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A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Chemical)

Faculty of Chemical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia



The purpose of this study is to investigate the rheological behaviour of ethylene glycol (EG) based titania nanofluids. Generally, rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of the matter. Nanofluids are dilute liquid suspensions of nanoparticles which at least one critical dimension smaller than ~100nm in which is used to enhance the thermal heat coefficient. Nanofluids have better heat

characteristics and have larger thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids, however, the thermal behaviour of nanofluids correlates well with the rheological behaviour of the nanofluids. This indicates the significance of studying the rheology of nanofluids. In order to study the rheology of nanofluids, a set of stable nanofluids have to be prepared with several different concentration and pH value. Then the characterization of nanofluids will be done in terms of stability and viscosity; at different temperature (27 C, 40 C, 50 C and 60 C); and concentration of titania nanoparticles. Later the viscosity of the nanofluids were analysed to understand the rheology. Titania nanoparticles were dispersed in the EG as the base fluid by twostep method. A surfactant, Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS) was used to stabilize the nanofluids. SLS surfactant helps to reduce agglomeration in the titania nanofluids. From the observation, the samples were stable for not more than a week. For both pH of titania nanofluids (pH 3 and pH 11), the viscosity was increasing with the increment of weight percentages and decrease with the temperature. Furthermore, the shear stress decreases with the temperature and increases with weight percentage.



Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menyiasat kelakuan rheologi bendalirnano titania berasaskan glikol etilena (EG). Secara umumnya, rheologi adalah kajian terhadap perubahan dan aliran sesuatu jisim. Bendalir-nano adalah cairan cecair nanopartikel yang mengandungi sekurang-kurangnya satu dimensi kritikal yang lebih kecil daripada ~100nm yang mana digunakan untuk meningkatkan pekali haba terma. Bendalir-nano mempunyai sifat-sifat haba yang lebih baik dan mempunyai pekali terma yang lebih besar jika dibandingkan dengan bendalir asas. Walau bagaimanapun, perlakuan terma bersangkut paut dengan perlakuan rheologi bagi cecair nano. Hal ini

menerangkan kepentingan kajian terhadap perlakuan rheologi cecair nano. Untuk menyiasat perlakuan rheologi tersebut, satu set sampel titania-EG cecair nano perlu disediakan dengan beberapa kepekatan titania nano-partikel yang berbeza, pH dan suhu yang berbeza (27 C, 40 C, 50 C and 60 C). Kemudian, pencirian cecair nano dilakukan dalam bentuk kestabilan dan kelikatan; pada suhu dan kepekatan berbeza. Partikel-nano dari titania telah diserakkan di dalam EG sebagai cecair dasar oleh kaedah dua langkah. Satu bahan penyelerak, Sodium Lauril Sulfat (SLS) telah digunakan untuk menstabilkan bendalir-nano. SLS membantu untuk mengurangkan

penumpuan dalam bendalir-nano titania. Melalui pemerhatian yang dijalankan, bendalir-nano dari cairan EG stabil hanya untuk tidak lebih dari satu minggu. Bagi kedua-dua nilai pH untuk bendalir-nano titania (pH 3 dan pH 11), kelikatan telah meningkat dengan kenaikan peratusan berat dan penurunan dengan. Tambahan pula, tegasan ricih berkurangan dengan suhu dan meningkat dengan peratusan berat.





PAGE ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xv xvii xviii


INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Background of Study Problem Statement Objective of Study Scope of Study Significant of Study 1 4 6 6 6

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 2.2 Rheological Behavior of Nanofluids Experimentally Measured Rheological Data for Nanofluids 8 11

viii 2.2.1 Effects of Newtonian and non-Newtonian Behaviour 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 Effects of High Shear Viscosity Effects of Shearing Time 14 18 20 20 21 22 23 12

Nanofluids 2.3.1 Properties of Nanofluids Preparation of Nanofluids Addition of Surfactant Effects of Base Fluids on the Heat Transfer Properties

2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4

2.4 2.5

Viscosity of Nanofluids Factors that Affects Viscosity of the Nanofluids Temperature Weight Fraction Particle Size and Shape

24 25 25 28 30 30

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6

Stability Investigation

METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 Materials Experimental Procedures 3.2.1 Preparation of Nanofluids 3.2.2 Stability Investigation 3.2.3 Viscosity Measurement 3.3 Process Flow Diagram 33 34 34 36 36 37

RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 4.2 Introduction Result and Discussion 4.2.1 4.2.1 4.2.3 Synthesis of EG based Titania Nanofluids Stability Investigation Factors that Affected Viscosity of Nanofluids 39 39 40 41 44 44 Wt% of TiO2 Nanoparticles

ix Temperature 4.2.4 Rheological Behavior of EG based Titania Nanofluids Effects of Newtonian and nonNewtonian Behavior Effects of Shearing Time 58 65

65 71


75 77 89


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