and Milford F.J., Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1967.
4. Landau L.D. and Lifshitz E.M., Mechanics and Electrodynamics
Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, 1972.
5. Jackson J.D., Classical Electrodynamics, John Wiley and sons Inc.,
1975.
6. Lorrain P. and Carson D. R., Electromagnetic Fields and Waves W.H.
Freeman and Company, 1970.
7. Richard T.Weidner and Robert L.Sells, Elementary Modern Physics,
Allyn & Bacon , Inc. Boston , London,1973.
8. Jerry B Marion,, Physics in the Modern World, Jerry Academic Press
New York ,1976.
9. Jayorear, Fundamental Physics, 2nd edition, John Wily & Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1967.
10.Elmer E Anderson, Introduction to Modern Physics, Dryden Press, New
York, 1982.
11.Hugh D Young, University Physics, Addison Wesley publishing
Company, New York, 1990.
12.Raymond A .Serway, College Physics, Palm Press Inc., 1992.

282

‫‪ .13‬د‪ .‬ناظم حسون العطار‪ ،‬د‪ .‬راشد الراشد‪ ،‬أسس الكھربائية والمغناطيسية‪ ،‬مطبعة دار الحكمة‪-‬‬
‫البصرة‪. 1990 ،‬‬
‫‪ .14‬ادواردم‪ .‬بيرسل‪ ،‬ترجمة األستاذ الدكتور محمد أمين سليمان والدكتورة ليلى سعدو باتومال‪،‬‬
‫الكھربائية والمغناطيسية‪ -‬مقرر بيركلي في الفيزياء – المجلد الثاني‪ ،‬الدار الدولية للنشر‬
‫والتوزيع‪.1992 ،‬‬

‫‪283‬‬ 


   

      
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/+ 7  *
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+   &'
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3 
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