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GRAMMAR ........................................................................................................................1/20 GRAMMAR KEY.............................................................................................................16/20
2.#!e 2ou 1o a computer! – "es# I have.0#!e 1o a computer. 'uxiliary – when as*ing about the object. how): %o auxiliary – when as*ing about the subject: (0o made the ca*e! – Rosie made it. why. which.e c#n type. manner. verb to be: b. Yes/+o . $ %o# they didn&t. (hey )inished yesterday. modal verbs: c.late! – "es# you are. It will help you to construct English sentences: S Subj ec I He V !erb saw passed O objec Robert the exam easily. . /#n 0e type! – "es# he can. (0ere does he wor*! +reposition at the end o) the sentence: (0o do you live 6i 0! (0# are you loo*ing # ! (0# &s the weather %i7e! 1 $ 20 Version: 4.ues ions 'usin1 what. have got: 'uxiliary: other verbs: .1 6/12/2012 .Grammar GRAMMAR SENTENCE STRUCTURE Remember the word SVOMPT. . place or time: (0o did you meet! – I met P#u%. $ %o# you are not.ues ions: Inversion: a. where. who.#" late. M "#nner $%#ce at school P i"e on Monday. $ %o# he can&t. when. (05 . A" . . – 3i4 they )inish yesterday! – "es# they did. T &ues ions: '() V S 'V) O M ** what – who – when – where – why – which – how P T 1. $ %o# I haven&t.
.ercises: 1. b.hat 4oes s0e 6#n ! /an he help us! 3o 2ou 7no6 who 0ose $eo$%e #re! -no inversion.....11111111111111.... -no auxiliary. Arr#n1e 0ese 6or4s in 0e ri10 or4er a......-yes$no 0uestions....... decomposes $ acid $ at once $ carbonic 1111111111111111111......ues ions: .4on9 7no6 what s0e 6#n s... Arr#n1e 0ese 6or4s in 0e ri10 or4er a.. till $ a)ternoon $ wor*ed $ 3 o&cloc* $ the students $ this 11111111111111111111111111111111.. 2 $ 20 Version: 4........ 4.... I don&t *now i:/60e 0er he can help us... c. c.. the pro2ect $ when $ )inish $ the students $ did $ ! 111111111111111 d.ould you li*e tea or co))ee! – (ea# please. 2. A% ern# i!e ...... saw $ the experiment $ who $ ! 1111111111111111111111... -n4irec .... e..11. climate $ models $ warming $ indicate $ computer $ o) $ changes $ conse0uences $ o) $ some $ Earth $ a 1111111111111111111111111111111111.. b... electricity $ water power $ can $ ma*e $ cheap 1111111111111111..Grammar 8.. ...... h...... E. g... en2oyed $ the lectures $ have $ the students 11111111111111111...1 6/12/2012 .... your article $ I $ in $ 0uic*ly $ last night $ bed $ read 11111111111111... gases $ to $ dioxide $ allow $ carbon $ sun&s $ and $ enter $ rays $ other $ the 111111111111111111111111111111111.ho #re 0ose $eo$%e! .... this chapter $ you should study $ more care)ully 111111111111111... d.. smo*e $ students $ in the lab $ may $ ! 1111111111111111111.ues ions 'c0oice): .. in the lab $ you shouldn&t wor* $ at night 111......... ).
4. M#7e . 111111111111111 c. ). 111111111111. (he condensate )lows down the column111111111111111111.11111111 d... 'll studies proceed on the basis o) a curriculum o) studies. 11111111111111111111111.. in 7uly and 'ugust 111111111111111111111111111 c. (he scientist has )ound a new chemical element. 'cademic "ears 111111111111111111111111111.Grammar e. I met 4r 5eusse last night. < #n4 0en 6ri e . 4avid too* the pictures.. (he undergraduate studies ta*e three years )or the 8achelor 4egree and )ive )or the Master 4egree. (hese may be granted either automatically )or excellent study results or on the basis o) excellent research achievements# cultural or sports activities# and also to aid in the cases o) serious social problems. b.. g. a.. 8. In addition to these# the Institute provides also postgraduate courses )or +h4 students. (his process occurs naturally under certain conditions. b. 1111111111111111. )...111111111111111.ues ions :or 0e #ns6ers (he educational programme is divided into 'cademic "ears# each year being divided into two semesters# with the main vacation in 7uly and 'ugust. e. oxide $ released $ in $ coal $ nitrous $ o) $ burning $ is $ the 1111111111111111111111111111111111.. 5tudents may obtain certain scholarships. Graduates o) the Institute usually )ind employment in plants and research laboratories o) chemical and )ood industries as well as in various research institutes. h. Re#4 0e e. destroy $ can $ micro organisms $ coo*ing $ the $ only $ completely 1111111111111111111111111111111111. 4istillation consists in vapori6ing a substance1111111111111111..1 6/12/2012 . (he researchers published their new )indings1111111111111111. 't the end o) each semester every student must obtain a certain number o) credits and pass several examinations.ues ions o #s7 #bou 0e un4er%ine4 s # e"en s usin1 who< what or where a...e will have to redistill the compound111. . three years 111111111111111111111111111111 8 $ 20 Version: 4.
*oda< – the most important )act here is the car that is produced by . chemical and )ood 111111111111111111111111111 =or "ore $r#c ice see: L.G. automatically 11111111111111111111111111111 g.ing )orm o) the verb :to be<. S ruc ure: )he letter 5ub2ect -which is not the agent. !"9 #a$mond %urph$: English Grammar in &se. Longman 199 . pp. pp. 'atherine /alter: 0o.. English passive voice has the same structure as the /6ech one: Po4"> 4opis )he letter S%o!eso ?b@ A ve spr>vn?m @ase 2e$byl atd.. is5-as etc.English /or1s.1 6/12/2012 .Grammar d. (hat is why scienti)ic texts tend to use passive voice structures almost everywhere to ma*e sentences sound more ob2ective and avoid using personal pronouns -we# they etc.Alexander: Longman English Grammar Practice. PBCDes C r$nE FTBe C !#r !@Gn#"o!E0o s%o!es# naps>n -ritten (he sub2ect o) the sentence is not an agent.hen the continuous )orm is needed# we insert :bein1< . between the verb Dto be: and the content verb.*oda.6 -ritten . )he letter 6 is5-as5has been etc. 2x3ord 1994. postgraduate courses )or +h4 students 1111111111111111111 e. pp.-an . !1 "!11 PASSIVE VOICE (he passive voice is widely used in scienti)ic texts due to the )act that what goes )irst in the English sentence is considered to be the most important -as the intonation o)ten shows.. 4 $ 20 Version: 4.*oda<# which does not sound very ob2ective = but i) we say: :' new car is produced by . 9or example# when we write or say: :. )hird edition. which are not appropriate.. 1 !" 1 + %ichael .. In /6ech we use passive structures less )re0uently. is A verb to be A in appropriate tense )orm -ritten Brd )orm o) the content verb Cnly the verb A o beH changes according to the tense we want to create. 'ambridge ! (. 9*"99.*oda produces a new car< – we somehow emphasi6e the word :. every student 11111111111111111111111111111 ).
he is as1ed this 8uestion 8uite o3ten. . )he$ are supposed to be coming soon. I $ 20 Version: 4. 5he deleted all her experimental results by accident. 5he should have per)ormed the tests more care)ully.. – again# the )orm o) the verb :to be< expresses the tense# in this case we used the )orm :is< )or the present tense. 5he has sent us new laboratory records..Grammar )he letter 6 is 6 being 6-ritten -now. E. Example: )hat letter has been -ritten -ith a blue pencil b$ Peter. 8yla ta smEs dostate@nE ochla6ena! 4ruhou Ianci uH ni*dy nedostal. 5tudents have spilt a dangerous chemical. Other examples: . Ro6lili *yselinu po cel?m laboratornFm stole.he -as believed to have died there. Tr#ns%# e usin1 0e $#ssi!e !oice in 0e #$$ro$ri# e ense a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ )$ g$ h$ i$ 2$ (yto l>t*y se 6de nevyr>bE2F. Gdy byla 6aloHena tato I*ola! (a*ov?to vEci nel6e tolerovat. %eo@e*>valo se# He to vybouchne.ercises: 1. 7 -as given a nice present. . (en program se pr>vE instalu2e. /o tam 2e naps>no!. My teacher has explained this to me. etc. Tr#ns:or" 0e :o%%o6in1 sen ences in o $#ssi!e !oice a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ )$ g$ h$ i$ 2$ He has bro*en another vessel. 5he has made a huge mista*e in her calculations. (he )ilter has caught poisonous substances.e prepared a new compound yesterday. JF se# He tato slou@enina 2e prudce 2edovat>.1 6/12/2012 . S ruc ure o: 0e $#ssi!e !oice in co"bin# ion 6i 0 0e in:ini i!e '60ic0 is no use4 in /Gec0): 0e is said to live here -it is said that he lives here – the sub2ect o) the second sentence replaces :it< )rom the )irst sentence and the rest is connected in the )orm o) in)initive. I) we want to add an agent to the passive voice# we place it at the end o) the sentence using the preposition :b2H< or :6i 0H i) we express a means )or per)orming the action. 2. Knstable conditions in)luenced our experiment.
-. Tr#ns:or" 0e :o%%o6in1 sen ences in o 0e $#ssi!e J in:ini i!e Ex. N$ Non%&e"inin# relati$e cla'ses bring additional but non essential in)ormation -)acts# opinions. a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ )$ g$ h$ i$ 2$ It is believed that this new discovery can save many lives. It is estimated that the experiment has )ailed due to incorrect temperature settings.M GR'9# (. It is thought that they have made a real brea*through in the research o) radioactivity. +op singers who still sing about love are boring.# so they are mar*ed with commas and could be easily le)t out without the main sentence losing its meaning. E. 6 $ 20 Version: 4. It is expected that this element can occur in two allotropic modi)ications. English Grammar in Kse# /ambridge Kniversity +ress# units 3L – 33 +E(ER5# 5. =or "ore $r#c ice see: MKR+H"# R. It is reported that all the devices have been calibrated )or our experiment. It was said he had really discovered seven new substances. It was supposed that citric acid does not display any harm)ul e))ects..ould this ma*e sense i) I 2ust said: D(his is the man:! . His brother who lives in Oondon is a doctor. and there)ore cannot be omitted and are not separated with commas.#"$%e: A4 1/ (his is the man I met yesterday -. /vi@ebnice anglic*? gramati*y# +olyglot# unit LB RE ATIVE C AUSES L$ de3ining relative clauses N$ non"de3ining relative clauses L$ !e"inin# relati$e clauses are an essential part o) the message o) the sentence -they clearly identi)y which person or thing we are tal*ing about. 7t is said he -ill return soon.ithout a context we need to de)ine who he is.Grammar 8.. It is *nown that many elements react this way.e mean speci)ically those who sing about love# not all pop singers. 9 0e is said to return soon. 5ometimes# the decision i) the clause is de)ining or not is up to the author only# because it is very sub2ective and depends on what we want to say. -he probably has more brothers because the author considers it necessary to say that it is that brother who lives in Oondon and he does not want to omit this in)ormation.1 6/12/2012 . It is expected this compound will not react. It is assumed this company does not use preservatives o) any *ind.
In non de)ining relative clauses ? 0# A is not used# so we stic* to ?60oA )or people and ?60ic0A )or ob2ects and we 4o no %e#!e the relative pronoun out o) the sentence... %otice: (0# cannot be used as a relative pronoun. (hat reaction should be carried out.. (he clause Dwho still sing about love: is unnecessary extra in)ormation.hich may also be used in non de)ining clauses to re)er to the whole o) the main sentence -meaning here /6ech DcoH:.. His brother# who lives in Oondon# is a doctor. .: 1ni3e 9 A 1ni3e is a tool -hich.e mean all pop singers. However D60oA is pre)erred )or people and in de)ining clauses ? 0# A is usually used )or ob2ects. 5ome students came late.# e. (hat new e0uipment was bought last year. relative clause E. I visited on 5aturday has 2ust called me. +op singers# who still sing about love# are boring. It is a pronoun that introduces ob2ect clauses. Cther relative pronouns li*e 60ere< 60ose< 60en and 602 can also be used to open a relative clause.Grammar A4 2/ My )riend# who is a very nice person# visited me yesterday -main in)o: My )riend visited me yesterday..1 6/12/2012 . (or4s: Geyboard# scientist# )las*# burner# chemist# test tube# library# steel# bea*er# solution b/ -n $#irs< 0in7 o: #n2 6or4 #n4 4escribe i o 2our :rien4 6i 0ou s#2in1 60# i is< 2our :rien4 6i%% r2 o 1uess 60# 2our 6or4 is< 0en c0#n1e ro%es. 2. ItPs out o) order again. 2r: A doctor is a person -ho. It was really expensive.g. It is sa)e. He told me 60# he did.. %otice: .. ' paper )ell on the )loor. (hey now have less time )or their experiments. My )riend -who.ercises: 1. (he )act that my )riend is a nice person is not necessary )or the meaning o) the main sentence and can be omitted. ob2ect clause He told me e!er2 0in1 ' 0# ) he did. /onnec :o%%o6in1 sen ences in o one usin1 60o< 0# or 60ic0 a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ ' computer has been reinstalled. K $ 20 Version: 4. -. -Here he probably has only one brother# so the sentence Dwho lives in Oondon: is again unnecessary. =or 4escri$ ions use #1#in re%# i!e c%#uses 'i is # 0in1 0# . It was a dra)t o) your pro2ect. -60# Q the thing that# everything that# all that1. Re%# i!e $ronouns used in relative clauses: D60oA )or people# ?60ic0A )or things and ? 0# A )or both categories. e c). He didnPt call me# which was disappointing.. #/ 3escribe 0e :o%%o6in1 objec s #n4 $ersons usin1 re%# i!e c%#uses Ex..g..e can 4ro$ the relative pronoun i) it de)ines 0e objec o) the the clause but that applies to 4e:inin1 c%#uses on%2 – e.
b$ Have you )ound the boo*s 60o/ 0# I lent -to. you! c$ It is the best news 0# /60ic0 came today. i$ I wor* )or a )irm 60ic0/ 0# sells chemicals. It is poisonous. 8. d$ It is the best news 0# /60ic0 I have heard so )ar.1 6/12/2012 . e$ I sent her all the notes 0# /60# I had. g$ I went to a place 60ere/60ic0/ 0# I could wor* undisturbed . h$ (his is the student 60o/ 0# /60ose wor* has won the )irst place in our competition. g$ (hat teacher wor*s next door. 3eci4e 60ic0 re%# i!e $ronoun is correc #n4 60ere i cou%4 be o"i e4 a$ (he man 60o/60ic0 called is our schoolmate. /vi@ebnice anglic*? gramati*y# +olyglot# unit NB (OR! )OR*ATION /o""on noun su::i. He is my colleague. 2$ I couldnPt complete my research# 60o/ 0# /60ic0 was a pity.Grammar )$ ' chemical vaporised.es: er or ist er or er ee ity ing ment ance ence ation ion age hood ness person who does an activity things which do a particular 2ob person who does something person who recieves or experiences the action researcher director chemist stirrer pro2ector employer employee purity# density testing measurement appearance di))erence distillation discussion passage childhood bitterness abstract nouns derived )rom ad2ectives L $ 20 Version: 4.M GR'9# (. English Grammar in Kse# /ambridge Kniversity +ress# units RL – RS +E(ER5# 5. )$ I sent her 0# /60# I had. =or "ore $r#c ice see: MKR+H"# R.
es al ous ic ive y able# ible means Pcan be doneP )ul o)ten means T)ull o)TAthe meaning o) the ad2ective less means TwithoutTA the meaning o) the ad2ective /o""on !erb su::i....Grammar /o""on #4jec i!e su::i. (he 111111 and 11111 can be observed in everyday li)e -evaporate$condense.1 6/12/2012 . 'rchimedes& principle tells us about the 111111 o) water by solid bodies -displace.. (he 111111 o) rain depends on the 111111 and 111111 o) tiny droplets o) water in the cloud -)orm$condense$combine. (he 111111 o) a calcium compound increases the 111111 o) water -contain$hard.es Giving the ad2ective$adverb or verb negative or opposite meaning: un unusual im impossible in invisible il illegal dis disappear mis misunderstand non non metal de decompose 'nother )re0uent pre)ix used in technical language is re meaning again or bac* E.. =or" 0e 6or4s #n4 :i%% 0e s$#ces chemical# physical dangerous toxic# sulphuric relative mil*y washable# visible care)ul# use)ul careless# hopeless solidi)y# puri)y speciali6e separate# condensate redestill# recycle (he 111111 o) water through several )ilter beds and the 111111 o) traces o) chlorine ma*e the water sa)e )or drin*ing purposes -pass$add.es i)y i6e ate /o""on $re:i. M $ 20 Version: 4.cercises: 1.
-n:ini i!nC 7ons ru7ce #) s%o!eso J $Be4"> J in:ini i! s O oO +U. +Ue*lad: Y2istila# He1 2e JFme# He1. Hydrogen is used in the hydrogenation o) li0uid )ats to )orm solid )ats. IN)INITIVE 1. 2. 9CR the reaction to occur. +ouHitF: neste2n? podmEty ve vEtE W@elov? a hlavnF 8. Dna:.e *now Roentgen to have discovered the = rays. =i%% in 0e :o%%o6in1 #b%e #n4 0en use 0e 6or4s in s0or sen ences Jerb produce analyse develop explore research manage 'd2ective %oun -person.: 5he )ound the intensity to be greater. (he compound must be heated -in order $ so as.Grammar 2. -n:ini i! !@s%e47o!@ +U: Hydrogen burns in air to give water vapour. +ouHitF:6pravidla po slovesech o6na@u2FcFch chemic*V dE2# proces nebo rea*ci Dburn# react# combine# unite# dissolve# decompose# boil# polymeri6e# hydrogenate< # 2e ome6en na nE*oli* m>lo sloves . -n:ini i! NDe%o!@ +U.# pUFp. +ouHitF:vEty se ste2nVm podmEtem +U:(he reaction mixture must be heated -in order. .give# )orm# produce# yield. %oun -thing$process. to decompose. -n:ini i! $BC!%#s 7o!@ +U. ob2evil 10 $ 20 Version: 4. +Ue*lad: Da: -tvoUF.# D6a: -tvorby# v6ni*u1.1 6/12/2012 . water to drin* +Ue*lad: voda *$na pitF +U:: the condition to be controlled +Ue*lad: podmFn*a# *ter> se m> sledovat $ mXHe bVt bude sledov>na 4.
. .Grammar b) $o4"> J $#si!nC s%o!eso J in:ini i! +U. B. N. \. (he material to be weighed is transported to and )rom balance room in a desiccator. R. (o prepare synthetic salt place a piece o) sodium in a )las* with chlorine. Murphy: Essential Grammar in Kse# Knits SN# SB -level /. =or "ore $r#c ice see: R..ercises: 1. (he solution o) carbon dioxide in water is )ound to colour blue litmus red# showing it to be a wea* acid. +U.e )ound the value to depend on many various )actors. C AUSES O) PURPOSE. (he reaction mixture must be brought to a su))iciently high temperature )or the reaction to occur. [. . +Ue*lad: +ro*>6alo se# He radium je1.: Radium was proved to be a radioactive element.e *now carbon to occur in two crystalline )orms that di))er in their properties. +Ue*lad: 7e 6n>mo# He toto obdobF b2%o P. E. S. Tr#ns%# e L. 3.1 6/12/2012 . VER+ PATTERNS. (he alloy was )ound to be composed o) silver and gold.:(his period is *nown to have been a period o) many discoveries. (he amount o) water to be added is dependent on the pressure o) the distillation.ERUN!. PARTICIP E 11 $ 20 Version: 4. Murphy:English Grammar in Kse# Knits ZB# Z3 -level 8. Z..
+o es 0elp can be used without to: I helped him do the dishes. . &sed to -or -ould.e o)ten use the verb go 6 "ing )or sports and activities: I go swimming every day.e helped clean up the *itchen.e use have to )or obligation: I have to wear a uni)orm. expresses past habits: I used to smo*e# but I 0uit last year.Grammar Verbs J 5in1 adore can]t stand don]t mind en2oy )inish loo* )orward to Verbs J o J in:ini i!e agree choose dare decide expect )orget help hope learn manage need o))er promise re)use seem want would hate would li*e would love would pre)er Verbs J sb J o J in:ini i!e advise allow as* beg encourage expect help invite need order remind tell want warn would li*e Verbs J sb J doing swimming coo*ing +o es .e didn]t dare disagree with him. I go shopping on wee*ends. me him them someone to do to go to come +o es 12 $ 20 Version: 4.1 6/12/2012 . +o es 0elp and dare can be used without to: . to do to come to coo* .
-a way o) getting to sleep.e were made to wor* hard.. I stopped drin*ing co))ee. Let cannot be used in the passive.#"$%e Version: 4. I tried to sleep. -Q I stopped in order to have a cup o) co))ee. -Q I have a memory o) the past action..1 6/12/2012 . -but it was di))icult. Verbs J 5in1 or o J in:ini i!e -with little or no change in meaning.. I stopped to drin* a co))ee.Grammar in:ini i!e 'no to) help let ma*e )o is used with ma1e in the passive: .. Allo-ed to is used instead: 5he was allowed to leave. begin continue hate li*e love pre)er start intend Verbs J 5in1 or o J in:ini i!e -with a change in meaning. -Q I didn]t )orget to do it.. remember stop try regret )orget her us 4o doing to do doing to do +o es I remember posting the letter. I remembered to post the letter. -Q I gave up the habit. Tr#ns%# ion 18 $ 20 /%#uses o: Pur$ose /onjunc ions E. I tried counting sheep.
5lou@enina musF bVt 6ahUFv>na# aby se ro6loHila. so that (he compound must be heated ^$in order$so as to decompose.: 5team is made by heating water. (he mixture must be heated so that the reaction may$might$can occur.: Gases expand on heating. -J6duch byl vy@erp>n# a ta* se vytvoUilo vacuum. the reaction to occur. in puri3$ing -pUi @em. -ithout -aniH by.. running water -te*oucF voda. (0# is i Q 6podstatnEl? sloveso Tr#ns%# ion podstatnVm 2m?nem nebo in)initivem Pre$osi ion#% $0r#ses b$ heating -@Fm.1 6/12/2012 . Gerun4 '5in1 :or") 0eating is a important )or some substances. dealing with1 -6abVva2FcF se1. 3or st to do st 5mEs musF bVt (he mixture must be 6ahUFv>na# aby doIlo heated -in order.Grammar ste2nV podmEt v obou vEt>ch 2inV podmEt v obou vEt>ch ^ in order to :not to. P#r ici$%e (he air was exhausted# the result being5thus creating a vacuum. so as to :not to. -Q YahUFv>nF 2e dXleHit? pro nE*ter? l>t*y. na *onci vEty: :a# pUi@emH# a ta*< pUF@estF pUFdavnVm 2m?nem 14 $ 20 Version: 4. 5mEs musF bVt 6ahUFv>na# aby mohlo do2Ft * rea*ci.: /oal gives heat without producing much smo*e. )or * rea*ci. -in order. =or "ore $r#c ice see: (0# is i Q pUechodnF* Tr#ns%# ion na 6a@>t*u vEty: s*r6e spo2*y :*dyH# protoHe# 2estliHe<.: /hlorine is used in puri)ying water.. on -v dXsled*u @eho.
her homewor* with a )riend. I needed -see.. 5inead planned -discuss. 8. 7ohn said he en2oys -practice.Grammar http:$$www. English. +ete had )inished -wor*. 8y heating water we may produce steam. 4esiccators are used -to dry. soya mil*. 2. 7oan li*es -discuss.com$wordgames$hotpot 0ui66es$verb patternsN. a new catalytic converter. I used to li*e -study. an airplane.. I will stop -wor*. I planned -try.ercises: 1. Harry 0uit -smo*e..e determine the composition o) an alloy by melting it.com$wordgames$hotpot 0ui66es$verb patternsL. /oal gives heat without producing much smo*e... -go. the reports this wee*. I want -learn.learn english today. .learn english today. Oucy en2oyed -eat. C6one is used in puri)ying water. everyday. in the lab when I am tired. Jessels are used -to store li0uids.e obtain ice -to cool water.oup. on his pro2ect.c6$testy$intermediate$cN^^\LL^N^S (est Jerb patterns N. 1I $ 20 Version: 4. He started -clean. Pr#c ice 1erun4s usin1 0e correc $re$osi ion . 7oe will start -investigate. my advisor yesterday.. the bio dinner last night. ')ter being heated metals become so)t.1 6/12/2012 .html http:$$www. Tr#ns%# e in o /Gec0 /ontinue heating and stirring. /0oose 0e correc $# ern :or 0e 6or4 in 0e br#c7e s 7ohn wants -buy. Hydrogen is used -to manu)acture ammonia.htm http:$$www.help)orenglish. )or good last 7anuary. out my new research.com$elt$global$products$headway$intermediate$a_grammar$unit^Z$hwy_int_u nit^Z_N$ E. -)ly. (he substance evaporated -when exposed to air. (his substance burns -when it is heated. on her vacation in 7une.html http:$$www. 'nne loves -drin*. the laboratory immediately.
ho did you meet last night! .ues ions o #s7 #bou 0e un4er%ine4 s # e"en s usin1 who< what or where a. Arr#n1e 0ese 6or4s in 0e ri10 or4er a. b. . h. ). d. M#7e . e. May students smo*e in the lab! KEY 2. d. d. /arbonic acid decomposes at once. h. c.ues ions :or 0e #ns6ers (he educational programme is divided into 'cademic "ears# each year being divided into two semesters# with the main vacation in 7uly and 'ugust. g. b. e.hat does distillation consist in! 4. I 0uic*ly read your article in bed last night. . b.1 6/12/2012 .ho saw the experiment! (he students have en2oyed the lectures. c. c. . ). "ou shouldn&t wor* in the lab at night. (he students wor*ed till 3 o&cloc* this a)ternoon. g. e. (he undergraduate studies ta*e three years )or the 8achelor 4egree and )ive )or the Master 4egree. /omputer models o) climate changes indicate some conse0uences o) a warming Earth.ater power can ma*e cheap electricity. 16 $ 20 Version: 4.hat will we have to redistill! . 8.hen did the students )inish the pro2ect! . Arr#n1e 0ese 6or4s in 0e ri10 or4er a. ). "ou should study this chapter more care)ully.ho too* the pictures! . < #n4 0en 6ri e . %itrous oxide is released in the burning o) coal. Re#4 0e e.hat occurs naturally under certain conditions! .Grammar GRAMMAR SENTENCE STRUCTURE 1.hat has the scientist )ound! . Cnly coo*ing can destroy the micro organisms completely.ho published their new )indings! .here does the condensate )low! . /arbon dioxide and other gases allow the sun&s rays to enter. In addition to these# the Institute provides also postgraduate courses )or +h4 students.
. it would explode. 't the end o) each semester every student must obtain a certain number o) credits and pass several examinations. 2. this compound is highly poisonous. 'n acid has been spilt all over the laboratory table -by them. 2$ ' huge mista*e has been made in her calculations.hat may certain scholarships be granted )or! g.$(his compound is *nown to be highly poisonous. yesterday. (hese may be granted either automatically )or excellent study results or on the basis o) excellent research achievements# cultural or sports activities# and also to aid in the cases o) serious social problems. d.$It was expected to explode.. 1K $ 20 Version: 4. )$ ' new compound was prepared -by us. e$ +oisonous substances have been caught by the )ilter.hat is the educational programme divided into! .hat is written there! Has this mixture been cooled su))iciently! He has never been given a second chance$' second chance has never been given to him. It is *nown -that.hen was this school established! 5uch things cannot be tolerated. e. c. last lesson. (he program is 2ust being installed. Graduates o) the Institute usually )ind employment in plants and research laboratories o) chemical and )ood industries as well as in various research institutes. 2$ It was expected -that.hen is the main vacation! How long do the undergraduate studies ta*e )or the 8achelor 4egree! ....hat does the Institute also provide! . g$ 'll her experimental results were deleted by accident.. 5tudents may obtain certain scholarships.Grammar 'll studies proceed on the basis o) a curriculum o) studies. . a. . i$ ' dangerous chemical has been spilt -by students.1 6/12/2012 . c$ %ew laboratory records have been sent to us -by her. b$ Cur experiment was in)luenced by unstable conditions. b.ho must obtain a certain number o) credits and pass several examinations at the end o) each semester! ). Tr#ns%# e usin1 0e $#ssi!e !oice in #n #$$ro$ri# e ense a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ )$ g$ h$ i$ (hese substances are not produced here. In what *ind o) industries do graduates o) the Institute usually )ind employment! PASSIVE VOICE 1. h$ (his was explained to me -by my teacher. . Tr#ns:or" 0e :o%%o6in1 sen ences in o $#ssi!e !oice a$ 'nother vessel has been bro*en -by him. d$ (he tests should have been per)ormed more care)ully -by her.
(his company is assumed not to use preservatives o) any *ind. 5ome students 60o/ 0# came late now have less time )or their experiments. 3eci4e 60ic0 re%# i!e $ronoun is correc #n4 60ere i cou%4 be o"i e 4 a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ )$ g$ h$ i$ 2$ (he man 60o called is our schoolmate.0# /60ic0) I have heard so )ar.1 6/12/2012 . I went to the place 60ere I could wor* undisturbed. (his element is expected to occur in two allotropic modi)ications. Have you )ound the boo*s ' 0# ) I lent -to. /onnec :o%%o6in1 sen ences in o one usin1 60o< 0# or 60ic0 a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ )$ g$ (he computer 0# /60ic0 has been reinstalled is out o) order again. 9 0e is said to return soon. (hat new e0uipment 60ic0 was bought last year was really expensive. (his compound is expected not to react.Grammar 8. I wor* )or a )irm 60ic0/ 0# sells chemicals. (he experiment is estimated to have )ailed due to incorrect temperature settings. /itric acid was supposed not to display any harm)ul e))ects. (hat teacher 60o lives next door is my colleague. 'll the devices are reported to have been calibrated )or our experiment. I sent her 60# I had. Many elements are *nown to react this way. (hey are thought to have made a real brea*through in the research o) radioactivity. (his is the student 60ose wor* has won the )irst place in our competition. a$ b$ c$ d$ e$ )$ g$ h$ i$ 2$ (his new discovery is believed to be able to save many lives. you! It is the best news 0# /60ic0 came today. It is the best news . I sent her all the notes . 8. He was said to have discovered seven new substances. I couldnPt complete my research# 60ic0 was a pity. Tr#ns:or" 0e :o%%o6in1 sen ences in o 0e $#ssi!eJin:ini i!e Ex. (he chemical 60ic0/ 0# vaporised is poisonous. 1L $ 20 Version: 4.0# ) I had. (he paper 60ic0/ 0# )ell on the )loor was a dra)t o) your pro2ect. (he reaction 0# /60ic0 should be carried out is sa)e. 7t is said he -ill return soon. RE ATIVE C AUSES 2.
[. (he content o) a calcium compound increases the hardness o) water -contain$hard. Y2istFme# He ro6to* oxidu uhli@it?ho ve vodE barvF modrV la*musovV papFre* na @erveno# tFm u*a6u2e# He 2de o slabou *yselinu. 'rchimedes& principle tells us about the displacement o) water by solid bodies -displace. 1M $ 20 Version: 4. B.. =or" 0e 6or4s #n4 :i%% 0e s$#ces (he passage o) water through several )ilter beds and the addition o) traces o) chlorine ma*e the water sa)e )or drin*ing purposes -pass$add. 3. Y2istilo se# He slitina se s*l>d> 6e stUFbra a 6lata. product analysis development exploration research management IN)INITIVE 1. (he 3ormation o) rain depends on the condensation and combination o) tiny droplets o) water in the cloud -)orm$condense$combine.. Tr#ns%# e L. =i%% in 0e :o%%o6in1 #b%e #n4 0en use 0e 6or4s in s0or sen ences Jerb produce analyse develop explore research manage 'd2ective producing$produced analytical developing$developed exploring$explored researching managerial %oun -person.. Y2istFme# He hodnota 6>visF na mnoha rX6nVch )a*torech. 'by rea*ce nastala# rea*@nF smEs se musF pUiv?st na dostate@nE vyso*ou teplotu. MnoHstvF vody# *ter> se m> pUidat# 6>leHF na tla*u destilace. (he evaporation and condensation can be observed in everyday li)e -evaporate$condense. N.Grammar (OR! )OR*ATION 1. Materi>l *e 6v>HenF se pUepravu2e do a 6 v>hovny v suIi@ce. Z... S. JFme# He uhlF* se vys*ytu2e ve dvou *rystalic*Vch podob>ch# *ter? se liIF svVmi vlastnostmi. \.1 6/12/2012 . 'byste pUipravili umElou sXl# umFstEte *ouse* sodF*u do ban*y s chl`rem. producer analyst developer explorer researcher manager %oun -thing$process. 2.
Tr#ns%# e in o /Gec0 +o*ra@u2te v 6ahUFv>nF a mFch>nF. (he substance evaporated on having been exposed to air. I will stop wor*ing in the lab when I am tired. 'nne loves to drin*$drin*ing soya mil*. +o 6ahU>tF *ovy mE*nou. YahUFv>nFm vody mXHeme vyrobit p>ru. C AUSES O) PURPOSE. /0oose 0e correc $# ern :or 0e 6or4 in 0e br#c7e s 7ohn wants to buy a new catalytic converter. I needed to see my advisor yesterday. I planned to try out my new research. I used to li*e to study$studying everyday. He started to clean$cleaning the laboratory immediately. 2. 7oe will start to investigate$investigating the reports this wee*. I want to learn to )ly an airplane. Hydrogen is used in manu)acturing ammonia.1 6/12/2012 . 5loHenF slitiny ur@Fme 2e2Fm ro6puItEnFm. 8.ERUN!. +ete had )inished wor*ing on his pro2ect. C6`n se pouHFv> pUi @iItEnF vody. PARTICIP E 1. Pr#c ice 1erun4s usin1 0e correc $re$osi ion . Harry 0uit smo*ing )or good last 7anuary. KhlF vyd>v> teplo be6 vytv>UenF mnoHstvF *ouUe.Grammar VER+ PATTERNS. 5inead planned to discuss going on her vacation in 7une. Jessels are used )or storing li0uids. 7oan li*es to discuss$discussing her homewor* with a )riend. 4esiccators are used )or drying. 7ohn said he en2oys practicing English. (his substance burns on heating. . 20 $ 20 Version: 4. Oucy en2oyed eating the bio dinner last night.e obtain ice by cooling water.
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