# Physical Science: Tables & Formulas

SI Base Units
Base Quantity Amount of substance Electric current Length Luminous intensity Mass !ime !emperature Unit Name mole ampere meter candela kilogram second el"in Unit Symbol Mol A M Cd g S

SI Derived Units
#eri"ed Quantity Name \$Symbol%
E&pression in terms of other S' units E&pression in terms of S' base units

Area S(uare meter \$m)% *olume Cubic meter \$m+% Speed,"elocity Meter per second \$m,s% Acceleration Meter per second s(uared \$m,s)% -re(uency .ert/ \$./% -orce Ne2ton \$N% 4ressure5 stress 4ascal \$4a% Energy5 2ork5 (uantity of heat 6oule \$6% 4o2er 7att \$7% Electric charge Coulomb \$C% Electric potential difference *olt \$*% Electric resistance 8hm \$9% Prefixes used to designate multi les of a base unit
Prefix tera giga mega kilo centi milli micro Nano pico Symbol T " M k c m u n p Meaning trillion billion Million T%ousan& 'ne %un&re&t% 'ne t%ousan&t% 'ne milliont% 'ne billiont% 'ne trilliont% Multiple of base unit 1 !!! !!! !!! !!!

N3m) N3 m 6,s 00 7,A *,A

s01 m 3 kg 3 s0) m01 3 kg 3 s0) m) 3 kg 3 s0) m) 3 kg 3 s0+ s3A m2·kg·s-3·A-1 m2·kg·s-3·A-2
Scientific Notation 1!12 1!# 1!\$ 1!3 1!-2 1!-3 1!-\$ 1!-# 1!-12

1 !!! !!! !!! 1 !!! !!! 1 !!! 1(1!! or )!1 1(1!!! or )!!1 1(1!!!!!! or )!!!!!1 1(1!!!!!!!!! or )!!!!!!!!1 1(1!!!!!!!!!!!! or)!!!!!!!!!!!1

In general! "hen converting from base units #m! l! g! etc\$ or derived units #m%!m&! m's! ()! *! +! ,! etc\$ to a multi le greater #-ilo! mega! giga! or tera\$ than the base or derived unit. then divide by the factor/ For exam le: 01m 2 01'0111-m 2 0'011 -m 2 /10-m/ 3hen converting from base units or derived units to a multi le smaller #centi! milli! micro! nano\$ than the base or derived unit. then multi ly by the factor/ For exam le: 01m 2 01 x 011cm 2 0111cm/

Subatomic Particles:
Particle Proton Neutron -lectron *%arge ,1 ! -1 Mass 1 1 ! +ocation nucleus nucleus 'utsi&e t%e nucleus

4ommon 4ations:
.on Name /symbol0 +it%ium /+i0 So&ium /Na0 Potassium /10 2ubi&ium /2b0 *esium /*s0 3eryllium /3e0 Magnesium /Mg0 *alcium /*a0 Strontium /Sr0 3arium /3a0 Aluminum /Al0 .on *%arge 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3,

4ommon 5nions:
-lement Name /symbol0 4luorine *%lorine 3romine .o&ine 'xygen Sulfur Nitrogen .on Name /symbol0 4luori&e *%lori&e 3romi&e .o&i&e 'xi&e Sulfi&e Nitri&e .on *%arge 1111223-

4ommon Polyatomic Ions:
.on Name *arbonate *%lorate *yani&e 6y&roxi&e Nitrate .on 4ormula *'32*l'3*N'6N'3.on Name Nitrite P%osp%ate P%osp%ite Sulfate Sulfite .on 4ormula N'2P'53P'33S'52S'32-

Prefixes for *aming 4ovalent 4om ounds
Number of Atoms 1 2 3 5 : Prefix Mono 7i Tri Tetra penta Number of Atoms \$ 8 9 # 1! Prefix 6exa 6epta 'cta Nona &eca

Ty es of 4hemical 6eactions:
Type of reaction *ombustion Synt%esis 7ecomposition Single 2eplacement 7ouble 2eplacement "enerali;e& formula 6* , 8)  62' , *'2 A , 3  A3 A3  A , 3 A , 3*  A* , 3 A< , 3=  A= , 3< Specific -xample 2*26\$ , 8'2  \$62' , 5*'2 2Na , *l2  2Na*l 262'  262 , '2 2Al , 3*u*l2  3*u , 2Al*l3
4b\$N8+%) :
)

Cr8;  4bCr8; : ) N8+

The 7ffects of 4hange on 78uilibrium in a 6eversible 6eaction #9e 4h:telier;s Princi le\$
*on&ition Temperature Pressure *oncentration -ffect .ncreasing temperature fa>ors t%e reaction t%at absorbs energy /en&ot%ermic0 .ncreasing pressure fa>ors t%e reaction t%at pro&uces less gas) .ncreasing conc) of one substance fa>ors reaction t%at pro&uces less of t%at substance

4ommon 5cids
Aci& 6y&roc%loric /muriatic0 aci& Nitric aci& Sulfuric aci& Acetic aci& *itric aci& 4ormic 4ormula 6*l 6N'3 62S'5 *63*''6 *\$69'8 6*''6 Strengt% strong strong strong ?eak ?eak ?eak

4ommon Bases
3ase Potassium %y&roxi&e /potas%0 So&ium %y&roxi&e /lye0 *alcium %y&roxi&e /lime0 ammonia 4ormula 1'6 Na'6 *a/'602 N63 Strengt% strong strong strong ?eak

( scale
Strong aci&s  more aci&ic  ! 1 2 3 5 ?eak aci&s : \$ Neutral @eak bases 8 9 #  More basic  1! 11 12 strong bases 13 15

2a&iation Type Alp%a particle 3eta particle "amma Symbol 5 2 6e ! -1 e B *%arge ,2 -1 ! Nuclear -Auation
Ac  98 2214r , 15 15 ! \$ *  8 N , -1 e
9# 22: 2 5

6e

n(a

78uations:
Density 2 mass < volume #D 2 m'v\$ 6earranged: mass 2 Density x ,olume density Units: cm or m9
&

Units: g'cm& or g'm9 Units: grams

or

,olume 2 mass <

=oles 2 mass #grams\$ x =olar =ass #grams ' mol\$ atomic mass in grams 7nergy 2 mass x #s eed of light\$% 7 2 mc%

=olar =ass 2

Units: >oules

S eed 2 distance < time

v2d<t

Units: meters ' second Units: meters

6earranged: distance 2 s eed x time s eed Units: seconds

or

time 2 distance <

=omentum 2 mass x velocity
meters ' #second\$%

2mxv

Units: -g

/

m's

5cceleration 2 #final velocity . initial velocity\$ < time 6earranged: ?v 2 acceleration x time a Units: seconds
Units: meters'second

a 2 ?v < tUnits: or time 2 ?v <

Force 2 mass x acceleration F 2 m x a

Units: -g / m's%

or *e"tons #*\$

6earranged: mass 2 Force < acceleration Units: g or -g Force < mass Units: meters ' #second\$
%

or

acceleration 2

3eight 2 mass x gravity #@/A m's% \$

Units: -g / m's%

or *e"tons #*\$

3or- 2 Force x distance 3 2 F x d

Units: +oules #+\$ Units: *e"tons

6earranged: Force 2 3or- < distance Force Units: meters

or

distance 2 3or- <

Po"er 2 3or- < time
Units: seconds #s\$

P23<t

Units: +'s or

3atts #3\$

6earranged: 3or- 2 Po"er x time

Units: +oules #+\$

or

time 2 3or- < Po"er

=echanical 5dvantage 2 But ut Force < In ut Force #6esistance Force < 7ffort Force\$ or =echanical 5dvantage 2 In ut Distance < But ut Distance < 6esistance Distance\$ xh #7ffort Distance

Cravitational Potential 7nergy 2 mass x gravity #@/A m's%\$ x height CP7 2 m x g
Units: +oules

6earranged: m 2 CP7 < #g / h\$

h 2 CP7 < #m / g\$ D7 2 /F mv% v2
Units: +oules

Dinetic 7nergy 2 E mass x #velocity\$% 6earranged: m 2 %D7 < v%

7fficiency of a =achine 2 #Useful 3or- But ut < 3or- In ut\$ x 011

Tem erature 4onversions
4elsius.Fahrenheit 4onversion: Fahrenheit tem erature 2 #0/A x 4elsius tem erature\$ G &%/1 1 F 2 0/A #4\$ G &%1 4elsius tem erature 2 #Fahrenheit tem erature H &%\$ < 0/A 0/A 4elsius.Delvin 4onversion: Delvin 2 4elsius G %I& 4elsius 2 Delvin .%I& 4 2 #F H &%\$ <

S ecific (eat 78uation: 7nergy 2 mass x S ecific (eat ,alue x change in tem erature

72

m/c/?t

Units: +oules Units: -g

6earranged: mass 2 7nergy < #c x ? T\$ mass \$ Units: D or 4
1

? T 2 7nergy < #c x

3ave S eed 78uation: 3ave;s S eed 2 fre8uency x "avelength v2fx<
Units: m's Units= .ert/

6earranged: Fre8uency 2 3ave S eed < "avelength f 2 v < < 7a"elength > 3ave S eed < fre8uency < 2 v <f

Units= meters , second

Speed of light \$in a "acuum% > +3? & 1?@ m,s \$+??5???5??? m,s% Speed of Sound \$in air at )A ?C > +;B m,s Speed of Sound \$in 2ater at )A ?C% > 1;C? m,s Speed of Sound \$in iron at )A ?C% > A??? m,s

8hm;s La2 E(uation= Current > *oltage < 6esistance I2,'6
Units: 5m eres #5\$ Units: ,olts #,\$

6earranged: ,oltage 2 4urrent x 6esistance , 2 I x 6 6esistance 2 ,oltage < 4urrent 6 2 , ' I 7lectric Po"er 78uation: Po"er 2 4urrent x ,oltage ,ariations: P 2 I% x 6 P 2 ,% ' 6 ,2PxI I2P<, P2Ix,

Units: Bhms #J\$

Units: "atts #3\$ or Dilo"atts #-3\$

6earranged: ,oltage 2 Po"er < 4urrent 4urrent 2 Po"er < ,oltage

Units: ,olts #,\$ Units: 5m eres #5\$

7lectromagnetic S ectrum: 6elates the energy! fre8uency and "avelength of various ty es of electromagnetic "aves #radio! T,! micro! infrared! visible! ultraviolet! K.ray! and gamma\$/ 5s energy and fre8uency increase the "avelength decreases/

• • • • • • • • • • • •

AM radio 0 A+A kilohert/ to 13D megahert/ Short 2a"e radio 0 bands from A3C megahert/ to )B31 megahert/ Citi/ens band \$CB% radio 0 )B3CB megahert/ to )D3;1 megahert/ !ele"ision stations 0 A; to @@ megahert/ for channels ) through B -M radio 0 @@ megahert/ to 1?@ megahert/ !ele"ision stations 0 1D; to ))? megahert/ for channels D through 1+ Earage door openers5 alarm systems5 etc3 0 Around ;? megahert/ Standard cordless phones= Bands from ;? to A? megahert/ Baby monitors= ;C megahert/ Fadio controlled airplanes= Around D) megahert/5 2hich is different from333 Fadio controlled cars= Around DA megahert/ 7ildlife tracking collars= )1A to ))? megahert/

• • • • • •

M'F space station= 1;A megahert/ and ;+D megahert/ Cell phones= @); to @;C megahert/ Ne2 C??0M./ cordless phones= 8b"iously around C?? megahert/G Air traffic control radar= CB? to 15)1A megahert/ Elobal 4ositioning System= 15))D and 15ADA megahert/ #eep space radio communications= ))C? megahert/ to )+?? megahert/