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Think about it like this Just as we need a fairly tasteless, dry cone to enjoy an ice cream so we need fairly dry linguistic and literary terms and approaches to help us explore the meaning of a text. Most of us dont buy an ice cream for the cone, and most of us dont read a text simply to describe its linguistic or literary features. lways relate what you find in a text to how meaning is created. !o try to eat the whole cone though" #se all the approaches and terms a$ailable. Style %&&! '#() 6our own written and spoken expression
<hen we analyse texts we are primarily exploring meaning. <ithout keeping the focus on meaning, you will be feeding the examiner a dry cone of frameworks. =ut without the cone, you are likely to end up with meaning melting and running through your fingers. 6uk" Remember: you can get ice creams with different scoops of flavour: always try to explore different ways of reading a text has an impact on how your ideas are percei$ed by others. lways use an appropriate style and register for the context in which you are writing or speaking. 4unctuation and $ocabulary need to be used accurately.


#orm and structure/$iscourse


Overview (&1T21T. (&1T23T. #!021(2. TT0T#!2*. 4#54&*2. T23T T642. T&12. T72M2* Sentence level/Grammar *entence types *yntax +word order, +especially- parallelism, foregrounding. end focus. non/standard features, Mood +!eclarati$e, 0nterrogati$e, 0mperati$e, Tense Standard/Non-standard features/Dialect Phonology Ellipsis ccent84ronunciation e.g. elision, phonemes 88, plosi$es, fricati$es, sibilants, 04 , 5ecei$ed 4ronunciation, regional accents. .Prosodic features +loudness, stress, pitch, intonation, etc., Sound alliteration, assonance, rhyme +couplets, masculine, half/rhyme, eye rhyme,, rhythm, iambic and trochaic feet, sound effects, onomatopoeia, , Typography 9ont, 4unctuation, &rthography, %raphemes :;, 4ictorial elements, #se of colour

%enre, narrati$e stance +first person, third person, second person address,, narrati$e $oice, dialogue, $erse type e.g. sonnet +4etrarchan8*hakespearean,, ballad, lyric, free $erse, epistolary form, prose8$erse


&rder of content. de$elopment of ideas8argument, chronology, juxtaposition of content, chapters, flashback, stan@a structure +couplet. ?uatrain, sestet, octa$e, enjambment, caesura, $olta, rhyme scheme, metre, scansion, enjambment, turn/taking, pausing, non/fluency, o$erlapping, latching

!ord level/"exis Modifiers 5egister <ord classes +e.g. pronouns, $erbs, abstract nouns, 'exical sets, (onnotations *tandard81on/standard features8!ialect80dioms8 rchaisms 'iterary and 5hetorical techni?ues includingmetaphor, simile, allusion, imagery, symbolism, personification, anthropomorphism, pathetic fallacy, listing, antithesis, paradox, oxymoron, juxtaposition, tripling, repetition, hyperbole, litotes, apostrophe

5emember you dont ha$e to follow the order abo$e, but you should always ha$e a clear plan and structure. !&1T 9&5%2T- 1*<25 T72 >#2*T0&1 *2T