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Introduction To Resonant

Circuits
University of Mewar chittorgarh
Presented by Gopal Patwa
Batch - A{A-1}
Roll no . 10MUBEEE032

wlg
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Resonance In Electric Circuits

Any passive electric circuit will resonate if it has an inductor
and capacitor.
Resonance is characterized by the input voltage and current
being in phase. The driving point impedance (or admittance)
is completely real when this condition exists.

In this presentation we will consider (a) series resonance, and
(b) parallel resonance.
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Series Resonance
Consider the series RLC circuit shown below.
R L
C
+
_
I
V
V = V
M
Z0
The input impedance is given by:
1
( ) Z R j wL
wC
= +
The magnitude of the circuit current is;
2 2
| |
1
( )
m
V
I I
R wL
wC
= =
+
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Series Resonance
Resonance occurs when,
1
wL
wC
=
At resonance we designate w as w
o
and write;
1
o
w
LC
=
This is an important equation to remember. It applies to both series
And parallel resonant circuits.
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Series Resonance
The magnitude of the current response for the series resonance circuit
is as shown below.
m
V
R
2
m
V
R
w
|I|
w
o
w
1
w
2

Bandwidth:
BW = w
BW
= w
2
w
1

Half power point
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Series Resonance
The peak power delivered to the circuit is;
2
m
V
P
R
=
The so-called half-power is given when
2
m
V
I
R
=
.
We find the frequencies, w
1
and w
2
, at which this half-power
occurs by using;
2 2
1
2 ( ) R R wL
wC
= +
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Series Resonance
After some insightful algebra one will find two frequencies at which
the previous equation is satisfied, they are:
2
1
1
2 2
R R
w
L L LC
| |
= + +
|
\ .
and
2
2
1
2 2
R R
w
L L LC
| |
= + +
|
\ .
The two half-power frequencies are related to the resonant frequency by
1 2 o
w w w =
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Series Resonance
The bandwidth of the series resonant circuit is given by;
2 1 b
R
BW w w w
L
= = =
We define the Q (quality factor) of the circuit as;
1 1
o
o
w L L
Q
R w RC R C
| |
= = =
|
\ .
Using Q, we can write the bandwidth as;
o
w
BW
Q
=
These are all important relationships.
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Series Resonance
An Observation:
If Q > 10, one can safely use the approximation;
1 2
2 2
o o
BW BW
w w and w w = = +
These are useful approximations.
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Series Resonance
An Observation:
By using Q = w
o
L/R in the equations for w
1
and w
2
we have;
2
2
1 1
1
2 2
o
w w
Q Q
(
| |
(
= + +
|
(
\ .

2
1
1 1
1
2 2
o
w w
Q Q
(
| |
(
= + +
|
(
\ .

and
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Series Resonance
In order to get some feel for how the numerical value of Q influences
the resonant and also get a better appreciation of the s-plane, we consider
the following example.
It is easy to show the following for the series RLC circuit.
2
1
( ) 1
1
( ) ( )
s
I s
L
R
V s Z s
s s
L LC
= =
+ +
In the following example, three cases for the about transfer function
will be considered. We will keep w
o
the same for all three cases.
The numerator gain,k, will (a) first be set k to 2 for the three cases, then
(b) the value of k will be set so that each response is 1 at resonance.
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Series Resonance
An Example Illustrating Resonance:
The 3 transfer functions considered are:
Case 1:
Case 2:
Case 3:
2
2 400
ks
s s + +
2
5 400
ks
s s + +
2
10 400
ks
s s + +
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Series Resonance
An Example Illustrating Resonance:
The poles for the three cases are given below.
Case 1:
Case 2:
Case 3:
2
2 400 ( 1 19.97)( 1 19.97) s s s j s j + + = + + +
2
5 400 ( 2.5 19.84)( 2.5 19.84) s s s j s j + + = + + +
2
10 400 ( 5 19.36)( 5 19.36) s s s j s j + + = + + +
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Series Resonance
Observe the denominator of the CE equation.
2
1 R
s s
L LC
+ +
Compare to actual characteristic equation for Case 1:
2
2 400 s s + +
2
400
o
w =
20 w=
2
R
BW
L
= =
10
o
w
Q
BW
= =
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Series Resonance
Poles and Zeros In the s-plane:
s-plane
jw axis
o axis
0
0
20
-20
x
x
x
x
x
x
( 3) (2) (1)
( 3) (2) (1)
-5 -2.5 -1
Note the location of the poles
for the three cases. Also note
there is a zero at the origin.
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Series Resonance
The frequency response starts at the origin in the s-plane.
At the origin the transfer function is zero because there is a
zero at the origin.
As you get closer and closer to the complex pole, which
has a j parts in the neighborhood of 20, the response starts
to increase.
The response continues to increase until we reach w = 20.
From there on the response decreases.
We should be able to reason through why the response
has the above characteristics, using a graphical approach.
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Series Resonance
Matlab Program For The Study:

% name of program is freqtest.m
% written for 202 S2002, wlg
%CASE ONE DATA:
K = 2;
num1 = [K 0];
den1 = [1 2 400];

num2 = [K 0];
den2 = [1 5 400];

num3 = [K 0];
den3 = [1 10 400];

w = .1:.1:60;

grid
H1 = bode(num1,den1,w);
magH1=abs(H1);

H2 = bode(num2,den2,w);
magH2=abs(H2);

H3 = bode(num3,den3,w);
magH3=abs(H3);

plot(w,magH1, w, magH2, w,magH3)
grid
ylabel('Amplitude')
gtext('Q = 10, 4, 2')

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0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Q = 10, 4, 2
Series Resonance
Program Output
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Series Resonance
From earlier work:
2
1 2
1 1
, 1
2 2
o
w w w
Q Q
(
| |
(
= + +
|
(
\ .

With Q = 10, this gives;
w
1
2
Compare this to the approximation:
w
1
= w
0
BW = 20 1 = 19 rad/sec, w
2
So basically we can find all the series resonant parameters
if we are given the numerical form of the CE of the transfer
function.
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Series Resonance
Next Case: Normalize all responses to 1 at w
o

0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Q = 10, 4, 2
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Series Resonance
Three dB Calculations:
Now we use the analytical expressions to calculate w
1
and w
2.
We will then compare these values to what we find from the
Matlab simulation.
Using the following equations with Q = 2,
(
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
2
1
2
1
,
2
2 1
Q
w
Q
w w w
o o

we find,
w
1
w
2
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Series Resonance
Checking w
1
and w
2

15.3000 0.6779
15.4000 0.6871
15.5000 0.6964
15.6000 0.7057
15.7000 0.7150
15.8000 0.7244

w
1

25.3000 0.7254
25.4000 0.7195
25.5000 0.7137
25.6000 0.7080
25.7000 0.7023
25.8000 0.6967
25.9000 0.6912

w
2

This verifies the previous calculations.
Now we shall look at Parallel Resonance.
(cut-outs from the simulation)
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Parallel Resonance
Background
Consider the circuits shown below:
I
R L C
V
I
R
L
C V
(

+ + =
jwL
jwC
R
V I
1 1
(

+ + =
jwC
jwL R I V
1
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(

+ + =
jwL
jwC
R
V I
1 1
(

+ + =
jwC
jwL R I V
1
We notice the above equations are the same provided:
V I
R
R
1
C L
If we make the inner-change,
then one equation becomes
the same as the other.

For such case, we say the one
circuit is the dual of the other.
Series Resonance
Duality
If we make the inner-change,
then one equation becomes
the same as the other.

For such case, we say the one
circuit is the dual of the other.
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Parallel Resonance
Background
What this means is that for all the equations we have
derived for the parallel resonant circuit, we can use
for the series resonant circuit provided we make
the substitutions:
R
be replaced R
1
L by replaced C
C by replaced L
What this means is that for all the equations we have
derived for the parallel resonant circuit, we can use
for the series resonant circuit provided we make
the substitutions:
What this means is that for all the equations we have
derived for the parallel resonant circuit, we can use
for the series resonant circuit provided we make
the substitutions:
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Parallel Resonance
Parallel Resonance
Series Resonance
R
L w
Q
O
=
LC
w
O
1
=
LC
w
O
1
=
RC w Q
o
=
L
R
w w w BW
BW
= = = ) (
1 2
RC
w BW
BW
1
= =
w
2 1
, w w
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
LC L
R
L
R
w w
1
2 2
,
2
2 1

(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
LC RC RC
w w
1
2
1
2
1
,
2
2 1

2 1
, w w
(
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
2
1
2
1
,
2
2 1
Q Q
w w w
o

(
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
2
1
2
1
,
2
2 1
Q Q
w w w
o

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Resonance
Example 1: Determine the resonant frequency for the circuit below.
jwRC LC w
jwL LRC w
jwC
jwL R
jwC
R jwL
Z
N I
+
+
=
+ +
+
=
) 1 (
) (
1
)
1
(
2
2
At resonance, the phase angle of Z must be equal to zero.
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jwRC LC w
jwL LRC w
+
+
) 1 (
) (
2
2
Resonance
Analysis
For zero phase;
LC w
wRC
LCR w
wL
2 2
1 ( ) (
=

This gives;
1
2 2 2 2
= C R w LC w
or
) (
1
2 2
C R LC
w
o

=
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Parallel Resonance
Example 2:
A parallel RLC resonant circuit has a resonant frequency admittance of
2x10
-2
S(mohs). The Q of the circuit is 50, and the resonant frequency is
10,000 rad/sec. Calculate the values of R, L, and C. Find the half-power
frequencies and the bandwidth.
First, R = 1/G = 1/(0.02) = 50 ohms.
Second, from
R
L w
Q
O
=
, we solve for L, knowing Q, R, and w
o
to
find L = 0.25 H.
Third, we can use
F
x R w
Q
C
O
100
50 000 , 10
50
= = =
A parallel RLC resonant circuit has a resonant frequency admittance of
2x10
-2
S(mohs). The Q of the circuit is 50, and the resonant frequency is
10,000 rad/sec. Calculate the values of R, L, and C. Find the half-power
frequencies and the bandwidth.
A series RLC resonant circuit has a resonant frequency admittance of
2x10
-2
S(mohs). The Q of the circuit is 50, and the resonant frequency is
10,000 rad/sec. Calculate the values of R, L, and C. Find the half-power
frequencies and the bandwidth.
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Parallel Resonance
Example 2: (continued)
Fourth: We can use
sec / 200
50
10 1
4
x
Q
w
w
o
BW
= = =
and
Fifth: Use the approximations;
w
1
= w
o
- 0.5w
BW
= 10,000 100 = 9,900 rad/sec
w
2
= w
o
- 0.5w
BW
= 10,000 + 100 = 10,100 rad/sec
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End of Lesson
Basic Laws of Circuits
Resonant Circuits
Circuits