Denis Cosgrove Armand Colin | Annales de géographie
2008/2 - n° 660-661 pages 159 à 178

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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cosgrove Denis, « Cultural cartography : maps and mapping in cultural geography », Annales de géographie, 2008/2 n° 660-661, p. 159-178. DOI : 10.3917/ag.660.0159


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Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography
Les cartes et la cartographie en géographie culturelle
Denis Cosgrove



Au cours des trois dernières décennies, des tournants importants se sont produits tant dans la pratique cartographique que dans les théories qui la concernent, et qui ont transformé le rôle de la cartographie en géographie, alors même que la fabrication des cartes faisait l’objet d’études qui font ressortir les liens actuels existant entre la géographie culturelle et différentes pratiques artistiques. Le présent essai se penche sur ces développements en portant une attention particulière au cas anglophone. La critique de la prétention scientifique de la cartographique et l’approche historique révisionniste de l’art seront d’abord discutées, suivront des remarques sur les relations changeantes entre la géographie et la cartographie, ainsi que sur l’impact des nouvelles technologies sur la fabrication et l’usage des cartes comme on peut s’en rendre compte par la généralisation des cartographies virtuelles. La dimension artistique de la recherche et de la documentation sur les questions spatiales et environnementales qui ont recours à ces nouvelles cartographies, est replacée dans son contexte historique et est mise en relation avec les changements survenus récemment dans les pratiques géographiques. Cultural geography, cartography, map, mapping, map art, site specific art, Land Art, history of cartography. Géographie culturelle, cartographie, carte, art et cartes, site d’art, art naturel, histoire de la cartographie.

Key-words Mots-clés

In November 2001 the American artist Laura Kurgan produced and freely distributed to visitors at the site of the recently destroyed World Trade Center in lower Manhattan a map plotting the events of 9/11, its impacts on the surrounding streets and buildings, and the recovery activities then underway (fig. 1). The map was updated and again freely

Ann. Géo., n° 660-661, 2008, pages 159-178, © Armand Colin

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Over the past three decades, significant shifts in both the theory and practice of cartography and indeed in the definition of the map itself have transformed the role of mapping within geography, while maps and map making have become a focus for important contemporary connections between cultural geography and various art practices. This essay reviews these developments, paying special attention to Anglophone examples. The critique of cartography’s claims to science and revisionist art historical scholarship are first discussed, followed by comments on the changing relations between geography and cartography and the impacts of new technology on map making and use as these have been democratised through virtual cartographies. Growing artistic interest in researching and documenting spatial and environmental questions that involve use of many of these mapping practices is set in its historical context and related to geography’s changing academic practices.

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p. identità. in D. see Giorgio Mangani.250. In her urban mapping. to be readily disposed of or destroyed in the process of use rather than archived as documentary evidence of geographical data 1. “Cartography is dead (thank God)”. when the site was still being actively cleared.22 ..160 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE. Document téléchargé depuis www. N° 660-661 • 2008 1 2 Catherine Delano-Smith. On the professionalization of cartography as a scientific and academic practice and its specifically 20th century characteristics. Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya. It was also an artistic project. although in noting their salience we are alerted to cartography’s insistent ethical dimension.189. 2006. the maps mediate between the visible and the absent while introducing a sense of the processes under way in front of the map user and viewer.06/05/2013 22h39. and the city still deeply traumatized. Kurgan’s map raised a host of ethical and political questions: did it merely service morbid voyeurism or meet the needs of genuine witness? Did it cheapen and trivialise the significance of the place by representing it in the graphic language of tourist cartography? Did it seek to control and direct the ways of seeing and experiencing a place whose gravity and sacredness (as a mass graveyard) demanded a more personal and private response? I do not intend to answer these questions in this essay. Kurgan’s mapping project serves here to introduce a broader set of questions that bear upon the role and relations of cartography in the context of contemporary cultural geography.189. Cartografia morale: geografia. © Armand Colin ..06/05/2013 22h39. Delano-Smith. The fold-out image used the vivid colours and design graphics of maps distributed to orientate and guide visitors at tourist attractions such as theme parks or zoos. p. human remains being recovered and identified. persuasions. 45. intended for immediate practical use. 4-7. see Denis Wood. Franco Cosimo Panini. it is not professional cartography. Color coded to show the footprints of the variously destroyed and damaged buildings and overlain by pictorial symbols. The project was financed by local agencies and businesses.22 . 2001. “The map as a commodity”. .. Rather.).cairn. which also helped supply the information recorded on the map. Given the scale of the site and the totality of destruction. Woodward. practical need. Initially produced within two months of the catastrophe. the map responded to a specific.250. Modena. Kurgan’s map was designed to help them do so. leaving only a small number of viewing stands from which it could be observed. Yee (eds. 2003. Approaches and challenges in a worldwide history of cartography (11è plantejaments I objectius d’una història universal de la cartografia). 91-110. While accurately documenting and plotting spatial data.82. While serving an obvious public need. a site specific and performative work intended as a direct intervention into the everyday (if temporarily disrupted and uncanny) life of the city. On the cultural and historical roles of mensuration in relating to geography and place. Cordell D. a way of “taking the measure” of the event . most visitors could make little sense of what they were seeing. Barcelona.82. © Armand Colin distributed in March 2002. the Ground Zero map makes no claim to scientific accuracy or objectivity. High fences had been constructed around the destroyed area. Cartographic Perspectives. it was an ephemeral product. Document téléchargé depuis www. Like a guide-book or transit map.cairn.

06/05/2013 22h39.22 . Laura Kurgan.189..22 . aware of the post-modern critiques of scientific mapping and of the map’s complex relationships with power.cairn.82.06/05/2013 22h39.189.250.250. Map of 9/11 site. 1 Laura Kurgan. 2001. © Armand Colin Document téléchargé depuis www. Kurgan could draw theoretically on a long tradition in Modern Art — from early Surrealism. She recognises the significance of the map as Document téléchargé depuis www.cairn. © Armand Colin . détails.Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 161 . she is also acutely political in her mapping. Carte du site du 11 septembre 2001. Conceptualism and site-specific art practices — in which cartographies of everyday life have played a significant role.. As her earlier work using SPOT satellite images to map the sites of mass graves revealing the evidence of ethnic cleansing in the Balkans demonstrates very .82. detail. through Situationism...

“Texts. I explore the recent convergence of interest between cultural geographers and artists in questions of map making and cartography. Mapping. criticism and practice around maps and mapping with the intention of clarifying the changing relations between cartography.22 . in T. participatory activity no longer the preserve of professional cartographers and geographers.162 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE. the claims for the academic and scientific status of their work made by American cartographers. Association of American Geographers. text and metaphor in the representation of . and John Pickles. I explore the historical evolution of these relations and connect them to broader developments in cultural study.J. “ . science cultural theory and artistic activity within geography.S. 5 .250. 57 (1). Lastly. Document téléchargé depuis www. The term “iconotext” refers to representations that incorporate both text and graphic images (for example comic books. and Charles Owens’s pictorial cartography”. 1992. 95(2). 373-390. cartoons and many virtual hypertexts). Annals. a rapprochement with the humanities and a focus on images. 35-54. Imago Mundi. principally within the Anglophone world (although the developments I discuss are not by any means confined to that sphere).82. Modernity: Art and cartography in the twentieth century”.). finished object and mapping as a specialised scientific activity seem to be giving way to a virtual cartography in which the map image is avowedly provisional and ephemeral. Duncan (eds.189. I assess their implications in the context of a digitized world in which the map as a tangible.06/05/2013 22h39. N° 660-661 • 2008 a material object and an active agent in social relations... London and New York. Paul Claval cites feminism. the map could hardly escape the discipline’s cultural revolution. and mapping a creative. © Armand Colin 1 A cultural history of cartography The so-called “cultural turn” that has revolutionized Anglophone cultural geography since the 1980s has had a parallel impact on cartography and on the place of the map within geography.06/05/2013 22h39.250.cairn. p. hermeneutics and propaganda maps”. “Mapping global warfare: Los Angeles. 2005. popularly and professionally regarded as a uniquely geographical research tool and medium of communication. See the discussion in Denis Cosgrove and Veronica della Dora. especially in response to 1940s German propaganda mapping 5. but with many cultural geographers.189. Writing worlds: discourse. In what follows I review this shared body of theory.. The map is one of the oldest examples of the form. In this she shares a burgeoning interest in the map-object and in the practices of mapping not only with a large number of artists. and the central role that cartography played in 3 4 Denis Cosgrove.. Barnes and J. © Armand Colin Document téléchargé depuis www. the Pacific. In these pages.cairn. 2005. Given cartography’s close association with positivist science (that dates to the origins of statistical and thematic mapping in the early 19th century). together with a post-modern scepticism towards the universalist claims of modern science. p.82. The two groups have found common concern in cartography as a cultural practice and they draw increasingly on each other’s work and insights 3.22 . Routledge. subaltern studies and post-colonialism as significant aspects of the cultural turn. As a sophisticated icono-text 4.

info . 45. © Armand Colin geographical exploration and colonial survey. 2003. 2005.. Routledge. Association of American Geographers. A history of spaces: cartographic reason. 2007.acme-journal. In a series of substantive essays he considered the map’s “silences”. among whom Foucault and Derrida held prominent places. 1-9. Harley’s work for the American bi-centennial exhibition of cartography and discovery revealed to him the extent of pre-Columbian indigenous geographical knowledge present but silenced in the maps produced by European “discoverers”.. had drawn heavily on map history and scepticism towards cartography’s scientific claims. Edney’s comments on Harley’s theoretical confusions are on 107. preferences and priorities” 7.82.Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 163 D. Cartographica. the pre-history of “new” cultural geography more generally. quotation on 35. their origin and evolution is Matthew H. p. 97 (1). Within academic cartography itself. Baltimore. In fact.250. Crampton and John Krygier. Edney. The most comprehensive discussion of Harley’s ideas. Drawing on what now appears a somewhat incoherent reading of theorists. The new nature of maps. Foucault. maps redescribe the world… in terms of relations of power and the cultural practices. Cartographica. Cartographies of disease: maps. and his continued attack on the scientific pretensions of professional cartographers has been pursued by writers such as David Koch. Harley claimed that “far from holding up a simple mirror of nature that is true or false. 2005. 29. A detailed critique of Harley’s use of French theorists is to be found in Barbara Belyea. p.B. Brian Harley. it is little wonder that the map has been among the most consistent targets for post-modern deconstruction 6.250. John Cloud and Mark Denil 10. Harley’s cartographic theories”. ACME An International E-Journal for critical geographies. 4(1). “Cartography is dead”.06/05/2013 22h39. 2004. John Cloud.22 .189. Brian Harley who. “American cartographic transformations during the Cold War”. David Koch. Johns Hopkins UP. “Cartographic design: rhetoric and persuasion”. “The origins and development of J. 7 J. Document téléchargé depuis www. as is apparent in the mid-century writings of J. 2002. 2006. 29. 8 The essays are collected in The new nature of maps.189.22 .org/vol4/ JWCJK]. “Images of Power: Derrida. 2001. Redlands CA. This has simultaneously reduced and enhanced cartography’s place within geography. London. Monograph 54. Wright and David Lowenthal 9. Annals. 202-209. in a series of polemical papers in the 1980s alerted the traditionally conservative fraternity of map scholars (which included a large number of his fellow historical geographers) to the inevitable imbrications of cartography and power. p. Cartographic Perspectives. its operations within systems of knowledge and power. “An introduction to critical cartography”. 10 Jeremy W.82. mapping and medicine. It has become conventional to attribute the beginnings of cartographic critique within geography to the work of the British geographer J. Harley”.06/05/2013 22h39..cairn. 9 I discuss this evolution of thought in Anglophone human geography in “Epistemology. 261-282. and the ways that so many of the canonical maps of European “discovery” had simultaneously used and erased the local and often non-representational forms of spatial knowledge possessed by disadvantaged and colonised populations in furthering the interests of their oppressors 8. settlement and administration. p. Wood.. see also John Pickles. especially in its focus on epistemology. 8-67. Esri Press. mapping and the geocoded . Cartography and Geographical Information Science.K. 4.cairn.. 6 Document téléchargé depuis www. 11-33 [http://www. 2 1992. p. the writer Denis Wood launched a polemical critique of “scientific” map-making in The power of maps (1990). Mark Denil. geography and cartography: Matthew Edney on Brian Harley’s cartographic theories”. © Armand Colin .

164 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE.82. 15 Samuel . 1983. State College.189.. 425-474. Svetlana Alpers’ examination of the inscriptive qualities of Dutch and Flemish genre painting and map making connected them to a broader descriptive imperative in Netherlandish culture that gives a scientific and technical foundation to the long-noted art historical distinctions between Italian idealism and Northern empiricism in early modern painting. social sciences and spatial disciplines such as planning and architecture. drawing upon semiotics and empirical studies of Renaissance urban mapping (notably of Ferrara) made similar claims about the cultural complexities of cartography’s relations to vision while avoiding Harley’s exclusive concentration on power relations 16. The palladian landscape: Geographical change and its cultural representations in sixteenth-century Italy. Chicago. 60. 1990. N° 660-661 • 2008 11 Juergen Schulz. © Armand Colin . Art Bulletin. “Jacopo de’Barbari’s View of Venice: Map Making. Within geography itself Harley’s influence was (and continues to be) seminal. Penn State University Press. although his work was by no means unique in the late 20th century re-theorizing of cartography: for example the Italian geographer Franco Farinelli. Yale University Press. p. Chicago University Press. More theoretically.250. 13 Martin Kemp. Edgerton.cairn. Harley’s participation with the late David Woodward in the Document téléchargé depuis www. The art of describing: Dutch art in the seventeenth century. Also in the 1980s.. 1993. Not only did Harley’s writings attract the attention of scholars throughout the humanities. practical mathematical arts such as survey and engineering. I segni del .250.22 . 14 Svetlana Alpers..82. New Haven.189. and fine art 12. These relations have been ably summarised by Martin Kemp 13. Immagine cartografica e discorso geografico in età moderna. la Nuova Italia. Samuel Edgerton sought to establish a direct connection between 15th century Florentine studies of the newly translated Geography of Claudius Ptolemy on the one hand and Brunelleschi’s and Alberti’s demonstrations of linear perspective on the other 15. 1975. In a detailed examination of the technical and iconographic complexities of Jacopo de’Barbari’s celebrated panoramic map of VENETIA 1500. Panini. 12 Juergen Schulz. New york. 16 Franco Farinelli. 1992. and even perhaps to the Italian distinction between disegno (the emphasis on concept) and colore (a focus on technique) in art 14. Denis Cosgrove.06/05/2013 22h39. The Science of Art. Juergen Schulz demonstrated the priority of its emblematic and iconic significance over any role as a scientific instrument or practical guide to the city 11..cairn. 1990. Edgerton’s claims about the theoretical and cultural correspondence between perspective and Ptolemeic mapping have not held up to subsequent scrutiny.06/05/2013 22h39. City Views. they have appealed also to conceptual artists such as Ruth Watson and Kathy Prendergast whose work I refer to below.22 . © Armand Colin Within art history a parallel focus on the map as an object of critical study emerged in the 1980s as part of a revisionist interest in the cultural specificities and historical contexts of Renaissance perspective and the late medieval science of optics more generally. The Renaissance rediscovery of linear perspective. Document téléchargé depuis www. 1978. basic books. La cartografia tra scienza e arte: carte e cartografia nei Rinascimento Italiana. Modena. and Moralized Geography Before the Year 1500”. Close examination of the work of later 16th century Venetian cartographers such as Giacomo Gastaldo and Cristoforo Sorte has deepened our understanding of the close connections between optical science.

Document téléchargé depuis www. 18 J. Woodward with specialised understanding of the paper-making. Art and cartography: six historical essays.. University of Chicago Press. laying out in graphical form indications of spatial relationships or placing into spatial other information with a locational attribute” 19. They also attract interest as material objects. Today maps are viewed as “signs and collections of signs.. “Cartography in the traditional African. context and criticism of mapping and map . Science in Action.cairn. Chicago. Both of the editors were trained geographers: Harley with a detailed archival knowledge of British topographical mapping.250. Maps take a wide variety of material forms Document téléchargé depuis www. in whatever material medium. The printed map as a graphic representation of spatial information is a classic example of the kind of instrument Latour is referring to.Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 165 17 David Woodward (ed). and Pacific societies”. shifting it strongly away from a traditional focus on matters of technique. Australian. 1987.. vol. Woodward himself edited an influential collection of essays Art and cartography in 1987 that brought together Alpers. 1987. Bruno Latour. Cambridge. 1998. II. “Cartographic design”. The University of Chicago Press. 8. those devoted to Classical and medieval European cartography. acting as “immutable mobiles” that play a significant role in the spatial transfer of knowledge and thus deploy various rhetorics in order to command trust 20.06/05/2013 22h39. The History of Cartography. 3 (David Woodward and G.2 “Cartography in the traditional east and southeast Asian societies”. Harley and David Woodward (eds). vol. engraving and printing techniques that lay behind early-modern map . II. Arctic. 1987.1 “Cartography in the traditional Islamic and South Asian societies”. Bk. 20 The term “immutable mobile” comes from the writings of Bruno Latour and refers to those material scientific objects (such as printed books and treatises) that allow ideas and information to move physically over space. I “Cartography in prehistoric. and Asian cartography have completely transformed scholarship within the history of cartography. © Armand Colin 1980s in the still unfinished multi-volume History of Cartography published by the University of Chicago transformed the way that maps and the evolution of map making are understood. It paid close attention to non-European and non-literate traditions of spatial representation and extended the definition of what constituted a map to any representation. 19 Denil.22 . and the social and performative roles of the map as an object 18.82. of spatial information. Malcolm Lewis eds). mapping among indigenous and traditional societies.cairn. Chicago and London.189.250..B.189. The subsequent five volumes of the History challenged the conventionally Euro-centric narrative of cartographic progress from “primitive” and mythically informed representations to sophisticated and objective presentations of empirical spatial information. Edgerton and other art historians then revising their own discipline’s approach to mapping and progressive cartographic historians with the goal of revising the then prevailing historiography that map-making had passed from art to science over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries 17. Bk.22 . Bk. 1994. regardless of the empirical warranty of that information. provenance and connoisseurship towards an emphasis on the cultural processes. © Armand Colin .06/05/2013 22h39. 1994. vol. American. II. ancient and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean”.82. MA: Harvard University Press. vol. Although three of the History’s volumes have yet to appear in print.

“Mapping tropical waters: British views and visions of Rio de Janeiro”.82. circulate and are used. the great 17th-century Dutch and French cosmographic wall maps acted as Gemankunstwerken.22 . Craib.. and autochthonous experience on the other 21. 2004. collating. p.) Mappings. Geography — a British El Dorado. 1997. Bronwen Wilson.166 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE. Document téléchargé depuis www.250. are paying increasing attention to the role of survey and mapping as active practices in the overseas expansion of early-modern Europe. Cartographic Mexico: A history of state fixations and fugitive landscapes. in Denis Cosgrove (ed. along with geography’s intensive re-conceptualisation of space. University of Chicago Press.. Laura . accounts for much of the current cross-disciplinary interest in geographical scholarship.250. Duke University Press. classifying and displaying the marvels of creation. Yale University Press. Reaktion Books. 1765_1843. Durham & London. 2001. Other studies have revealed the intimacy of cartographic activity with colonial dispossession of native territory: the US Rectangular Survey system for example. University of Hawai’I Press.82. Chicago... 2000. The influence of this cultural turn in the approach to mapping is apparent in many fields of study and. and Early Modern Identity. They cannot be understood or interpreted outside the cultural context in which they are produced. Masters of all they Surveyed: Exploration. Chicago. London. Toronto. re-examining the way that maps acted as a medium through which knowledge of unknown places was constructed in a dialogue between (often fantastic) European expectations and imaginings on the one hand. 18th and 19th-century “plain-style” maps archived Enlightenment sciences such as geology. meteorology and botany as well as exploration of the Pacific Ocean and the continental interiors 22. 22 Francesca Fiorani.22 . Geography unbound: French geographical science from Cassini to Humboldt. University of Toronto Press. Early works. 148-168. Quing colonia enterprise: Ethnography and cartography in early modern China. as in Siam’s use of European topographical survey to delimit the kingdom’s territories and thus defend them against the Western imperial predation 24. Luciana de Lima Martins.189. Cartography and politics in Renaissance Italy. The marvel of maps: Art. Matthew . Historians for example. which regarded the map as a unidirectional exercise of colonial authority have given way to more nuanced and dialogic understanding. 2005. They have begun to recognise the early-modern map as much more than a way-finding device or a record of discovery. or the great colonial surveys conducted by British.06/05/2013 22h39. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation. French. Chicago. 24 Thongchai Winichakul. University of Chicago Press. 2005. 1994. 16th century painted map cycles in Florence and Rome were attached to cabinets of curiosity.189. © Armand Colin and thus fall within the remit of both the cultural history of representation and of things. The world in Venice: Print. New Haven & London.cairn. 1999. Anne Godlewska. Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India. Chicago. Masters. collecting. Benedict Anderson has argued that the map played a key role in shaping decolonised Document téléchargé depuis www. D. © Armand Colin . but a representational machine for archiving and classifying a wide range of geographic and ethnographic material and a rhetorical medium for establishing various claims to truth and authority. long sceptical of nontextual sources.06/05/2013 22h39. University of Chicago Press. the City. Graham Burnett. Honolulu. University of Chicago Press. Dutch and other European powers during the imperial era 23. N° 660-661 • 2008 21 Raymond B. 1999. 23 Burnett.cairn.

. Others have related the uncertainties of actual practices of seeing and recoding spatial data in the colonial and exploration period 26..250. additions and inescapable contextual influences which shape the outcome of such transfers 28.cairn.82. © Armand Colin territories into the “imagined communities” of nation states.06/05/2013 22h39. 27 Paul Carter. 26 Martins. omissions. Responding to these insights.250. to an “opaque” view of the map which takes account of the selections.189. Faber.cairn. Christian Jacob. Jacob’s somewhat analytical semiotics has been extended into broader iconographic studies of specific maps and cartographic practices. “Introduction”. organised and shaped. informative transfer of external information into the simplified classificatory frame of the map sheet. © Armand Colin . conducted with the intention of achieving “an ideal correspondence of the world and its image”. Document téléchargé depuis . 1987. The road to Botany Bay: An Essay in Spatial History.22 . Paris. Albin Michel. the Irish artist.. Cambridge. Jacob’s belief that cartographic interpretation should shift from a “transparent” view of the map as a neutral. it has not been the only concern. 1993. and a “visual architecture” through which the worlds they construct are selected.22 . 4 of Denis Cosgrove. Among the most influential writers in this respect has been the French Classical philologist Christian Jacob whose L’empire des cartes applied to the long sweep of European mapping. London. 28 Quoted on p. Literary and art-historical scholarship has concentrated more on cartographic semiotics. Verso. translated. Mapping is a process which involves both a “complex architecture of signs”: graphic elements with internal forms and logics capable of theoretical disconnection from any geographical . While the nexus of knowledge and power represented by the map has been the principal focus of the new cultural history of cartography. 1983. The Italian scholar Giorgio Mangani’s studies have focused on the moral and emblematic significance of maps. L’empire des cartes. 1-23. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Kathy Prendergast has produced works in her Atlas of Emotions series that include cartographic images of North America that appear at first glance to be standard topographical maps but which on closer examination exclude all place names but those containing the word “lost” (fig.82.Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 167 25 Benedict Anderson. and in recent years Australian and Canadian first peoples have used cartography to challenge colonial-era claims to their lands and to reassert native territorial claims 25. “Mapping tropical waters”. 2). suggesting rather an uncertain and anxious encounter in which the lines of power/knowledge are fractured and unpredictable. She counters the conventional postcolonial reading that the European explorer/colonizer was “master of all I survey”. Mappings. with a detailed historical investigation of how the cordiform (heart-shaped) projection first popularized by Oronce Fine in the 1520s became entangled in the religious struggles and practices of Document téléchargé depuis www..189. p. a theme explored in Paul Carter’s studies of British colonial exploration and mapping 27.06/05/2013 22h39.

30 Frank Lestringant. Les grandeurs de la terre essai sur les transformations du savoir géographique au seizième siècle. ANRT. Paris. détails. © Armand Colin Document téléchargé depuis www. Mangani’s study of the cordiform projection has attracted the attention of the New Zealand artist Ruth Watson who has produced a wide range of 29 Giorgio Mangani.250. Modena. The theological significance of maps and mapping in medieval and early modern theological discourse is also emphasized by studies of Renaissance cosmography by Frank Lestringant and Jean-Marc Besse in which the moral ambiguities of the god-like perspective assumed in global mapping are explored and by Alessandro Scafi’s brilliantly detailed history of the theology and cartography of the terrestrial paradise 30. London.. Lille.189.168 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE. Albin Michel.. geografia e collezionismo nel rinascimento dei Paesi Bassi. Reformation Europe 29.06/05/2013 22h39. Jean-Marc Besse.cairn. Alessandro Scafi.06/05/2013 22h39. 2 Kathy Prendergast: Lost. 2006. 1991 .22 . Document téléchargé depuis www. 2000.22 . Mapping the terrestrial paradise. British Library Publications.189.82. 2001. Kathy Prendergast: Quelque part.250. Il “mondo” di Abramo Ortelio: mysticismo...cairn. detail. Franco Cosimo Panini. N° 660-661 • 2008 Fig. L’Atelier du cosmographe ou l’image du mond a la .info .82. Université de Lille III. 1998. 2001. © Armand Colin .

and using statistical mapping as a bureaucratic. The Portolan. 32 Giorgio Mangani. In his most recent writing Giorgio Mangani has pressed his argument for the moral rhetorics of maps across a broad historical span of Western cartography. The significance of the map and the globe in emblemata. initially as a discipline aligned to geography. Cartografia . coined in 1839 by the Portuguese scholar Viscount de Santarem. 2006. and Abraham Ortelius’ Typus orbis terrarum. 65.22 . Collating spatially referenced data. History of cartography. with aerial photography. Scafi. The first 31 Ruth E. Contemporary shifts in the nature and techniques of mapping practices and map use have also served to emphasize cartography’s cultural and artistic dimensions. but increasingly given scientific status within the academy. and in earlymodern European literature. but between European and non-Western mapping such as Chinese. poetry.82. developing methods of photogrammetry. the number of specialised university programs in America devoted to cartography rose from two to over one hundred. are all specialised skills.189. red-beaded glass pins and growing/dying grass to exploit the nuances of relating the world map to the human heart 31. Woodward.06/05/2013 22h39.cairn. “The Decorated Hearts of Orance Fine: The 1531 Double Cordiform Map of the World”.. Mapping Paradise. and finally between the roles of art and science in cartography 32. © Armand Colin 2 Contemporary mapping I have focussed so far on the ways that conceptual and historical studies of maps and mapping have been affected by the cultural turn. © Armand Colin Document téléchargé depuis www. It has been observed that the word “cartography” itself is a fairly recent neologism. Hindu.cairn.189.. designing and drafting its cartographic presentation.22 . 1570). Its appeal over the more mundane “map-making” is explained by the professionalization of map production in an era when European states were developing topographical map series for the purposes of defining and defending the national territory.. Between 1920 and 1960. using diverse media such as salt. Buddhist and Islamic traditions in which the religious and moral dimensions of mapping and maps has long been acknowledged. rectifying the distortions of map projection and scale and. His argument serves to dissolve the distinctions not only between “modern” and pre-modern mapping in the West (for example between the medieval mappa mundi with their explicit mapping of the terrestrial paradise.06/05/2013 22h39. Mappings.. painting and engraving reveals a close connection between cartography as a scientific and technical discourse and as a subject of artistic reflection and practice that anticipates in some respects the contemporary relationships I discuss below.250. Document téléchargé depuis www. regulatory and planning device.82. initially taught and learned through apprenticeship. . .Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 169 heart-shaped world maps (with the south cardinal point at the top of the map) as installations. Jain. Cosgrove.250.

© Armand Colin . published General Cartography in 1939. the availability of maps and related carto-graphics such as remote sensed images and aerial photographs through the Web vastly outstrips that of printed cartography.. planners. 1953. © Armand Colin academic text on map-making in English appeared in the 1920s.189. Hand drafting of maps has virtually ceased.. General . to be superseded by Arthur Robinson’s Elements of Cartography in 1952. Robinson’s book was republished regularly into the 1970s.82.cairn. This expansion came to an abrupt end in the 1990’s. New York & London.06/05/2013 22h39. while anyone with medium-level technological skills and a home computer connected to the Internet can create maps with equivalent informational content and design qualities to those of professional cartographers. “ .189. laid considerable emphasis on the artistic and cultural dimensions of conceptualising and making maps. Davis.250. Erwin Raisz. rapid overlaying of spatial data sets within Geographic Information Systems. since when there has been a sharp and steep decline in the number of specialised teaching programs in cartography. These two texts have been the pillars of cartography as an academic study in America 33.22 .82.250. information technologies have democratised mapping: a cultural shift that is still underway and whose broader consequences are not yet fully apparent. 34 Cosgrove.. Document téléchargé depuis www. N° 660-661 • 2008 33 Erwin Raisz. While Raisz. reducing its artistic aspects to design questions alone. a vast range of design opportunities in Photoshop and other graphic programs. Arthur H. whose own physiographic maps corresponded closely to the synoptic and synthetic geographical vision of early geographical morphologists such as W. geography and cartography”. allowing the latter to be customised in Document téléchargé depuis www. and bureaucrats.170 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE. New York & London. John Noble Wilford has claimed that the democratization of Geographic Information Systems has produced a new generation of “user cartographers” who are not formally trained in cartography and who work often collectively. for example in avoiding the problems of centring information in relation to a predetermined sheet size and borders. the microprocessor and the Web. 1938. Further. spatially-referenced statistics. and map use from the professional confines of geographers. Packaged computer programs allow instantaneous interchange of map projections and scales. In removing maps and their making from the narrow guild of professional cartographers. That decline has paralleled the unprecedented expansion of map-making and map-using that has come with the easy availability of increasing volumes of remote sensed data.06/05/2013 22h39. who established cartography in Harvard University’s geography programme.cairn.22 . by which time it was accompanied by a range of cartographic teaching texts as the number of university cartography programs continued to expand 34.M. Robinson’s work stressed cartography’s scientific credentials. and exceeds in many respects the practical value of the latter. Robinson.. McGraw-Hill. as well as instantaneous access to diverse data sources. Elements of cartography. The storage capacity of modern computers means that data bases are separate from actual maps that display the data they hold.

Cultural geography traditionally relied heavily on the map as a research tool and a medium for displaying its findings. mapping and cultural geography A striking indication of the map’s contemporary cultural significance and the democratisation brought about by information technology is its role in contemporary art. are already widely accepted among geographers.Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 171 3 Modernist and post-modernist art. Hutchinson..cairn. uses the term “map” entirely metaphorically. There is no question that more inclusive definitions of the map and map-making.189. © Armand Colin content and design. and also the importance of geographical education into the complexities of meaning in maps and into the cultural implications of mapping.250. Vintage Books. and greater flexibility in such matters as scale. and increasingly comes within the capacity of its user to manipulate and transform. 1989) one of the seminal texts of the “new” cultural geography. The mapmakers.. We live today in the most cartographically rich culture in history: the map is ubiquitous in daily .06/05/2013 22h39. individual maps can be more pictorial” 35. while the huge success of such programs as Google Earth that offer the conceit of flying through virtual space to any location on the planet and viewing its surface topography at flexible scales and resolutions by means of digital and photographic images is dramatically affecting popular geographic culture. © Armand Colin . For Vidal de la Blache and Albert Demangeon’s use of the IGN 1.22 . “unburdened by archival responsibility. Document téléchargé depuis www. The growing salience of maps and mapping activities within social life increases the significance of such geographical studies.82. north-point etc. legend.cairn. Denis Wood has recently compiled a catalogue of 218 35 John Noble Wilford. New York..000 topographic sheets was critical both to framing and illustrating their studies of the French pays. 417. Document téléchargé depuis www.82. Distributional maps and mapping practices are much less common features of contemporary cultural geography.189. as we have seen. 2001. p..50. 36 Peter Jackson’s Maps of meaning (London. Mapping the distribution and diffusion of material culture and cultural practices was central to midcentury Berkeley cultural geography. so that.000 and 1:100. cartography is of little significance in the work.22 .info . British geographers drew heavily on Patrick Geddes’ cartographically focused ideas of survey to develop a university curriculum in their discipline and regarded the maps of the mid-20th century National Land Use Survey as one of the discipline’s signal contributions to public policy. Geography’s traditional role in relation to maps has been less in their design and making than their use and interpretation. It may not be too far-fetched to claim that very soon all printed cartography will be historical cartography. But the map reappears as an object of study in itself within cultural geography’s broader focus on images and representations.250. which is heavily textual 36.06/05/2013 22h39.

or the American Jasper Johns who reproduced the map of the United States in encaustic and collage (1963) reworked familiar cartographic icons for the purposes of alerting their audience to the politics of the national map.82. anti-real”. Document téléchargé depuis www. have used the idea of mapping as the springboard for artistic interventions.. The grid.cairn.189. nor meaningful to classify it systematically.22 . Early “cartographic” artists. University of Chicago Press. the institutional ones less so.250. anti-mimetic. 38 This development was clearly visible in the themes and presentations of the Association of American Geographers sponsored Geography and the Humanities Symposium held at the University of Virginia.aag. Chicago. Late 19th century cultural geographers shared with landscape artists a common interest in questions of culture. This continued among traditional painters into the early 20th century. Towards a geography of art.82. or Douglas Huebler who mailed letters to and from locations along the 42nd parallel. But as the artistic avant-garde moved away from representational concerns to conceptual questions of space. such as Italian Alighiero e Boetti. Many of these artists have attracted the attention of geographers and numerous examples of mutual interest between geographers and artists have emerged as art practices themselves have moved away from a focus on aesthetic matters and towards the documentary and research roles of art practices 38. rootedness and the appearance of the land. 2004. so that it is valuable for geographers to be aware of the evolution of modern art’s interests in cartography and of the principal streams within the artistic avant-garde that have engaged with maps and mapping. and as such would only enter geography’s theoretical scope with the development of spatial science at mid-century. N° 660-661 • 2008 37 Denis Wood. June. © Armand Colin . at a moment when the discipline’s cultural Document téléchargé depuis www. 2006.. Its intellectual connections with cultural geography of the same period were close. “Catalogue of map artists” whose world map composed of national flags has been widely reproduced. 2007 [www.cfm]. See Thomas da Costa Kaufmann. p. 61-67.22 . which so fascinated modern artists because it expressed “the absolute autonomy of art — anti-natural. Others such as the conceptual artists Sol de Witt who made systematic incisions into aerial photographs of New . © Armand Colin “map artists”.189. that is artists active over the past half century whose work has significantly engaged with one or more aspects of cartography 37. Cartographic Perspectives.cairn.06/05/2013 22h39. a member of the influential Arte Povera movement. 39 Kunstgeographie was an early 20th century German sub-discipline of art history that attempted to relate the artistic achievements of a cultural group to their regional geography.06/05/2013 22h39. as 1930s German Kunstgeographie indicates 39. structure and surface so their conversation with geography and cartography waned..250. engaging more with the concepts and practices of map making than the map itself. . It is not possible to survey this large and growing artistic corpus.172 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE. was abstract rather than topographic. But in many cases the concerns of artists parallel those of contemporary cultural geographers and in recent years there has been an identifiable trend towards both groups to collaborate on common projects that often involve maps.

info . David Harvey and Alan Pred began to examine the cultural geographies of Modernism through the concept of relative space did the geographical significance of early modern movements such as Cubism and Futurism (in understanding the early 20th century city for example) become apparent.22 . Document téléchargé depuis www.cairn. Surrealists were among the groups most engaged with geographical representation. The Geographical Review. in large measure because of their concerns with everyday life. 4 1992.22 .. it challenged the stabilities of the early-20th century European geographical imagination and its self-satisfied image of a wholly discovered world. p. © Armand Colin focus had given way to a positivist paradigm that largely ignored cultural questions. Only in the 1980s when geographers such as Gunnar Olsson. © Armand Colin . 478.250.189. according to . Carte surréaliste du monde en 1929. discussed below. made extensive.. and arbitrary labeling. 40 James Housefield. Document téléchargé depuis www. 3).189.Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 173 Fig.250. 3 Surrealist map of the World 1929. if subversive use of maps and mapping practices. Yet in its sketchy outline.82. Lefebvre was himself closely tied to the French artistic avant-garde and especially Surrealism. whose Situationist strand.06/05/2013 22h39. mapped out the French capital when collected and displayed in Duchamp’s New York studio 40.cairn.. The Surrealist Map of the World (1929) does not today appear a revolutionary image (fig.06/05/2013 22h39.82. “Marcel Duchamp’s art and the geography of modern Paris”. It is important to acknowledge the influence of Henri Lefebvre’s La production de l’espace on these Anglophone geographers’ writings about space. Thus Marcel Duchamp’s readymades reference various Parisian landmarks and. erasures and distortions of geographic areas and territories..

© Armand Colin . MIT Press. David Pinder. “ . reinforcing artistic concern with mapping as a means of engaging graphically with material spaces. Environment and Planning A. on the emotions and behavior of individuals” 44. Denis Wood. In the late 1950s too. Situationists and/or conceptualists”. Mass. 1960. 53. involved a kind of subversive survey of urban space that both stimulated and recorded “transient passage through varied ambiances”. Edinburgh. Situationism. Guy Debord used his filmic interest in spectacle and space to connect art practice directly to the physical and cultural geography of the city..cairn. Routledge. 42 David Pinder.82. power and politics in twentieth-century Uurbanism.. a second-generation Surrealist movement.22 . Thought of cartographically. and New York.189. His concept of psychogeography was part of a radical response to the rationalist and functionalist urban planning.06/05/2013 22h39. 30.22 . The Image of the City. Ability to recognize and understand map images was found to be learned and cultural rather than a function of the map’s scientific objectivity and design clarity. 2005. The dérive was intimately connected to Debord’s third concept of unitary urbanism: “the combined use of the arts and techniques for the Document téléchargé depuis www. p.cairn. Document téléchargé depuis www. 43 Peter Wollen. in Michael Newman and John Bird (eds..189. N° 660-661 • 2008 41 Kevin Lynch. Its engagement with everyday life would find echoes in the scientific concept of cognitive mapping that developed in the late 1950s and would prove an important foundation for the epistemological concerns of subsequent cultural geographers 41. “Map art”. Psychogeography was “the study of the specific effects of the geographical environment. the dérive was a conscious challenge to the apparently omniscient. Cambridge. quoted in Wollen. “Subverting cartography: the situationists and maps of the city”. that he believed was destroying the social and psychological well being of urban communities. Reaktion.. p. While in the 1960s many members of the Situationist International rejected art altogether in favor of radical activism on city streets. a move that was reinforced from the 1960s in by conceptual and site-specific artists 43. developed intense interest in the map as a communicative device and in the subversive potentials of mapping practices 42.). disembodied and totalizing urban map that had become the principal instrument for urban planning and “comprehensive redevelopment” across the West during the postwar years. Rewriting Conceptual Art. The connected practice of the urban dérive or drift. © Armand Colin Surrealism’s psychological interests in the image paralleled mid-century advances in cognitive psychology in challenging conventional assumptions about the transparency of representational images and emphasizing the importance of individual and social . Visions of the city: Utopianism. 1996. Situationism’s conscious move beyond the art world of studios and galleries into the spaces of everyday life brought artists into the same “field” of operations as geographers. 405-427. p. intended to generate chance encounters and provocative interactions with other individuals.250. consciously organized or not. heavily reliant on “scientific” mapping practices.. Cartographic Perspectives. “Mappings. 1999. 5-14. Edinburgh University Press.174 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE.82. Winter 2006.06/05/2013 22h39. 28.250. Situationists and/or conceptualists”. 44 Guy Debord. London.

06/05/2013 22h39. perhaps best exemplified by Michael Heizer’s Double Negative and more recent City works (fig. To illustrate these experiments. S. would dissect in his The practice of everyday life . Debord explicitly used G..82. These “have a strongly cartographic appearance due to the dribbled lines of coloured ink which link the pictorial fragments.. to engage directly with site and in the case of Earth or Land Art. but conceptually both sought to escape the confines of the gallery. topography and maps. The deserts of the American West became a favored location for these practices. © Armand Colin construction — or preservation — of environments in which the dérive and psychogeographical experiments would prosper” 45. His 1963 Artforum essay “A Sedimentation of the Mind: Earth Projects” is regarded as the manifesto for Land Art. the natural environment. The Situationists’ response to the urban vision represented by such cartography was to cut the map of Paris or Amsterdam into “islands” of urban space joined only by thick red arrows or blacked ribbons that evoke the emotional and passional connections made within and between such locales by the artist/map-maker himself.250.Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 175 45 Ibid. Asger Jorn. Document téléchargé depuis www. Like Duchamp. 30.06/05/2013 22h39. Rendall. images and texts that captured urban space and experience in Paris and Copenhagen.189. for example in the work of Richard Long in Britain and in Germany Joseph Beuys whose land art works are smaller in scale and more intimate engagements with places. University of California Press. Trans.cairn. often using maps and geographical studies to research and document their artworks.. An indication of the significance of this geographically Document téléchargé depuis www.22 . between 1955 and 1959.. heir to the Situationist critique. 47 Michel de Certeau.22 . Paralleling Situationism within the 1960s avant-garde in opening of a common interest with geography were site-specific art and Land Art. a practice that Smithson acknowledged has deep affinities with the picturesque tradition of landscape and garden design.. produced various collage works bringing together map fragments. as canals or a river might link landmarks within a city” 46.189. Robert Smithson’s work. more environmentally sensitive approach. Berkeley. Debord’s psychogeographical street maps of the Paris drew upon popular pictorial maps. Debord and his Danish colleague. 32. The terms cover a wide range of artists and practices and followed divergent pathways in Europe and the United States. p. In Europe the movement has adopted a softer. © Armand Colin . that have sought to transform space and create places. starting with studies of Passaic New Jersey and culminating in his now-iconic Spiral Jetty developed the terms “site” and “non-site” to challenge the conventional relationships between art and specific spaces — notably the gallery. The Practice of Everyday Life. Such pictorial maps perfectly captured the distanciated spatial vision of Modernist planning that Michel de Certeau. 4). 1988.. 46 .cairn. Peltier’s 1956 Vue de Paris à vol d’oiseau and the 1951 Guide Tirade de Paris. p. and also of painting.250.

many with activist agendas connected to community development.22 . N° 660-661 • 2008 related art is the fact that London’s principal modern art collection.176 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉ . Tate Modern at Bankside.cairn.cairn. Site-specific artists today share many of the conceptual concerns of earlier land and environmental artists. or explicitly challenging the politics of new technologies that document. More conventionally geographic. Cité (en construction).250.06/05/2013 22h39.189. © Armand Colin Michael Heizer. City (under construction). Cambridge Mass.06/05/2013 22h39.. For example. record and regulate urban space such as Closed Circuit Television (CCTV). One Place After Another: Site-Specific Art and Locational . 4 Document téléchargé depuis www.. Fig. Document téléchargé depuis www.189. . MIT Press. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and GIS itself 48..82. they have attracted renewed attention among young artists in the early 2000s.000 breaths to evacuate Boston in which she documents twenty-six runs following officially recommended emergency evacuation routes out of the city. Michael Heizer. 49 http://www. The Situationist dérive has been the stimulus to a wide variety of informal and non-conventional site specific artistic engagements with the city.250. devotes a major gallery to the theme “environment and place” that displays the work of these artists..22 . a 1998 British project titled Artranspennine commissioned thirty individual artists and artistic groups to undertake projects that articulated the idea of a distinctive trans-Pennine region in 48 See Miwon Kwon.. the American artist kanarinka’s various engagements with the psychogeography of Boston include a project entitled It takes 154.ikatun. © Armand Colin While both Situationism and Land Art were movements of the 1960s and 70s. monitoring her physiological responses with various instruments attached to her body and documenting the resulting statistics though maps and charts in order to “traverse new geographies of insecurity” 49.82.

© Armand Colin Document téléchargé depuis www.06/05/2013 22h39.). There is every indication that such collaboration will increase in the coming years 51.cairn. which has been as effective in reshaping what constitutes art as in reshaping science. as scholar and scientist converge in the aftermath of deconstruction. manipulation and display of spatially referenced data have afforded innovative opportunities for artists to fulfil 50 The project and its various artistic productions are documented in Nick Barley (ed. artistic and spatial practice. documenting and representing in challenging ways its environmental and social conditions.250. but an example of a much broader and significant outcome of the “cultural turn” in geographic.06/05/2013 22h39. especially for the social world.. One consequence has been a growing number of collaborative projects between artists and cultural geographers. 1999.250.82. including artists in residence in university geography departments. 51 A number of research projects evaluating the goals and achievements of site specific and local or community art projects are currently being undertaken in British university geography departments (eg Open University.189. visual media and gallery display to engage directly with the world. While site specific and community art projects may not always incorporate cartography in its conventional sense..22 . At the same time a greatly expanded number of practicing artists have moved away from the conventional confines of aesthetic production. Leaving Tracks: Artranspennine 98 — An international contemporary visual art exhibition recorded.22 . Document téléchargé depuis www.cairn. As the geographic discipline has become more self-critical about its traditional claims to document at determined scales and with scientific objectivity patterns and processes on the earth’s surface. and curatorial activities among cultural geographers. a significant opening towards the roles of creativity and imagination in making and communicating geographical knowledge has developed.82. cartographic. © Armand Colin .info .. they all involve “mapping” in the expanded sense in which cultural geographers now use it: organizing. Thirty projects were exhibited or performed across the region during the year and documented in a book: Leaving Tracks 50. August Media. stretching from the River Mersey to the Humber estuary..189. Artistic goals closely parallel those of many contemporary cultural geographers. with the intention of researching. Exeter University). documenting and representing spatial knowledge in graphic form. The initiative’s declared aim was explicitly cultural and geographic: to explore “the richness of the region through the creativity of contemporary art” and help “forge a cultural identity and exemplify and project the quality and diversity of our region to resident communities and visitors”. Advances in information technology that have democratized the gathering. Conclusion Laura Kurgan’s 9/11 map with which I opened this discussion is thus not an aberrant incursion of the artist into the field of geography and cartography. shared community arts projects in urban .Articles Cultural cartography: maps and mapping in cultural geography • 177 Northern England. Manchester. storage. collaboration on GIS-based art projects.

info .250. Frustration de n’avoir pu mener avec lui le projet à son terme. devenue Cultural Geography. Department of Geography 1255 Hilgard Avenue Los Angeles CA 90095-1254. new concepts of cartography and new mapping practices are generating an active and intensely practical engagement with everyday cultural life.189. so that. Nous étions reconnaissants à Denis d’avoir répondu à notre invitation à prendre part à ce numéro.178 • Denis Cosgrove ANNALES DE GÉOGRAPHIE.250. contrary to a sometimes expressed concern among geographers that the cultural turn might lead into an epistemological cul-de-sac. late 20th century theoretical and historical critiques of cartography. notamment ceux qui ont travaillé avec lui à l’occasion de celles-ci. Il enseigna d’abord à Loughborough University puis à Royal Holloway College. Denis Cosgrove fit ses études à Oxford et Toronto. fierté de présenter aux lecteurs son texte et d’avoir suscité son élaboration. Bonheur d’avoir encore profité de son intelligence et échangé avec lui .06/05/2013 22h39. elle montre aussi le courage et la volonté d’un homme face à la maladie. avant d’accepter en 2000 un poste de Professeur au département de géographie de l’Université de Californie à Los Angeles (UCLA). Les publications posthumes laissent un sentiment ambivalent à ceux qui ont personnellement connu l’auteur. Geography and Vision : Seeing. dont il était venait d’être nommé directeur. d’un cancer contre lequel il se battait depuis deux ans... Né à Liverpool. il a participé au renouvellement de la discipline dans son ensemble.189. des paysages palladiens aux photographies de la Mission . tristesse de devoir inscrire cette croix après son nom. UCLA. l’image — notamment artistique — et la carte ont rencontré un large écho. N° 660-661 • 2008 these goals. and nowhere is this more directly expressed than in map work. The traditionally separate disciplinary projects of geography and art thus overlap and converge in exciting ways. qui vient de sortir. Vanité de n’être plus avec lui que par la trace de ses mots..82.06/05/2013 22h39. Toute son œuvre invite à questionner les liens complexes entre le Monde et les représentations que nous nous en faisons. Plusieurs de ses recherches sont en cours de publication. dont nous savions combien il l’enrichirait. As I have sought to demonstrate.82. Imagining and Representing the World. Cofondateur de la revue Ecume. qu’il a magistralement travaillé à dénouer. Merci à lui..22 .cairn. offre un brillant panorama de son travail. Document téléchargé depuis www. au-delà de la géographie culturelle et historique dont il était un des spécialistes les plus reconnus. © Armand Colin Document téléchargé depuis www.22 . © Armand Colin . USA Denis Cosgrove est mort le 21 mars 2008 à l’âge de 59 ans. Sa participation atteste de l’attention d’un géographe généreux de son temps et de ses efforts. and the continuing revolution in cartographic techniques and practices have provided the conceptual and technical foundations for these shared practical developments. Ses travaux sur le paysage — notamment italien.cairn. très ouvert sur les mondes académiques qui n’étaient pas les siens .

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