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2004

drshahoot@yahoo.com
P. O. Box 40099 Khoms-Libya
‫א

‫ ‬
‫     
 ‬
‫ ‪6 .................................................................................‬‬
‫‪10 ................................................................
 
 
 1.1‬‬
‫‪11 ..............................................   
    2.1‬‬
‫‪15 ...................................................................... 
 3.1‬‬
‫‪16 ...........................................................  
   4.1‬‬
‫‪20 .....................................................................  " ! 5.1‬‬
‫‪21 ...................................................................

# $%
! 6.1‬‬
‫'&  !  ‪24 ............................................................................‬‬
‫
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‫ 
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‫‪38 ...................................................................  $%
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‫‪42 ........................................................( +  , - 2.2‬‬
‫‪44 ......................................................... (
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! 3.2‬‬
‫‪47 .............................................................. , /    
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‫‪50 ......................................................... 1, 2 
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‫‪52 ............................................... 3.    .2 . 1, (
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‫‪55 .................................................. !  ' 4  5 7.2‬‬
‫‪57 ...................................................................   4 6
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‫'&  !  ‪61 ............................................................................‬‬
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‫‪95 ......................................................... 
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‫‪99 ......................................................................  
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105 .................................................. $* 8 +) 5.3
111 ........................................................................  !  &'
130 ............................................................... 8& ()* 


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135 .................................................................  9  1.4
138 ........................................ $4*) 1   $%
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142 ............................................  9    $%
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145 ...................................................3 1,   9  4.4
150 ............................................. 

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154 ....................................................................   
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158 ............................................  ! ;     7.4
162 ........................................................................  !  &'
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172 .......................................................
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191 ............................................................   < 4.5
195 ................................................. $*   <, < 5.5
197 ........................................................................  !  &'
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223 .........................................................................  1.6
224 .............................................  ! !5 
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2


0  ,2  30"2 4    !# '+#  + !
552 0"  6 7 65" ' * #+ "  8#  1  ' *
,2 $ 8 +  %9 :*  %9 2 )9 5 ) ' 
2  ;< ! 5# "  ;< =#    8# ,   "
>< ' ?5 @" 2 )9 +  % >< ' + <  %9
#
 ,2 ( A ' * "
  + .   "  =+#
 7 41 B    C) = ,2 D ' + 
.
# ,   ' + <  ,2
   %9 6/B 0& 01 0  012  ' + )
>
 5 !* $ /
 0
2  ,  01 1 B
 
 B  .   1    %# E  01
( )  %# C 01 >
 + .#+ A+ 
 B
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7/ %# A+2 B& $  01  . 5" 9 5/
 F* &
.  +
 G 5+

3
 -  
 B  ' + < ,2  %9 @ - "
  C) 1 B 0G  C" 0
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)
.1 B 
01 0+ #
 # &  " 012 0+  5 ,2  !
  J 6 !
# ' +  5 ,2 ) .   "  
" %9 2 )9 1 B    K) ,2 ' * 5" 
 ,
.A#"- 8#  # C" =  ' *   >A#"9L,
 "   @- %9 0A" + !  ! < ,2  M
+ ! + 4' + <  5 # 'N #+ @9 '7
,2   < 0+ 6 8 ' + =" *#  < O )
P C) ,# # ,2 !2 7 +  " .
 =1 ="B9
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Q
 2004/02/01 ,2

4

   

 




,2 G A   '#.  ,2 5  + #! ( A #

>#! ; + <B 7 4 ! C#* %
 )  !
< "O +
 ,2  M  0  5 +& (A" (,+/+)
 "#    .  KS +
 5 +  4@   &
% >  * " JT2 !2 (()   0) * 85+
M9 0! M ()  6 !  G   !M  + E
4 " D< 0 !M  &
  + ("9 2 .1  " ,2 0
  + >  * "
,2 .  )7  5 , #+  " 5 #B ' "
+ " C !2 5#"  & @+2   
5" < 7 ?G 
'.  , #+  "   " 40  (  5" D< C"
  + 07   & @+2 8 ;< .+ ?G   , ' "
,G 5+ '*) , G)  "   . V UB&  ( #
5 ;< %9 2 )9 .= !M >  * %9 "
   ,* 8
 5 ' ! , "O G A    ,2 0+   

5
9" 5 #  1905   V   7 < .() 
KS +
 +    
-  ,2 8 M 5" ( A 7
D< 9 ."  
-   C" ,2 5 %! )  581  
D< C  V + 6 !     59   7 6 !
@"  @+
  .+ +   %9 2 )9 * 85+   0 @+
 <  "  
-   C" ,2 ()   "52 , 
. N     1 B    %9 0B 

 0+ ,2 
/ E
4 ( A C7 :) ,  0+
KS ;
 , @   & < "& %# F* #! ( A
%9 C)B 57  2 4()  "& D< KS  7 <9  .G*
.1 B  ( A
υ

()  c
 + ( A  ( A
(+ 0 "  )

+ ( A #! ( A

0 10-14 m 10-10 m r

 ( A C7 :) 0+

  :) *  01  (, 01 <  0 


%#  !  ,2 () ,!# 2 4' *# # 5#+ 5 19 #
" () *  $ ! & ' " #! ( A  !*
.# . /
 +
 +    
-  ;<+ , #+ 
 " %9 2 )9 01  5 ,2 # &  " ) 7
< ,2 5   , C) '  52 ,2 ' *# 6  +  
.01

6
 :‫   מ‬1-1
0  ,52   ( A ,2 5 C)  1 B   
 X <+ . ! 0/B ! ( A ,2 G K 

1 B ,2 ! !7 
/ *  7   D< <"
.* ,2 #B FG 7 5+# , 

  D<  ( # "  07  5  7 FG 7   9
,G   A @ @    C" 6 ! 6/# ,*   *
!7 .   D<    @ ;#  5 M9 5  
0 +9 %#  7 5 5 G A "   ;< 01
.! 
9 .< 5  ,  +- + @81  " %# 5
/
7 * 1  6"   KS %9 5#" + E
 B  " D<
. 
!# ;# 1 1 B     !# +
 7 9
59 01 + M ,   KS D<  M  <B  <9 4  
+ M G ) Y1 %
 4 M "& %# ' " " <9
; 1 B    2 <+ .  KS D< %9 5S 01 
 %#   >< 
M < 5    < ( A C
.G "  
  * 5"    F " +
 !#  +2& 9
, 1 B    ,2 G2 + @1 5!* + +
# 
.,+/+ ; + ,2 0
  + 5  &  +2O * C 
.   G * ! UB  "   N  

7
r
υ %9     
 ,2 ;# m0 + =#+ 6 " 
r
: +2 P %9 6   6 BA
r r
P = m 0υ (1-1)
= > 4 
 +  +
#  7 =1 + " BA 9
 "  !#8 " ." B @7 " %#  Q   6  %!
.6  
 6 ) %! "# ,#+ BA Z2 4J C 5)  ! E

r
: + " %# @ Q @! , F  + <Z2
r
r dP
F= (2-1)
dt
r d r
r dυ r
F = (m 0 υ) = m 0 = m 0a (3-1)
dt dt
r
:,N + "# +
 7 *   . " 0" a  E

p2
ε = 1 m0 υ2 = (4-1)
2 2 m0
r r
Z2 l %9    D "  =
A9  + " %# F @7   <9
= ,2 8 01
 <9 +
 =7 * ,2 8 >  =# A" 08
r r
+2 υ2 %9 υ1 
rr 1 1
F .l = m 0 υ 22 − m 0 υ12 (5-1)
2 2

 : ‫ א  א  א‬2-1


r
"  Z2 " %# F  @7   <9 = 
)[  F
,2 +  +
  "  <Z2 A C " @1  AM  <B
: + t = 0 A 
#
r r

F = m0 (6-1)
dt
F F
∴ υ= ∫
m0
dt =
m0
t (7-1)

.A C 8 M #+  J

8
@! =#        '+ " 0" <9 + 
\ ;< + 052 .A  #* @ 
=# 01
 + " B  5 5#" + B  " 9
D< 0  0" C* 5* , N " N  .+- 
B , /" 
  (1L1) 0+ .6"   KS %9  "
. " D< 0"

#" !*

 +^ E 

A- 

 +
E
4  +- F/* A $ 7 A 5" ,**B  :(1L1) 0+
.5" F2 * 0" ,+ E    +M F#*

5" F2 * 0" 41  q 5 0+ 


 ,  +- F#*
  #*  D "    +- D< A2 V ]0  ,G 5+
.& 0B 5 !M A @ 2  5 
+
!* ( 5  +9 0+   X 7 * 
7 
:,N + G 5+  + 7 *  !  5 
+ 0"
1
qV = m0υ2 (8-1)
2
:  .=#+ m0  +- 5+ ,  υ  E

q = 1.6 × 10−19 C
m 0 = 9.11× 10−13 kg

:>  ' " X


9 ,2 *#S V 5" F2 
1Mv=106 v

9
:%9   7 +-  + <
2 qV 2 x 1.6 x 10 −19 C
υ2 = = − 31
= 3.6 x 1017 m 2 /s 2
m0 9 x 10
∴υ = 6.0 x 10 8 m/s

;  01
  0
 M !    %#  D<   
 9
C F M ,52 " D< ,2  ! # ?G   .
 ( *B
:,N + " (!  +  
l = 8.4 m :& 0*
t=3.08×10-8 s : 0 !M @2
:%9   +^  !  + <9
l 8.4 m
υ= = −8
= 2.7 x 108 m/s
t 3.08 x 10 s
7 ;#  81 , 6 #  !   @B& " 
/
5  ' "  ## ("9  6
)  + 
1 @1 6  
5" @ A 
,2 =
 ! .#B #" 5" 52 B ,
. ,2 ##7 @ A ? #"

υ 2 x 1016 m 2 /s 2
2q
υ2 = V
m0
10
9
8
6

0
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 V(Mv)

'7 :) . +- 7 * + υ2– " ?G  :(2L1) 0+


(` ,2 () ) c  υ

10
  7 %9 01 + M G 5  ;   (2L1) 0+ ,2
/
, G 5 ! F *  D< 9 .  #" 5"  B 5
: %9   υ2 + 

υ 2 = 9.0 x 1016 m 2 /s 2

υ = 3 x 10 8 m/s

6 5 6 '# "   + , 5 ()  ,  D<
. " +
,2 6 ) + = ()   UB 2 *!2 $
( ! ; +)    52 :1 M , !*  F# 
 
F* ! ; + 2 ()  %9 01   KS +
  "#
'
>  5+ + G* KS +
  " 
,2 *!2
:  7/

2q
υ2 = V (9-1)
m0

+ 6 ! 6 *B 0  (9L1) 7/ 4# 


/ ' " C 6 !
D< ,2 @  " 9 .01& *!  >< (2L1) 0+ ,2 :) 
6     +
7 * 81 #+ 7 * 0
 +9 0+  , "
KS  < ,    7 "  +  <9 4 q V %9
1
qV > m0 υ2
2
>#!  +  9  ()   57 '! , υ

81 7 * 5+
(   0
 7  +-   :
1 . ε = 2 m o υ 2
1

.6 !
M ;<  :) 2 +
 81 . XB

11
 −: ‫ א‬3-1
 %# ; 02 4A+  0  ( # 5 7 , ' "   !

 0B  !#   ,   + " * = ()
@  ()   0+  =9 01  ;< +  A 4' *!M
.* 85+  " 
U 1M  #  ,2  !B D< "   9
@   & " K Z+ @  ()  01
 , E M
C K - 0  !#   0+ +   G)5+
." * ()# +    + M .   D<.@ 
+ <9 BV +  V 5 7 , ' "  ;< + ( "
.  D< 
1
c ` ,2 7 5 ν  %# @ .   () 9
07  7 * 5 0! A
0+ %#  () . 3 ×108 m/s %9  
4;/  h  E
hν >  G) A
 ,2 0
  + 7 *
P 6 BA ;<+ =  0
 .  7 * , + A
 D<
:, 7/ =7 * *
ε = hν = cp (10-1)
@A5"  2  <9 =
 + ()  A
D >< BA < 9
% 5# *! , * %# 6 *8) *# () 
 E
!7
.K - *8) @ 
   " G) A
,2      /BM 9
  J8 c 6 G ,  2 . Z =  M  +- +
7 * +2        07  ! 7 * + 
"  C C)B A 
,2 " * 
 +

A +-   [ 7 +- %# " , ' "  .
.c   D< '7  7 * =# A  07  +

12
 , 1eV +
 =7 * ><    2 0  0 %#2

,2 .()  = 6 ) 1MeV +
 =7 * ><  ()
>< +-   07 1eV +
 =7 * >< +-   "
+-  #+ "  ?  /BM < 41MeV +
 =7 *
.#   5 .

:    4-1


=B  @+ #  < >1 A 5" #+  0B $ !
.= 0
  #+  ,G A   07 
+ 5" A" %9 G) A
GA" %# @! = A 5"
=M    ()# ," 0* $ ! A 5" B .0B a<
6 !  J2 *   & % F#* `2 0/B J& +

( ) 0/B ()    6 ) ;<V D"  + (, 0+ 0#B
* %9 a 
 1  " 0  ()  "  !  + E
.` 
.  M > 


 " !
M2
R
 "


C υ

1
" "A


 !
P
s
  " "A 
1
2  1 M1
T
 

., #+  A 5" ,**B  :(3L1) 0+

13
%# s 1  () *! E
4A 5" < (A" (3L1) 0+ :)
M1 %9 01 
9 G) A
%9 A"2 2  1 " "A 
1
    M2 %9 01 P  5 +  XB& A
 $+
.$+ c " "A 
1
 K< D< ,2 () 0" >) 
1 D< " 9
  .!2& K< ,2 () =*! >< ;< 6   6 " "A 6 + C*!
P *!  0B 5 01
 V   +  G)  A

.G)   ,2 /B/ "
V  5 *!  M2 S 6   >  P  M1 S  + <9
+ .M2 %# F* R , M1 @1 Z2 5) %# 6     
 M1  P  l 2  M2  >  M l 1  M1  :1 <9
.T   0B Q 0 " ) 0B '   M2 %# 6   
! 8 ,G)   F2 Z2 >  2  M1 @V ;
 
λ
2
'5 0
 0
 0B a< ) 6 G) 6   01
 (6  9 6  <) λ
.0B a< +
   M1 @V ;
 .=  " BN
Q 0 " ,2  *!   , '& D<  * <Z2
:  E
M1 @V 5+
 , @81 2  ' 
 +

2(l 2 −l 1 ) = mλ (11-1)
'M  m  E

Z2 υ >    M1 %9 P  =" ;


 A 5"  )2 <9
,2 :) + A 5"#   5   $+  D "M  ;
  &
c− υ %9   + M1 @V D "  ()  <9 .(3L1) 0+
%9 () 01 ,+ . c+ υ %9   + P D "  ="  =

 . A 
  ,G) K # ,8 P *!  M2 @V
 XB& 5" ,2 = # ! *! %9     %9 5  D<

14
01#    %# '#8 4A >  D "  :  =#2 5
  ()  #1
 + $ & < %# .*! ;# %9
.(4L1) 0+
M 4 c 2 − υ 2 %9

υ
c

c2 − υ2

01 () 9 :) ,**B  :(4L1) 0+


 ,G) K # M # ! *! %9
. A 


6  9 6  < PM1 2  C*! () =78 >< A t1  J N

l1 l 2l 1 /c 2l1 υ2
∴ t1 = + 1 = ≈ (1 + ) (11-1)
c− υ c+ υ 1 − υ 2 /c 2 c c2
.6  9 6  < PM2 2  C*! ()# A/ A t2  6 ) J

2l 2 2l 2 /c 2l 2  υ2 
∴ t2 = =  1 + 2  (12-1)
(c 2 − υ 2 ) (1 − υ 2 /c 2 ) c  2c 

:%9 6   G) A


  ∆t A ,2 F + =#

2 2l υ 2 l υ 2
∆t = t 1− t 2 = (l 1 − l 2 ) + 1 3 − 2 3 (13-1)
c c c
D "  PM2 K< + E
 90o ! A =# + N A 5"  <9
: E
∆t ′  A ,2 " F2 ? +


15
2 l υ 2 2l υ 2
∆t ′ = t 1′ − t ′2 = (l 1 − l 2 ) + 1 3 − 2 3 (14-1)
c c c
= ? ∆t − ∆t ′ > 
  ,A F ,2 01
 >< 8 9
: E
'&  δ >  ! 0B a< ,2 
A9
c(∆t − ∆t ′)
δ= (15-1)
λ
( l1 + l 2 ) υ 2
δ= (16-1)
λc 2
:N 81  " D<   + 2 l1 = l 2 = l  + <9
2(υ/c )2
δ= (17-1)
λ/ l
#+  :)  \ υ 7  + 2 c l  λ  0+ 7 9
 . 3 × 104 m/s 
 ,2 J&  %9    D< + 
:N # ?G  N
υ = 3 × 104 m/s J& 
c = 3 ×108 m/s () 
λ = 6 x 10 −7 m B ()# ," 0*
l = 1.2 m A 5" K< 0*
:%# 01
 ?G  D< 
υ
= 10 − 4
c
λ
= 5 × 10−7
l
:  " 17L1 7/ F*
δ = 0.04
  .  .0B a< ,2 01
 , 
A- ! " D< 0 
 
 >< #+  A 5" B  $ !# 0 7 = M9 6" 81 <  
.D/ !   + 07 
A9 $ !  
 
 
A9     360o 0/B A 5"  #+ 
5  1/B  + , D  #+  07  @  "

16
.  & %S * " @+2  a M  # ?G  %# 01

, G     # " D< 9 . 5+ ,8 

1
.1 B    5# A+

 :  !‫ "א‬5-1
/1
 5Z2 +

,2 "  $ !    
 9 .Bb    ;
 
  + <9 #B ?G  %#
.   % 5 > 07   !
+ ;   x , 
M D "  υ  ;
 6 *7 N 
. u >     *! +
D "  ;
 BN $ " 
 =#B
;
 BN '+ ;<   =Z2  *! ' " ! 6 1B  )2 <9
;<  + <9 #B + D< " .x , 
M D "  u+υ >  
 #+   <9 <9 . *! +
 $+  D "M  ;
 BN '+
 " ( *9  + = ><     6M #  
 6A5"  + <9   > .=7 
  BV    ;#
<+ . - 
 =  * =Z2 A  
A^ $ 7
  7 =2 X"T   + ,2     
9  =  - 
 
.  ;< ) " +
 #B
s s′
υ
xo′ x ′p P

xp

O O' x,x'
 5 s,s` - 
 :(5L1) 0+
.υ X  

17
s A   *! ' " ! >< UB  9 
 N A
0+ ,2 :) + s ′ A  υ  ;
  *!  9 


 ,2 +

,2 '+ C7 0  P *!  J .(5L1)
 ! s  - 
   *! ;# C7 , xp 
/ . s ′  -
*!   ! s ′  - 
   57 x ′p  O 01& *! 
,2 x o′ >  O 01& *!  O′ 01& *!   + <9 . O′ 01&
:Z2  


x ′p = x p − x o′ (18-1)

: " t = t ′ A#     ,2* 0)  # ("Z

u ′x = u x − υ (19-1)

,2 '+  0  u ′x  s 


 ,2 '+  0  u x  <9
D  +   *! ,2 $ " '+  %9 @ - " . s ′ 

<  *!#  61 >  =  <9 s ′  - 
 ,2 6 
a B 7 UB 4 *! 0B '+  
 ><   
>  =  <9 s  - 
 ,2 6  D  +   *!
%9  
 < ,2  *!  
 ><  J& %9  61
.J&

 :  %#$" 6-1


*! >< "
  *7  "O = 0/B # . " !
 6 ) " 5 7   5 ')  1 7  @
@1
?2   ;
  +    + ( 5 , " D<

18
"& C"   .  7 ;< ,2 +   9 + M J& 
"
 *! <9 . ! *B ,2 0& %9 6  *! @
@1 *7 
.# +
 
 *)  1  + M  1 @ 7 

s, s ′ s s′
υ
y y′
υt x` P
x, x ′ x

O, O ′
O O′ x, x ′
t = t′ = 0 t = t′ ≠ 0

z, z′ z z′
(a) (b)

t = t`= 0 A ,2 5) ,#  !* (a) s`,s  - 


 :(6L1) 0+
.t = t` ≠0 A  x , 
M D "  5)  /1 (b)

;  E
#B  9 >
 ,2 "
 *! 
N $
 ,2   07 
 "
 *!  J 5  
*! "
  X %& 
 ,2 .J& %#   07  ;<+
C*7 0+ %# 6  6<B *! = X   
 ,2  @1
*!   .  = +  +    5"  .(,2 +
0" ! F# 2 G2 + %! ?G  + 
 ,2 #B "

,2 8 M , + %!  ; + 7  > 0"#  @!
. - 
 C"
#B  9 
 ,2 
/ , + " +
 !#   ! 9
M  D< 9 .# . /
 % 1 B M  5  +
 9 
 ,2 " 0"  A C)  F#   7 *

19
5 A XB  9 
 ,2 5 ! *   7 C s A  5 A
+ s  - 
  x , 
M D "Z υ   ;
 s` A 
:,N + 0
 M   + N +  (6L1) 0+ ,2
/
x ′ = x − υt , x = x ′+ υt 
y′ = y 

z′ = z 

t′ = t  (20-1)
u ′x = u x − υ , u x = u ′x + υ 

a ′x = a x 

01
 +   1 B 0
 M   D/ /
 ,2
/
 > 8  %! >< A#   0)  # ("9  5#
:+2 t = t ′
dx ′ dx dt
= −υ (21-1)
dt ′ dt ′ dt ′
:Z2 dt = dt′  
u ′x = u x − υ (22-1)
7/ Z2 =# 4
 D< 0  ,2 8  %! 0"  6 )
/
<9 #B  9 
 ,2   @1 5  0"    7
.A %9 2 )9 %& E/  M  *

20

#
#"$
:(1)  "
=2* 
  E M =#+ L =* + 
,2 0A F1
#+  + F1  BN *
 (   0) K 9

! 6  4[(7L1) 0+
M] ε =7 * m >  K -
. ε = mc  ?9 BA 7 *
2

:
M ε K - 7 * *
7/ '
=BA
L
c  <9 p =ε /c

  .()
∆x
F1# ,#+ BA
52  )2 " –   F1 :(7L1) 0+
K - ( 07 =2 
,#1& =7  F1  :)
.K - *8)   " ,G 5 =7 %9 =BA Z2 61 > 
−ε / c %9 6   +
:Z2 F1 9  υ  + <9 46@  K - ( 59 
∆t F8 A Z2 L 2  K - C*7   . υ = −ε / Mc
. ∆t = L/c :> 
D "Z F1# 6 2 6 *  * ') K -  2 ;<
,*c >< C2 ;< D "^ $+  !  >  C2 < K -
.F1# 6M
D<5 " + 
%9 01 F1 0"2 ,  C2 
: E
∆x >  2  F1 ;
 #
∆x = υ∆t = −
εL
Mc 2

21
= 
 C F1 #+ A+ Z2 6MA  + ="   
.m >  #+ = 0! 7 K -  > 4,#1& =7  A
:%# 01
 BA 
 7 F*
L ∆x
m +M = 0
∆t ∆t

mL + M∆ x = 0

∴ − M∆ x = mL
: " D/ 7/   - 
εL = mL
c2
∴ ε = mc 2

(2)  "

 ,2 =  + <Z2 ." B @7   
 ;
 m =#+ "
ε #+ =7 *  #! ; + 7  ?9 .υ %9   
:7/  %*
ε =
ε0
1 − υ 2 
 2 
 c 

. " UG 1B   + ε 0  E

:
=7 * " #+  7/ ;   (1) 0  ,2 
)  F
:7/  " BA    ; + ,2 4 ε = mc 2 4#+
p = mυ
p
m=
υ
:,N >  4=BA M ε " 7 * <9
ε = p c2 (1)
υ

22
8 Z2 " %# F " B @7   <9 4>#! ; + 7 
:@! D< * 0< 08 >  #+ =7 * ,2
d ε = Fdx
dP
∴dε = dx = υdP (2)
dt
:%# 01
 J 5) C (2) (1)   ')
ε d ε = c 2 pdp
:? @B&   ,2* 0 + # ("Z
ε 2 = c 2 P 2 + ε02 (3)
. " UG 1B   + ε0  E

:%# 01
 (3)   ,2 P = mυ  J 
ε2 = c 2 (m υ )2 + ε 02
 υ2 
2

=  mc 2    + ε 02
   c2 
 
 υ2 
=  2  ε 2 + ε 02
 c 
 
ε0
∴ ε =
 1 − υ 2 /c 2 
 

:(3)  "
#+  0B $ ! ,2 @V 5+
  '" , 2  '
9
=" 0* () Q 0 "  (,) ' 2000 ;
  
.606 nm

:
2(l 2 − l1 ) = mλ : 7/ B
2 ∆ l = mλ

23
2 ∆ l = 2000 x 606 x 10 −9 m

∆ l = 606 x 10 −6 m

∴ ∆ l ≅ 0.61 mm

(4)  "
100V D! 5" F2 0/B =#"  9.11×10-31kg =#+ +9
.!2 =" 0* '
9 υ=5.93 ×106 m/s G 5  '+Z2

:
:+2 P " BA 6M B
P = mυ = 9.11 × 10 −31 × 5.93 × 10 6 = 5.40 × 10 −24 kg . ms −1

:!2 " 0*  " + , 7/ 


h 6.626 × 10 −34
λ= = − 24
= 1.23 × 10 −10 m
p 5.40 × 10

= 0.123 nm

(5)  "
400m/s >   x-y X ,2 s  M 
 ,2 ;
 "

 ,2 = " .x , 
M C 60o ! A C1 D " 
.80 ms-1  M >
     6 # s`  M

:
:+ # . /
 F*
u ′x = u x − υ = u c os 60 − υ = 200 − 80 = 120 ms −1
3
u ′y = u y = u sin60 = x 400 = 200 3 ms −1
2
u ′z = u z = 0

24
(u ′ ) (120)2 + (200 )
2 2
∴u′ = x + u ′y2 = 3
= 366.6ms −1
u ′y 200 3
∴ tanθ ′ = =
u ′x 120
∴ θ ′ ≅ 71o

:(6)  "
=#"  +M (Ao) "M @
 , " 0*  
: V >  5" F2 0/B + 
λ = 12.27
V
:
:, 7/ 
h h h 1
λ= = = . =
p 2 m e eV 2 me e V

λ=
( 6.626 ×10 J.s ) −34

.
1
2 ( 9.11× 10 kg )(1.6 × 10
−31 −19
C ) V

6.626 × 10−34 1 1 12.27


λ= −25
. = 1.227 × 10−9. m= Ao
5.4 × 10 V V V

(7)  "
% 6   0" 5"  + +M /" ' " X
 ,2
D<  7 \>#! ; + B   +M   .0.255MV
.   07  7 ;# C "

25
:
()   '! = >< "# #+ 7 *    !
: < ε > 
ε = mc2
m0
m= :>  , 4+

,2 " #+ m  E

(1 − υ 2
/c 2 )
,7 * K"  + #+ =7 *  2 4+

,2 "  
:>  +
 7 *  2 ;< 4+
 +
T = ε − m0 c 2
= mc2 − m0 c2
 −1/ 2 
∴ T = m0 c2  1 − υ2 /c2

( ) − 1

D/ 7/ '" %* 1 B    ,2 +
 7 * <9
+
 7 *  F  (8-1) 0+  :) ,  
:TR  +
 7 * TC #!

T  −1/2 
TR = m0c2  1−υ2/c2

( ) −1

Tc =
1
2
m0υ2

c υ

  #! 


 ,2  C +
 7 * %
 :(8L1) 0+

 "  '!  T  !  C  /B ;  <


T M υ2    % a 
 ?G  D< 7  .() 
:+2

26
m0c2
T + m 0 c 2 = mc 2 =
(1 − υ /c )
2 2

 
 
 1 
∴ υ 2 = c2 1 − 2

  T  
 1 + 2  
  m0 c  
G 5+  + 7 * ,2 8 >  T +
 7 *  
: 2 4 T = qV
 
 
 1 
υ2 = c 2 1 − 2

  qV  
 1 + 2  
  m0 c  
 ! +  4V 5" υ2  C  7/ ,
 
" 7  < 6 !  :) + (8-1) ,
 C , 
:(9-1) 0+ 
/2 >  ,
  .

υ2
υ2=c2
c2

2 T 2 qV
υ2 = =  
m0 m0  
 1 
υ2 = c 2 1 − 2

  qV  
  1 + 2  
  m 0 c  

5  .=# *# 5"  "#  C ,


 :(9L1) 0+
.6+ 5"  + 5 c  υ '7 1 B ,


:+ >#! ; +#   <

27
2 qV 2 x 1.6 x 10 −19 x 0.255 x 10 6
υ2 = =
m0 9.11 x 10 −31
≅ 9 x 1016 ms −1
∴ υ = 3 x 10 8 ms −1 = c
: 2 1 B    7 B  
 
 
 1 
∴ υ 2 = c 2 1 − 
  
2

 1 + qV  
  m 0 c 2  
 
qV 0.255 MeV 1
∴ 2
= =
m0c 0.51 MeV 2
   
    2
∴ υ 2 = c 2 1 −  = c 2 1 − 1  = 5 c
1
2   9  9
  1 + 1    
  2     4 
5c
∴υ =
3

:(8)  "
0+ +
 7 *  + < 4+M # ," 0* '

.10MeV 5

:
Tp=10MeV # +
 7 *  0 F!
  '" :6M •
:ε0 + =7 * C +
 =7 *  ! ;<  .  

7 * < Tp<<ε0 < 938.3 MeV > 
 
# ε0  
B + ;< + =7 *  !   M 
: . 7/

28
h h
λ= =
p 2 m 0 Tp


  7 * 0
  '"2 4$ ! 
 @  '" :6  •
: J % MeV
10 MeV = (10 ×106 eV)(1.6 × 10−19 J/eV) = 1.6 × 10−12 J
(6.626 × 10−34 j.s)
∴λ = = 9 × 10−15 m
2 × (1.673 ×10−27 kg)(1.6 × 10−12 J)

+M 7 *  @  C 4+O   *B $ F*


B '" ;< 4 Te>>ε0  > 0.511 MeV >  ε0 +
: 7/
h h hc
λ= = =
p Te /c Te
(6.626 × 10−34 )(3 × 108 )
∴λ =
1.6 × 10 −12
λ = 12.4 × 10 −15 m

(9)  "
+  ;
2 F !  @7 =#   m0 +  =#+ "
0/B " 5*7 , x 2  " .t=0 A ,2 x , 
M D " 
.t >  A @2

:
=# @ Q @! >  "# ,*B BA ,2 ,A 8 0
:,    7 '

dp
F=
dt
∴ p = Ft + A

29
t=0 
# ,2 p=0  # 
 *  . + A  <
: 2 ;< .A=0 :<
m0u
Ft = P =
 u2  (1)
1 − 
 c2 
 
.t >  A  "  u  E

: " @B& 7/ 


F 
 m t
u=  0
2 (2)
1 +  Ft 

 m c
0 

  < >#! '" 0  *  7/ D< 


/
X  + M u 0" , !  XB 5"  .c>>(F/m0)t
. u → c  2 t →∞  > 4() 
:+2 (2) 7/# 0 + # >" x  "M
t
F tdt
x=
m0 ∫
0 1 + ( Ft m 0 c )
2

m0c2  2 
∴x =  1 + ( Ft m 0 c ) − 1 (3)
F  
 x=
1
2
( F/m0 ) t 2 >#! d2 + C*!  6 ) = !  ?
.(10-1) 0+ ,2 :) + GA C*7 N

x
#! +

 +

(d2 + C*7)
(GA C*7)

ct
"  +
  #! +
 ,
 :(10L1) 0+
. @7   


30
E
 .GA C*! +
%  @7   
 +
  2 <+
0 " ,2 
 " C)  40  0 %# @  +
 D<
.  ,G 5+

31
&  '  

. @  0/
  2.135x10-13J >  7 * 2 F#* .1
\,* 85+ K M < " 0*  
(3.222x1020 Hz):a
(9.31x10-13 m)

 ! D< M '


 :6M .mυ =BA υ = m =#+ " .2
6M* ;# ><  7 *  :6  . "# , " 0*
  ;
 < :6  \ "# ," 0* % 6   6 "
0* % ]  ," 0* = ><  7 *  5x104ms-1
.2 +M $ 7 @
 ; "   \# ,"

#+  0B A 5" 0   " ,2 5 0+    .3


) 6  986  = 6 @V ;
  =#  
 "2
BN ( " 633nm ," 0* A A 5" B  Q 0 "
0 " ) 6  986  D
 @V ;
  N =#  "2
=" 0* >< 1 () B 
 D< ,2 + Q
:6  . 
 ,2 @V 5+
 , 2  :6M '
 .589nm
. 5+
 @2 0/B @V# 
A& #1


x-y X ,2 60 ms-1  ;


 s  M 
 ,2 " .4
 s`  M 
   .x , 
M C 37o A C1
 %#& % 6  ;
 s` ,2 "   ,+ s  & 

\
 < ,2 " 

0.5nm =)  F %# *!   +&  A


.5
2   + < 2 .F  20cm  A"
%# 
a< +2

32
 +M BA '
 2.1cm >   " #   > 
.+
 57 * *7 

>< 1 ()  1    ,2       .6


\ 589.3 nm >  ()# ," 0*  6 # 100 W =7

33

 
(     )

.  
1.2
.      2.2
.   –   
3.2
.     ! 4.2
."# $   $ 5.2
.& –   – $ % "# 
6.2
.  
 ' () *+ ,  7.2
." () -  8.2

 .'
.(. /0  
   

 :
 1−2
1 
2/' 2 .3 4 *(, 5  6 & ) '   ' 7
2/# 2
 829 () * : ; / & . <=  4; 6  : 6
?829 62  2, 2  6 8   , > ' .(   
:9  :  +) 4 6  6 6 ' #6' 6)  
' B' .62A 2
 2   =)  *  0  $   ' :
2 ! 1 (9  4 9 C     $ . *  0 /#  
. B' ()   ()
' B' .6A 
   () c B  &6
 D0 () *+  : 

 2 2 
2 ' 42 6  1  69,    . *+ 
.69, ' 6/
 2
F) *+   E       8;
H

2/  C <=  ( :' G
 6) H1
 ?89 . () I/ 1   C
.  2, > ( +) 4 J6   
 ?89 4  6 #6   *)
6; B
 ()  69,   
K &8#    ' L $

38
E2 ' E2 (υ B2 :     ' N
)H s ′, s  0 #
:! /
x = ax ′+ bt ′ (1-2)
x ′ = ax − bt (2-2)
.: ) (!   b , a ' N

 () :+ 4    s ′, s 6A B


 ' P Q0
(2)  =+ &,; 6/ G
 ?89 () t = t' = 0  ()   , /'
.(a 1%2) , () I+  H R

y,y` y y`
υ
s,s` s s`
 =+ &,;

 x,x` o o` x x`
o,o` `
t≠ t ≠0
t = t` = 0

z,z` (a) z z` (b)

t = t`= 0  () :$ 


() (a) s`,s 6A 
 :( 1%2 ) ,
.t ≠ t`≠0 6 x (.6
1 ?  :/0 
() (b)

+ 4;   6$ s` 
  t ≠ t` ≠ 0     & ) 6
&,A  & 0 R # H(b 1%2) , ()  x (.6
1 ?  6 6
:4;   x (.6
1 ?  ) s () $ 6$ 43  =+
x = ct (3-2)
:4;   ) Hs` 6A 
 () Hx` (.6
1 ?  $
x` = ct` (4-2)
2 c 42;  2 (29    *+  ' 4; &,A 6 
S (9  o` /3   .( .   , >  +)) 6A B


39
(2%2) 26 (2) x`=0 2+ :  /
   s () 69, 
2/
 2  s` () 69,  S (9  o /3  
: ) (1%2) 6 () x=0 + : 
x x` b
=- = = υ (5-2)
t t` a
x  + 1  (1%2) 6 () (4%2) 6  x`  $ Q   P
:' <  (3%2) () :   (1%2) ()
ct = at`(c-υ)
:' /
(2%2) 6  .
ct` = at (c+υ)

:' <  :+ ()   #3  6 E+


c2=a2(c2-υ2)
.E+      (  6 () () tt` 6  # " N

:4 /
 & #3 $ 

1
a =
1 − υ 2 
 
 c2 
υ
∴b =
(1 − υ 2
c2 )
: γ 9 #T a  6 
1 1
γ= = (6-2)
1 − υ 2



(1 − β )
2

 c2 
υ
H β = c ' 8;
:( P (2 – 2)  (1 – 2) 
 ( 6   

x = γ (x`+ υt` ) (7-2)

40
x`= γ (x − υt ) (8-2)

s 42; s` 2 N6
$ 
A (.6
; 
(7 % 2) 6 . N

.s` 4; s  
A (.6
; 
(8 – 2) . 
F2) x (.6
1 ?   .     
:  6A B
 ' 
:' B' H 
   #  ! 1  #P  .6
A
y = y` , y` = y
 (9-2)
z = z` , z`= z 
62 2 
 ( 6 4 /
 t`  t  
P  6 (
.(8 – 2)  (7 – 2)  6  1
: ) (7 – 2) 6 () :   (8 – 2) 6 () x  Q

x` = γ [γ (x` + υt` ) − υt ]
= γ 2 x` + γ 2 υt` − γυt

( )
∴ γυt = γ 2 − 1 x`+ γ 2 υt`= γ 2 β 2 x`+ γ 2 υt`

 υ 
∴ t = γ t`+ 2 x` (10-2)
 c 
:' .;   .

 υ 
t`= γ t − 2 x (11-2)
 c 

Hs 42; s` 62A 2


   N6
  
(10 – 2) 6 .
  
P E .s` 4; s   
(11 – 2) 6 . 
:( P

41
x = γ ( x`+ υt`) , x`= γ ( x − υt ) 

y = y` , y`= y 

z = z` , z`= z 
 (12-2)
 υ   υ 
t = γ  t`+ 2 x` , t`= γ  t − 2 x 
 c   c  

 :‫ א א‬2–2


:   

s s`

t`1 t`2
t1 t2

o x o` x`1
x`2
(a) (b)
69, (b) H 0 #   () 6
 $ ()  .6
/
(a) :(2 – 2) ,
.    C   ()  0 #  $ ()  .6
 G


2 () x 9 6
 $ () s 6A 
 () .6
/
6$ U' Q0
s`() 69,  ' .[(a 2 – 2) , G
1] Hs () 69,  t2 H t1
2 t`1 , t`2  0 #   () x`1 , x`2  0 #  $ () :.6
G
 )
:' 6   
"6#  .(b 2 – 2) , ()
 υ 
t`1 = γ  t 1 − 2 x 
 c 
 υ 
t`2 = γ  t 2 − 2 x 
 c 
9 I
/  C . .6
     & 0 (9 t = t2 – t1 9 (0 )
.s` ()  .6
     & 0 (9 t` = t`2 – t`1
:' <    #3  6   L   *F

42
t
t`= γt = (13-2)
1 − υ 2 
 
 c2 

() 69,  S  .6


    & 0 ' & #3 $  <  
(2) 69, $  :     & 0  /$' (9 s ()   

' B' .s 62A 2


  υ  .  R
B8 s` 6A 

 

()  8;  .6
  '    )    $ &:'
.  L/1 * 8 9 H  
() U  (9 
: !" : 

s s`
υ

(x1,t) (x2,t) (x`1,t`1) (x`2,t`2)

o o`
(a) (b)
(b) H6
  () " ()  .6
;  $ U  s () 69, (a) :(3 – 2) ,
. 0 #   ()   " ()  .6
;  $ U  69,

(2) s (2) 69, $  s` () R


"  .6
;  $   
42 U2 72 s` 62A 
 () J +$ ' Q0 .t 9 6
 
U2 ) 6
'  $ ' Q0 (b 3 – 2) , () G
 9  x` (.6
1
692, $  t`2  () " 6$ x`2 #P U)  $ t`1  () " 6$ x`1
t 29 62
  () x2  x1 9 U0 E + ()  $  8F) .s` ()
162  21 62  H(a 3%2) , ()  Hs () 69, $ 
:' 
x`1 = γ (x1 − υt )
x`2 = γ(x 2 − υt )
∴ x`2 − x`1 = γ(x 2 − x1 )

43
:8; HL=x2-x1 9 (0  C  L`=x`2-x`1 9 (0 "  P
L
L`= γL = (14-2)
1 − υ 2 
 
 c2 

(2) 692,   



()  8; E + ) R8 1 < γ ' 
.U 
?   E + 6 F)   

 .
 ‫ 
א–א‬3−2
:#$%  :
r
H 2 ?2  u`  R
s` 6A 
 ()   ' Q0
r
 2    V  s 6A 
 () u U  E
E
2 
  ":0 (  .υ B x (.6
1 ?  6A B

 .62
A ?2  2:   4; H
 B' ()  
 '   (!
: ) x,y,z &6 
r r r r
u = i ux + j uy + k uz
r r r r
u`= i u`x + j u`y + k u`z

dx dx` dx dx dt
∴ux = , u`x = , = .
dt dt` dt` dt dt`
:4 /
   
"6# 
 υ 
x = γ(x`+ υt`) , t = γ t`+ 2 x`
 c 
dx dt  υ 
∴ = γ(u`x + υ ) , = γ1 + 2 u`x 
dt` dt`  c 
 υ 
∴ γu x 1 + 2 u`x  = γ(u`x + υ )
 c 

44
u`x + υ
∴ux = (15-2)
υ
1 + 2 u`x
c
:' .;   .
ux − υ
u`x = (16-2)
υ
1− 2 ux
c
:E    0
dy dy/dt`
uy = =
dt d t/dt`

dy`/dt`
=
 υ 
γ1 + 2 u`x 
 c 

u`y /γ
∴uy = (17-2)
υ
1 + 2 u`x
c
:' 6 X#' & :0   W F
u`z /γ
uz = (18-2)
υ
1 + 2 u`x
c
 21 62 u` 16 u        u 2 = u 2x + u 2y + u 2z :' 
: ) ?'  
16
2 (u`x + υ )2 + (u`2 − u`2x )/γ 2
u =
 υ 
2 (19-2)
1 + 2 u`x 
 c 

:&'   : 

r
?2  s` 6A 
 () a` 9 "G    R
"   8;
r
2
 () a U  6 A  
16 "6#    ) H 
.s 6A

45
: P $ P E 
   
du x du x dt` d  u`x + υ  d  
 υ  
ax = = . =  . γ t − 2 x  
υ
1 + 2 u`x    c  
dt dt` dt dt`  dt
 c   

2  42; 2/ 662


 E   H  #1 +0    *; 6
: =:

a`x /γ 3
ax =
 υ 
3 (20-2)
1 + 2 u`x 
 c 

r
a y     :, 
16 4 /
     0
r r r
:4 /
 (19 – 2) $  . a` 16 a   E
".  a z 

 u`x υ 
2
 u`2 u`2x  2
 +  + 2 − 2  γ
 c c c c 
1 − u 2 /c 2 = 1 − 
2
 υ 
1 + 2 u`x 
 c 
: P 
 6 4; / & #3 $ ?89 

 u2
1 −

=
(
1 − u`2 c 2 )
 c2  (21-2)
  γ1 + υ u` 
x
 c2 

" 2 (2  2$   


() "6#  8; H: & #3 $ ?89
.7
1 6 () : ,$

46
 :‫ !
א א‬4–2
u`y
y` y`
s` s`
 u`x  u`x

-u`y u`y

-u`x  
-u`x
-u`y

o` x` o` x`
"6/  6 "6/  $
"6/  6 $    WS   69, N
s` 6A 
 :(4 – 2) ,
."   "6/  ; Q0

u1 y
y υ1 y
s s
 u 1x  u 1x

υ1 u2 y
-u1y
υ2
-u2x  -u2x 
υ2
-u2y
X X
o o
"6/  6 "6/  $
"6/  6 $    WS   69, N
s 6A 
 :(5 – 2) ,
."   "6/  ' Q0

2  
 .V  0 (9  3 V 6 ' P  61
.  X    8; "   
  $ 4  
N2
 2 " "6/  ' Q0 H .     "6/ 6
2
 (2) J69, ' Q0 .( :$ ()  ! 6   6 
 2 2 42 2#P  96
' E     G
 s` 6A

47
N6
' $ (4 – 2) , ()  H           
.:  "6/ B'
    $2   Y/ 6$ .x`,y` X  () J   
 N6

42 (-u`x,u`y)  (u`x,-u`y) 22 "62/  $  =6 1 :    
(2   ?2  (2) J2  "6/  6     (  .E  
6 2  ) x` (.62
1 ?  9   ' Hy` (.6
1 ?  : 
(u`x,u`y) 29 "62/  62 :   =:    8; . !
.(4 – 2) , () I+ 9  (-u`x,-u`y) 
62A 
 () 69, $  G
 9  "6/  0 ( Y/
(u1x,-u1y) 42;  2 "62/  2$ 3 "       ) Hs
  2  ( "6/  6 .(-u2x, u2y) (. "     
2   42 2  y (.6
1 ?  () :  (   ?  () J 
2, (2) G2
 29  x (.6
1 ?   ! 6 :  
6 J) .(-u2x,-u2y)  (u1x,u1y)    8;   =: " ) .(5 – 2)
:"6/  6 3 "   4 /
   

u1x − υ u1 y γ
u`x = , u`y =
υ υ
1 − 2 u1x 1 − 2 u1 x
c c
:"6/  6 (. "   4 /
 .
− u2 x − υ − u2y γ
− u`x = , − u`y =
υ υ
1 + 2 u2 x 1 + 2 u2 x
c c
:' <  $ ?89  u`y  u`x Y8
6
υ
1− u1x
u1y u −υ c2
= 1x =
u2y u 2x + υ υ
1+ u2x
c2
2  Q2 *2; 62 /
 & #3 16 ?89  υ )8
8;
: P $ 4 H 

48
u1y u2y
= (22-2)
(1 − υ 2
1 c2 ) (1 − υ 2
2 c2 )
:' N

υ12 = u 12x + u 12y


υ 22 = u 22 x + u 22 y

G
 $  &69, (9  u2y B 1 u1y ' & #3 $  <  
.υ2  υ1   Y #1 R8 "6/  6 s 6A 
 ()
 2#   u2y  u1y   ) H     S   Z  8; H8;
2' R82 .G20
 (2# "# 6   Y B' H    C
2 ' Q20 ' 2  ' (# "# G0
$ 8 ' ; H #
82  J16 .  69,  "   
4    6  " 
.#P 6  # (# "# $

 () S (9  υ1 U  B8 3 "   ' P Q0
89 () S (9  υ2 U  B8 (. "  m1 4;   s 6A
2
 (2)     "# G0
$ 7 .m2 4;   

:y (.6
1 ?   ) s 6A
− m1u 1 y + m 2 u 2 y = − m 2 u 2 y + m1u 1 y

m
∴ 1 =
u2y
=
(1 − υ 2
2 c2 )
(23-2)
m 2 u1y (1 − υ 2
1 c2 )
' H 2 62 " 2  Hυ2=0  6 m2 = m0 ' P Q0
.u B  R
 "   Hυ1= u  6 m1 = m
m 1
∴ =
m0 (1 − u 2
c2 )
m0
m= (24-2)
(1 − u 2
c2 )
2 ! 2 42
 . 4 "   ' +)  U'  8  6 
.JG0
 4 1 "# G0
$ F) HU 

49
( ) (
∴ m − u1y + u 2 y = m − u 2 y + u1y )
H2: ; 2/ (  & #3 $ Q$ 89 u1y= u2y :' <  89 
2 !  '   ' 61 8; .(12 % 2) $ B' u1y≠ u2y ' : ) .
.G0
 "# G0
$ '  J

 :‫מ‬#‫א‬$‫
א‬$ ‫א‬5–2
r
2
A 2 8F) . f &$ U  .' Hm0   U  J   ' Q0
r
:4; J    dw  !, F) l (9 & ? 
d
r r
dw = f . d l = fd l
:F) dT  
$ 4; 
6$ !, 89 '   8;
d
dT = fd l = (mu )d l = d(mu ) d l
dt dt
∴ dT = u d (mu )
∴ dT = u 2 dm + mudu (25-2)
.
A ?  "   u ' 8;
:' 
m0
m=
(1 − u 2
c2 )
∴ m 2 c 2 = m 2 u 2 + m 02 c 2
:4 /
 $ ?89 
c 2 dm = u 2 dm+ mudu (26-2)
:' <   (26%2)  (25%2)  $ 
dT = c 2 dm
:' /
& #3 $ ?89 ()     *V
m

∫c dm = c 2 (m − m 0 )
2
T=
m0

∴ T + m 0 c 2 = mc 2 (27-2)

50
" 2   $ 4 m0c2 ' "     $ 4 mc2 ' N

: P $ E  U 
ε = T+ m 0 c 2
m 0c2
ε = mc 2 = (28-2)
(1 − u 2
c2 )
T = ε − m0c2
r
: "  "# 9 p ' +) 8;
r
r r m 0u
p = mu = (29-2)
(1 − u 2
c2 )
: /
<  (; m 02 c 2 )+; "Z. & #3 6 ()   
m 02 u 2
p 2 + m 02 c 2 = 2 2
+ m 02 c 2
1− u c
:<  c2  & #3 6 ?89 () E+
m 02 c 2 u 2
2 2
c p + m 0c ( )
2 2
=
1 − u /c 2 2
+ m 02 c 4

m 02 c 4
= 2 2
=ε 2
1 − u /c
∴ε = c (P 2
+ m 02 c 2 ) (30-2)
2  2$   *  0  + ()   8; J6 : $ ?89
.  ' U# Y 6 "     $ E

:4 /
 "#  (30 – 2) 6 () +0    *F
dε pc pc 2 pc 2
= = =
dp (p 2 + m 02 c 2 ) c (p 2 + m 02 c 2 ) ε

r r
:' <  p=mu '  ε = mc2 ' 

=u (31-2)
dp

51
 :%‫א‬− ‫א‬−$‫א‬−‫מ‬#‫ 
א‬6–2
:)*  
:( P s 6A 
 () "  "#   E 
:B x (.6
1 ?  "#  
m0ux
Px = mux =
(1− u /c ) 2 2

:! / s` 6A 


 () "# 89 E 
m 0 u`x
p`x = m`u`x =
(1 − u` /c ) 2 2

 υ 
γ1 − 2 u x 
=  
ux − υ 1 c
Q u`x = ,
υ
1− 2 ux (1 − u` /c )
2 2
(
1 − u 2 /c 2)
c
γm 0
∴ p`x = .(u x − υ) = γ(mu x − υm)
(1 − u 2
/c 2
)
:4 /
 Px = mu x  ε = mc2 ' 
υ
p` x = γ(p x − ε) (32-2)
c2
:' .'   .
p` y = p y

p` z = p z

:#+   : 

(2) px U2# ε B s 6A 


 ()    U $ J  ' Q0
p`x B U# ' ε` B s` 6A 

 υ 
2 γm0 c 2 1 − 2 u x 
∴ε `= m`c2 =
m0c
=  c 
(1 − u` /c ) 2 2
(
1 − u 2 /c 2 )
 
υ
= γmc2 1 − 2 u x  = γ mc2 − υmu x ( )
 c 

52
∴ ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x ) (33-2)
: P $ .;     0 
 υ
p x = γ  p `x + 2 ε ′  
 c 
p y = p `y 

p z = p `z  (34-2)

ε = γ (ε `+ υ p ` ) x 

:E  '   (30 – 2) $ 
ε 2
− p 2 = m 02 c 2
2
c
:E  '   s` 6A 
 () .
ε `2 − p` 2 = m 02 c 2
2
c
:' <  89 
ε2 − p2 =
ε `2 − p`2 = m 02 c 2
2 2 (35-5)
c c
ε 2
2
     ! 6 4 2 − P 2    ' "6  <  
c
.m0   U  "  6A

:#" ,  : 




r
U2   u B2  R
s 6A 
 () J  ' Q0
U   6 m` (;   U   s` 6A 
 () .m B
r
:F) "  8:     . m0  8F) . u` (;  
m0
m=
(1 − u 2
/c 2 )
m0
m`=
(1 − u` 2
/c 2 )
:4 /
 (21%2) $  1 

53
m′ = m
(1 − u c ) =
2 2

(1 − u` c )2 2

 υ 
∴ m`= γm 1 − 2 u x  
 c 
 (36-2)
 υ 
m = γm` 1 + 2 u`x 
 c  

.-  : '


r
s` 62A 2
 () S (9  "  4 &. f ` & ' 
r
: p ` "  "# () /
B8  !  6 B
r d pr `
f `=
dt`
:'  
6  (32%2) 6  < 
 dp υ dε 
γ x − 2 
f `x =
dp`x dp`x dt
= =  dt c dt 
dt` dt` dt  υ dx 
γ1 − 2 
 c dt 
fx − 2
υ d ε
∴ f `x = c dt
υ
1− 2 ux
c
2
 ()   "     $ ()  !  6 . ddtε ' N

:' 6 ( R   () .s 6A


ε 2 = c 2 p 2 + m 02 c 4
r r
= c 2 p . p+ m 02 c 4
r
dε 2 dp r
∴ε =c .p
dt dt
ε = mc2 '  
r
dε r  p  r r
∴ = f .  = f . u
dt m
(&6)  &6
 () & ? B8 !, 6 . $ ?89 

54
υ r r
fx −
2
u .f
∴ f `x = c
υ (37-2)
1− 2 ux
c
:4 /
   0 W F 
fy γ
f `y =
υ (38-2)
1− 2 ux
c
fz γ
f `z =
υ (39-2)
1− 2 ux
c
&2$  '  $ '  I+ :; 9 (37 – 2) 6 7  ) G
 
&2 R  &6  &6  $ ( s` 
   6; 
 ()
' H(   R   () 96 '   1 0/ ?89 #> 6; 
 ()
2
 2 & 
. ?' 16 ' 4; &,A 6  .B6  
' 2  s (; s` 6A 
  & 
 ' 6' 8; s` (; s 6A
. ) υ &,;  

 .  &'()*‫א‬+ ‫א‬7–2

S S` υ
% #$% c
u u`=
n

/0 #$% /0 #$%

O O`
(a) (b)
 ! (b) .u  x (.6
1 ?  R
*+ (a) :(6 – 2) ,
.s` () 69, [$  S (9  u` 4; *+ 

55
962
; 2  HW2S   0 (    () J   6
(2) *2+ 2,  V ()   ?89 7 . D0 () *+ 
. 
 '
B2  .  R
* ' \ J)0, J
  6 ' Q0
2 ' Q20 .(b 6-2) , () I+  s` 6A 
 U. υ
  8F) .u` B 
 89 () 69, [$  S (9  *+
:F) n 9   
c
u`=
n
s (2) 69, $  S (9  u *+    

:4;  
c/n + υ
u =
1 + υ/nc

  R ". υ/c   6/ X 6 89 R)    c >> υ ' 
: 3 6
  4' (9 (  66


−1
c  υ  1 υ 
∴ u =  1+ n   1+
n  c  n c 
c  n υ  υ 
= 1 + 1 − + ... 
n  c  nc 
c  nυ υ 
≅ 1 + − 
n  c nc 
c  1 
∴ u = + 1 − 2  υ (40-2)
n  n 
 1 
.*+ E
  )  1 −  6 (
 n 2 

7 (    (;  /'   WS    ' Y X 8 9


' ": 2 2 8;  .3 W+ () / # #>  ) :  /
'

56
2 2  U ; Y +' J* '   R *+ V J 0 
( R   :G $ .(40-2) $ U
+  U ) ,  B8 B6
2  .2  C  9 0 ' &
 : &9G ?89     , P
2 G D 4 6 J   J6    R F)   , P 
./#  

 :‫('אמ‬,
‫א‬8–2
(2) J ! G
1 6) 1728  (6 ( 0 $  -  &9G 0, 
4; 89 X' 6$ .  0 #    ) # " B9G +
 0  ' 6$ ., 
96 () R
(9 Q5 &66
 
2)    
"6#  "   G  &9G ?89
2 ! B' (2) R2, 1  .3 '   4    G  R8
., (;  Q3  ?  () /

s " s` r
υ  "
t 
ux=-c cosα   
() u`x  

()

uy=-c sinα u`y


r r
u ?  u` ? 
*+ *+
G
r
O α υ O`
  α`1

() Q3 x x`

() Q3
 
 
(b) (a)
(b) .s` () 69,    
() Q3  

() " (a) :(7 – 2) ,
.s () 69,  9 () R
Q3     
() "

57
r
s " s` 
 υ
ux=-c cosα   
() "
 u`x  

()
:,' 6+t
uy=-c sinα u`y
r r
u ?  u` ? 
*+
*+ G :,' 6 6
r α O`
υ O
  α`2

() Q3 x x`

() Q3
 
 
(b) (a)

() " (b) .  Q3 H:,    6 "  
(a) :(8 – 2) ,
. 
 Q3 H:,    . '  6  

Q0 .  , "  U ) B8 s 6A 


 '  
I2+  x (.6
1 ?  s 6A 
 () υ  R
Q3 '
Q20 . 2 8; Q3  s` 6A 
 () H(b 7 – 2) , ()
42 s`,s (2) α`1,α   E x (.6
1   *+ ' J+ '
2 ' 62 s 6A 
 () .(a 7 – 2) , () I+  ( 
: P   : *+
u x = − c cosα , u y = − c sinα , u z = 0

:G
 s` 4; s  WS 
16 
ux− υ − c cos α − υ υ
u` x = = , β =
υ 1 + β cos α c
1− 2 ux
c
u y /γ − c sin α/γ
u` y = =
υ 1 + β cos α
1− 2 ux
c
:( P 4 /
 :+ 4  6 
u`y tan α / γ
tan α 1′ = = (41-2)
u`x 1 + β sec α

58
2G #6 *+ 80 (  x` (.6
1  G  α`1   . 
. 2, (2)   ? 1  

() Q3  6 ?
 ? 
.α`1< α ' G
 
2 
2
() Q3  :,'   B   & )  6
()  !  89 .(b8 – 2) , ()    , 4;    ? 1
2 B82 62A 
   

() G  ' 6 ? 1
2 -υ 2 R
#> 6; 
 (; s 4;  +υ  J 

x` (.62
1   "  "6 *+ ) :,'    6 .s 4;
:' 8; H(a 8 – 2) , () I+ 9  Hα`2 B 0 #  
tan α/γ
tan α`2 = (42-2)
1 − β sec α
Q3 42   9 B8 G 
  ) α`1 B 1 α`2 ' 
.   () " * 6 '  :,'   & ) #  ! ' E
: 
υ = 3 x 10 4 ms −1 , c = 3 x 108 ms −1
υ2
γ ≅1 ' B' H:9;   +  66
 )
c2
∴ tan α 1′ = tan α (1 + βsecα )− 1
β tan α
∴ tan α 1′ = tan α −
cos α
− β tan α
∴ tan α 1′ − tan α = (43-2)
cos α
tan α1′ = tan(α+ ∆α) , ∆α << α :P 
Q tan (α + ∆α ) ≅ tan α + ∆α sec 2 α
∴ tan (α + ∆α ) − tan α = ∆α sec 2 α (44-2)
:' 6 (44–2)  (43–2)  6 
β tan α
∆α sec 2 α = −
cos α
υ
∴ ∆α = − sin α (45-2)
c

59
 α  $'    ' E G) U  α  $' α`1 ' ( 89
I+ ? 1  

() Q3  6 s` 6A 
 () 7)3
:F) :,'    6 . (b 7–2) , ()
υ
∆α = sinα (46-2)
c
2  s` 6A 
 () 7)3  G 
   
 ?89 ()
.α     
(2) (6 $  ,$ (  -   G
 ' "6  <  
"6# 2 U ; /   
(9    G :G $ $ R8
.6A 
   

60
:1" #"

(1) 


 () S (9  x`-y` B  ()   
() l0 : 7
s 62A 2
 () .x` (.6
1  3
sin −1     /  s` 6A
5

2 (29  : .x (.6


1  45o   / 7 ' G

^ s () 7   : 
^6A B
    

S S` :
υ
l
l0
45o
θ

O X X`
O`
(a) (b)
() 7 (b) .x (.6
1 ?  R
7(a) :( 9 – 2 ) ,
.x` (.6
1  θ   /    

(2) 7 ' υ    :  s`,s 6; B


 I+ (9 – 2) ,
υ   

() 69,   HI
/  9 l0 :   s`
2 Hl B2 2
 89 () : ' Q0  s () x (.6
1 ? 
2 96 4    
 ?  96  7 ' 6 (14 – 2) $
.: 
( B6 ?  (9
∴ l 0 cosθ = γ l cos 45 (1) :
l 0 sin θ = l sin 45 (2)
:' /
(2) 4 (1) 

61
4
γcot 45 = cotθ =
3
υ2 9 υ2 7
∴1 − = ⇒ 2 =
c2 16 c 16
υ 7
∴ =
c 4
:<  : ". (2)  (1)  6 ()    :  

 16  2
l 20 =
1
(
1+ γ2 l2 =
1
) 1 + l =
25 2
l
2 2  9  18
2 18 2
∴ l = l 0
25
3 2
∴ l = l 0
5

(2) 

2$   s 6A 
 () t=0  () 6
 > () .6
69,
.(x,0,0) 2 () (. N6
 $ (0,0,0)  () 3 N6

(29  .6
     & 0 ' G
1 s` 6A 
 () #' 69,S
6A B
      ' .'   
"6#  .T
. υ = c(1 + x 2 c2T2 )
−1 / 2
(9

:
: 
K   
J1' E 
 υ 
x ′ = γ(x − υt) , t′ = γ t− 2 x 
 c 
:' 6 s 6A 
 ()
t1 = t 2 = 0 , t 2 − t1 = 0
x1 = 0 , x 2 = x , x 2 − x1 = x
:' 6 s` 6A 
 ()

62
t` 2 − t`1 = − T
 υ   υ 
= γ  t 2 − 2 x 2  − γ  t1 − 2 x 1 
 c   c 
υ υ
∴ −T = − γ 2 x ⇒ ∴ T = γ 2 x
c c
(
Q γ = 1 − υ 2 /c 2
−1 / 2
⇒ ) γ
1
2
= 1 − υ 2 /c 2

c4

T
1
2
= 2
υ x 2
(1 − υ 2
/c 2
)
:4 /
 & #3 $ ?89 
(
υ = c 1 + x 2 /T 2 c 2 )−1 / 2

:(3) 

B2 =)  :' 6  B X#'  A  6  =+)  
A 2     Q3 4 69, $  S (9  0.7c
2  2 B    (9  .U0 ? 1   0.9c B
^A

:
S S`
υ=0.9c

υA=0.9c υB=0.7c υ`A=0


A B υ`B=?

O O
Q3 A  
  .s () 69,    
() Q3 (a) :(10 – 2) ,
69,    
() A   (b) .6
 ? 
. 

() B   .s` ()

63
s` 6A 
 ' Q3 . s 6A 
 ' X (10 – 2) , ()

 (;  x (.6
1 ?  υ = 0.9c  R
B8 A   .
2   8; .s` ()   
()  A   ' N
Hs 6A
.A    :  (9 s` () B
: ) s` (; s  WS 
16 P 7
υB − υ 0.7 c − 0.9 c
υ` B = =
υ 0.9 c
1 − 2 υB 1− .0.7 c
c c2
∴ υ`B = − 0.54 c

:(4) 

2 60o 962 2  / ?  s 6A 
 () R
 "
c ' 8; 3GeV/c U2# 62 5GeV    U $   x (.6
1
62 ."#2 $ 
16 J6#  .D0 () *+ 
 2    '  8; s` 6A 
 () U#    U $
0.8c 6A B


:
1 1 5
γ = = =
(1 − υ 2
/c2 ) (1 − 0.64 ) 3

: s` 4; s  $ 


16 7  
ε `= γ (ε − υp X )
5 3 
∴ ε `=  5 − (0.8 c) cos 60  
3 c 
5
∴ ε `= (5 − 1.2 ) = 6.33 GeV
3
:' 6 (25 – 2) $  .s` 6A 
 () "  $ (9

64
ε `2 − (cp`) 2 = ε 2 − (cp) 2
2 2 2
∴ ( 6.33 ) − (cp`) 2 = ( 5 ) − ( 3 )
∴ p`= 24.11GeV/c

(5) :

2  ?2 2# /  s 6A 
 () R
ε U $  )
62 ."#2 $ 
16 J6#  .y (.6
1  θ 96
43 
 R
 0 69, N
s` 6A 
 ()  0 $
G
1] ^6A B
      (9  .y (.6
1 4 J
.[(11 – 2) ,

:

s s`
ε υ
?  ε`
c  0 c

? 
 0
θ
O O` X`
X

R
s` () y  θ   Y
 s ()  0 :(11 – 2) ,
.y ? 

:' B' y (.6


1 ?   ! 6 ( "#
p y = p` y


ε cos θ =
ε`
c c
∴ ε `= ε cos θ

65
: ) s`(; s  x (.6
1 ?  "# 
6 P 7
 υ 
∴ p`x = γ  Px − 2 ε 
 c 

p`x = 0 F) s` 6A 


 () y (.6
1 ?  R
 0 '  
υ
∴ px = ε
c2
ε sin θ =
υ
ε
c c2
∴ υ = c sin θ

:(6) 

u B2 &62
    ,   6
 > ()   7
2 α   / ?  #P x (.6
1 ?  R
96
'  
u2
2
2:   2
2 2
2 ' 2
2.' . cosα = ' N2
2
x (.62
2
1
c2
u (2 + u 2
/c 2
)
(1 + u 2
/c 2
) :B

S S`
ε,p u u=υ
ε`,p`
u`

α 
 u

, %
O O`
X X`
  ,   &6
     7 :(12 – 2) ,
.  
() s` ()    6
' .s ()

:
.(12 – 2) , () I+  s 6A 
      ' Q0
2
  x (.6
1 ?  u=υ  R
B8 s` 6A 
 ()

66
2 R
 "  '   
()  "  ' G
 .s 6A
s (2)  " 2 "# $ pHε ' Q0 . , () I+ ? 1 u`
.s` () "  "# $ p`H ε` '
∴ ε = mc2 = γm 0c 2

x (.6
1  α   U9  / B8  "      m0 ' 8;
:'
1 u
γ= , β=
(1 − β )2 c

ε ′ = γ( ε − υp x )
(
= γ γm 0 c 2 − u 2 γm 0 cos α )
 u2 
= γ m 0 c 2  1 − 2 cos α 
2 
 c 
ε′ = 1 2
 u4
= γ 1 − 4



m0c2 (
1 − u ′ 2 /c 2)  c ) 
1  u2 
∴ =  1 + 2 
(1 − u ′ /c )
2 2
 c 

:' 6 & #3 $ ?89 

u′ =
u (2 + u 2
/c 2 )
(1 + u 2
/c 2 )
.        (9 u` ' N

:(7) 

2#> x (.62
1 ?2   2 200 MeV U $ J ) '  8;
8: (  "#    $ ) y (.6
1 ?    100MeVU $
"#2 89    $ ?89 R  J60 J  ' +) 8; ^"G
^U  (9  R
?  BV   U  (9 ) ( 

67
: 
42 y (.62
1 ?2  x (.6
1 ?   0 $ ε2Hε1 ' Q0
."G (  "# p  "G    $ ε  ( 
ε = ε 1 + ε 2 = 200 + 100 = 300 MeV
 ε1  ε2 
2 2
2 (200) 2 + (100) 2
p =  +  =
 c   c  c2
∴ p = 224 MeV/c
:' 6 (30 – 2) $ 
(M c ) = ε
0
2 2 2
− (cp) 2
.p U# ε U $ B8 "      M0 ' N

(
∴ M 0c 2 )2
= (300) 2 − (224) 2 = (200) 2
∴ M 0 = 200 MeV/c 2

x (.6
1  "  8: "# :/ (    (9 θ ' P Q0
py 100
∴ tan θ = = = 0.5
px 200
−1
∴ θ = tan 0 . 5 = 26 . 5 o
:P
M = γM 0 , ε = Mc 2
Mc 2 300 3 1
∴γ = = = =
M 0c 2 200 2 (1 − β )
2

1 4 5
∴β2 = 1− 2
= 1− =
γ 9 9
5
∴υ = c = 0.745 c
3

:(8) 

 2         9    B , A  =+)   
2$   9  100 m :    :+    

68
2  &:' ,' X#3 96
; 6 .:0   #6 69,
2 2  B   6 "  ' 4; A   ()  $6
 2  2 2 (29  :  5x10-6s B A   
J2 &6
  B   6 ()  _ : 
^  
29 6  U  B8   .A   6 9 *.'
.A   &#

:
s s`
υ = -u
A
u
.A  
u B
B u`

O O`
()      9  &6
       :(13 – 2) ,
.  
() s` ()    X6
; .s

2 u B2 s 62A 


 ()      ' Q0 :
?2  (2) R2
B82 s` 6A 
 () .(13 – 2) , () I+
'   A   ' 6 s 6A 
  υ = -u  x (.6
1
2 (29 2 ?89 . , () I+ ? 1 u`  R
B
:B        
100
u′ = −6
= 2 × 10 7 m s − 1
5 × 10

69
u′ = 2 ×107 m s−1  R
B   6 ()  .  '  : 

$ "6#  .A   () 69,  /$'    )  :F)
:' 6 (13 – 2)
1
t A = γt B ⇒ t B= tA
γ
 4 ×1014 
2 2 −6
∴ tB = (1− u′ /c ).(5×10 ) = 1−
 9 ×1016  (
5×10−6 = 4.99 ×10−6 s)
 

4.99x10-6 s + &6
  :   8;

:(9) 

.s 6A 
 () ux=±0.9c      9   
 
^#5     6
'  (9 

:
62
 2 2 s 62A 
 () ' Q0 ' E V ?89

B s 4;  s` 6A 
  I/ 96 .ux=-0.9c   
2 s 62A 
 () ux=-0.9c U  B8 "  ) R8 .υ =0.9c
:4;   s` 6A 
 () U 
ux − υ −1.80 c −1.80
u ′x = 2
= c = −0.994 c
υ 1 + ( 0.9 ) 1.81
1− 2 ux
c
.c *+   $         ' 9 G

6A 
 () +c  R
 )  6   U H9  8  6 
2 2 96 H+c  s 4;  s` 6A 
 R
 s`
; .+2c 2   +c 2) B2 s 6A 
 () E$ E
 0
 
()   $ \      6
4 6  89 6
.J   0 U )  6; 
 6 1 U G
  .

70
:(10) 

R2
 x (.62
1 4 U 7  l0=5m (/3 U E +$
B' 62 .x (.62
 E ? 1 () s 6A 
 () u 
[(15%2) , G] .l=3m U I/ s 6A 
 () u 

:
:   $ E

s
Q l = l 0 1 − u 2 c2
4
∴ u = c 1 − (l l 0 )2 = c
0 1 2 3 4 5m 5
u

0 1 2 3m
.x (.6
1 ?   

() E +$ :(15%2) ,

:(11) 

s 62A 2
 () B   E +$ E u  R
A E +$
& 0 6' . l0 (/3  0   +   [(16%2) , G]
42S  XS   : ()   + ( : 7 G
   ∆t  
.s 6A 
 ()

A u
B
96
' H    /3 91  +$ :(16%2) ,
. 

() #P    
()

71
:
:B s 6A 
 () R
 A E + 
l = l 0 1 − (u c )2

:B    & 0 ' ) :  ?' , #  
∆t = (l 0 − l ) /u = 1 − 1 − (u c )2 l u
 0
 

:(12) 

4
2
 (2) u = 5 c 2 0  ? 1 0 ()  
 
2 . ∆t = 5 x 10 −9 s ( 70   
4; + 6 s 6A
(2)   69, N
s` 6A 
 ()      ) (9
^  

:
(9 ∆t '   .l B s 6A 
 ()      ) ' Q0
R8 H[(a17-2) , G
1] 
 89 () 69, $     & 0
:)
l=u∆t

4
υ= c
s` 5
s
l 
l0 

  R

"6/1 G
    

(a) (b)

.  

 6
 ?   
  :(17%2) ,

72
4
?2  υ = 5 c 2 R2
B82 s` 6A 
 4; P N6
 
89 ()   69, .(b17-2) , () G
 9  E x (.6
1
R2
) 
 ' .l0 B :  ) '    
() :' 

2    7  )  .x (.6
 E ? 1 4
5
c B 
:$  1  
l
l0 = γl =
(1 − υ 2
c2 )
4 c× 5 × 10 −9
u∆ t
∴l0 = = 5
(1 − υ 2
c2 ) 1 − (4 5)2
4 x 10 −9 x 3 x 10 8
∴l0 = = 2m
35

73

   
R2
X2#3  2 962
;  2   '6 A 69, %1
2 R2
B 2#> 69, .  0 :' 6) 0.995c 
2S &     (9  . 

() (  &
^B 69, $  S &  (; A 69, $ 
(0.088) :\

?2  2 
2
(2) (9 2 m : s 6A 
 () 7 %2
:J1' 6' .x  30 o 96   /  0.96c  x (.6
3
:J2 . H 2 2
() 7 69,Z N
s 6A 
 () :
.s` () x` (.6
3  7 :/ (   

t=0  () (0,0,0)  () 3 s 6A 


 () .6
69, %3
6A 
  E
' .t=4s  () (5c,0,0)  () (.
.6
 $ () .6
 69,S N
s`

2  s 62A 
 () t = 0  () 6
 > () .6
69, %4
2 (2) (2. N6
 $ /3  () 3 N6
 $
 2 2  & 0 ' G
1 s` 6A 
 () #> 69, .(x,0,0)
 2 )2 ' <      
"6#  .t B  .6

. (x 2 + c 2 t 2 ) B s` 6A 
 ()  .6

12

:+    M0 :      B,A .    %5


βc B2  R  : R , 6
 "   # () Q
2   2$ 62 .s 6A 
 () 69, $  S (9 

74
U ) 69, N
6; 
 () 69, $   (9  B " 
.  
() A " 

?2   2 0 #  2.  2  


b  a   $   %6
2:  6  G
 &/ :+ 4   x (.6
3
J $  a    )     & ) 6 .J0/ B J $
J2 $  (  b $  Z   =+ + : . Ta B
962
;  ' . . =+ + :  G
 () Tb B
. c (T b2 − T a2 ) (T b2 + T a2 ) :B X#3 4; 

 92   2 1.6x10-27kg 2: 2   2     %7


E
 :  .0.6c : 6     ,      
 
J6#  : 
H  ,  4;  : B' "# $
.#P 4;  : B' "# $ E
' 

62 . 12 ε  
$ ε   $ s 6A 
 () R
"  %8
(2) 2   U2 $ :

H U# : 
H"  8:     : 
p "#2  8; : ' H ε 2c B U#  8; s` 6A 

2 p` :2/ (2  2  6) x (.6
3  30o   /
.0.8c B 6A B
      V J x` (.6
3

2
 J#/ ' Q5  &   R
 =+)   %9
42 &62$ () E$ . =+0    0.84c  Q3
B2 962) Q3 2 E  `/  $ Q3
?829 ' 29 Q52 2  =+0    (9  .0.36c
^ Q3    "' &6  R
 

75
2 E2 x (.6
3 ?    s 6A 
 ()   %10
4 3

  s` 6A 
  υ 6 . 5 c (.  5
c 3
62  2   2  2   69, N
s 6A
.? 1    
5
( c ) :\
7

2  s 62A 2


 () /3  ?    ε U $  ) %11
: 6 .(18 %2) , () I+   y (.6
3  α 96  

 J   R
 0 69, N
s` 6A 
 ()  0 $
B
   υ    6 :  
HE y (.6
3 ?  03
.6A
( c sinα , ε cosα ):\

y   2 & 

O X
/3  
 R
 ) :(18 – 2) ,
.y (.6
1  α   Y
 

J# 5GeV B   $ U '   6; 


 () "  69, %12
:  .x (.6
3  30o (;     / ?  3GeV/c B
J  J# U ' "  69,S N
#> 6; 
 ()    U $ 
2S  2 U2  (29  : 
^"# 89 ?   ^4GeV/c 4;

76
2 : 3

^ 1amu=1.66x10-27kg V J H(amu)  8   6

^6A B
      (9
157.24 0 H 4 2 GeV (1) : \
0.876c (3) H 403 amu (2)

I2+  p  6 /   o   .  =+ + %13


l B2 op     s 6A 
 () (19 – 2) , ()
: 62 s` 62A 
 () .x (.6
3  θ 96   / 
*2+ N2 2G
  2 l` /0 ) :  
Ht`   & 0
.U//  G
 
P
l

θ
O X

o /3   6/  =+ + :(19 – 2) ,


.P  6 ://  "  x  θ  

77
‫الفصل الثالث‬
‫)نظرية التصادم(‬
‫

 

 ‪.‬‬ ‫‪1.3‬‬
‫    
‪.‬‬ ‫‪2.3‬‬
‫     
‪.‬‬ ‫‪3.3‬‬
‫ 
‪.‬‬ ‫‪4.3‬‬
‫
      ‪.‬‬ ‫‪5.3‬‬
‫

 ‪.‬‬
‫
   ‪.‬‬



  
‫אא
  א‬1–3
 

"  # $ " %  

 "!
&' '(%  
)*  

.  $  "  &"
'
 )'  '",
)*    )+ 
"#  
)+ 


  "-
)&+  


 .s` 
  & 
 ( ` )  
'
 )'-  


 

 
.s 
  . / &
.0    


r
s s` V1′
r
r υc
m1 υ1′  m1
r
m2 ϕ1
r r
m1 υ1 m1 V1 c.m. θ V2
m2
 2ϕ2  θ 2
(1 " "# 2&
m22
2 m2
r
r V2′
υ′2

o x o` x`
(a) (b)

. 

(b) 8 

 (a) :(153) 3

79
r
υ 1 / '" = '  m1 <  ; 
"#   9:  (a 1-3) 3

'
 )+ B*   .m2 <  " 2 A @#
 x ) > ? # 
   ); <* # /  "# 2  .xy C "
 )+ s  

. 3 )+ 9:

 ϕ2   2 "# 2  ϕ1  
'  y,x '

 * '#E "  1 (     1 D(
:F/
x ) E "      1
m1 υ1 = m1 υ1′ cos ϕ1 + m 2 υ′2 cos ϕ 2 (1-3)

y ) E "      1


o = m 1 υ1′ sin ϕ 1 − m 2 υ ′2 sin ϕ 2 (2-3)

1 (    1
p 12 p 1′ 2 p ′22
= + + Q (3-3)
2 m1 2 m1 2m2

' H  ' '


/  1 G     $%   *  E
J 'I" + 0 '"; B* F/ .)"  H% = 
  1 F/ 
/
'

 
8 c >> υ "# / "  H L : / "  %
K(  
r
' '
 p1   8  G J I"      $> 
D( B-
2 '"# ' p′2     "#  p1′ 8  1  "#
' F'-  E
 # .  # 1 ( )+ % Q   
 '
'  
      F- 3    
   B
.% >   )+ $>  ?B* F- D (" .
 

80
r r
1 v 2 , v1
*  

)+ 
"# )/ "  A M 
r r
F'/ " J I" 2  
v′2 , v1′
*   
&/ "  
:   s`  

)+  " F%  
 /

r r r
v1 = υ1 − υ c (4-3)
r r r
v 2 = υ2 − υc (5-3)

r r r
'
 )+ )  F/  

"# J I" )* υc , υ 2 , υ1  
: + : + @" N  " F% 2& 
 . 

r
υ2 = 0
r r
∴ v 2 = − υc
 
/ " * %
)+  "
/ " "  =  2&  H
.( b1-3) 3 )+ 9:

  

 )+
:+  
/ " 2  

r r r
r m 1 υ1 + m 2 υ 2 m 1 υ1
υc = =
m1 + m 2 m1 + m 2

:O (553) (453) )+ 


% ?B* M  /

r
r m 2 υ1
v1 = (6-3)
m1+ m 2
r
r m 1 υ1
v2 = − (7-3)
m1+ m 2

m2   (753)  


 )+ ( m1   (653)  
 )+ ( @ :
:  

81
r m 1m 2 r
m 1 v1 = υ1
m1+ m 2
r  m 1m 2  r
m 2 v 2 = −   υ 1
 m1+ m 2 
r r r r
∴ m1 v1 + m 2 v 2 = P1 + P2 = 0 (8-3)

'   '1 
.N  H "   1 

 )   H
. : N     

 )    

r r r r
∴ m1 v1′ + m 2 v′2 = P1′ + P2′ = 0 (9-3)

  
    

  % 
"#  %

O"
((1 '" '"#) m1 '* 
"#     " 
* #  </
' 
 (+ 1 ( 

 .  1 ); ? "
/ 2 
: 
P12 P22 P1′ 2 P2′ 2
+ = + +Q (10-3)
2 m1 2 m 2 2 m1 2 m 2

:  (953) 8 (853)  


 

r r r r
P1′ = − P2′ , P1 = − P2
P1′2 = P2′2 , P12 = P22 :B-
r r
:9 (1053)  
 )+ P2′ , P2 2B 
 1E  * " 
P12 P1′ 2
= +Q (11-3)
2µ 2µ
m m
.
  F
" µ = m + m  
1 2

1 2

'3 )'+ 9:

 (1 " "# J I" 
" A 

 

r
(453) '1E ' > 8 V1′ = υ1′ − υ c   ' '
/  #  (253)
r r

.  


/ 1 (1 " "# & & 3


82
r
r
υc
V1′
r
υ1′

θ ϕ1

.  


/  (1 " "# J I" 
:(253) 3

r r r
:F/   

* #  v 1 , υ 1′ , υ ′c J " $ &#
 
r
υ 1′ sin ϕ 1 = v 1′ sin θ
r
υ 1′ cos ϕ 1 = v 1′ cos θ + υ c

:F/   1E  * 



sin θ
tan ϕ 1 = (12-3)
λ 1 + cos θ
υc
λ1 =
v 1′
: 
: + )  "#  B-
sinθ
tan ϕ 2 =
λ 2 − cos θ
(13-3)
υ
λ2 = c
v ′2
: 
J '" P'
#  0 " F/ $"  ?B*   
/  B  # 

. ' E N  %    P
# F% B* L : / "  %
K(
1 ( )+ %+ #  > 8Q=0     
    )+
∴P1 = P1′ , v1 = v1′
:A 
% λ1 F( B*
m1
λ1 =
m 2

:Q+ (1 " "#   %


 2&  H m2 >> m1 $  B-


83
λ1 ≅ 0
: # (1253) 1E 

tan ϕ1 = tanθ

∴ ϕ1 = θ
. 

 

 )+ (1 " "#    C " H
:Q+ m1 = m 2 :$  B-
λ1 = 1
sin θ θ
∴ tan ϕ 1 = = tan
1 + cos θ 2
θ
ϕ1 =
2
H '"  

 )+    (1 " "# 2     H
. 

)+    2 ;   2
.(π-θ) H '"  

)+ 2& 2    Q+ 
 
:F-  "
ϕ2  

 )+ 2& 2      /
ϕ 2 = (π − θ) / 2
π
∴ ϕ1 + ϕ 2 =
2
)'+ '

* #   "   
   
/  
"#  H
. 



 :‫ א
מא‬2−3
' P'# ] 8 '
    
&/  ) $ " % 

C " & # = 


"#  N# N   )(  (" 8[(452)
/ '" B'* ."# / " u   "  m0   m0 (1− u /c )
2 2

'  '%
  P:  <
" . %  R 2  L (/ F/
."   L : F/  
 "#

84
2 ' .
'"# ' 
    "  A H #"
)'* $ '1 ( P'
#  8 "  1 ( /  MG 8
  
)'( '  '  ?B* )+ M  .   1 8 $ 1 (

'"#  M !+ BQ+ .   L  1   
  1 (
8 '  )+ 
"#  "  Q+   L 
&  G >
 
ε = T+ m 0 c 2  1 ( $  BQ+ .   1 G   F%
/  
F%" 
"# B&  1 ( J
#
Q+ 8  E
. 
r
' <1 ( 8 P1 <
 m01 )*  " < N N
"#  M 
r
P2 <'
 m02  '" <' ' R "# 
(% )+   ε 1
r
P3 '
&
  'I % 
"#      ε 2  <1 (
r
.)  F/ ε 4 ε 3
&1 ( P4

' s  ",
)+  
1 ( )(  
NE  * M 
'
)+   1E F/       1 D( .  
:s  ",
r r r r r
P1 + P2 = P3 + P4 = P (14-3)
r
'  .s  '", '
)'+ 
"# B& 
 J
#
P  
:F/    $ 
> (1453)  

P1 x + P2 x = P3 x + P4 x = Px 

P1 y + P2 y = P3 y + P4 y = Py  (15-3)

P1 z + P2 z = P3 z + P4 z = Pz 

:F/   1 (    1 

ε1 + ε 2 = ε 3 + ε 4 = ε (16-3)
ε4 , ε3 '
NE'    1 "# 1 (
&
 
 ε2 , ε1  
)'% ε , PZ , PY , PX  <' E
'#

.   "# 1 ( 



B' 8 ε = mc 2 : C   "# "  .s  ",
)+   &
#
:F- K+ 
(1653) 1E  

85
m1 + m 2 = m 3 + m 4 (17-3)
m4, m3   ' '1 (2),(1) 
"# "  m 2 , m1  
' '   1  . ; 1E ?B* .)  F/   
* 
:
 ."
 υ 
p ′x = γ  p x − 2 ε 
 c 
:  .  F/ s` )- s  ",

px  
  

 υ   υ 
Px′ = P1′x + P2′ x = γ P1x − 2 ε1  + γ P2 x − 2 ε 2 
 c   c 
 υ 
∴ P x′ = γ  P1 x + P 2 x − 2 (ε 1 + ε 2 )
 c 
 υ 
∴ P x′ = γ  P x − 2 ε 
 c 
r
s`  ",
)+ 
"# )
 J
#
 H "
  <#
p ′  
r r r
p ′4 x , p ′3 x '/ : "> 
 
  . p ′ = p 1′ + p ′2 : H 8  1

:  + % "  $E   "> 


 υ 
′ = γ P3x + P4x − 2 (ε3 + ε 4 )
′ + P4x
P3x
 c 
 υ 
= γ  px − 2 ε 
 c 
 υ 
∴p1′ x + p′2x = p′3x + p′4 x = γ px − 2 ε  = p′x (18-3)
 c 
.s`  ",
)+  
x ) > ? #   
  E B*
p ′y = p y
p ′z = p z
:

H s` s  ",
)+ G   F% "# y8z ? #   
 +
S ....... ′ = p1y
p1y : 
:F/   B*
p1′ y + p′2 y = p′3 y + p′4 y = p′y = p y 
 (19-3)
p1′ z + p′2 z = p′3 z + p′4 z = p′z = pz 

86
'"  s`  '", '
)'+ N ' 
)% )   # </
8s` F'- s 
 
"#  1 (   )* ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x ) :1E
:  $ 1E   

ε1′+ ε2′ = γ(ε1 − υp1x ) + γ(ε2 − υp2 x )
= γ[(ε1 + ε 2 ) − υ(p1x + p2 x )]
∴ ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x ) (20-3)
'
)'+  E
)*
 
"#  1 ( J
#
ε` 
 
: # 
  .  1 s`  ",
ε 3′ + ε 4′ = γ[(ε 3 + ε 4 ) − υ(p3x + p4 x )]
∴ε ′ = γ(ε − υpx )

:F/   </
ε ′ = ε1′+ε2′ = ε3′ +ε4′ = γ(ε − υpx ) (21-3)
' ' '1 ( $'% B- s` )+  
 1 (  C  B*
:
 .s )+   

S ... ε 1′ = m1′ c 2


:)   . ; 1E @

m 1′ + m ′2 = m ′3 + m ′4 (22-3)

 ' ' 1 s` )+ 
"# "  )* m′4 , m′3 , m′2 , m1′  
.    1 (2253)  
 
 )  F/
 )+ 
"#  1 ( J
#
 J
#
 %

O"
' 1 (   &+ ) % ( 0 s` F- s 
  
'  '% ( $: ( ) 1 (    1 - . 
"#
 
 OK  D%   % ?B* $  -   "   P
D
. #   
&/  #, )G % / K"; M F%

87
'
 &+    
L)3 &" " 
&
"
A "
'& %

 )   OK  M F/  " N  
1 ( 
'  J I"  %
 " $  />  B" . # OK  
.   
"#    
/ $
B-
@#
 x ) > ? #  =  * m0
"#  "  M 
r r
8m0  '" <' R "# ( ε1  1 ( P1  u 1 / "
r
P2 = 0 <'
 8(353) '3 )+  E
*
 s  

 )+  "
'  s`  '",
)+ =B   B*  . ε 2 = m 0 c 2  <1 (
r r
? '#  υ / "
 B* =  .N  
"# P ′ )   
' '

 8s`  ",
F/ D() .s  ",
 " x ) >
.( 

8N % "

:   s    


r
:H " P F  (1
r
r r r r m 0 u1 r
p = p1 + p 2 = p1 = = px (23-2)
(1 − u 2 2
1 /c )
:H " ε  1 ( (2
m 0c 2
ε = ε1 + ε 2 = + m 0c 2
(1 − u 12 /c 2
)
 
1
∴ε = 1 +  m 0c 2
(24-2)

 (1 − u 2 2
1 /c ) 

:   s`    


r
:H " P ′ )  (1
r r r
p ′ = p 1′ + p ′2 = 0 (25-3)
x 8 y8 z
 ? #  < 
 ) B&+ N  H " )  

: H8 : N  H "

88
p ′x = p ′y = p ′z = 0

:F/   s` F- s
 
   $> 
"  (2
p ′y = p y = 0
p ′z = p z = 0
 υ 
p ′x = γ p x − 2 ε  = 0
 c 
c2p x
∴ υ = (26-3)
ε

'
/ " )( (2653) 1E .   1 ( ε = ε 1 + ε 2  
 

)+ )     s  ",
 " s`  ",
.N  N  "

:H " ε ′  1 ( (3


ε ′ = ε 1′ + ε 2′
( )
∴ε ′ = c p1′2 + m02c2 + c p′22 + m02c 2( ) (27-3)
:

r r
p 1′ = − p ′2
r r
∴ p 1′ 2 = p ′2 2
'
O' 8 "
     )+ 
"#  "  

: (2753) 1E
ε 1′ = ε 2′
∴ ε ′ = 2ε 1′ = 2ε 2′

' > 8N  "     1 s  ",


)+ )  "# 
 (4
 ",
)+ u ′2 / "  ) B&+ u 2 = 0  H 8(a3-3) 3
r r
r r
u ′2 = − υ :H "   1 s`

2 m0c2 2 m0c2
∴ε ′ = 2ε1′ = 2ε 2′ = =
(1− u′ /c ) (1− υ /c )
2
2 2 2 2 (28-3)

89
m 0c2
∴ ε 1′ = ε 2′ = = γm 0 c 2 (29-3)
(1 − υ 2
/c 2
)
: O (2853) 1E 
F( ε 1′ 
 (5
u1′ = − u′2 = υ
'
  %   1 s`  ",
)+ 
"#  O" B*
*
 8? #>  " 
%
   "
/ " M
&:
.(b 353) 3 )+  E

s s r
u3
m0
ε3 , pr 3 
m0 r
u1
 "
m0 θ
r 2r ϕ
ε1 , p1 ε2 , p 2 = 0 r
r
u2 m02 ε 4 , p 4
r
u4
o o
  1   
 

 (a)

s` s` r
r
u ′3
r
υ υ m 0 , ε 3′ , p 3′

r r r
υ = u 1′ u ′2 = − υ
α
 2 α
m 0 , ε1′, p1′ m 0 , ε ′2 , p ′2
2
r m 0 , ε ′4 , p ′4
u ′4

o` o`
  1   
 

(b)

(b) .  
    1 (s  ",
)  

(a) :(3-3)‫الشكل‬
.  
    1 (s`  ",
)  

90
:   s`    
r
H  ' ' N  H " N  
F% p ′ )   (1
:
r r r
p ′ = p ′3 + p ′4 = 0
r r
∴ p ′3 = − p ′4 , p ′32 = p ′42
' %

* #    1 υ / "
&
   
"#  H
.  1
&* # 

: + 
     A  
F% ε`  1 (  (2
2 m0c 2
ε ′ = ε 3′ = ε 4′ = (30-3)
(1 − υ 2
/c 2 )
'   '"

"# 
  "   p ′32 = p ′42 

: 
 
2 m0c2
∴ε ′ = 2ε 3′ = 2ε 4′ =
(1 − υ /c ) 2 2

m 0c 2
∴ ε 3′ = ε 4′ = (31-3)
(1 − υ 2
/c 2 )
: D " )+
 O" B* 

r
u ′3 = − u ′4 = υ

'/ '    s`  ",


)+ 
"#  C  B*
3 )+ 9:

 ? #>  " 
%
 )+  "


&:
.(b 3-3)
'  x )' > P
P ? #  $3 ; "#  M  (3
. 3 )+  E
*
    α * %

:)-  "
</ "   ; "# $ 
  B-
u ′3 x = υ cos α
u ′3 y = υ sin α

91
u ′3 z = 0

x`-y` H "
 )+     
/  : +  F- * . 3, #
.s`  ",
)+
:F-  "
</ " $ 
  )  "# "  (4
u ′4 x = − υ cos α
u ′4 y = − υ sin α

u ′4 z = 0

F'- s`  ",

; "# J I"   
/ L #Q (5
:      s  ",

u ′3 x + υ υcosα + υ
u3x = =
υ υ2
1 + 2 u ′3 x 1 + 2 cos α
c c
u ′3 y /γ υsinα
u3y = =
υ  υ2 
1 + 2 u ′3 x γ  1 + 2 cos α 

c c
 
u3z = 0

u3y sinα
∴ tanθ = = (32-3)
u3x γ(1 + cosα )

s` ‫ إلى‬s '
) ' "# J I"   
/ C  .
H # (6
:‫فيكون‬
− υcosα + υ
u4x =
υ2
1 − 2 cos α
c
− υsinα
u4y =
 υ2 
γ  1 − 2 cos α 

 c 

u4z = 0

92
− u4y sinα
∴ tan ϕ = = (33-3)
u4x γ (1 − cosα )

:O
&: (3353) (3253)  
 @ :
sin 2 α 1
tan θ tan ϕ = = = 1 − υ 2 /c 2
(
γ 2 1 − cos 2 α ) γ 2

: C  (2653)  


 

c2px m 0 u 1c 2 1
υ= = .
ε (1 − u 2 2
1 /c ) 
1

1 +  m 0c 2

 (1 − u 2 2
1 /c ) 

u1
∴ υ = (34-3)
1+ (1 − u 2
1 /c 2 )

u 12 /c 2 2
∴ 1 − υ 2 /c 2 = 1 − 2
=
1
1 + (1 − u 2 2
1 /c ) 1+
 (1 − u 2 2
1 /c )
2
∴ tanθ tan ϕ = ≤1
1 (35-3)
1+
(1 − u /c )
2
1
2

/ '" ' %
K( </ "   (1 " "#  H u1<<c $  B-
: + )"  H% = 
 )+   )*
 L :

tanθ tan ϕ = 1 (36-3)


:

tanθ tan ϕ
tan ( θ + ϕ ) = ≅∞
1 − tanθ tan ϕ
π
∴ θ+ ϕ =
2

93
'
 )'+ 

* #  
"# $3 K(  J I"  )+ H
L ': / " 
 1  / J I" $  B-
 .   s  

2
tanθ tan ϕ = :Q+
1 + γ1

: 
2 cot θ cot ϕ = 1 + γ 1 (37-3)
1
γ1 = : 
(1 − u 2 2
1 /c )
 '   


  $
"#  $3    N 
/ $ %
.   π/2 H " u1<<c   8 &  G .L 

  +  )+
 '# % .π/2 
1 θ+ ϕ    +  / 
1 $B u1 $  B-

.L '

  +  )+ 0.94c 0.82c  &/ " T   ) $  ,


'%
 π/2 '
1      $3 #   #" ;  G
( '
 '
 ' & F/ * " 
 > OK  ?B* - .   10o
 F'- 3 θ+ ϕ    E
 % + 8  H /> = 
  %
$L # %+   "    1 
    N % N (  = *
.  ?B* P
N

 %
OK 

*  
"#    HB 
 $3 N : U1   

 

)' =' & '3


% (  

)+  "
   "
  '" '
*  & '3

"#  
    )+ $
"
H '" ' 

)+   1 
"# )  .  "

'
 ' %
& +  "

&  "  
 N  N :
N 
    B- . 

)+  "
 / "
&:
.   N  H "
& )      
"#  

'"#   "  &+  C  N 1 ( = *  F- 3  )G
' 
 '
 &+ " > ?B* D (  "    "


94
'1 (   1 D( 
> D ( $ G
&
. 


.  $ 
/ E  
F   1 ( F%  

 .‫ א
מ א‬3−3
1  1 (    
   )+ < D "  )+  : 
)'+ 2 
 
. "  1 ( />  BV  B- B* 8  
E' ' 
'
K F'% >   1 (    H /> = 

)+ $   .  F-  1 ( ?B* 
N
"1    N   + 8 
'    1   .
 1 ( F-   1 (  1 C    
D'( =B' 
   H /> = 
  1 
: <%( 
 N
K 1
A '
 . '/> ' 1 (  P
# $B B- 1 (    1
'  )   $> )+ 
/ .   1 (   1 D(
.' 
. ':    1 (   >  1 (  / $
"# 
'  1 (   
  
     D N> 
A B
.   N   "
s`  ",
)+

s s` r
υ
‫قبل التصادم‬ ‫قبل التصادم‬
m0 r m0 r m0 r r m0
u1 u2 u′ u′
ε 1 , pr 1 ε 2 , pr 2 ε 1′, pr 1′ ε 2′ , pr ′2
2m0 2m0
υ
‫ساكنة‬
‫بعد التصادم‬ ‫بعد التصادم‬
ε , pr ε ′, pr ′
o x o` x`
(a) (b)
.s )+ 
"#  
    
/(a) :(453) 3
.s` )+ 
"#  
    
/ (b)

95
r
u′ / '"
*' - = '  m0
&
  "    
r
  M  s`  ",
)+ @#
 x ) ; ? #  − u ′ C ;
.(b4-3) '3 )+ 9:
*
    * 
  
  
. '   3
() .   
&: P
%    
N ' 
' L '%  )+ N  H "   1 F  

.s`  ",
)+ N  H "     3
 .  / "   
:H " )&+ s` )+   1    1 (

2 m0c 2
ε ′ = 2 m′c 2
= = 2 m 0c 2 + T′ (38-3)
(1 − u′ /c )
2 2

'
)'+  ' '1 
"#   1 ( J
#
T`  
.s`  ",
 ' 8.  ' )'-  s` )+   1 (   A M + B-
:F-  "
s` )+ " %
)*
   B* )+ . 
 .  
Q′ = T′ = ε ′ − 2 m 0 c 2 (39-3)
/ '" = '  ' s  ",
)+   B* 0 A 
r
 E
*
 s`  ",
 " x ) E @#
 ? #>  − υ 


' '+ 

< " 
 s )+   )  + .(a 4-3) 3 )+
  $> 

"    1 . 3 
s` )+   1 ( )
: + s F- s` 
H 8 ", H
 1 (    
 υ 
p x = γ  p′x + 2 ε ′ 
 c 
:   s` )+   H " )  

p ′x = p ′y = p ′z = 0
υ
∴ px = γ ε′ (40-3)
c2
: Q`=T`  )+   (3953)  
 )+ . (
 ε` 
1 / : "> 
( )
p x = γυ 2 m 0 + T ′/c 2 = γυ 2 m 0 + Q ′/c 2( ) (41-3)
:@ 
 

96
p y = p ′y = 0
p z = p ′z = 0

'"  & '" '


   1 s )+  1 (  # N : 
 
:    $> 

ε = γ(ε ′ + υp`x ) = γ(ε ′ + 0) = γ ε ′


'1 s )'+  1 ( F/   (3853)  
 )+ ε` / : "> 
:H "  
ε ′ = γ (2 m 0 c 2 + T ′ ) (42-3)
υ / '" =  s` )+  " )* )  3
       E
'  '  P1    
/ E .
 L + H    BQ+ .s )+
' s )+ )( )  9 2m0 F-  "
 3
 .   "
:F- N  "
 
r
r 2 m0υ r
px = = 2 γm 0 υ (43-3)
(1 − υ /c )
2 2

 '"  $   < # (4153) 1E P


. ; 1E ?B*  %

)'+ N ' 
 F% ) .  E N  
 F% > 2m0 )*
)* C   (4353) 1E )+ 2m0  "  )G s  ",

:  M0
M0 = 2 m0 + Q′/c2 (44-3)

)' .   # & 1 (γυ Q ′/c ) F- H "


 )(  + </
2

.  '  ?B'* - .s )'+ N  


F%   M    E $ 
'  F- K+ 
&
   s )+ υ / "  3
  P
= 
F-  "
 "  s  ",
)+ (γ Q ′/c )
2
F-  "
 "
 s )+  3
   1 (   B* .s`  ",
)+ Q ′/c 2
:  1E  Q` P
(  γM 0 c 2 F-  "
 

97
‫)‪ε = γM 0c 2 = γ(2 m0c 2 + Q′‬‬ ‫)‪(45-3‬‬

‫ ‪='B  
)%  1 (  # (4553)8(4253)   
 $ 1 B-‬‬
‫‪.s`  ",
)+‬‬ ‫‪T′ = Q′‬‬ ‫;‬
‫‪L ': F/ )G   H )+ N  
   B- < %

 E‬‬
‫  "       ( 
  ‪P'
# ' ∗ %‬‬
‫ ( ‪ 'G <%+  8∆ε 
1 ( )+ G H  M !+    1‬‬
‫‪:  ∆m  )+‬‬
‫‪∆m = ∆ ε /c 2‬‬

‫ ‪1 ( )+ G H  


/ < + 1 (  P
# 1E ?B* $  -‬‬
‫;‪?B'* '# 

 
.0     =B  %  G 8  H‬‬
‫‪ '/>  B'V   $
"#  "  F/ D(   
/ ./ %‬‬
‫ ‪ H)    V+  B*   - .$>  P
# )+ 1 (   V+‬‬
‫ ( ‪.N  # < - @# <+ 8
   
N   (1‬‬
‫ ‪' .1932 " )+ $  ∆ ε = ∆mc2 1E $ , $ #  #‬‬
‫‪$    ?B* <#   * 0.25MeV &1 ( $  F $    $#I/‬‬
‫
‪1 ( ." 
* #  
"#  + 2&   .
2% #‬‬
‫‪:H " /  B* )+ "
 1 ( B- 8.6MeV    "#‬‬
‫‪2x8.6-0.25=16.95 MeV‬‬
‫   ‪: * /  J    .(1 "      1 ( )* 0.25MeV‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪P + 37 L i → 2 α‬‬
‫  " ‪:∆m 
 @ " 
  B  1‬‬

‫∗ الكتلة القصرية )القصورية( ھي نسبة الزخم الخطي إلى السرعة و يقصد بھا أيضا الكتلة النسبية وھي تتغير مع السرعة حسب‬
‫‪m0‬‬
‫=‪ ، m‬حيث أن ‪ m0‬كتلة السكون‪.‬‬ ‫العالقة‬
‫(‬ ‫)‬
‫‪1-u 2 /c 2‬‬

‫‪98‬‬
∆m=( /  )+   J
#
)-( /  / #   J
#
)

1 7
1 P +3 Li − 2 α = 0.0154 ± 0.003a .m.u .
BQ'+ 14.3±2.7 MeV H '" 1 ( )+ N 1 + W+   )+ 2E> B* -
. ' P'
N '

 D' # ?B* Q+ .   ∆ ε = ∆mc2 1E $ 
.16.95 MeV F-  "
   1 ( )+  
'1 ( % 

 
80
3 
M ; F-  ) 1 ( " 
:)
 0
3 

 
:  </ 4 × 10 26 Js −1 :H "   )+ 0
3 

 1 ( 
 -
∆ε 4 × 10 26
∆m = 2
= 16
= 4.4 × 109 kg
c 9 × 10
≅ 4, 4 × 10 6 tons
' ?B'* .   )+ ( E
  
 1  0
3   H
:)  % ) 0
3   %
N# . G
2.1×1027 tons

1.98×1030 kg

 .
  
4−3
N    &+ #    =
 L :  ;  )+   D"
r
'1 ( '
< 2  =  <#
   1 ( % #
 
N

G'  @' '  )'+ 


/ .  T (" . E
 )
r r r r r
)'"( G
 #
 <#
H )K  & #
 <#
E   N = E× H

)'"( G
)K ' & #
@BB * B- L : + ."( G
& #

C ' '  
.L : / " )* .  / " D(
 X  )+ %
)'+ '%  '
 1 ( 1  $
 3 1 ( % N / 3- L : 
$ 5h   8 ε = h ν H "  
    1 ( )* K : 
 
F'/ $(%" B- ) $    
" L : B- .J 3,  5ν =E

99
?B'*    . + $
" % .J 3, (G: F
" </ N (G:   9("
"# J 3- 
.
 P
J 3, /  %
 K  *   "
F'/ ν ? ' L : (%" BQ+ .
  K : & . *   ";
 '
  
/ . 
$   9(" 
" 
.
9("

 $  Y   1 (  +  3R " @#
 $    ?B&
= '" L ': ="  / 3 .
 G3  ϕ  B- h ν − φ H "
.
 P
</  /  "#; = " =" 8? 3 L  $ #

'%% A $  L : / " " 
$   +  # . + -
:  m0  " < "#+ . %
 #

r
m0 r m 0u m 0 c2
m = , p = , ε =
(1 − u 2
/c 2
) (1 − u 2
/c 2
) (1 − u 2
/c 2 )
B- ' '
 '%
 )+ %
 @ % L : / " 
u @ %

 '
?E/ $ 
 ?B* 
 9  
N :  "  $ 1
 
m0 @ % c L : / " 
u @ %
/ < : + BQ+ .
%
k C '" 
% ?B*  M  ..

1 B (
m 0 / 1 − u 2 /c 2 ) %
 F%
: +
m 0
= k
(1 − u 2
/c 2
)
r r
∴ m = k , p = kc , ε = kc 2

:    ε = h ν :   1 ( 

hν hν
k= , p=
c2 c

100
hν <'1 ( HB'  '   C    "   L : F/ B*
') . hν c2 F'-  "
 1  hν c F- N  "
)(  <  

+ L : / " " $    ?B* 
 .(N  H "     "
' TE(' + B*  " $    <+    "-
 #-  "

'1 '
T '# ?E/   $
" % .   ? / 
 >  "
.
  A 2 
*
" 

'
 '   
 (%"
/ <  # .  
  %
 ' '
'1   $3 J 3, Q+  "  - F/ " 3;
'3 )'+ 9':
'
 
/ "  +  ,
 8(1 " J 3,
'
/  
 M + %+ . *  ?B& N> %
NE )( ) .(a5 –3)
.  -  
  +  
  &# 

 ?B* $3
ε1 hν
? #  =  c
=
c
 ε 1 = hν1 )* (1 "    1 ( M 
'
)'+ m0  " <  "  - P
( @#
 x ) >
θ '  P ? #  ε3 = hν3 $3
    1 (  M  .s  ",
P'
ϕ '  P ? #  =   ,     x ) > P

r r
'
 . ε 4 H " 1 ( p4 H "  u4 F-  "
/ " x ) >
ε3 hν 3
 "  , 1 (
+ . c
=
c
H " &+       
r
.(553) 3 )+ 9:

 8 p 2 = 0 <
 ε 2 = m 0 c 2 H "   1
D'( D '( ?B* C -  (
 # )-   D ( ./ = *
'"    '  '
   / F/  1 (   1

 
 . 

 

 H s,s`  ",

$> '
 ",
" :+ %+ "    J I" P

' ' 
 1 (  />  BR 1 (   
.   )+    
)

101
ε3, ε3
r ‫ فوتون‬ε ′ , ε 3′
s c s` υ 3
c
‫ فوتون‬ε 3 = hν 3 ε 3′ = hν ′3
‫الكترون‬ ‫مشتت‬

‫فوتون‬
‫ ساكن‬θ ε 1′, ε 1 ‫الكترون‬
‫ساقط‬ c c.m. α
ϕ ‫فوتون‬ α
ε1, ε1 m0c = ε 2 ε 2′ , pr ′2
2

c r
p2 = 0 ‫الكترون‬
ε 1 = hν1
ε 4 , pr 4 ε 4′ , pr ′4
‫الكترون‬
‫مشتت‬
o x o` x`
(a) (b)
(b) . "  - F/ (1 "   + $3 (a) .
  :(5 – 3) 3
.  E 0 N  "
)     .
 

 8 "  )+  - P


  +   
/ 9:  (5–3) 3
:   +   1 s  ",
)+  1 ( )   
r r r r r
p = p1 + p 2 = p1 = p x (46-3)
∴ p =
ε1 =
hν1
x
c c
ε = ε 1 + ε 2 = hν1 + m 0 c 2 (47-3)
:F- N  "
   )    s`  ",
)+
r r r r
p ′ = p′3 + p′4 = 0 , ∴ p ′x = 0
:H "  1 (
ε ′ = ε 3′ + ε 4′
:@ s F- s` 
1 (    
  "> 
ε = γ (ε ′ + υ p ′ ) = γ ε ′ x

ε hν1 + m 0c 2
∴ε 4′ + ε 3′ = = (48-3)
γ γ
: + s` )+    N  H " )  

r r
p ′3 = − p ′4
p ′32 = p ′42

102
2 2
ε′  ε′
∴  4  − m 02 c 2 =  3 
 c   c 
   
ε 4′ 2 − ε 3′ 2 = m 02 c 4 (49-3)
: O (4853)  
 F/ . ;  
 
"%
2 4
γm .0 c
ε 4′ − ε 3′ = (50-3)
h ν1 + m 0c 2

:)/   (4853)  


 
(5053)  
 T (

2ε 3′ = λ −
m 02 c 4 λ 2 − m 0 c 2
=
( )
2

(51-3)
λ λ
: 
2 hν1 + m 0 c 2
λγ = hν1 + m 0 c , λ=
γ
:1E 
@" + υ " / "

c2p x c2 hν chν1
υ= = . 1 =
ε hν1 + m 0 c 2
c hν1 + m 0 c 2
hν1
∴β = (52-3)
hν1 + m 0c 2
hν 1
∴ β =
λγ

:  E $3
    s` F- s 
1 (    
  "> 
ε 3′ = γ ε 3 (1 − β cos θ)
λ 2 − (m0c 2 )
2
2ε 3′
2ε = =
γ(1 − βcosθ) λγ(1 − βcosθ)
3

1 2 λγ (1 − βcosθ )
∴ =
ε3 (
λ 2 − m 0c 2 )
2

: + (" )+ HB %


 A B

103
2λ γ (1 − βcosθ ) = 2λ γ  1 − hν 1 
cos θ 
 λγ 
(
= 2 hν 1 + m 0 c 2 − 2h ν 1 cos θ )
= 2h ν 1 (1 − cos θ ) + 2m 0 c 2

:H "  %
 )+ HB %

(
λ 2 − m0c 2 ) = (hν + m c ) (1 − β ) − (m c )
2
1 0
2 2 2
0
2 2

 (h ν ) 2 
= (h ν + m c ) 1 − 2 2
( )
2
1  − m 0c2
1

 (h ν + m c )
0
1 0
2 2 

= (hν + m c ) − (hν ) − (m c )
1 0
2 2
1
2
0
2 2

= 2h ν 1 m 0 c 2
1 h ν 1 (1 − cos θ ) + m 0 c 2
∴ =
ε3 h ν1 m 0c 2
1 1 hν 1 (1 − cosθ ) + m 0 c 2 1 (1 − cosθ )
∴ − = − =
ε 3 ε1 hν 1 m 0 c 2 hν 1 m 0c2
1 1 λ 3 λ1 λ 3 − λ1 ∆λ
Q − = − = =
ε 3 ε1 hc hc hc hc

h
∴ ∆λ = (1 − cos θ ) (53-3)
m 0c

('"  θ     + $3 B- < F/  (53 5 3) . ;  
 -
'#
( 
 λ3 $3
    #
(  +  Q <
 
/ % M    0.0242 (1-cos θ) Ao H " %
 (1 "   
'& '# .
 $  Y   $ 1 ( $"1 % .c,m0,h 

N '
  '   M  <  > B* . "
  # % P
D
.. *  ?B&  L (/- 

 
 hν 1 ( hν/c H "

104
 .
‫א
אא‬5−3

s s`
β 3c
2m
ε 2 , pr 2 = 0 ′ ε1′
ε 2′, pr′2
ε1, ε1 ε1,
c
c ‫قبل التصادم‬ M0
‫فوتون‬ ‫فوتون‬ ‫جسيم‬
‫جسيم‬
‫ساكن‬ ‫متحرك‬
ε 3 , pr 3 r
β 3c ‫بعد التصادم‬ ε 3′ = M 0 c 2 M0 , p3 = 0
‫جسيم‬ ‫جسيم‬
‫متحرك‬ ‫ساكن‬
o o`
x x`
(a) (b)

. "  )+ "# )/ <( %" /   +  


(a) :(6 5 3 ) 3
N  N  "
)       +  
 (b)
. 
> 
/ E

. :
8M0  '" <' (.   . B)  "  )+ N
"#   M 
B'* ("  N  < 
  s  ",
)+ ε1 <1 (   + </ (%"
β3c H '" / '"  '
> 
/  # "# @" 1 ."#
ε 3 = M 3 c 2 = γM 0 c 2 H "  1 (
M0
M3 = = γM 0 : 
(1 − β 32 )
' '1 'G   $%+  " 
 .(a6-3) 3 )+ 9:


.M0 H "  
> 
/
 '1  '",
"  # "# β3 @"   A /
)'+ .  
  )* ?B*  
> 
/  M  1 (  
.β3c H '"   / " =  < (b6-3) 3 )+  E s`  ",

105
  H "   )   N  

 B* )+     B-
: + s )+  1 (    1 A D( .   1
ε = ε1 + ε 2 = ε 3
r r r r
p = p1 + p 2 = p 3
∴ε = ε 1 + M 0 c 2 = γM 0 c 2 (54-3)
: + s` )+ 1 (     1 C  .
D(

ε ′ = ε 1′ + ε 2′ = ε 3′
r r r r
p ′ = p1′ + p ′2 = p ′3 = 0
∴ ε ′ = ε 3′ = M 0 c 2 (55-3)
p ′ = p ′x = 0
:F/   s F- s` 
    
" 

 
 υ
p x = γ p ′x + 2 ε ′ = γ 0 + β 3 ε ′ 
 c   c 

β 3 = υ/c  
ε1
Ρ x = Ρ1 + Ρ2 = Ρ1 =
c
:

∴ ε 1 = γβ 3 ε ′ = β 3 γM 0 c 2

: O (5453) 1E   "> 

∴β 3 =
ε1
(56-3)
M 0c2 + ε1
:  M 0 c 2 >> ε 1  : + B-

β 3 ≅ ε 1 /M 0 c 2

106
'
/ E' 'G   <' F'% HB "#  B* 
O"
M0 '  M + F/ ε 1 /c H "    1 
N + F(  
>
.  = 
)+  )*
   E G >

.!  :


s s
ε 0 , pr 0 = 0 ε 2 , pr 2 ε1, ε1
c
M0
‫ذرة مرتدة‬ ‫فوتون متحرر‬
‫ذرة ساكنة‬ M 02

o o
x x
‫قبل االنبعاث‬ ‫بعد االنبعاث‬
  . "  )+ "# 
  +   :(7 – 3) 3
. >  "#  "  )+ N G

 ' + '&
' ε0 &1 ( M0  " &  " . B  A 
ε2  1 ( p2  N  )  . B > %    ?B* .ε1 <1 (
' '1 (753) 3  > .M02 F-  "  )+ G B* / O
. >
0' ' 

 N : 
 HB s *    "-
* "
@# )  

 F
"
 s`  ",
" . : 
..%
 $ 1E M
: +     1 A D( :
r r r r
p = p 0 = 0 = p1 + p 2


ε1 − p
2 =0
c
c p 2 = ε1 (57-3)
:F/  + 1 (    1 D( :


107
ε = ε 0 = ε1 + ε 2
∴M 0c 2 = ε1 + M 2c 2 (58-3)
(M c )
2
2 2
= (cp 2 )2 + M 02 c 2 ( )2
(59-3)
: # (5953) (5753) 

(M c ) = ε + (M
2
2 2
1
2
02 c
2 2
) (60-3)
:F/   (6053) (5853) 1E 

(M 02 c ) = (M c − ε ) − ε
2 2
0
2
1
2
1
2

(
∴ M 02 c 2 ) = (M c )
2
0
2 2
− 2 M 0 ε1 c2 (61-3)


& K & K>   )+ . B  " 1 (
* M 02 c 2 , M 0 c 2 A
:  1 ( H "
& D   . 

1
ε = M 0 c 2 − M 02 c 2 (62-3)
(
∴ M 02c 2 ) = (M c − ε ) = (M c )
2
0
2 2
0
2 2
− 2 M0c 2 ε + ε 2 (63-3)
: O (6353) (6153) 1E  %


 
ε 1 = ε 1 − ε 
2  (64-3)
 2 M0c 

>- )#
 (  %    +   P
@"     1 (  
'1 ( )( )  > 
&
. B $ 
 B- )* .   )+
. > 
/ E 
    )- &
#  ε . 


C ' ' 
-    &; 
&
K + $ / & OK  ?B* -
. '&   J 3, ( )  (   
 C  .
 %  $ B
)K ' & [    J 3Y "  )+ 9
/ / H -

 ' "" )+
 8<   )( 2( ( ) J 3Q  % < + 8NE

N> '( 
 (     .   ( ( ( ?B* - .# &

108
 '%% '/  * ( ( ?B* D: - .N# D: C

: #

.'
 H 8K 3/ 1 ( $  "
)+ #   P(" > &" $ B
 ' - .$  '"
 ?B* 
%: "" (
  & (( /)
 '%! < % (i < f ) i H "
 F- f H "
 
%
/ . B 
  +
B'* 2 ' BQ+ .(6253) 1E <
 . B ( ) 1 ( )+ 

)'+ P'% '

C  . B 8hν * %
1 (
 HB 
   
F'- . B = P+  +  1 ( ?B*   +  "  )+ )* i H "

8. B   1 ( F/ 2\ I 1    1 ( 
N G NL# ; f H "

 > $ 
/ E . B H >  />  BV  )G =B
H >  "  "
   1 % .(853) 3 
  
>
'

  8)   >  
> $ 
/ E C  $ B
?B'* F
'" 8= ' 
P3

"  C   > 1 ( F/ @G
"
. *  . * 

 
  > 1 (

f
 
f εR

i i
(a) (b)

.$ B )+ (b)  


> (a)  > 
/ 9:  :(853) 3

: >   > 1 )     1 


+


0=M υ- (65-3)
c

109
‫    ‪'1  '" . B  F/   
 "; L# )+‬‬
‫‪ .'
 . B  &+  
 

; L# )+ Mυ
  > 
/‬‬
‫    
 
 ‪.(953) 3‬‬ ‫‪hν‬‬
‫‪c‬‬

‫الذرة‬ ‫ارتداد‬
‫ساكنة‬ ‫‪hν‬‬
‫الذرة‬
‫‪Mυ‬‬ ‫‪c‬‬ ‫الفوتون‬
‫المنبعث‬
‫‪εR‬‬ ‫‪hν‬‬
‫قبل‬ ‫بعد‬
‫االنبعاث‬ ‫االنبعاث‬

‫الشكل )‪ :(9-3‬يوضح عملية االرتداد الناتجة عن انبعاث فوتون من الذرة‪.‬‬


 
  ; ‪:H " . B   / "  # .‬‬
‫‪hν‬‬
‫=‪υ‬‬
‫‪Mc‬‬
‫ 
 ( ‪'  / '" 
B- 8. B   1 ( H " εR  > 1‬‬
‫‪:)
  > 1 ( @ " 
 . B‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪ε R = Mυ2 = M  ‬‬
‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪hν‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2  Mc ‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫(‬ ‫) ‪hν‬‬ ‫‪ε2‬‬
‫=‬ ‫=‬
‫‪2Mc2‬‬ ‫‪2Mc 2‬‬

‫‪$'  B- '


 . ' %: 1 ( $  "
$  B- < O" NB-‬‬
‫‪N+ 3   $ B ?B* Q+  "  )+ <
  J 3,   ) $ B‬‬
‫‪'  'G! )  # $  /  MG &
 HB J 3Y‬‬
‫) ‪ > $  ( )    . , / #     $‬‬
‫‪.* 
>   > $ 
/ E $ B‬‬

‫* لمزيد من المعلومات عن ھذه الظاھرة يمكن مراجعة كتاب "مقرر بيركلي" في الفيزياء الميكانيكا المجلد األول الصفحات ‪.553-551‬‬

‫‪110‬‬
: " " 
: (1)  
(' )'+  " 2.4GeV/c2
&
  "  8E


"#
-0.6c ) ' / '" 0.8c ; / " .x ) E ^
  %"

'
s ' 


"
.  
 
& 
/ '" (2) 8s )+   1
&
  (1) :@"  s`  

'1 ( (4) 8s` )'+  ' 1


&
  / " (3) 8 

x ) > /
&
 2  (5) 8s` )+   
&
 
' x` )' > '/ '
&
 2    N
/ .s )+   
.53o H " s` )+  

:
:H " <  + s )+   1 ; "# "  (1)
m0 2.4 GeV/c2
m1 = = = 4 GeV/c2
(1 − u 2 2
1 /c ) (1 − 0.64)
:H " < Q+ )  "# " 
2.4 GeV/c2
m2 = = 3 GeV/c2
(1 − 0.36)
:H "    )+ 
"#  
/ " (2)
m1u1 + m 2 u 2 (4 × 0.8 − 3 × 0.6) GeV/c
υc = = = 0.2 c
m1 + m 2 (3 + 4)GeV/c2

'"# )' ' <'+   HB s`  ",
/ " : )*
.N  H " 
 

:H " </ "  + s` )+   1 ; "# "  (3)
u1 − υc ( 0 .8 − 0 .2 ) c
u 1′ = = = 0 .7 c
υc 0 .2 c
1 − 2 u1 1− .0 .8 c
c c2
:H " s` )+ <

111
2.4 GeV/c 2
m 1′ = = 3.4 GeV/c 2
(1 − (0.7) ) 2

: +   1 s` )+ )  "# " 


u ′2 =
(− 0.6 − 0.2) c = −0.7 c
0.2 c
1 − 2 (− 0.6 c)
c
:H "   1 s` )+ <
2.4GeV/c2
m′2 = = 3.4GeV/c2
(1 − (0.7) ) 2

s` )'+   1 
"# 
  1 ( ε 2′ , ε 1′ 
 $  B- (4)
: +   
&
  1 ( ε 4′ , ε 3′ 
ε 1′ + ε 2′ = ε 3′ + ε 4′ = ε ′ = (m 1′ + m ′2 ) c 2
9'+ s` )+ N :  "
 "  $ 1 ( B-  "
 

ε 1′ = ε 2′    1 
r r r r
:
 p ′32 = p ′42 =B p1′ + p ′2 = p ′3 + p ′4 = 0 

ε = c p 2
+ m 02 c 2

ε 3′ = ε 4′ = 1 ε ′ = 1 (m1′ + m′2 )c 2 = 3.4 GeV  


2 2
u1′ = − u′2 , u′3 = − u′4 : ) B*
s` )+   
/  1  "

"#  $ 1 ( P
# $ 

: H %
   "
J I" P
#  =B / O

u 1′ = u ′3 = u ′2 = u ′4 = 0.7 c

:H "    s` )+ 


"# 
   + B*

p ′3 = m ′3 u ′3 = 3.4 × (+ 0.7 )GeV/c = +2.38 Gev/c

p ′4 = m ′4 u ′4 = 3.4 × (− 0.7 ) GeV/c = −2.38 GeV/c

112
   s )+ ; "# 2  θ  M  (5)
 υ
∴ p 3 cos θ = γ  p ′3 cos α + 2c ε 3′ 
 c 
p 3 sinθ = p ′3 sinα
' >]    s` )+ ; "# ? # & )   α  
.α = 53o * [(3 5 3) 3
∴ p 3 cos θ = γ (2.38 × 0.6 + 0.2 × 3.4 )

p 3 sin θ = 2.38 × 0.8


2.38 × 0.8
∴ tanθ =
2.108 γ
1 1
γ= = ≅ 1.0206 :  
(
1 − υ c2 /c 2 ) 1 − (0.2) 2

∴ tanθ = 0.8850

∴ θ = 41.5 0
   s )+ )  "# 2  ϕ  M 
 υ
∴ p 4 cos ϕ = γ p ′4 cosα + 2c ε 4′ 
 c 
p 4 sin ϕ = Ρ ′4 sinα
sinα
∴ tan ϕ = = 2.4755
 υ ε′ 
γ cosα + 2c 4 
 c p ′4 

∴ ϕ = − 68 o

:(2)  
 ' <' 

"# ( 2 2 m0c <


 m0  " < "#
 '",
 N "
. 3
 N  
   <
  + N  "
' (2) . 3
  / " (1): # . 1 (   %
."#  "

113
:
:    1 s  ",
)+
ε = ε 1 + ε 2 = (cp)2 + (m 0 c 2 )2 + m 0 c 2
:N> 
(
= 8 m0c 2 ) + (m c )
2
0
2 2
+ m0c2

∴ε = 4 m 0 c 2 (1)
:F/   s F- s` 
1 (    
  "> 
ε = γ(ε ′ + υp′x ) = γ ε ′
. "  )+  3
   + s F- " υ / " =  s`  
.(453) 3  >

∴ε ′= ε =
4 m 0c 2
γ γ
: #     


 υ  γυ
p x = γ  p ′x + 2 ε ′  = 2 ε′
 c  c
 γυ  4 m 0 c 
2
= 2  = 4 m0υ
 c  γ 
2 2 m0c c
∴υ = =
4 m0 2
1 1
γ= = = 2
(
1 − υ 2 /c 2  1 ) : N  
1 − 
 2

:     s`  ",


)+
Q′ = Τ′ = ε ′ − 2 m 0c2


Q′
=
ε′ −2m =
4 m0
− 2 m0 =
4 m0
− 2 m0
0
c2 c2 γ 2
= 2 m0 ( 2 −1 )

114
( ) (
∴ε = γ ε ′ = γ 2 m0c 2 + Q′ c 2 = γ 2 m0 + 2 2 m0 − 2 m0 c 2 )

ε = 4 m 0 c 2 :H " ε  1 (  (1)  


 )+
 C  .
 E

∴ M0 =
ε =
4 m0 4 m0
= = 2 2 m0
γc 2 γ 2

:(3)  
<' 

R "# P
( 8< " 1 ( H "   <1 ( "#
<1 ( # .45o   E <* # 2    B& # 8N  "  
.m0 H "  " <  N
/     

:@ s )+ u1 </ " HB (1 " "# "  : 


ε = mc2 = Τ+ m0 c 2 = m0 c 2 + m0 c 2 = 2 m0 c 2
m0
∴m = 2 m0 =
(1 − u 2 2
1 /c )
: # 1E ?B* 

3
u1 = c
2
)+ )    s` s  ", H
 " / " υ $  B-
:  N  H " s`
3
c
u1 2
υ= =
(
1 + 1 − u 12 /c 2 )  3
1 + 1 − 
 4
c
∴ υ = = u 1′ = − u ′2
3

115
'1 s`  '", '
)'+ )  F/ 
"# / " − u ′2 , u 1′  
. 
1 1 3
γ= = =
(1 − υ 2
/c 2 )  1
1 − 
2
 3
sin α sin α
tan θ = , ∴ tan 45 =
γ (1 + cos α ) 3
(1 + cos α )
2

∴ 5 cos 2 α + 6 cos α + 1 = 0
:F/    
 ?B* 
α = 180 o , 101.5 o

' )'+ A  "


*  


"#    
  

:@  

 

m 0c2
ε 3′ = ε 1′ =
(1 − υ 2
/c 2 )
 ",
)+    1 (1 " "#  1 ( ε 3′ , ε 1′  
.s`
m 0c 2 3
∴ ε 3′ = = m 0c2
 1 2
1 − 
 3

:      (1 " "# s )- s` 


1 (    


3 3 
ε 3 = γ(ε 3′ + υp3′ x ) =  m0c2 +
c
p′  (1)
2  2 3 3 x 

Q cp ′3 = ε 32 − (m 0 c 2 )2 =
3
m0c2 − m0c2 ( )2

2
1
∴ p ′3 = m0c
2
1  1
∴ p ′3 x = p ′3 cosα = m 0 c − 
2  5
1
= m 0 c(− 1) 
2

116
)'+ s` )'+ (1 '" '"# x ) > ? #   F ; 
% M 
:F/   (1)  

ε 3 = 7 m 0 c 2 = T3 + m 0 c 2
5
2
∴ T3 = m0c 2
5
:F/   (1)  
 )+   
% M 
ε 3 = m 0 c 2 == T3 + m 0 c 2
∴ T3 = 0

:(4)  
2 m0c2
1 

I ( 8x ) > ? #  =  3
<1 (   +
' . '3 
'"# / '" ? # %
# .m0  " < "#
.   < 


:
'" / 

 
s  ",
)+  1 (    1 D(
s`  ",
"   > B-  =B 
@( B- >- s`  ",

.$  "  / &"


: 
> 
/ 1  1 (    1 

2 m0 c2 5 m0 c2
ε = ε1 + ε 2 = 2
+ m0 c =
3 3
: + . 3 
 
> 
/ 
ε = γM 0 c 2
:  
>  "#  "  M0  
1
γ=
(1 − υ 2
/c 2 )
117
5 m0c2
∴ γ M0c2 = (1)
3
:   1 

r r r r
p = p1 + p 2 = p3

∴ p = p1 x =
ε1 =
2 m0c
= γM 0 υ
c 3
2 m 0c
∴ γM 0 =

)'+ γM0 '/ M  ' . 
> 
/  "# / " υ  
:F/   (1)  

5 m 0c 2 2 m 0c3
=
3 3υ
2
∴υ = c
5

; x ) > ? #  )&+  
> 
/  "#  ? #

.N  H " y ) > ? #  

:(5)  

'
)+ o ; (% ? #  "  " < ε <1 ( "#
5 c2
"# 1 ( # .y ) > P
30o * %
  <* #
 s  ",
y '
? '#  ";  N  
"# * 3I    "-
)+
. ", H
 " / " )*
8@ "

r
s ‫اتجاه‬ s` y` υ
‫الجسيم‬
‫اتجاه‬
‫الجسيم‬
30o
ε , pr
ε ′, pr ′
o x o` x`
)+ y ) > P
30o   N  
* 3 "# :(953) 3
. ";  N " N  
"# * 3 s` )+ .s

118
:
:  s  ",
)+
2
ε 2 − p 2 =  3ε  2
 c
c2 2
 5c 
r
P'
30o * %
  P HB s  ",
)+ "#  p  
.(953) 3  > 8y


∴p =
5c
: # y ) > ? #  s` F- s 
   $> 



p ′y = p y = − cos 30
5c
2 3ε
∴ p ′y = − = p′
5c
'
 P` .@ " y ) > ? #   
? #  )  " . 3,
.s`  ",
)+ "# ) 
 υ 
∴ p′x = γ − p sin 30 − 2 ε  = 0
 c 
1 4ε
× ×c2
2
∴υ = − 2 5c = − c = −0.4 c
ε 5
:# s` F- s 
1 (    
  "> 
ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x ) = γ (ε − ( − υp sin 30 ) )

1 1 5
γ= = =
(1 − β )
2
 4  21 : 
1 − 
 25 

5  4ε 1 
∴ε ′ =  ε − 0 . 4c × × 
21  5c 2 
4.2ε
∴ε ′ =
21

119
:(6)  
'  '1 ( P
(   

 )+   K   1 (
:'A '1E @" "    )+  

)+ K*

. 
/ " V      M  B- K = K* +
1
2
MV 2

F'- '  B*  N : 9: ."   )+ 

 
'
' '1 )* J I" P
#  />  B_ B- ?E/ #
.X  )+ L : / "

:
9':   A / K = K* +
1
2
MV 2 1E $ - R 
)+ 
@( 1
:);  &# " 
'"#  '  

 )+     1 ( 
 K 

'
+  '"  ' )  "#  @#
 x ) > ? #  = 
;
: 3    1 ( ?B* /  


1
K= m1 υ 2
2
: 3  K* /  

 
+  

)+

1 1
K* = m1 v12 + m 2 v 22
2 2
'"# / '" ' v2,m2  ; "# / "  v1,m1  
: +
 ?B* )+ N  H " )  
 .)  F/ ) 
m 1 v1 + m 2 v 2 = 0
m1 υ1
∴ v2 = − = −v
M
. ", H
 " / " v  M=m1+m2  
m2v2  m  m υ  m υ
∴ v1 = − = − 2  − 1 1  = 2 1
m1  m1  M  M

120
2 2
 m1  m 2 υ1   m 2  m1 υ1 
* m1m 2 υ12
∴K =    +   =
 2  M   2  M  2M
2
1 m1m 2 υ12  m1 + m 2  m1υ1  1
* 2
∴ K + MV = +   = m1 υ12
2 2M  2  m1 + m 2  2
1
∴ K = K * + MV 2
2
:  "   )+ A
ε = γε *

Q ε = K + M 0c 2
M0=m01+m02  
ε * = K* + M 0 c 2
K* + M 0 c 2
∴K = − M 0c2
(1 − V 2
/c 2
)
: + V << c  A : + BQ+
−1 / 2
 V2  V2
1 −  ≅ 1+
 c2  2 c2
 
 V2 
( *
 2c 
2
)
∴K = K + M0c 1+ 2  − M0c2
 
1  v2 
≅ K* + M 0 c 2 + K*  2  − M0c2 + 1 M0V 2
2 c  2
 
1
∴ K ≅ K* + MV 2
2
."    )+ M=M0  

:(7)  
437 MeV '  <'1 ( 8@'#
 x ) > ? #  =    
'  '  
NE  $
/ BQ+ .N  "   < 

` (

121
' . '
   @"  . a  "
 1 ( =
  
.
&* #
:
(1 '"     m  8   
H;  "  m0  M 
r
  1 ( p1 , ε 1  N : M  .T = 437MeV   <1 ( HB
r
. "      1 ( 0 = p 2 ,ε 2  (1 "   
:@ 1 (    1 

ε1 +ε 2 = ε 3 +ε 4 (1)
.s ' 
 '
 )+        1 ( ε 4 , ε 3  B-
' ' '

" > 
 B* )+  F- . 3, #
  ? '   '
 B'* % ( 9:     ; =B F- # 
. 1 (      $> 
)- L #
:@     1 

r r r r
p1 + p 2 = p 3 + p 4 (2)
r r
       p 4 , p3  B-
:

ε 1 = Τ1 + m 0 c 2
ε 2 = m 0c 2
ε3 = ε4
:  
Τ 1 + 2 m 0 c 2 = 2ε 3 = 2ε 4
Τ1
∴ε 3 = ε 4 = + m 0c 2 (3)
2

p 32 = p 42 =
ε 2
3 2 2
−m c =
ε 2
4
− m 2c2
0 0 (4)
c2 c2
: # (2) 1E 

p 12 = p 32 + p 24 + 2 p 3 p 4 cos θ
r r
p 4 p 3  . 
   θ  B-

122
∴ p12 = 2 p 32 (1 + cosθ ) = 2 p 24 (1 + cosθ )
θ θ
∴ p 1 = 2 p 3 cos = 2 p 4 cos (5)
2 2

Q p12 =
ε 1
2
2 2
−m c =
(T1 + m 0 c 2 )
0
2
− m 2c 2 0
c2 c2
2
T 
∴ p 12 =  1  + 2 T1 m 0
 c 
(4) 1E 

2
 T1 
 + m 0 c 2 
 2 
p 32 = p 24 = 2
− m0c 2
c
2
T 
∴ p 32 = p 24 =  1  + T1 m 0 (6)
 2c

:  E (5) 1E 


2
 T1 
2   + 2 T1 m 0
θ  p1   c  1
cos2
=  = ×
2  2 p 3 
  T1 
2 4
  + T1 m 0
 2c

θ Τ1 + 2 m 0c 2
∴ cos =
2 Τ1 + 4 m 0c 2

:H "     " 1 ( 



Q m 0 c 2 = 939.4 MeV
:  B
θ 437 + 939.4 × 2
cos =
2 437 + 939.4 × 4

∴ θ = 84o

123
:(8)  
2 m0c2
3
F'-  "
1 ( @#
 x ) > ? #  =    + (%"
); <* # /    2  + m0  " < N  "   "# F/
' s  ",
)+ <
 $3
    1 ( @"  .90o  
.N  N  "
)     s`  ",
)+ <1 ( #

:
:@+ s  ",
)+ 1 (    1 N>  D(
ε1 + ε 2 = ε 3 + ε 4
p2 = 0 , ε 3 = cp3 , ε1 = cp1 : 
2 m 0c 2
∴ + m 0 c 2 = cp 3 + ε 4 (1)
3
: #     1 D(
r r r r
p1 + p 2 = p 3 + p 4
2 m 0c
= p 3 cos 90 + p 4 cos ϕ (2)
3
p 3 sin 90 = p 4 sin ϕ (3)
.(1 "    ? # / "# & 2  )   ϕ  
ε 42 = (cp 4 )2 + (m 0 c 2 )2 (4)
:F/  
&
#  (3) (2) P 
2
 2 m0c2 
(cp 4 ) 2
= (cp 3 ) 2
+ 
(5)
 3 
 
:O (4)  
 )+ (5)  
 
(cp4) 
1 M 
2
 2 m0c2 
ε 2
4 (
− m0c )
2 2
= (cp 3 ) 2
+
 3

 (6)
 
:# )-  (6)  
 )+ (cp3) 
1 M  (1)  
   "> 

124
2
5 
2
 2 m0c2 
2
 m 0 c − cp 3  − m 0 c
2
( )
2
= (cp 3 ) 2
+
 3


3   
:F/   . ;  
  

2
p3 = m 0c
5
2
∴ε 3 = cp 3 = m 0 c 2
5
:  s`  ",
)+ N  H " )  


2
m c2
cp x cp1 3 0 2
β= = = =
ε ε 5 m c2 5
0
3
1
∴γ = = 1.09 ≅ 1.1
(
1− β 2 )
: O s` F- s 
1 (    


ε 3′ = γ (ε 3 − βcp3x ) = γ ε 3
2 
∴ ε 3′ = (1.09 ) m 0 c 2 
5 
:H " s` )+    1 ( B-
∴ ε 3′ = 0.44 m 0 c 2

:(9)  
  ' . '- &
D(
/ %"
( )+ =  $  . B
P' ? '#  6
7
c H '" / " &" . B "  D(  ,
. B' '"   "  )+ * 3I
. & ( P
60o * %
 
H '" *# +  , . B  (    0%  J ("
.. B / " @"  .30o

125
r
υ ε e′ , pr ′e , υr ′e = 6 c
s s`
ε e , pr e , υr e 7
‫إلكترون‬ ‫إلكترون‬

30o r 60o
υ
‫ذرة‬ ‫ذرة‬
‫متحركة‬ ‫ساكنة‬
o x o` x`
* 3 s` )+ .s )+  
. B 
 - DE( :(1053) 3
.<* # G P
N  
 , F%  " . B

:
r
D( x ) > ? #  s  ",
)+ υ / " =  . B  M 
)+ .(1053) 3  > 8x ) > P
30o * %
  P  - &

r
. B' 9 s  ",
F- " υ / " =  HB s`  ",

.x` ) > P


60o  
  , B- . "  )+
: # s )- s` 
1 (   $> 
" 
cp e sin 30 = c p ′e sin 60
(
cp ecos 30 = γ cp′e cos 60 + β ε e′ )
1
∴ tan 30
 β  ε e′ 
γ  cot 60 +  
 sin 60  cp′ 
 e 
3
∴γ =
 ε′ 
1 + 2 β e 
 c p′e 
 
:@  1 (  1E 

2
ε e′2 = ( cp ′e )2 + ( m 0 c 2 )
2 2
 ε′   2 
∴ e  = 1+  m0c 
 cp ′e   cp ′e 
   

126
cp′e = cγ ′e m 0 υ′e :  E 
1 6c
γ ′e = :  υ ′e = : 
(
1 − β ′e2 ) 7

2
 ε′  2
∴ e  = 1 + 1 = 1 =  7 
 cp ′e  γ ′e2 β ′e2 β ′e2  6 
 

3 9
∴γ = =
7 3+7β
1 + 2 β 
6
1 3+7β
=
γ 9
2
2  3 + 7β 
∴1− β =  
 9 
∴130 β 2 + 42 β − 72 = 0

(5 β− 3)(26 β+ 24) = 0
3
∴β =
5
3c
υ=
5

:(10)  
(10MeV<< ε 0 ) ε 0 F'-  '"
 / 1 ( =
 $    


'  '3
 Q  '  1 (  O" .  
  $&#
 ε 0 (1 " $    1 ( F/ 
 > .
 F/ &( %"  2
.Q 
1 #

127
:
$ '   &
&"   .
 F/ $    ( %" / < M 
.(1153) 3 )+ 9:

 $    ? #> N " 
&* #  
: +   
   M  1 (    1 A D(
ε 0 + m 0 c 2 = Q + γm 0 c 2 (1)

:    1 

ε0 =−
Q
+ γβm 0 c
c c

∴ ε 0 + Q = γβm 0c 2 (2)

Q γ 2β 2 = γ 2 − 1
2 2
( ) − (m c )
∴ γ 2β 2 m02 c 4 = γm0 c2 0
2

+ (m c ) = [(ε − Q ) + m c ]
2
2 2
∴ (ε 0 + Q )2 0 0 0
2

:   . ; 1E ?B* 


1 2 m 0c2 1
Q = 2
≅ m 0c2
1 2 m 0c 2
1+
ε0

1
:)A  2
m 0c2 << ε 0  $ - 

 

1 9.11 × 10 −31 × 9 × 1016


m0 c2 = = 0.25 MeV
2 2 × 1.6 × 10 −19

128
‫‪1/ 2 m 0 c 2‬‬
‫'‪'    ' %
. G‬‬ ‫‪ε0‬‬ ‫"‪"  O‬‬ ‫‪10 MeV << ε 0‬‬ ‫ 
‬
‫ ‪.(1 " $    1 ( F/ 
 >
^ F- Q   B* 89‬‬

‫‪ε‬‬ ‫‪= m‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪c‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬


‫‪ε1 = γm0c2‬‬
‫‪ε‬‬ ‫‪ε‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪p = 0‬‬ ‫‪Q‬‬ ‫‪r‬‬
‫‪0 /‬‬
‫‪c‬‬ ‫‪Q ,‬‬ ‫‪p1 = γm0 υ‬‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫فوتونات ساقطة‬ ‫فوتونات مرتدة‬ ‫الكترونات‬
‫الكترونات‬ ‫متحركة‬
‫ساكنة‬
‫قبل سقوط الفوتونات‬ ‫بعد سقوط الفوتونات‬
‫على المادة‬ ‫على المادة‬

‫)‪  $3
    ..
 )/   + ( %" :(11 – 3‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬
‫‪.(1 "    1 ( F/ <1 ( 
 > 2‬‬

‫‪129‬‬
!  % &


'
'
)+ 
"# 
  

   1 (  $ 51
υ  '
 '  ' H "   1 
1 2
µ µυ
2
.L : / " " K( J I" / .
"#  " / "

( .0.6c H " x ) > ? #  </ " m0  " < "# 52
.– 0.8c / " N : x ) > ? #  "   < 

R "#

 

 " 
   N 3 
    BQ+
'
'
)'+   1
&
 / " @ "   

b  1  



)+
&
 
.
(V1=-V2=0.71c) :c
(M1=M2=1.43 m0)

<'  "  )+ "# ( υ </ " m1  " < "# 53
. 3
     #  
 
/  + m2  "
' </ '" ' 
 "#  "  #  ",
 N "

. 
> 
/
m 2 = m12 + m 22 +
2 m1m 2
:c
1 − υ 2 /c 2
m1υ
V=
m1 + m 2 (1 − υ /c )
2 2

'  '  1 ( $ +  "  - P


( hν <1 (   + 54
'  P' ? '#     B* " BQ+ hν/2 F-  "
 
b   B* J 
.ν   %
# ); <* # P
60o * %

ν = 2.45 × 10 20 Hz :c

 3

130
 '" ' )+  - P
( 4c
5
/ " "      55
F'/ D(
( )+ " 
* #     * 3    +  +
 , 
  "  m0  $
/ BQ+ .(1 " "# "

. 
    
 1 ( # 8  
2 m0c 2
2 :c
m 0c2
3

r
'  "  p
&
  s  ",
)+ b, a 
"# 56
@'#
 x )' > ? #  %"
( )+ a "# =  m0
&

'  P R %"


( )+ ?  =  HB b "#  (
s`  '",
)+ b "# 1 (  $ .x ) > P
θ * %

H ''"  ''" '' )''+ a ''"# <''+ ''& HB''


 2 p2 θ
ε b′ = m0 c2 1 + cos 2 
 m02 c 2 2 

H " (1 "    P


$3
    & )   $  B- 57
 '  ? '# P
 , & )    :N>  O" 90o

 'Y '  1 (  :N   8 cotθ = 1 + :H " (1 "
m0c2

:1E  &/  $3



 
 
 hν  1 
ε = hν  
m c 
2  hν 
 0  1 + 
 m c 2 
 0 

131
(1 '"    ? # /  , 2    )* ϕ  M + B- 58
 ', '1 (  $ + 
 J  
  )+ hν <1 ( HB
:A 1E @#
 F(  
 T  
2 α cos 2 ϕ
T =hν
(1 + α )2 − α 2 cos 2 ϕ

. α = m c 2 : 
0

* '%
' / ' '1 ( )'- $    # #
" 59
0.938GeV H '"  '   " 1 (  $
/ BQ+ .200GeV
'# ?'  '
 x "# M0c2  " 1 ( 
1 F/ @" 
 '" ' )'+    P
1 (  / $    ?B*    
p+ p → p+ p+ x :A /  
/ @"
.   
 p : B-
M 0 c 2 = 17.58 GeV :c

3c
. '" * 3
 " 5
/ " =  M0 <   3 "# – 10
8($   +)
# 3 * "#  * 3
 B* 1 
 
."#  ( P
60o   ? #  M0c2 &
      1 (
#  J 3, 
/  3
4
M0 $ "#  "   O"
. * %
.# </ " 2   
υ=
7c
4
:c

132
'R '"# ( 2m0c2   <1 ( m0  " < "# 511
'# '"#  "  # .< D + 2m0  " <  "
.  
   N : 

M 0 = 17 m0 :c

133
‫الفصل الرابع‬
‫)الفضاء ذو األبعاد األربعة والمتجھات الرباعية(‬
‫
‪.‬‬ ‫‪1.4‬‬
‫      ‪.‬‬ ‫‪2.4‬‬
‫   
 ‪.‬‬ ‫‪3.4‬‬
‫
   ‪.‬‬ ‫‪4.4‬‬
‫ ‪. !" #$ 
  %‬‬ ‫‪5.4‬‬
‫ '& ‪.‬‬ ‫‪6.4‬‬
‫‪. $ (! ) *+ $,‬‬ ‫‪7.4‬‬
‫‪. & -‬‬
‫ ) ‪. %‬‬
  

   



 .‫א
א‬1−4
(x,y,z) ,/+  0/ )- )/$  1+ 23 4, %& 4 5-
-  ,  : )$  ,7 "  89: .4 .6 4 t ) 
/" > /#- 5- =  <   " ) ;  6
/-  93 @ A ,  ) B 9: )3 .?  .
 
.C  $> .+  - C$   & D-  $ ,
)/ ! )/ r2 /  )- F/ E  ;3 D-  .

:)- 5- ?    " ) ; (x2,y2,z2)  (x1,y1,z1)

r 2 = (x1 − x 2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 + (z1 − z2 )2

= (x1′ − x′2 )2 + (y1′ − y′2 )2 + (z1′ − z′2 )2

/ / / & (2) ! s ?    & (1) ! $ 9H
  : )7 " ) ; r )- 91 % =)   r A s` ?
# )K ) )- )$  ) .? 5 $   ,   6
.    " #- 5- #   # )$ > r )-

135
/ o %/7 /! ) !  ) 4, @1+ @+   
%/  *+ )3 .(6L1) %$2   $ o ; ! o` # $   F
:)$  s`  s )  $ c  #
 .
)
x 2 + y2 + z2 x ′ 2 + y ′2 + z ′2
= = c2 (4-1)
t2 t′ 2

)  (x`,y`,z`) ! ;3 % t )  (x,y,z) ! ;3 *+ %


: )$ t`
x2 + y2 + z2 − c2t 2 = x′2 + y′2 + z′2 − c2t′2 = 0
! /  4 57 (x`,y`,z`)  (x,y,z) &? )- D   
::  6, #+, .
x2 + y2 + z2 − c2t2 = x′2 + y′2 + z′2− c2t′2
:-
r 2 − c 2 t 2 = r′2 − c 2 t′2 (2-4)

89: )3 .   " ) )93 ; x 2 + y2 + z2 − c2t2  $


/2 / .+ (x,y,z,t) ,7 &? ) ! >  
.  ) B 9: ;3

/  # ! %  $ .- ) 0' 


- ) 
89/: %/& )3 ." ) ; !  $ #F (x,y,z,t)  $ # %
.
 # M! .-  $ ) $  
 -  

/#
      # %&   - )- %6
r
   r 8  r .+ 
 4 9 @>- 0, )-  
θ :/ /  z /: ), &3 % (x,y,z) &? ) 

.(x`,y`,z`) &? ) D- 
;3 % 

136
y` y

x B
θ y`
θ x` yθ x`
r
r

y` θ
θ x

=5 ,  %  ;  ,- &&  % :(1 – 4) %$2


.  : θ ) 

=/ K >,  0 ) ) B 9: ! &? % )3
:(1 – 4) %$2 F>
x ′ = x cos θ + y sin θ 

y ′ = − x sin θ + y cos θ  (3-4)
z′ = z 

4 θ   z   % &? )   ) 59 %  9: )3
)/$  ) 93 " )
  O x`,y` ;3 x,y &? %
r
r

: K 6, ; (3 – 4) >,  ) % )-

x 2 + y2 + z2 = x′2 + y′2 + z′2

%/  / M! ,- &&  %  , %& : (3 – 4) >, 


)/$  )/  ." )
  C   % : .5 , 
r
r

// $ //  93 //,- @//,- % //2  //! 89//:  //
/ .) / *+ &3  , . %& x 2 + y2 + z2 − c2t2

: K$ 89: ,7 &? 0,


x1 = x , x2 = y , x3 = z , x4 = i ct
: K  ; )93  $ P $ . i = −1 )- 4

137
4

∑x
µ =1
2
µ = x 12 + x 22 + x 32 + x 24 (4-4)

./, !/2 /     " ) ;  $ 89:
C9/$ ; /O /,7 ,7 9 *+ )- ;3 %
 9:  2? 

6 *+ 9# @!! 
- 59 $$ , ;3  "
" *+
/#- ;/ /  % , *+ 9:  .  
/
 /$ : (x1,x2,x3,x4) &?    $ 5 , %
.,7 ,7 59 *+  

 : ‫ א אמא‬2–4


/,7 59 *+  5 ,  %  26 *2 %$ %6  "
/,7 /,7 9 */+ % 2 %  ) B 9: R1  M! & &&
.x4 . &? 0+ )' C9
/# /,  )/$ - 93 &/? ) 
 @! %  )$
:   ; 7 &?
x 1′ = a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x 3
x ′2 = a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x 3
x ′3 = a 3 1 x 1 + a 3 2 x 2 + a 3 3 x 3
:-
i = 1,2,3
j = 1,2,3
:4 x ′i = ∑ j
a ij x j (5-4)

/   ,  ) 
%& a ij )- ! %  ;  %  9:
∑x 2
i /
   93 @ , %  9: A .%  9: 0
:)$ @ , @ %& 7 ,  )- S 9H ." )
∑ x′ = ∑ x
i
i
2

k
2
k (6-4)

138
:)-   
(x ′j )2 = ∑∑ a ij a ik x j x k
j k

∴ ∑ (x ′ ) = ∑ ∑ ∑ a
i
i
2

j k i
ij a ik x j x k (7-4)

:)$   (7L4)  (6L4) ) 6, D 


0 ⇒ j ≠ k
∑i
a ij a ik = 
1 ⇒ j = k

∴ ∑a i
ij a ik = δ jk (8-4)

)/  (8 L 4) 6, M )- " @ , @ $9 0T %  %,



.8- !2 .+ (3 – 4) ,  %&  %  )- &3 )$ 
: K  ;  $ )$  (5 L 4) 6, !, 59 %  )3
X ′ = AX (9-4)
X )- (x 1′ , x ′2 , x ′3 ) / $ ./ %  .+ 
%& X` )- 4
/ %/& A )- (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) / $ . 7 .+ 

:P $  a ij :, % 
 a 11 a 12 a 13 
 
A =  a 21 a 22 a 23  (10-4)
a a 32 a 33 
 31
:P $ )- $    , )  $ X,X` )#
 & 93

 x 1′    x 1 
    
 x ′2  =  a ij  x 2  (11-4)
 x′    x 
 3   3 
/! )- @ $9  $ .%  9#  )  : a ij 
/,7 59 */+ / #! )$      89: % 
.,7
rr
l 2 = l.l , *+ 9: 
%! l )- S

139
:P $ )- )$ 
l2 = x 2 + y2 + z2 − c2t 2

= x 12 + x 22 + x 32 + x 24
  " ) C O l )-    7 
:)- 5- 
∑ x′ = ∑ x
µ
µ
2

λ
2
λ

: K  ;  >,  $ )K )$  )


x 1′ = γx 1 + (0)x 2 + (0)x 3 + i βγx 4 

x ′2 = (0)x1 + (1)x 2 + (0)x 3 + (0)x 4 
 (12-4)
x ′3 = (0)x 1 + (0)x 2 + (1)x 3 + (0)x 4 
x ′4 = −i βγx 1 + (0)x 2 + (0)x 3 + γx 4 
υ 1
.s`,s ? 5 )   υ = β = )- γ= )- 4
c (1 − β )
2

:%$2   "   ) ,  )$ 

 x ′1   γ 0 0 i βγ  x 1 
    
 x ′2   0 1 0 0  x 2 
 x′  =  0 0 1 0  x  (13-4)
 3   3 
 x ′   − i βγ 0 0 γ  x 
 4   4 

)- 5- 5/ , %/ /: (13 – 4) /6,   %   )3


/E    # )7 % ,  # : .(8 – 4) 6, .+ :
 $  # 3 5 )  !   )> C9 
 y ):
>   t`  x` ;3 )>  t  x )- 
 9$: .x   8

.%  9# )&'  > z

140
/ )/$  )- )$  (12 L 4) ,  %&   % )3
 , ) : )$  ψ )  )H  89:  .x1x4 D  
:)  K % 

x 1′ = x 1 cos ψ + x 4 sin ψ 
 (14-4)
x ′4 = − x 1 sin ψ + x 4 cos ψ 

x`4 x4

x1 B
ψ

x`1
x`4
x`1
x4
ψ

ψ
O x1

ψ )  .,- ,-  % :(2 – 4) %$2


.  :

:)-  A+  (12 – 4) 6, (14 – 4) 6,  


tan ψ = i β = i (υ/c ) (15-4)
%/ )- %/ @+ =   )  )- R   9$:
%/ ) /- >3 =/,- ,- 59 5 , *+  @  , 
:)- R   %  >,  (15 – 4) 6, ) . 
cos ψ = γ , sin ψ = i βγ
:   ; %    $ $  )93

141
 cos ψ 0 0 sin ψ 
 
 0 1 0 0 
A=
0 0 1 0  (16-4)
 
 − sin ψ 0 0 cos ψ 

   ,  P$  


,     1 :- )
.  P+ !  , %# 93

' , )$     
 )-   R  
r
4/ =( A µ ) /: ./7 / $ A /:
 )$ 93 = $ .7
/# %/ /  #/ ! % .7  $ 89: = µ =1,2,3,4
: K %  , P $ 9$: .    xµ &?
A′µ = ∑a
ν
µν A ν (17-4)

:)- 4
 γ 0 0 i βγ 
 
 0 1 0 0 
a µν =  
0 0 1 0 (18-4)
 
− i βγ 0 0 γ 
 


 .‫ אא
א‬3–4
89  59 ! .,7 ,7 59 *+  C  @ 
)- S
)/, 3   8 )$   , ! ;  $ % 

∆xµ M )H C9 @ .
$ % F>  $   xµ &?
∆x µ
/ ∆t
/ )- >3 @/+- 
: ! 9: ; ) ! )
.  3     @ 6 9' ∆t     )7 @ @#

142
)       ;  ∆τ D-    
3 )K %
89: ; % .?  .
  " ) ;    )&
: K ! .   
:P $ (2 – 4) 6, )
(∆x)2 + (∆y)2 + (∆z)2 − c2 (∆z)2 = (∆x′)2 + (∆y′)2 + (∆z′)2 − c2 (∆t′)2
(∆r)2 − c 2 (∆t)2 = (∆r′)2 − c 2 (∆t ′)2
1 1
 1  ∆r  
2 2  1  ∆r ′  
2 2
∴ ∆t1 − 2    = ∆t ′1 − 2   
 c  ∆t    c  ∆t ′  

::       )$ C9 @


(
∆τ = ∆t 1 − u 2 /c 2 )
1
2 (
= ∆ t ′ 1 − u ′ 2 /c 2 )
1
2
(19-4)

   u`  u )- ." ) ; ∆τ )- 7 6, ) F
:  ; s`  s ?  
:) µ=1,2,3,4 =Vµ .7  $   
 )$ 93

∑Vµ
2
µ = ∑ V′
λ
λ
2
(20-4)

:)- 4
dx µ
Vµ = (21-4)

.xµ / $  %& 


 # %    # ! % 
 9:
./ 
 -     
# C9
: K$ P  89: $ 

143
dx −1 dx x& 
(
V1 = 1 = 1 − u 2 /c 2 ) 2
= 
dτ dt
(1 − u 2
/c 2 ) 

dx 2 −1 dy y& 
V2 = (
= 1 − u 2 /c 2 ) 2
= 
dτ dt
(1 − u 2
/c 2 ) 

−1

dx 3 dz z& 
V3 = (
= 1 − u 2 /c 2 ) 2
=
 (22-4)
dτ dt
(1 − u 2
/c 2 ) 

dx 4 −1  d (ι ct )  ic 
V4 = (
= 1 − u 2 /c 2 ) 2
 dt 
= 
dτ   (1 − u 2
/c 2 ) 

:)- R  .
   *
3 U& >,  89: ) , %$ ! . 

(x& + y& + z& ) − c = u − c


2 2 2 2 2 2

∑ µ
Vµ2 =
(1− u /c ) (1− u /c ) 1− u /c
2 2 2 2 2 2

∴ ∑ V = −c µ
2 2
(23-4)
µ

:6,  $ $  


$ %   $  
∑ V′ = ∑ a
µ
µ
µ
µv V v

/ )$ (18 – 4) 6,  :  $  aµν   , >
:  $    K %  >,
v 1′ = γ (v 1 + i βv 4 ) 

v ′2 = v 2 
 (24-4)
v ′3 = v 3 
v ′4 = γ (− i βv 1 + v 4 )

:   ;    #  $ )$  (22 L 4) >, 

 r 
 u ic 
vµ =  ,  (25-4)
 (1 − u 2
/c 2 ) (1 − u 2
/c 2 ) 

.5 > *+  


 
%& 4
r
u

144
 . ‫א
א!מ‬4–4
. !"   # :

:6,    0,

dx µ dx µ
pµ = m 0vµ = m 0 = m (26-4)
dτ dt

9: $ P $ .


 $  $ m0 )-   Vµ )- 4
: K$

dx 1 m 0 x& 
p1 = m 0 = = m x& 
dτ (1 − u 2
/c 2 ) 
dx 2 m 0 y& 
p2 = m0 = = m y& 
dτ (1 − u 2
/c 2 ) 


dx 3 m 0 z& 
p3 = m 0 = = m z& (27-4)
dτ (1 − u 2
/c 2
) 

dx 4 m 0ic iε 
p4 = m0 = = i cm = 
dτ (1 − u 2
/c 2 ) c 

/$ @/  /2 5 >   $ )- 8- >,  ) F


/ $ /: % ,  )$ ,7 ,7 59 *+    

.)$  $ ) @> 
:)7 )$ )- P
  $ " ) ;   


∑p 2
µ ( )
= m 2 x& 2 + y& 2 + z& 2 − m 2 c 2
µ

2 2
=m u −m c =
m02 u 2 − c2
2 2 ( )
1 − u 2 /c 2 ( )
∴ ∑p
µ
2
µ = −m 02c 2 (28-4)

:P $ " ) ;  $ 89: )-  

145
∑p
µ
2
µ = ∑ p′
λ
λ
2
= −m 02c 2 (29-4)

:6,  $ $  


$ %     )$   
∑ p′ = ∑ a
µ
µ
λ
µν p ν (30-4)

:  
 $   %  >,  A 9$:
p 1′ = γ (p 1 + i β p 4 ) 

p ′2 = p 2 
 (31-4)
p ′3 = p 3 
p 4 = γ (− i β p 1 + p 4 )

:   ;    P $ (27L4)>, 


 r iε 
p µ =  p, 
 c 
$   - $  5 > *+   
p %&  4
r
p 3 , p 2 , p1

. p 4 = c # ,
/# , )- )$  ε $ 6! )- @+ )$ (28 L 4) 6, )
: K$   >
ε 2

∑p
µ
µ
2
= p12 + p 22 + p 32 + p 24 =p 2

c 2
= − m 02 c 2

∴ε = (c p
2 2
+ m 02 c 4 ) (32-4)

) 6!  %  , )- (31L4) >,  ) @+- A+ ) 


:5- , 6, ) # % )$  s` ;3 s ? 
p ′4 = γ (− i βp 1 + p 4 )

∴i
ε ′ = γ  i ε −i
υ 
px 
c  c c 
p1=px :)- 4
∴ ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x )

146
/ " ) ; S, . #+  #
 )- $9 )- 
.&$ %1 %   )- )$   

   6! )- S =) 
  M,  %&  )K .

r
 #$/ /  $ . p 2 , ε 2 & 
   6! %7
r
m 02 , m 01 p1 , ε 1
r
/
 p 3 ,ε 3 %7 /
   6! )$   , .  ;
r
)      %   6! F )6 M!  . p 4 , ε 4 &
: K$    #
   )$  )

p 1µ + p 2 µ = p 3 µ + p (33-4)

:)- 4
r iε  r iε 
p1µ =  p1 , 1  , p 2 µ =  p 2 , 2 
 c   c 
r iε  r iε 
p 3µ =  p 3 , 3  , p 4 µ =  p 4 , 4 
 c   c 

 *
3   " ) ; 6 )V$ >,  89: ) 
.%$2 (33L4) ,   $ , C9 A+  .'  89# , 

p1 µ + p 2 µ − p 3 µ = p

[(28 – 4) 6, F>] : )$ ,  89: ! . 

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
− m01c − m02c − m01c + 2 p1µ p 2µ − 2 p1µ p3µ − 2 p 2µ p3µ = − m02c
∴ m 01 c 2 + p1 µ p 3 µ + p 2 µ p 3 µ − p1 µ p 2 µ = 0 (34-4)

/ & 


  F 4 s ?   % 6    ,
:)K  A =  %6 )$ 

147
r
ε2 = m02c2 , p2 = 0

:5 (34 – 4) ,      %&  5, P+ %

r r
p 1µ p 3µ = p 1 .p 3 −
ε 1ε 3 = p 1 p 3 cos θ −
ε 1ε 3 
c 2
c 2 

p 2µ p 3 µ = − ε 3 m 02 
 (35-4)
p 1 µ p 2µ = − ε 1 m 02 


89/: S/,  /  , (%7) !6 


  2   θ )- 4
:R  (34 – 4) ,   6,

ε 3  ε21 + m 02  − ε 1 m 02 − m 012 c 2
cos θ = c 
p1 p 3 (36-4)

.    ) 
 6! >  2   !, 7 6,
/  M,    #2 6 P $ )- .!  # ! B H 
.& 
 ϕ  2 
 ε1 
 2 + m 02  ε 4 − m 02 c
2
( )
cos ϕ =  
c
p1p 4 (37-4)

:&
'"   # :  %
/ /
 - /  ; O Fµ @
@ #
%
:& )  )   ,  )$ 91 .
dp µ
Fµ = (38-4)

:  %$2 6, 89:  $ )$ 
−1 d  dxµ 
(
Fµ = 1 − u 2 /c2 ) 2 m
dt  dt

 (39-4)

148
r
/ ;7 4& $  )93 .  $ m =
  u )- 4
:P $  f  >  ;3 P 
fx fy fz
F1 = , F2 = , F3 =
(1 − u 2
/c 2 ) (1 − u 2
/c 2 ) (1 − u 2
/c 2 )
: , $   C9$
ic dm i 1 dε
F4 = = . (40-4)
(1 − u 2
/c 2 ) dt c (1 − u 2
/c 2 ) dt

./6!  $ - 


  $  " 59   %,  3 F4 P )93
:)- 5- " ) ;   
 )-   )K
∑p µ
2
µ
= − m 02 c 2

:)- %
dp µ
∑ µ


=0

∑p
µ
µ Fµ = 0 (41-4)

(41 – 4) /,  / $  .Fµ  Pµ )  , "$ C9  )$ 


:R   P4F4   23 %,
 $  "
Ρ 1 F1 + Ρ 2 F2 + Ρ 3 F3 = − Ρ 4 F4
:W$ 89:
fx fy fz − (i cm) i d ε
. mux + . muy + muz =
(1 − u /c )
2 2
(1 − u /c ) 2 2
(1 − u /c )
2 2
(1 − u /c ) c dt
2 2

dε r r
∴ = u .f (42-4)
dt
 >  
 59 %,  : ε =mc2  $   "  %, )93
r
  .6!  $ ) 6, ) $U9  . M  : .
 ; @"2 f
 %  >,  $ $  
$ %   )-
.

149
‫‪F1′ = γ (F1 + i βF4 ) ‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪F2′ = F2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫)‪(43-4‬‬
‫‪F3′ = F3‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪F4′ = γ (F4 − i βF1 )‬‬

‫‪/, ; % (43 – 4) ) , ,    $ )K A+‬‬
‫ ‪.6! %‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪υ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪Q F 4′ = γ  F 4 − i F1 ‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪c‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪−1‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪−1‬‬ ‫‪−1‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪i  u ′2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪dε ′‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪i  u2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪dε‬‬ ‫‪ u2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪dp x ‬‬
‫‪∴ 1 − 2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪= γ 1 − 2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪− i β 1 − 2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪c ‬‬ ‫‪c‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪dt ′‬‬ ‫‪c  c‬‬ ‫‪dt‬‬ ‫‪ c‬‬ ‫‪dt ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪+1‬‬ ‫‪+1‬‬
‫‪ u2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪ u2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪Q 1 − 2‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪dt = 1 − 2‬‬
‫‪′‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪dt = dτ‬‬
‫‪ c‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ c‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪dε ′‬‬ ‫‪ dε‬‬ ‫‪dp ‬‬
‫∴‬ ‫‪= γ‬‬ ‫‪−υ x ‬‬
‫‪dτ‬‬ ‫‪ dτ‬‬ ‫‪dτ ‬‬

‫) ‪∴ ε ′ = γ (ε − υp x‬‬

‫‪& 5–4‬א  א‪ ."# $%‬‬


‫‪r‬‬
‫‪p‬‬ ‫ ‪&& ,7 59 *+  5 >   )- M   X‬‬
‫‪ r iε ‬‬
‫!‪$ @ .  p, c  @ @#
$  : )$  
 ε $ 6‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫ ‪/ 
 C C ∗, 0F   )  ) C 6!  $‬‬
‫]
‪[M % ) (4L3)  .‬‬ ‫ ‪:;3 Y   )  9# )$ 0$‬‬

‫‪r‬‬ ‫‪r hν‬‬


‫‪p = n‬‬
‫‪c‬‬
‫!‪:;3  6‬‬
‫‪ε‬‬ ‫‪=hν‬‬

‫∗ وفقا ً لفرضية آينشتاين يمتلك الفوتون صفات االزدواجية الموجية‪-‬الجسيمية عند االنتشار و الحي‪9‬ود و الت‪9‬داخل‪ ،‬فتظھ‪9‬ر ص‪9‬فاته الموجي‪9‬ة‬
‫و تختفي الجسيمية‪ .‬أما عند تفاعل الفوتون مع المادة كما ھو الحال في الظ‪9‬اھرة الكھروض‪9‬وئية و ت‪9‬أثير كمبت‪9‬ون فتظھ‪9‬ر ص‪9‬فاته الجس‪9‬يمية‬
‫وتختفي الموجية‪.‬‬

‫‪150‬‬
r
.)  $ 8

  n C & h =  ν )- 4

r
s υ
s` hν ′ c
hν c

‫حركة الفوتون‬ ‫حركة الفوتون‬

θ θ`
o x o` x`

"  .s  x . θ  . 8


 C  )  :(3 – 4) %$2
.x` . θ`  . s`  )  )

 r h ν ih ν   r iε 
. n ,  %$2  p,  
  $ $  )   
 c c   c
 s ?   x-y D    C  @ @  )K S
./ θ`,θ )  / / $ 8/
 ./ 4 s` ?   x`-y` D  
r
A )/$ 93 .(3 – 4) %$2   $ ;  ; s`,s ? 5  x`,x )&>
:) @ @#

 υ 
A 1′ = γ  A 1 + i A  4
 c 
A ′2 = A 2 

A ′3 = A 3  (44-4)
 υ 
A ′4 = γ  A 4 − i A 1  
 c  

:; % )     ; >,  89: M! 

151
 υ 
ν ′ cos θ ′ = γν  cos θ −  
 c 

ν ′ sin θ ′ = ν sin θ 
 (45-4)
 υ  
ν ′ = γν  1 − cos θ 
 c  

/ c / / !" #$ 


 *+ )- )K   93
 
  89:  ν  - ?  .
   : Z
/: ν` )-  x &> . θ :  .+ #:
 s ? 
)'/ /& )- $ > x` &> . θ` . #:
 s` ?  
>/, /: / #
   #3  ;  8 >, 
>, )  .s` ?  ;3 s ?  )    
  %
 :/ / /6       
  2  8
 )- 0$ 89: % 
r r
/
  2  8

  n )- 4 (nν, i ν ) : @ @#
$
.(4 – 4) %$2 F> .: ν )-   
s s` r
υ
‫العمود على‬
‫العمود على‬ r ‫جبھة الموجة‬
r n ′ν ′
nν ‫جبھة الموجة‬

θ θ`
o x o` x`
 # #
  , .   !" #$ 
 :(4 – 4) %$2
.θ`   s`  # #
  , . .s  θ

;/3  /  
  
 %  h/c   )K + 93
/6!   / )- */+ / F 9$: .  n λ ,
r h i hν 
   "
 c 

152
 r iε 
%/! )- / $  p,  
 $  : )$  )  )1,
 c
"/ @/ @#
$  : )$     
    
 
.  n λ ,
r h i hν 

 c 

)/ /&$- /, 5-) =1923     [, ( 6 
 B,2> )$ 9 - (C 6!  $ $ #F ; )  ) )
/6 /  )- S - )$  )  =@
 @$ C 6 0F S,
 
 )  S   .D- Y0F  @
 @$ @+ C
%/! )  ( 
  )> 0, ) 
 # =( $>)  
89/: X ) .)  #2    . P    
  89:
/
 /$ 6! .     )- .6  *+ .   =+
 r iε 
=
 
  )1,    
  %!      p, c  
 
 

)- 4/ =  n λ ,
r r h i hν 
/ n  /
  
 $ =.6 :  $
 c 

.
   
  2  8


)/$    ε =hν C 6 )$ 6 ' C9$  ( 6
89/: /  /
   
   : ν 4 = 
 ; #!
 r h iε 
n ,  "/ /  /
  /
 P $ )- )$  
 λ c 
 r iε 
:5   )' @+ .6  )- $   p,  
  
 c 
r rh
- p=n
λ

h
λ = (46-4)
p

/6 4 =# 6 )  . , @


 &U    6 :
#!/   $7  :2  1927   
 ) ) ,

153
‫; !‪\/ 7 
 ; .! % ) #     %$ )  A‬‬
‫  ‪. :F  , # :  $‬‬
‫  ! ‪:5  
  υph‬‬
‫‪h ε ε‬‬
‫= ‪υ ph = λ ν‬‬ ‫= ‪.‬‬
‫‪p h‬‬ ‫‪p‬‬

‫‪m 0c 2‬‬ ‫‪m0u‬‬ ‫‪c2‬‬


‫= ‪∴ υ ph‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫)‪(47-4‬‬
‫) ‪(1 − u /c‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫) ‪(1 − u /c‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪u‬‬

‫ 
 ‪:5 # υg \ 7‬‬
‫‪dω‬‬ ‫‪dν‬‬ ‫‪d (hν ) d ε‬‬
‫= ‪υg‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫=‬ ‫=‬
‫‪dk‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬ ‫‪dp‬‬
‫‪d  d ‬‬
‫‪λ‬‬ ‫‪λ‬‬

‫(‬
‫‪Q ε = c p 2 + m 20c 2‬‬ ‫)‬‫‪1/ 2‬‬

‫‪dε‬‬
‫= ‪∴ υg‬‬ ‫‪=u‬‬ ‫)‪(48-4‬‬
‫‪dp‬‬

‫‪)/ C9/ .u 


  5  
  υg 
  )93‬‬
‫‪   (\ 7 ) 
-)  
  5  
 %& $‬‬
‫‪.@    # ∗  %   #‬‬
‫‬
‫‬
‫‪ .'( 6–4‬‬
‫‪) /+  #/+, )$ 9 *   
-    #  P
 )3‬‬
‫ ) ‪)- F/ ./$   D - 9 ) &,  ,27‬‬
‫  ‪/  )/ / /$ ;/  , ,2> 89# 5:F‬‬
‫ ‪.:2‬‬

‫∗ تتحدد الصفات الجسيمية بالطاقة ‪ ε‬و الزخم ‪ ،p‬أما الصفات الموجية فتتحدد بالتردد ‪ ν‬و الطول الموجي ‪ .λ‬و يربط ثاب‪9‬ت بالن‪9‬ك ‪ h‬ب‪9‬ين‬
‫الصفات الجسيمية و الموجية أي بين الطاقة و التردد بالعالقة ‪ ε=hν‬و كذلك بين الزخم و الطول الموجي بالعالقة ‪.p=h/λ‬‬

‫‪154‬‬
r
s s` υ
B`
B
r r
r r′

θ θ`
o υ x o` ‫المصدر في‬ x`
‫المصدر في‬
‫حالة حركة‬ ‫حالة سكون‬

)  t : B ;3 2? % ) .s  C   :(5 – 4) %$2


)$ s`  .'  )  : (t-r/c) : o  #&,
.r`/c )  % ,6 " > @$  

/  o` %7 !  )$   @! @*+ @  ,


r
 F :  $ x` &> 8
 υ  F   C  59 s` ?
/$ / / 1+   )$ s ?   .(5 – 4) %$2
r
/  /F  4, *+ )- )K S .x &> 8
 υ 
*/+ )- S .t=t`=0 )  o` ; ! o %7 ! # $
t )/ / s /?   )$   B !  :2  %
) , .(5 – 4)%$2  F :  $ t` )  s`  B` ! %
:$ 
 
:" s ?   
A
ψ= cos 2 πν (t − r/c )
r
:" s` ?   
A′
ψ= cos 2 πν ′(t ′− r ′/c )
r′
s ?  )    $ 
  %  # ! B H
ν    %  >,  $ $  =[(45 – 4) 6, F>] =s` ;3
: K$ ν` 

155
ν ′ = γν (1 − β cosθ )
ν ′sinθ ′ = ν sinθ
ν ′cosθ ′ = γν ( cosθ − β )

:; % ;7 ; & ,   


sin θ
γ
sin θ ′ = (49-4)
1 − β cos θ
:; % && ; & ,   
sin θ
γ
tan θ ′ = (50-4)
cos θ − β
r
/ /   $ 8
 . r
 #,     θ )- 4
r
;/3 5    8
> . r ′
 #,     θ` ) s ?
r
D/H  &' !,  8- 4& >,  ) ;7 ,  P $U . υ

:) "
ν ′ 1 − υ 2 /c 2
‫أو‬ ν = (51-4)
υ
1 − cos θ
c
ν ′ r 1 − υ 2 /c 2
ν = r r
 υ.r  (52-4)
 r− 
 c 
 / 5- / ,    &' )& (52 – 4) =(51 – 4) ) , 
)- / $ .:/2     ) $ ! 8
  *+  )$
*+ 4, F  :2  .6 8
    $ : υcosθ
.%7 !    )$   5- =  )
%  6   )$ :2  .6 ;3 *+  % 59 6 
/ " ; 6   )$     89: %  ,6 ) VE
;/7 1/+ /2? # &,   F  .6  ;  . $
/6, )/  ; ,6  $ .
)- D 9 .  '  .6 
/ / (t-r/c) 8/6 )  '    .6 ;3 , (52 – 4)

156
%/6 )     :      : %&  ν`  s ?
r
;3   '  .6  )
 : r
 .s` ?   :2
.F  !
(51 – 4) /,  )/ # % )$  
  %!  )3
/  *+  )-   .
  %!   ) 6,  
:)$ s`  s ? 5
λν = λ ′ν ′ = c

∴ λ = γ λ ′(1 − β cos θ ) (53-4)


r r
)/ @/    )$ s ?   r ;3   υ )$  

:" ;3 (51 – 4) ,  %  .cosθ=+1 =θ=0 )$ :2 


c+ υ
ν = ν′ (54-4)
c− υ
93 %/&  .:2  ) @    )$     *+  )- 5-
=θ=π )/ */+ 4/, /  :2  ) @, @$   )$
:" ;3 (51 – 4) ,  %   cosθ=-1
c− υ
ν = ν′ (55-4)
c+ υ
/! / :2 %6 )  :  $ %  89:  *+  )- 5-
! ;     $ =θ=90o   .s ?   F 
:) F  !   .6 ) %
ν = ν′ 1 − β 2 (56-4)

=γ 5 % , ν` ) %6- 5:F   )- 5-


(
γ = 1− β2 )
−1 / 2
:)- 4

157
 .% -", )*‫א‬%+‫א‬7–4
%/! )/ $   $ A! ; 1+ B,2 !  
C/9 !6/ 
  %! @ ,  5- ="  $,  *+ 
 
.  @, - 1+ B,2 8
 C  A! )$ 93    ,
(!/ / */+  $,? )6  )- )K 
) 6,/ /&     
  % >,  , > , $ 
.(50 – 4) =(49 – 4)

r
y s y` s` υ

‫الضوء الساقط‬
‫الضوء الساقط‬
λ1 , ν1
λ ′, ν ′

o α1 o` α
α2 r α
υ x x`
λ2, ν2 λ ′, ν ′
‫الضوء‬ ‫الضوء‬
‫المنعكس‬ ‫المنعكس‬

 s  $ T  !6 *+ 


  %! "  :(6L4) %$2
.s`  $ T ) $,   " )  $ $,

/ 8 / ; 5  8


 @$ *+ @$ @!  ,
r
)- S/ .(6 – 4) %$2  A+ :  $ s ?   υ  F 
  D   A! 9: ; ! λ1
 %! ν1 8 @1+ @,2
%/! ν2    , ) α2   $, B,2 )- S  α1 !
r
)H s ;3  υ  F   C  59 s` ?   .λ2 

/ .%$2  A+ :  $ )$   )$ D   $, A!
/ )/$  s` /?    > $,? )6 M! )$ 

158
.λ` /
 %/! ν` *+  )- $,?  ;3  α !
:!6 *+ 
:)- 
 s` ?   :

θ′ = π + α
: )- 4
sin θ
γ
tan θ′ =
cos θ − β
:)- 
 s ?   :  %
θ = π + α1
ν ′ = γν(1 − β cos θ ) :)- 4
:‫ نكتب‬s`،s ‫ بالنسبة للضوء الساقط في محوري اإلسناد‬
sin (π + α1 ) γ
tan (π + α ) =
cos (π + α1 ) − β
sin α 1 γ
∴ tan α = (57-4)
cos α 1 + β

∴ ν ′ = γν1 [1 − βcos (π + α1 )]
∴ ν ′ = γν 1 (1 + βcosα 1 ) (58-4)

:‫ نكتب‬s`=s ‫ بالنسبة للضوء المنعكس في محوري اإلسناد‬


θ′ = − α
θ = −α2
sin (− α 2 ) γ
∴ tan (− α ) =
cos (− α 2 ) − β
sin α 2 γ
∴ tan α = (59-4)
cos α 2 − β
ν ′ = γν 2 (1 − β cos α 2 ) (60-4)
:6,  $ $  ( 59L4) ( 57L4) ) 6, ) 
sin α1 sin α 2
= (61-4)
cos α1 + β cos α 2 − β

159
%/6 ) O :  $ $,>  !   ) !   6, :
/ F   C  $, A! )- D 59 s ?   :2
r
.!6 B,2 ) @  x &> 8
 υ
.α2<α1 )- (61L4) 6, ) F
:; % (60 – 4) = (58 – 4) ) 6, ) 7 0!  
ν1 (1 + β cos α1 ) = ν 2 (1 − β cos α 2 )
ν 1 1 − β cos α 2
∴ = (62-4)
ν 2 1 + β cos α1
ν1λ1 = ν 2 λ 2 = c :)-   
λ1 1 + β cosα1
∴ = (63-4)
λ 2 1 − β cosα 2

,2]   $  .+   # >,  89: )3


.$   $ (! ) $, 
1 >> β , υ << c
:)-  
λ1 −1
∴ = (1 + β cosα1 )(1 − β cosα 2 )
λ2
≅ 1 + β (cos α 1 + cos α 2 )
λ 2 = λ 1 + δλ 1 :)K .+
 δλ 1 
= λ 1  1 + 
 λ1 

:R  (63L4) 6,  S, 


λ1 δλ 1
≅ 1− = 1 + β (cos α 1 + cos α 2 )
 δλ  λ1
λ 1  1 + 1 
 λ1 

∴ δλ 1 = − λ 1β (cos α 1 + cos α 2 )

:)$ 1 >> β )-  

α1 ≅ α 2

cos α 1 ≅ cos α 2

160
;/ $,> 4 , *+ 
 %!  % 59 "  ) 
/  )/U : υ  F   !6 B,2 ) P  $ A!
:)- 4 δλ1
δλ 1 = −2 λ1β cos α1 (64-4)

)/$ υ  F   !6 B,2 ) @,  $, A! )$  


:;3  *+ 
 %!   C:
δλ1 = 2 λ1β cos α1 (65-4)
S/, %6 ) 
-   
    . @  M R1  89: )3
..+  89:  )   * ,

161
:
"( "%
:(1) ) %
/  / !  C  ε1 $ 6! m01 $  $ 

57 $ 6! 
.m02 $  $ )$   
  F 
/#
 @  / /  %6  $ $   ) 
 )
.6!   

: ),,,(
P/ $ )- /$  " ) ;  #
 ) P+ % )-  
: K P+ %

(p1µ + p 2 µ )(. p1µ + p 2 µ ) = (p1′ µ + p′2 µ )(. p1′ µ + p′2 µ ) (1)

/
 /
 p2µ )- !6 
 
 p1µ )- 4
 ) 
 ) )#
 p`1µ = p`1µ )-  .s ?   )$
.s` ? 
:)- 
 6!    #
 <1 ) 
 r ε +ε2 
p1µ + p 2µ =  p+ i 1 
 c 
 r ε ′ + ε 2′ 
p1′ µ + p′2 µ =  p′+ i 1 
 c 

r r r r r r r
p = p1 + p 2 = p1 , p ′ = p1′ + p ′2 = 0 :)- 4
r r r
∴ p1′ = − p′2 , p1′2 = p′22 , p2 = 0 , ε 2 = m02c2
:; % P+   *
H
2
ε ε  2
ε ′ ε ′
2
p − 1 + 2  = − 1 + 2 
 c c   c c 

162
ε 1 = − ε ′2
 2 ε 21  2
p −  − m 02
2
c 2 − 2 m 02
 c2  c
 
ε ′ = ε 1′ + ε 2′ :)- 4
2 2
∴ − m 01 2 2
c − m 02 c − 2 m 02 ε 1 = −
ε ′2
c2
/?   F $ 6! ; 7 6, 89: ) % C9
:)- 5- s`
1


(
ε ′ =  m 01c 2 ) + (m
2
02 c )
2 2
+ 2 m 02 c ε 1 2

2
(2)

:5 - 
 (1) ,  %&  P+ % ;3 D-  .

p1µ . p2µ = p1′ µ . p′2µ

∴−
ε1 ε 2 = − p 1′ 2 −
ε1′ε 2′
c2 c2

∴ m02 ε1 = p1′ 2 +
ε1′ (ε ′ − ε ′) = p′ 2 + ε 2′ (ε ′ − ε ′)
1 2 2
c2 c2

 2 ε 1′2  ε 1′ε ′
=  p 1′ − 2 +
 c  c2
 

m 02 ε1 = m 2 01c 2 +
ε1′ε ′
c2

:; % 7 6, ) 

ε ′ = (m c ) + (m c )ε
2 2 2
01 02 1
1
ε′

:)- 
 %& 

ε ′ = (m c ) + (m c )ε
2 2 2
02 01 1
2
ε′

163
:(2) ) %
@,/23 3  - $ 
) 
  F  S,  
/7 )/$ 9H/ 0.8c 5  # @,   )$ S7 
   ) 4,   1200Ao 5 
 %! ! !!
.^$ 
 F  0!  ! 9: 
 %!   .)$

: ),,(
9/ =B,/2?  59   % :2  ) 
 ,    -  
:6,  
c− υ
ν = ν′
c+ υ
c c c− υ
=
λ λ′ c+ υ
c+ υ 1.8
λ = λ′ = 1200
c− υ 0.2
∴ λ = 3600 A o

:(3) ) %
C/   T ; 5  %$2 6000Ao
 %! *+ !
:P- .3x107ms-1  !6 *+ 8
 ) @, 
.$,  *+ 
 %!  % "  :@>-
:P- .45o 5 !   $  T  ; *+ ! 93
.$,  *+ 
 %!  % "  :@>-
.$,>  :@&

164
: ),,(
:6, M! :@>-
λ1 1 − β cos α 1
=
λ2 1 + β cos α 2

α1=α2=0o :)-  
λ1 1−β 0.9 9
∴ = = =
λ2 1+ β 1.1 11
11 λ 1
∴ ∆λ = λ 2 − λ 1 = − λ1
9
2 2
= λ1 = × 6000
9 9
4000
= = 1333 A 0
3
:@&
∆λ = 2 λ 1 β cos α 1

= 2 x 6000 x 0.1cos 45

= 840 A o
λ1 1 − β cosα1 1 − 0.1× 0.7
= =
λ 2 1 + β cosα 2 1 + 0.1cosα 2 :@&&
6 0 .93
=
6 .84 1 + 0 .1 cos α 2

:)- 
 7 6, 89: ) 
o
α 2 = 53

:(4) ) %
/" ) ; ∑ Vµ2 )- R    @ @#
%&  Vµ )$ 93
µ

.  

165
:),,,(
/
 /# %/    # ! %   =
Vµ )-  
:)- 5- xµ 
V 1′ = γ ( V 1 + i β V 4 )
V 2′ = V 2
V 3′ = V 3
V 4′ = γ ( − i β V 1 + V 4 )
:; % .
   *
3 & )  >,  89: ! . 
∑ V′ µ
2
[( )
= γ 2 1 − β 2 V12 + 1 − β 2 V42 ( ) ] +V 2
2 + V32
µ

= V12 + V22 + V32 + V42


∴ ∑ V′ = ∑ V
µ
µ
2

λ
2
λ

:)-  
 r 

Vλ = 
u
,
ic 

 1 − u2 /c2
 ( 1− u 2 /c2 ) ( ) 
u 2 − c2
∴ ∑ = (1 − u /c )
λ
Vλ2 2 2

∴ ∑ V′ = ∑ V = − c
µ
2 2
λ
2

µ λ

:(5) ) %
%/ , s ?   %7 !  8
  ε 6! ) 
/
  %/ >/, @   .y &> . α : 
.
  
 @   C  )  :2 4 s` ?   )  6! :@>-
.P y &> 8
 %7
.? 5 )   :@&

166
:),,,(

s y s` r
υ

‫اتجاه الفوتون‬
‫اتجاه الفوتون‬

α
θ θ`

o x o` x`
α

:2 s  y &> . α    8


 . )  :(7 – 4) %$2
.s`  y & P 8
> %7  @$

=ε`=hν` )- S/ .s /?     ν )- 4 ε=hν )- S


/
  %/ >,  , > .s` ?     ν`)- 4
:P $    !" #$
ν = γν ′(1 + β cos θ ′ ) (1)
ν cosθ = γν ′ ( cosθ ′ + β ) (2)
3π 3π
)/  ) : S,  . θ ′ = 2  θ=
2
−α )- 
 (7 – 4) %$2 ) 
:; % (2)  (1) ) ,  
  3π 
hν = γh ν ′ 1 + βcos  
  2 
∴ε = γε ′ (3)
 3π    3π  
h ν cos  −α  = γhν ′  cos  2  + β 
 2     
∴ −ε sin α = + γ ε ′ β

167
:)- R  (3) 6, ) ε = γε` )-  
β = − sinα
υ = − c sinα
1
∴ γ =
(1 − β ) 2

1
∴γ =
cos α
∴ε ′=ε cos α

168
- ). / 

9H/ .@ $ )$ T )  . ! ε $ 6! C  . )  L1
 #
   R   .m0 : )  )$  $ )-  
s`  $ $     %6 F $ 6! )-   6!

. [2 m0c2 (ε + m0c2 )] 2 :5


1

0/ /  9/# 


  @$ )$  %& T . 
! L2
5   %6 $ 6! )-   9H .30o   !6 

/ 6! )- /6!  /  #
   & . $ 6!
.  , 4& ;3 %  $

@   .m0  # %$ $  $ =)& ) 


)  % – 3
/,  #:
 )     
6!    #

.s ?  -        

/#
 ./
) 
 @1+ @,23 % 1+  – 4
 C    )$ 9H .s`  :2   )$   :
!/  - / /:   s  :2   c/3 5  F 
.  )      0 + 59 1+

/, s /?   P


  x &> 8
 2  1+ 
 – 5
 x
/#
 %/ >/, @   . y = A sin 2 πν t − c  ,  #
 
/?   
   ν` )- 4 ν`  ν ) 6, 

.s ?    υ  F   C  59 s`

169
/ )$ :2 )   C $ 9 ) 4, B,23 F – 6
C/ ) 4,  B,2?  )-   9H .1015Hz 5 B,2? C9
9/ / P/- .5x1014Hz 5 )$   : 9
υ=0.6c :\ .$ 

& @  #! ;  , s` ?    &   T – 7
/$, /& T  A! ; x`y` D    1+   ! .x`
/O :  $ $,>  ϕ )- !  : θ $ 9H . 
:,  ;!, ϕ  θ )   ) 6, )- R   .s ?  

cos ϕ =
(υ 2
)
+ c 2 cos θ + 2 υc
υ 2 + c 2 + 2 υc cos θ
.? 5 )   υ )- 4

5 / /- ;  59 


 - 0!  $ , ! ! – 8
%/!  2 0!   ! )$  3968.20Ao 
 %!  )$
.3968.49Ao 

/ )/$ %:  2 F  
 C9 ,U2  :  :@>-
^P 6 - ,  
@ ,U2  5 
 C9 +,    )-   93 :@&
,/+ "   ' 1+  4.3 5  2 ) 8, )- 
^ 10 % *  
/:  /$ / - #$ )- P
      :@ &&

/  %! "  F ! ; (+,  ) @  C
C9 ) *+  )$  %:  0.29Ao   (3968.49Ao) 5 >
^5  - 
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@  22kms-1 :>
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0.01o
, =3600kms-1 :@&&

170
‫الفصل الخامس‬
‫الجسيمات األولية(‬
‫) ُ‬
‫  
 ‪.‬‬ ‫‪1.5‬‬
‫  
‬ ‫‪2.5‬‬
‫      
 ‬ ‫‪3.5‬‬
‫   ‬ ‫‪4.5‬‬
‫      ‬ ‫‪5.5‬‬
‫"
! 
 ‪.‬‬
‫
 ‪#
 $‬‬
 
 


 .  ‫ אא
א‬1−5
 )  ' *$"  *$" 
 ( %
 &   '
   "
1/ 20  &  3   '- . /0 .% ! + ,
!'" 

1/ 1 210 17   03  '0" 4  " 56 , 
%1 " ( 6   ! # " ( 6 %3 , ( 9 
 : 58
(1 103 : 
=  
 > 6  " ?" : < ;&  '

  (;" : 1932 . 6   D 5 @ 5' " A3B C ;  /
" C1 +1 .% 20 % 
 
  E  D37 F
& :  ' >3
 1 1
%1 ' 2' .G ;  % 
' %3
 20 ; 5: 
. %5 ?:   H8 ;8 
  
.9
1 
   (


20 D3 8 %6  0 5' ;C /
1
41 * 20 ; $" 9)   : ; 2 ' 85    
F1$
!
 ;" ! : <2   I  
>" 
5 6

 

172

;
 
 ‪ .1 
1  1  20 
  8 :  3‬‬
‫‪./   B!'" ? 
' H   >3 2 E 85J‬‬
‫‪H 1 
 8  / 20 % 
 ? ,
. $ 6 E 85J 3B‬‬
‫
 @  
 ? ‪1' H K1 ( 6 ;  '
 2‬‬

‪ 1; / . 2 ? %;   9:   =  
 : ;
C8‬‬
‫( ‪.   .    
 8  /‬‬
‫ ‪21B  1
' 6 H8 .  ( 6 
8  
  @$‬‬
‫‪H8 D3'  (T3) ='
 (T) >C . ( 0  !
  23 .‬‬
‫‪1 
1  + 
20 FN
;C 2 %  
' 6‬‬
‫"'!‪.2  8 2  8 D3' *  2
' 8 B F 65 B‬‬
‫  )‪ 
  :(1O5‬‬
‫معدل العمر‬ ‫الشحنة‬ ‫الكتلة‬ ‫الرمز‬
‫البرم‬ ‫أسم الجسيم‬ ‫الصنف‬
‫‪s‬‬ ‫الجسيم الضديد‬
‫‪MeV‬‬
‫الضديد‬ ‫الجسيم‬
‫مستقر‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪γ‬‬ ‫فوتون‪ ،‬جاما‪ ،‬كم‬ ‫الفوتونات‬
‫‪+‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫مستقر‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪0,511‬‬ ‫‪e‬‬ ‫‪e‬‬ ‫الكترون‪ ،‬بوزيترون‬
‫مستقر‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫)?( ‪0‬‬ ‫‪νe‬‬ ‫‪νe‬‬ ‫نيوترينو الكتروني‬
‫‪-6‬‬
‫اللبتونات‬
‫‪2,2.10‬‬ ‫‪+1‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪105,7‬‬ ‫‪µ+‬‬ ‫‪µ−‬‬ ‫ميون‬
‫مستقر‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫)?( ‪0‬‬ ‫‪νµ‬‬ ‫‪νµ‬‬ ‫نيوترينو ميوني‬
‫‪π0‬‬
‫‪-16‬‬
‫‪1,8.10‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪135‬‬ ‫‪π0‬‬ ‫بايون متعادل‬
‫البايونات‬ ‫الميزونات‬
‫‪π-‬‬ ‫‪π+‬‬
‫‪-8‬‬
‫‪2,6.10‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪+1‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪139,6‬‬ ‫بايون مشحون‬
‫‪-10‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0,9.10‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪498‬‬ ‫‪K0‬‬ ‫‪K‬‬ ‫كايون متعادل‬
‫‪-8‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪+‬‬ ‫الكايونات‬
‫‪1,2.10‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪+1‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪493,7‬‬ ‫‪K‬‬ ‫‪K‬‬ ‫كايون مشحون‬
‫مستقر‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪+1‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪938,3‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫بروتون‬
‫الباريونات‬
‫‪920‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪939,6‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬ ‫نيوترون‬
‫‪-10‬‬
‫‪2,6.10‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪1115,6‬‬ ‫‪Λ0‬‬ ‫‪Λ0‬‬ ‫المبدا ھايدرون‬
‫‪-10‬‬
‫‪0,8.10‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪+1‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪1189,4‬‬ ‫‪Σ+‬‬ ‫‪Σ+‬‬
‫ھايبرونات‬

‫‪-20‬‬
‫‪6.10‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪1192,5‬‬ ‫‪Σ‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬
‫‪Σ0‬‬ ‫سيجما ھايدرون‬
‫‪-10‬‬
‫‪1,5.10‬‬ ‫‪+1‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪1197,3‬‬ ‫‪Σ‬‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪Σ‬‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪-10‬‬
‫‪2,9.10‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪1315‬‬ ‫‪Ξ‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬
‫‪Ξ0‬‬
‫‪-10‬‬ ‫كساي ھايدرون‬
‫‪1,64.10‬‬ ‫‪+1‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪1/2‬‬ ‫‪1321‬‬ ‫‪Ξ−‬‬ ‫‪Ξ−‬‬

‫   )‪>1 +  


  
;
  .C8
 (1 – 5‬‬
‫‪ 1   10 (1 1$
 
  ( 6   20  
8‬‬

‫‪173‬‬
‫
    < ‪<.  ( 6 )  .
 
 (8 2 ! 
8‬‬
‫"
‪
0 <A .  ( 6 )  .
 
 ( 6 >0 + ! 
8‬‬
‫
 )‪A1 .  5 .  ' #  #
 , :%
6‬‬
‫‪1  3B (0 .
  
8 8
280 ,  
8
" .2 ( 6‬‬
‫
 
  
   
   ‪1' B
6" )8
 D3 
8‬‬
‫   
‪1 6 1 6    )R  
 % ,
 /‬‬
‫‪1  1
' C   I
8   / .(10-23s)  2B /‬‬
‫‪2 1$ .1   ' ; 2  
   
    ( 6‬‬
‫ ; ' ‪16 (1  F 5
2 $ .  '   20  ' 8
5‬‬
‫‪. 1
' '5 ( 6 :  ( ' 
B  '  >" 2 $ .   ;& /‬‬
‫‪. 
 = 5 "  .  !
 >3 
 ( 6  , S: . :‬‬
‫‪(1 4 1  %1  H8 6  . " @5' 1933 . 6 20‬‬
‫‪.1 
15 1' ;  'J  ' = "  >3 ' 85‬‬
‫
‪6 ( .  3B "  (e+) 
  = 
   .  3B 2‬‬
‫‪1:  =1 1
;
'  0 6  3;    (e-) 'J  =& /‬‬
‫)‪ '

 
 .( ") 'T '  :  2B (0.511MeV‬‬
‫   ;   ‪5) 1 20 ;5 . 2    
6‬‬
‫– ‪+1   
D3'   'J ' " '

 
.(5‬‬
‫‪H8 20 ' .(*)(νβ) 2')   (

 ' 90‬‬
‫  ‪# = 2" . B 
   
F) (µ-) 
 +8‬‬
‫‪1 ' 1/ %1
(207)  8 2 '  = ' 6
'J & $‬‬
‫‪.H8 /8
' /! ' =" >" 'J‬‬
‫‪1 K ?
( 6 :  ' 85 " @5' 1936 . 6 20‬‬
‫> ‪(1 1
) 1 (1 4    'J   
 2B 
 ( 6‬‬
‫'(< 
" )‪1 .  B (µ+) V0 <'T  .  B (e+‬‬

‫الرمز )‪ (νβ‬أو )‪ (νe‬للداللة على النيوترينو االلكتروني أما الرمز )‪ (νµ‬الذي سيرد الحقا ً فيدل على النيوترينو الميوني‪.‬‬ ‫)*(‬

‫‪174‬‬
1
F)1 < 1
(1 6 % 1
 > ) 3
 <N   B <

@$ 
8  ' (  
  B D3 ( 6 4  W 'J
:2  ) 4  <(1.5x10-6s)

µ − → νµ + e− + νe

.21 ( 6 2
  (νµ)  2'J   
( ν e ) +
  ') 4 $ >3 (νe)
B  
6 ;C ( 8 3B

!  
6

X: 

;0 5' . +  
 4 $ >3 (νµ)
 2    (
Y (µ-,e-,νe,νµ) 
  A3B  .1963 . 6 ;'
1; <(2 – 5) 1 20 ;5: 
. 2 8  6   
.     (1O)    'T (1+)  6"
. (1947) . 6 3
0      2;0 8& 5   ;
"

6 ; ;
(21) @5' + %/
 G   ; 
' 6 @ 5'
.6 / %  20  ' ;
 0 3 <(10-10s)  @$
 1 
15       

B   ; 
 6  
,1 +1 ? 
  ) F & ; F   ' A3B  
(1O)  1  1  (1+) =
: ' 2  8 C  /
.     
=158 
6 " " F$ >    B6"  0  

"
1
1/7 >     ' "  (K)   '  (π)    2B  

 1 1B π-  (π-,π+,π0)    
E" !!   .  '
1B π-  π+ 11 @1$ 
6 "  =   B π0 "  π+ 1 
(1.8x10-16s) A1/
@1$ 
8 0 (  = 0 π
" <(9.6x10-8s)
0

.(π-,π+)  
E " ; 6 " ( 6  3B

175
. 18 -1  1 @ 5' 
F
6 56 " : >" 1936 . 6 20
6  /
    ' /0 2 ; ' D3'       ' 2  
1
%16 >  :   '  20  8
     B
91 16 ' 85 20   @5' 1947 . 6 20 .0 '
.9& : 20 C 2 ;

1
B 61 1    ' 1/2 >   ' ; 0   '
"
(1.2x10-8s) B K+ 1 @$ 
6 ( K 0 , K − ) 2B  ;
  (K0,K+)
.(0.9x10-10s) B K0 1 
1;V0 3   %0 [8 2B    ; (
    H8 
1
/!" '  
 ," 2B  6 / %  20  
D
A31B ,
 (Ω) 
"  (Ξ) > '  (Σ)
'  (Λ) 
 2B  
 1 '  18  1  8Y D3  <  ' 4 $ 
 
. D3 4  .(10-23s) 
 
%
1014 1 :" 
  G F
"
.* C  : ,
. 18  10 < 1  8
I      20 >" 1955 . 6 20 
1  %1 @$/ \ >3 P   5' =6
 
5
1 210 E
 3B    .6 GeV >  ' ; :   
(4-5)
 18
1  . (n) 1  @5' /0 1956 . 6 20
"
;1    ' 
 ' =  F " 5  8
A  0 5
.   2B 
) \ "   "  =& / 6 ( 

 
‫אא‬2–5
.1 8 1:  I 0 / ,  
  " @8
 

?1: @$ ( 6  : ' "  6 2* 


  A3B  .; 2'
6 1 A3B ( 6 I I / 
) 3 . ;
0 $ 2 6 

176

 
')     ; . 2   *
;' 6  :2B
 1 '  (π)      . +  6  (  *
;'
 1 1; .1 6 1 @81" 21B 2  : ! 6  .(K)
1
E1 31; ;0 . :  (2 : ! 
 
') <(G)  0]
(F!1
.  ') %' ' 3 .   + 6  A3B .6 
.F %'  8 ;8 6
.10  
  E" H8  + 2 8 6 
"
31; ;0 . 
' 2B 
  A3B   . ; (W) 
   
.D3 K (2 – 5)   6  
E

.  6  (2O5)  


 
   %/ 6 
   1 111/
-2
  10   *
;'
(ω) . 10-13 8
(G) 0] 10-40  : !

(γ) 1  (P) 1 (e-) 1'J <1 


  
B & $ ; ( P )    (e+)  < 
 
>1 .1  ('  :  ") '   ' %
 & ;' 5 '

1 2B 
 
  A3B " + ) : 
8 8
 .
1  210 K

' 2& ;) 
6 8
; 2& /  )  %/

.(3 – 5)

177
. 
  H8 & $ H8 :(3O5)  
8
5 % '  :   '
. . 
s 
8 (e) MeV me ' 
∞ 1 0 0 0 (γ) 
∞ 1/2 -1 0.511 1 (e-) ')
∞ 1/2 +1 0.511 1 (e+) 
∞ 1/2 +1 938.256 1836 (p+) 
∞ 1/2 -1 938.256 1836 (p+)  

6 1 1  1  1 ' K  3B 20 2'
3-1 +1 (1) / 6       <  *
;'
1' K1   *
;' 6  ( 6  !
' '  6 
A 1/ 210 'J " C (1 – 5) '5 20 .
;    
  ( 'J 0 Pγ 2 . εγ >  :  F 
B F 0 +8
 3B  $
 . 
 
8
%0 8 (u << c) u >  6 
61   1
 ( B8  >3 B / 20  
 'J : 

 1 18 1 1: F


& C
2 . " H0  <u ; 
1'J   
 (∆εγ) :  4  
) D3 K . 
.(∆t) 
 %0 
1:  1' A 1/ 20  
 'J 
2
B  + 8 :
. " H0   .'T (ε0)  ' '  :  6 % 6 2B . C
1'J 2 F
 K
 @  + 8  0 F$ >  2 ' 2
:" >" (Pe) A/

εγ
P e = mu = P γ = (1-5)
c
.=6 u  'J  ' m " +

178
1: + 8) 8 ε  ' :  4  '

 
:  C  : 9
:2B   $
) 
6 +
ε = ε0 + εγ +T (2-5)
!- 
B   20 1 mu 2 >  'T ' :  T " +
2
. 
:>  'J   
 :  3
1
∆ ε = ε − ε 0 = T+ ε γ = mu 2 + ε γ (3-5)
2
:"   (1 – 5) :8 

εγ = cp γ = muc (4-5)
:( 6 $ (3 – 5)  8
 20 (4 – 5)  8
 H8
1
∆ε = mu 2 + muc (5-5)
2
 u 
∴ ∆ ε = mu  + c (6-5)
 2 
:( %  8
  u<<c "

∆ ε = muc = ε γ (7-5)
1 2
B  :  2B  
 :  " (7 O 5)  8
 
\ 
(*)
1 ! =*$ D ; / "
   .∆t ( 

 %0
.∆ε :    ;  . 2 
 % A3B 4  '

 

h h
∴ ∆t = = (8-5)
∆ε εγ
: 0 εγ=1eV " 6 3

10 − 34
∆t = − 19
= 10 − 15 s (9-5)
1 × 1.6 × 10

. ∆t∆ε ≥ h ‫و الثانية ھي‬ ∆x∆P≥ h ‫)*( ھناك صيغتان لمبدأ الاليقين لھايزنبرك األولى ھي‬

179
 10 3'B .10-15s  B    
 " (9 – 5)  8
 
C
4  '

 
 .   " 
 (   :" :  2B 2  
:2^ ' ∆x 'J  $ 0
'"

∆x ≤ c∆ t ≤ 3 × 10 8 × 10 − 15 ≅ 3 × 10 − 7 m ≅ 3000 A o

∆t  B

A

x
.'    *
;' 6       :(1 – 5 '5)

 D13 31'B 
1 
B    0 " B B C
   
1  =1$ $
 .1  0 <%5 
%$ ;  '
)  
.A 'J X: 
=! 8 C 
F %$: 
 %0 8 B 'J
4  ' <:  C / , ) 
B   " '3 " 2*
1 1;' 
 2 %& :   0 ∆t 
 % *$  / "

. ∆ ε ≈ h / ∆ t :8   !

 =:  4  20 / 
:" 2B
O1 "  O  3- 0 /  6     
"
.D3 K (2 – 5) '5 < ;      ' K (' 

180
p p n
t t t p
p n
B B B
π0 π+ π-
p
A n p
A A
p p n

x x x
(O) / 6        :(2 – 5 '5)
.(O) (O)

%1/ 16 @1  1; 0 31 ?1


 %$:  %/ " @8
 

 0 1
 210 F$ 
K$  %/  .?
     *

1
$: '      
  0 3 (*)(1.4f) 2 
'" 2B 2
% ' (c) I 6  /   " 0  .    

:( 
 6 
 
       

− 15
R 1.4 × 10 1 − 23
∆t = = 8
≅ × 10 s
c 3 × 10 2
:(∆ε)  
 :    '

 
/ "
.  
h 10 − 34
∆ε = =
∆t 1 / 2 × 10 − 23
= 2 × 10 − 11 J = 60 MeV
::8 
   '   '
 3
επ = m πc2

∴ mπ
ε
= π =
∆ε
=
2 × 10 − 11
= 2 × 10 − 28 kg = 200 m e
2 2 2
c c
(3 × 10 ) 8

1f=10-15m (‫ – )فيرمى( أو في بعض المصادر )فيمتو‬f (*)

181
1 ' 1/ %1
200 >  %
 '    "    A3B 
C
.$     & $  (4 – 5)   <'J

.   & $ :(4O5)  


π0 π- π+ $ 
264,30 273,3 273,3 (me) '   '
134,97 139,58 139,58 (MeV) '  : 
0 -1 +1 (e) 5
0 0 0 .
0 0 0 2  *
 .8
-16 -8 -8
1,8.10 2,6.10 2,6.10 (s) 
8 8

+ +
π 0 → γ + γ (98.8%) π − → µ − +ν e π → µ + ν µ (99.99%)
) 3

π 0 → e + + e − +ν e (1.2%) π − → e − +ν e π + → e + +ν e (0.01%)

@81 6     %/


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1  1 ^ H8  (10-23s) > 6    /
  
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20  3- ;  
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x = 0.1ct = 0.1× 3×108 ×10−16 = 3×10−9 m = 30Ao
.1  ;C 3 <6 / %  20 ( ;N '
 ) %*$ 0
 A3B 
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182
+
K → π+ + γ+ γ
:2 
' @8 6     ;V0 5
   
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µ − + νµ µ + + νµ
-
π π+
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1 = 0 π0
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' (
  
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 B 7 5
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α 
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10 1
1) 1
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6 ^ #1
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2 ( 6  
   
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      ' :  ε ν′ , ε µ′ , ε π′ " 

183
1: 
.
ε ν′ >   . p ′ >  
 . " H
µ
c

:4' . C


r r
p ′µ + p ′ν = 0 (10-5)
::  C : 

ε µ′ + ε ν′ = ε π′ = mπ c2 (11-5)
:" +
ε µ′2 = p′µ 2c 2 + (mµ c2 )2 (12-5)

ε ν′2 = p′ν 2c 2 + (m ν c 2 )2 (13-5)

s s
επ,mπ 
µ εµ ,pµ ,mµ
π υ θ
ϕ
20  
'    ν εν ,pν ,mν=0
o x o x
‫( قبل االنحالل‬a) ‫( بعد االنحالل‬b)

 (b) .) : υ 6  '   20   (a) :(3 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.   8  


:( 6 $ (10 – 5)  8


 

c 2 p ′µ 2 = c 2 p ′ν 2

:" \ (13 – 5) <(12 – 5) :8   8 )  


εµ′2 − (mµc2 )2 = ε ν′2 − (mνc2 )2

(
∴ε µ′ 2 − ε ν′ 2 = m 2 µ − m 2 ν c 2 ) (14-5)
:( 6 $ F 7 (14 – 5) <(11 – 5)  8
 

184
ε′=
(m π
2
)
+ m µ2 − m 2ν c 2
µ
2mπ
(15-5)

ε′=
(m π
2
)
+ m 2ν − m µ2 c 2
ν
2mπ
(16-5)

1 1
 .   ' :  !
   8
 " C
210 B    .  =0 + >3 s`   J 
20 2 ( 6
.'  

20 p′ν   p′µ 
 
' . 4  ^ '

 

:"  0 s`   J
(17-5)
c p ′µ = ε µ′ 2 − (m µ c 2 )2
(18-5)
c p ′ν = ε ν′ 2 (
− m νc2 )2

m π c 2 = 273.2 m e c 2 

m µ c = 206.8 m e c 
2 2


m ν c2 = 0  :"
 

m e c 2 = 0.511 M eV 

D3   T v′ ' :  


 T µ′ ' :  4  '

:'0 (16 – 5) <(15 – 5)  8
   8 ) 
Tν′ = ε ν′ − m ν c 2
⇒ ε ν′ = 29.8 MeV
∴ Tµ′ = ε µ′ − m µ c 2
= m π c 2 − ε ν′ − m µ c 2

( )
∴ Tµ′ = m π − m µ c 2 − ε ν′

:( 6 $ % 1 8


 20 m µ c 2 , m π c 2 , ε ν′ 
' .: H8
Tµ′ = 4.1 MeV

185
.1  = 1  '
10 1) 8 
 
  
' .
"
:'0 (18 – 5) <(17 – 5)  8

p ′µ = p ′ν = 29.8 MeV/c

(3 – 5) '5 20 K
B
' ='   (π+) .  

υ υ
s` s` ε µ′ , p ′µ , m µ
µ 

α
π α
'   ε ν′ , pν′ , mν =0
ν 
o` x` o` x`
) : (a) ) 8 (b)

   8 (b) .) : '   20   (a) :(4 O 5) '5
 

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B    
 
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1
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:   .   ) 8
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:2 
'  s ( s`    

 υ
p µ cosθ = γ  p µ′ cosα + 2 ε µ′  
 c 

p µ Sinθ = p µ′ Sinα 
 (19-5)
εµ =γ (ε ′ + υp ′ cosα )
µ µ 


210  . " x` 2!) ,


(µ+) .  ;8$ 2 α  
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F
6 8 s`   J 

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G . >"     K$   3B "

186
 1 ' m02  m01 "  
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(16 – 5) <(15 – 5)  18
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   ' 
:  *$   '  !
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ε 1′ = (m 2
2
+ m 01
0
2
− m 02 ) c2 

2m0 

ε 2′ = ( )
m 02 + m 02 2 − m 02 1 c 2  (20-5)
2m0 



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189
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ε = 2 mc 2 = 2 m 0 c 2 + m π c 2 (21-5)

" 1 
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= 1+ (22-5)
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:"

mπ=273me
m0=1836me
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m
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Q = γ =
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 0 (
  
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20 F ' p2   ' 3 
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   β 6  D " 4  s`   J

190
=  '
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(1 s` 
E   .   .s`   J 
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6
:"   s
β+ β 2β
β1 = = = 0.65
1+ β2 1+ β2

:( 6 $ 3B 

m 0
m =
(1 − β ) 2
1

:( 
' π+    
 T ' :  3
T = mc 2 − m 0 c 2
m 0c 2
= − m 0c 2
(1 − ) β 12
= 0 . 31 m 0 c 2

:"
 
m 0 c 2 = 938 MeV
∴ T = 290 MeV
1
F1 : 1'" :  A3B .6  3B !
+ '

:  :" 2B 
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191
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.> 6) 20 J  P3    Ρ " 3

192
βc βc
s` s`

P1 P2 P1 P2 P P3
υ1=βc υ2=βc
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o` o`
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. $ : . $ 8


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6 

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2 ' . ' + s`   J 
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(*)
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ε = 2 mc2 = 4 m0c 2
m 1
∴ = γ = = 2
m0 (1 − β )2

3
∴ β2 =
4
1
210 '   20 @;  B P2 " ?" %
0 3 
=1   1 J 1
210 p1 :    
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[(9 – 5) '5 C)] :> 

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193
s

P1 P2
βc 
 
D
'
o

  
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^ @; B '


B"   :(9 - 5) '5
.s 20 A D

2 β
β 1 = 2
1 + β
1
∴ 2 = 1 − β 12 = 1 −
4β2
=
(1 − β )
2 2

γ1 1+ β2 ( )2
(1 + β )
2 2

1+ β2
∴ γ1 = = 7
1− β2
:" + ε1 ( 
 ' =:  ' " 4  P1 .$
  3

ε 1 = γ1m 0 c 2 = 7 m 0c 2
:( 
T1 ' =: 
T1 = γ1 m 0 c 2 − m 0 c 2 = 6 m 0 c 2
Q m 0 c 2 = 0.938 GeV
:( 
:    ' :  ' 3
T1 = 5.62 GeV
" F / 1 '3
' 2 ' 8
2B   8
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1
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194
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א‬5–5
1 6  10    ' 
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B1 16 ;  :   ' 
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D 1B " 3 \1  . F 1C
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3B
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1 :  .C8
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8
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E 3B " F 
6 C /
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6  < –'

γ → e+ + e−

 1 
6 #'6 B 6 '
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6 D B " B '3    

 1J 1) .! <=  .  .   
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F  
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: 
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195
e+ + e− → 2 γ

 eO 'J 6 @5' # " ( 6 


8    @ 

21 8
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6  .=  : 20  3  e+
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85" ; 6 /  2 ,5
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;5   

:   
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21 :   0 3 (0.511MeV) 2B   'J 
' ' 
.F / '3
' (1.022MeV) 6 / ) " 4 
85" ;' 


196
:  
:(1)   

B) '   ' <
 (  '   20 M0 = ' .
:  4 " .(10O5) '5  K

'  1/4M0 R  1/2M0
.
;
' '

:

1
M0 ε 1 , pr 1
2
s M0 s
ε 0 , pr 0
. 1
' M0
4
ε 2 , pr 2
o x o x
+  ' 8
B   
 ( '   20 .  :(10 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.) 
6  F$ F 
2 ' . '

:( 6 $0 :  C  : F)" 9


ε1 + ε 2 = ε 0 = M 0c2 (1)
:( 6 $0 . C  : 9
Ρ1 + Ρ2 = Ρ0 = 0
:"
c 2 Ρ 12 = c 2 Ρ 22 (2)
:' /
    

 
  
  
2 2
ε 1 −  1 M 0 c 2  = ε 2 2 −  1 M 0 c 2 
2

2  4 
3
∴ ε1 2 − ε 2 2 = M 0c 2 (3)
16
:\ F 7 (3) <(1)  8
  

197
ε 1 = 19 M 0 c 2
32
ε 2 = 13 M 0 c 2
32
1
Τ1 = ε 1 − M 0 c 2
2
19 1
= M0c 2 − M0 c 2
32 2
3
∴Τ1 = M0c2
32
1
Τ2 = ε2 − M0c2
4
13 1
= M 0c 2 − M 0c 2
32 4
5
∴ Τ2 = M 0c 2
32

:(2)   
1
210 4 
 x 2!) A   D <m0 '  = ' π  
' 1  =1 ' µ 1
(1  >  6  s   J
3 4c
m0
4 5

y 2!1) A 1   ) 8 D  " C .ν 


.s   J 
20  :  4 " .4 


:
s s ε ν , pν , mν
(ν )
D
  4c
υ=
π 5

ε , m0 (µ) 
ε µ , pµ , mµ

o x o x

( s   J 
20 '   20    
6 :(a 11 O5) '5
.F C
2 ' . C
 ' :  (/ + <

198
1  210   B 5  + s`   ) 
20 ) 
6 F)" #

6  F$ >  2 ' . '  <(b11 – 5) '5 C) <'
.)

4c 4c
υ= υ=
s` 5 s` 5
ν
ε ′ν , p ′ν , m ν
π
  µ
εµ′ , p ′µ , m µ
'

o` x` o` x`
 
( s`   J 
20 '   20    :(b 11 -5) ‫الشكل‬
. 2/ + /
 20  

  ' 8
B  
.F$ F 
. C  2 '

 2 9 m 02  2
 m 0 −  c
∴ ε ν′ =
( m 02 + m 2ν − m µ2 ) c2
= 
16 
2 m0 2 m0
7
∴ ε ν′ = m 0c2
32
: 0 .  :   ) 8
.  
ε ν′ = γ (ε ν − υp x ) = γ ε ν
.(a 11 – 5) '5 20 K

' Pν=Py  <  px=0 " +
:"

1 5
γ = =
(1 − υ 2
/c 2 ) 3
7 5
∴ m 0 c 2 =  ε ν
32 3
21
∴εν = m 0c 2
160

199
:(3)   
E1 
(  s   J 
20 '   20 K E 

8 '   20 ^ '   20 


 " " 
6 3V0 .π
'  :  - F
6 .π 
 
 ' :  2B
0 )
.137MeV >  π 
  494MeV >  K 


:
:'0 :  C  : F)" 9
ε K
= ε 1 + ε 2 = m 0c 2 + m 2c 2

∴ T K + M 0c 2 = m 0c 2 + T 2 + m 0c 2

' 1  1 ' M0 "  


 
 
' '   ' m0 " 3
(1 6 K 1
 π 1
 1' : 
;0 TK  T2
" <K 

.2

s s
ε K , pK π ε 2 , p2
K ε1, m0 π
M0 ' D

o x o x
   


20 ) : x 2!) A   D K E 
:(12 -5) ‫الشكل‬
  20
B" π E  
) 8  .s   J
.'   20 ^ '

:"   . C  : 



(12 – 5) '5 C) <PK=P2
∴ TK − T2 = 2 m 0 c 2 − M 0 c 2 (1)

200
ε K − ε 2 = m0c 2 (2)
εK2 − (M 0 c 2 ) ( )
2 2
= ε 22 − m 0 c 2 (3)
:( 6 $ %  8
 A3B 

εK2 − ε22 = (M 0 c 2 ) ( )
2 2
− m0c2 (4)
:$ (2) ( 6 (4) 
/
 
εk + ε2 =  M 0  M 0 c 2 − m 0c 2 (5)
 m0 
:\ (5) <(2)  8
 
ε 2 = 753 MeV
ε K = 890 MeV
∴ TK = ε K − M 0 c 2 = 890 MeV− 494 MeV

∴ TK = 396 MeV

T2 = ε 2 − m 0 c 2 = 753 MeV − 137 MeV

∴ T2 = 616 MeV

:(4)   
(1 6 1;;  6 γ 85" .   –'   .
:^ 6  
6 4  <' '
γ+ e− → e− + e+ + e−

W+ '


8 A3B 8  γ 85" ;
 :  :" 2B

:
. 1$ 8 : . C  2 ' . =0 ' >3 s`   J 
20
' 2' '   20 %
 
  ,
" $ F$ > 
.'

:" 6  3; 
 :  85 : 
:( 6 $0 s`   J 
20 :  C  : 9
ε ′ + γm 0 c 2 = 3 m 0 c 2 (1)

201
1:  ε` "  
  'T '   ' m0 " +
:> 0 (1)  8
 20 γ /

" .γ 85"
1
s` <s   J >
   6  υ  β=υ/c + < γ =
(1 − β )
2

.s` 20 . $ : 'J 6 >  


:"   . C  : 

ε ′ − γβm
0c =0 (2)
c
:' (2) <(1) :8 

γβm 0 c 2 + γm 0 c 2 = 3 m 0 c 2
∴ γ(1 + β ) = 3
∴1 + β = 3 1 − β 2( )
:" \ % :8 A3B  
4
β=
5
1 5
∴γ = =
(1 − β ) 2 3

:( 6 $ s ( s` 
:  .  ) 8
.  
ε = γε ′(1 + β ) = γ 2 β(1 + β) m 0 c 2
2
 5   4  4 
∴ ε =    1 +  m 0 c 2
 3   5  5 
ε = 4 m0c2
0.511MeV >  'T '  :  "
 

∴ ε = 2.044 MeV

:(5)   
>  ' :   4 
 x 2!) A   D P  
.s  1 J 1
20 '   20  ' P F  4 <2/3GeV

202
( p + p → γ 1 + γ 2 )  10 10 1 $ 6  
6 
.4 
 x 2!) A   ^  4  x 2!) A    
B"
P 1 1 P 1 1
' '  :  " 
6 3V0
.1GeV > 
W
  
' : 
:
W
;
' D A  >- :  

C
s p2 = 0
s . $
ε 1 , p1
β
ε 2 = m0c 2 ε4,ε4 ε3, ε3
c c
P P  
  0 0
' γ2 γ1


o x o x
 !"     !" 

: s   J 
20 '   D   :(13 -5) ‫الشكل‬
. ' 8
B    0  . $ 8 .. $

:
. ε1 :    K <) 
6 : < (13O5) '5
 ) 
6 8 .ε2 =:  '   β 6  D p1
:  γ2 2 ! 
  D
ε3/c .  ε3 :  γ1   0
.A6" '5 20 K

'    H  D
ε4/c . ε4
:'0 :  C  : ^ 9
ε 3 + ε 4 = T1 + 2 m 0 c 2 (1)
T1 "  1 1  1 
' '  :  m0 " +
.  ' : 
:4' . C  : 9 

203
ε3 − ε4 = γβm 0 c = p1 (2)
c c
1 :" +
γ =
(1 − β 2 )
ε 3 − ε 4 = γβm 0 c 2 = cp1 (3)
2
ε12 = ( cp1 )2 + ( m0 c2 )
2
Q T1 = GeV
3
2 5
∴ε 1 = T1 + m 0 c 2 = + 1 = GeV
3 3
2
5 4
∴ cp1 =   − (1)2 =
3 3

ε3 −ε4 = 4 (4)
3
:( 6 $ (4) <(1)  8
 
ε 3 = 2 GeV
ε 4 = 2 GeV
3
A      D γ2   
  D γ1  " >"
A 1   p1 .1 D1 1  " 0 " 8 <x 2!
.4 
 x 2!

:(6)   
1 !


1 !! (  <'   20 M0 '  = ' .
 ' 
    
8 5N
 ;
 ! .mo . ' '   '
.A " '5 20 K
B
' F B  F6
.M0/m0    :F  ! . .  6  A  4  :F)"

204
:

β3
 ε 3 , p3 , m0
ε 1 , p1 , m 0
θ
4

β1 =
5

3 ε 2 , p2 , m0
β2 =
5

< !


 !! (  '   20 . :(14O5) '5
.θ 
;6 @ + ! 
8
 !

.. C  : 9 '

 
(14O5) '5   8 ) 
∴ p 3 sin θ = p 2 (1)
p 3 cos θ = p 1 (2)
:" x 2!) 6  .  @  θ " +
1 1 5
P1 = γ1β1m0 c ⇒ γ1 = = =
(1 − β )2
1 1 − ( 4 / 5)
2 3

1 1 5
P2 = γ 2β 2 m 0 c ⇒ γ 2 = = =
(1 − β ) 2
2 1 − ( 3 / 5)
2 4

1
P3 = γ3β3 m 0 c ⇒ γ3 =
(1 − β ) 2
3

:\ (2) ( 6 (1)  8


 
/
p 2 γ 2β 2 ( 5/4 )( 3/5 ) 9
tan θ = = = =
p1 γ1β1 ( 5/3 )( 4/5 ) 16
∴ sin θ = 0.49
∴ θ=29.34o

205
:( 6 $ (1)  8
 

γ 2β 2 m 0c
p 3 = γ 3β 3m 0 c =
sin θ
γ β
∴ γ 3β 3 = 2 2 =
(5/4)(3/5) = 1.53
sin θ (0.49)

2
∴ γ32β32 = γ32 − 1 = (1.53)
υ3 1.53
∴ γ3 = 1.83 ⇒ β3 = = = 0.48
c 1.83
∴ υ3 = 0.84c
::  C  : ^ 9
M 0 c 2 = γ1m 0 c 2 + γ 2 m 0 c 2 + γ 3 m 0 c 2
M0 5 5
∴ = γ1 + γ 2 + γ 3 = + + 1.83
m0 3 4
M0
∴ ≅ 4.75
m0

:(7)   
" 1
6 3V10 <
26 8Y5 (  1GeV ' =:  π0 

 %$
  2B
0 135 MeV 2B 
 '   ' : 
,1
 
 
8 B   !8
;" H)
26 85
W(
 2 $ A )

:
1:  m0c2 " ' =:  T " 
  ' :  ε " H
1
26 81Y5 1:  ε2 ,ε1 " H D3'  .
 '   '
r r r
.1 .1 p " 1
B
 p 2 , p1 " ) 
6 


.


206
:'0 :  C  : ^ 9
ε = ε 1 + ε 2 = T+ m 0 c 2
= 1 + 0.135
∴ε 1 + ε 2 = 1.135GeV (1)
1
 2 $ A ) ,
 
  8$ 6 8Y5 "

/
  p1 = p 2  ε 1 = ε 2 :" \ 
p 2 = p12 + p 22 + 2p1p 2 cos θ

.6 85  %$


  θ " 3
θ
∴ p 2 = 2p12 (1 + cos θ ) = 4p12 cos 2
2
θ p2
∴ cos 2 = 2
2 4p1
2
ε
Q p =   − (m 0 c )2
2
c
2
 ε1   0.5675 
2
p12 =  = 
 c   c 
 

∴ cos
θ ε 2 − m 0c 2
=2 ( )
2
=
1.27
2 4ε 12 (4)(0.5675)2
θ
∴ cos 2 = 0.9858 ⇒ θ ≅ 14 o
2

:(8)   
6  4 
 x 2!) A   D m0 '  = ' 5
.
> 1  ' 1  =1 ' 5

B" 
 (  < 4 c > 
5
8 D .  3B " C m02=0 '  = ' ^ m 01 = 2 m 0
3
.  A  ;8$ 2   .4 
 y 2!) A   )
.^ .  ' :  4  <5


207
:
'
 
 (s   J  
) 
  
   8 ) '

 

: '   20 5


 .  B 5  + (s`   J  
)  '
.F$ F 
. C  2 ' . ' <) 
6
>31 (16 – 5) '15 s   J  
!
 >3 (15– 5)'5 C)
.s`   J  
!


s s ε 2 , pr 2 , m 02 = 0
4
υ= c
5
θ
ε , pr , m 0 ε 1 , pr 1 , m 01 = 2 m 0
3

o x o x
   

B" 
 (  s 20  ! 6  D . :(15 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.θ  =6 @
^ x ( 6 >
6

υ υ
s` s` ε 2′ , pr ′2 , m 02 = 0
ε ′, pr ′, m 0 α
α
5
.
' ε 1′, pr 1′ , m 01 = 2 m 0
3

o` x` o` x`
   

 (  .! ) : s` 20 '   20 .  :(16 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.F C
2 ' . 2/ +

208
:'0 s`   J 
20 :  C  : ^ 9
ε 1′ + ε 2′ = m 0 c 2 (1)
:. C  : 

r r r
p1′ + p′2 = p′ = 0 (2)
:4' (2)  8
 

(cp1′ )2 = (cp′2 )2 (3)
:' 3 < ε =c (p )2 + (m 0c )2 :"

2
ε 1′2 −  2 m 0 c 2  = ε 2′ 2 (4)
3 
4 2
∴ ε 1′2 − ε 2′2 =
9
(
m 0 c2 ) (5)

:( 6 $ (5) <(1)  8


 
ε 1′ = 13 m 0 c 2
18
5
ε 2′ = m0c2
18
 1/  8 ) 8 <F$ >  ^ .  '   ' "

:4' (2)  8
 <. C
5
ε 2′ = cp1′ = cp′2 = m0 c 2 (6)
18


ε 2′ =1
cp ′2

:( 6 $ .  :   ) 8


. 
(cp 2 )x (
= γ c p ′2 cos α + β ε 2′ = 0 )
β ε ′2 4
∴ cos α = - = −β = −
c p ′2 5

:" \  % :8 



 3
 sin α =
 5
 1 5
γ = =
 (
1 − β2 3 )

209
:'0 5
 .  . :   ) 8
?" %
9
( cp1 )x = γ  ( cp1′ )x + β ε 1′
 
(
∴ cp1 cos θ = γ -cp1′ cos α + β ε 1′ )
−cp1sin θ = −cp1′sin α
sin α
γ
∴ tanθ =
 ε′ 
-cos α + β  1 
 cp1′ 
 

ε 1′ (13/18 )m 0 c 2 13
= =
c p 1′ (5/18 )m 0 c 2 5
( 3/5)( 3/5 ) 9 25
∴ tan θ = = .
4/5 + ( 4/5 )(13/5 ) 25 72
1
∴ tan θ =
8
θ=7.12o
'1  :  ; F 0 
' :  >   ' :  "
 ^
:V0
ε2 = T = cp 2
Q cp 2 = cp ′2 sin α
∴ T = (5/18 )(3/5 )m 0 c 2
1
∴T = m0c2
6

:(9)   
F ' 1  1' 1' ,
.$ 0.511 MeV ' =:  
  D3 8 <' /  . %3 . $ 3B   0
1
:F 1 ! W. %3 6
:F)" .
26 85 ( %3 A3B
WA 8  ;' 
 : 

:  .C6"

210
:
ε3
ε3,
c

ε 1 , pr 1 ε 2 , pr 2 = 0
'
θϕ
 .
'
ε4
ε4,
c
. $ 8 .' '   ! 6  D
 :(17O5 ) '5
.γ 26 85 (  .! . %3 

% 1
 C  : 
 .) : . 6 cβ " H
> 1  1) 1: . $ 8 %5 
%3 A3; '   ' -0
(17O5) '5 . " 'T '   ' m0 " + <2m0
10 (1 ) 
6 .Y! 
 . $ 
6 + ' K
1' 2 $ A ) ,
θ  
8 ε3/c =
 ε3
B" : 
D13 ,1
ϕ 1 1
8 ε4/c =
 ε4 =:  ^ 
.A )
:V0 M >  '   20 .  ' " ^ 0 3
M = 2γ m 0
1 υ
γ= , β= :" 3
(1 − β )2 c

:V0 ε >   ' =:   ' 3


ε = ε 3 + ε 4 = Mc 2 = 2 γm 0 c 2 (1)
:4' ) : . C  : 9
r r r
p = p1 + p 2

211
r r
[(18O5) '15 C)] p 2 = 0 "
 .. %3 . p " 3
r r
p1 = p '
∴ p12 = p 2 (2)

ε1
s s ε1,
ε , pr  c
cβ θ
ϕ
. %3  ε2
ε2,
c

o x o x
   
8 .) : s 20  ! 6  D . %3 :(18 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.γ 6 85  )


'_
 3B  . 2
 >   (2)  8

:^ :8  '
 ε1 
2
  − m 02 c 2 = (2 γβm 0 c )
2
(3)
 c 
Q ε 1 = T1 + m 0 c 2
2
T  2
∴  1 + m 0 c  − m 02 c 2 = γ 2β 2 ( 2 m 0 c )
 c 
2
( ) ( )(
∴ T12 + T1 2 m 0 c 2 = γ 2 − 1 2 m0 c 2 )
:" \ % :8 A3B 

2
 T1   T1 
γ = 1+ 
2 + 
(4)
 2 m c2   2 m c2 
 0   0 
2m0c2=1.022 MeV :"

 T1  0.511
∴ = = 0.5
 2 m c2  1.022
 0 
2
 T1 
∴  = 0.25
 2 m c2 
 0 

212
:"   (4)  8
 20 H8 
γ 2 = 1.75
∴ γ ≅ 1.33
∴ β ≅ 0.65

81  .0.65c >  . $ 8 %5 


. %3 6 3
(19O5) '5 20 K

'  ' '
 
 ^
ε1′ r
ε1′, p 1′
cβ cβ c
s` s`
2m0 ε ′, pr ′ = 0 α
α
%3
. ε 2′
'   20
ε 2′, r
c
p ′2

o` x` o` x`
   

8 .) : s` 20 '   20 . %3 :(19 -5) ‫الشكل‬


.F$ F 
2 ' . 2/ +  0  )

1  
  " 
 3B 20   . C  : 

. ./
 20  ' 8
B  
r r
∴ p 1′ + p ′2 = 0 (5)
:4' :  C  : 

ε 1′ + ε 2′ = 2 m 0 c 2 (6)
:V0 /
    

 "

ε 1′ = ε 2′ = m 0 c 2
:\ s` ( s 
.  :   ) 8
. 
ε 1′ = γ(ε 1 − β ε 1cos θ )
= γ ε 1 (1 − β cos θ )
m0 c2
∴ε1 = (7)
γ(1 − βcos θ )

213

θ  '
6 2B   %& 8 ε1 :   
: .C6"
.(7)  8
 20 θ=0 " >" F$
m0c 2 0.511 MeV
∴ ε 1max = =
γ(1 − β ) 1.33(1 − 0.65)
∴ ε 1max = 1.1 MeV

:(10)   
1 ' 
1 ( '   20  M0 '  = ' 5
.
(m01+m02) 1
1'" M0 " +1 m02 a  m01
B ' 
1:  C1 1/ .1  6   ; 
  F 8
.∆M /

(18 
 
  
> Ti ' :  " \  .
::8 
 m ∆M 
Ti = ∆M1 − 0i −  , i = 1,2
 M 0 2M 0 

:
∆M = M 0 − (m 01 + m 02 ) (1)
" 1) ) 8 
 
  ' :  E



  ' F$ >  . C  2 ' . "
 . ∆Mc 2 > 
.A )   ' 8
 /
    


r r r
∴ p1 = − p 2 = p
: :  C  : 

ε1 + ε 2 = ε (2)
:" >"
c p 2 + m 01 (3)
2 2
c + c p 2 + m 02
2 2
c = M 0c 2

1 210 1 


6 =0 $ . C . :  C  : 
:2  '5  .  6   ; 
   8 ) 8 = ' '
 


214
p µ = p1µ + p 2 µ (4)
:" +
r ε
p 2 µ =  p 2 , i 2
 r ε  r ε 
 , p 1 µ =  p 1 , i 1  , p µ =  p, i 
 c   c   c
:" 6   ; 
 A3B  

p µ ⋅ p µ = − M 02 c 2 


p1µ ⋅ p1µ = − m 021c 2 
(5)

p 2 µ ⋅ p 2 µ = − m 022 c 2 

:4' (4)  8
 

( )(
p 2 µ ⋅ p 2 µ = p µ − p1 µ ⋅ p µ − p1µ )
2 2
∴ − m 02 c = − M 02 c 2 − m 01
2 2
c − 2 p µ ⋅ p1µ

=; 
 & 8 2&  I  2 3 <'   20 M0 . C "

:" $  6 26 
 ε   ε1  εε
p µ ⋅ p1 µ =  i  ⋅  i  = − 2 1 = − M 0 ε 1
 c   c  c

∴ε =
(M + m − m )c
2
0
2
01
2
02
4


1

∴ε =
(M + m − m )c
2 2 2 2
(6)
0 01 02
1
2 M0

:( 6 $ !
 
ε = (M )
2
0+ m 022 − m 021 c 2
2
2 M0
(7)


1  T2  T1 '1 : 1 @18 " F 1 " 
 

. ε2  ε1  ' :  @8 " 





∴ T1 = ε1 − m 01c 2
=
(M + m
2
0
2 2
01 − m02 − 2 M 0 m01 )c 2

2 M0
:" >"
 2 M0  2 2 2
 2  T1 = M 0 + m 01 − m 02 − 2 M 0 m 01 (8)
 c 

215
Q ∆M = M 0 − ( m01 + m02 )
2
∴ ( ∆M ) = M 02 + m01
2 2
+ m 02 − 2 M 0 m 01 − 2 M 0 m02 + 2 m 01m02

: " \ (8) :8  % :8  /



 2 M0 
 2  T1 = 2 M 0 (M 0 − m 01 − m 02 ) − 2 m 01 (M 0 − m 01 − m 02 ) − ∆M 2
 c 
= 2 M 0 ∆M − 2 m 01 ∆M − ∆M 2
T1  m ∆M 
∴ 2
= ∆M1 − 01 − 

c  M0 2 M0 
:^ :8  ' '
 
6 %$ 
 m ∆M  2
Ti = ∆M1 − 0i − c (9)
 M 0 2 M 0 

210 2  K$ !


 ∆M  " % :8 A3B 
C
2 M0
.  !- ;0 3N ) 2 \& 
"µ" 1
 . ( "π"   .   9 8 F) !
5:  " 9
:(9) :8 .  '  ^ \&  ^  ."ν" 
∆Mc 2 = 33.9 MeV
M 0 c 2 = 139.6 MeV
m µ c 2 = 105.7 MeV
m νc2 = 0
 105.7 33.9 
∴ Tµ = 33.91 − −  = 4.1 MeV
 139.6 2 × 139.6 
Tν = ∆Mc 2 − Tµ = 33.9 − 4.1 = 29.8 MeV

:(11)   
B 1    1' B  A  ! 1

17 
 ( . " 
.1  
+8 .! < 1 c
;
' /
 
6   ' 8

4
1 ,1
60 1 =  .  F   /

o 4
c 6  ' B
7

216
" <'   20 A .  =0 B 5     
 F  \  .='
.B .  ' A  ,
30o B/
 ,$ 'J ' A 

:

1 1
c c
s s` 4 4 s`` 4
c
e 7 e υe
1 1
c c
4 4
60o θ
A B
B A B ‫اتجاه الحركة‬
‫ساكن‬ ‫ساكن‬
o x o` x` o`` x``

20 B 
' +8 .s 20 B  A 7 
 ( . N  :(20 -5) ‫الشكل‬
.'   20 A B 5  s`` 20 .s`

210  ' 8
B    ' B  A 
  "  (20O5) '5
210 B .  
+8
 'J 6 u " H .s   J 

.uy  ux
B ='
" 
 3B
:"   s ( s` 
6   ) 8
. 
4c c
cos 60 +
u ′x + υ 7 4 c
ux = = =
υ
1 + 2 u ′x 1 + 
c/4  4c  2
 cos 60 
c  c 2  7 
u ′y
γ
uy =
υ
1 + 2 u ′x
c
:" +
1 υ 1
γ= , β= =
(1 − β )
2 c 4
1 4
∴γ = =
1 − 1 / 16 15

217
 4c  15 
 sin 60 
 7  4 
∴u y =
 c/4  4c 
1 +  2  cos 60 
 c  7 
c
∴u y =
5
>3 s`   J 
20 x 2!) ,
60o  ,$ 'J B 5
>3 s``   J 
20
" .s   J 
    c/4 6  D
D1 1'J B 50 s   J 
    –c/4 6  D
" 1! " ^  6 .B .  ' A  ,
θ  ,$ A  
.θ=30o
K
B
' s`` ( s 
6   ) 8
?" %
. 
:'0 '5 20
 c  15 
  
  4 
 5   2 3c
υ e sin θ = =
 − c/4  c  9
1 −  2  
 c  2 
c
− (- c/4 )
2 2c
υ e cos θ = =
 − c/4  c  3
1 −  2  
 c  2 
2 3c 3 1
∴ tanθ = ⋅ ⇒ tan θ =
9 2c 3
∴ θ = 30 o

218
# $ !% &' "

' 1  1 ' 
 (  '   20 M0 '  = ' . – 1
.
;
' ' :  4  . 2 M a
0
1
M0
B
5 5
T1=0.16M0c2 :
2
T2=0.24M0c

B15 10 (1  βc =6  m0 '  = ' π0 E 


– 2
41  .1
 2 $ A ) ,
θ=0o  ,$ A   D
B"
1
 B 5  +    
20 =   : 
 . 3B : 
W) : '   20

41 
 x 2!) A   ./
 20 D m0 '  = ' . – 3
B1/
  8$ B     0 (  s   J 
20
> 1  1) : .  6 " \  ../
  2 ( 6 60o
. 
' :  4  .! . 1 c
2
ε = m0c : 
2

' 1 ' 1 .1$ <=' :  >  ' =:   – 4


.1! <1' /  . %3 . $    0 
G F
 $
1:  .1C6"
: (  W. %3 6
: .0 2  
WA 8  ;' 
 : 


c
, 1.20 MeV :
3

  20 B 
 (  s`   J 
20 m0 '  = ' . – 5
1
1' . :  .0.5m0 a 0.3m0
B '   ' <'

219
-1 F 1
6 s  1 J 
20 px .  $
:   .
 
 
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(1 1 41 
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20 D . – 6
.) 8 '   20 ^ '   20 2/
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- F
6 ) 8 D
 
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 ,$ 
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1/2

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2 (1 − u cos θ/c )

1
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3
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60 60
11 11
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75 75

> 1  1' 1:  41 


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20 '   20  ' >3 p   4 5/3GeV
1 (1 6  ' 8
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> 
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1/ 2

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41 " .F ' F  4 <4 


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6 + .    8 .
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m π c 2 = 150 MeV

m k c 2 = 500 MeV
 2 :- F
6
m p c = 900 MeV

m ∑ c 2 = 1200 MeV

1133 MeV/c : 

221
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υ
y ------------- y` -------------
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+ 
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o x o` x`

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226
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Ex = (6-6)
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s`  E 
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. ).
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E /x = = = Ex (7-6)
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∴ E′x = E x (8-6)

227
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E ′⊥ = γE ⊥ (10-6)

+.#      )* O-  )*3 +, 8  +


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y r y` υ r
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s` N(x ′, y ′) r
r E ′x
Ex
r r
r r′

θ υ θ`
Q ‫متحركة‬ x Q ‫ساكنة‬ x`
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E >   >*  s  E 


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(a) :(3 – 6)  
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 +  s` & :
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r
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r ′2 ( )
x ′2 + y ′2 r ′
kQx ′
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( x ′ + y′ )
2 2

r ′ = x ′ 2 + y′ 2 :+, 8
1
k=
4 π ∈0

.[  
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:H  +,   "

229
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E ′y = (12-6)
(x′ + y′ )
2 2 3/ 2

r
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y′ = y  (13-6)
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:+ (8 – 6) ?(5 – 6) + 3 >%


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E x = E ′x = (14-6)
[(γx ) 2
+ y2 ]3/2

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[(γx ) 2
+ y2 ]3/2

r
:H  s  E 
  E    ' -
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E 2 = E 2x + E 2y

2
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2

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+ y2 ) 3

(x 2
+y 2 2
)  1 −
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3

 x 2 + y 2 

∴E =
kQ (1 − β ) 2

(16-6)
(
r 2 1 − β 2 sin 2 θ 3/2 )

r = x 2 + y2 :+, 8
y y
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231
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c 

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f y′ = 
υ  (17-6)
1− ux
c2 

f z /γ 
f z′ =
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1− 2 u x 
c 

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r r
H.  
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233
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uy uz
ux − υ γ uy γ
u ′x = = − υ , u ′y = = , u ′z = =0
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1− 2 ux 1− 2 ux 1− ux
c c c2

234
r r
y u y` υ u′
t=0
q (x, y, o) q (x ′, y ′, o)
s s`

r r
r r′

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υ
( )
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1 + 2 u ′x c
c
:+, \  t = 0 +5   )
+
x′ = γx , y′ = y
:' - ' G 3 H  84
γkqQ  υ 
fx = 3
 x + 2 uy  (26-6)
r′  c 
: y 
 F  '   ,
f y′ /γ f y′ /γ
fy = = = γf y′
υ 1 − υ 2
/c 2
1 + 2 u ′x
c
γkqQy
∴fy = (27-6)
r′3

235
f z′ /γ
fz =
υ
= γf z′ = 0 :$8
1 + 2 u ′x
c
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γkqQx
fe = (28-6)
r ′3
: ' - H   C &# ' "( %  '! "  " •
γkqQ uυ
fm = ⋅ 2 y (29-6)
r ′3 c
r

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r r r
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∴ f m = quB
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B=
( )
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(31-6)
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2 2 2
3
2


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2
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r E B

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3/2

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)
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r r r
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r

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B

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B= 2 υ× r
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r 1 r r
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c

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r
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E C= 78 Q  &# 7# ; , 7, 
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.%  ) "/.  + 8  E 
 J   + & 

J. 
 
+   +  -
  #  5
& @ F84
8.4 +. 0.    
 F84 ) ! ! ?  H  Q , )

.-
. >.  >  
 $ + H  q   
$
 #
'.! .@  %    + & U 3  L +3   

:- H   H   )
=,   ' & # "(
r r r r
f = qE + qu× B (33-6)
r r
. ' B, E +, +3 J!   3 @
  
 #  r
u +, 8
.  &# J! $8  #   %  U "  
.  )*.   )  +# / %  +, + 
%    +    +, $8 + O=  .
 )

.  .%   . +. ;.# ..
 +. +   4
. . . 
 + ?)    4 Bz , B y , Bx , E z , E y , E x

.
     H
 O= C ! .    


238

   84  O=  .- 84 + (3 – 6)       
. I & +3   
 + ! %   )*
. "/. )
s  E 
  $
 > 
 > +M U 
r r
.  
  + 8L . B ;= " %   E ;   
$. 7. .
 84  ;# ' "( ' + q 7 C 

.C #  r
u +, :
(33 – 6) !3 "
r r
F * r
υ  " #  $
 78 s`  E 
  B′  E ′ H

r r
:Q   f′ & f ' 
+,  # x` "
Z H
r r r r
f ′ = q E ′+ q u ′× B ′ (34-6)
r r r r r
. υ $8
B′  E ′ * B  E +# 3   %3 !3 F84
r r
(33 – 6) .3  u× B   H = -
$ # 2  3
r
: M x? y?z '3  )"
E F  f ' )    + +
[ (
f x = q E x + u y Bz − u z By )] (35-6)
f y = q [E y + (u z B x − u x B z )] (36-6)
f z = q [E z + (u x B y − u y B x )] (37-6)
:+,  s` & s + ' 
)*3 +
υ/c 2
f x′ = f x −
υ
(
u yfy + u zfz ) (38-6)
1− 2 ux
c
fy
f y′ = (39-6)
 υ 
γ 1 − 2 u x 
 c 
fz
f z′ = (40-6)
 υ 
γ 1 − 2 u x 
 c 
: M )*3 %3 #  3   )

u ′x + υ
ux = (41-6)
υ
1 + 2 u ′x
c

239
u ′y
uy = (42-6)
 υ 
γ 1 + 2 u ′x 
 c 
u ′z
uz = (43-6)
 υ 
γ 1 + 2 u ′x 
 c 
.  &. .- ).
 2 .G %   f y′ ' +M ,
+ (39 – 6) 3  (36 – 6) 3 + fy ! U3 3 .%
(43 – 6) ?(41 – 6) + .3 +.   u z  u x +# =3 * C"P
: M 3  & -
  υ 
( )
f y′ = q  γ E y − υΒ Ζ + u ′Ζ B x − u ′x γ  B z − 2 E y   (44-6)
  c 
r
 +
 C &# ' "( f′ ' "   (34 – 6) 3  8, 8
:7 y "
G F  ' F84   + s`  E 

(
f y′ = q E ′y + u ′Ζ B ′x − u ′x B ′Z ) (45-6)
:+, \  (45 – 6) ?(44 – 6) + 3  
(
E ′y = γ E y − υΒ z ) (46-6)
B′x = Bx (47-6)
 υ 
B′z = γ B z − 2 E y  (48-6)
 c 
r
E .  + & 3 )    + ""  +M  3%  +8
r
.s`  E 
  B %  U "
:4 + , +    %3 f z′ '     )% Y L
(
E ′z = γ E z + υΒ y ) (49-6)
 υ 
B ′y = γ B y + 2 E Z  (50-6)
 c 
: M - 
  3 +, 3 f x′ H
+,  # E ′x E
u y = uz = 0
8.4 + .x "
G F  $
 s  E 
  +
 C +, 7,
.
 )*3 +G  - 
    &# "( * U *

240
&.# * C. # . &.#  3 * %   )* -
: ' G 
 3 '   %3 84 .;4 
E ′x = E x (51-6)
s & s` + >*,  M  ' - H  F84 
 )*3 J '#L
:s` & s + CP"

E x = E ′x 
( ) 
E y = γ E ′y + υ Β ′Ζ 
E z = (
γ E ′z − υ Β ′y) 

Bx = B ′x 

 υ  (52-6)
B y = γ  B ′y − 2 E ′z  
 c 
 υ 
Bz = γ  B ′z + 2 E ′y  
 c 

E ′x = E x 
( ) 
E ′y = γ E y − υΒ Ζ 
E ′z = (
γ E z + υΒ y ) 

B ′x = Bx 

 υ  (53-6)
B ′y = γ B y + 2 E z 
 c 
 υ 
B ′z = γ B z − 2 E y  
 c 

r r
 . 
 +  * "/ * 
 F  B E )  +, Q 84
+. @    :
 
 &# 3 )  +, * ? I &
.  )*3 J , & 5  +   
 )*3

241
r r
E ′II = E II 
r r r r 
E ′⊥
r
(
= γ E ⊥ + υ× Β
r
) 

B′II = B II 
 (54-6)
r r 1 r r 
B′⊥ = γ B ⊥ − 2 υ× E 
 c 
r
).
 υ # . &.# 3 5 )   3 ⊥  II +, 8
: s  E 
 & s`  E 
 + Q G )
 , . 

r r
E II = E ′II 
r r r r 
E⊥
r r
(
= γ E ′⊥ − υ× Β′ ) 

B II = B′II 
 (55-6)
r r 1 r r 
B⊥ = γ B′⊥ + 2 υ× E ′ 
 c 

r r
+  4 B %  E    +, + 4    @

.Q G &# 4
,  3 *
_25., +.=     +, @
 

 4  +
r r
4.  ! + 4
C +8 B %  E   + 

  4  @  &#  3   @ +, O= +.+
, K.    & O
- & 3 3  * ; , +3  
J  +4  J ; 8 >! >  F  # + K %  
+., . / +.- .%    +* . E 

.+5 
H .  ( υ 2 /c 2 )  + ( υ << c 7,) % Y < +, +M  =  8
.
)*.3 5.  C . - 
 F8 . γ ≈ 1 +, 7, - +
: M - H P  %   )*

242
r r
E ′II = E II 
r r r r
E ′⊥ = E ⊥ + υ× Β
r r 
B′II = B II  (56-6)
r r 
B′⊥ = B⊥ 

r r
E⊥
r B⊥ r
E B

r r
E II B II
r r
r r υ r r υ
υ× E υ× B
?υ #  &# 7# 5 F  %    + )  :(6 – 6)  
r r r
. υ #  J B  E +  +   H = -
F  @


r r r
. υ J.    = -
 B ?E + )  + (6 – 6)  
r r r r
( )
υ× E = υ× E z $8.
r r
B⊥ = By 
r r
E⊥ = Ey .3  E z = Bz = 0  3= 
r r r r r r r r
>. .4 υ × B ‫ و‬υ × E + ?.  . O=  υ× B = υ× B z  ( )
r
. υ &# +#

 .  ! 
‫א‬,# ‫א א‬7–6
'. H.
 G 4 C + ! +, + +M > 3 O-, 
'! + )
 $ )
8 + .  )
 &# ' "(  
$.8 O.= C ! %  ' 4 C '! & 1=P  @ '
+ . + 4 +,   ;  @  > 3  1905 C#  + I U  .>
' ." H . ) a, ! .  ' + +` %   

243
8.4 J.=  # H- &# + + I C3 +, )"   F8 03
% .  .%   ' >3   C +  + 4 + .U *
.C +  > >

- %3 %  '! @ +,    0"
+. .  Q.!  4 :
  %  4@ J +
. .

 )  8 '   
/ .
   )


. ., &.# %  ' "(  84 +, .>%  >* 

'.)  . .  '. . 1= ; 


 Q ,  
.+  C, 

   2 +
 + @   (   
$., .
.    )   & @
 F84 
 0 % C
.'     )
 &# ' -      C@3 )  -
+ .! +. %  ' 9     84  O=   L +M ,
.   @    ) "/  C

q υ
s
r
u
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 )  
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +    ) 

o x
   )  
 )   7
 - $ :(6 – 6)  
#   ' 3 .
 % 
q .s 
.> - 7

.  '. 3 + (6 – 6)    O=  C +  >%
>.  >  
 - + H  υ #  $
q 
&# ' "(
5   + % +
 +G .> - 7 s  E 
 
+.  3 + -    @  H .Q G 4
, "/

244
K %   υ 7 1   #  $
  -  )  

 )  Z % 
 " +8 . (1 − u 2 /c 2 )  
+1 / 2
λ−

λ+ .% 
 " &  (1 − u 2
/c 2 )
−1 / 2
 5  
 84 
.% 
.  " λ0 +, :
λ+ = λ0 +, 7,  +  ) 
.+ 
  ) Z
$ .
 78 s`  E 
 & +M :
    & - 
+ .(7 – 6) .  . O.=  x "
Z H F * υ # 
$ J! + r 3 &# + 
 q +, @
 
 84  4 


 4   ) G , . u′ #  $
)  * +,
.x "
Z H F * υ # 

υ q  
s`
u′ r
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 )  
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 
  ) 
υ

o` x′
 5 * )  * +, @
 s`  E 
  :(7 – 6)  
F * $
 ) * )
-, 


.+ 
  q 
 , .x "
 H

: M 
 84    % )
 " H P
(
λ + = λ 0 1 − υ 2 /c 2 )
−1/ 2
(57-6)
(
λ − = − λ 0 1 − u′ 2 /c )
2 −1/ 2
(58-6)
:+ s` & s + #  )
+
− u− υ
u′ =

1 +
c2

245
:-
 1 >>
u
+, U 
c
u ′ = − (u + υ ) (59-6)
:\  (58 – 6) 3  (59 – 6) 3 + u` ! U3 
−1/ 2
 (u + υ )2 
λ− = − λ 0 1 −  (60-6)
 c2 
:+ $  %  
 λ +,  =  8
λ = λ+ + λ− (61-6)
:7 q 
 J!  # E    ' +,   + ! +
2 kλ 2 k
E= = (λ + + λ − )
r r

 
−1 / 2 
2 kλ 0 
(
1 − υ 2 /c 2 )−1 / 2
− 1 −
(u + υ )2  
∴E =  (62-6)
r   c 2  
 
:+ 1 >>
υ
+, 
c
−1 / 2
 υ2  1 υ2
1 −  ≈ 1+
 c2  2 c2 (63-6)
 
.-
(62 – 6) .3  (63 – 6) 3 + +G 1 % U3 
:&#
     
 − 1 + (u + υ )
2
2 kλ 0
 υ2
E=  1 +
 
r   2c2   2c2  
 kλ u 
= −  02  (2 υ + u )
 rc 
:+ υ >> u +G
2 kλ 0uυ
E = − (64-6)
rc 2
:7 q 
 &# ' "( ' +8
q υ  2 kI 
F = qE = −   (65-6)
c  cr 

246
3   '  E , .$     7 I = λ0u +, :


. + %  ' "  H8 '! 4 ' +, &   (65 – 6)
– 6) 3 J (65 – 6) 3   .>  >  
 $ 

:7 B %  U " +, \  (33
 2Ι 
B = k 2  (66-6)
c r
.% )
.  . K 7 C# H ; , C  \ 
. 
.  3  + >  >  
 78 $ +  
+, >.=, \ . . I   
  > 
 + ;  +3   

$. +. :.
s`  -   ' $ 
H8 q 

   '! 3 C $ ' +, * + 
 q 
 +  > 

 .   '  #*  8, 8 .
 3  $ + :
s
.%  ' 4 Q , '!  +=  L   J (   )
8 ",   / +  Q , - (65 – 6) 3 H  +, + +
1
.
 k=
4 π ∈0
 c2 =
1
∈0 µ 0
H.  7,   k +# c2 +#  =#
:& (65 – 6) !3
µ Ι
F = −  0  qυ (67-6)
 2 πr 
$. .%  U " " ' G 3  + + 
  '! + # -
  $ 4 F ' +, % C  -
.[(33 – 6) 3 @
*] s  E 

+5.  +.% + + %  ' H
+,   +M O-,
  I` F  >   " 
 I F  >  G 
 r   
+. +8     )
 " +,  .(8 – 6)  
&.# "( >%  >*    > + >  >* + *  
.+  $
'
)    M
:- H    (67 – 6) !3  3 * ' H
 ,

247
µ Ι
F = − 0  υ ′dq ′ (68-6)
 2 πr 
r .3 &# x "
G F  υ′ #  
  
 dq ′ +, 8
.I 7  ;  78 G $ J! +#

υ′
............... Ι′
)  E F  2 d l ′ ..
r
1
Ι

7* >  
 4
, +5  +- + :(8 – 6)  
.
 F  +   +, * ? M ;
 78  

I` F . >  >  '  " $  $



 F84   # 8
:+    O= F *
dq ′
Ι′ =
dt
:7  " $ + 8/   - # 4 Ι′d l′ +M
dq ′ d l′
Ι′d l′ = d l′ = d q ′ = υ′d q ′
dt dt
:- & (68 – 6) !3 
υ′dq′ + >* Ι′d l′ U3 
µ Ι
F = − 0  I ′d l ′ (69-6)
 2 πr 
.%  . H. % '
  " $ &# ' "( ' +8
:7 G $ +  
F µ I I′
f = = − 0 (70-6)
d l′ 2πr
I`  I + .  +G $8 H8 '!  , + Q   "( ' F84
7, . +   
, 3  8  '! & ' F84 
 .
 F  4
H . J l ;% -! $  I   8 # ' - .+ +

248
r
J.!  # B ;= " >%  >* ;
 >  
 % $ +
r
.-    + + + F   , H8  '! + - $
: M  
r r r
(
F = I l×B ) (71-6)
&.# . >4  ;  
 , CD >   I   +, & '  E  
+ "  0% !   F * C  O%- 4  )
 

r
F  
C  .  )
 
F  ;   l , ."
 H 
r r
1  # F ' F  &   CE +, 8 &   '#! % F '
r r r
+. Q . . F J.  B ;  & l ;  +  J-, 
.+5 

249
# #20
:(1)  2
υ .@  # . $
x "
* &# %   % 

.% '.
 
 " λ +, )# 8L H x "
G F 
:/
U. ." :> " ?(0,y,0) %   E    ' :>*,
&. %  U "  :>"" ? %   # % 
.B/E 7, ?   '

:
t = 0 ‫الزمن‬   υ
s q s` q
υ
y r y` r`
υ
% 
o x λdx % 
o` x` λ`dx`

  

.s  

 % 
+ H    q % 
:( 9 – 6 )  
%  
   % 
 O-  s` & :
  
.% 
 5 F  


.
  o %  + x 3 &# 
 - # λdx +, U  :>*,
%  
 +# r  3 (9 – 6)    O=  s  E
.(0,y,0) J!  q
(
∴ r = x 2 + y2 )
1/ 2


 +,  .λ`dx` O- s`  E 
  84 
 - # +
:+  + &
λ′dx ′ = λdx

250
. .% 
 +G C + ! 0%   s`  E 
 
.(9X6)    O=  + 

λ ′dx ′ 
 - # + q 
 &# "(  dE ′ +, +8 U 
:+
k λ ′d x ′ kλdx
d E ′= =
r ′2 (x ′ 2
+ y ′2 )
:+, 
y′ = y , x ′ = γx
kλdx
∴ dE ′=
(γ 2
x 2 +y 2 )
λ ′dx ′ 
.  .- # +  
 &# "( dE ′ ,  $ 4
.o` %   & J x` 3 &#
"
G F  , > -  x "
G F   -
 +
:7  L y
2 kλdx y′
d E ′y = .
γ2x 2
+ y 2
r′
2kλydx
= 3/2
(γ 2
x 2 +y2 )
∞ 2k λydx 2 kλ
∴ E ′y = ∫ 3/2
=
γy
0
(γ 2
x 2 +y 2 )
E y =
2 kλ
+L Ε ′y =
1
γ
Εy +, 
y
0.% (0,y,0) .%  . # B %  U " H
 :>  "
F  $
 Ι = λυ F  >  >  +,  # 7  , + !
.;
>%  >*  ; L H x "
G
:&# -
, + ! 0% 
µ 0λυ
B=
2πy

251
. ]  F  !  &# 7# %  $  #  84 F 
.s  E 

2 kλ υ
∴B =
c2 y
:&  B/E   + :>""
B 2kλυ y
= 2 .
E c y 2kλ
B υ
∴ =
E c2

:(2)  2
$
 q ;
 m0   ;   C  %! 1-  !# \ 
.%  . &# #  #  T 7 
!%
.B ;= "

:
:7 C &# ' "( ' +
r r r
F = qυ× B (1)
r r
. +. 8 .B &.# .# .4 C #  υ +, 8
   O=  >  >  $ C + >@  % 
:+ 8 75  H8 ' U 3  (10 – 6)
mυ2
= q υB
r
:+ C C5 4 p +,  =  8
p = mυ
∴ p = qBr (2)

252
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
r
x x x x x x x x x x xF
xxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xrx x
q υ
%   += $
   

 C :(10 – 6)  
.C #  F  &# 7# ;4  C@ 
:+, 
ε 2 = (cp)2 + (m0c2 )
2

(
= T+ m 0 c 2 )
2

∴ (cp) 2 = T 2 + 2 Tm 0 c 2 (3)
:H  !3 F84 +
Βrqc = cp = Τ 2 + 2 Tm 0 c 2 (4)
1
∴ Βr = Τ 2 + 2 Tm 0 c 2 (5)
qc

:(3)  2
.!% ).    5.
 ;.
78. %  U " 
+.   + !% +/ ># 10m F %! 1-   100MeV
.938 MeV 7
:
.!3 ?(2) "  B %  U " ! '
 )  8
.! ).
 . 3  8 )
 +L   4 ?(4)
! '
 + m 0c 2 + !% T 
 !% +, 7, 
.
.  MeV .! )
 +  + 4 )! 8 .
.
 C . +,  # .MeV & 3 F84 + G 1 %
: M

253
1Me V = 1.6 ×10−13 J
:- (5) 3 H  +8
 1.6 × 10 −13  2
Br =   T + 2 Tm 0 c 2
 qc 
 
 1.6 × 10 −13 
=  (100) 2 + 2(100)(938)
 1.6 × 10 −19 × 3 × 10 8 
 
∴ Br = 1.5
∴ B = 0.15 T *
.( ) %  U ! '
 4 X T *

:(4)  2

. Q  s  E 
  (0,y,0) J!      
q
r
+. t = 0 +5    x "
G F  υ #  $
-
.@
 $   * 
&# "(   '  .-G %

r
υ :
y′
y
S t = 0 +5 r S′
υ
q
q  

y y′

Q Q
r
υ x   x′

z (a) z′ (b)


 & :
 P (b) .   * 
 
 - 
(a) :(11 – 6)  


  * 
   - 
+, 4  :
I  
.C + ! 0% + 8

254
q . * 
&# ' "( ' H
 C + ! 0% + *
. ;# .

 - 
+G $8 s  E 
 
8.4  .(b 11 – 6)    O=  s`  E 
 & :

# . $
 * 
   - 
+, @
 

r

+, @
  (a 11 – 6)    , .H x "
G F  υ
.
 - 
 + 
  *
' "(. ' )  H
 s`  C + ! 0% + + +8
:4 (0,y`,0) J!  q 
 &#
kqQ
f x′ = f z′ = 0, f y′ =
y′2
:+, 
υ r r
fx − (u . f)
f x′ = c2
υ
1− 2 ux
c

f y /γ
f y′ =
υ
1− 2 u x
c

f z /γ
f z′ =
υ
1− 2 ux
c
1
γ=
(1 − υ 2 /c 2 )

:7 s  E 
  q &# ' "( ' )  +
fx = fz = 0
f y′ /γ f y′ /γ
fy = = = γ f y′
υ
1 + 2 u ′x (
1 − υ 2 /c 2 )
c

255
:+L t = 0 +5 
x ′ = γx , y′ = y , z′ = z
kqQ
∴ fy = γ
y2

:(5)  2
F.  $
t = 0 +5  (0,0,0) J!  Q 4  % 

r
q Q , % 
.s  E 
  υ 4  #  x "
G
.u 7 #  y "
Z 5 F  $
(x,0,0) J! 
.q 
 &# ' "( ' H


:

y y′
r
υ
s t = 0 +5 s` t ′ ≠ 0 +5

r
r u′
u
r
υ
Q Q

 x q x   x` q x`

z z`
 s  +3  +4  +
  * 
 - 
:(12 – 6)  

O- s`  . M +#    #  $   
.
  * 
&    -

256
:+,  s  E 
 
ux = uz = 0 ? uy = u
r v
fy = fz = 0 ? u .f = u x f x + u yf y + u zf z = 0
:&# -
s` & s + #  )
  3 *
ux − υ
u ′x = = −υ
υ
1− 2 ux
c
1
u ′y = u y /γ = u
γ

u ′z = u z /γ = 0
:+,  s` & s + ' )
+
υ r r
fx − (u . f)
c2 kqQ
f x′ = = fx =
υ x ′2
1− 2 ux
c
f y′ = f y /γ = 0

f z′ = f z /γ = 0
:+ t = 0 +5  x ′ = γx +, 
fy = 0

fz = 0
kqQ
fx =
γ2x2

+ 8  * 


#  &# 
 F84   3 * ' +8
.x "
G &# ># t = 0 +5  4 

:(6)  2
)
. .y ,  "
G &# +# +5  +
 )8 3 
).
8L. ±σ +
. &# 
% 
 " )  3 
r
)* H
 x "
Z H F * υ @  #  3 
.
  '  %   

257
:
@.
 
 84  >4  +, s  E 
  3  +,  3
r
.(a 13 – 6)    O= F * υ @  #  $
 ,

r r
υ υ
y y`  


s s`
σ a σ a
----- -----
----- -----
++ ++++ ++ ++++
++++++ ++++++

o x o` x`
(a) (b)
 (b) .

 4 x "
 +5 + 
 +
 (a) :(13 – 6)  
.+ 
 +5  +
 4  :
I   
 & :


+. s  E 
  r
υ #  $
 78 s`  E 
 
.  )
 + 
 F84  .+ 
 + 3 
. 7, . 3.  * s` . 4.  7,   +
 &#
. O=  y` "
* F  >  >* $ 4 + % 
:+,  s`  E 
  +8 (b 13 – 6)  
B′x = B′y = B′z = 0

E ′x = E ′z = 0 ? E′y = E′

.3  
 +      E′ +, :

:H  s & s` + %   )* 


)*3 +
E x = E ′x = 0
( )
E y = γ E ′y + υB′z = γE ′

E z = γ(E ′z − υB′y ) = 0

258
B x = B′x = 0
 υ 
By = γ  B′y − 2 E′z  = 0
 c 
 υ   υ 
B z = γ B′z + 2 E ′y  = γ 2  E′ (1)
 c  c 

8 .", O.= 


 )*3 + #  -
  \  F84 +
.s`  E 
       #
: +   3  +, 
σ′
E′ = (2)
∈0

. +M .+5.  +


 &# 
% 
 " σ` +, :

.  1
. .-, +
 
 +, @
 s  E 

γ
 σ` + , σ 
% 
 " +   
 +

:+, 7, γ
σ = γσ′ (3)
:+, 7, ? γ  E ′ + , + E    +L 8
σ γσ′
E= = = γE′ (4)
∈0 ∈0

:+L s`  +
  % +  0  φ′ +, +M U  8
φ′
E′ = (5)
a
.
 .  + &  F84 .+
 +  a +, 8
.y ,  "
G &# %   G s`  s  E
:\  (4) ?(3) + 3  
E′ a = φ′ 
 (6)
E a = γφ ′
. +. &#, 4 s  +
 +  +, (5) !3 + \ 
. γ  s`   

259
.3.  
 '  %  )* +# 8 +M
. 
%.   )  $ 4 +, 8 +,  # $8 O= 
.  / js 
%   " 1 3  .x "
G '5 

'8/. %G '
 &# # ' -  "     

:+ 1 3  84 H .O% +

j s = συ (7)

F. * +   %   +    '#! %
:+ , + ! + F  H
 z "
Z H
Bz = µ 0 js = µ 0συ

∴ B z = µ 0 (γσ′)υ = γ (∈0 µ 0 )υE′

:+, 
1
∈0 µ 0 =
c2
 υ 
∴ B z = γ 2  E ′
c 
C . .#  -
  (1)  !3 4 ' G !3 F84
.%   )* 
)*3

:(7)  2
Q.! %.% &# # ' - E     Q! %%
r

r
%   )* F84 +, )# 8L . B = " % 
s` .I   
  .s  E 
  xz  xy +   J
.  Q %% ; C3 :

260
:

r
y y` υ
r
EII = 0
s r s`
BI I = 0 r
r r E′ = 0
E = E⊥
r
B′I I = 0

r r 0 x O′ x′
B = B⊥
r r
B′ = B′⊥
(a) (b)
z z′
+# =3 &# +3  %  U "    (a) :(14 – 6)  
%  U " > - 7    (b) .x "
* #
.x` "
* # 7#

r
.
  x "
G &# +# 4 B &# # E +, 
:+, -
 s  E
r r r
EI I = 0 ? E = E⊥
r r r
BI I = 0 ، B = B⊥

. y ,  "


G F     +, +M U  
r
E
r
., .(a 14 – 6)    O=  z "
G F  B % 
r
+, E′ = 0 +, 4.  ; s`  E 
 O= (b 14 – 6)  
r
. B′ ≠ 0
:H  s` & s + %   )* 
)*3 C 
r r
E′I I = E I I = 0 (1)

261
r r r r
r
(
r
)
E′⊥ = γ E⊥ + υ× B⊥ = 0 (2)
B′I I = BI I = 0 (3)
r r 1 r r 
B ′⊥ = γ  B ⊥ − 2 υ× E ⊥  (4)
 c 
:+ (2) 3 +
r r r r r r
E ⊥ + υ× B⊥ = E + υ× B = 0
r r r
∴ − E = υ× B (5)
r
>.  > = B %  U " (5) 3  % H =
:-

r r r r r
E× B = B× (υ× B)
r r r r r r
= (B . B) υ− (B . υ) B
r
\  (a 14 – 6)    O=  &# 7# ;  +, 
r
B υ

:+,
r r r
E× B = B 2 υ
r r
. E× B
7. s`  .E 
 #  )  8 ; , +8 \ 
B2
)*. C3  @
 
 84  4  7, + s  E 

.%  )*  % 3   

:(8)  2
)
(0,0,0) J!  + + $
?q   

 C
r r
 . Bz = B C@  %   C@     "/
r r
Ey = E

C.@ &. .


# >  +
 C ; 78 
r
. E = 0 +, ; 4  @
  )"

.
 .# Q ., '  C  C" >*, C@  $8   
. c >> υ +,  # .-G C@  & Y 

262
:
:H  # ?(56 – 6) 
 )*3 C   
r
E′I I = E I I = 0
r r
B′I I = BI I = 0
r r r r
E′⊥ = E ⊥ + υ× B⊥ = 0
r r
B ′⊥ = B ⊥

+,  y ".
G F.  +, @.
 (a 15 – 6) .  +
r r
E⊥ = E
r r
.z "
G F  B ⊥ = B

r r r
∴ E + υ× B = 0 (1)

r
y y` υ
r
EII = 0
s r s`
BI I = 0 r
r E′ = 0
E
r
B′I I = 0

r
υ
q ‫ساكنة‬ x q 
 x′
r t = 0 ‫في زمن‬ r
B B′
(a) (b)
z z′

+3  + "/ )


-G %  q   % 
(a) :(15 – 6)  


 q %  
 (b) .B %  E  
.
 
# 7# % %   "/ )

:  7 υ #  +,  (1) !3 +


E
υ = (2)
B

263
:+, \  (b 15 – 6)    O= S′  E 
 
r
E′ = 0
r
B ′I I = 0
r r r r
B′ = B′⊥ = B ⊥ = B

+. 8. ..- %  '! 4 s`  C &# ' "( '
"/. ).
R 4 %! 1- x ′y ′ Q   '   $
 C
. υ Q   " #  5  '!
mυ2
∴ qυ B =
R
:+ C 5 #  ω +, :
υ = ωR +, 
qB
ω= (3)
m
:7 s`  t` +5 7,  C &# ' "( '
r r r
F′ = qu ′× B′
. υ  7  '   $
 78 C #  r
u′ +, 8
r r
:&# -
u ′× B′   H = -
$
r
F′ v r r
q
( ) (
= i u ′y B′z − u ′z B′y + j(u ′z B′x − u ′x B′z ) + k u ′x B′y − u ′y B′x )
r
F′ v r
∴ = i u ′y B′z − j u ′x B′z
q
:+
B′z = B′⊥ = B

u ′y = y& ′ ? u ′x = x& ′
m
∴ &x& ′ = By& ′
q
m
&y& ′ = − B x& ′
q
: M - + G + 3 H  (3) !3 +
&x&′ = ωy& ′ (4)
&y& ′ = − ω x& ′ (5)

264
:+,  c >> υ +, U   )
  3 *
x ′ = (x − υt )

x& ′ = x& − υ ? &x&′ = &x&

y′ = y

y& ′ = y&
:&# -
(5) ?(4) + 3  
 84 U3 
&x& = ωy& (6)
E 
&y& = ω − x&  (7)
B 
(2) !3 + υ = E/B +, :

. % = +/ $8 > I + =  + 3 + 4 


+ +
.3    &y& +# U3 C" + t +5 J (6) 3
0 %.   .  x&  .=  =  3 
 C C" ?(7)
: M 
 &#   -
  3 = 
y = c1 cos ω t − c 2 sin ω t + c 3 (8)
E
x = c 2 cos ω t + c1 sin ω t + t + c 4 (9)
B
?+. 
 >@
 ?-G %  C + t = 0 +5 
:H   * %  F84 +
y& = x& = 0

y=x=0
. c 4 , c 3 , c 2 , c1 3 G )" C! 
%  F84
E
∴x = (ωt−sinωt) (10)
ωB
E
y= (1 − cos ωt ) (11)
ωB
:+, 
E
υ = ωR = (12)
B
E
∴R = (13)
ωB

265
.%  C  cos ωt  sin ωt  =  "" 
 18

:+,  sin 2 ω t + cos 2 ω t = 1

(x− Rωt )2 + (y− R)2 = R2 (14)


.%  . J. 45  ?R 4 %! 1-   '  3 F84
.(12) 3 "  " #  x "
G F  $
 (Rωt,R,0)
%.
 &.# .% +   $
 C +, C  \ 
υ 7.  " #  x "
G F  9
 R 4 %! 1- #
(16 – 6) .  . >
.= P
  
 %  $ C 
. &

y
r
E

o
x
r
B
z

)
+
 C ;  78  &
 :(16 – 6)  
.%    +3  + "/

266
6  78 
 

F.  $ .
t = 0 +5  (0,0,0) -G %  Q % 
.1
&# ' "( '  .s  E 
  υ 4  #  x "
G
(x,0,0) %   J 
 84  + 
 q % 

f y = f z = 0, f x =
kqQ : 9
γ2x2

r
H. F. * υ # .   +
Q  q + % +
.2
&# Q 
 %   ' H
 .s  E 
  x "
Z
&.# (0,0,0)  (x,y,0) .4 Q  q +
.  )".
 +/ ># q
. 

# . $ .
s  .E 
  -G %  Q % 
.3
r

. &.# ' "( '  .x "
Z H F * υ @ 
$ .
 Q 
 + l 3 &# x "
G &# J q Q , %
r
.x "
Z H F * υ @  # 
f y = f z = 0, f x =
kqQ
: 9
γ2 l2

r
.   
  %    +* B E +, )# 8 .4
r

r
, ; +   
 (1)  +, 
 % 7, )
O=
r
B E
r
+5.  +4.   ;. +   
 (2) ?> - >
r
B E

;. +  E 


 (3) ?y "
G &# 0%  F * +
r
E
r
. B &# >#

267
H F * $
t = 0 +5  -G %  Q % 
.5
q Q , % 
.s  E 
  υ 4  #  x "
Z
7 @  #  x "
Z 5 F  $
(0,b,0) J! 
.q 
 &# ' "( ' H
 .u
γkqQ  υ 
fx = fz = 0/ f y =  1 − u : 9
b2  c2 

45 0 5   s  E 


    ?+5  +
 )8 3  .6
+
. &.# 
% 
" 3  
.x G "
G J
.s  E 
  υ 7 #  $
 s`  E 
 .±σ
r

.s      :*


> ,
r
E
r
.s`     E′  :> "
Rx` G "
G J +
 3 -   5 4  :> ""
R+
 &# 7# s`     +, 4 :> 3

+  .  +    


  4  ! +  ' H
 .7
+ 8 1mm    +5  +% &# H  & >  +

.1MeV :> " ?1eV :>*, :&  
!% 
   
(1)2.31×10 −22 N
:9
(2)7.80 ×10 − 23 N

+, .%  .  )* 


)*3 >  \  .8
r r
.  )
)
 + + (B . E)  (B 2 − E 2 /c 2 ) + 

 E 
  x G "
G &# J λ  " % % 
.9
 q   
.υ  " #  x F  $
% 
 F84 .s

. &# % '  .'
 D #  $
(0,0,0) J!

268
%    + +, O=    C  C" q  *
r r
. B = υ× E/c 2 !3 =3 J +%  (0,0,0) %   #

>.  > . 


 N Q % '
 ;  #  5
1 .10
Q. 1. . .%  U " )  8L ?I F 
r
9 . .  +  ! H
 .> - ;  
r
B E B = µ 0 NI

1. +  # + 


 4  ! + < 4  1
.;% &# 7# F  υ @  #  >


.
. 4 r    +5  +% &# +3 ±q +
.11
. O=  F * + 3   +   + #  

.(+q) &# (-q) 


 %   ' 4  .(17 – 6)  

υ +q

r x

υ
-q
z

(17 – 6)  

269

‫  א א
א‬
‫القيمة‬ ‫الرمز‬ 


8
3x10 m/s c  
 

6.626x10-34 J.s h
 
-34
1.055x10 J.s h
1.602x10-19 J eV  
1.602x10-19 C e  
9.109x10-31 kg me    
1.673x10-27 kg mp    
1.675x10-27 kg mn    
273.2 me mπ±    
206.8 me Mµ±    
0.511 MeV mec2    
938.6 MeV mpc2    
939.6 MeV mnc2    
139.6 MeV Mπc2    
105.7 MeV Mµc2    
8.854x10-12 C2/N.m2 ∈0  
4πx10-7 wb/A.m µ0  !
8.987x109 N.m2/C2 1/4π∈0 "   k 
1.661x10-27 kg U ! # $%
9.8 m/s2 g 
& #'(
6.672x10-11 Nm2/kg2 G !' 
1.99x1030 kg ) 
5.97x1024 kg * 
7.35x1022 kg + 
6.38x106 m *   ,-
1.381x10-23 J/K k . 

271
‫מ   א
א‬
 –  
(0)
Speed 2 
Radiation 3(4
Absorption 5-
Emission 6(
Wave Propagation ' 
Deviation ,
Displacement .4
Ether 0
Direction 7'
Reflection )(
Light Signal 8
$4
Refraction  
Cosmic Rays  (0
Coordinates %4
Beta – Decay  #
Pair Production 9. 94
Electron 4
Annihilation :4
Horizon 20
(;)
Pion 
Baryon 
Positron .
Proton 
Spin "

272
Isospin <= "
Intrinsic Spin ! "

Experiment '
Acceleration #'(
Compton Effect  >
Apparent Frequency <?= %%
Galilean Transformation @ 
Velocity Transformation   #
Time Transformation . #
Time dilation . 
Length Contraction #  5+
Momentum Transformation "A. #
Energy Transformation   #
Mass Transformation  #
Acceleration Transformation #'( #
Elastic Collision  "%-
Inelastic Collision  @ "%-
Dispersion 
Lorentz Transformation ) 
Geometrical Representation  %? #
Orthogonal Transformation <%( #
Doppler Effect % >
Symmetry #
Nuclear Interaction < # 
Gravitation Interaction  # 
Magnetic Effect   B >
Current 

273
Surface Integral  #
Force Transformation $+ #
Twin "0
Attraction ;!'
Repulsion 
Surface Current  
(6)
Constant 
Time Constant . 
(9)
Potential %C'
Astronomical Body  " '
Elementary Particle 0 " '
Molecule :<.'
Strangeness Particles B  '
Particle " '
Anti Particle %
 " '
Central Attraction <. ;!'
Gravitation !'

(D)
Incident 6%
Relative Motion   
Bubble Chamber + $'
Electromagnetic Induction   BC 6
Diffraction %
(%)
Function %

274
Thermodynamic  %
Impulse E%
Work Function #B %
Invariance B %
(!)
Atom $!
()
Nuclear Films  2
Schematic Diagram   A " 

(.)
Angle .
Rotation Angle % .
Complex Angle %+ .
Real Angle ++ .
Momentum "A.
())
Velocity 
Relative Velocity   
Group Velocity ' 
Phase Velocity   
Plane Surface <  F
Light Year 8

Closed Surface 2B F
Conducting Wire #- 
Drift Velocity ,' 
Permittivity of Medium  
Permittivity of Space  

275
(G)
Charge 
Source Charge %- 
Test Charge A 
Work #B
Light Ray 8
3(
Moving Charge  
Field Intensity #' $%
Stationary Charge  
Linear Charge  A 
Point Charge  + 
Figure #
( )
Energy 
Kinetic Energy  
Total Energy  
Stationary Energy   
Phase 
Spectrum ,
Exchange Energy % 
Threshold Energy ( 
Potential Energy  
Wave Length ' # 
Gained Energy   
Emitted Energy ( 

(=)
Phenomenon $?=

276
Photoelectric Phenomenon 8
C $?=

(3)
Moment ".
Element -
Matrix Element - -
Current Element  -
Differential Element 
 -
Atomic Number <! %%
Infinitesimal Element B- ? -
Perpendicular <%(
Lepton Number  %%(
Baryon Number  %%(
Strangeness Quantum Number B  %%(

(,)
Vacuum 
Flux *
Potential Difference %C' 2
Photon 
Phase Difference  2
Space :

Four Dimensional Space %(&   :

Proper Time Interval   . $
Interval $
Magnetic Flux   B *

(2)

277
Force $
Central Force . $
Classical Value %+ +
Exchange Force #% $
Gauss's Law ) 
Mass Conservation Law  = 
Energy Conservation Law   = 
Coulomb's Law " 
Lorentz Force ) $
Right-Hand Rule H % $% 
Rod ;


()
Mass 
Atomic Mass ! 
Density 
Current Density  
Linear Charge Density  A  
Surface Charge Density    
Flux Density * 
Vector Quantity C' 
Rest Mass   
Kaon 

(#)
Lepton 
Lambda Hybron ? %

278
(")
Substance $%
Infinity C
Vector I'
Displacement Vector . I'
Capacitor ( 
Field #'
Vector Diagram ?' A
Coefficient #(
Resistance +
Curve H
Conductor #-
Conserved =
Source %-
Electrons Source  %-
Uncertainty Principle + 0%
Electromagnetic Wave   BC '
Spectrometer , 
Equivalent J
Parallel <.
Meson .
Optical Path 8
 
Period !! $%
Mirror $K
Reference Frames % 4 
Equation %(
Transformation Equations # %(

279
Proper ; 
Observer %?
Orbit %
Spaceship 8
 
Laboratory System A 
Center of Mass System  . 
Muon 
Accelerator #'(
Four Vector   I'
Position Vector E
 I'
Point Source  + %-
Transformation Matrix # -
Rotation Matrix % -
Four Velocity     I'
Four Momentum "A.   I'
Four Acceleration #'(   I'
Four Force $+   I'
Debrogly Wave % '
Spherical Wave  '
Plane Wave   '
Observer Position %? E
Retarded Position A> E
()
Relativity  
S.I. Units % % "=
Nucleus $
Neutron 
Neutrino 

280
Origin #- +
Nucleon 
Wave Theory ' =
Telescope =
Coordinates System % "=
Isolated System #.( "=
Diffraction Pattern % 9!
Charge Carriers  
(L?)
Hyperon C
Hydron %C
()
Unit $%
Unit Vector I' $%
Atomic Mass Unit !  $%
Medium 
Conducting Medium # 
Moving Medium  
Stationary Medium  

281
‫المراجع‬

1. Kacser C. Introduction to the special theory of relativity, prentice-Hall


Englewood Cliffs, N.J 1967.

2. Griffths D.J. Introduction to Electrodynamics, Prentice-Hall Inc


Englewood Cliffs 07632, 1981.

3. Reitz J.R. and Milford F.J., Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory


Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1967.

4. Landau L.D. and Lifshitz E.M., Mechanics and Electrodynamics


Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, 1972.

5. Jackson J.D., Classical Electrodynamics, John Wiley and sons Inc.,


1975.

6. Lorrain P. and Carson D. R., Electromagnetic Fields and Waves W.H.


Freeman and Company, 1970.

7. Richard T.Weidner and Robert L.Sells, Elementary Modern Physics,


Allyn & Bacon , Inc. Boston , London,1973.

8. Jerry B Marion,, Physics in the Modern World, Jerry Academic Press


New York ,1976.

9. Jayorear, Fundamental Physics, 2nd edition, John Wily & Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1967.

10.Elmer E Anderson, Introduction to Modern Physics, Dryden Press, New


York, 1982.

11.Hugh D Young, University Physics, Addison Wesley publishing


Company, New York, 1990.

12.Raymond A .Serway, College Physics, Palm Press Inc., 1992.

282
‫‪ .13‬د‪ .‬ناظم حسون العطار‪ ،‬د‪ .‬راشد الراشد‪ ،‬أسس الكھربائية والمغناطيسية‪ ،‬مطبعة دار الحكمة‪-‬‬
‫البصرة‪. 1990 ،‬‬

‫‪ .14‬ادواردم‪ .‬بيرسل‪ ،‬ترجمة األستاذ الدكتور محمد أمين سليمان والدكتورة ليلى سعدو باتومال‪،‬‬
‫الكھربائية والمغناطيسية‪ -‬مقرر بيركلي في الفيزياء – المجلد الثاني‪ ،‬الدار الدولية للنشر‬
‫والتوزيع‪.1992 ،‬‬

‫‪283‬‬
 
  
       
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