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Identifying fabric is important.

More important is the


comparison of fabrics. This makes us know the true
quality of a fabric by differentiating it from its
substitutes. The following slides gives a complete
information upon different types of fabric at a glance.
It gives information about the weaves of the fabric, its
characteristics and the uses, the important part of
comparison.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TEXTILE FABRICS
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Acetate
A synthetic or manufactured fiber with a silky luxurious
appearance.
Characteristic
Dries easily and resists absorbing moisture.
Care
Most acetate fabrics will need to be dry cleaned for their care.
Some newer pieces of clothing are being made with acetate
knits. Some of these newer pieces are able to be washed.
Use
Frequently used fabric in clothing and home furnishing uses.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Batiste ( Bah-teest)
The softest of the lightweight opaque fabrics.
Made of cotton, wool, polyester, or a blend.
A balanced plain weave.
Characteristic
Very thin and light but not transparent.
Delicate hand.
Has a graceful drape, and is often mercerized to add
lustre.
Care
Wash batiste in a in a gentle or delicate cycle.
Avoid bleach.
Use
End uses include apparel and furnishings.
Excellent for underliner, and lining for linen clothing..
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Bedford cord
A cord cotton-like fabric with raised ridges in the
lengthwise direction.
A heavy fabric with a lengthwise ribbed weave that
resembles corduroy.
Characteristic
High strength and a high durability.
Care
Can be hand washed and dry cleaned.
Use
Often used for upholstery, work clothes, suitings, coatings,
riding breeches, and uniforms.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Boucle (boo-klay)
A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted
boucle yarn.
Characteristic
Has a looped, knotted surface.
Bulky.
Care
Need to be hand washed or dry cleaned in order to prevent
them from becoming damaged.
To prevent shrinkage, it should be laid flat to dry.
Use
Used in sportswear and coats.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Broadcloth (Brawd-kloth)
A plain weave tightly woven fabric, characterized by a
slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling.
The most common broadcloth is made from cotton or
cotton/polyester blends.
Characteristic
Extremely sturdy, smooth, supple and soft.
Closely woven with smooth finish.
Care
Only dry cleaning can be done.
Use
Used in furniture and luxury car interiors, shirts, dresses,
particularly the tailored type in plain colors, blouses,
summer wear.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Brocade
A thick and heavy, exquisite jacquard type fabric with an all-
over raised pattern or floral design that is woven.
Characteristic
Highly lustrous, silky, and relatively soft fabric.
Care
Requires special care.
To preserve the qualities of brocade fabric, it is
recommended that it be dry cleaned.
Use
Common end-uses include formal applications such as
upholstery, draperies, and eveningwear. It is excellent for
making clothing, accessories, and decorations
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Challis
A plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. The fabric
is often printed, usually in a floral pattern. Challis is most often
seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or rayon.
Characteristic
Soft and very light-weighted.
Silky and drapes well.
Care
Hand wash only.
Do not wring.
Dry flat.
Use
Used in women's and children's dresses and blouses, kimonos,
neckties, and sportswear.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Chambray
A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton, silk, or
manufactured fibers, but most commonly cotton. Incorporates
a colored warp (often blue) and white filling yarns.
Characteristic
Strong fabric with a smooth surface.
Soft and comfortable with a slight lustre.
Soft coloring which causes it to appear faded.
Care
Tumble dry or hang dry.
Use
Used in childrens wear, mens wear, blouses, aprons, napkins,
bed skirts and curtains.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Chiffon
A plain woven lightweight, extremely sheer, airy, and soft silk
fabric, containing highly twisted filament yarns.
Made from rayon and other manufactured fibers.
Characteristic
Elegant and sheer, transparent and thin with a very slightly
rough feel to it.
Light-weighted, but strong.
Care
Dry cleaning recommended .
Tumbling not recommended .
Do not sprinkle water on dry chiffon as it will mark .
Iron while damp cool iron.
Use
Used mainly in evening dresses and scarves.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Chintz
A plain-weave fabric, which has been glazed to produce a
polished look.
Usually made of cotton.
Characteristic
Shiny and lustrous.
Has a polished look.
Easy to maintain this fabric.
Care
Dry clean only .
Do not rub or twist or tumble.
Iron while damp try from reverse side.
Use
Most commonly used in blouses, dresses, draperies, and
slipcovers.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Corduroy
A fabric, usually made of cotton, utilizing a cut-pile weave
construction.
Characteristic
Warm, durable, washable and absorbs and releases moisture
quickly.
Stiff and thick.
Care
Could be hand washed or dry cleaned .
Do not wring or twist .
No not iron on right side .
Use cool iron on wrong side or under a damp cloth
Use
Perfect for sport jackets and trousers.
Also used for decorative purposes in upholstery and curtains.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Cotton
A unicellular, natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the
cotton plant.
Characteristic
Durable, strong and a very good absorbent.
Very comfortable to wear due to its soft hand.
Care
Wash or dry clean depending on the weave or knit-.
Generally can be washed, tumbled and ironed.
Use
Used in shirts, dresses, furniture and almost all other types of
garment or household furnishing.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Crepe
Cloth made from a highly twisted yarn giving a dull, wrinkled,
crinkled or puckered appearance.
Characteristic
Crinkled and puckered surface with rough feel and appearance.
Care
Hand wash.
Roll in towel to absorb moisture.
Do not tumble.
Iron on reverse or under damp cloth.
Use
Depending on weight, it is used for dresses of all types,
including long dinner dresses, suits, and coats.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Damask
A glossy jacquard fabric, usually made from linen, cotton,
rayon, silk, or blends.
The patterns are flat and reversible.
Characteristic
Reversible fabric with woven pattern.
Sheds dirt.
Care
May be boiled.
Will look best if starched.
Iron at hottest possible setting for fibre.
Use
Often used in napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Denim
True denim is a twill weave cotton-like fabric made with
different colored yarns in the warp and the weft.
Due to the twill construction, one color predominates on the
fabric surface.
Characteristic
Gives a mottled look.
Comes in heavy and lighter weights.
Durable.
Care
Will run colour .
Likely to stretch in wear and shrink in wash .
Iron while damp .
Use
Pants, caps, uniforms, bedspreads, slipcovers, draperies,
upholstery, sportswear.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Double Cloth
A fabric construction, in which two fabrics are woven on the
loom at the same time, one on top of the other.
In the weaving process, the two layers of woven fabric are
held together using binder threads.
The woven patterns in each layer of fabric can be similar or
completely different.
Characteristic
Have two right sides or faces and no wrong side.
Reversible and has high thermal protection.
Low absorption.
Care
Extreme care required.
Use
Used in Haute Couture coats and jackets, bedspreads
upholstery.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Felt
A non-woven fabric made from wool, hair, or fur, and
sometimes in combination with certain manufactured fibers,
where the fibers are locked together in a process utilizing heat,
moisture, and pressure to form a compact material.
Characteristic
Matted appearance.
Very soft
Care
Do not wash .
Will shrink dramatically .
Use
Often used for card tables and baize on snooker tables.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Flannel
A medium-weight, plain or twill weave fabric that is typically
made from cotton, a cotton blend, or wool.
Characteristic
The fabric has a very soft hand.
Brushed on both sides to lift the fiber ends out of the base
fabric and create a soft, fuzzy surface.
Care
Dry clean only .
Iron under a damp cloth.
Use
End-uses include shirts and pajamas and kids clothing.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Gabardine
A tightly woven, twilled, worsted fabric with a slight diagonal
line on the right side.
Known as a year-round fabric.
Polyester, cotton, rayon, and various blends are also used in
making gabardine.
Characteristic
Clear finish, tightly woven, firm, durable.
Wears extremely well.
Inclined to shine with wear.
Hard to press properly.
Care
Dry clean only
Use
Used for raincoats and sportswear, suitings
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Gauze
A thin, sheer plain-weave fabric made from cotton, wool, silk,
rayon, or other manufactured fibers.
Characteristic
Very lightweight and sheer.
Care
Washable.
Use
End-uses include curtains, apparel, trimmings, and surgical
dressings.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Georgette
A sheer lightweight fabric, often made of silk or from such
manufactured fibers as polyester, with a crepe surface.
Characteristic
Characterized by it's crispness, body and outstanding durability.
Sheer and has a dull face.
Care
Dry clean silk or wool .
Wash man made to the weakest fibres on the care label .
Iron for the fibre type.
Use
End-uses include dresses and blouses.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Gingham
A medium weight, plain weave fabric with a plaid or check
pattern.
Characteristic
Finely checked or striped fabric.
Care
Generally can be washed, tumbled and ironed.
Use
End-uses include dresses, shirts, and curtains.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jersey Fabric
The consistent interlooping of yarns in the jersey stitch to
produces a fabric with a smooth, flat face, and a more textured,
but uniform back.
May be produced on either circular or flat weft knitting
machines.
Characteristic
Stretchable, light-weighted and smooth.
Care
Dry clean.
Low tumble.
Do not wring.
Iron on reverse.
Use
used for knitwear or T Shirts.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Linen
A fabric made from linen fibers obtained from inside the
woody stem of the flax plant.
One of the oldest textile fibers.
Characteristic
Stronger and more lustrous than cotton.
Very cool and absorbent, but wrinkle very easily, unless
blended with manufactured fibers.
Care
Dry clean.
Iron on reverse side .
Prone to crease very badly .
Ironing while damp may help.
Use
Often used for tablecloths, sheets, and curtains.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Muslin
An inexpensive, medium weight, plain weave, low count (less
than 160 threads per square inch) cotton sheeting fabric.
Characteristic
Cool, comfortable and cheap fabric.
Care
Warm wash .
Iron while damp.
Use
In its unfinished form, it is commonly used in fashion design to
make trial garments for preliminary fit.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Nylon
The first completely synthetic fiber developed.
Characteristics
High strength and excellent resiliency.
Superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility.
Elastic, easy to wash and is quite lustrous.
Returns easily to it's original shape and is non absorbent.
Fast drying, resistant to some dyes.
Care
Warm hand wash or dry clean .
Cold rinse.
Drip dry.
Sensitive to heat: do not require ironing
Use
Used in women's hosiery, knitted or woven lingerie, socks and
sweaters.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Organdy
A stiffened, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a
medium to high yarn count.
Characteristic
Crispness is due to a finish with starch and calendaring which
washes out.
Wrinkles badly unless given a wrinkle-free finish.
Stiff transparent delicate fabric
Care
Hand wash in cool soapy .
Iron on right side while damp
Use
End-uses include blouses, dresses, and curtains/draperies.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Organza
A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a medium to
high yarn count , made of silk, rayon, nylon, or polyester.
Characteristic
Fine, sheer, lightweight, crisp fabric.
Has a very wiry feel.
Crushes or musses fairly easily, but it is easily pressed.
Dressy type of fabric, sometimes has a silvery sheen
Care
Dry clean or wash with great care.
Drip dry if washed
Use
Used primarily in evening and wedding apparel for women,
evening dresses, trimming, millinery, underlinings for delicate,
sheer materials.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Polyester
A strong and durable synthetic fabric
Characteristic
High strength, excellent resiliency, and high abrasion
resistance. Low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly.
Lightweight, strong and resistant to creasing, shrinking,
stretching, mildew.
Readily washable and is not damaged by sunlight or weather.
Care
Wash warm and cold rinse normal spin.
May be tumbled but choose low heat.
Iron cool as the fabric is thermoplastic
Use
Often the material of football shirts and is the microfibre in
fleece garments.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Poplin
A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave.
The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect
in one direction, usually the filling.
Characteristic
Light-weighted and thin.
Comfortable to wear.
Care
Generally can be washed, tumbled and ironed
Use
Used in casual wear.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Plisse
Thin cotton fabric with puckered stripes or pattern in an overall
blister effect caused by selective shrinkage.
Characteristic :
Puckered and plain striped effects usually either warp or in
the weft direction.
Has tendency to shrink
Care:
Hand wash only
Do not iron for better durability
Use:
Used in apparel, casual wear, draperies
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Rayon
A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose,
derived from wood pulp, cotton linters, or other vegetable
matter.
Characteristic
Drapability and dyeability are excellent.
Fairly soft.
Has a tendency to shrink but does not melt in high
temperatures.
Resistant to moths and is not affected by ordinary household
bleaches and chemicals.
Care
Dry cleaning recommended as it weakens the fabric.
Use
Used in clothing, hose.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Satin Fabric
A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to
achieve a lustrous fabric surface.
Characteristic
Usually has a lustrous surface and a dull back.
Made in many colors, weights, varieties, qualities, and degrees
of stiffness.
Care
Treat with care and follow the care label for fibre type - Iron
on dull side - Easy to damage with sharp objects - Water will
mark the fabric.
Use
Satin is a traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Seersucker
A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension
control. In the production of seersucker, some of the warp
yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the
weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend
to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces
a puckered stripe effect in the fabric.
Characteristic
It is skin friendly, comfortable and durable. It is thin and light-
weighted.
Care
It can be easily washed and needs no ironing.
Use
Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such
as shirts, trousers, and informal suits.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Silk
A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the
construction of its cocoon. Most silk is collected from cultivated
worms; Tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber
produced by worms in their natural habitat. All silk comes from
Asia, primarily China.
Characteristic
Soft fabric with lustrous look.
Care
Dry clean. - If washed treat with care silk can be damaged by
rubbing - Do not wring - Hang to dry - Iron while damp - Clean
often as ingrained stains may not come away.
Use
Used for sarees and traditional costumes.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Taffeta
A lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight
ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise) direction.
Characteristic
Provides a crisp hand, with lots of body.
Smooth with a sheen on its surface.
Have a crispness and stiffness.
Care
Dry cleaning recommended.
Use
Used in formal wear, dressy evening wear, suits and coats, slips,
ribbons, blouses, dresses.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Tulle
A lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made netting, usually
with a hexagon shaped mesh effect.
Characteristic
Very fine soft netted fabric in a hexagonal shape
Care
Iron as for fibre being careful not to catch and tear fabric.
Use
End-uses include dance costumes and veils.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Velvet
A medium weight cut-pile constructed fabric in which the cut
pile stands up very straight.
Characteristic
Crush resistant and water resistant.
High lustre and smooth hand.
Drapes well.
Care
Dry cleaning is recommended.
Drip dry .
Do not wring or spin.
Use
Used in eveningwear, lounge wear, used extensively for party
wear and curtaining .
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Voile
A crisp, lightweight, plain weave cotton-like fabric, made with
high twist yarns in a high yarn count construction.
Similar in appearance to organdy and organza.
Characteristic
Sheer and very light weight.
Drapes and gathers very well.
Care
Do not wring or twist .
Hang to dry .
Iron while damp.
Use
Used in blouses dresses and curtains.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Wool
Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of
sheep or lamb.
Characteristic
Very resilient.
Resistant to wrinkling.
Renewed by moisture and well known for it's warmth.
Care
Dry clean recommended .
Hand wash or machine wash on wool setting.
Do not wring .
Dry flat.
Cool iron
Use
Used in clothing, blankets, winter wear.
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T
Jyothirmai . S. Asst. Professor ,F&T