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TOWARDS A NEW ARCHITECTURE (LE CORBUSIER, 1927)
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which is a matter of plastic emotion. and should dispose them in such a way that the sight of them affects us immediately by their delicacy or their brutality. which makes for selection. 1927) | designers books Translated by Frederick EtchellsPublished by The Architectural Press. 1960.) T he E ng ine e r’s A e s the tic a nd A rchite cture The Engineer’s Aesthetic and Architecture – two things that march together and follow one from the other – the one at its full height. to begin at the beginning. 1985. (17) We are to be pitied for living in unworthy houses. reprinted in 1931. they are based on a problem which has been well “stated. 1991.” the mass-production house. The spirit of constructing mass-production houses. 2000. (20) For the architect we have written our “THREE REMINDERS. The purpose of construction is TO MAKE THINGS HOLD TOGETHER. It is that architecture. 1974. 1987.11/23/13 Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. (12) We must create the mass-production spirit. engineers make use of generating and accusing lines in relation to forms. 1948. these elements are plastic elements. (ibid. London First edition in 1923 (original title “Vers une architecture” First English edition in 1927. the loveliest of all. their indifference or their interest. the engineer who proceeds by knowledge shows the way and holds the truth.” MASS which is the element by which our senses perceive and measure and are most fully affected. 2010.) Machinery contains in itself the factor of economy. since they ruin our health and our morale. (19) Our diagnosis is that. and admirable thing. 1976. (12-13. (21) Architecture is a thing of art. They create limpid and moving plastic facts. 2008. (ibid. 1965.) The Plan proceeds from within to without. Hardcover Grey cloth green titles on spine 267 pages​ A rg um e nt Primary forms are beautiful forms because they can be clearly appreciated. The spririt of living in massproduction houses. (18) […] there does exist this thing called architecture.1986. analysis and minute study. their riot or their serenity. (8) Forced to work in accordance with the strict needs of exactly determined conditions. 1998.” (ibid. the other in an unhappy state of retrogression. 1952. (10) The house is a machine for living in. SURFACE which is the envelope of the mass and which can diminish or enlarge the sensation the latter gives us. The spirit of conceiving mass-production houses.) If we eliminate from our hearts and minds all dead concepts in regard to the house and look at the question from a critical and objective point of view. (ibid. we shall arrive at the “House-Machine. 1963. the exterior is the result of an interior. and of rewarding the desire or our eyes.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 2/11 .designers-books. (23) T hre e Re m inde rs to A rchite cts illustration italy japan limited edition logo London magazine Paris photography poster switzerland type design type specimen typography uk USA zurich www. they call for the plastic artist. 1946.) Standards are a matter of logic. forms which our eyes see clearly and which our mind can measure. A product of happy peoples and a thing which in itself produces happy peoples. recognize and respect. of architecture TO MOVE US. Architectural emotion exists when the work rings within us in tune with a universe whose laws we obey. PLAN which is the generator both of mass and surface and is that by which the whole is irrevocably fixed. (11) Contour and profile are a pure creation of the mind. 1959. should in its own domain begin at the beginning also. a phenomenon of the emotions. healthy (and morally so too) and beautiful in the same way that the working tools and instruments which accompany our existence are beautiful. and should use those elements which are capable of affecting our senses. lying outside questions of construction and beyond them.

it is a drama. 1927) | designers books Mass and surface are the elements by which architecture manifests itself. (46-7) The plan carries in itself the very essence of sensation. the most beautiful forms. In rounding this Cape Horn the new horizons before us will only recover the grand line of tradition by a complete revision of the methods in vogue and by the fixing of a new basis of construction established in logic. light and shade reveal these forms. It is for that reason that these are beautiful forms.We must study the plan. (49) We are living in a period of reconstruction and of adaptation to new social and economic conditions. the tendency of the engineers of today is towards the generating and accusing lines of masses. cubes. giving rest to our eyes and to the mind pleasure of geometric forms. (33) 2. the image of these is distance and tangible within us and without ambiguity. the ENGINEERS of today make use of the primary elements and. The plan is the generator. The surface of the temple or the factory is in most cases a wall with holes for doors and windows. Mass and surface are determined by the plan. it is an austere abstraction. a period of analysis. Surface […] an architectural structure is a house. the key to this evolution.designers-books. cones. So much the worse for those who lack imagination! (28) 1. but simply guided by the results of calculation (derived from the principles which govern our universe) and the conception of A LIVING ORGANISM. (32) Not in pursuit of an architectural idea. a temple or a factory.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 3/11 . cylinders or pyramids are the great primary forms which light reveals to advantage. provoke in us architectural emotions and thus make the work of man in unison with universal order. a period also of great aesthetic confusion. correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light. Mass Architecture is the masterly. (39) Not in pursuit of an architectural idea. a period in which a new aesthetic will be elaborated. a fight against the force of gravity. like a Madonna face. We shall not rediscover the truths of architecture until new bases have established a logical ground for every architectural manifestation. spheres. of experiment. they must be made an accentuation of form. Our eyes are made to see forms in light.11/23/13 Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. In architecture the old bases of construction are dead. which is a sensation of a sentimental nature. these holes are often the destruction of form. by coordinating them in accordance with the rules. (41) 3. clear and limpid. it is nothing more than a n algebrization and dry-looking thing. […] It is of the very nature of the plastic arts. but guided simply by the necessities of an imperative demand. A period of 20 years is beginning which will be occupied in creating these bases. (31) The cathedral is not a plastic work. Plan A plan is not a pretty thing to be drawn. they show us the way and create plastic facts. A period of great problems. (61-2) www.

1927) | designers books There is no such thing as primitive man. (ibid. (ibid. (67-8) A unit gives measure and unity.11/23/13 Re g ula ting L ine s Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. It is in harmony with him. it is one of the vital operations of architecture.designers-books. (66) In order to construct well and distribute your efforts to advantage. units of measure are the first condition of all.) E y e s Which D o N ot Se e 1. evolved. (68) A supreme determinism illuminates for us the creations of nature and gives us the security of something poised and reasonably made. It is on the human scale. varied and unified. (ibid. (70) A regulating line is an assurance against capriciousness. there are primitive resources. he has created a unit which regulates the whole work. It confers on the work the quality of rhythm. and this work is on his own scale. to his measure. in full sway from the beginning. in order to obtain solidity and utility in work. a regulating line is a basis of construction and satisfaction. his boot.) He [the builder/primitive man] has imposed order by means of measurement. By imposing the order of his foot or his arm. (71) The regulating line is a satisfaction of a spiritual order which leads to the pursuit of ingenious and harmonious relations. to his own proportion.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 4/11 . Liners www. his elbow or his finger. of something infinitely modulated. that is the main point. comfortable for him. In order to get his measurement he has taken his pace. The idea is constant.) The choice of regulating line is on e of the decisive moments of inspiration.

will find in a steamship his freedom from an age-long but contemptible enslavement to the past. in our epoch. intelligence and daring: imagination and cold reason.e.” never satisfied. Art is not a popular thing. (102) www. it inevitably finds its solution. The same spirit that built he Parthenon.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 5/11 . (ibid. (97) 2. 1927) | designers books We have acquired a taste for fresh air and clear daylight. (86) A house is a machine for living in.) The art of our period is performing its proper functions when it addresses itself to the chosen few. (101) The lesson of the airplane lies in the logic which governed the enunciation of the problem and which led to the successful realization. We may then affirm that the airplane mobilized invention. (89) Our epoch is fixing its own style day by day. Art is not an essential pabulum except for the chosen few who have need of meditation in order that they may lead. When a problem is properly stated.11/23/13 Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. Art is in its essence arrogant. Airplanes The War was an insatiable “client. The orders were to succeed at all costs and death followed a mistake remorselessly. always demanding better.. (96) A seriously-minded architect.designers-books. still less and expensive toy for rich people. looking at it as an architect (i. a creator of organisms). (85) Architecture is stifled by custom.

(127) Here we have the birth of style. Architecture is a very noble art. with a maximum output and a minimum use of means. There is a moral sentiment in the feeling for mechanics. forms. sounds.Men – intelligent. (128) Culture is the flowering of the effort to select. The poetry of facts is stronger still. The feeling for mechanics exists and is justified by our daily activities. of a state of perfection universally felt. Harmony is a state of agreement with the norms or our universe. she is the overplus necessary only to men of the highest type. (102-3) Let us shut our eyes to what exists. (125) The establishment of a standard involves exhausting every practical and reasonable possibility. The Lesson of Rome www. Standards are a matter of logic.Standardization is imposed by the law of selection ansd is an economic and social necessity. Selection means rejection. higher mathematics. intellectual speculation. (106) Every modern man has the mechanical sense. Machinery includes economy as an essential factor leading to minute selection. cold and calm has grown wings to himself. speculation. analysis and precise study. pruning. (132) Architecture is governed by standards. Standards are based on a problem which has been well stated. (135-8) A rchite cture 1. the clear and naked emergence of the Essential. (123) A standard is necessary for order in human effort. Beauty governs all. words. gratitude and esteem.designers-books. Objects which signify something and which are arranged with talent and with tact create a poetic fact. Architecture means plastic invention. colours. (ibid. and extracting from them a recognized type conformable to its functions. The man who is intelligent.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 6/11 . mathematical order. (117-19) 3. she is a purely human creation. the perception of the harmony which lies in emotional relationships. This is the AIM of architecture. workmanship and material. 1927) | designers books Architecture is the art above all others which achieves a state of platonic grandeur. This feeling in regard to machinery is one of respect. Automobiles It is necessary to press on towards the establishment of standards in order to face the problem of perfection. cleansing. cold and clam – are needed to build the house and to lay out the town.11/23/13 Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. that is to say the attainment universally recognized.) Poetry lies not only in the spoken or written word.

Drama lies all round the key achievements of humanity. (149) There exists one thing which can ravish us. (151) (iii) Michaelangelo Intelligence and passion. no emotion without passion. the unassailable power of proportion. a single idea. but they designed deplorable coachwork […] (145) It [Hadrian’s Villa] is the first example of Western planning on the grand scale. The Illusion of Plans Placing myself entirely at this one angle of vision I commence by drawing attention to this vital fact: a plan proceeds from www. set in the midst of noisy and luxurious Rome. and this is measure or scale. a church for poor people. good arrangement. Stones are dead things sleeping in the quarries but the apses of St.) Absence of virtuosity. the use of elementary shapes. (146-7) (ii) Byzantine Rome This quite tiny church of S. (152) (iv) Rome and ourselves 2. the sovereign eloquence of relationship.11/23/13 Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. (ibid. 1927) | designers books (i) Ancient Rome […] they [the Romans] constructed a superb chassis.designers-books. daring and unity in construction. there is no art without emotion. Maria. proclaims the noble pomp of mathematics. Peter’s are a drama. A sane morality.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 7/11 .

near or distant sea. Our compositions must be formed of these elements. Pure Creation of the Mind From what is emotion born? From a certain relationship between definite elements: cylinders. (182-3) It must not be forgotten. (173) Architectural buildings should not all be placed upon axes. etc. Architecture is based on axes. The elements of the site rise up like walls panoplied in the power of their cubic coefficient. I shall show that here too the exterior is always an interior. an even floor. sky). like the walls of a room. blue horizons. From a plastic system that spreads its effects over every part of the composition. most clarified. (171) To establish order is to begin to work. ensnares the mind and creates architectural trickery. and so www. the elements of the site itself cone into play by virtue of their cubic volume. every cleansing had already been performed. make gay or sad. In considering the effect of building s in relation to a site. caption: The Propylea) From this we get a possible definition of harmony. sadness. The aim of architecture is to make you gay or serene. even walls.. holes to serve as passages for man of for light. From a unity of idea that reaches from the unity of the materials used in the unity of the general contour. doors or windows.11/23/13 Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. (177-9) But a man has only two eyes at a level of about 5 feet 6 inches above the ground. for a house or a palace is an organism comparable to a living being. The holes give much or little light. I shall speak of the architectural elements of the interior. grass. etc. (175) Arrangement is the grading of axes. (1667) Our elements are vertical walls.designers-books. I can demonstrate the illusion of plans. material. and so it is the grading of aims. a tree. 1927) | designers books within to without. Every sacrifice. (189. Your symphony is made ready. giving an effect of gaiety. From a certain harmony with the things that make up the site. caption: The Propylea) Emotion is born of unity of aim. most economical. The moment was reached when nothing more might be taken away. the spread of the soil. in architectural ensembles. for this would be like so many people all talking at once. (176) To sum up. when nothing would be left but these closely-knit and violent elements. (190. I shall pass on to arrangement. The walls are in full brilliant light. sounding clear and tragic like brazen trumpets. light and shade. their density and the quality of the material of which they are composed. and can only look at one point at a time. stratification. serenity or sadness. this illusion which kills architecture. this is the fruit of violating undeniable truths. or in half shade or in full shade. marble. gaiety or serenity. that is to say a moment of accord with the axis which lies in man. bringing sensations which are very definite and very varied (wood. (184) 3. the classification of intentions. Walls in relation to light. By means of various fundamental elements which will be clearly shown in diagrams. in drawing out a plan. the result of false conceptions or the fruit of vanity.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 8/11 . of that unperturbed resolution that wrought its marble with the firm intention of achieving all that is most pure. that it is the human eye that judges the result.

” the object of the devotion on which the cult of the family and the race has so long been concentrated. available for everyone. good proportion is assured automatically. they call for the plastic artist. it will be a tool as the motor-car is becoming a tool. they are organized without ambiguity. Eradicate from your mind any hard and fast conception in regard to the dwelling-house and look at the question from an objective and critical angle. I repeat: clear statement is essential in a work of art. are beautiful. accurate and magnificent play of masses seen in light. -a return of universal law. and by means of the module. of the greatest importance. 1915: Interior of a reinforced concrete house) A house will no longer be this solidly-built thing which sets out to defy time and decay. resolve the problem as those of railway carriages. It is because we see clearly that we can read. (ibid.11/23/13 Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. or unit of measurement. etc. cupboards […]. it is at the charge of the architect! (223. are resolved (220. heavily rooted in the soil by deep foundations. and contours are also and exclusively the skilful. built “firm and strong. are based on a common unit of measurement: they can be adapted to one another exactly. 1921: Mass-production house) And one can be proud of having a house as serviceable as a typewriter. determine the type of house according to the needs required. this is always present when you have proportion. 1922: Artist’s house) As to beauty. caption: Le Corbusier. is architectural unity. the ingenious man. The house will no longer be an archaic entity. 1927) | designers books with the laws of the universe. windows. the giving of a living unity to the work. familiar to us in our present existence. All these units. (190) Architecture is the skilful. accurate and magnificent play of volumes seen in light.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 9/11 . and you will inevitably arrive at the “House-Tool.” the mass-production house. Architecture is a plastic thing. (219. the giving it a fundamental attitude and a character: all is a pure creation of the mind. (202) Ma s s -Production H ous e s Mass-production doors. tools. and proportion costs the landlord nothing. (196) The objects in nature and the results of calculation are clearly and cleanly formed. (198) Architecture only exists when there is a poetic emotion. caption: Le Corbusier.)Clear statement. learn and feel their harmony.) Unity in detail and in large general lines. (219-45) State the problem clearly t yourself. (247) A rchite cture or Re v olution www. and which is an expensive luxury by which wealth can be shown. […] A further gain. Contours go beyond the scope of the practical man. caption: Le Corbusier. (ibid.designers-books. which big industry can supply. the daring man. incomparably healthier thatn the old kind (and morally so too) and beautiful in the same sense that the working tools.

LO ND O N. its part as a detailed unit which will be required to fit automatically into the assembling of the whole. 1927) | designers books Specialization ties man to his machine. (255) There is no real link between our daily activities at the factory. (254-5) The spirit of the worker’s booth no longer exists. 1945) Design and paper: number 13 (Ladislav Sutnar. BOO K. (261) There reigns a great disagreement between the modern state of mind. (268) A fte r a quick s e a rch. from 4 0 to 3 0 0 £ . but re ce nt re print could be found for 1 US$ . Muller-Brockmann.designers-books. the office or the bank. 1943) Grid System in graphic design (J. by that very reason. Lars Müller. 1968… Fronzoni (Aichner & Kuchenbeiser. 1 92 7 . and our activities in the bosom of the family which are handicapped at every turn. SWIT ZE RLA N D ABOUT OLIVER TOMAS Oliver Tomas is a designer and academic currently living and working in Vancouver. I’v e found s om e copie s of this e dition. The family is everywhere being killed and men’s minds demoralized in servitude to anachronisms. (257) The advent of a new period only occurs after long and quiet preparatory work. and the stifling accumulation of age-long detritus. www. an absolute precision is demanded of every worker. You ca n s e nd a m e s s a g e if y ou wa nt m ore inform a tion a bout this m a g a zine .11/23/13 Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. it must be exact in order that it may play. A RC H ITE C TURE. but certainly there does exist a more collective spirit. RELATED POSTS: Typography (Emil Ruder. 1967) Design and Paper: Number 19 (Ladislav Sutnar.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 10/11 . for the article passed on to the next man cannot be snatched back in order to be corrected and fitted. which is an admonition to us. which are healthy and useful and productive. 1998) Powered by Contextual Related Posts TAGS: 1 92 0 '.

Publicité 12-13.6k 1BOTTLEROCKET ALASTAIR JONES ANTONIO CARUSONE (AISLEONE) FELIX WIEDLER HENNING KRAUSE (BERLINTYPES) JAAP PROOST JOE KRAL JONATHAN TURNER (INSECT 54) LOÏC BOYER MARK BLAMIRE (BLANKA) OLIVER TOMAS SÉBASTIEN HAYEZ AISLEONE CAROLINE FABÈS DISPLAY QUALITÉ GRAPHIQUE GARANTIE THINKING FORM TYPOMANIE (FRENCH) © 2 0 13 • P O W E R ED B Y WO R D P R E S S • L O O OK B Y B L O O OM I N G www. Graphis records covers. Color sells my packaging. Color & communication. logos and products are trademarks of and/or copyrighted by their respective owners. Graphic design international. Copyright © 2009-2012 Sébastien Hayez & contributors. and more. Certain images. 1927) | designers books NAME * EMAIL * WEBSITE POST COMMENT COLOPHON Powered by Wordpress. more than 10 Graphis Annuals. Spin paper 2 & 3. FORTHCOMING BOOKS Type Sign Symbol. more than 220 graphis issues. All rights reserved. CONTRIBUTORS LINKS FACEBOOK Like 1.designers-books. Celestino Piatti Posters. Trademarks & symbols. hosted by OVH.com/towards-a-new-architecture-le-corbusier-1927/ 11/11 .11/23/13 POST A COMMENT Towards a new architecture (Le Corbusier. using Loook theme. Modern Publicity 1977. Thanks to all the authors for their support & contributions.

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