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There are three types of wear that occur, often in combination, in barrels, screws, valves and other components. An understanding of nature and causes of adhesive, abrasive and corrosive wear is essential to the selection and use of these components. This image is an example of adhesive wear â€“ notice how the top of the screw flights have â€œrolledâ€• over on the edges.
Adhesive wear occurs when two metals rub together with sufficient force to cause the removal of material from the less wear resistant surface. If the two metals have a comparable chemical analysis and hardness, a galling action can occur where one metal is actually welded to the other causing high and low spots where material is added or removed. The screw and barrel can come into contact with each other during operation. The screw is cantilevered in the barrel and is supported only at its shank and by the plastic in the barrel. When conditions cause excessive contact between the two components, adhesive wear and/or galling will occur on the screw flight OD and the barrel wall. There are several causes of adhesive wear and galling, all of which can be prevented through the proper design, manufacture and use of the machinery components.
Adhesive Wear Causes
1. Improper Screw Design If the design of the screw is not adequate to generate the necessary melting capacity, considering the resin type and processing parameters, the unmelted resin can result in an uneven plugging of the flow in the screw channels causing the screw to deflect against the barrel wall. This condition will occur more readily with new rather than old components that have considerable wear. The same condition can occur with a properly designed screw running in a barrel with an improper heat profile. 2. Wrong Component Materials To avoid galling of metals which can rub against each other, the chemical analysis and/or hardness of the materials must be different. This “compatibility” of materials must be considered when selecting screw and barrel materials. Reiloy Westland Corporation can assist you in choosing the best combination of materials for your application. 3. Incorrect Heat Profile
4. Thus some of the material is transferred by its counterbody. The load applied to the contacting asperities is so high that they deform and adhere to each other forming micro-joints. Anti-wear additives in oil. This effect is called scuffing or galling. the same restrictive condition described in item (1) will occur. . Presence of solid lubricants. flight hard-surfacing or nitriding of screws. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Adhesive wear Adhesion wear is a result of micro-junctions caused by welding between the opposing asperities on the rubbing surfaces of the counterbodies. Harder rubbing materials. When a considerable areas of the rubbing surfaces are joined during the friction a Seizure resistance (compatibility) seizure of one of the bodies by the counterbody may occur.In an effort to process resins at their lowest melt temperatures. The welded asperity ruptures in the non-deformed (non-cold worked) regions. low heater band settings in the transition and feed zones can cause the material to melt almost solely from shear heat generated by the screw. causing screw deflection and consequent adhesive wear and/or galling. The factors decreasing adhesive wear: Lower load. improper heat treatment of barrel lining or lack of straightness in the barrel (or screw) can cause adhesive wear and/or galling. If the shear heat is not uniform. Poor Manufacturing Workmanship Inferior plating. Contaminated rubbing surfaces. Presence of a lubrication oil. The motion of the rubbing counterbodies result in rupture of the micro-joints.
etc. low pour point and low resistance to oxidation. Grease properties are determined by a type of oil (mineral. low flash point. They possess high flash point and high pour point. Naphtenic oils possess low viscousity.). There are three types of mineral oil: paraffinic. Aromatic oils are products of refining process in manufacture of paraffinic oils. . calcium. and paper industries. textile. Boron nitride. spindles. Naphtenic oils are used in moderate temperature applications. industrial lubricants and as processing oils in rubber. tungsten disulfide and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) are other solid lubricants.General classification of lubricants Mineral lubricants Fluid lubricants (Oils) Mineral fluid lubricants are based on mineral oils. synthetic. Semi-fluid lubricants (greases) Semi-fluid lubricants (greases) are produced by emulsifying oils or fats with metallic soap and water at 400-600°F (204-316°C). Paraffinic oils are relatively viscous and resistant to oxidation. steam turbines. Naphtenic oils are produced from crude oil distillates. rolling mill bearings. Solid lubricants Solid lubricants possess lamellar structure preventing direct contact between the sliding surfaces even at high loads. vegetable. Aromatic oils are dark and have high flash point. Aromatic oils are used for manufacturing seal compounds. naphtenic and aromatic. Graphite and molybdenum disulfide particles are common Solid lubricants. Most hydrocarbon molecules of aromatic oils have non-saturated ring structure. Typical mineral oil base grease is vaseline. Paraffinic oils are produced either by hydrocracking or solvent extraction process. Semi-fluid lubricants (greases) are used in variety applications where fluid oil is not applicable and where thick lubrication film is required: lubrication of roller bearings in railway car wheels. Most hydrocarbon molecules of naphtenicnic oils have saturated ring structure. salts of long-chained fatty acids) and additives (extra pressure. sodium. anti-oxidation. mainly for manufacturing transformer oils and metal working fluids. Mineral oils (petroleum oils) are products of refining crude oil. Paraffinic oils are used for manufacturing engine oils. type of soap (lithium. animal fat). Most hydrocarbon molecules of paraffinic oils have non-ring long-chained structure. etc. jet engine bearings and other various machinery bearings. corrosion protection. adhesives and as plasiticezers in rubber and asphalt production.
Short non-cross-linked molecules make fluid silicone. corn. canola. Viscosity of silicones depends on the length of the polymer molecules and on the degere of their cross-linking. Polyalphaoleins (synthetic hydrocarbons) are manufactured by polymerization of hydrocarbon molecules (alphaoleins). Ester oils are characterized by very good high temperature and low temperature resistance. methyl+phenyl ( CH3 + C6H5 ). Silicone lubricants (oils and greases) are characterized by broad temperature range: -100ºF to +570ºF (-73ºC to 300ºC). methyl+methyl ( (CH3)2 ). They are also able to withstand high pressures without EP (extreme pressure) additives. PAO’s chemical structure and properties are identical to those of mineral oils. castor. Polyglycols are water soluble. Solid lubricants are also used in form of dry powder or as constituents of coatings. Its monomer is (CH3)2SiO. Synthetic lubricants Polyalphaolefins (PAO) Polyalphaoleins are the most popular synthetic lubticant. Polyglycols are characterized by very low coefficient of friction. Silicones Silicones are a group of inorganic polymers. PDMS is produced from silicon and methylchloride. Other examples of silicones are polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydiphenylsiloxane. Ester oils Ester oils are produced by reaction of acids and alcohols with water.Solid lubricants are mainly used as additives to oils and greases. Vegetable lubricants Vegetable lubricants are based on soybean. Two organic groups are attached to each Si=O moiety: eg. Long cross-linked molecules result in elastomer silicone. . The most popular silicone is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). cotton seed and rape seed oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly alternative to mineral oils since they are biodegradable. molecules of which represent a backbone structure built from repeated chemical units (monomers) containing Si=O moieties. The process occurs in reaction of ethylene gas in presence of a metallic catalyst. Polyglycols (PAG) Polyglycols are produced by oxidation of ethylene and propylene. Lubrication properties of vegetable base oils are identical to those of mineral oils. The oxides are then polymerized resulting in formation of polyglycol. phenyl+phenyl ( (C6H5)2 ).
Classification of lubricants by application Engine oils Gear oils Hydraulic oils Cutting fluids (coolants) Way lubricants Compressor oils Quenching and heat transfer oils Rust protection oils Transformer oils (insulating oils) Turbine oils Chain lubricants Wire rope lubricants Engine mechanisms lubricated by engine oils Piston motion in cylinder. Animal fats are mainly used for manufacturing greases. Crankshaft rotation in engine bearings. Piston pin rotation in the bush of small end of the connecting rod. Direct contact between a rotating crankshaft and the engine bearings occurs only for short periods of engine start and shutdown. There are two main animal fats: hard fats (stearin) and soft fats (lard). Oil film provides low coefficient of friction. distributes load applied to the bearing over its surface. Camshaft rotation in camshaft bearings. Provision of reliable engine operation in a wide temperature range. takes foreign particles away from the friction region. Cams sliding over the valves rods. In normally operating engine there is a continuous oil film between the two surfaces.The main disadvantages of vegetable lubricants are their low oxidation and temperature stabilities. This friction regime is called hydrodynamic. . to top Functions of engine oil Provision of stable oil film between sliding surfaces. Animal lubricants Animal lubricants are produced from the animals fat. cools down the sliding parts.
heat removal.cylinder gap. cleaning). Combustion heat and friction energy must be removed from the engine in order to prevent its overheating. When an engine starts at low temperature the oil is viscous (thick). Combustion gases past through the piston rings to the crankcase contain some amount of not burnt carbon. . Such oil may become aggressive to the metal parts contacting with it. which may deposit on the rings. In addition to this some constituents of the combustion gases dissolve in the oil and increase its acidity. Most of heat energy is taken by the engine oil. Foamed oils are less effective in their important functions (oil film formation. valves and cylinders. In order to diminish foam formation special additives (anti-foaming agents) are added to engine oils. Corrosion inhibitors are added to engine oils in order to provide protection of metallic (both ferrous and non-ferrous) parts. The sludge clogs oil passages and clearances decreasing lubrication of the engine parts. If the viscosity is too high the oil will not be able to flow to the sliding parts and the non-lubricated engine will not operate. overheating and even Fatigue of the sliding materials. Prevention of foaming. Engine oil circulating in an engine may entrap air and form foams (foam is a mixture of a liquid with gas bubbles). Rust/corrosion protection of the engine parts. and it may become less than roughness of the sliding surfaces. Dispersants. Engine oil fills these microscopic passages and seal the combustion gases. In this case hydrodynamic regime is broken and direct metal-to-metal contact between the surfaces occurs. The oil flows easily. In order to remove the sludge from the surface detergents are added to the engine oils. Combustion gases containing water vapors and other chemically active gases partially penetrate to the crankcase and may cause corrosion. however oil film thickness of the hot oil is low. Imperfection on the surfaces of the piston rings and cylinders walls result in penetration of combustion gases into the crankcase. which are also added to the engine oils. forming a sludge. which decreases the engine efficiency and causes contamination of the oil. Metal-to-metal contact causes excessive wear. help to maintain the removed sludge and other contaminants (non-metallic and metallic) in form of fine suspension permitting engine functioning between the oil changes. Cleaning the engine parts from sludge.Viscosity of an oil strongly depends on its temperature. Sealing piston ring . On the other hand oil viscosity in a heated engine is low. Cooling the engine parts.
The number indicates a level of the oil viscosity at a particular temperature. etc. the second number specifies the oil viscosity at high temperature. According to the SAE viscosity grading system all engine oils are divided into two classes: monograde and multigrade: Monograde engine oils Monograde engine oils are designated by one number (20.Clean oil passages.) was specified at the temperature 212°F (100°C). SAE 20W50. Multigrade engine oils Viscosity of engine oils may be stabilized by polymeric additives (viscosity index improvers). Common hydraulic system consists of: Oil tank. SAE 30W. These engine oils are suitable for use at high ambient temperatures. proper viscosity and low contamination provide sufficient flow rate of the engine oil and effective cooling. 50. Oil filter. These grades are used at low ambient temperatures. SAE 15W30. Control valves. The higher the grade number. etc. etc.). The most popular multigrade engine oil in the North America is SAE 10W30. SAE 30. Viscosity of engine oils designated with a number only without the letter “W” (SAE 20. Multigrade oils are used in a wide temperature range. Viscosity of engine oils designated with a number followed by the letter “W” (SAE 20W. to top SAE viscosity grading system The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) established a viscosity grading system for engine oils. The letter “W” means winter. 40. Viscosity of such engine oils is specified at both high and low temperature. These oils are called multigrades and they are designated by two numbers and the letter “W” (SAE 5W30.). but it has a high temperature viscosity similar to that of SAE 30.) was specified at the temperature 0°F (-18°C). For example: SAE 15W30 oil has a low temperature viscosity similar to that of SAE 15W. Pistons. The first number of the designation specify the oil viscosity at cold temperature. Hydraulic pump. the higher the oil viscosity. 30. Hydraulic oil is a fluid lubricant used in hydraulic systems for transmitting power. . etc.
Pipes. toxicity and very low biodegradability. . Phosphate ester based synthetic hydraulic fluids. Rust and oxidation protection properties. They are also toxic. Mineral hydraulic oil (petroleum base). construction equipment. however they are not compatible with paints. low coefficient of friction). They possess most of the characteristics important for hydraulic oils. Polyol ester based synthetic hydraulic fluids. Anti-oxidants.). Types of hydraulic fluids Viscosity of hydraulic oils SAE Designation of hydraulic oils by viscosity ISO Designation of hydraulic oils Properties of some hydraulic oils Types of hydraulic fluids Optimal properties of hydraulic oils are achieved by a combination of a base oil and additives (anti-wear additives. anti-foaming agents. Compatibility with sealant materials. adhesives. detergents. at which the oil may flow). The following characteristics and properties are important for hydraulic oils: Low temperature sensitivity of viscosity. Low flash point(the lowest temperature. Mineral based oils are the most common and low cost hydraulic fluids. Resistance to cavitation. Water emulsifying ability. Low compressibility. Phosphate esters based hydraulic fluids possess excellent fire resistance. at which the oil vapors are ignitable). Hydraulic systems are widely used in industrial machinery. Phosphate esters are produced by the reaction of phosphoric acid with aromatic alcohols. some polymers and sealant materials. automotive. The disadvantages of mineral (petroleum) based oils are their low fire resistance (low flash point). Hydrolitic stability (ability to retain properties in the high humidity environment). Low foaming. aircraft and marine applications. Thermal and chemical stability. Low pour point (the lowest temperature. Corrosion inhibitors etc. Good lubrication (anti-wear and anti-stick properties. Filterability.
The number indicates a level of the oil viscosity at a particular temperature.). they are non-toxic and biodegradable.36 centistokes. Low viscosity limit is determined by the lubrication properties of the oil and its resistance to cavitation. Water glycol based fluids contain 35-60% of water in form of solution (not emulsion) and additives (anti-foam. However their temperature range is relatively low: 32°F .120°F (0°C .). Common viscosity of hydraulic oils is in the range 16 . SAE 20. Optimum viscosity value is 16 . According to the SAE viscosity grading system all oils are divided into two classes: monograde and multigrade: Monograde hydraulic oils Monograde hydraulic oils are designated by one number (10. rust and corrosion inhibitors. The main disadvantage of vegetable hydraulic oils is their relatively low oxidation resistance. Water glycol based hydraulic fluids possess excellent fire resistance. Vegetable hydraulic oils.100 centistokes. These oils are suitable for use .Polyol esters are produced by the reaction of long-chain fatty acids and synthesized alcohols. SAE 30 etc. 40. The higher the grade number. They are non-toxic and biodegradable. 30. Water evaporation causes deterioration of the hydraulic fluids properties. Vegetable hydraulic oils are produced mainly from Canola oil. etc. They are environmentally friendly but their use is limited by high cost. anti-wear etc. anti-freeze.49°C). to top Viscosity of hydraulic oils Viscosity of a hydraulic fluid depends on its composition and the temperature. Upper viscosity value is limited by the ability of the oil to be pumped. the higher the oil viscosity. to top SAE Designation of hydraulic oils by viscosity The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) established a viscosity grading system for oils.) was specified at the temperature 212°F (100°C). Water glycol synthetic hydraulic fluids. 20. Their chemical structure is similar to that of polyol esters. Viscosity of hydraulic oils designated with a number only without the letter “W” (SAE 10. Vegetable hydraulic oils possess very good lubrication properties and high viscosity index (low temperature sensitivity of viscosity). Polyol ester based hydraulic fluids are fire resistant and possess very good lubrication properties.
. These oils are called multigrades and they are designated by two numbers and the letter “W” (SAE 5W30. They contain EP additives. These grades are used at low ambient temperatures. The first number of the designation specify the oil viscosity at cold temperature. but it has a high temperature viscosity similar to that of SAE 30. to top ISO Designation of hydraulic oils International Standardization Organization (ISO) established a viscosity grading (VG) system for industrial hydraulic oils. Compounded oils are used mainly in worm gears. demulsifiers and up to 10% of fatty oils for better lubricity. SAE 30W etc. The letter “W” means winter.at high ambient temperatures.) was specified at the temperature 0°F (-18°C). For example: SAE 10W30 oil has a low temperature viscosity similar to that of SAE 10W. anti-foaming agents and demulsifiers. They contain rust and oxidation inhibitors. SAE 10W20. The viscosity of R&O oils according to the ISO grading system is between 32 to 320.). the second number specifies the oil viscosity at high temperature. Multigrade hydraulic oils Viscosity of hydraulic oils may be stabilized by polymeric additives (viscosity index improvers). The viscosity of compounded oils according to the ISO grading system is between 460 to 1000. They contain rust and oxidation inhibitors. rust and oxidation inhibitors. Types of gear oils Combinations of additives impart special functions to gear oils: Rust and oxidation preventive gear oils Rust and oxidation preventive (R&O) oils are mainly mineral base. Viscosity of hydraulic oils designated with a number followed by the letter “W” (SAE 10W. ISO VG 46 etc. According to the system hydraulic oils are designated by the letters ISO followed by a number equal to the oil viscosity measured in centistokes at 40°C (104°F): ISO VG 32. The viscosity of EP oils according to the ISO grading system is between 68 to 1500. Multigrade hydraulic oils are used in a wide temperature range. SAE 20W. Compounded gear oils Compounded oils are mineral base. Extreme Pressure (EP) gear oils EP oils may be either mineral or synthetic base. SAE 10W30 etc. Viscosity of such oils is specified at both high and low temperature.
The highest operation temperature in spur gears is about 130°F (54°C).) was specified at the temperature 212°F (100°C). The low temperature limit of a gear oil is 9°F (5°C) higher than its pour point (the lowest temperature. Mineral oils possess relatively high pour point .). esters oils or polyglycols. Pour point of syntethic oils may reach -50°F (-46°C). to top SAE Designation of gear oils by viscosity The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) established a viscosity grading system for gear and Engine oils. High viscosity is favorable for: low speed. Synthetic gear oils are used for gears operating under extreme conditions: very low or very high temperatures. The number indicates a level of the oil viscosity at a particular temperature. SAE 90. Low viscosity provides thin oil film. highly loaded gears with a rough tooth surface. good cooling (heat removal) conditions. The viscosity of synthetic oils according to the ISO grading system is between 32 to 6800. etc.about 20°F (-7°C). Low viscosity is favorable for: high speed. the higher the oil viscosity. Synthetic gear oils Synthetic gear oils may be based on polyalphaolefins (PAO). 90. Viscosity of gear oils designated with a number only without the letter “W” (SAE 80. Viscosity of a gear oil depends on the temperature. SAE 140 etc. These gear oils are suitable for . 140. rust and oxidation inhibitors. 250. therefore an oil selected for a particular gear should provide its reliable operation within the expected temperature range. anti-foaming agents and demulsifiers. low loaded gears with a good tooth surface finish. They may contain EP additives. In the worm gears the temperature may reach 200°F (93°C). high pressures. The higher the grade number. low friction (high mechanical efficiency). High viscosity provides thick oil film. According to the SAE viscosity grading system all oils are divided into two classes: monograde and multigrade: Monograde gear oils Monograde gear oils are designated by one number (70. at which the oil may flow). to top Viscosity of gear oils Viscosity of gear oils (lubricants) is a compromise between the gear parameters requiring low viscosity and those requiring high viscosity. high wear resistance and low galling even at high pressure (EP).
The first number of the designation specify the oil viscosity at cold temperature.). to top Designation of gear oils by performance American Petroleum Institute (API) established a performance grading system for gear oils (mostly automotive gear oils). These grades are used at low ambient temperatures. SAE 80W-90. Multigrade gear oils are used in a wide temperature range. It is used in medium loaded worm gears. the oil is used in low load applications only. For example: SAE 85W-140 oil has a low temperature viscosity similar to that of SAE 85W. SAE 75W.2. Viscosity of gear oils designated with a number followed by the letter “W” (SAE 70W.) was specified at the temperature 0°F (-18°C). According to the system gear oils are designated by the letters GL (Gear Lubricant) followed by a number 1. GL-3 GL-3 gear oil possesses light EP effect. These oils are called multigrades and they are designated by two numbers and the letter “W” (SAE 75W-90.4 or 5: GL-1 GL-1 gear oil has rust and oxidation protection effect but it does not contain extra pressure (EP) additives. It is used in non-hypoid gears. The letter “W” means winter. but it has a high temperature viscosity similar to that of SAE 140. the second number specifies the oil viscosity at high temperature. GL-4 GL-4 gear oil possesses moderate EP effect.3. GL-5 . Viscosity of such gear oils is specified at both high and low temperature. It is most widely used oil. Multigrade gear oils Viscosity of gear oils may be stabilized by polymeric additives (viscosity index improvers). SAE 80W etc. but without EP effect. GL-2 GL-2 gear oil contain more additives than GL-1. SAE 85W-140 etc.use at high ambient temperatures.
GL-5 gear oil possesses high EP effect. . It is used in hypoid and other highly loaded gears. According to the system industrial gear oils are designated by the letters ISO followed by a number equal to the oil viscosity measured in centistokes at 40°C (104°F): ISO VG 32. ISO VG 220 etc. ISO VG 150. ISO VG 46. ISO VG 100. ISO VG 68. to top ISO Designation of industrial gear oils International Standardization Organization (ISO) established a viscosity grading (VG) system for industrial gear oils.
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