Brigadier- and Brevet-Major-General

WILLIAM W. AYERELL.

Formerly Colonel Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.

HISTORY
OF THE

1

hird

Pennsylvania Cavalry

SIXTIETH REGIMENT PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS

IN

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
1861-1865

COMPILED
IN

BY

THE

REGIMENTAL

HISTORY

COMMITTEE

ACCORDANCE WITH A RESOLUTION
OF THE

Third

Pennsylvania

Cavalry

Association

Philadelphia

FRANKLIN PRINTING COMPANY

IOO5

Copyright
BY

William Brooke Rawle
1905

All rights reserved

REGIMENTAL HISTORY COMMITTEE
THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY ASSOCIATION

WILLIAM BROOKE RAWLE
Captain Company B Veteran Battalion Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. V., Chairman

WILLIAM
JAMES

E.

MILLER
Captain

Company H

W

McCORKELL
Sergeant Major Veteran Battalion

ANDREW
JOHN
C.

J.

SPEESE
Corporal

Company H

HUNTERSON
Private

Company B

REVEILLE/'

— —

CONTENTS
FOREWORD
By General David McM. Gregg.
PAGE

X xv

INTRODUCTION

xxix
1-4

CHAPTER
The Outbreak
The
first

I.

April, 1861.

of the American Civil War.

12, 1861 Outburst of indignation and then of patriotic enthusiasm throughout the North The fort evacuated President Lincoln's call of April 15, 1861, for volunteers to save the Union Preparation for the great struggle Seventy-five thousand militia called out to serve for three months Prompt response Pennsylvania's quota No cavalry wanted The call of July 22 and 25, 1861, for five hundred thousand volunteers to serve for three years Pennsylvania's quota Includes the first cavalry called for Our regiment the first of cavalry to take the field.

gun

fired

upon Fort Sumter April

— —

— —

CHAPTER
July — September,

II.
1861.

5-16

Organization of the Kentucky Light Cavalry Regiment.
The
first twelve companies available at or near Washington formed into "The Kentucky Light Cavalry" under Colonel William H. Young

How

and where the companies had been recruited Their officers Rendezvous at Camp Park, Washington Equipment and mounting of the companies The regiment the first cavalry in the field

Scattering of the companies

Kentucky Light Cavalry Regiment Some companies sent across the Potomac as escorts to infantry generals Some on duty on the lower Potomac The first cavalryman killed in the war Scouting and picketing from Munson's Hill to Masons Hill Ambushing the enemy on the Little River Turnpike Reconnoissances to Lewinsville, Va. Skirmish at Ball's Cross Roads Capture of a foraging party of the enemy near Mt. Vernon— Skirmish at Accotink Stopping blockade running on the "underground railroad"

—Active service while — —

known

as the

Colonel

Young

resigns

commissioned Colonel
of Pennsylvania

—They

— Lieutenant William W. Averell, U. A., — The twelve companies allotted to the quota
S.

become the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.

v

——
Vi

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY.
FACE

CHAPTER
October, 1861

III.
1862.

17-31

March,

The Regiment Reorganized

Cavalry by Colonel

into the Third Pennsylvania Averell.

W W

Colonel Averell's previous military record The companies brought together at Camp Marcy in the Defences of Washington Distribution of the different cavalry regiments The strictest military discipline and hard drilling introduced into the regiment List of camp bugle calls Regiment attached to Porter's division of infantry Scouting, reconnoitering and picketing along the front Our first fateful November Captain Bell's squadron ambushed at Hunter's Mill by First North Carolina Cavalry First grand review of the Army of the Potomac by President Lincoln Winter quarters at Camp Marcy Severe winter of 1861-1862 First association with Colonel D. McM. Gregg and the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry Reputation of "Averell's Cavalry" Changes among the officers September 12, 1861 April 4, 1862.

— —

— —

— — —

CHAPTER
March
i

IV
4,

.32-43

—April

1862.

The Advance
"On
to

to Manassas The Change of Base to the Virginia Peninsula.
the politicians

the North
i,

— Commencement of the Adjutant's Regimental Journal March 1862— Continued to April 4— The Army of the Potomac moves —The regiment leads the advance of the army toward the enemy's position at Manassas — The to enter the Rebel fortifications — Captures the ''Quaker Guns" — No opposition as the enemy had disappeared — Return to Camp Marcy — The army
at
last
first

Richmond" clamor of

and "stay-at-homes"

in

embarks for the Peninsula— Arrival

at

Hampton, Va.

CHAPTER V
April 4

.44-54

May

5,

1862.

The Peninsular Campaign.
The "Monitor,"
a "cheese box regiment leads the advance Union troops to occupy it body— Regimental Journal

organization of the cavalry as a continued to May 6 Siege of Yorktown The city abandoned by the enemy The pursuit toward Williamsburg— Battle of Williamsburg.

— First

on a raft"— Grindstoning sabers—The to Great Bethel— It is the first of the

—— —
CONTENTS.

Vll

PAGE

CHAPTER
April 4

VI.
3,

55-66

August

1862.

"With the Cavalry on the Peninsula,"
William
Description of the country
in

W

by General

Averell.

— Stoneman's Cavalry Division —Yorktown fighting on the part of the cavalry Operations front of Richmond — Lieutenant F C. Davis opens communication with the of gunboats at City Point — Scouting across the Chickahominy — Hanover Court House — Rebel cavalry raid to White House — Reconnoissance to Aylettsville Gaines' Mill — Willis' Church — Hazardous service of Lieutenants Newhall and Treichel — Malvern Hill — Covering the retreat W. from Malvern Hill — Harrisons Landing—A successful ruse
Williamsburg— Brilliant
fleet

S.

Cavalry expedition across the James River— Sycamore Church

Withdrawal from the Peninsula.

CHAPTER
May
7

VII.
2,

.67-94

July

1862.

The Peninsular Campaign

(continued).

Regimental Journal continued to July 2 The advance up the Peninsula Reconnoitering, scouting and picketing toward Richmond Lieutenant F C. Davis opens communication with the fleet of gunboats off City Point Captain Gary's scout toward Newmarket Spanish General Prims visit to the army Camp Lincoln at Reconnoissance to "Chickahominy fever" Savage's Station Aylettsville Lieutenant Rogers' scouting party ambushed Change of base from the York to the James River The Seven Days' Fight We ambush the First North Carolina Cavalry near S. Willis' Church— Retaliation for Hunter's Mill— Lieutenant Newhall's notable ride carrying despatches for and back to GenHis narrow escapes Perilous ride of Corporal eral McClellan McFeeters and party Colonel Averell's covering of the retreat from Malvern Hill to Harrison s Landing Lieutenant Miller and Company H the last to cross Turkey Run on the retreat.

— —

— — —

— —

W

CHAPTER
July
3

VIII
6,

-95-H3

September

1862.

The Peninsular Campaign
Camp
at

(continued).

— Rearrangement — Colonel Averell appointed Acting Brigadier-Gen— Regimental Journal continued to September eral — Scourge of 6— Captain Walsh's reconnoissance toward Long Bridge and White Oak Swamp— Rebels bombard our camp from across the James River — Averell crosses the river on a reconnoissance — Skirmishes
Westover Landing near Harrison's Landing
flies

of the cavalry


Vlii

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY.
PAGE

Cox's Mill and Sycamore Church— Gallant charges of Lieutenant Mcintosh, of the Fifth United States, and Lieutenant Miller, of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry McClellan's report of the affair Averell's reconnoissance to and beyond White Oak Swamp Bridge The Army of the Potomac ordered to withdraw from the Peninsula The regiment's return march to Yorktown It embarks for Washington A transport stranded Appalling news of Pope's disasters The regiment arrives at Washington Averell succumbs
at

to the "Chickahominy fever" 18 September 13, 1862.

— Changes

among

the officers April

CHAPTER
September

IX.

1

14-129

2-19, 1862.

The Antietam Campaign.
Desperate state of affairs at Washington after Pope's disastrous campaign McClellan placed in command of the Defences of Washington and of all troops for its protection Pope's Army of Virginia consolidated with the Army of the Potomac and McClellan assumes command Reorganization of both into a compact body The advance from Washington in three columns toward the Upper Potomac -Rearrangement of the cavalry The regiment detached for service with Hooker's Corps Regimental Journal continued to September 19 The march through Maryland Company C learns of and reports the evacuation of Harper's Ferry The right of the line at Antietam Lieutenant Miller with Company and Lieutenant Warren with Company C develop the left of the enemy's infantry line during the evening preceding the battle Services in the battle Some incidents of the battle Captain Hess and Lieutenant Heyl distinguish themselves Lee's army recrosses the Potomac into Virginia Chasing his rear guard across

H

the river.

CHAPTER
September 20
October

X.
31,

130-142
1862.

After Antietam.
Reconnoissance of Porter's Corps toward Shepherdstown— Disaster to the Corn Exchange Regiment— Destitute condition of our regiment as regards clothing— Regimental Journal continued to October 31— Averell resumes command of the brigade— Reconnoitering, scouting and picketing along the Upper Potomac— Stuart's Chambersburg

raid— He crosses the Potomac at McCoy's Ford and drives in picket of Company Chase after Stuart and his raiders— Captain Hess

H—

with a detachment of the regiment accompanies a reconnoissance in force to Shepherdstown and Smithfield— Camp at St. James' College— Many of Company get leave or take "French leave" to visit their homes nearby— Captain Treichel captures the enemy's vedettes at Four Locks.

H


CONTENTS.

IX
PAGE

CHAPTER
November

XI.

143-156

1-24, 1862.

Return to Virginia and the Rappahannock.
Clamor
Washington for the Army of the Potomac to advance— Richmond" again The Potomac again crossed from Maryland into Virginia Our cavalry drives that of the enemy along
at

"On

to

the

— — Brilliant cavalry fighting at Upperville, Piedmont, Markham and Manassas Gap — Skirmish at Newby's Cross Roads — McClellan relieved from command of the army — Regret thereat — Burnside succeeds him — Lieutenant John B. Mcintosh, U. S. A., succeeds Averell as Colonel of the regiment upon the promotion Winter quarters camp established on Potomac Creek — Changes
base

November

of the Blue Ridge Regimental Journal continued to 24 Picketing, scouting, reconnoitering and fighting

latter's

among

the officers September

r>

— November
May

20, 1862.

CHAPTER
November
24,

XII.
25, 1863.

157-182

1862

Winter of
Settling

1862-63 on

Potomac Creek.

veterans

among the pines — We consider ourselves — Regimental Journal continued for six months to —A memorMay 1863 — Exciting and amusing mounted able ditch — Our new colonel and his previous record — Our second fateful November — First picket surprise at Hartwood Church work black and white on the walls Captain Johnson's of the church — His command consisting of two squadrons surprised and surrounded there — Capture of Captain Hess, Lieutenants Heyl and Warren — Johnson's dismissal — Hess relates the story of the affair and preceding movement of Johnson's squadron — Description of the country around Hartwood—Johnson's neglect by overwhelming of precautions — The squadron surrounded numbers of the enemy and many taken prisoners — Kind treatment by the captors — Lieutenant Heyl's romantic episode — Taken to Richmond and Libby Prison — Arrangements for attempt to escape — Speedy release — Sergeant Bradbury's capture.
down
24,

for our winter

now

drills

artistic

in

CHAPTER
November
24, 1862

XIII March 17,

183-196
1863.

Winter of 1862-63 on Potomac Creek (continued).
Burnside attacks Lee and is defeated at Fredericksburg The regiment not engaged Reorganization of the Army of the Potomac into three grand divisions and the cavalry divided among them The Third Pennsylvania with Averell's Brigade attached to the Centre Despondency, discontent and Grand Division under Hooker demoralization in the army Proposed cavalry expedition under

S. S. 1863. Potomac 1862-63 on Creek (continued) 225 . XIV. Taking the air on the prison roof Exchanged Released in rags and tatters. etc. Davis and Warren Warren's hard luck in being taken again soon after his return from Libby Colonel Jones' account of the affair Wetherill's account of his capture. retired. Newhall's account of the Kelly's Ford fight Ston man's raid Picketing. Winter of May 25. McClellan's statements regarding the fight. Magnitude of the war not appreciated at the beginning Nor the important part which the cavalry was destined to take Cavalry much more difficult to make than infantry Cavalry service popular in the South from the beginning Fine horses and their riders there over the respects becomes thoroughly — Averell's desire to — Fitz Lee's bantering note to Averell asking for a bag of coffee — Averell with three thousand men and a horse battery on March 16 moves to Kelly's Ford— Difficult work in carrying the ford — Major Chamberlain wounded — Lieutenant Brown's gallantry — The enemy's outposts driven back — Description of the gallant fight with Fitz Lee's cavalry — Charges and counter-charges — Hand-to-hand saber contests between individuals —Averell drives Fitz Lee back— Is victorious at points — Leaves the bag of coffee for Fitz Lee — Feeling of confidence gained by our cavalry — North Its —Great advantages for raising —The Northern cavalry fit — — — — cavalry in the South first at organization and early experiences — After inferior in all eighteen test its months it capabilities all "Kelly's Ford" its making— The losses— Refutation H. A. scouting and reconnoitering Battle of Chan- — . F.. Colonel "Bill" Lee The latter's kind treatment and hospitality Also Fitz Lee's Is visited in Libby by Colonel Hill Carter with offers of money.— X HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Va v by Lieutenant-Colonel Frank U. — PAGE — Averell recalled by order of President Lincoln— The "Mud March" —The regiment carries boxes of hard-tack to the bemuddled doughboys— Burnside relieved from command of the armyHooker succeeds him— Reorganizes the cavalry into a corps under Stoneman Its composition The new system maintained until the end of the war splendid mounted force Second picket surprise at Hartwood Church Fitz Lee surrounds and "gobbles" part of a detachment on picket under Lieutenant-Colonel Jones Not so bad after all Capture of Lieutenants Wetherill. imprisonment and release Meets his school friend. — —A — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER March 17.. 197-224 The First Cavalry Battle of the Civil Ford.C. of Major CHAPTER XV March 17 . W War— Kelly's Hess. B. 239 Captain W. 1863.

1863 Changes among the officers of the regiment December 1. Newhall ap- We — — — — — — — . — — Night — — — CHAPTER May 22 XVI. Invasion of the North strongly favored by the Southern people Refitting of the Union cavalry Roster of the Cavalry Corps May 31 Regimental Journal continued during the campaign to July 17 Final farewell to camp on Potomac Creek Reconnoitering and scouting to ascertain Lee's movements and intentions Scouring the country and guarding the right flank of the army Remounts and remounted men reach the regiment It again becomes relatively respectable in numbers Accident in camp Pomp and pageantry in Duffle's Division Grand review of Stuart's Cavalry Corps at Culpeper Pleasonton with the Union Cavalry Corps crosses the Rappahannock to find out what Stuart is about The battle of Brandy Station or Beverly Ford The first occasion upon which the cavalry corps is engaged as a unit Buford with his division crosses at Beverly Ford Gregg with his own and Duffie's Division crosses at Kelly's Ford The regiment under Duffie moves toward Stevensburg Irvin Gregg's Brigade (including the Third Pennsylvania) drives the enemy Buford's and Gregg's Divisions bear the brunt of the fighting We move over to help Gregg at Brandy Station Capture of Stuart's papers Information gained of intended movement of the enemy to the north of the Potomac Cavalry corps retires across the Rappahannock unmolested and not followed Ambulances unintentionally The regiment recrosses the left behind pursued by the enemy river and saves them Testing carbine range Lieutenant Heyl's beautiful shot The regiment returns. fording the river for the fourth time on the same day Major H.. S. The Gettysburg Campaign. 1863. Newhall's respective conclusions regarding the Rearrangement of the Cavalry Corps Buford to command battle the First Division Gregg to command the Second Division Kilpatrick to command the new Third Division Hooker starts — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — of the Potomac toward Manassas Buford and Gregg move toward the passes of the Blue Ridge They fight Stuart They drive him back into at Aldie. B. McClellan's and Colonel F C. 17. Middleburg and Upperville Ashby's Gap Our hard and rough night march to Haymarket the Army — — — — — The Cavalry relieve Buford's cavalry in front of Ashby's Gap Corps falls back towards Aldie The regiment covers the movement acting as rear guard Followed by the enemy Captain Wetherill's ruse gives the enemy a temporary quietus Lively skirmishes at Goose Creek and near Aldie Colonel Mcintosh resumes command of our brigade Captain W. 1862 May 23. — XI FAGB cellorsville attack from across the Rapidan near Ely's Ford Corporal Speese's account Captain Newhall's account Roster of the Cavalry Corps May 1-6. .240-260 July 1863.— CONTENTS.

food or forage The division takes position July 2 on the right flank three miles east of Gettysburg Skirmishing on Brinkerhoff's Ridge quick cure for lamenessRank's splendid artillery practice dash for the stone wall— stand back the "Stonewall Brigade" Bivouac during the night on the Baltimore Turnpike at its crossing of White Run—July 3 we move over to the right to relieve Custer's Brigade— Its composition—Sixteenth Pennsylvania holds the left of our line skirmishing all day Stuart moves his corps toward our right His purpose to cooperate with Longstreet's attack on Cemetery Ridge—The relative positions of Stuart and Gregg— Composition of Stuart's Confederate Cavalry Corps— Custer ordered back to his division near Round Top— Mcintosh relieves Custer's lines— The First New Jersey advances on the Rummel's farm buildings- — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — We —A —A — — Opens the fight—Treichel's and Rogers' Squadrons and Purnell Troop deploy on the left— Miller's. 17. July 1-3. The Confederate S. by Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel William Brooke Rawle.261-291 July 1863. Hess' and Walsh's Squadrons take position on the right— Mcintosh forces the fighting— Gregg detains Custer to give time to Irvin Gregg to come up— Fine . The Second Cavalry Division in the Gettysburg Campaign. 1863. .— XU HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. — PAGE pointed Assistant Adjutant-General of the brigadeMarch to Leesburg— Buford's and Gregg's Divisions cross the Potomac into Maryland— March to Frederick and thence toward Acting Gettysburg— Chase after Stuart— Roster of the Second Cavalry Division. CHAPTER June 27 XVII. V — intentions and expectations in invading the North Results of the cavalry battle of Brandy Station Lee's designs ascertained Scouting and reconnoitering to ascertain the position of the enemy's forces The cavalry fights of Aldie. U. Middleburg and Upperville between the Bull Run and Blue Ridge Mountains Buford's and Gregg's Divisions of Cavalry cross the Potomac Maryland Gregg's Division marches to Frederick Kilinto patrick takes command of the Third Division Huey of Kilpatrick's late brigade of the Second Division Concentration of the army upon Gettysburg -Buford's Division on the left flank Kilpatrick's Division in the centre Gregg's Division on the right flank Composition of the Second Cavalry Division Its hunt and chase after Stuart It marches to Newmarket and toward Poplar Springs Duval's Troop and Rank's section of artillery find their protectors Covering the road to Baltimore Skirmish in Westminster Our loyal reception there Also along the march into Pennsylvania Reach Manchester and Hanover Junction Huey's Brigade sent back to Manchester Mcintosh's and Irvin Gregg's Brigades march to Hanover and Gettysburg Terribly hard marching Little or no sleep.

Miller. . PAGE is field 5 s at It is s at first in relief CHAPTER June 27 XVIII. Lisbon. — — Xlll — Confederate line forced back— Sixth Michigan — A Confederate column attacks our goes into position on the right and repulsed — Fifth Michigan moves on to the front line Our front line forced back— Gallant charge of the First Virginia — Seventh Michigan moves up to meet but repulsed— First Virginia eventually forced back — Grand mounted charge of Hampton's and Fitz Lees Brigades in mass — Their splendid appearance— Magnificent spectacle — Custer leads the First Michigan in a head-on charge — Hand-to-hand saber and pistol fight Charges on the enemy's flanks by portions of the Third Pennsylvania — Repulse of the Confederate grand charge— They are driven back beyond Rummel's — Skirmishing until evening — Gregg remains in possession of the —The losses —July 4 the regiment pickets during the evening and night in front of Round Top Mcintosh's Brigade marches to Emmitsburg — Movements July Brigade during the campaign — Hard fighting Hagersof Huey town — forced back on Buford — Marches with Buford's and Kilpatricks Divisions Boonsboro— Hard fighting there to Skirmish at Jones' Cross Roads — Reconnoissance toward Williamsport — Reinforces Kilpatrick at Falling Waters — Movements of Irvin Gregg's Brigade after Gettysburg — Follows up the retreating Confederates to Boonsboro— Further movements of Mcintosh's Brigade and Brigade— Skirmish in Fairfield Gap — Mcintosh Xeill's Brigade of Infantry follow up Lee's main army by — Monterey Gap and Waynesboro "Baldy" Smith's militia and home guards — Reconnoissance in force to and rear guard skirmish at Old Antietam Forge — The brigade rejoins the division at Harper's Ferry — The Boonsboro — We cross the Potomac Virginia with Lee's entire army Union troops over — Alone Brilliant cavalry fight at Shepherdstown — Gregg surrounded and — The enemy retires in a tight place — Huey comes up to his in our front — We retire by the river road unknown to the enemy in our rear — Reach Bolivar Heights — End of the Gettysburg campaign — The results of what Gregg did there. 3.— CONTEXTS. The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry at Gettysburg. . Ridgeville. Hanover Junction and — — — — — . Airy to Westminster Severity of the march— Charge into Westminster— Fag end of Our welcome by the inhabitants Stuart's column caught up to March resumed by way of Manchester.292-302 July 1863. The crossing of the Potomac into Maryland The march by way of Monocacy Junction to Frederick Changes in the Cavalry Corps organization The chase after Stuart The march via Newmarket. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Woodbine and Mt. artillery practice left is it. by Captain William E.

Treichel and Rogers Sergeant Joel G. wounded and captured Inaccuracy of official rolls The causes therefor — — — participants — Colonel — — — — — The consolidated official return of casualties in the Second Cavalry Division Captain Harbord's description of the fight Extract from "The History of the Cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia" Graphic account of Gregg's cavalry fight on the right flank at Gettysburg Infinite importance of its successful — — — result. led by Custer. Treichel. incidents and details of Gregg's cavalry fight The charge from the left under Captains Newhall. The Gettysburg Campaign Some (continued). 303-320 1863. meets the Confederate column head on Execution by our batteries Captains Newhall. . we take Hanover and Low Dutch Roads Tenth New York Cavalry relieves some Eleventh Corps Infantry Skirmishes with some of the enemy Rank's "feeler" The regiment makes a rush for Brinkerhoff's Ridge and holds it Has a lively skirmish with some of Walker's Confederate infantry brigade— Withdraws to the Baltimore Pike—July 3. two squadrons going to the left and three to the right Gregg position at the junction of the — — — — — — — — keeps Custer's First Brigade to left Michigan deploys to the reinforces await Irvin Gregg's arrival Sixth along Little's Run Fifth Michigan — — — Jersey and two left squadrons of Third Pennsylvania Confederates right centre reinforced Our line forced back Charge of the First Virginia Seventh Michigan advances to meet it First North Carolina and Jeff Davis Legion led by the First Virginia Force back the Seventh Michigan Are themselves driven back by our artillery Grand charge of Hampton's and Fitz Lee's Brigades A magnificent spectacle First Michigan. the Third moves over again to the right Custer's Brigade in our position of yesterday We relieve it Mcintosh moves the First New Jersey toward the Rummel farm buildings Confederates deploy to meet it Their artillery opens and ours replies The Third divided. — left is field final field CHAPTER July 2-3. Rammel's saber combat and wound Captain Miller's charge on the right His contemporaneous account Medal of — Honor conferred upon him Testimony of Wagner's references to it in "Organization and Tactics"—John Rummel's relation of some incidents Some of the killed. PAGE Hanover toward Gettysburg — Conflicting orders — July 2.— XIV HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Rogers and others charge into the enemy's right flank Captain Mil- — — New — — — — — — — — ler does the same on his flank — Other flank attacks — The Confederate column turns back and driven off the — Gregg's skirmish line extended beyond the of the hand-to-hand combat— Conclusions. XIX.

CHAPTER September 10 XXII. Continuation of Regimental Journal to November 22 The brigade makes a reconnoissance towards Upperville Rejoins the division General advance of the army at Warrenton Sulphur Springs — — — of the Rappahannock toward the Rapidan The Brilthree divisions of the Cavalry Corps cover the advance from the line — — . 22. — XV PAGB CHAPTER XX. -321-324 Movements After the Battle of Gettysburg. Picketing and Scouting in Mosby's Confederacy. November The Campaign of Maneuvers. Middleburg. The night spent rainstorm after the battle A last "scrap" Quartermaster Boyer's foraging party exchanges the final shots with the enemy on the Fourth Picketing in the rain on Plum Run in front of Round Top A ghastly scene Mcintosh's Brigade marches to Emmitsburg Following in pursuit of Lee's retreating army Skirmish with rear guard of Lee's wagon train in Fairfield Gap Mcintosh's Brigade and Neill's Brigade of the Sixth Corps detached to follow up Lee's army Pass through Monterey Gap to Waynesboro Reconnoissance in force of Mcintosh's Brigade runs into Lee's rear at Old Antietam Forge We rejoin our division at Boonsboro We recross the Potomac into Virginia again at Harper's Ferry Lively fight at Shepherdstown. The march southward along tinuation — Rappahannock — Commissioned and non-commissioned detailed to proceed to Pennsylvania to get drafted men for the regiment — Camp near Warrenton Sulphur Springs— Also near Warrenton — Much picketing — Friendly intercourse with the enemy's pickets — Bushwhacking and ambushing in "Mosby's Confederacy" — Scouting party under Lieutenant Bricker ambushed — His capture — Scouting party under Lieutenant Rawle Brooke ambushed — He cuts his way through— Official roster of Second Cavalry 1863 — The three brigades consolidated into Division of August — officers 31. White Plains and New Baltimore Warrenton The Second Division relieves the Third at to Amissville Picketing the region of the upper waters of the — — — — — two. the east side of the Blue Ridge Conof Regimental Journal to September 9 Guarding the army's wagon train Picketing in the gaps and on the Shenandoah A memorable thunderstorm near Snicker's Gap March by way of Upperville. -334-361 1863. 1863. July 4-16. 1863. — Hard after the battle —The glorious — Fourth and how it was — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XXI July 17 325-333 September 9.—— CONTENTS.

Dodwell. killed close shave Two guns and a regiment come up to support the Third The latter does not stay long— Lieutenant Potter's account of the gallant little affair The most brilliant affair. Gainesville. 1863. December 13. Picketing the — — — — CHAPTER XXIII November 23 -362-381 1863. perhaps. in the regiment's career Lieutenant Ellwood Davis killed The field held until the last wagon had crossed Bull Run Our brigade comes to our support after all is over No Union official record of the fight Confederate reports of the fight Picketing Occoquan River and Bull Run above and below Wolf Run Shoals A gruesome march to Union Mills over the Bull Run battlefield— Return via North — — — — — — — — —A — — — — — — — — — Thoroughfare Gap to Warrenton and vicinity Rappahannock Friendliness with the enemy Another advance of the army Camp near Fayetteville Picketing along line from there Carrying out court-martial sentences of deserters— Official rosters of Second Cavalry Division. PAGE Culpeper Court House Kilpatrick tricks us out of some Confederate guns The enemy driven to Cedar Mountain Next day to near the Rapidan Skirmishing along the Rapidan Feeling the Rebels and getting felt Relieved by the Second Corps Mcintosh's congratulatory order Camp near Culpeper Court House Our brigade relieves Kilpatrick's near Stevensburg Return next day to camp Brigade moves by way of Brandy. Continuation of Regimental Journal to December 13— The army again recrosses the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers— march from We . The Mine Run Campaign. October io-November 20. Rappahannock and Catlett's Stations to Kettle Run near Bristow Station Guarding the line of supplies The regiment detached for temporary duty with a Sixth Corps Brigade Return of officers from wounded and sick leave Incomprehensible movements of the army The reasons therefor Gregg's Division resists the advance of Lee's army at Warrenton Sulphur Springs liant cavalry fight at — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Meade retreats He foils Lee's plans The Confederates after the army's wagon train The regiment reports for duty to Buford Battle of Bristow Station The Third given the post of honor as rear guard of the retreating wagon train guard Captain Walsh with the Third left to look after the safety of the train The train stalled in Bull Run at Yates' Ford Corporal Speese's account of the preliminaries of the fight of Yates' Ford or Occoquan The regiment attacked by Gordon's Brigade of and Auburn — — — — — — — — — Carolina cavalry Brilliant affair near Buckhall Lieutenant Potter handsomely handles the extreme rear guard Makes an ambush The whole regiment deploys except Wetherill's squadron This held in reserve Potter repulses three separate attacks in column upon his rear guard Fine Confederate artillery firing Wetherill's squadron reinforces different parts of the line His First Sergeant.— XVI — HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY.

— XV11 PAGE Fayetteville via Bealeton to Morrisville Cross the Rappahannock and Rapidan at Ellis' and Ely's Ford into the Wilderness Gregg's Division takes the advance of the left wing of the army The — — Third Pennsylvania —A New Hope hard Church fight — — An advance Engagement at Fighting cavalry and infantry in the thickets amusing battue Relieved by Sykes' Reguin the extreme — — — back to Parker's Store Our third fateful November Hampton's Division of Confederate cavalry swoops down in surprise on the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry and First Massachusetts at Parker's Store.382-406 1864. 1863. 1864. scouting and reconnoitering in "Mosby's Confederacy'' Much hunting and chasing after Mosby and his men Want of sufficient clothing among the men Regimental recruiting in the field for reenlistment "Veteranizing" in the regiment Death of Captain Walter S. . CHAPTER XXV.— CONTENTS. Hunterson's account Our losses at New Hope Church and Parker's Store The army falls back behind the Rapidan Suffering among the men from cold Scout of Captain Walsh s battalion Camp at Shepherd's Grove At Brandy Station Guerilla attacks and ambuscades Winter lars. -407-413 1864. 1863 February 25. The army goes into winter quarters The Second Cavalry Division camps around Warrenton and Warrenton Junction An extremely winter Continuation of Regimental Journal to February Warrenton and its people Secesh girls Water Moun2j. 1864 tain Picketing. Va. Winter of 1863-64 in Camp at Warrenton. fall we — — — — — — — quarters camp established around Warrenton — Changes among the officers July 15 — December 1863. Newhall Grief felt in the regiment and cavalry corps Presentation to the regiment of a standard in memory of Captain Newhall Night surprise and attack on Captain Gilmore's picket Wounding of Captain Gilmore Rebel account Lieutenant Ward's report of it Strange escape of a captured Rebel sentenced to death Captain Treichel detached for service Secesh as Division Provost Marshal upon General Gregg's staff ruses to get through the picket line A memorable and successful hunt after Mosby and his men— Captain Wetherill's account of it Accounts of participants therein of other regiments Official rosters of the Second Cavalry Division December 31. The regiment is detached for duty at the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac It breaks its winter quarters camp at Warren- — .. 4. February 26— May 3. Winter of 1863-64 (continued). and cold — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — January 31. The two regiments knocked out The Second Brigade comes to our relief Lieutenant Potter's account of the affair Private John C. — — — CHAPTER XXIV December 14.

Grant establishes at Culpeper his Headquarters of the Armies Operating Against Richmond Reorganization of the Army of the Potomac Continuation of Regimental Journal to June 11 The army Part of the again crosses the Rapidan into the Wilderness regiment under Captain Wright sent on picket to cover the right of the line The battle of the Wilderness Terrible losses Doings of the regiment therein Grant unable to force Lee back. 1864. The Overland Campaign from the Rapidan to the James.— HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. 1864. determines to maneuver The move "by the left flank" The regiment escorts Grant and Meade on the march The column gets on the wrong road A game of "old soldier" How some of our men got fresh remounts Warren's delay in reaching Spottsylvania Court House before Lee March to Todd's Tavern To Piney Branch Church Battle of Spottsylvania Court House Fifth Corps fight at Alsop's Farm Death of General Sedgwick. Third— Official roster of Headquarters . — Xviii PAGE ton and moves over to Brandy Station Assigned to duty with the Provost Marshal-General— Continuation of Regimental Journal to May 3— Broken-down condition of the regiment— The Provost Marshal's or Provisional Brigade on duty at headquarters — known as the "Household Brigade"— Fine brigade guard mounts and dress parades—A splendid band— Active drilling and refitting Our new Regimental Chaplain Sergeant Rammel promoted to — that office — — Official roster of the headquarters brigade April 30. CHAPTER XXVI March 26 -414-436 June 12. 1864. commander of Sixth Corps Detail from the Third escorts his body homewards The battle of the "Salient" Capture of Generals Johnson and Steuart Why Johnson rode and Steuart walked as prisoners Grant meets his match in Lee Terrible losses of the campaign General Meade narrowly escapes capture Brave action of Captain Hess Another flanking movement to the left Skirmish of the Headquarters Brigade at Guinney's Station— The North Anna River reached Lee again in our front Battle of Jericho Mills— Why Grant and not Meade took charge of operations on the North Anna Third flanking movement to the left Nearing Richmond— Crossing of the Pamunkey— Battle of Totopotomoy Battle of Cold Harbor (second) begins Greatest reverse of the campaign Ghastly scenes in rear of the assaulting — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — line —The — — "Crapsey" incident eral Meade — The army Results in great injustice to Genreaches the Chickahominy General — — Patrick compliments the troops May 5. 1863— May 2. 1864— Changes among the officers December 18.

1864 Expiration of term of service of the three years' men Their return homewards and muster out The Veteran Battalion formed out of the "hold overs"— Officers selected to serve with it sad parting Experiences of the three years' men on their way home Their final discharge and disbandment August 24. . 24. 1864. — — A XIX PAGE CHAPTER June 12 XXVII. . August 31 and October 31.—— CONTENTS. . B and A magnificent body of men Continued on duty at Headquarters Army of the Potomac Battle of the "Crater" or Petersburg Mine Life in and behind the trenches in front of Petersburg Averell made a Brevet. 1864 Changes among the officers. Elections in election —Trips Siege of Petersburg (continued). 1864. — — M— — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XXIX. October ii.. -437-452 August 1864. 453-463 Siege of Petersburg (continued). The great mistake of Cold Harbor Continuation of Regimental Journal and orders to July 30 Fourth flanking movement to the left Crossing of the Chickahominy Captain Hess' squadron of the Third and others lead the advance of the army to the James River Communications opened with General Butler The army reaches the James Picket skirmish of two squadrons near Malvern Hill Crossing of the James River The advance on Petersburg Failure to capture it Movements to the left Some rough experiences The army begins to dig The siege inaugurated Major Walsh scouts toward Surrey Court House Guarding the rear of the lines Safeguards and others captured Military executions^ Official roster of Headquarters troops June 30. July 21 September 15. 1864 February 28. Organization of the "Veteran Battalion of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry" composed of Companies A.Major General Our new Sergeant-Major Female spies and treachery in rear Confederate cavalry carries off the army cattle herd Recruits join the battalion New Companies F and C formed Company B sent to General Grant's headquarters at City Point More movements to the left New Company D formed Company F sent to General Grant's headquarters at City Point Battle of Boydton Plank Road Company C sent to General Grant's headquarters at City Point Official rosters of troops at Headquarters July 31. Siege of Petersburg Begun. July 2j— November 7. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XXVIII 1864.464-481 1865. camp for officials being voted for at home to Washington escorting prisoners — Presidential — Reconnois- .

— — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XXX. The return march of the victorious army In camp at Burkesville Junction awaiting developments relating to General Joe Johnson's army Assassination of President Lincoln Dismay and indignation felt throughout the army Scouring the country for the perpetrators of the outrage. 1865. 1865. 1864. After Appomatox. — PAGE — sance in force to Hatcher's Run Hard work and rough experience Major Hess' account of the fight at the Run A bitterly cold march Retaliation for guerilla murders A night attack on Headquarters camp— A ludicrous turning out— Battle of Dabney's Mill or (second) Hatcher's Run Major Hess' account and official report The detachment of three companies at City Point Excursions across the James River Attempted gunboat attack on City Point Military executions Official rosters of troops at headquarters December 31. April 9 and April 30. April ii -494-509 —June 5. members of the Confederate Cabinet and other prominent secessionists— Desolation throughout the country— Surrender of Johnsons army— The start homewards for — — — — Richmond and Washington — Our most enjoyable march — Arrival . 1865. C and F) rejoins the —Lee's — — the air — Another movement by the flank— General Sheridan's narrow escape on coming into our pickets — Grand attack along the line — Fall of Petersburg— The Third enters the city escorting Generals Grant and Meade and acts as provost guard — President Lincoln General Grant in Petersburg— High of the army— After Lee's army on the run —Vigorous pursuit of the retreating Rebel army—Jetersville — Deatonsville— Painesville High Bridge—Lee's army headed off—The glorious 9th of April — Palm Sunday indeed — Surrender at Appomattox Court House by Lee of the remnants of the Army of Northern Virginia — Part of the Third with General Meade between the Union and Confederate lines of battle — Enthusiastic demonstrations — Grant's considerations for the feelings of our gallant foe — Starved and ragged "Johnnies" remaining our camps — We share our food with them— Official rosters of the Headquarters troops March — — left battalion at General Meade's headquarters— Changes in the "Headquarter's Brigade" Battle of Fort Steadman An exciting battalion drill Bringing matters to a conclusion Serious business in visits spirits ! in little 29.— XX HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. January 31 and February 28. March 18 -482-493 April 10. CHAPTER XXXI. 1865. Fall of Petersburg The City Point Surrender at Appomatox Court House. detachment (Companies B.

— CONTENTS. 1865. — XXI from duty at the Headquarters of from the army Left behind in Richmond to act as provost guard Playing mounted policemen Farewell to the Army of the Potomac Sherman's army in Richmond — We are relieved the Army of the Potomac — Detached — — — — — passes through Richmond Trips into the country after prominent secessionists War Department order of May 8. in the Afternoon of July 3. — — consolidated regiment one of full strength New camp Dissatismen of the Third at being transferred to the Fifth Pennsylvania and other causes Severe sentences by court-martial of the mutineers Strict discipline. for reducing the volunteer cavalry forces of the army Portends the end of the existence of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry Conjectures as to fate of those whose enlistments not expiring before October 1 Examination of officers for appointments in the regular army The last order issued by the commanding officer of the Third Pennsylvania Partial muster out and another consolidation of companies The end of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry Four companies broken up Another heartrending parting The remnants transferred as four companies to the Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry Daily record of the battalion from July 2~ 1864 June 7. Incidents and References 517 Correlation of Time During the Crisis of the Battle of Gettysburg. Some Personal Reminiscences. July 27.515 II. 1863 554 Gettysburg Cavalry Shaft. 1865 Changes among and termination of service of the officers. 1865. hard work and drilling must be kept up The Newhall Memorial Flag presented to Captain Newhall's mother Orders for muster out of service of the Fifth Pennsylvania Turning in of property Muster out at Richmond The regiment embarks in transports for Philadelphia Pleasant — — — — — — — — trip homewards Our warm and enthusiastic "welcome home" March to Camp Cadwalader Arms and equipments turned in The men paid off Discharges dated August 7. . APPENDIX. 1865. The The faction of the End. I. and Third Pennsylvania Cavalry Gettysburg Monument Dedications 555 Records of Services of Officers of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry who also served in the United States (Regular) Army 561 Regimental Roll of Officers and Enlisted Men of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry (incomplete) 5^5 III. delivered to — — the men — Disbandment — — and final parting. IV V. 1865 Constitution of the four companies transferred to the Fifth Pennsylvania. . — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XXXII June 7 510-513 August 15. 1864 August 15.

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Averell Frontispiece David McM. April 15. Boyer Reg. Quartermaster Samuel P." September Portraits : 1889 560 General William " W. Rummel Farm Buildings 297 555 Cavalry Shaft " Third Pennsylvania Cavalry Newhall Memorial Flag Portrait Groups : Monument 559 393 McM. S.— — ILLUSTRATIONS FACING PAGE "Reveille" iv Map Showing Map Positions of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry of the in the Battle of Gettysburg 261 of Field of Operations of the Gettysburg " — Field of the Potomac Back cover Grand Cavalry Charge on the Right Flank. " 382 432 458 412 413 558 Some of those Present at the Dedication of the Gettysburg Cavalry Shaft Union and Confederate 7. Claude White Adj utant Harrison L. 277 . Owen James W. Gregg John B. 325 32 5 3 21 Wagner xxiii Surgeon William B. O. Grant and Staff Officers of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry April 15. 1864 General D. Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Jones 67 55 Samuel W. 1864 Company C. Hess O. Walsh Major Frank W. Some Members on "Pennsylvania Day. G. Mcintosh xxv 143 S. Newhall Reg.557 of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry at Gettysburg 12. Gregg and Staff George G. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. July 1886 . Hezlep 67 . Robinson " 453 67 55 55 55 Charles Treichel J. Commissary Samuel C. Army . Officers at Reunion at Gettysburg. Meade and Staff U.

Galloway Samuel S. Miller Walter S. Gilmore Edward M. Vernou The Regimental History Committee then " " " " '' 407 407 437 " " " now xxix xxxvi 514 "Taps" . " 303 95 95 303 197 183 " " 303 95 183 197 Francis D. Grugan " " Henry H. Durant. Pemberton Willard Warren Second Lieutenant Albert Bradbury " " William H. Beaton " " Joseph D. L. King " " Andrew J. Wetherill Alexander S. Carter " " 303 325 95 197 197 183 Howard Edmonds Lee Englebert Alexander B. Tate Captain William Baughman William Rawle Brooke Miles G. Newhall William Franklin Potter William Redwood Price William W. — FACING PAGE 67 325 183 Surgeon Henry J. Ward J. Portraits (Continued) Asst. Bricker E. Heyl William E. Theodore T. Woodburn Abel Wright First Lieutenant Robert T. 437 407 407 407 321 437 437 321 321 Ellwood Davis James Heslet " Charles A.: XXIV HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Frazer David M. Rogers George S. Green " " Frank C.

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and Brevet-Major-Gkneral Commander DAVID McM. GREGG.Brigadier. Army of the of the Second Division Cavalry Corps Potomac .

and They had taught their people to believe that a type of manhood in totally differing from theirs existed in the non-slave-holding States — that in these. was the beginning of a war which was waged unceasingly in the for four years. S. The Si luthern leaders. hostile shots directed against Fort Sumter by the leaders of the rebellion against the authority of the United were intended to fire the Southern heart. that they had forfeited all claims to chivalry — that whilst they might occasionally make it display of patriotism in song and noise. and in the development of the great material interests of their section. followed by assurances of these same leaders. Soon were these deluded people sciousness that disunion to to was not be accomplished by a single blast before the walls of the citadel over which floated xxv . V The States.FOREWORD By General David McM. magnitude of the numbers engaged. vision to their own section. losses in battle. confined their failed to look beyond. U. and in and from other causes. who inaugurated war. Gregg. which subsequent events showed were not well founded. and to commit the entire people of the South to their scheme for the dissolution of the Union. the men were so much engrossed the cares of business. This act of war. and which. has not been equaled modern times. sentimentality. and was but a sickly would hide itself when confronted with awake to a lively con- arms.

Young. by Lieutenant Mcintosh. village. commands exercised by them Before taking the in discipline field the Third attained a high standard and drill. strong. cavalry They were accomplished and experienced at the and both won great distinction head of this regiment. Of her sons. regimental colors bear a long Its losses in battle of the battles in which participated. alry. was not who would go. It took part in all the campaigns of '62 until the Army of the Potomac. of the Fifth United States CavB. it attest It how hotly and determinedly engaged the enemy. Captain W W and later officers. but who should remain at home to keep alive the indusin tries of the country. the old flag of a free people. soon thereafter In its known as the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. willing to give their defence. and intelligent lives in its men. and hamlet there poured forth a mighty stream of patriots in quick re- sponse to the rather call to arms. and it records will bear out the statement. The recruiting and organizing were accomplished by Colonel by W H. of the same regular regiment. He was J. succeeded in command Averell. lovers of their country. Pennsylvania was among the first to respond to the President's call for troops. more necessary time of war than in peace. official can be said of the Third Pennsylvania. The news of the assault on Sumter flew on swift wings. from the opening one of Its it the close at list Appomattox. ranks were found young. that never failed in the perit formance of its duty. some eleven hundred were organized as Young's Kentucky Cavalry. and in higher thereafter. and that the distinction attained was .XXVI HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. active. Of the loyal States. ears of From It city. and soon reached the the hardy sons of the North.

were united ington. on which are so faithfully recorded the good services of their regiment in that great war for the preservation ! What memories of the olden war-time will be awakened. but every other reader feels that who loves his country. impressed by the fact that the liberty and prosperity we enjoy of the were preserved In the very at a fearful cost. afterwards Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Charles . men One of of the Third has continued in regard and the most distinguished of them. fairly XXV11 won. commanded by Colonel Averell. and of those who entered from time to time to fill the vacancies caused by the casualties of war. It enjoyed the high privilege of meeting in fierce combat the invading enemy on the free soil of Pennsylvania. and their eyes of the Union brighten. as a brigade in the Defences of Wash- From that time to the present my association with the officers and friendship. and how their pulses will quicken.! FOREWORD. The battle of Gettysburg was fought near by the homes of many is of its members. the regiment excelled itself on that memorable field. and their memories are tenderly cherished by their survivors. first days of the organization of the Army Potomac the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Captain. as they read the story of their deeds so graphically and truly told Nor will the interest and pleasure be confined to the reader who helped to make this history. but certain that if possible. to those and it he owes a debt of gratitude will not fail to be who saved from destruction. the larger number are dead. was in this fact not known. which I had the honor to command. What it inspiration there is. Of those who originally entered the regiment. and the Eighth. With what genuine pleasure will these old survivors read the follow- ing pages.

their old regiment alone its Their love of the story of prompted them to tell it. and its associate regiments of the Second Cav- alry Division of the Army of the Potomac. and as often there will be recalled to him the gallant deeds of this. which division he had the honor to command. for a very long time served upon my me personal staff while I commanded the Second Cavalry Division. and right well have they done The writer this of this "Foreword" will have frequent occasion to consult book. The years that have followed the association with War have brought frequently into many of the survivors of that regiment. brave deeds. with ever-increasing esteem and attachment.XXviii HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. The authors of this history can be congratulated on having so well accomplished a laborious undertaking. . Treichel.

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THE REGIMENTAL HISTORY COMMITTEE William E. JOHN c.James W McCobkell. Millek. Andrew J. Spkicsk. . . Huntkrsmx. William Eawle Brooke. THEN.

Association" was orean- ized on September 17. 1864.INTRODUCTION The "Third Pennsylvania Cavalry that regiment held at Xewville. were distributed. who read a paper Cavalry Fight of the entitled. starting movement in that direction was then made by Private John C. 1878." written by Corporal Andrew J. copies of a "Brief History of Com- pany H. of September 14. in the vear 1799. had its origin in a troop of cavalry known as "The Adamantine Guards." 17. "The Right Flank at xxix . and which name had subsequently been changed to "The Big Spring Adamantits company upon discharge in August. At that meeting on September 1878. as also of The Philadel- phia Weekly Times. composed of the flower of the Cumberland Valley. "The 17. at a reunion of the survivors of The call viving members vania. which motion was adopted. Mcintosh. ine Guards. suggested and moved that a Committee on History should be appointed by The the Executive Committee. General William W eral Averell. Speese. Pennsylmeeting had been issued by the sur- of Company H of the regiment." an article entitled. under Captain John Shippen. for that Cumberland County. Pa. who had maintained a social organization since the disbandment of the That company. First War — Kelly's Ford. Hunterson. Gen- John B. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. 1878. March 1863. its second colonel. which contained as one of its series of "Chapters of Unwritten History in the Annals of the War." Upon that occasion." which had been organized at Shippensburg. also.. the first colonel of the regiment presiding.

. That committee was also directed to take steps to collect and the 17. gathered together and put in shape much excellent and valuable material which.. a stimulus was given toward the preparation and publication of regimental histories of the troops of that State. John C. Hunterson. held on September 17. Corporal Private John J. a committee was appointed. at intervals of leisure in a busy life. preserve the records of the regiment. Hess. W as chairman. Pa. of Company H. Gettysburg. that it was important that an accurate and impartial historical record of the services of the regiment should be prePrivate pared without delay. third reunion. on September 1880. in great part. to be read at the next following reIt was further resolved that thereafter at each reunion a paper be read covering one year of the regiment's history. It is especially owing to his intelligent energy and affectionate zeal that so much has been preserved. consisting of Sergeant-Major James McCorkell. Speese. of the Record Committee. held in Accordingly at Philadelphia. the consequence being that at a reunion . would otherwise have been lost. when he was detached for service in connection with the staff of the Second Cavalry Division.XXX HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. through lapse of time." written by Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel William Brooke Rawle. at Gettysburg. Wagner. first year's service (1861-62). 1879. such a paper and it was submitted and read by the committee. His assiduous and able work forms the basis. of the story of the regiment. L. the passage of an 13. and C. approved April Act of the Pennsylvania Legisla1903. Ward and Lieutenant Samuel C. Hunterson. At the second reunion of the Regimental Association. These had been intentionally prepared and printed to be in season for the reunion. Subsequently. to prepare an its Andrew account of the organization of the regiment and of union. of Company B. Upon ture. covering the period from its first organization in the summer of 1861 until the end of the year 1863. Pa. supported by was suggested by Major Frank W Captain George S.

That the Committee of Three of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry to collect to five in \ssociation. the members of the Regimental History Committee feel that. with the material already collected by the Record Committee. 1879. fall it will in the minds of some of all short of what was expected.INTRODUCTION. shall of the officers and prepare a proper history of the Third Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry. from the State and others the necessary funds power in all respects to act in the premises in the name of this Association being hereby given. held at Gettys- burg on June 10. general satisfaction. That the said "Regimental History Committee" shall consist of Miller. the committee so enlarged to be known as the "Regimental History Committee. Hunterson. Speese." and that said committee. appointed September 17. William E. and preserve the records of the regiment. James W Comrades William Brooke Rawle. as they hope. and that when such history committee shall shall have been prepared the said and to to collect so. In now presenting as the result of their labors this sketch Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry in the American Civil War. Among the . XXXI of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry Association. and John C. be increased number by the addition of two of its former commis- sioned officers. and of the movements and doings of their companies and of themselves. and such additional matter as it may roll be able to obtain. 1904. and so many of them could have helped with their recollections of incidents. McCorkell. The great majority of them have gone without leaving behind them any material which might have been of assistance to the committee. the following resolutions were adopted : Resolved. 1861-1865. The mouths but a very few of those who served in the regiment are now closed in death. full do have full power to print and publish the same. with a men. though of the services of the Third affording. Resolved. Forty years have passed since the close of the war. Andrew J.

find that they are not mentioned. Another great ered is difficulty which the committee has encount- that very frequently at times the different squadrons of the regiment acted separately and in different places. of camp-life. while those of the others are not. sence of staff. even while in its winter — camps. and value also those to the book. relatively — few survivors— and they are scattered far and wide there are those who. have been backward or altogether remiss in furnishing their personal recollections. whether through infirmity of age. the doings of one or more may be mentioned. which would have added interest respond to requests for assistance. the consequence being that its official reports and other papers as a general rule were far from being as full and as accurate as they might have been. When not in winter quarters the move. frequently. company officers Again. To compile anything at all in the way of a historical sketch the per- . through false modesty or other causes. And meet the squadron formations themselves never remained the same for any length of time. or on account of or wounds.XXxii HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. After the opening of the spring campaign of 1862 the regiment was never allowed to remain as a whole in any one place for any length of time. when companies or squadrons were performing separate duty. changes being frequently made to the urgency of circumstances. yet some of those very persons will feel slighted when they to. of adventure. often and for was continually on much of the time away from its desks it and papers. have passed into oblivion. or or inability to disinclination. have failed to Many incidents of battle. and be- cause incidents which they remember have not been recounted or referred they will doubtless stamp the work of the com- mittee as incomplete. in the abwhether on detached duty on the illness or on recruiting service. In the absence or dearth of written material much dependence has had to be placed upon the assistance of the few survivors among us. come forward. Thus. There are who. subalterns of certain companies were placed in command of others all of which was very confusing.

and the contemporaneous diaries and letters some of the dead and living have been relied upon. the story of the regiment cannot at t< this late day be >ld There a prevalent habit among old soldiers to allow their recollections. . and even they are of the most incomof plete character. that the members of the committee have at times failed to unanimously agree upon certain points. and to be tinged romantically with the war. in military service amid the exciting surroundings of battle. and especially is this so as regards the time side at the time. of occurrences. having come to believe after It not infrequently happens that. it too much of the "personal equation. but in this at times they have not been altogether successful. including the members of the committee. for the sake of harmony. those few according to their in their who remain consent to tell own recollections. but the minority have. in relating their were actually done or seen by them. or their statements of them." is submitted. even though they may be side by a while that those very things Their recollections are frequently diametrically divergent. there is probably be said by some that Unless. sonal recollections of those XXX111 now living. to be more or less embroidered. ored to The members of the committee have endeavavoid as much as possible the making of the storyIt will personal to themselves. Were it not for these there would be nothing available at hand but the cold official records. the story materials own is possession. they state as facts many things which they would have wished to have done or seen. concurred in the conclusions of the majority. therefore. in the relation of events in the following historical sketch. It is another remarkable and well known fact that. influ- ences of the years which have elapsed since the ending of the war experiences.INTRODUCTION. It is not to be wondered at. and even under more prosaic circumstances. and from the at all. though perhaps reserving to themselves in their inmost thoughts the right to think that the majority were in error nevertheless. two men rarely see the same occurrences alike.

printed since the war. it is standing has attempted to give. occasionally during brief halts of the column. Neither calendars nor maps abounded. the — . that the Regimental Headquarters' Clerk sometimes went astray as to his chronology and geography. By means of these the correlation of events has been brought to the knowledge of all flood of literature of all sorts. and it is not surprising. students. notwithan exceedingly valuable contribution to the day-by-day history of the regiment which the committee with omissions of all these. Though for the most part exceedingly sketchy. and on many other occasions. 1862 until the end of the existence of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry as a separate organization in June. with some errors as to dates and names of that is — — places. and much rences which. and Sundays were not different from other days. often when portions of the regiment were off at a distance on separate duty. in regimental officer thrown upon movements and occurthe narrow and circumscribed vision of a or enlisted man. 1865. The committee has been fortunate in having had before it a copy of the Journal regularly kept in the Regimental Adjutant's Office from just before the beginning of real active campaigning work from March i. comprising in one hundred and thirty volumes. As we were often away sometimes for several weeks at a time from our regimental desks. seemed at the time of their light happening to be incomprehensible.— XXxiv HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. at times while under artillery and other fire. the Journal was for the most part carried by the clerk upon his own person. Especially is this the case since the publication by the United States Government of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies during the War of the Rebellion. therefore. many important details. and for the reason that the entries were made sometimes after long and fatiguing marches. therefore. of which no specific details were furnished to the Adjutant's Office. The difficulties mentioned of obtaining reliable information have been greatly minimized in consequence of the immense which has brought to light much that was previously unknown. Necessarily.

printed and published. . and such was more than once emptorily refused by the Chief of the Record and Pension Washington. and the instances were few. has been compelled to rely chiefly on that printed under the authority of the State in the second volume of "Bates' History of Pennsylvania Volunteers. if any. The work was well done under the trying circumstances. inaccurate. when a full and histori- cally valuable history of the cavalry of the Army of the Poto- mac is being written. where similar daily records were kept in other regiments. much material which has come across in its investigations. Many from per- however. With respect to the regimental the committee roll of the officers and men. No assistance could be obtained the records at Harrisburg. "Under the rules of this Department the information from the official Office of the War Department at records requested cannot be furnished for the purpose stated within. and generally contain mention only of occurrences which were brought to the immediate notice of the writer of it. errors. work is broader than that of regimental Advantage has been taken by the comit mittee to bring together. have been corrected by the committee. and serve in a degree as indices for them." This is exceedingly incomplete. and ill-arranged. full records of the names and services of those of her sons who. The committee ventures the suggestion that it would not be amiss for the Legislature of Pennsylvania to have properly prepared. entries in the Journal XXXV were of the briefest description.INTRODUCTION." As time passes away it will become more and more difficult to obtain satisfactory information as to the records of those who served during the Civil War. The scope of this histories generally. in accessible and intelligent form. his endorsement upon the applications of the committee being. and deficiencies supplied. In the following historical sketch the entries in the Journal have been printed before the fuller accounts of the different campaigns or movements. and which will be of use in the future.

. Regimental History Committee. W McCORKELL.XXXVI HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. J. C. in 861-1865. Brooke Rawle. 1 in the great struggle of the National Government. Miller. came forward to support its time of sore need. Chairman. Union of the Honor of the Wm. to maintain States and the the integrity of the Flag. W J. E. Jno. Hunterson. Andrew Speese.

K. John C. William Brooke Rawi. Andrew J. Hunteeson. . James W Mi I 'orkell.k. Miller. Speese.William THE REGIMENTAL HISTORY COMMITTEE NOW.

.

which the men of the South had been holding over the heads of their brothers in the North. of withdrawal from the Union of States. The dark and menacing storm-cloud of political unrest which. and upon the flag of the Union floating over it. burst over the Northern States into a torrent. had been gathering over our entire country. 1861. Cabinet and at the head of government departments in Washington had been playing into the hands of the secessionists. April 12. year by year. had especially increased in violence after the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency a of the United States of America. CHAPTER I THE OUTBREAK OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR THE CALL FOR VOLUNTEERS TO SAVE THE UNION PREPARATION FOR THE GREAT STRUGGLE. 1861-1865. The insidious desire for a separation had long anteceded that event. South Carolina. the first gun had been fired upon Fort Sumter. 1861. April. when the news arrived that early on Friday morning. and I . The threats of secession. or of those in sympathy with it. first of righteous indig- and then of patriotic enthusiasm. nation. in the harbor of Charleston. Yet that election was but pretext.HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. The government of the nation had been in the hands The men in the of the South.

April 14. an element which eventually came into the struggle as a war measure. Abraham Lincoln prepared the Proclamation issued to the people of the North on Monday . That same day the President and his Cabinet met to consider the situation. that fateful shot was fired. its gallant commander hauled down the flag and evacu- — — ated it. At noon on Sunday. for leaders. The men of the North rose almost unanimously. were all wanting. The arsenals in the North had been depleted of the implements of war." to be treated with gentle conciliation." had not been taken as seriously by the North as they should have been. measures favorable to their cause. that every man must take his stand as a patriot for the Union. The enthusiastic burst of patriotism throughout the North was intense and widespread. practically useless. after four years of one of the bloodiest and hardest-fought wars in history. The little Regular Army had been all scattered. It was with them now only a question of the honor of the flag and the integrity of the Union. The two millions and more of men which it eventually took to suppress the Rebellion. The efforts of the Southern leaders in stirring up their people to fight for the maintenance of that baneful sacred. for authority to bring the South back to law. they termed it institution. or as a traitor in favor of disunion and treason. or tolerantly allowing. and. There was no thought of slavery or of its abolition. The nation suddenly awoke as from a trance. order and obedience. Those States were referred to as "erring sisters. the secession of some of the Southern States. could have been raised at once and without conscription or pecuniary inducement. organization and preparation. aiding and abetting. and made and the North unready and unprepared. with his own hand. as well as immediately available resources for such a host. April 14. But appreciation of the seriousness of the conflict. 1861. The point of direct cleavage was now reached. which had been sent to those in the South. Fort Sumter held out gallantly against overwhelming odds until it became absolutely untenable. arms and equipments.2 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. and the formation of the "Confederate States of America. But after that unpardonable insult to the flag the whole North clamored for arms. When was ripe for action.

and were enlisted to serve for three months. The celebrated Troop of Philadelphia City Cavalry. to suppress the Rebellion. many cavalry officers Other companies offered their services. and compel the execution of the laws. an organization dating from the year 1774. from everywhere. morning. from the farms. from the manufactories. From the homes of the wealthy and the poor alike. as will be related . April 14. Among these body of men known as the Merchants' Troop of Philwhich eventually became Company A of the Third of Pennsylvania Regiment Volunteer Cavalry. The quota of troops called for from Pennsylvania was twelve thousand five hundred men. it proved to be a capital preliminary school. All. The whole North sprang with eagerness to answer the call. regardless of family ties. offering their willing services. Serving in the field for the full term of its three months' enlistment. however. 3 1861. which. the men came forward. panies and regiments of volunteers were on their way to the National Capital. Recruiting offices were opened everywhere throughout the land. of the number called for came forward and offered their services promptly. and furnished to regiments raised at later periods. The number furnished was twenty thousand one hundred and seventy-five twenty-six regiments and four additional companies of infantry and one company of cavalry much the largest number from any of the States. calling upon the several States of the Union thousand of their militia for the defence of the National Government. April for seventy-five 15. From every Governor of a Northern State came a quick reWithin forty-eight hours armed and equipped comsponse. alone was accepted. of everything but their country's cause. the workshops and the stores. which had served with distinction in the Revolutionary War. and also calling for the National Congress to meet on the ensuing Fourth of July. expensive First and merely ornamental. The men were armed and equipped seventy-five thousand as soon as possible. for it was thought by those in Washington that that would be sufficient time in which to bring matters to a successful ending.the outbreak of the rebellion. the counting houses and the offices. and many more. were declined. The impression prevailed at Washington that cavalry was a useless branch — — of the army. was a fine adelphia.

as came to be called the will now be related. Third Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry . 1861. April-July. and the fact that the Rebellion was not to be put — — down during teers.4 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. which with those raised under the call of May 3. 1861. The active and continuous drilling. There were some conflicts chiefly small skirmishes with the enemy before the first great battle of the war occurred. through which the men composing the latter company were hereafter. organized under Captain William Rotch Wister. and provided for the raising of several regiments of cavalry. forty-two thousand and thirty-four number. 1861. known as The Germantown Troop. which was subsequently approved by Act of Congress of August 6. the term of service of the three months' volun- On call his own responsibility. The quota called for from Pennsylvania was eighty-two thousand eight hundred and twenty-five. on July But earlier than that the President and his Cabinet 21. 1861. Congress authorized the raising of additional volunteer troops. were not accepted when first offered. however. nor were those of another company. President Lincoln on May 3. Its services put. issued a second in for volunteers. to serve not more than three years and to be disbanded at the end of the war. aggregated five hundred thousand men. a formation of a regiment. the service to take the field. As soon as the call or the war. near Philadelphia. 1861. had come to realize to some extent the great undertaking before the country. to serve for three years. came for cavalry to serve for stimulus was given which resulted in first of three years the speedy that branch of the volunteer which eventually. prepared many of them for subsequent efficient service in the field. without waiting for the convening of Congress. By Acts approved July 22 and 25.

for eleven of the companies composing it had been raised in Pennsylvania. 1861. near Fourth. on July 21. it was assigned to the quota of Pennsylvania.CHAPTER II ORGANIZATION OF THE KENTUCKY LIGHT CAVALRY REGIMENT ACTIVE SERVICE AS SUCH THE REGIMENT BECOMES THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. shattered Union Army upon the defences of Washington. during the months of July and August. Sneyd as First Lieutenant. into a regiment designated "The Kentucky Light Cavalry. Nathaniel S. which had for some time previously been in existence under the name of "The Merchants' Troop of Philadelphia. 1861. 1861. The first twelve companies of cavalry available for the purpose. whether by reason of their presence at the seat of government. with Edward B. Young having received a commission dated July 10. subsequently. Philadelphia. 1861. Company A Company B had been building in the site recruited in the old Pennsylvania Bank Second street. now of the United States Appraisers' stores. and authority to raise a regiment by that name. as Colonel. and the men witnessed with mortification and dismay the falling back in disorder of the panicstricken. and as fast as 5 . had as a nucleus upon which to base its organization the independent body of cavalrymen already mentioned. Philadelphia. Martin as Captain. and Robert Douglass as Second Lieutenant. above Walnut. The unfortunate fact that it was so called lost to the regiment its numerical precedence when." William H. July-September. were brought together and organized. or by their being at the time in its vicinity. and it was mustered into service for three years on July 18." To fill up its numbers a recruiting station had been established in a vacant Jewish synagogue in Cherry street. For what possible or sane reason it was so named cannot now be ascertained. It was already in camp near Washington when the disastrous battle of Bull Run occurred.

Henry W. was mustered into service at Philadelphia for three years on August 16. and Second Lieu- — — tenant Charles F. respectively. First Lieutenant George H. 1861. was Mounted White House Lycoming. The company. C. and was mustered into the three years' service on August 16.August. 1861. Gheen. and mustered into service for three years on August 1. Clinton. July. enlisted the men were sent into camp on the farm of Colonel Jesse E. New Jersey. with Captain Edward S. and its Second Lieutenant James E. Lewis Second Lieutenant. also an independent troop known as "The President's Guard. Company F was recruited in Philadelphia. Companies A and B of the First Pennsylvania Cavalry having been so mustered in on July 25 and August 8. D. Pennsylvania. 1861. It was the only company of the regiment organized outside of Pennsylvania. respectively established their precedence as the first bodies of volunteer cavalrymen from Pennsylvania mustered in for the three years' service. at the United States Arsenal at Nineteenth and Filbert streets. First Lieutenant Timothy P Russell. and Tioga counties. Jones.6 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Its Captain was William J. having been mustered into service for three years on August 13. mainly from firemen belonging to the West Philadelphia Engine Company. Peyton. Its first officers were Captain Levi S. was mustered into service for three years on July 23. and Second Lieutenant Alexander M." and had served as his body-guard at the and elsewhere at the seat of the National Government. but was assigned as the fourth company to the regiment of Kentucky Light Cavalry. and Samuel D. Gillies as its officers.Martin being its First Lieutenant. Company C was recruited in Philadelphia. Its first officers were Captain Thomas H. and Company E was for the greater part recruited in . 1861. Gary. Company D. Burrows. Johnson. Town. 1861. 1861. Wright. Steelman. Lodge. its Captain being Charles A. and the companies of the Second Pennsylvania Cavalry at still later dates. its First Lieutenant Alfred H. when filled up. First Lieutenant William S. and Second Lieutenant Robert B. Brannix. at Haddonfield. Bell. raised in the city of Washington. The dates of the mustering in of Companies A and B July 18 and 23.

Company H was recruited at Newville. and mustered into service on August 19. Claude White. Company G was recruited in Pittsburg. Its name at a subsequent period had been changed to "The Big Spring Adamantine Guards. Pennsylvania. and was mustered into service on August 17. and Second Lieutenant John A. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War its ranks were weeded out and filled up from the best . for three years. and other dates. 1832. and Second Lieutenant William E. for three years." had been raised in the year 1799 at Shippensburg. Captain William K. for three years. May 5. under Captain J. Cumberland County. under Captain William H. and mustered into service for three years on August 17. First Lieutenant George K. Company L was raised in Schuylkill County. 1861. Hogg. Grant. Company was recruited in Philadelphia. 1 86 1. First Lieutenant Philander A. and Second Lieutenant William H. Shippensburg and Walnut Bottom. men the flower of the Cumberland Washington on August 8. Gregg. 1824. 1861. First Lieutenant Howard Edmunds. and it then contained in its ranks men who had served in the Revolutionary War. for three years. First Lieutenant John F Seal. A company of cavalry. Pennsylvania. 1801 May 14. 7 Pennsylvania. McCauley being its officers. 1861. known as the "Adamantine Guards. officered by Captain Oliver Ormsby Gregg Robinson. by Burd Shippen. and November 16. 1813. 1861. and Second Lieutenant Henry C. In its original organization it long antedated the great majority of the military units which composed the National army. and was also mustered into service on Auin that section of country. Company I was raised in Philadelphia and Delaware counties. reaching there the following day. for three years. Miller. Bright. body for gust 17. Fitzgerald. its first captain. First Lieutenant William Baughman. 1861.THE KENTUCKY LIGHT CAVALRY. its officers at the time being Captain Alexander S. 1861. Woodburn. and was mustered into service on August 22. and was mustered into service on August 26. Company K was raised in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. 1823. Hamblin. August 20. under Captain M . August. It started in a Valley." and records have been found of its having paraded on April 6. and Second Lieutenant William L. 1861. Pennsylvania. Devers.

1861. Gallagher. Not one of us had ever before seen such an outfit. as well as in other respects. curry-comb and brush. and their officers and men willingly helped us in fitting the parts together. Lieutenant George A.. There Colonel William H. and in instructing us as to their use and proper application. girth and surcingle.September. The companies had reported at Washington in citizens' attire. a bridle. "The Kentucky Light Cavalry. Young formed them into the regiment called. and remained in that condition for several weeks. First Lieutenant Peter Lane." which was established in Washington Park. as has been mentioned. a curb-bit. a nose-bag. and Second Ford. a pair of stirrups. afterwards the distinguished general officer. was attached to one of the companies. Jr. As Young's Kentucky Light Cavalry was the first body organized in that branch of the service. and other articles required by army regulations." He began at once to knock it into shape. enthusiasm and zeal that these undisciplined volunteers soon assumed the semblance of a military body. a horse blanket. stirrup-straps. After uniforms. for soon seven of our companies were marched across the Long Bridge into Virginia. there was an immediate demand upon it from infantry generals to furnish them with escorts and orderlies. without arms. John C. on Seventh street North. a halter and halter-strap. each man receiving a saddle. his bugler boy sounding the calls. Custer. and it was due in great part to his energy. in the city of Washington. The stay at Camp Park was a brief one. and the companies soon became scattered in many W directions. Fortunately two companies of the Fifth United States Cavalry were camped near by. the work of supplying horses and horse equipments followed. and excited our interest and admiration as he put it through the evolutions of mounted drill. Lieutenant John As fast as the several companies as organizations arrived in Washington they were sent to the rendezvous known as "Camp Park. arms and equipments had at last been issued. As the matter of precedence in date of organization has always .8 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY August. The latter were furnished in separate parts. How to put together and what to do with the indiscriminate lot was a puzzle to us. stirrup-flaps and saddle-bags.

1861. C. Brigadier General and Chief of Cavalry. first In the scattering referred to of the several companies on their arrival upon the ''Sacred Soil of Virginia" Company A was sent to the headquarters of General T. Colonel W : H. near Arlington. C. C. succeeded in spite of the many difficulties you have had to contend with in organizing twelve fine companies. the extreme outpost of our army in that quarter at the time. until the consolidation of the . September 11. H. Young. two miles west of Alexandria. at Seminary. 1861. Company C was ordered to the same place. April Sir : 1880. Acting Auditor. Soon after it reported there. remaining with General Kearney regiment as hereafter related. September. D. 1. Young was paid as Colonel of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry regiment from July 10. Washington. by great perseverance and energy. Commanding Kentucky Colonel first Allow me to congratulate you upon having put the regiment of cavalry in the field. In answer to your inquiry. the following letters are important: Headquarters Cavalry Brigade. 9 been one of interest to those who served with the regiment. D.— THE KENTUCKY LIGHT CAVALRY. George Stoneman. No record of payment in the First Kentucky Regiment Cavalry 1861. and with Company B formed a squadron under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel W Owen. Volunteers. Company B was assigned to the headquarters of General Philip Kearney. Harmer. I am very respectfully your obedient servant. I trust the Government will duly appreciate the result of your labors. to October 31. which was located upon the present site of Fort Myer. you are informed that the records of this office show that William H. Very respectfully. Cavalry. first at Cloud's Mills. You have. Second Auditor's Office. W Fort Corcoran. all of which are now actively engaged on duty with the various brigades which constitute this army. 1861. Washington. and afterwards near the Sherman.

as the K. at Fort Albany. sent to Drainsville for duty with the Pennin sylvania Reserve Corps. Upon information that a company of rebels was assembling in Lower Marlborough. was at Magruder's Ford. was drowned. of Company K of the regiment. D. were assigned to duty at Fort Lyon. and K of the consisting of his regiment and Companies Kentucky Light Cavalry under Captain Hamblin. preparatory to entering the Confederate service. and breaking up smuggling and ''running the blockade. 1861. Heintzelman. and Recruiting for the Southern army was its duty was incessant. L. of the First Massachusetts Infantry. having been mustered in on August 19. His was the first death of an the M officer of the regiment. The four remaining companies of Washington regiment. a force under the command of Colonel Cowdin. Maryland. I." as it was called. assigned to the headquarters of General Israel B. on an old flatboat. where he received the honors customary at a military funeral. He had seen less than one month of service. On killed of his September 16. remained on duty mounted guard of the President. was sent on September 10. Richardson. which gave way under the weight of the men and horses on board. were assigned to duty with General Joseph Hooker. Companies F and Company E was H at the Company G was headquarters of General Samuel P. His body was recovered and sent to his home. to intercept and capture them. while on duty with a detail company. in an official report of the occurrence. of Company L. whose headquarters were at Budd's Ferry. active in Anne Arundel County. and M.IO HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY September. Private John Flinn. 1861. . alludes to it as follows: "In relation to the lamented death of Lieutenant Hogg. I learn that the accident was caused by the unseaworthy condition of the boat. Maryland. One company. Hogg. for the purpose of guarding from that side the ferries along the lower Potomac and Patuxent rivers. Colonel Cowdin. In an effort to cross the Patuxent River September 12." It was a sad ending of a brave young life. A vast expanse of territory was covered by this battalion. First Lieutenant George K.

the first cavalryman killed in the war lost his life. To quote from the Philadelphia Press of June 5. With Colonel Carrigan. were part of a detail on picket at Munson's Hill. of Company B. for the horse was fleet of foot The horse also. There is a tale associated with that horse which may be of sufficient interest to warrant its insertion here. The in . capturing Colonel Carrigan. It was during one of these that. That of Lieutenant Hogg. and of Private Flinn. very similar dates. he would have been mustered out with The superstition which his company. Marcy. ii These various assignments to duty separated the companies during the summer and early fall of 1861. and the regiment never assembled as a unit until the month of October in that year. mentioned above. and were ambushed by a party of the enemy. the father-in-law of General George B. Had he survived the vicissitudes of war. of Company L. of and returned him safely to the Union lines. Aug.: the kentucky light cavalry. when it went into its first winter quarters. New York Infantry regi- the outpost of which was purpose of ascertaining the location of the rebel vedettes. On August 26. they rode outside the picket just beyond Munson's Hill. his horse being led following body to the grave. We gave him a military funeral. B. Brennan followed Briggs and succeeded in escaping No teer authenticated record of the death in action of any volun- cavalryman previous to this date during the war has been found. While in this scattered condition the different companies performed duties as vedettes. McClellan. scouts and mounted orderlies. 1861. 1861. Aug. its camp being named after General R. and only failed to secure Briggs because his ment. Peter Brennan and Saddler Robert Briggs. 1861. who fired upon them. sent out under a flag of truce and his body brought back to camp. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. of Company M. killing Brennan. 26. commanding the Thirty-fifth line. 26. of Company B. followed closely. The death of Brennan brought us youngsters in the regiment An ambulance was face to face with the stern realities of war. 1864. He was killed at Munson's Hill. Occasional reconnoissance of the rebel lines was also one of our duties. 1892 his first volunteer cavalryman killed in defence of the Union cause Virginia was Private Peter Brennan. August-September. so far as we can learn.

as has been mentioned. Some of these generals were veterans of the Mexican War. extra fortifications constructed. Whether any Confederate cavalryman afterwards rode to his doom upon his back. received their first lessons in military duty under him. which he reached unharmed. Our record of service during the summer and fall was highly rience of our tagonists. eral officers . The gallant Phil Kearney had lost his left arm charging the gates of the City of Mexico. and the determined perseverance of our anStockades were erected. only a short time before his death. or Lincoln. the First New York. The It is stated that this horse. Companies B and C. Standing on Munson's Hill. The inexperience of a memcreditable to recruits. and trotted out past our picket reserve at Bailey's Cross Roads to Munson's Hill. existed in the regular cavalry that it was unlucky to ride a horse whose owner was killed in action had an emphatic confirmation in this instance. and the trade was speedily effected. knowing the inexpe- men. and untiring in their vigilance. the dome place where of the Capitol is The in full view. This patrol duty fell to our lot chiefly. with hourly patrols of cavalry. and into the enemy's lines. our different companies served. sequel to the story tests one's credulity. determined to sever his connection with the Union service. Brennan had a poor horse. and he had exchanged for one belonging to the — — 5th U. 1861. some time before the 5th came to Virginia.12 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. He had been reduced from a warrior's steed to a drudge or pack horse. Cavalry. as if fully realizing the disgrace which the two calamities had unwittingly brought upon him. August-September. but the horse galloped back to our lines. Brennan was killed was the nearest point of approach to Washington which the Confederate forces ever reached from that direction. The National authorities were filled with anxiety. Cavalry. S. and our outposts doubled at night. The rider of this horse was killed in Texas. or what kind of service he entered in the disloyal camp is one of the many questions of the war that will probably never be revealed to the men who fought its batties. Brennan was shot off him. and their praise was accordingly of value. So one night he got loose from the picket rope. as there was but one other mounted regiment along the front at the time. some professional soldiers and graduates of West Point. and was so recognized by the several genunder whom. and was restored to duty in the company. The veterans of the 5th were anxious to get rid of this particular animal. having been sent to his headquarters. He was every inch a soldier.

peremptory tone commanded. 1 happened that the squadron to which his company belonged had been out on a scout. tell me who sent you here. 1861. The General was writing at a table. The envelope was delivered. but did not understand the question. to whom he related what had happened. The General then cast a scorching look upon the boy. This frightened It ber of Company B has a humorous side to the orderly so much that he forgot the name of Colonel Owen. and as the orderly placed the envelope before him. he asked in a quick. and the orderly told him. and directed the orderly to take it over to commander of the division. and it was necessary for him to obey. and boldly marched in with the envelope. and it was very difficult to get any clothing of proper size for him. placed a message it again in the torn envelope. and the General repeated it in a loud and irritable tone. so much so that the orderly concluded he had no sympathy for him in his embarrassment. having forgotten to hook up his sabre. feeling much relieved. and in a loud. now then." Soon the fright was off. General Franklin. and stood before General Kearney actually shaking in his boots. it. but speedily took leave of the room. The Colonel laughed heartily over the occurrence. as it was unusual to take small men for enlistment.3 THE KENTUCKY LIGHT CAVALRY. with directions to deliver it at once to General Kearney. and the official report was placed in the hands of this man. which had been established in a vacant house. His experience with General Kearney made him hesitate to hand a torn envelope to General Franklin. But at that . He had before going over to Kearney's headquarters put on his uniform jacket. "Stand at attention! Hook up that sabre. He appeared at the General's headquarters. sharp tone. after endorsing upon it. added to which was the clatter of a pair of loose-fitting spurs. the did not tarry a and he submitted the query to Colonel Owen for solution. It made a tremendous clanging over the bare floor. He was of small stature. "Who's from?" The orderly heard. without looking up. General Kearney read the report. The orderly moment. and the orderly returned to his company. which was several sizes too large. who was acting as orderly for Lieutenant-Colonel Owen. and hurried back to Colonel Owen. This caused more merriment on the part of the Colonel. who told the orderly that it was the usual procedure. August-September.

Knight. the wire caught the advance and tangled up the column. as a general rule. E. and the rebels were very active in annoying our pickets. Stuart. The troops under General Kearney's command covered the front from Munson's Hill to Mason's Hill. without suspecting danger. and wore than the big ones. were sent one evening beyond our lines on the Little River out their horses less. the horses falling over one another. was consequently provocative of a smile. time the Government was willing to receive the boys. and as it turned out eventually the little chaps. That put an end to night surprises of our pickets on that particular road. small as well as large ones. and just as they arrived at the trap set for them. accompanied by a detail from Companies B and C of our regiment. His appearance. stood the hardships of war better. The General concluded to put a stop to this by imposing vigorous penalties upon those who gave us the trouble. That jacket which the orderly wore had not been reduced in size. clothes had to be Turnpike with instructions to stretch telegraph wires across the road and then quietly await developments. In his "Campaigns . and was of very ample proportions. whom we were to meet often afterwards. very late in the night. B. As early in the war as that were we opposed to that valiant antagonist.14 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. especially at night. and finished up the attack in short order. opened a brisk fire upon the crowded road. To fit them out large drawn from the quartermaster and then cut down. A company of the Third New Jersey Infantry. for those who were not killed or wounded were captured. thus attired. They came down the road at a lively trot. who were hidden in the woods close by. Our men. fire off their carbines. 1861. for a party of rebel cavalry to charge upon our outposts. and get away in the ensuing excitement. under Lieutenant Frank L. These frequent alarms at night made outside picket duty uncomfortable and dangerous. but the company tailor soon made a better fit of the suit and the trouble was remedied. a confused mass of men and beasts. August-September. Scarcely any of the enemy got away. It was usual. These people who had been troubling our lines seem to have belonged to the cavalry command of General J. About midnight the rebel cavalrymen made their appearance.

the Confederates falling back in disorder upon their battery stationed beyond the village. and established his own headquarters on Munson's Hill.. September 11. Captain Robinson and his company accompanied a reconnoissance and foraging expedition. under General Smith. and making a dash upon the party. with his pickets within sight of the spires of Washington. Va. secured ten wagons. At this carbines had been issued to the company. when nearing the village of Accotink. with Company H. a large quantity of forage. to the vicinity of Lewinsville. Here he maintained himself for some weeks. under the command of General William F. he received orders to report at once to General Heintzelman. and would probably attack our line. Munson's. Again. with two thousand men. Captain Woodburn. a part of the Mount Vernon estate. page 41 : With restless activity Stuart pursued a well-directed system of annoyance against the Federal pickets.5 the kentucky light cavalry. sufficient to supply all the needs of the company while it remained in camp at General On Fort Lyon. Smith. wrote. B. salt fish and other stores. On October 11. drove them from Mason's.. in a thick woods. Riding leisurely along. 1861. accordingly was sent out to appropriate the property for the Government. the advance guard suddenly encountered the First Mississippi Rifles. During the same month it was ascertained that the enemy was removing from the farm of John A. when it was learned that a column of the enemy had passed Pohick Church. Washington. and keeping up a scattering . accompanied a reconnoissance in force from Chain Bridge to Lewinsville. and a lively artillery duel occurred there. while this same company was at drill under Lieutenant Baughman. McClellan. 1 Major H. of Stuart's Cavalry" his Chief of Staff. with Company G of the regiment. August-September. He was instructed to ascertain the strength and probable intenHeintzelman's headquarters at tions of this force as quickly as possible. and Upton's hills. enough time only twelve to arm the non-commissioned officers. and a sharp skirmish ensued. the privates carrying pistols and sabres. Va. loaded with forage and commissary stores. and had a skirmish at Ball's Cross Roads. Captain Robinson. on the 25th.

as already stated. eleven of twelve companies had come from Pennsylvania. however. and the different companies called in from their separate posts of duty.l6 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY August-September. fire as they retreated. and one horse killed and five wounded. as already stated. Meanwhile Colonel Young had tendered his resignation of the The horses. The companies were strangers to each other. of which. 1 86 1. During the month of October arrangements were made towards that end. W . notwithstanding their youth and inexperience. It caused great chagrin to its officers and men that it lost the priority in number to which it was clearly entitled by virtue of the dates of the mustering in of some of its companies. creating so much pursuit was stopped and the company retired Andrew J. and that the material of good soldiers. was in them." These random references to incidents of our service show that the participants. This was owing to its having first been named the Kentucky Light Cavalry. were kept actively employed. was allotted to the quota of that State as the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry (the Sixtieth Regiment Averell. most of whom were yet in their teens. noise of firearms. was appointed as its Colonel. About the same time the its regi- ment. The companies serving on the lower Potomac under General Hooker also had many experiences in capturing blockade runners and in breaking up the traffic on what was termed the "underground railroad. soon confusion that the from the woods. of Pennsylvania Volunteers). 1861. Many officers and men had never met. wounded. and Lieutenant William of the Third United States Cavalry. Speese and Edward Tarman were command of the regiment. It was important and necessary that the entire regiment should be brought together. that little honor could be secured without regimental association and disciplined organization. not being accustomed to the became unmanageable. It soon became evident. his commission from the Governor of Pennsylvania bearing date August 23.

1863. and he deservedly won the approbation of the authorities for his success in so doing. when. he was sent out to the Western frontier. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War he was entrusted with the important and dangerous duty of bringing dispatches to Washington from the loyal commanders of posts in the Indian Territory. and as such participated in the battle of Bull Run. He was serving on Provost Marshal duty in the city of Washington when the Governor in as of Pennsylvania appointed him Colonel of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. McClellan in his official report. 1861. 1861 March. Pa. stated that on July 27. a' fine soldier.— CHAPTER III THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY REGIMENT REORGANIZED BY COLONEL AVERELL ESTABLISHMENT OF CAMP MARCY WINTER QUARTERS THERE. 1861. Campaign Manassas October he served in the July 5 to 9. and on July 1 of that year he was appointed Brevet Second Lieutenant of the Regiment of Mounted The new Colonel of the regiment was W Riflemen. dated August 4. and his appointment to its command was its making. Mo. 1861. in an engagement with whom he was seriously wounded. he assumed command 2 17 . 1862. After two years' service at Jefferson Barracks. He was mustered such on October 12. 1861. and the Cavalry School for Practice at Carlisle. of the operations of the Army of the Potomac while under his command. — October. after the disastrous battle of Bull Run. William Averell graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in the Class of 1855. where he saw active service against the Indians for two years. Major-General George B... Shortly before October 15 the several companies of the regiment were for the first time brought together and established as a unit at Camp Marcy in the defences of Washington. He was promoted From to a first lieutenancy in his regiment on May 14. as Acting Assistant Adjutant-General upon the staff of Brigadier-General Andrew Porter.

Eleventh Pennsylvania. Hooker's Division: Eight companies Third Indiana Cavalry. Fourth Pennsylvania. were mentioned as attached to 15. : First McCall's Division: First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry. he found there less than one thousand cavalry. 1861. A new impetus was felt by all belonging to it. in A roster was given of the organization of the Army of the Poto- mac on October which the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry under Colonel Averell. 1861. and the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry under Colonel [D McM. the cavalry on October 15. in General Fitz John Porter's Division. Brigadier-General Andrew Porter's City Guard Companies A and E. he (General McClellan) had ordered that all newly arriving cavalry troops should report to the former. Smith's Division: Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Fourth United States Cavalry. and Barker's Illinois Cavalry Regiments. was serving as follows: Brigadier-General George Stoneman's Cavalry Command (the only one showing any semblance of a brigade formation): Fifth United States. Heintzelman's Division Stone's Division: Six Franklin's Division: First New Jersey Cavalry New York Cavalry companies Third New York Cavalry. Blenker's Brigade: Fourth and the prestige which it gave great pleasure and confidence throughout the Third Pennsylvania. 1 86 1. In addition to the assignment of the two regiments mentioned. and it was continued until the spring of 1862.l8 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY October. and that Brigadier-General George Stoneman. First Company of Oneida Cavalry. At this time the demoralizing plan of scattering the cavalry throughout the infantry of the army was still in vogue. New York Cavalry. It was soon seen that he was enthusiastically ambitious to make it the best and finest of all the volunteer cavalry regiments. having been appointed Chief of Cavalry.] Gregg. and the fame of "Averell's Cavalry" soon spread throughout the of Colonel Averell The appointment attended . Washington. Banks' Division: Four companies Third New York Cavalry McDowell's Division: Second New York (Harris Light) Cav: alry.

. C. m. 12 m. m. fifteen minutes after. Sick 6. Dinner call. This camp will be known as "Camp Marcy. 2 Headquarters Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Marcy. 2.30 a. 8. 1861. . designating the name of the camp.. 11. Cavalry. : Reveille at broad daylight. and yields cheerfully to the restrictions of a just military discipline. then being organized and created under the command of Major-General George B. 19 Army of the Potomac. immediately after parade. 11. List of Calls a. . m. Water Orderly call. dated Headquarters 18. Hard and incessant mounted and dismounted. from the Army of the Potomac. William W.30 a. m. . Washington. But the there is much yet to be done to render it efficient in the field. October 31. . The Colonel in which takes pride trusts that he shall see evinced that soldiery spirit obedience. with vigor.50 a. remind the regiment that officer would commanding stances. The future of the regiment will depend much upon the state of efficiency and discipline at which it shall arrive during the ensuing thirty witnessing the proficiency to which days. To accomplish this all had to be changed." — II. I. Drill call. . Colonel. Averell hereby assumes command of this regiment. the Colonel his pride comand satisfaction at the officers and men of the regiment under the most discouraging circumhave already attained as soldiers. . i. A system of the strictest military discipline drilling. 1861. Va.— : : : REORGANIZATION BY COLONEL AVERELL. The following regulations are published for the information and guidance of this command.30 a. . 7 a. Dress Parade. and of the regiment Headquarters Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Drill call. In entering upon the duties pertaining to manding cannot refrain from expressing this position. m. m. and that the time for preparation will be brief. October 31. m. 1861.. Va. was inaugurated. Stable call. 11 a. The the first official embodied in new title Camp Marcy. October. was ordered and carried on announcement from our new commander was Order No. Colonel William W. viz. Camp Orders No. Orders No. Breakfast call. D. Guard Mount. call. 9.30 . Averell. 1861. i. Office of the Chief of In obedience to Special Orders No. This was followed by Regimental Order No. 2 call. McClellan. Recall. October 20.

m. At the Assembly the companies will fall in promptly upon their tive parade grounds. Retreat.. I can't . 9 m. as Reveille. for at "Tattoo.. Retreat. Well adapted words were improvised to this call: " Reveille. The Majors. after having received the reports from the Captains. unless it might be that they were detailed on camp guard. geants' call. . it was too dark to read the list. At the proper time. Tattoo. m. 3. Averell. The rolls will also be called at the Assembly. m.. and Ten minutes previous the orderly bugler will to the time designated for the stated roll-calls sound the assembly of the trumpeters. and it was required that each name should be called. the assembly will be sounded. etc." the first call in the morning. at Dinner. are absent. This list of calls extended from about 6 o'clock a. m. . 6." I can't get 'em up ! I can't get 'em up I can't I can't get 'em up in the get 'em up. tains. and soon after the proper call for the occasion. Colonel Commanding.45 p. will report to the Adjutant. given to the Captains upon receiving their who will reports. m. to wit at Tattoo. The companies from which there are no absentees will be dismissed by the directions of the Majors. . : At Reveille. .30 p. p. ! 20 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. but it was sometimes difficult for officers and men to obey it promptly." for instance. . Taps. 7 p. until 9 o'clock p. etc. and after the calls are sounded. Recall. p. and it was intended that the balance of the time should be spent by the men in rest and sleep. 8. was intended to waken every man in camp. 1861. m. sundown Serm. who will immediately assemble at a point twenty paces in front of the Colonel's tent. under the command of the Chief Bugler.30 p. respecwill be and all absentees reported to the Capimmediately report to the Major commanding the battalion to which they belong. . 3.30 p. morning get 'em up. but those from which either officers or men for. William W. m. October. Stable call. The orderly sergeants found it necessary to commit to memory the names of men in the company. the rolls called by the Orderly Sergeants. Officers' call. will re- main in ranks until the absentees are accounted The Officer of the Day will be present to receive the orders of the com- manding officer. There will be four stated roll-calls daily. which will be indicated to the Chief Bugler by the Adjutant. "Reveille. at Retreat. .

I 21 1861. of earnest. but none of them with words so appropriate as those quoted. as sure as you're born. there never was a time on the skirmish or battle line. And then you will rue it. also. or in the charge. was of absorbing interest to all. The Lieutenant's worse than the Sergeant. But the Captain's the worst of them I all can't get I can't I can't I get get em up. over and over. How many cases of this kind can be recalled! With what a sense of gratification can they be remembered There were several regular processes by which the officers ! . many of them were to be associates and companions for possibly three long years. VIRGINIA. It was no wonder that we looked upon each other with keen interest." Go to the stable all you who are able. other bugle calls were also paraphrased. there never was a quarrel between the companies. has some one rushed into danger to save his comrade at the risk of his own life. and again and again. can't get And. and thought of what the future might have in store for us. and how there grew up among us a regard and esteem and loving friendship. the Captain will know it. Here were twelve hundred and more young men. how we mutually formed acquaintances. October. if fate would allow. I can't get 'em em up in the morning em up. from all conditions of life. up. when any man hesitated to go to the help of his comrade. you don't do it. " Stable Call. To the credit of the Third be it said. I can't get 'em "em up at all. many of them fresh from school or college and homes of every comfort. Many This coming together for permanent association of the officers and men of twelve. full companies of one hundred men each. nor between the officers. as they did. can't get em up at all. ! CAMP MARCY. knowing. And give your horses some water and For if corn. that. The Sergeant's worse than the Corporal. up. patriotic purpose. The Corporal's worse than the Private. We men of the Third readily recall these thoughts..

1862. If the man hapquirements of military life were distasteful. in All fact. and a Corporal for each relief were also detailed. this was the prevailing color throughout the regiment. The first call sounded at Camp Marcy upon taking possession of the ground was "Officers' Call. except Company tain White. Company G. Then came furnishing of the the mounting of the first camp guard. however. or the guard house was his abode until his frame of mind changed. which.22 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. with respect. each of the men standing post for two hours. among other things. therefore. resulted in mutual confidence and esteem. Captain and it was known as the "Black Horse Company. and then being off duty for four. the easy-going life. upon our going into Camp Marcy. and his comRobinson. and men became acquainted with each other. If in the ranks he had to submit. Twelve posts were stationed. The Guard was divided into three reliefs. seemed to have avoided white or gray. One of the Captains was detailed as Officer Day." always. These details were continued during the entire stay in that camp. affection. camp At once." Other companies had bays chosen. CapL. which in a measure we had become accustomed to. but those who have been similarly associated can understand There were some to whom the rigid rethese conditions. 1861— March. Some of the company commanders were allowed to make ! special choice of color for their horses. their beats entirely encircling the camp. . as we None have said. each company its quota. A Sergeant of the Guard. pened to be a commissioned officer he soon made room for another. gave the men of different companies opportunities for association. as well as his brave and soldierly qualities. and. pany was mounted chiefly on white horses. If a man displayed mean qualities or was not companionable. So the men jocularly spoke of Captain White of the "White Horse Company. This. had secured all black. before many of the objectionable features were to a great extent eliminated. October. and one of the Lieutenants as Officer of the Guard." This brought them together for the first time. and regard by his kindness of heart. and it was not long before they got to know each other. for he won our esteem. what a school it was to break that up It was not long. He made this appropriately his choice.

and were not relished by the officers any more than by the men. With the improvement in his circumstances. nor why we should ride in a circle. many an officer and man soon came to think himself to be a very hero in embryo. insisted upon by our martinet of a Colonel. and both riders and horses together fell into the ditches instead of jumping over them. consecutively arranged By November squadrons of two companies each. As regards some of them this suggestion is apt to prompt a smile. Mutterings of dissatisfaction because of these were loud and unceasing. mounted and dismounted. which were readily accepted. C and I. or otherwise unfitted for their positions. drill. B and H. were induced or compelled to offer their resignations. D and L. old-time Regular Army discipline. Nor could we see the necessity of our being required to mount with stirrups crossed. VIRGINIA. The officers who were opposed to these exacting and continuous duties. was changed for 1 one of the strictest military discipline and drill. or were restive under the severe. This process was very effective in sieving out the useless people who had in . devotion to duty. E and K. every man understood how much he was benefited by having been taught to mount rapidly. October. or were deemed incompetent. appearance. and F and M. and cut bags off poles with quick strokes of the sabre. We could not then understand why we should be compelled to jump our horses over ditches and fences. Schools for commissioned and non-commissioned officers were organized for instruction by the Colonel and the Regimental Adjutant respectively. as follows: A and G. These exercises were irksome. and setting up. and to be ready for any demand which required quick action and prompt service. especially so if we were awkward. were incessant. but most of those who had been knocked into shape out of unpromising material were oftentimes afterward engaged on hazardous duty and perilous missions. Our drills. comfortable Sibley tents marked as many company streets. next year we were in the field actively campaigning. and by their bravery.— CAMP MARCY. We did But when in the not then appreciate the value of these drills. 1862. 1861 23 March. and creditable performance contributed to the high standing of our grand old Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. The men were divided into squads under the non-commissioned officers. twelve white rows of roomy.

found out on the usual daily reconnoissance it The column quietly of nonsense." as we called it. That our friends. as made palpably evident on November 10. however. Unprepared for the impetuous charge of the Rebel cavalry.— 24 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY October. the men of the squadron were hurled back upon each other in confusion. The weeding out gave opportunity for the acquisition of excellent material. A short distance from the Mill. 1861 March. and sometimes were adventurous enough to go as far as Fairfax Court House. Another party of the . an ambush had been so well arranged that Captain Bell and his squadron unsuspectingly marched directly into it. we were frequently sent out upon expeditions into the country for practice in marching. adventure. were not allowed to rust. life very costly to human in time of may. No enemy had been seen and there was no apprehension of danger. as well as picket and scouting duty. occasionally pay visits to that made along the front of never meeting the enemy made the officers Some even doubted the existence of any 1861. the squadron commanded by Captain Bell. there Incompetent war. Daily scouts by a squadron of cavalry were the lines. until Here the command halted for a couple of hours. the enemy. and taken completely by surprise. Rebels in that section of country. in our comfortable "Camp Marcy. did. floated in without proper qualification. During the autumn and winter of 1861-62. We frequently scouted to Vienna. on the way back to camp. We The fact of and men careless. or even to rest. in addition to the incessant drilling in camp. sauntered along the road. fires kindled. Be that as were many changes among the officers are officers at this time. and coffee made. traversed so often before without reached Hunter's Mill." Our new Colonel was bent upon our learning as soon and as thoroughly as possible the kind of work which was surely in store for us. however. where the road was sunken and ran through a piece of woods. there being no advance guard out. pickets were thrown out. and we conit gratulated ourselves that this fact was properly appreciated by Colonel Averell. consisting of region was —"streak F and M Companies. 1862. very occasionally getting a distant view of a Rebel horseman. The regiment at the time was attached to General Fitz John Porter's Division of Infantry.

gotten up in well-fitting uniform jackets with brass shoulder-pieces. time we took our place in line. Their return to camp was anything but joyful. Between the two parties of assailants. It was a superb sight to behold such a large we number . Brigadier-General J. 1861. and arms and equipments At the proper in the best condition. The Third. When mounted dress parade was held that evening. but no in superior enemy. B. as will be related lina hereafter. Jr. at least thought so. numbers. and passed in review before President Lincoln and General McClellan with as much precision and pride as did any of the regular troops in the line. The attacking party proved to be the First North Carolina Regiment of Cavalry. On November 20. he congratulated in high terms Colonel Ransom and his men for their brilliant performance and gallant conduct. October." voluminous reports were handed in by both sides. it being the first engagement between cavalry forces in that part of the theatre of war. E. charged from the rear. about one-half of the men of the squadron were taken prisoners. 1862. also explanation was satisfactory to him. Series One. in Volume V. and although the attack was not a fair. under the command of Colonel Robert Ransom. General McClellan held the first Grand Review of the Army of the Potomac on the broad stretch of level ground between Bailey's Cross Roads and Munson's Hill. thus hemming in our men. open encounter. made a grand showing. of the Official Records of the War. the remaining members of the unfortunate companies were paraded on the left of the line. and they are printed in full.— CAMP MARCY. Stuart was the commander of the brigade to which the regiment belonged. pages 443-447. the horses well groomed. VIRGINIA. dismounted. with all their endorsements. Though it was relatively but a little "scrap. but we bided our time and paid it back with compound interest. and the wrath of Colonel Averell seemed to be expressed in every command he gave. The Rebels were much elated at their success. The recollection of that encounter with the First North CaroCavalry hung like a pall over the regiment. The escaping remnant reported to Colonel Averell. and the officers endeavored to explain away the affair. 1861 25 March. Those who were fortunate enough to get away came back to our lines sadly crestfallen.

the camp was remarkably healthy Sick call was responded ailments to by but few. and each was provided with a warm blanket. every one of us took from the occasion a fresh inspiration of increased loyalty and devotion to the cause of home and country. and made us ready to endure as well as serve. and each man was taught how to care for his horse. was a severe one. One of the few. This hardened and inured us for the worst. dress parade or drill were never omitted. The winter months were filled with brilliant dress parades. of our honored Commander-in-Chief Abraham Lincoln mitted to obtain a hurried glance at that tall. oats. and storms were not allowed to interfere with the usual details for camp duty. Being our first experience of life in the open at that season of the year. Substantial stables were put up for the horses. and such as there were were but slight. the immortal names. The physically weak material among officers and men weeded itself out. reviews. That were not born to die. and he afterwards learned it by experience. 1861 March. The men had made their Sibley tents as comfortable as possible. In these last our regiment participated very often with of us in that vast concourse Many . were looking upon President Lincoln for the first time. mounted on a large horse. After those who had succumbed had left us. 1862. of troops. and while our impressions were no doubt varied. which was to prove especially eventful. No matter how cold the day. and it was something beyond the ordinary to be remembered that we were per- gaunt figure. with the drill and duty. unless it was stormy.— 26 — — HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY October. it being firmly impressed upon him. The winter of 1861-62. had developed and qualified us for the coming campaign. Plenty of corn. picket and scout. with ice and snow in abundance. and of such excellent and soldierly appearance as composed the newly-created Army of the Potomac. that to a trooper his horse is his best friend. Its hardships. and a sheet-iron stove gave all the heat needed to make it comfortable. A bleak winter had made us hardy. Cots were put up in each. it was sometimes not altogether pleasant and agreeable. and sham battles. and hay were regularly measured out.

We learned to love. These sham fights in General Porter s Division were very popular events. 11. Colonel was David McMurtrie Gregg. 1861 2j March. amid the handclapping of the multitude. distinguished. Hogg. To prepare us to bear our share worthily and with honor throughout its glorious career was the purpose of Colonel Averell. In one instance the Forty-fourth New York did not wheel out of line quickly enough. Those who left it owing to ill health or for other reasons were drowned. resigned. Baltimore. rose to the rank of Brigadier and Brevet Major-General. There were many changes in the personnel of the officers of the regiment before leaving Camp Marcy for the Peninsular Campaign. broke the ranks of the infantry. First Lieutenant George K. 5. a disciplinarian. and gallant of the Cavalry leaders produced by the Civil War. Oct. — — . most reliable. who did not understand that what they applauded was not intended to occur. and gave to the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry "Averell's Cavalry" its reputation as one of the very best regiments in the whole service. and It more distant places. In the years which followed the two regiments were more or less closely thrown together. and the squadron which charged. 1862. when we were ordered to charge the infantry.: — winter quarters at camp marcy October. little satisfaction to the hosts of spectators —a too practically once or twice. and under him as our Division Commander much of our most important service was rendered. " Nov. as also for his charming personality. 31. To his ability as an organizer. During these long and weary winter months General McClellan was bringing the Army of the Potomac up to that splendid state of organization and discipline which eventually made it the chief instrument in accomplishing the victorious results of the War. not being able to change direction in time. and a drill-master is due the credit and success which attended our endeavors. Young. and were witnessed by thousands of citizen spectators from Washington. honor. and esteem him as one of the best. 1 861 Sept. Major Henry C. Colonel William H. at was our good fortune that Camp Marcy the Eighth Penn- The two regiments Its were brigaded together. Cooper. Colonel Gregg subsequently sylvania Cavalry was our close neighbor.

First Lieutenant 30. October. " " " '' 21. March " " " 11. John Taggerts. Richard L. 4. 8. 5. Ridgely. James L. Assistant Surgeon Thomas H. " " " 9. John T Walton as First Lieutenant and Battalion Adjutant. Second Lieutenant Henry C. Stewart as Surgeon. " 19. Second Lieutenant Gerald Fitzgerald. as First Lieutenant as First Lieutenant Company A. " " " 29. Second Lieutenant William H. Second Lieutenant James Lyons. " " " " " 23. " 20. 1861 Nov. Company I. Second Lieutenant Samuel D. 17.: — 28 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. First Lieutenant William S. " Dec. William L. Gallagher. 1862 Jan. Moses H. " " 6. Captain Levi S. Lewis. Burrows. " " 9. Bell. Devers. . April 4. Johnson. " " " 13. 18. 24. First Lieutenant 1862 Jan. Gheen. Captain 26. Bright. Gregg. 1. " 28. Dec. 27. 28. McCauley. 1861 March. " " " " 18. 14. First Lieutenant Alfred H. 8. First Lieutenant 9. 28. Second Lieutenant Robert B. Captain William K. Hunter as Chaplain. resigned. First Lieutenant Philander A. James W Walsh as Captain Company I. " " " 12. Captain Nathaniel S. The places of some were filled by the following appointments from outside the regiment after it became the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry 1861 Oct. Sneyd. Grant. Steelman. " " William H. " " " W Averell Philip Pollard Frank W Hess William as Colonel. " " " 18. Captain Edward B. Second Lieutenant John A. James Lyons as Second Lieutenant Company A. Captain Charles A. 10. Martin. Captain John C. Hamblin. Surgeon James L. Nov. Abel Wright as Second Lieutenant Company G. Fitz- gerald. 1862. Shelley. Stewart.

Regimental Quartermaster-Sergeant Thomas H. to Second Lieutenant Company C. transfers occurred The following promotions and officers among the . Gilmore. George Johnson as Second Lieutenant Company L. of Company E. Vernou as Second Lieutenant Com- pany B. 1862 March 8. Francis D. of pany L. " " 8. pany K. 28. to Second Lieutenant Company A. 17. 1862 Jan. 24. Walter S. 20. 1862. Henry H.: : — WINTER QUARTERS AT CAMP MARCY. of Company B. The places of others were filled by the following promotions from the ranks 1861 Nov. Hezlep as Surgeon. 1861 20. First Sergeant Franklin C. to Second Lieutenant Company K. 31. William B. Charles First Lieutenant Com- " 24. " 22. David M. Treichel as 24. First Sergeant Gerald Fitzgerald. as Second Lieutenant Company I. of Company K. Sergeant Jacob Lee Englebert. to Second Lieutenant Company D. Charles A. " 11. First Sergeant " April 2. Sherwood to Second Lieutenant ComPrivate William W Rogers. to Second Lieutenant Company G. 2. March. King. Robert P Wilson as First Lieutenant Company B. Feb. to Second Lieutenant Company E. of Company H. Chandler. 17. Company B. Newhall as First Lieutenant Company G. Dec. of Company C. Wetherill as Second Lieutenant Company F March April 12. Sergeant Charles H. October. William Redwood Price as Second Lieutenant Company D. Davis. 15.

B. Company D. October. to Adjutant. to Captain " " 30. 8. Second Lieutenant Abel Wright. Company C. Company L. First Lieutenant 27. Lieutenant Nathaniel Sneyd.— 30 : HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. First Lieutenant Robert P Wilson. to First Lieutenant Company D. Lieutenant Philip Pollard. Company E. Company C. Second Lieutenant Charles F Gillies. 19. First Lieutenant Charles to Captain F Gillies. Company G. Company C. 28. First Nov. 1861 March. Second Lieutenant George Johnson. First Lieutenant Timothy P Russell. " Dec. Company B. to Captain Company M. 1862. First Company K. Company G. to Captain Company A. " March 8. Company D. Company M. . 19. Second Lieutenant John to First Lieutenant W Ford. Lodge. to Captain Company E. to Regimental Quartermaster. Company D. Lieutenant Robert Douglass. April 3. A reference to his military services has already been given. Company A. Brannix. to Battalion Adjutant. " 24. Company F. Company Of the officers commissioned from outside of the regiment eight had previously seen active service Colonel William States Military W Averell had graduated from the United at Academy West Point in the Class of 1855. to Adjutant. Seal. "' " 24. S. " 1. Second Lieutenant William Redwood Price. Second Lieutenant Robert Douglass. A. 17. 17. " Feb. 10. First Lieutenant Henry W Martin. to First Lieutenant Company D. First Lieutenant George H. Company A. 1861 Oct. 1. to Company A. First Lieutenant John F. First Company M. to First Lieutenant Company C. Second Lieutenant James E. Company 1862 Jan. to Captain Company F " " 11. to First Lieutenant Company F.

and had ridden with the "Immortal Six Hundred" at Balaklava. Louis. and known as the Ger- mantown Troop. in which charge he had been wounded. and First Sergeant of Company G United States Regiment of Mounted Riflemen from December 19. it was disbanded. . Lieu- tenants Newhall and Treichel refused field commissions in the West. 1850. organized at St. When it became clear that the GovernIts services ment would not accept the services of the troop. until October 19. were offered to the Government and it spent two months in barracks actively drilling under a competent drill-master. raised near Philadelphia.— WINTER QUARTERS AT CAMP MARCY. Fremont. At the outbreak of the War they joined the troop of cavalry hereto- fore mentioned. Lieutenant Frank W months' campaign as Pennsylvania Volunteers. and after successful pro- Some bation their commissions were issued to some of them by the Governor of the State. i860. Wetherill had served through the three months' campaign as Privates in the celebrated First City Troop of Philadelphia. Lieutenant George Johnson had been a non-commissioned officer in the Regular Army. 1862. He had previously served in the cavalry of the British Army in the Crimean War. Missouri. preferring to serve in lower rank in the East. and were appointed to First Lieutenancies in the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry Lieutenants Robert P Wilson and Francis D. Newhall and Treichel obtained commissions as Lieutenants in the Body Guard of General John C. Newhall and Charles Treichel were close and intimate friends from the days of their boyhood. During their tour of active service in the West they both field. distinguished themselves highly in the cele- brated charge of the Upon the Body Guard under Major Zagonyi at Springsubsequent disbanding of the Body Guard. Lieutenants Walter S. October. of the officers mentioned as coming into the regiment from outside of it served temporarily under appointments made by Colonel Averell. but without commissions. 1861 1 3 March. Corporal. Captain James Hess had served through the three a Captain in the Fifteenth Regiment of as Private. Serof the W Walsh had served geant.

1862 chiefly for convenience of reference in making reports the keeping of a Regimental Journal. and comprehensive as we would to see them. like most part necessarily brief. which rendered moving about. appreciated the difficulties which confronted him and bided his time. by the order of Colonel Averell. With last the March signs became evident that at the Army of the Potomac was about to move. exhausting years before it came to an Now — — end. Richmond" march which was to They knew nothing of the real was little condition of things at the front. work. was to be kept up for three long. better than an immense quicksand. and. the best equipped. which as events turned out. began on March 1. It was not lost time. 1862. uninterrupted work was about commence. The notes contained in it were now. and many of the beginning of the other valiant "stay-at-homes" in the North. General McClellan.CHAPTER THE ADVANCE TO MANASSAS IV THE CHANGE OF BASE TO THE VIRGINIA PENINSULA. this Regimental 32 . practically impossible. noting the state of the weather. the Army's Commander. earnest. the Regimental Adjutant. however. of the fact that the Sacred Soil of Virginia in winter. espewith wheels. the movements of the Third. the most thoroughly disciplined and drilled of all the Armies in the United States. and at all rainy seasons. had been clamor- ing for the victorious finish the "On to War in short order. the doings of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry until disbandment after the close of the Civil War. Northern or Southern. for he took the cially opportunity to organize out of the magnificent material at his hand the finest. There seemed to be no bottom to the mud. and some — — of the striking events of each day. as we look at them far from as definite. day by for the its final day. bloody. Throughout entire winter the politicians in Washington. correct. As it is proposed henceforth to follow. to that work real. March i — April 4.

orders issued for an immediate preparation to move. The grounds in a very muddy condition. so few Captains of Companies reported. tion. Indications of stormy weather. Comparatively quiet during the day. 1862. m. Lieutenant Lyons not yet reported. Va.— THE ADVANCE TO MANASSAS. Journal will serve as an index. Camp Marcy. and with the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry were reviewed by Colonel W. 1862.. Va. March 1. experimented . no drills in consequence of an expected movement. giving in proper place those portions which precede the more full narration of the events. The regiment proceeded to the Brigade parade ground at 9 a. Guard was mounted Captain Walsh. Camp Marcy. The day was fair but marked with high winds. after which guard was mounted. Company E was dispatched at an early hour. with occasional grounds muddy and unfit for 3 Va. The ball entered the left temple of the unfortunate man and passed completely through the head. alternately clear and cloudy. muddy. At Retreat Roll Call. 33 1862. rather than as a account of them. to summon them for explanaeral Butterfield. it was found necessary to sound the Officers' Call. of Company H. for scouting duty. Stormed during greater portion of the day. Weather moderate.. m. m. Precautions used to guard against fire. Averell. March 3. accompanied by Major Grier. Va. and nothing transpiring worthy of note. of Miller. Va. 1862.. was instantly killed by the accidental discharge of a pistol in the hands of * * * an intimate friend and a comrade of the deceased. sunshine drilling. Officer of the Day. as Officer of the Day. . Inspector of Cavalry. Camp Marcy. and Lieutenant at the usual hour. Captain Alexander. Captain Sneyd and Lieutenant Lyons. March 4. ground frozen hard. Afternoon. March 1-14. and Lieutenant Trowbridge. Captain Gary. March 5.. it will and satisfactory appear entirely and consecufull of it though disjointedly. Gen- W and General Wadsworth. 1862. March 2. In the afternoon visits were received from Major-General Porter. Camp Marcy. Company A. — unpleasant and disagreeable in front of Morning. Captain Sneyd reported at 8 p. and at night raged with violence. a... 1862.. m. Officer of the Guard. were notified to appear before the Board of Examiners. Regimental Journal. grounds continue Dress parade at 8 a. About 10 o'clock in the morning Private William Ewing. in the city of Washington. Camp Marcy. and Lieutenant Rogers. Cloudy. Officer of the Guard. and as such tively..

Captain Russell. G. arising from various sources. and Lieutenant Ford. atmosphere raw and ordered upon same duty as Company L of yesterday.. W Camp Marcy. in sabre drill. on account of ill health. Stewart." Distance two hundred yards. tents. protecting laborers at work upon the Loudon and Hampshire R. Regimental Surgeon. 1862. a silver "Stadea. Two prisoners in citizens' garb.. men discharged from the service on account of disability. each Company proceeded to grounds adjacent to the camp and practiced at a distance of two hundred yards with the carbines. Camp Marcy. Robinson.. 1862. after Va. In the afternoon those who had secured the best Company shots in the morning were brought together to compete for the regimental prize. returned to camp. was immediately placed in arrest. No reason assigned therefor. Officer of the Guard. tendered his resignation this day. In one instance. Companies were exercised tain Bell. March 8. each man to discharge ten rounds." Seven enlisted men discharged from service by reason of disability. m. they [were] routed out and the building destroyed. Fifteen enlisted Cap- Company F. O. left camp on furlough of thirty days. Under the influence of a warm sun grounds rapidly drying. Camp Marcy. March chilly. W. Company M engaged in the vicinity of Vienna. of Company G. Fitzgerald. L ordered to the vicinity of Vienna. were brought to headquarters and subsequently handed over to the authorities in Washington. to protect parties repairing the "Loudon and Hampshire R. Afternoon. 6. Co. F The weather comparatively clear.. R. and Lieutenant March 7. March the Colonel's quarters with the 1-14. which the several companies were exercised at target practice. Officer of At 9 a. tendered his resignation. mounted platoon drills and sabre exercise. competing for the Company "Stadea. secreted themselves in an untenanted dwelling. morning and evening. Guard mounted the Day. Company at the usual hour. R. Companies ordered out for target John practice. with high winds. Captain O. Martin. Company B ordered on scouting service in the vicinity of Flint Hill. where they had Va. Atmosphere much milder. taken in the vicinity of Vienna. Officer of the Day. Weather changeable." "Poncho Guard mounted at the Captain H. grounds muddy. of Company A. and shortly after tendered his resignation. Fair and pleasant. Captain Brannix reports having seen a number of rebel pickets mounted." usual hour. Dress parade at 8 a. Va. 1862.34 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. 1862. Two rounds of ball cartridges were used by each man in this practice. . Officer of the Guard. m. Lieutenant Lyons. Dr.

ordered to pack up and prepare for an immediate march. prepared provisions and effects. The regiment proceeded. the road thither noticed numbers of camping grounds. were reviewed by General Fitz John Porter. after forming. Found extensive fortifications. m. The town completely deserted. via Falls Church. March 9. m. distance seven miles from Fairfax. which had been very lately deserted. Roads in some places bad." at 3 a. and at the call of "Boots and Saddles. Quarters sufficient to accommodate a large army. 1862. At Fairfax was found the Forty-fourth Regiment New York (Ellsworth Avengers) already in possession. but no ordnance. cloudy. they proceeded to the Brigade grounds. evidencing in no small degree a laudable desire to attain an accurate military knowledge.THE ADVANCE TO MANASSAS. Halted at Fairfax a few hours. the regiment left Centreville for "Manassas Junction. were on the parade ground in full force. during which time General Porter and staff came up. reached that point about 2 p. m. "Boots and Saddles" summoned the regiment to the parade ground. in a great which measure has prevented keeping them in proper order. the officers were quarters. Camp at Centreville. disagreeable weather. At 4 m. and well plastered. crossed the famous Bull Run by a ford. m. Subsequent to review the Company grounds were inspected by the same officer.. with the exception of Companies F and M. were left standing. followed by bodies of Infantry and Artillery. and in connection with the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. atmosphere mild and pleasant. The review and summoned in front of the Colonel's General Porter addressed the officers briefly. constructed of logs. which was still On . and gave utterance to his feelings in remarks of a most flattering character. At 9 a. Company G engaged in scouting service in the vicinity of Vienna. executed the maneuvers incident to review with credit. The troops obeyed the call with alacrity. Shortly afterwards continued on towards Centreville. No stores of any kind were left behind. March 10. directly to "Fairfax. the whole camp was aroused. p. The brigade looked exceedingly well." a dis- tance of seven miles. and were highly complimented by the reviewing officer. Camp Marcy. 1862. which Rainy. and afforded evidence of having been recently occupied. where.. the appearance of which. having been preceded by the Fourth New Jersey the Sabbath afternoon previous." a distance of sixteen miles.. 35 1862. notwithstanding the adverse weather. were ordered to remain. inspection ended.. the rebels having destroyed the bridge. batteries and rifle pits. At 1 o'clock a. March 1-14. Considerable improvement was plainly manifest in the appearance of the troops upon this occasion. congratulated them upon the fine appearance of the troops. and thus further enhance the growing reputation of the regiment. nevertheless a favorable impression was thereby created. Weather clear and beautiful. Va. Va.

and eight horses. and chilly. Camp Marcy. The place was in complete ruins. Returned to Centreville. the and the camp broken up. Numbers of contrabands came in camp. Detachments of the Regular Cavalry arrive and proceed toward Manassas. Companies A. etc. F. Weather continues to be very propitious for field ordered to pack up and return to Fairfax. Patrols sent out and the regiment exercised with sabre drill in the morning. and rejoin the regiment. and reached that boasted stronghold about 8 in the evening. At 9 a. car houses. and sloping. Camp Cloudy. General McClellan. and fast becoming a heap of smouldering ashes. was before daylight on the tenth day of March. The sutler was also brought in. who had established his headquarters in the town. m. March 1-14. burning when we reached there. and pitched poncho tents upon very eligible ground. Com- pany G detailed upon scouting service returned with three secession wagons. indications were everywhere that the Army was on the move at last.30 p. hotel. At 3 p. 1862. and shortly after the march was taken old camp was reached about 8 p. We of the Third were hastened out past the camps of In- .36 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY." and amid the rolling of drums and hastening of staff officers back and forth through the camps. at Centreville. filled with sutler stores. "Boots and Saddles" summoned line. the troops into regimental up for Camp Marcy. weather clear and mild.. L. took possession of secession quarters. 1862. March 12. at Fairfax. March 13. that point about noon. Continued on toward the "Junction. "General" was sounded. Camp Beautiful day. Reached operations. Camp at Fairfax. 1862. of rain. March 11.. March 14. with indications detailed on special service. Pickets sent out in various directions. cars. 1862. were destroyed. Tents were struck 3. General McClellan and staff visited Centreville during the afternoon and examined the works which had been represented as so very formidable. that the bugles sounded "Forward. commissary stores. 1862. Captured property sent to Washington in charge of M Lieutenant Treichel. L and unpleasant. The after guard was mounted. Companies F." the roads in some places almost impassable.. m. weather disagreeable. before our arrival. who had retreated but a few hours Depot. m. Northeast wind prevailing. m. and soon It Va. Roads improving rapidly. reviewed the troops in the evening. 1862. having been fired by the flying foe. high. and prepared to rest both troops and horses from the fatigues of the day. dry.

and we obeyed.THE ADVANCE TO MANASSAS. and then retraced our way back We felt a pecuto Centreville. and not a tree standing. and take possession of Manassas. and the huts and other camp buildings inside the fortifications at Manassas were ablaze. in company with the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. We were more than gratified." the newspapers dubbed them. when we found no one to resist The enemy had gone. and as we sat in our saddles we saw the sun go down on those fields. liar gratification as we meditated over our experience of the day. soon arriving at Fairfax Court House. We marched on until we had entered the fortifications. while the balance of the regiment and the Eighth Pennsylvania stood ready to support them. for we had the honor to be the first Union troops to enter Centreville. We could see the forms of men moving between the flashes of light. ordered to go forward darkness had fallen. where we camped for the night. to the picket line. without meeting anyone to oppose us. and the guns remaining en barbette us. A message from the rear came to us at this time to halt. and there were ordered to lead the advance of the Army of the Potomac to Centreville and Manassas. and we were anxious if possible to get to Manassas. — . This enabled us to get a good view ahead for some distance. We were now upon ground from which our army had been driven on the disastrous day of the battle of Bull Run. which in the previous summer had so copiWhen we were ously absorbed the blood of friend and foe. which was some miles beyond Bull Run. were only harmless wooden logs "Quaker guns. that some of the enemy were destroying what they supposed we would want as shelter. T>7 1862. of course. which we expected every moment to belch forth fire and shot upon us. 1-14. and we moved forward with great caution. out then on the Centreville road. After leaving Centreville we found all the country beyond denuded of woods and fences. under Colonel D. The day was waning. McM. and thought. until we halted in sight of a line of frowning guns. Gregg. March fantry. Here Colonel Averell dismounted two companies of the Third to advance as skirmishers toward the fortifications on the hill. So away we went. But "Go ahead!" was the command. rode around the burning buildings. cross Bull Run. however. however.

What it accomplished. we furnished the advance guard. and for a change will dine on same. The whole army moves forward. and my company being of the first squadron. so that we were the second company into Manassas Junction. commence a grand advance this morning. had command of the advance guard on this occasion. he gave this account of our doings Camp Marcy. The fact that the Third Pennsylvania was given the advance in the first forward movement of the Army of the Potomac was evidence of the confidence in it and the regard for it felt by General McClellan. looked like guns and men. were a little behindhand. and fortunately it was obscure enough to prevent the Colonel from seeing us. Arrived first at Fairfax. The impression is that the enemy have fallen back. but my Second Lieutenant and myself thought we would like to have something to talk about. W . at which latter place. m. 3 a. At Centreville our men fell asleep. assisted by our imaginations. But the trivial. then at Centreville. if it holds out. and we first to enter the famous place. and in a letter which is published in Mrs. however. March 10. that his command was the first to enter the rebel works and raise its flag over them. Of course we were all on hand. and were among the It was quite dark. 1862. We We scouted yesterday in the neighborhood of Fairfax Court House. After an hour's sleep I was called to the Colonel's tent. which at a distance. I passed a very comfortable night in a Secesh tent. of Company A of the Third. The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry has the post of honor.: 38 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Newhall. over strikes us in the light of our later experience as rather But the glory seemed at the time sufficiently great to warrant its being claimed by General Phil Kearney for his New Jersey Brigade. m. We breakfasted this morning on pork and crackers. That distinguished officer evidently based his claim upon the official report of Colonel George Taylor. without seeing any Secesh. couldn't see much. and told to be ready for a forward move by 3 o'clock a. of the Third New Jersey Infantry. Lieutenant Walter S. March 1-14. my first sergeant and two privates were all over the fortifications and the town before the rest of the army came up. and were obliged to get in the rear of the leading squadron. so we went ahead. and the fuss made it. although to all appearances strongly fortified and occupied by troops. Wister's Memoir of him. and when we started for Manassas in the afternoon. We don't feel quite so stupid as one does after a hearty meal at Willard's. They had logs in the portholes and sticks stuck into the ground.

in reply. and the object of the correspondence being evidently to secure to one of the body of troops the credit of the first occupation. very respectfully. March 1-14. and as such not deserving a public recognition. Dear Colburn: A few days ago I saw published a letter from the General-in-Chief to General Kearney concerning the first occupation of Manassas by our troops. The General commanding. The following letters settle the question Headquarters Army of the Potomac. The reply of the General-in-Chief. General. 39 1862. Colonel Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Gregg.. in connection with the claim of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry in that regard. I am.: the advance to manassas. does not deem it necessary to say further than that as a question of fact. it appears that the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry actually visited the forts in question first. your friend. Your obedient servant. A. Commanding First Brigade. But he nevertheless does not see that this in the least derogates from the claim which the zealous and the spirited conduct of the Third New Jersey (Infantry) enables them to prefer. These being there before other regiments was the simple performance of a designated duty. Va. to the hearty acknowledgment of the commanding General of their meritorious services on the occasion. The first troops at Manassas were the Third and Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. in reference and occupation of the forts at Manassas Junction Third New Jersey Regiment. Third and Eighth Pennsylvania Regiments had been there twelve hours before him. V Colburn. Brigadier-General March 23. 1862. D. I . in fact. Near Seminary. am. 1862. April 21. I write you thus to ascertain if it is known at the headquarters of the Army that the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry entered Manassas with the Third Regiment. it would be gratifying to myself and regiment to know that he was informed that the duty had been successfully per- An official formed. P Kearney. recognition of the service is not asked for by my regiment. acknowledges that the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry was. Assistant Adjutant-General. Camp near Hampton. General: — I am directed by the Major-General letters of the 18th commanding to acknowl- edge the receipt of your to the priority of arrival of the and 23d instant. the first regiment at Manassas. however. Va.. McM. but since I was personally instructed by the Commander-in-Chief to perform a certain duty. Franklin's Division.

To them was assigned the distinction of leading the advance of the March 10. marched to Centreville and Bull Run. Every box was filled. was the first to enter the great W this stronghold of the rebels in Virginia.. We never heard of those boxes again. the next morning. thence to front of which they arrived shortly before 8 p.. to move These came to us after "Tattoo" on the night at 7 a. Potomac. arriving there about half-past 11 o'clock. of the a. m. and riding nearly forty miles through deep mud much of the way. and the to place therein all their surplus clothing. March 1-14. 1862. It is to the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry that this honor belongs. and the ings which might property be restored to the owners. they entered this stronghold of traitors. As one of the preliminaries to this intended movement. under Colonel George has been currently but erroneously reported that the Third New Taylor. but could not divine our exact destination. men were ordered and any other belong- encumber themselves or their horses on the march. March . when. at 2 Manassas. in headed by their gallant Colonel William W. The incident attracted considerable attention The Philadelphia Inquirer of March 15 referred lows It : at the it time. and prepare for what was to be to all in the Army of the Potomac a very trying summer. only long enough to catch breath and rest. each of the companies was provided with a large packing-box. and unfurl the Union banner upon long desecrated spot. m. and The return to our old camp was but for a short stay. They left their camp on Monday. to as fol- Jersey Regiment. and many a good suit of clothing was secured by some one to whom it did not rightfully belong. Averell. and the assurance given that when we reached our destination the boxes would reappear. We heard that we were to be transferred to some distant place. After this packing up process we daily awaited the orders to of march. The Third New Jersey only claims to have reached Manassas on the morning of the nth. The regiment returned to Centreville the same night. after being twenty-five hours in the saddle. The flag of the Third Regiment of Pennsylvania Cavalry was the first Union standard to wave over the rebel entrenchments It was accomplished fourteen hours before the Third New at Manassas. 22. Army m. Jersey arrived.40 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. leading the advance of the Grand Army of the Potomac.

1862. Special Orders No. Rainy. Second Lieutenant W. Dress parade at 8 a.. Sergeant Charles H. cutting at heads. 15. Orders issued from headquarters to those newly appointed to companies. Bad weather continues. More pleasant. move Camp Marcy. clear and pleasant.. promoted. m. First Sergeant Franklin C. Davis Second Lieutenant Company D. the vacancies to report immediately at their several Camp Marcy. March 18. grounds drying continued. and unpleasant. fill March 17. fine. March 22.. Company I moved to Clouds' Mills. m. the regiment the left . 1862. rapidly. Marcy. vice Charles A. resigned. Va. resigned. Chandler Second Lieutenant Company G. vice N. Va. First Sergeant David M. Va. vice Wright. by Colonel Owen. vice Johnson. March 23. March 19. Beautiful weather. Camp Weather stir at near Alexandria. Va. Preparations for a Va. 1862. in effect as follows: Second Lieutenant George Johnson to be Captain Company F. F and L rejoined the regiment this p. 1862. Va. Camp Weather very stormy. In the afternoon mounted drill. grounds in bad condition. Camp Marcy.. promoted. Camp Marcy. 1862. First Lieutenant Charles F. Price to be First Lieutenant Company D. m. promoted. vice Price. near Alexandria.. Camp Marcy. Averell. dismissed. vice Gillies.. Subsequent to Tattoo orders given for each Company to be in readiness to move the following morning at 7 o'clock. Camp Weather changeable. 1862. Cloudy. Sherwood Second Lieutenant Company L. Companies A. 1862. 1862. At 9 a. March Rain all day. Regimental Drill by Colonel sabre exercise. Troops engaged in making complete preparations for a move. vice Lyons. sky. Va. R.— THE CHANGE OF BASE TO THE PENINSULA. m. Regimental Journal (Continued from page 36). Gillies Captain Company A.. 1862. March 21. S. Sneyd. clear. Camp Marcy. Weather changeable. Va. promoted.. air mild. Regimental drill Marcy. disagreeable weather. March 15 41 April 4. Quartermaster Sergeant Thomas H. Bell. Gilmore Second Lieutenant Company A.. Va. March 20. The several Companies on At 9 a. March 16. During the night stormed very hard. 22 were read. Second Lieutenant Abel Wright First Lieutenant. 1862. and cloudless an early hour preparing to move. resigned. chilly. vice Peter Lane.

Va.. indications of a change the weather. The fleet arrives at Old Point Comfort. near Hampton. river and On Weather lovely. March 1862. hove into the stream. 1862. Weather favorable for field operations.— 42 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY March the familiar scenes of 15 April 4. March 28. 1862. placed on board. Shortly the First Squadron was ordered to proceed to the wharf. March 27. Camp Marcy and proceeded toward Alexandria. Roads in good condition. and embarkation ended for the day. Camp The weather noon. panies are disembarked.. board transport.. 1862. Regimental morning and evening. Va. encamped upon a choice spot of ground near Hampton. and Without any serious accident all were the troops embarked at once. Com- G joins the regiment. Regimental drills morning and after- Camp Weather rather pany blustery. 1862. 1862. bay. During the afternoon the command was halted in a field near the town. a clear sun vessels scattered 26. Va. Fleet taken in tow and proceeds down the board transport. 25. On Beautiful weather. men and animals. March sea.. still near Hampton. continues fine. board transport. and could not be hauled off. requiring the whole day to complete the shipping of Balance of regiment embarks. and smooth The fleet continues on. 1862.. The Second Squadron also embarked this p. March 29. Camp pany G aground in the Roads. Va. to be very propitious. March 24. The entire regiment.. Camp Day morning and evening.. m. 1862. March 31. Va. During the day the vessels are towed to the wharf at Old Hampton and the various com- On Weather exceedingly unfavorable. Company . and the vessels hove out into the stream. and awaited orders to embark on board transports. Actively engaged in perfecting the regiment in field maneuvers. 1862. March drills 30. 1862. Large numbers of troops concentrating at this point. April in 1. The transports anchor in Hampton Roads. Part of the regiment doing scouting duty. The transport conveying Comnear Hampton. near Hampton. and become separated. with the exception of Company G. Camp Weather continues near Alexandria. drills cloudy. Va. Camp near Hampton.

March Weather continues preparing to move.. An unfortunate accident. 1862. occurred on March 24. Va. after the embarkation of their companies Alex- on that day In the darkness they stepped overboard and were not missed until their bodies were found floating in the morning. not mentioned in the Regimental Journal. Barat tholomew Gahagen.. Regiment divided into body guards and advance guards. Va. Camp propitious. April 4. near Hampton. and David Leonard were drowned andria. Privates Joseph Baeltow. 1862. Weather stormy. Left camp near Hampton and proceeded as far as Howard's Mills. Morning drill. 1862. afternoon engaged in On the march. four squadrons took possession of Shipping Point in the evening. 15 43 April 4. April 2. rained very hard during the morning.— the change of base to the peninsula. .

who were taken prisoners because of a lack of care on their part in keeping at the regulation distance from their support." the world-renowned Monitor. Company M. the most important naval battle of the War. in wrote that "It produced a similar result on the men. great bethel — yorktown—williamsburg. its 1862. With reference dated April 6. May 5. two part of the rear guard. loss. published the following dispatch from war correspondent: 44 . The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry having been given to understand that it was about to be called upon for active work." On April 4 the regiment was ordered to lead the advance the direction of Great Bethel. we gazed with interest upon what was then described as a ''cheese box on a raft. in commenting on this incident. The enemy disputed our approach. with a privates of however. where. The result of this encounter completely arrival of the of the The Army foretold the beginning of active — revolutionized the science of naval warfare. and we exchanged shots in a lively manner for a short time. we took turns as companies in using a grindstone on which to sharpen our sabres. The trip down the Potomac and across Chesapeake Bay was very enjoyable. to the movement the Philadelphia Inquirer. General Averell. The change of camp and scene was to all of us a pleasant experience. April 4 1862. fortunately without any casualties.— CHAPTER V The Peninsular Campaign. which place we were the first Union troops to enter. our opponents falling back as we advanced. Potomac upon the Peninsula operations. on March 9th. she had been victorious in what was. and as we cast anchor in front of Fort Monroe. She was proudly steaming around the harbor. of David Martin and Joseph Watson. up to that time. Having effected our purpose we retired leisurely.

and some companies at different Division headquarters." General Heintzelman's corps d' armee moved up through Big Bethel. 45 1862. and the Twelfth Illinois first Early in the Peninsular Campaign the (McClellan Dragoons). some miles beyond Hampton. Stormed very hard in the morning. with one or two exceptions. The advance halted in a During the morning field about one mile distant from the rebel works. As we stood at New Market Bridge we saw a full brigade of Philadelphia troops pass by. The houses along the road toward Great Bethel were old frame and log rookeries. A company of Berdan's sharpshooters took the advance. one of them commanded by General William H. sharpshooters engaged. Seventy-first Pennsylvania. Griffin's battery and Berdan's 1862. with the Fourth Michigan and Fourteenth New York. and the celebrated California regiment.-General Philip St. viz. Some of them had been destroyed by the rebels. Emory. Colonel Owen's Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania. the Eighth Illinois on duty with Sumner's Second Corps. 43). Seventy-second Pennsylvania. Regimental Journal (Continued from page April s. . the birds singing sweetly through the woods. seemed as if the grand army was a grand pageant. April 4-5. George Cooke. the direct route to Yorktown. Baxter's Fire Zouaves. the Third Pennsylvania with Heintzelman's Third Corps. the grand army struck tents and commenced the march "Onward to Richmond. After leaving the camp.GREAT BETHEL. While the Second United States was retained on Provost Marshal duty at headquarters. the advance struck across New Market Bridge. Blake. the other regiments under General George Stoneman. the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. the Eighth Pennsylvania. Regiment proceeded on toward Yorktown. as Chief of Cavalry. composed of the Fifth and Sixth United States and Sixth Pennsylvania. along a most and romantic road. the Ninth New York with the Artillery Reserve. H. Colonel Averell (formerly the Young's Kentucky Light Cavalry). and the other commanded by Colonel George A. and the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry in the extreme advance. were formed into a Division known as the Cavalry Reserve under Brig. On the march. about daylight. composed of the First United States. several of the batteries shelled the works. beautiful It : approach was made towards an organization of the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac. The Advance: On Friday morning [April 4th]. consisting of two brigades. celebrating some gala day.

The regiment leaves camp near Yorktown and retires to a piece of woods about one mile in rear of former camp. The regiment exercised in squadron drill to be delightful. Winfield Scott. clear- Camp Winfield Scott. April 6. Camp drill in Winfield Scott. dismounted. Camp Winfield Scott. Bad weather for the animals. E. Camp Camp Camp Winfield Scott. dismounted. April 13. Professor Lowe Camp near Yorktown. drill in 1862. Everything continues quiet. regimental inspection. Sabre drill. Weather lovely. sabre. 1862. April 17. Somewhat Sabre drill sultry at mid-day. Winfield Scott. all quiet. Squadron the morning. from a stormy quarter. 1862. April 6-20. Camp near Yorktown. ing up grounds. save an occasional shell or two from the enemy. April 16. in the afternoon. some indications of a change towards noon. and was well attended by both officers and men. 1862. 1862. drill. Afternoon. Weather dry and pleasant. Camp pleasant. 1862. April 10. Camp Winfield Scott. Sabre drill in the afternoon. Weather clear and mild. Camp near Yorktown. well adapted to field exercises. The storm still prevails. Clear and drill in cloudless. After1862. Squad- 1862. April 7. . Winfield Scott. 1862. 1862. and pistol. April 15. Rained most of the day. 1862. the morning. drill in Winfield Scott. April 20. ron April 19. men and animals Everything remains quiet in and around still Wind 11. noon. Camp and cloudless during the morning. and During the morning squadron The troops were exercised with carbine. April 12. Weather still delightful and proSquadron drill in the morning. 1862. 1862. April as comfortable as possible. with his balloon makes several ascensions. 1862. Squadron morning. No divine service on account of the weather. Camp near Yorktown. Divine service was held upon the lawn in front of the Colonel's quarters. April 18. made camp. Camp Winfield Scott. The storm continues most of the day. Camp Winfield Scott. The morning dawns with a clear sky. storm prevails. 1862. Fine weather still prevails. pitious for field exercise. afternoon. Morning clear and pleasant. Squadron the morning. Weather continues Morning.46 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Squadron drill in the morning. Weather continues to be clear and Marked improvement in character of the drill. April 9. Inspec- tion of grounds. Even- ing showery. 1802. April 8. drills. Va. sabre April 14. A heavy N.

Still at This startling day has been the commencement of quite a series of movements. prevails. Bars erected for leaping exercises. and torpedoes buried in the road and along the openings to the entrenchments. leaping the bar. near Yorktown. "Boots and Saddles. Squadron drill. Camp Winfield Scott. Regimental Skirmish drill in afternoon. Received orders at 9^2 to move to the front.— THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. Company April 30 Afternoon cloudy. April 27 Cloudy and Clear. Camp Winfield Scott. Beautiful weather. from headquarters. Camp Winfield Scott. received orders about daybreak advance towards Williamsburg (about three miles distant) at 9 a. charging by platoons afternoon cloudy. still Camp Winfield Scott. which was promptly returned by our artillery and infantry. Forage and rations short. 5. on the James River. and two pieces of Captain Benson's light artillery. m. 1862. May May 1 Cloudy and dull. day. sprinkling of rain. drill Company drill in the morning. Rainy and unpleasant. Showery in the evening. The During the day fight soon became general and continued until sundown. Received orders to occupy the left hand road. Clear all May May 3 Camp 4 drill. clear and pleasant. m. April 26. drill. 1862. which having been timely discovered. 2 Morning cloudy. clear and warm afternoon. cold. April 28. charge by regiment. 47 May 5. April 29 Regimental drill in morning. slight rain. Weather April 22. leading to Williamsburg. Orders at 8 a. . found the enemy's works abandoned. who fired upon our advance. The storm unfavorable for outdoor exercises. fortunately did no damage. Evident marks of large encampments all along the road after passing a Yorktown. Clear." instantly to hold ourselves in readiness to move at moment's notice. The enemy opened fire (from strong earthworks) upon our advance. 1862. Regimental slight rain. guns spiked. April 21 April 21. Encamped in an open field. . Entered Yorktown at 10^2 a. Still raining and another unpleasant night. a portion of the Allan plantation. squadrons and drills. to numbers of prisoners were taken and several deserters from the enemy came in. sabre in the afternoon. After proceeding about a mile from the main road. 25. Paymaster finished paying.. May 1862. but after a brief skirmish we drove them from the ground and held the position until morning. Winfield Scott. April 23. met a force of the enemy's cavalry (a regiment). m. which was immediately done by our regiment. Some indications of clearing up. 1862. After a hard night's rain. April 24 1862.

at 4 a. of prisoners. passing through the enemy's works and reaching Williamsburg about 10 a. vance two days. 1862. and escorts. five pieces retired to Williamsburg and encamped for the night. serving as scouts. Richmond. Arriving its in front of Yorktown on the morning and their of April 6. started out in the direction of Williamsburg. which was named "Camp Winfield Scott. after a halt. orderlies. were continually on active duty day and night. together with the First and Sixth United States. so we settled the rebels had evacuated Yorktown. "About six miles from Yorktown. directed Colonel Averell to report for duty to General Emory. opened to our view the field of battle with all its horrors. and under orders from General McClellan all his available cavalry force with four batteries of horse artillery started We out under General Stoneman in close pursuit in the direction of Williamsburg to harass his rear. m. Roads almost impassable. May 6. The enemy on the retreat followed by our regiment four and one-half miles. camp was quickly broken. A pleasant morning. the Eighth Illinois and Barker's squadron of the McClellan (Illinois) Dragoons. Our army constructed an unbroken line of forts from river to river. . with Benson's battery. Accordingly. frowning fortifications occupants brought us to down to a long and wearisome siege. especially at night. General Heintzelman had ordered forward Kearney's and Hooker's Divisions and the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. We occupied a comfortable camp among the pines. we and a artillery." "Stoneman came upon the enemy's pickets.'' Here we remained until May 4. large number of small arms. m. and a continual bombardment was maintained by both sides. May 4. when it was learned that the enemy had abandoned his lines at Yorktown. showing conclusive evidence of a hard-fought battle. Received orders to saddle and adappearing for the first time the last The sun. the Third Pennsylvania. Men and horses. but still our troops kept bravely on. tons of powder being burned with scarcely any effect. 1862. but shortly after his doing so General Stoneman in pursuance of orders from General McClellan. on the road to After taking a number of Roads still growing worse. Early on the morning of Sunday.— 48 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY April 6 May 4. and all the implements of war were strewn thickly upon the ground. where General Magruder was expected to make a stand and give battle." as General McClellan wrote in his "Own Story.

Urged on by the General. Captain Woodburn's squadron (Companies H and B) taking the advance. and were holding their ground with the bayonet. we could hear musketry firing off on our right. a regiment of cavalry. "Shoot that man! Shoot this one!" Getting into a his men began to dodge as the shells whizzed by. who was supposed Following a wood road to the to be advancing by that road. As they lined up along the road. General Heintzelman rode forward and gave vent to some angry expressions. and soon we found ourselves on the battle line of General Heintzelman's Corps. 49 May 4-5. followed by his New Jersey Brigade. At this point he sent General Emory. The flash of his eye was an inspiration. and in support of Hooker's Division. Meanwhile Heintzelman's Division was moving forward on our right front. on the double quick. with Benson's battery. and a squadron deploying as skirmishers on either flank. The General shouted. Gibson's battery soon drove them out of this position. but when he learned that his men were entirely out of ammunition. Just at this juncture. and the roads seemed to be absorbing it to the depth of at least a foot. The Third then moved up to the front. Early in the morning of the 5th. soon sending the rebels back. General Phil Kearney. he calmed down. little hotter place Some one who was near him at the time heard him utter a 4 . in front of his men. The battery unlimbered and commenced firing. and Barker's squadron. A disagreeable rain had begun. two miles further on he came up with their rear guard. 1862. posted on the further bank of a difficult ravine. across to the Lee's Mill road to cut off the force in front of Sumner." left of the highway. was charged and withdrew upon its supports. as his men eagerly pressed forward to take their place in the fight. and drove the enemy toward Lee's Mill. As the day was waning a determined charge of the enemy forced our troops back on to the road where the Third stood in line mounted. Barker's squadron.WILLIAMSBURG. the Third Pennsylvania. the rebels quickly ran from their hiding places behind trees and stumps. which had the advance. came plunging through the mud. the brave fellows formed line and charged back again to their position in the woods. As he rode into the woods. "Take down that fence!" Every one near it snatched a rail and it vanished in an instant. he shouted. as we advanced.

we often afterward recalled to mind. because it shows the use of cavalry in close combat on both sides in this the first battle between the two armies in which the Third Pennsylvania organized and bore its share The advance guard of the Federal army consisted of four regiments and a squadron of cavalry. and the swampy nature of the ground. and who narrowly escaped capture. with a portion of the Third Virginia Cavalry. or a more vigorous pursuit might. to gain the road from Blow's Mill upon which Stuart was operating. and while Stuart was slowly retiring before the languid advance on his front. Kearney's Brigade. Goode. 1862. A charge by Goode drove in the in his rear to the commanding . Hooker's and Smith's. with four batteries of artillery. and therefore could do us no harm. The very fact that we heard the bullet. or the shot or shell. under the command of Brigadier-General George Stoneman. As some of the men dodged their heads. Stuart sent Colonel Thomas F. Thinking that his courier might have encountered a mere scouting party. which. Major McClellan in his book gives the following account from the Confederate point of view It is important. leading from Blow's Mill and Lee's Bridge. was proof to us that it had gone by. An earlier start. Having dislodged Wickham from was the return of a courier whom he had sent with a dispatch general. and always afterward stood as firmly upon the battle line as they did then. The dense woods which covered almost the whole face of the country." can dodge them Our experience on this subject afterward verified his statement in part. General Emory had interposed his command and closed the road behind him. intersected the Telegraph road a short distance in front of Fort Magruder. General Stoneman sent General Emory with the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry and Barker's squadron. "Tut. which s. where he checked the progress of the Federal cavalry until their superiority in artillery rendered it necessary for him to with- draw. to ascertain the true state of affairs. perhaps. where it was expected that Stuart would concentrate his cavalry. It was expected that a rapid pursuit along the Telegraph road would cut off and capture whatever portion of the Confederate rear guard might be on the roads south of it. rendered active co-operation between Stuart and Wickham impossible. supported by a battery of artillery. When darkness came on the fighting ceased. have accomplished this result. the men whom he had ! drilled.: — 50 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry May wise suggestion. saved the line that day. you never You will never hear the one that hits you. Colonel Wickham selected a strong position about four miles in advance of Williamsburg. he said. The first notice that Stuart had of Emory's presence this position. tut. He was supported by two divisions of infantry.

1 WILLIAMSBURG. Just beyond the William and Mary College buildings General McClellan and staff were awaiting our coming. expecting to None. rain had converted the road into a miry mass to the depth of once at least ten inches. 1862. and when morning dawned we found that the enemy had retreated. The enemy made no effort to interfere with his withdrawal. confined within narrow limits by the marshy nature of the ground. Colonel Wickham succeeded in keeping the open ground in front of Fort Magruder free from the enemy. No route now remained for Stuart but that along the river beach. enemy's advance. and claims to have counted eight of the enemy's dead on the road. to which he had retired in order to gain the support of which he was destitute. We were again sent to the front. Legion and the Hampton Legion. We performed the duty. and marched through Williamsburg on the trot. wheels was heard during the entire night. as may be readily imagined. but were kept under arms all night. and we were drawn up in front of an open space. and finally retired. be called upon to repel an attack. having advanced about four miles. In the meantime Wickham had had a fierce fight on the Telegraph road. Goode lost four men wounded in this action. of and three caissons. we "made a splash" as we hurried through the town. and on our return brought in a crowd of prisoners which counted into the hundreds. covering his rear by the fire of two little mountain howitzers. During the fight the Third was under fire several times. the opposing squadrons meetAided by the Wise ing in well-sustained hand-to-hand encounters. 5 May s. however. as the rain conThe continuous rumble of tinued unceasingly until morning. We were not permitted to unsaddle. was made. in the side by a sabre thrust. who. immediately in front of Fort Magruder. and five pieces of artillery . and developed his true strength. He personally instructed Colonel Averell to go forward until the rear guard of the enemy was found and then report the position it occupied. The cavalry fighting here seems to have been extremely spirited on both sides. but he During the action Colonel Wickham was wounded remained upon the field until the close of the day. and although each of us felt weary and sleepy the regiment advanced in column of platoons led by Colonel The Averell. leaving behind them one rifle gun artillery. and without a moment's hesitation he moved his command down to it. and. and Stuart reached Williamsburg about dark. suffered severely in men and horses under the fire of the artillery in Fort Magruder. There was not much comfort for us.

to get out of reach of shells. were then ordered back into the town. for help. it will be too late. and several days were taken in sending it to the front. Colonel Black. Nobody hurt in our regiment. badly scared. drilling twice a day and those nearest the enemy dodging the shells. or we It Hope it will comhave a very bad case of evacuation after all. but couldn't stand the impetuous counter by the Sixty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers. We moved back shall half a mile last night. The hard fighting is being done on our left. No April We still keep our distance. and the infantry marched across fields and through woods. The Army of the Potomac was an immense body of men. 13. 1862. We reached our present position this morning. until the constant tramp wore roads across country. and if they are not off soon. Lowe's bal- loon playfully ran off with General Porter two days since. and a April 20. Immediately the artillery opened on the enemy's fortifications. little He lame. In front of Yorktown. The army news in fact was the chief item in all the papers of every community. has been raining for four days. April 6. as he passed our He cried lustily camp at the rate of six miles an hour. even better than the regular ones. Lieutenant Walter S. This army can't be beaten. and the "On to Richmond" advance was begun. mence soon. Newhall. April 22.— 52 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry April 6 May 5. and encamped for a few davs upon the open square in front of the old Parliament Building. It's no use. etc. placed our pickets yesterday within three hundred yards of the enemy's works. in his letters to his family. though shells have been bursting about us all day. and we have been surrounded by a line of fire all day. These three words were more often used as headlines in the daily papers of the time than any others. fortunately came down in a Federal camp. general engagement since Saturday. We are gradually drawing the line around them. but owing to rain and fog I couldn't see much. The roads were given over to the artillery and wagons. and so anxious were the people for news from the front that many correspondents manufactured it to suit their fancy in order to get ahead of We some competitor. . Our horses stand fire first-rate. gave in the form of a diary a graphic account of the foregoing move- ments. At 2 o'clock the enemy charged on one of our batteries. though it's all right. Horses suffering for forage. April 10. We I still in a broiling sun. keep up our masterly inactivity. they may as well fall back at once. While we rested here a large portion of the army marched past.

you be good enough to ride a short distance with me?" he said. much to the doctor's disappointment. doing the same thing. You may imagine how I put things through on such an occasion. We As the Third was not very actively engaged in the battle. His adjutant-general was everywhere at once. next morning. His aides were all away on various urgent duties. have been out of sorts for a few days. and insisted I was very light-headed. We are ordered to be ready to Yorktown. I was on duty until 12 o'clock that night. and I acted accordingly. At last I found the general. as his regiment has the cavalry advance. but rather indifferent success. Colonel Averell I the advance artillery and infantry. Still before Yorktown. but the guns were brought up.— YORKTOWN AND WILLIAMSBURG. day. marching with is ordered to the front. As we came out of the woods the rebels were trying to form in the open space. keeping up the spirits of men. I moved on with the regiment. Colonel found the general in the midst of the fight. . I most certainly thought the attack should be made right off. It soon became hot work for the artillery. told him a prompt execution of them would certainly turn this flank. when Kearney's brigade comes howling up the road. for he expected to have me for a fever patient. Averell gave Lieutenant Newhall permission to act during the day as aide to General Heintzelman. The rebels' ditch" isn't at night. The rebels are too many for us. a pretty good day's work for a sick man. a few shots sent the rebel cavalry flying. that the men and roads were new to him. which only disgusted me. 1862. our doctor trying to make a sick man of me. and the infantry were ordered up at 6 [5]. and then tried to explain to me that the brigade had just reported to him. and we commence the famous battle of Williamsburg. A battery of artillery was ordered to the front. shall act as aid to Colonel Averell has promised General Porter when the bombardment begins. I repeated to him General Heintzelman's positive orders. "last me that May last 4. sitting on his horse half asleep. I cut through hospitals and woods. "These men are AmeriI his . and added. etc. I 53 May 5. and yet it seemed as if I never would get there. The firing is constant all almost give way. My arrival was looked upon as quite an event. "Will I repeated General Heintzelman's orders. in at five the May Up and motion Presently the artillery double-quick. April 26 April 26. with good intent enough. They evacuated march at a moment's notice. But it's no go. and we soon had Stuart's men running like mad. Our squadron was ordered by Colonel Averell to dismount to fight. I was immediately dispatched to General on the extreme left. is in good spirits. with whose corps the regiment was serving. All went on smoothly after leaving Yorktown until the McClellan Dragoons got into a snarl with some of Stuart's cavalry. and the day is ours after the hardest kind of fighting. with orders for him to attack at once with all his force..

I will report to General Heintzelman that you are moving rapidly. 1862. through the courtesy of The Century Company. and will go wherever they are properly led. and proceeded immediately to Williamsburg. and not relieved until 6 p. and the writer refers so frequently to our regiment. in a pouring rain." and I left him. At night. We started on after our regiment without breakfast.54 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. Of course. May s." The descriptions of movements are so graphic and comprehensive. to include in this history the sketch written by our Colonel for the second volume of the work entitled "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Would you believe he never made an attack and if Kearney hadn't come up just as he did. we should have lost the fight. and heard the good news that the rebels had left. caught up at the rebel works. All these little demands on my strength seem to benefit me. As it was. In the morning early we were relieved. as I never felt better in my life. and woke up this morning as bright and fresh as a lark. we occupied the field.. . where I was made officer of the guard. m. We are fortunate in being able. when I got something to eat. I passed a sleepless night. that it is reproduced here in a chapter by itself. took to sleep most vigorously. can soldiers. I was left in charge of a road in the neighborhood. ! and could hear the groans of the wounded.

.

7. -Colonel Samuel W Owen. Major . G. Claude White Major O. O. Robinson. MAJOR Ciiaki.Lieut. .es Tkeichei.

become more tortuous as they approach their confluence. In the squadrons. patient The amount of and persistent hard work required to convert twelve hundred untrained citizens. regular cavalry three years had been regarded as necessary to transform a recruit into a good cavalryman. The forests between the York and the James rivers were filled with tangled thickets and unapproachable moThe tributaries of the rivers. rains. animals were alternately scorched and These conditions made cavalry operations in this squadrons. S. Brevet Major-General. and the expanse of floods is converted by evaporation into stagnant swamps. and had been in existence about six months. April 4 August 3. mostly deep. unaccustomed to the care of a horse or to his use under the saddle. under the tread of horses. into the semblance of a cavalry regiment in six months is known only to those who have done it.— CHAPTER VI WITH THE CAVALRY ON THE PENINSULA. U. A heavy rain in a few hours rendered these streams formidable obstacles. By William W. a bed of mortar knee deep. sluggish. and distributed by assignment 55 . In the Peninsular campaign of 1862 there were employed fourteen regiments of cavalry. The topography and soil of the peninsula presented a most difficult field for cavalry operations. formerly Colonel Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.. crooked and rasses. so that Above this dismal landscape the fierce rays of the sun were interrupted only at night. and wholly inexperienced in the use of arms. and two independent Considerably over half this force was composed of volunteers. From field Fort Monroe to Han- over Court House there was hardly a for the with sufficient scope After a rain maneuvers of a single regiment of cavalry. 1862. or by deluges of drenched. A. entire or in parts. chief of cavalry. Averell. men and region affairs of The cavalry had been organized into a division under General George Stoneman. the deep alluvium became.

Cavalrymen galloped around field-works. Few but cavalry names reached the ears of the army on the day of the evacuation and pursuit [May 4. redoubts. batteries. and soon the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry met the enemy in the woods and drove him out with skirmishers and canister. P advance. 1862]. with the 1st and 6th Regulars.— 56 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY April 4 August 3. Then came tidings of the dash of Chambliss and McLean leading Hancock's column and crowding the left center of the enemy's line. and were only occupied with the rather serious business of procuring food for the horses. and cleared our left toward the James of the enemy's cavalry under Stuart. Major Lawrence Williams. cavalrymen. it produced a similar effect upon the men. on the 25th of May. the bueno commandantc"). to the corps of the army. and pushed their attack with audacity. and others in cavalry charges. wounding one and himself receiving a wound. Lieutenant-Colonel Grier. town not an hour was lost which could be applied to cavalry Alertness and steadiness soon characterized our instruction. I was directed to communicate with the . commanding the 1st ("Old Billy Grier. Although pursuit was again undertaken on the morning Illinois of the 6th by squadrons of the Third Pennsylvania and Eighth of artillery it Cavalry and was continued for four miles. and that the French Princes were among the first in the General St. came to a dead halt from necessity. When grindstones were procured and the sabres of my regiment were sharpened at Hampton. When the army was in line about seven miles from Richmond. Captains Sanders. had led a charge and engaged two of the enemy in personal combat. During the succeeding twenty days the cavalry swept the country in advance of our marching army by day and hovered around its bivouacs by night. Stoneman and Cooke. and ravines. We soon heard of the gallantry of Colonel Grier. infantry. excepting the cavalry reserve under George Cooke and that portion which was attached During the month of the siege of Yorkto general headquarters. Davis. 1862. No incident was fruitless. and five pieces were recovered and some prisoners were captured. on the right. struck cavalry. Baker. During the following day the cavalry were spectators of the battle at Williamsburg (except the Third Pennsylvania actively engaged on our left).

Lieutenant Davis. Whiting. where. he went on board the "Galena" and communicated to Captain Rodgers the position of the army. tivities in such a battle. and he made his way along various roads infested with the pickets and patrols of the enemy to the bank of the James. F. disclosed their value in the battle of Fair Oaks. and together we rode to the front. with two negroes. aggressively attacked infantry. Stuart pursued His subthe line of least resistance. left. the principal northern Richmond was set ajar. This expedition was appointed with excellent judgment. was selected for the duty. of the Third Pennsylvania. As a result. On front the 27th. It W T. of his staff. in Stuart's raid around our army. to me. Had . B. and rear. who at once sent Colonel N. neglected one great opportunity the destruction of our base of supplies at the White House. ordinate commanders were Colonels all Fitz Lee. imagining which did not exist. and received from the Captain a statement of the position of the taking a gunboats. April 4 — 57 August 3. three days later. and Rush's Sixth Pennsylvania. 1862. On the 13th he announced himself. Almost within and quite within his hearing.— WITH THE CAVALRY ON THE PENINSULA. and generally filled the idea of cavalry acrison. through his cavalry. I reported its perilous condition to McClellan. In the resultant melee about Hanover Court House. the ground in away to invitation McDowell his sight. General Lee assumed command June 1st. with ten men. Hargate to and Arnold. swept right. Chambliss. gunboats on the James River at City Point. — cautions which. skiff. Lawrence Williams. Martin. H. intrepid cavalrymen. On the same day at (27th) up to our right we were scratching Hanover Court House. not satisfied with the picnic appearance of our on our left. which was the unexpected. preSweitzer. and positions for batteries and outposts were determined. and was conducted with superb address. and. captured whole companies with arms. under Emory. Royall. Lee. to come down from Fredericksburg. and was an easy thing to W do. but being his first raid. south of the Chickahominy. the Virginia Central and the Richmond and Fredericksburg railroads were destroyed. orders were given at once for slashing the forest. the cavalry. Stuart perils was nervous.

Scouts over. with the main body. and a storehouse containing thirty thousand bushels of grain. ascended to King William Court House and Ellett s Mills. burned the bridge and ferryboat. and go around the enemy. '62. Just before the Army of the Potomac advanced on Manassas. and the Lieutenant gave his life. This was the last extension of our hands towards McDowell. the . and that at Fredericksburg. and that never was outpost duty more honorably and correctly performed than by Captain B. but the immediate movement of the enemy from Manassas prevented ing it W its being carried out. and after it two days Third Pennsylvania Cavalry crossed the Pamunkey River on our right and rear. and the Captain was prostrated with sabre wounds in resisting Stuart's column. while he. and the checking of the invading forces for an hour attest the courage and devotion of Royall and his picket. exchanged purposes with his detachment. destroying the bridge at Rappahannock Station. 58 August 3. was the were pushed out many miles in quest of news of Jackson's coming. 1862. for Jackson came sooner than he was expected. precious time was lost by indirections. April 4 he. in March. sendon the road home. we might have had something to lament even had we captured his command. The killing of the dashing Confederate Captain Latane and several men with the sabre.— HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Thev met the enemy repeatedly. then at Manassas. This raid of Stuart's added a new feature to cavalry history. had been projected previously. and one thing to regret with mortification. consisting of the Third and Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. and a schooner and other boats. We had to regret that there was no reserve to the outpost within supporting distance. at Garlick's. On our side were developed many things to be remembered with pride. Royall and Lieutenant McLean of the Fifth United States Cavalry. and that when the reserve was alarmed in its camp. on the 26th. however. Our General's plans were not disturbed by Stuart's raid. it was suggested that I should take my brigade. the first brigade of cavalry formed in the war. A similar expedition. bent all his energies to the destruction of our base of supplies. The memories are glorious that not a single vedette or picket was surprised. in a conference with General McClellan.

and was finally taken to Richmond. Two or three weeks before this several officers of the Third . Alert. environed with our cavalry. he stood out in front of his tent in his shirt-sleeves nearly all day of the 26th listening to his army. when it was evident that we were being pressed on the right and left of our line by all the force the enemy could bring into action against Porter. McClellan met and mastered the occasion. Mill. In this battle there were two and a half squadrons of the Fifth and two squadrons of the First United States Cavalry. 1862. and cheerful. and one squadron Fourth Pennsylvania (Colonel Childs). The ensuing night was without rest for the cavalry. Chambliss lay on the field ten days. was sullenly retracting its lines to the position at Gaines's Stoneman. The charge at Balaklava had not this desperation and was not better ridden. was in the saddle confronting Stuart's cavalry and covering the White House Landing. with infirmities that would have kept a man of less fortitude in hospital. hit by seven balls. radiant. lost consciousness. Fragments of the reserve under General Cooke stood massed in the valley of the Chickahominy on its left bank. or be destroyed. Chambliss. About 5 p.— with the cavalry on the peninsula. his clipped right wing. Chambliss. across the Chickahominy. April 4 59 August 3. To the north. m. advance. and that we were not likely to be able to resist his attack. the cavalry was moved from its masked position to the edge of the hill and placed in a formation to charge. and it was not devoid of heroic cavalry effort. In a few minutes the order to charge was given to the Fifth Regulars. not three hundred strong. Six of the seven officers present and fifty men were struck down. leading. and when he recovered found himself in the midst of the enemy. rode as straight as corps . where he was rescued from death by the kind care of Generals Hood and Field. man ever rode. should a charge seem likely to do good.. three squadrons Rush's Lancers (Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry). and must either retire. It was there exposed to the enemy's fire. into the face of Longstreet's and the Fifth Cavalry was destroyed and dispersed. day upon which a general advance had been determined and the battle of Gaines's Mill was opened. The strain of the following day to help the Fifth Corps to hold its ground until dark will never be forgotten.

bridges. \Y E. thus unmasking the enemy's column the two guns of Major West fired two rounds. was fired upon. and the picket fled. On the evening of June 27. Some woodland intervened. the regiment crossed White Oak Swamp. A picket was quickly posted at the hither edge of the wood. my pickets from Tunstall's Station and other points were called in. HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. was sent to picket and hold Jones's Bridge on the Chickahominy. of the Third Pennsylvania. The Third Pennsylvania lost one man killed and five wounded. with two hundred infantry and two guns. Treichel. At daylight on the 29th. followed by the enemy in hot pursuit. the picket quitted the road through the gaps in the fences made for that purpose.— OO . and over sixty of his officers and men were left on the ground. and at 6. and houses. Upon arriving within two hundred yards of our position. 1862. and found him near a house south of White Oak Swamp Bridge. m. After this affair I galloped back to see General McClellan. on the 28th. Lieutenant Davis was again sent to communicate with the gunboats on the James. The enemy came. whilst the survivors fled in great disorder toward Richmond. April 4 August 3. Between this and my position was an open field a quarter of a mile across. led by Colonel Lawrence Baker. m. with orders to fire upon the enemy when he should come within range and then turn and run away. and two squadrons. Captain White's squadron. a comrade of mine in the old army. and a few squadrons held in readiness to charge. thus inviting pursuit On my position two guns were already placed to enfilade the road. The command was the First North Carolina and Third Virginia Cavalry. Miller. and advanced to the Charles City road. were let loose upon the enemy. About 9 a. when put together. so that our commander knew the country to be traversed through the seven days far better than any Confederate commander. led by Captains Walsh and Russell.30 a. the streams. and penetrated the region between the Chickahominy and the — James. made a map which exhibited all the roadways. taking bearings and making notes.. fields. forests. Pennsylvania Cavalry others — Newhall. Near him were groups of a hundred officers eagerly but quietly ! . my scouts reported a regiment of the enemy's cavalry advancing in column about a mile away. Their fragmentary sketches. leading Keyes's Corps.

" The General rode to the front with me. when a round shot from the enemy struck . It lasted about two hours. recognizing ness. April 6l 4— August 3. manding general. and made a topographical sketch of the position. he came with the Prince de Joinville to the fence. So soon as McClellan descried me. but the General. discussing our progress and situation. my cavalry was deployed as a close line of skirmishers with drawn sabres in rear of our lines. the general commanding asked me for two officers for hazardous service. where we were first touched with some of the enemy's infantry during the night. with orders to permit no one to pass to the rear who could not show blood. There were some preliminary bursts of artillery. was standing on the plateau in front of the farmhouse at the rear verge of the hill. During the battle of July 1 (Malvern Hill). with Hay's regiment of infantry and Benson's battery. with his mounted staff. In the afternoon. Lieutenants Newhall and Treichel. and that we might go terest in there. but the great crash of all arms did The comnot begin before 6 p. and having joined the Fifth Corps. 1862. m.WITH THE CAVALRY ON THE PENINSULA. said promptly. and it must be saved for that purpose. there were battles on our center and right. and a second time that night made their way for a mile and a half through the enemy's camps. it will be the Army of the Potomac. "Averell. were sent to communicate with our right and center. if any army can save this country. because of their intimate knowledge of the country. The Prince seemed "The roads will to exhibit a favorable inits weakenough to-morrow . where I dismounted. The line of battle was ready and reserves of infantry and artillery in position some time before the enemy came in force and developed his attack. ventured to suggest that the roads were tolerably clear toward Richmond." my suggestion. and reconnoitered the ground in all directions. I established our outposts and pickets within one mile of New Market. a conspicuous group. After telling him I all I knew and had learned from prisoners and scouts. During the night of the 30th. which was of some use afterward in posting the infantry and artillery as they arrived. be full and then earnestly. On the 30th. my classmate and the favorite aide of McClellan. I proceeded to Malvern Hill in the evening and rode over the field with Captain Colburn.

I want you to take command of the rear guard at daylight in the morning. but no sounds of wheels nor trampling horses. The orders were given for Buchanan's brigade of Sykes's division. McClellan said: "Averell. in a little orchard by a camp fire. also reported for duty. the ground a few yards directly in front of gravel over the little whom I was riding. and also a battery. if you will look after our center and right that would help us here more than you can by remaining. him and threw dirt and group around him. There was we could not see a man at fifty paces distance. at Crew's we separated from them and rode house. General Porter. When the battle was over and the field had become quiet. I could see nothing. At midnight I found myself in the saddle with a cup of hot coffee held to my lips. The battery not having reported." Then toward our left. What force do you want?" I asked for just enough to cover the front with a strong skirmish line. to report to me at daylight. giving orders rapidly to his generals and staff officers. with the Second Regiment Excelsior Brigade. and galloped to the front. and hold this position until our trains are out of the way. At daylight the cavalry advanced toward the a fog so dense that front. the cavalry bivouacked half a mile in rear of the line of battle. resembling sections of ar- . some cavalry was organized into squads. Fifth Corps. He informed me that the enemy was threatening his pickets.— 62 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY April 4 August 3. with had just started toward the front when he all turned and said to McClellan: "General. their horses being led. where our line of battle had been the night before. The wounded were already coming away from the lines. but could hear shrieks and groans and the murmur of a multitude. everything is right here and you are not needed. When awakened I was informed by the Due de Chartres that General McClellan desired to see me. a portion of its contents having scalded its way down my throat. Colonel Hall. Men and horses were too tired to do aught but sleep for hours. and advancing on both flanks. I ordered the line re-established with skirmishers and a squadron of cavalry on either flank. I asked him to halt his command until further orders. When my turn came. Colonel Buchanan was met with his staff returning from the front on foot. We found him near by. 1862. and took position in the line.

The squadrons had not proceeded three hundred yards when they were fired upon and halted. In the meantime the scattered parties of the enemy withdrew hastily from the field to the woods. I had no idea that the flag was properly authorized. word was sent to the officer with the flag that the truce was granted. the sham sections of artillery to execute the movements of going "into battery. Our ears had been thousands before the fog was a mile away. requested a truce I was about of two hours in which to succor their wounded. 1862. and slowly lifting its clinging shreds and yellow masses. mounted. who was an officer. As soon as the woodland beyond. some left along the seashore. An aide was sent to meet and halt him. By this time the level rays of the morning sun from our right were just peneat trating the fog. 63 August 3. action front. else there would have been no firing reflected that . All these details were executed simultaneously at the sound of the trumpet. in every attitude of distress. A third of them were dead or dying. to send a demand it that his request be put in writing. At the same time. but enough were alive and moving to give to the field a singular crawling effect. filled lifted." and the flank squadrons to move toward the enemy until fired upon. I offered battle by directing the infantry lines to show on the crest. After waiting thirty minutes. and there was some threatening desultory firing on my flanks.— WITH THE CAVALRY ON THE PENINSULA. a horseman from among those on the field approached our line with a white flag. The Confederate horseman. with agonizing cries from but now our eyes saw an appalling spectacle upon the slopes Over five down to the woodlands half thousand dead and wounded men were on the ground. April 4 tillery. which masked the enemycould be clearly seen. The different stages of the ebbing tide are often jetsam marked by the lines of flotsam and So here could be seen three distinct lines of dead and wounded marking the last front of three Confederate charges of the night before. and that their men could come out without arms and succor their wounded. so word was sent to him to dismount and wait until his request had been submitted to the commanding general. when I would be embarrassing for me to reply in writing. Groups of men. killing one man and wounding another. were groping about the field. proper intervals behind the crest.

commanding Keyes's rear brigade. now saw its last serviceable man safe beyond Malvern Hill. 1862. CapI sent a request to Gentain Frank with his battery responded. was the precious thing I wished to gain for our trains which crowded the bottom-lands below Malvern. I men kept swarmed from trains. the woods and myself informed by couriers of the movements of our army and and had already sent officers to reassure our rear of its and also to bring me back a battery of artillery. but time my while officers took position in front of the line to prevent conversation with the enemy. After a reasonable wait. . A heavy rainstorm was prevailing. When the quasi-truce had expired.. The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry which had led the Army of the Potomac across White Oak Swamp. m. m. The Army of the Potomac was then at its new base on the James. My command passed through granted. My squadrons were withdrawn to the line. When everything movable was across Turkey Bridge.— t>4 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY April 4 August 3. Not above a dozen bodies could be found on our field during the truce. had been cared for during the night. its the line resumed flag again attitude of attack. Our dead and wounded. the infantry lay down. to select a good position about two miles in my rear in case I should need a checking force when the time for withdrawal should come. That excellent soldier had already chosen such a position and estabsecurity. about twenty-five hundred in number. July 2. before it left that glorious field. and the officer with the appeared with a request that the truce be extended two hours. eral Wessells. but that no further extension would be I had come on the line at 4 a. with Keyes's Corps some miles below in my rear awaiting the enemy. my command. So when the extended truce had expired. on flanks. at the sound of the trumpet. it was destroyed by my rear squadron.. and these were buried. and all its trains were safely on the way there. with the exception of the cavalry. and these maneuvers and truces had consumed the time until after 9 o'clock. answer was returned that the time was extended. and two captured guns which could not be removed were spiked and their carriages were broken. had left the field. Twelve stalled and abandoned wagons were destroyed. lished his brigade in line of battle. about 10 a. In a few minutes thousands of scattered over the field.

had covered the White House Landing during Stuart's raid. On the we were establishing our advance on Malvern his Hill. April 4 65 August 3. Alexander. south of the Chickahominy). of the Corps of Engineers. McM. Stuart received a note from General Lee asking for his impressions in regard to the designs of the Union Army. on the 28th. He subsequently picketed the front of our center and right on the 30th. on the morning of the 29th of June (at the very time that the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry was repelling the First North Carolina and Third Virginia Cavalry at Willis' Church. Captains Norris and Green. — performed scouting service in the direction of the Chickahominy and Charles City Court House. and assisted the Eighth Pennsylvania in covering that corps on the 30th and The Second United States Cavalry and McClellan 1st of July. after the arrival of the regiment on the James. The Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Colonel Harlan. on the 29th. to Carter's Landing. and guiding trains and maintaining steadiness of lines on the 27th. Dragoons. and on July 1 and 2 an extremely important service. 1862. after its efficient service. and retired with him. Wessells's lines about noon. had scoured the left bank of the Chickahominy.— WITH THE CAVALRY ON THE PENINSULA. on the 29th. Near the White House. He replied that there evidence of a retreat down the Williamsburg road. which. north of the Chickahominy. The Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. S. on the 28th joined Stoneman on similar duty. Eighth Illinois. And so ended the first lesson of the cavalry service of the Army of the Potomac. Gregg. rafting its arms across at Long Bridge. Colonel Farnsworth. was no and that he had no doubt that 30th. Stuart. and had swum the river to the right bank. under Major Pleasanton. performed similar duties with General McCall at Charles City road on the 30th. under Colonel D. while it was endeavoring to reach the James. Everything was now quiet and in the Third Pennsylvania proceeded to camp at good order. escorted Colonel B. guided Keyes's corps to the James River below Malvern. and Westover after dark. on the James. after his active participation in covering our right wing on the 26th. and the lines of General Naglee a little later. The Eleventh Pennsylvania. during the day and night of the 27th of June. of the Second. on the 13th. was directing cavalry . at and about Gaines's Mill.

m. gone to Charles City road and obstructed and defended the crossings of White Oak Swamp. and I took the First Brigade. Stoneman. and of all the cavalry of the of the Army orders organizing it into a cavalry corps. resumed command. and his camp and supplies destroyed. Undoubtedly Gregg and Farnsworth. encountering the Thirteenth Virginia Cavalry in a charge led Fifth United States. had his cavalry ascertained on July 1. any time before 3 p. Active scouting followed in the direction of the Chickahominy. Had had the he. he could have annoyed and perhaps embarrassed our movements. the First New York Cavalry. of the by Captain Miller. army from the Peninsula. Richmond and up crossed the James. returning the same day. to explore the ways to Petersburg. On the 3d of August I with the Fifth United States and Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. but that it was not attempted was a discredit to Stuart's cavalry. All the successes and sacrifices of the worse than of the lost —they were to be army were now to be thrown away by the withdrawal it. 1862. Finally. with the Eighth Pennsylvania and Eighth Illinois Cavalry. and at once issued and the history of the cavalry brigades was begun. that the center and right of our lines were more vulnerable and favorable to attack than the left. would have successfully prevented the reconnoissance of our center and right. the enemy need not have delivered the unsuccessful and disastrous assault on Malvern Hill. General Stoneman having taken sickleave and General Cooke having been relieved.. might have thrown two or three corps upon our center below Malvern with hopes of dividing the Union Army. and with his main body. instead of reinforcing . supported Pennsylvania. composed of the Fifth United States. on the 5th of July I was appointed acting Brigadier-General and placed in command Potomac. the Third and Fourth Pennsylvania.— 66 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry April 4 August 3. At Harrison's Landing. columns toward the bridges of that river behind us. of the Third The enemy was driven over seven miles. by Lieutenant Mcintosh. disposition of his forces been reversed at the outset. while maintaining a strong demonstration at that point. but.

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Hkzlep Asst. Jones. Durant. -Colonel Edward S.Lieut. Major Frank W IIkss Surgeon William B. .-Surgeon Henry J.

2. May 8. 11. The Peninsular Campaign ADVANCE TOWARD RICHMOND RECONNOITERING. 1862.. Moved from Hawkins' Farm and encamped p. orderlies. Weather fine. warm. in front of the residence of the old Colonial Governor. 1862. orders countermanded. during the first half of the four months of our further stay upon the Virginia Peninsula. Still May May May May 12. Camp drying up. Beautiful weather. 67 . May 1862. 2 to Hawkins' Farm. 1862. AND PICKETING CHANGE OF BASE FROM THE YORK TO THE JAMES RIVER THE SEVEN DAYS' FIGHT WILLIS CHURCH COVERING THE RETREAT TO MALVERN HILL. from Williamsburg. Slatersville. 8 Camp on Hawkins' Farm. etc. Marched from m. a reconnoissance during the day. 7. Furnished pickets. Four Nothing squadrons of interest May May May 9. Rain in the 16. above Williamsburg. m. 1862. encamped at Hawkins' Farm. 1862. roads rapidly at Williamsburg. Clear and warm afternoon. May As an index to the 7 July 2. 13. 14. No movement this day. Boots and Saddles sounded at Camp No. 1862. Camp No. Forage very short. 1862. Boots and Saddles at 8 a. at Slatersville 15. Moved from Williamsburg about 4 m. Fine weather. 10. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. and encamped for the night. Still at Slatersville. Fine weather. 1862. Encamped on Palace Green. rather than as a description of them. twelve Weather fine. a. SCOUTING. m. about 6 m. but after remaining until 10 a. morning.— — CHAPTER VII (Continued). Rainy weather. m. from the advance after the Battle of Williamsburg until we settled down in camp on the James River near Harrison's Landing. the copying is resumed of the of the movements and doings Regimental Journal (Continued from page 48). No drill. 1862. somewhat made transpired.

1862. 1862. D May and Clear weather. Orders to move. May May May 17. cloudy 2 at Tylersville. increased to steady rain. Lieutenant Walton returned from absence without leave. Whisky rations issued for the first May Weather fine and warm. m. 1862. Lieutenant Davis. about three miles clear. Rain all night. on reconnoissance. Morning clear. Company C on provost duty. 18. thunder shower with hail at 3 p. Sun set clear. Camp m. Company commanders Morning. with fifteen men. Camp beyond Bottom's Bridge. Sun set clear. m. 1862. Bridge. 3. on duty at Long Bridge with General Kearney. 1862. m. fine. 10 a. Weather clear. m. for one month. 24. with a detachment of thirteen men for special camp to communicate with the gunboats on James River. from the 20th inst. Weather 1862. Orderlies furnished. fine at 9 distant. 27. Regiment fur- in case of Lieutenant 21. Captain Gary in command. of Company H. Boots and Saddles at 7 a. Company H detailed to report to General Kearney for duty at Long Bridge. 1862. Company F. for neglect of duty. Camp Tylersville. Marched two miles beyond Bottom's where we encamped. Regiment moved on the road towards Bottom's Bridge and arrived at 12 m. Encamped for the day. Proceedings of court-martial in the case of First Lieutenant Jos. May 19. 25. 1862. 7. afternoon somewhat cloudy. Continued raining until 3 o'clock. 1862. . Morning cloudy and cool. Boots and Saddles. sentenced to be suspended from the rank and pay. Sabre drill. Court-martial ordered Furnished orderlies to different generals issued clothing. 1862. along the river road from Long Bridge towards Bottom's Bridge. small sprinkling of rain. Lieutenant Baughman. Marched and at New Kent Court House. Boots and Saddles at to New Kent Court House. 17-27.68 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. May duty. General sounded at 7.30 a. furnished as usual. p. Lodge. Orders to move. Company D. five Boots and Saddles at miles from Court House. (Raining). May W . Two squadrons (C and L. Roads bad. May Camp m. Company K. May 20. Lodge. on reconnoissance under General Hooker. etc. 1862. very warm. nishing orderlies for different generals and corps. a. Marched to Tylersville. E. 1862. A and G) detailed on reconnoissance under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Owen. left Weather fine. cleared about 9 a. 23. time.50 a.30. Weather of the corps. May Camp near Bottom's Bridge. Companies F on reconnoissance at Chickahominy. Roads rapidly drying up. Weather rainy and unpleasant. Orders at 12. Orderlies 22. m. weather fine. Captain Martin. m.30 to move countermanded. May 26.

Orderlies furnished.— THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. g. Company on reconnoissance. clear. Horses taken to Sun set clear. Sun May May 29. Weather set clear. Sun set clear. 1862. m. and Moved to vicinity of encamped for the night. near New Bridge. m. ter's 30. Companies E and L on provost on reconnoissance. Camp near New Bridge. set clear. 1862. unable to get hay. 7. Weather Corps. AfterCompanies D. encamped near Fair Oaks. C and G detailed to guard railroad 11 a. and M noon cloudy. 1862. 69 May May 28. (fourteen miles from New Bridge). Com- panies Point). Camp near Bottom's Bridge. I Weather clear. at this camp. Regiment engaged in grazing their horses. m. duty. Commenced raining at 4 p. June June graze. 28 June ii.. H. weather clear. 1862. Returned to m. Afternoon cloudy. H. Rained furnished. K. on reconnoissance. of rain one hour in afternoon. C and G returned at June Rain. a. 1862. rain at 4 p. 5. 10. Orderlies furnished. Camp near Fair Oaks.]. m. Va. Weather cleared generals. June June June Prim. at 8 a. m. June June 2. 1862. 1862. Morning clear. Morning. cleared at 7 a. orders to march. Moved at 6 a. 8. Smart shower clear. and I returned from General Por- Women sent out of camp. Bridge. m. 4. Weather clear. continued until dark. 1862. Companies B. m. Sabre drill in afternoon. about fourteen miles from last camp. afternoon. . May June 31. June 1862. at camp near New Bridge 3. cleared at 6 a. (Richmond & West Balance of regiment left camp at Rain uninterrupted all night. retreat. General McClellan's headquarters. Orderlies all night and continued during day. Company B on provost duty. 1862. etc. with the exception of Companies C and G. 11. After a night's hard rain. 1862. Orderlies furnished for differfor ent Company F detailed escort for General Companies D and K Paymaster Richardson paid the regiment. Twenty men dedrill tailed to cut grass for stock. Weather clear. 1862. Companies C and G rejoined the regiment Rain at 3 p. etc. etc. Weather clear. 1862. and I detailed by General Porter to guard rebel prisoners taken in action of day before [battle of Hanover Court House. Va. — Weather m. Regiment. 1862. Received camp near Bottom's Roads muddy. 6. B. Camp near New Bridge. Orderlies furnished. clear. Sun Sabre Paymaster finished paying the men. F. Va. 1. Orderlies furnished. 1862.

14. Returned to camp at 10 p. m. company disembarked m. Pamunkey River a. also two schooners. Company B. On Started at 6 m. Burned storehouses of Dunkirk. Orderlies furnished. cept force of rebel cavalry June 15. to try and interwho had been committing depredations at Tunstall's Station. Commenced the march. Weather clear until sunset. 1862. from provost duty. Horses sent to graze. m. Remained at White House June until 7 p. Recrossed the Pamunkey River in transand encamped at White House. Orderlies furnished. On ports the march. 13. Orderlies and pickets furnished. 1862. Weather clear. June 19. Weather clear and warm. rained about 8. and K on reconnoissance. June 16. with eight companies (A. fifteen men and twelve horses captured by the regiment. 1862. destroyed ferry and bridges at Matapony River. Moved m. Weather clear and pleasant until retreat. to White House by Tylersville. Weather picket. Weather clear different generals. 1862. m. when House m. Camp Camp Savage's Station. m.jo history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. Posted by Sergeant Vandegrift. Orderlies Companies D. Companies C and M Orderlies furnished to ordered to Baltimore Balance of regiment received orders at 2 p. p. for our Weather at the White clear. m. Orderlies furnished as usual. and L in camp). Sabre drill in afternoon. 1862. C. A on sick June leave. crossing the at 3 a. June 22. but without success in consequence of not receiving the order in time. Reached camp June June 20. at Savage's Station. Horses taken to graze. Company B returned at 4 p. Major Bement and Captain Woodburn Company 12. Received orders to move at 5 a. Weather clear. June Camp near Fair Oaks. G. after which we returned to the crossing at White House. 1862. furnished. Captain Robinson with Company G went on the Charles City Road within four miles of Richmond. Sun Lincoln. In saddle promptly.30 p. said to contain about thirty thousand bushels of grain. m. Weather clear and warm. Stores. Orderlies furnished. B. 1862. Companies E and F on General McCall. in trans- ports. last 17. at enemy June 18. Orderlies furnished. 1862. clear. set clear. June 12-22. set clear. Company H. 21. 1862. and very warm. en route for Ellets via King William's Court House. 1862. Camp at 3 p. 1862. Sun set clear. Sent out at 10 m. to report to Sun set clear. Sun . Started from Savage's Station at 7 a. 1862. at it commenced camp raining. on reconnoissance. Tents or ponchos moved June in regular positions. on the morning of 17th. Va.

of regular infantry as rear of Colonel Averell. 29. Comon reconnoissance. At 5. Left this Oak Swamp. June 26. New Market. 1862. and K charged by the rebel cavalry (consisting of a regiment) checked by the batteries on the Quaker Road. Weather somewhat cloudy. C June detailed to guard railroad. the regiment in the saddle twice during the morning. H and I on reconnoissance. June 25. 24. camp at three miles. m.30 a. Warm and clear. regiment received orders to proceed to Drew's Plantation. Companies L and M Twenty White House. 1862. 1862. cleared at sunrise. for the distance of two and one-half miles. Regiment formed in order of battle. June 23 July June 23. Sun set clear. at retreat. lost one man. where it arrived in the midst of a heavy engagement. reconnoissance. and K Pennsylvania Artillery. Regiment on picket duty. Weather warm.30 p. In the field. Dress parade Fifteen men detailed for duty towards Jones' Bridge. Rebel loss. 1862. in consequence of heavy firing by the enemy. 1862. 71 1862. Companies . C. m. and K. Dress parade at retreat. where it remained until 5. 1862. E. H. Weather clear. In the field. on the road lead. June graze. Orderlies and pickets furnished. to the front at day- moved . extra men detailed for wagon guard taken to graze. Sun set clear. 1862. First crossed White a. and orderly duties taking up the remainder tailed for escort to M of the day. Sun set cloudy. E. Orderlies and pickets furEighteen extra orderlies furnished. F. At 12 midnight regiment ordered to saddle. and F Slight rain. 28. L. after which deployed and drove up stragglers which were returning from the engagement in front.. acting as guide.. E. 1. June I relieved Companies D. Weather clear. seventeen killed and wounded and thirty-eight prisoners. Detailed with command whole under command small guard to the army. panies E. 1862. Orderlies and pickets furnished. the rebels being pursued by Companies D. Orderlies furnished. M July the 2. commanded by Captain Walsh. Companies H and I de- still General Sykes. picket. 2. Clear and warm. C. killed by the enemy. ing to Halted picketing with Battery C.30 p. Company H June 30. m. Horses taken to Heavy firing on our left all day. Companies D. 1862. July At 2. and returned to camp. the enemy being completely routed. Horses taken to Companies 1862. Companies L and on reconnoissance. nished.— the peninsular campaign. Companies A. Orderlies and pickets furnished. Horses on reconnoissance. and on picket. Camp Lincoln. Sergeant Wallace. Companies A and Companies B and G on picket at 4 Bottom's Bridge. where it remained until 9 o'clock. Heavy rain during the night. Company G. Sun set clear. graze. at June at 27. m.

They threw ten shells right into us. dents. which we succeeded in doing until the army had crossed Long Island Bridge. 12. or which may warrant further mention. mistaking the road. withdrew at the critical moment. shall We We not move for a few days. Richmond. Very heavy fighting on our left flank yesterday. arrived at the outposts about 9. May 26. Colonel Averell keeps his regiment at work. saw a part of Richmond. [Fair Oaks.] Report gives us a decided advantage. I had the honor of being in command of the advance guard. At the moment an order came up from General McClellan not to provoke a general engagement. The advance Roads is within sixteen miles of 17. The army is moving along slowly. Our special correspondent will. no doubt. got within sight of Richmond. Richmond. two squadrons of cavalry. as far as I know. He wasn't long in making a straight line back. however. 1862. May light to hold the 12 June i. Relieved from duty as rear guard by General Wessells about half way to Charles City. in a fearful con- May 22. At the Baltimore Stores. advanced up the Nine-mile Road. one of our orderlies missed us and. with which they opened on us at about a thousand yards. killing one. and having posted our pickets advantageously. June 1. While they were getting the guns into position we took a sketch of the surrounding country. Newhall in his diary-letters May May dition. Some of these were referred to by Lieutenant Walter S. 1862. drove in the enemy's pickets. Our advance is within six miles of were scouting a day or two ago. and a section of artillery. They paraded about five hundred infantry. doing no harm. The whole summer was full of inciThere was scarcely any movement of importance in any direction that we were not in some manner associated with it. . Near New Bridge. Two of our squadrons left camp this morning at 6 o'clock. and it was one of my men who despatched the rebel. Continuous rain all day. Three or four squadrons just going on a scout. which either were not referred to by him in his narrative. Three regiments of infantry came up to hold the ground we had gained. The rebels were in full force.: — ~J2 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. make a great thing of it. General Averell's graphic sketch gives an outline of the service of the Third Pennsylvania from the beginning of the Peninsular Campaign until after the retreat from Malvern Hill on July 2. There were some occurrences of interest. May 30. as I saw him collecting items from some of the command. Camp near New Bridge. enemy in check. They are very innocent little things.

June 9. etc. Any quantity of siege guns have already gone up the road. and it was only by shrewd dodging from point to point that the Lieutenant consummated his errand successfully. Savage's Station. but knowing ones say. XI of the Official War Records. June General McCall's Reserves came up to-day. on the Nine-mile Road 28. being reinforced. 1862. 6. and received the approbation of General McClellan. Company D. His report is published in full in Vol.. under date of May 25. 73 May 25 June 9. No morning. and as we battlefield. m. the boys did their work handsomely. Camp Forage Station. and was reprinted in the Fifth Volume of Moore's Rebellion Records (1862). page 431: Fair Oaks Station.. attracted considerable notice. gallant exploit has just been consummated by Lieutenant Frank C. but the party The distance was were obliged to make some twenty-five miles before reaching their destination. rebels. and now occupy the The fight recommenced at 7 o'clock this a. We all wonder why they don't trot out the artillery. "No fighting for two weeks. the business will be soon settled. It was of the utmost importance that the communication should be opened. opening of the action our forces were driven back two miles. unless pushed by the are within earshot of the rattle of the musketry. and that the danger of capture was imminent. Davis." June all sorts of rumors about the General McClellan is now fighting for the hill which overlooks Richmond. m. It runs thus: . heavy firing on our left still continues. It was a known fact that the enemy were picketed all through this country. No firing on either side to-day. Lieutenant Davis was detailed by Colonel Averell for this purpose. 9 a. 1862. We have evacuation of Richmond. May A men. The feat was accomplished with so much success that General McClellan returned his thanks in a letter to the Lieutenant and his command. one sergeant and ten General McClellan was very anxious to communicate with the gunboats on the James River.— THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. Doc. The following account of it appeared in the Philadelphia Inquirer. The scouting party under Lieutenant Davis referred to in the Regimental Journal. page 675. From Richmond. we should have marched into Richmond to-day without opposition. some fifteen miles. but. it is very exciting. Colonel Averell says that General McClellan thinks that if the battle had commenced two hours earlier yesterday. artillery has been used this — . If he can once get a footing. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.

The white people all along this the sight of Union soldiers. to reach the point opposite City Point. A short time previous to the arrival of the Union party had passed down the road. he learned that six of the enemy's pickets were posted in the woods near by. and came out into an opening and caught sight of the river. avoiding the Richmond Road. 1862. as the gunboats shelled them. While there one of the Union gunboats threw a shell into a rebel party some distance above. belonging to Mr. 1862. The night before some seventy-five rebel cavalry passed up this road. some three miles in the distance. and proceeded alone to a cross-road. prompt. "May Davis. In nowise daunted. He got a negro. After proceeding about four miles. and took a by-road leading over to the Richmond and Charles City Road. The Union troops were now between two parties. Carter then stated that he did not allow Confederate troops to come on his plantation. a rebel foraging party The Lieutenant then returned to his command. through a deep wood. but were not in sight at this time. May 25. and had left the army. to pilot him down to the landing. Mr. . Marcy. While passing through this man's plantation. B. to I am instructed by the Major-General Commanding to express you his thanks for the very discreet. The Lieutenant avoided these by making a detour to the left. and about one mile further on came across a negro.74 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. "Sir: Army of Potomac. apparently. "Are you Yankee troops or Confederate?" The Lieutenant answered that they were Union troops. as this small party road were terrified at were the first they had at this point. the old chap rode down and demanded. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. and satisfactory manner in which you and the small party under your command performed the important duty assigned to you by Colonel Averell." Lieutenant Davis and Sergeant Vandergrift. to reach an eminence that gave him a view of the country around. who stated that about three hundred of the yards further on were twelve mounted rebel pickets at a house. with the command of ten picked men. of communicating with the commander of the gunboats on the James River. The darkey stated that his master had acted as colonel in the rebel army at Williamsburg. but he got enough of it. He avoided these. "Headquarters "Lieut. and proceeded in the direction James River. (Signed) "R. and would soon destroy his house. started on Sunday morning. ever seen. as it was full of the enemy. The Lieutenant assured him that he should be protected as far as they went. Hill Carter. The Lieutenant halted here and hid his men in the woods. they proceeded up the road towards Richmond about four miles. "Chief of Staff. 27.

Colonel Gregg had three men killed. 1862. Gary. When captured he had a mail made up ready to carry into Richmond. and reached camp at this point at 11 o'clock on Monday morning. all under the immediate command of General Naglee. brought in valuable information and captured a rebel spy named Hare." a squadron of the rebel town on the opposite side of the James River at City Point. Vol. While the Lieutenant was on board the "Galena. who was the medium by which letters were carried to and fro. and was the first communication opened with the army. Colonel Gregg." Captain Rodgers. She will be obliged to go into dock before she can go into action again. Another scouting party in the direction of New Market. page 1003. in connection with six companies of infantry from the Eighty-fifth and Ninety-second New York regiments. 75 May 25 June 8. Unionists largely. mentioned in the Regimental Journal under date of June 8. and drove them toward Richmond. Captain Gary's report is published in the Official War Records. The party returned in the night. The recon- noissance accomplished. killing cavalry entered the small one. When about one-half a mile from the boat. and five others of his suite. and the enemy "skeddaddled. Two shells were thrown into the town. They found the enemy it in force. They drove in the enemy's pickets. as the undertaking was very hazardous. The battery she was engaged with mounted thirty large guns. giving the enemy much information concerning the movements of the Union Army. The Lieutenant got an old boat and two slaves to row him out to the "Galena. General Prim. he was met by a cutter from the ship. his chief of staff.— RECONNOITERING AND SCOUTING. together with a body of infantry. Colonel Samuel W." The "Galena" is very much cut up by the enemy's shot. visited General McClellan's headquarters and escorted . engaged them. the whole party returned without accident. a few hours met a body of the rebels. the enemy not deeming proper to follow. On June 8. consisting of Companies D and K. XI. made a reconnoissance yesterday some two miles in advance of this point. A lot of shot are still sticking in her below the water line. posted with artillery. The Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Owen. with a battalion of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. although outnumbering the later. and no writing was given. It was a gallant exploit all through. with General Milans. under Captain William J. at the mouth of the Appomattox River. commanding the Spanish forces in Mexico. The message delivered was verbal.

consequence of the heavy rains occurring Fair Oaks. the in for the purpose. 1862. 1862) a rumor had reached General McClellan's headquarters that Stonewall Jackson was on his way from the Shenandoah Valley to join Lee. We remained longer in Camp Lincoln. As rumor could not be . and even with these in good shape it was a difficult task. visited the The position of our army enemy fully appreciated at this time was a precarious one. on the Matapony River. of Company H (afterwards Sergeant Major). which was detailed camps and battlefield. had become an extensive swamp. Dennis Kelley. which. has furnished the following account of the expedition to Aylettsville. which laid so many of our poor fellows in their graves. M. It was bitter with quinine. We enjoyed many pleasant hours in our camp at Savage's Station. and was administered as a preventive against the fevers prevalent in the camps along the Chickahominy. : Sergeant Samuel J. and that he would probably strike the right of our army. many of the officers and men were stricken with "Chickahominy fever. It was here that every man became familiar with the sick call slang "Fall in for your quinine. McCulloch. and after the Battle of the fact. The days and nights were not all occupied with adventure." which caused great havoc throughout the Army of the Potomac. by Company D. Our camps on the Peninsula were many. This we hastily left during the flank movement toward the James While we lay in camp there. The Chickahominy.j6 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. than in any other. but they were always near the front. at Savage's Station. at Gaines's Mill. needed to keep up communication between them. of Company River. Notwithstanding that our own camp was remarkably healthy. and many a letter sent home at that time tells of fun and frolic. and frequently changed." Small rations of whisky were served out to each man in the regiment. June 8-16. Fitz commanded by General the John Porter. was killed by the accidental discharge of his carbine. mentioned in the Regimental Journal under dates of June 16-19: "Some ten days prior to the Battle of Gaines's Mill (which oc- curred June 27 and 28. lay between the Miles of corduroy roads were separated portions of the army.

after consultation summoned and instructions. on the morning of the 17th. failing to gain on the supposed picket. of the Regulars.. at a cross road. while sandy. and moved via Tylersville to White House. Before the advance came within hailing distance the supposed rebel picket beat a hasty retreat on a road leading at right angles to our advance. m. The last of the command was ferried over at 3 a. and the vigorous pursuit and . The chase was most exciting. and the cavalry moved at a brisk trot. B. and for most of the way was lined on either side with tall shade trees. The route led through a flat country with sandy soil. "At daybreak on the morning of the 17th. 1862. General McClellan determined to send a party around the left flank of Lee's if army as far as Aylettsville. gain the desired information. apony River. The road. Colonel Averell was quarters. where at 1 p. eight companies of the Third Pennsylvania broke camp. halting at times to allow the infantry to close up. Infantry in light marching order. and L in camp). Major Buchanan. near Fair Oaks Station (leaving Companies A. Troops of either side had not before been seen in this section of PlowVirginia. C. when we were joined by three companies of the Third U. on the following morning at 5 a. June 16-19. it was determorning mined that on the following (June 16) he should move out on the proposed expedition. having one day's rations and forty rounds of ammunition. ^ on the Matto head- confirmed. was ordered to send a detachment of infantry to join Colonel Averell at White House. the command started on the move. taking the road to King William Court House. which was distant twenty-eight miles. He proved to be a farmer. was solid. S. and our appearance caused some excitement. some half mile in advance of the column. a mounted man was seen intently watching our movements. which brought him to a sudden halt. where. mounted on an old white horse.RECONNOITERING AND SCOUTING. The morning was delightfully cool. possible. sent half a dozen carbine shots after him. ''With this in view. followed by the advance guard and the leading squadron at a gallop. and. and in full view of the whole command for at least a mile. m. the joint command commenced crossing the Pamunkey River on transports. m. In one instance. men in several instances were seen to stop their work in the middle of the fields and run to their houses. The advance. Accordingly.

— road to the ford. m.— . capturing some six or eight rebel pickets. proceeded with the work of destruction. 1862. they at once loaded their muskets. should he prove to be a picket.. "After this episode. with Captain Walsh's men. "From our point of observation. with a number of barges and lighters. while the infantry. halting a few minutes After a short rest the march to allow the infantry to come up. The object of the was that. The two squadrons. with some fifteen political prisoners. also two large warehouses containing some thirty thousand bushels of wheat and corn. three steam ferryboats. at the intersection of the Richmond Road. proved to be only a stove pipe or four men. except what appeared to be a piece of artillery posted in the middle of the street. arriving at King William Court House at 10 a. from which point a fine view was had of what was going on in the village. ys history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. From this point to Aylettsville eleven miles nothing of incident occurred until 2 p. June 16-19. The telegraph wires leading to Richmond were also cut. which was but a few minutes behind the advance. led by Captain Walsh. Two bridges across the Matapony River were burned. together with five loads of produce on their way to Richmond. which later. "Colonel Averell had established his headquarters with the four remaining companies at the brow of the hill. About the time wagon . m. the command moved rapidly. From the high hill upon which we stopped we could look down through Here a direct road from Richmond the main street of the village.. however. charged the place. around which were three Upon the arrival of the infantry. and with two squadrons of the Third Pennsylvania proceeded to capture the place. Pickets were immediately thrown out on the road to Richmond. "While here an amusing incident occurred. was resumed. for resistance. when we reached a point three-fourths of a mile from Aylett's Ford (or Aylettsville) where the advance halted until the command came up. were also burned. six canalboats. pursuit chase had scared the fellow almost to death. nothing unusual could be seen intersected the about the village. Pickets were thrown out beyond the village. the squadron would follow and charge the reserve before it had time to form The countryman was detained as a prisoner. and to our rear. on wheels.

79 Captain Walsh's command charged into the village.' 'Well. etc. I have several hogsheads hams. a pompouslooking old gentleman. I have a forty-acre field of clover where you can turn your horses in to graze while you eat. He removed his bell-crowned hat. and happened to cast a glance in the direction of the ford. 'About seven hundred. which he said he had brought from Richmond that morning for his neighbors. Most of the conversation with the old gentleman was carried on by Lieutenants Galloway and Warren. he had seen but little of the Confederate cavalry. daughter will play upon the piano for you. introduced Lieutenant Galloway. was a member of the Confederate Congress and resided some two miles from where we then were that he was delighted to meet General Stuart. 'how many men have you with you?' Galloway readily replied. and two or three others." and while the servants me are preparing the dinner. reconnoitering and scouting.' he said. whereas all the Confederates he had seen were dressed in gray. as we were then on a scouting expedition to the vicinity of the White House. 'By the way. Colonel Averell said but little. my where with the aid of the blue uniforms we could the more easily deceive and decoy them. his back toward the village. who was somewhat of him to Colonel Averell as General Stuart. In the meantime the old gentleman dismounted and seated himself on a log at the side of the road. And. and that while he spent much of his time in Richmond. Lieutenant Galloway explained this by saying that we had donned the blue in order to deceive the Yankees. carbines. where a great smoke was now ascending from the burning buildings.' The conversation then turned on the kind of arms we bore. . mounted on a little gray mare. 1862.' he said.. rode into our headquarters direct from Richmond. revolvers. I am the only man in this section who many men at one time. While Lieutenant Galloway was thus delivering himself the old gentleman had risen to his feet. and we will "cut and come again. While looking over them he became quite communicative. by the way. being too much on his dignity to enter into any such scheme of deception. and from it took a bunch of letters. June 16-19. Incidentally he remarked that we were all dressed in blue. a wag. 'I want you all to come down to my house and The old gentleman said that he dine with could feed so of to-day. He halted and seemed disposed to talk.

1862. and in order to give them a rest. After resting for half an hour. "The infantry were very much fatigued. In this manner we covered about five miles. "At this juncture we observed the infantry and Captain Walsh's No command returning from the village. which was distant twenty-eight miles. would only be putting it mildly. and tore that he was a prisoner. Aylett's house. each infantryman was mounted behind a cavalryman. so they dismounted and followed. and in about twenty minutes the infantry came up. We had in our train some fifteen political prisoners. m. ten rebel pickets. We reached the landing op- posite the So close White House at 2 p. seemed to know the cause of the smoke. the rebels cept us at east Richmond would undoubtedly try to interKing William Court House.' said Galloway. but the ordeal was too severe for the infantry.' The old fellow said he would go on to his house and have dinner under way and wait there until we arrived. as the main road running from Richmond intersected our line of retreat at that point. 'what 16-19. while the cavalry pushed on as rapidly as possible. but without loss of time. however. arriving at King William Court House at 6 p. "Our before return commenced immediately. and so persistent was he in his determination that he had to be told To say he cursed and swore. in order that in case of an attack we could it. at 7 p. for the better repel it was necessary that the infantry should be kept closed up. up the ground. and five wagons loaded with produce. The time consumed in occupying the place and in destroying the property did not exceed forty minutes. m. A squadron was thrown out on the Richmond Road. was the pursuit that fifteen minutes after our arrival our . He then said. m. In all we had twenty-eight prisoners. 'it's Yankees we're hunting. the morning of the 18th. for if the telegraph op- erator at Aylettsville succeeded in telegraphing to we cut the wires.' said he. Hence it was necessary that we should cover the eleven miles all with speed. June " 'Why.80 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry.' is that? It looks as though it was Mr. 'I'd be fooled if you fellows were Yankees. "From King William Court House our return was made more leisurely. one present.' 'Not a bit of it. the march was resumed to White House.

etc. on the following morning covered a distance of seventy-eight miles. We didn't push the fighting. resting the animals. and met the rebels everywhere. and returned this morning to camp. we don't come into the engagement. but tried to draw them out by rushing towards their position. there being no place for cavalry evolutions. had his horse shot on picket. but we failed to excite their tempers. but as the enemy can't get this way. and then Savage's Station.reconnoitering and scouting. apparently in great confusion. of our regiment.. all well. and arrived at White House about 2 p. I don't believe it will amount to much. and stood to horse for three hours on the other side. Lieutenant Rogers.* Three balls hit the horse. About fifteen miles out. June 25. June pickets were driven in. the advance guard chased and caught a rank Secesh. on Tuesday. Our advance charged into the small town of Aylett's. It of "Our command bivouacked under cover the is doubtful whether any other command during hours. and the probability of a big row. horses. m. and returned next day Pamunkey to our camp near Fair Oaks the recrossed the To return to Lieutenant Newhall's account: 19. June 16. and sent him to the rear a prisoner. Savage's Station. June four days' scout in Dixie proper. Camp Lincoln. after a left here on Monday morning at Encamped to feed 5 a. and returned without meeting the expected rebels. We We — retreating. capturing about a dozen prisoners. We crossed the river at dark. We recrossed the river yesterday morning. on the Matapony. front this "This should be Monday. m. . and we're not ready to go that way. 1862. burned the bridge and a schooner or two. the war covered as many miles in the same number of "On the morning of June 18 we to " White House. drove the enemy gunboats. 8l 16-25. killing him instantly. Lieutenant Rogers. At any rate. We confiscated his mare. m. Yesterday our company scouted the roads leading to Richmond. June 22. off. remained all day at White House. Resumed the march at 5 o'clock next morning. reports heavy firing. A few shots from one of our gunboats. have just returned to camp. a most remarkable march for either infantry or cavalry. having marched about fifty miles since sunrise. seized a couple of wagons on the road to Richmond. Same night we encamped opposite White House. however. just arrived from the advance. We have heard firing in morning. having from daylight on the previous morning until 2 a.

finally. He supposed they had moved to the left of the road. The change of base from the York River to the James entailed a continuous battle from June 26 to July 2. Averell's enemy. July 7. C. and he turned and saw a man's head above the bushes. S. I sent Captain E. J. especially those conducted by General "Stonewall"' Jackson. with a squadron of this regiment. Savage's Station. White Oak Swamp (or Glendale). 1862. and. He paid no attention to it. of the Official War Records. page 234 of the The movements Headquarters Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. and escaped into the bush. and his horse reared and then fell over dead." which included the Battles of Mechanicsville. reporting his adventure. known as the "Seven Days' Fight. Porter became engaged with the enemy. Malvern Hill. which duty was well performed by him until he was relieved at daylight the next morning. 1862 : The Ambuscade. White . Three balls had entered his horse. and rendered advisable a movement over to the James River. 1862. Jones. and found no enemy. was ordered forward to find out the position of the enemy preparatory to driving them back. Part 2. falling on the foot of the Lieutenant and spraining his ankle. The Third was so continuously employed during the entire movement that we cannot do better than to insert Colonel Averell's report in full as published in Vol. upon and around the right flank of our army made unsafe our base of supplies at the White House on the Pamunkey. to picket the railroad from Dispatch Station to Tunstall's. He succeeded in getting clear of his horse. A cap was snapped beside him. June 16-27. XI. I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this regiment since the 26th ultimo: On the 27th. Fell Into — W C. A squadron under the command of Captain J. when the corps of General F. who was posted with ten vedettes on a portion of the Fair Oaks battlefield. Gaines's Mill (or First Cold Harbor). Peach Orchard. and then made his way back to our lines. In obedience to instructions contained in circular from headquarters Fifth Corps. incident mentioned at the end of the above entry of June was described in the Philadelphia Inquirer in a communication 19 dated June 16. thinking it was one of our own pickets. of Company Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.: 82 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. Lieutenant William Rogers. He moved along cautiously with his men about a quarter of a mile. The next minute he heard several shots. Camp Sir: near Harrison's Landing.

and scoured the country on the left bank of that stream as far down as Jones' Bridge. Remained on picket duty until morning. by Captain Walsh with three companies. 83 June went at the same time across the Chickahominy at Bottom's Bridge. my pickets in the Quaker Road were driven in by a force of rebel cavalry. and Russell. I proceeded with five squadrons of the regiment and crossed the White Oak Swamp Bridge. Martin. In obedience to orders received from the General commanding this army. My pickets in advance of the army were relieved about 8 a.. which delicate duty was successfully perof the the night were formed. and wounded perhaps one hundred. At 9 a. and two hundred infantry to Jones' Bridge. under Captains Gary. and covered the advance of the army toward the James River about two miles. a section of a light battery.m. 1862. under the command of Colonel Lawrence Baker. The regiment was held in position on the Quaker Road until 3 p. m. which continued the same duty. which was completed at 6. I sent Captain J. Early in the morning of the 29th. and threw the regiment into complete disorder. which killed a major. The advance pickets for composed of Companies D. and Colonel Hays' regiment infantry and covered the advance of the corps on the road to New Market. and under instructions from him took my regiment. eight men. By direction of the General commanding the army. My pickets drew them into a position in front of a section of Major West's artillery. of this regiment.RECONXOITERING SCOUTING AND PICKETING 27-30.. m. C. represented to have been composed of five companies of the First North Carolina and four of the Fourth Virginia. on the Chickahominy. where the advance Second Corps was halted for the night. White. in order that the army might have the earliest information of Captain White performed this the night of June 30. The Captain had his horse shot under him. with the exception of one squadron under Captain Town. K. and held Jones' Bridge until when the enemy attacked him in force with artillery.30 a. any attempt of the enemy to cross. at 3 o'clock a. taking many prisoners I believe about sixty. when the column was withdrawn and put on the Quaker Road.. I sent Lieutenant Davis to communicate with the gunboats on James River. which opened an effective discharge of canister at short range. m. some squadrons being engaged in keeping the wagon trains in order and in arresting stragglers. duty well. to prevent the enemy crossing at that point and to patrol the right bank of the stream. m. and E. which remained in position in the road until relieved by General McCall about noon. Porter for duty with his corps. During this time I was sent to White Oak Bridge by the chief of staff of the General — . Toward the close of the day I received an order to report to General F J. charged and drove them nearly two miles. when the reserves to my pickets. through General Heintzelman. Captain White's squadron was relieved on the evening of the 27th by Captain Town's. 28th. several horses. led by Captains Walsh and Russell. with his squadron. Benson's Battery.

each time being obliged to go for one and one-half miles through the bivouacs of the enemy. then deployed three regiments of infantry with the Chasseurs along the front. under Lieutenant-Colonel Buchanan. I withdrew my artillery to another good position. and went through the motions of going into action front. I received orders from the General commanding to take charge of the rear guard of the army. although the cavalry was suffering from the enemy's sharpshooters. came out without arms and commenced collecting their dead. I took command of the rear guard. Lieutenants Newhall and Treichel were sent by the General commanding the army to communicate with our right and center. to view the engagement then going on at that and to give such orders as might be essential to the holding of the position. At daybreak on the 2d. Upon my return from that duty. 1862.— 84 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY June 30 July 2. then advanced the whole line as if for attack. which moved up under the crest of a hill in front. of the enemy. sent back for it. I found the New York Chasseurs on the field. commanding . Observing that the feint was about to succeed. and. one of my squadrons. and assumed command of them also. and to bring me back Captain Frank responded a battery of artillery. the army. Lieutenant Newhall passed along the line of our army twice during the night. gaining confidence. m. and it was engaged from that time until next evening in controlling the movements of trains and collecting stragglers and returning them to their regiments. to investigate the position and condition of our advance. then withdrew the main body of the infantry. and I held the position until 10 a. This hazardous duty was well performed. At 10. Lieutenant-Colonel Buchanan informed me on my taking command that the enemy was threatening his pickets and advancing toward both his flanks. and to collect those which could not be removed and prepare them for burning. with the reserve regiment of infantry. of which I was destitute. which I immediately covered with a double line of skirmishers. with which the fields in front were thickly strewn. I sent an officer to the rear to assure the rear of the army of its security. hearing that the rear of the army was two miles away. by a skillful disposition of troopers in sections. I rode to Malvern Hill. seeing that my regiment could be well employed along the route. pushing forward simultaneously from the right and left wings columns of cavalry and disposing parties of horsemen far to the right and left to divert the attention of the enemy and to give me information of their movements. and soon had four guns in good position in rear on a hill. promptly to this call. During the night of the 30th. and then the line point. At 12 o'clock on the night of the 1st instant. composed of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry and four regiments of United States Infantry. created a very good semblance of a battery. While he was coming. I sent an officer to the rear to direct the cavalry I had upon the road to push the trains forward with all despatch. on the James River. The enemy withdrew Parties to the woods in their rear.

During the "Seven Days' Fight" an episode of particular interest to the Third occurred on Sunday morning. Locke. I have the honor to call your attention to the inclosed report of casualties* during all these operations of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. 1862. very respectfully. June 29. Averell. and we Third Pennsylvanians lived on in eager hope of a chance to retaliate upon the First North Carolinians. W. 28 85 June July 2. Wm. of skirmishers. at Hunter's Mill. near Willis' Church. Colonel of the First Lawrence S. T. upon the here that I did not observe over a dozen of our dead and that our wounded were all under shelter. and three enlisted men captured or missing. It will be remembered that on November 10. North Carolina Cavalry. I may mention field. 1861. between its junctions with the New Market or James River Road and the Charles City Road. eleven. sir. I passed through their lines with my wearied forces and came to this camp. . On the previous evening. under Lieutenant-Colonel Owen. A mile farther on I found Brigadier-General Wessells in excellent position with his brigade. Captain Fred. The affair is mentioned in General Averell's article. That incident was not allowed to pass into oblivion. which was destroyed. The march was continued without incident until the rear crossed Turkey Island Bridge. transportation. June 28. on the Quaker Road. Assistant Adjutant-General. From an early hour the rain commenced falling. commanding the cavalry killed. the First North Carolina Cavalry ambushed and knocked out a portion of our regiment. and its increasing heaviness assisted to render my operations obscure to the enemy. screening these operations with galloping skirmishers of Two guns taken from the enemy the night before had to be spiked and the carriages broken for want of cavalry along the line in front. printed in Chapter VI. outside of the Defences of Washington. Baker. Total. and a mile farther on BrigadierGeneral Naglee with a second line. * Six enlisted men two enlisted men wounded. Colonel Commanding. to withdraw. As soon as the artillery and infantry were well upon the road. I am. as also in his official report above quoted. leaving twelve wagons without mules ready for them to destroy. and now came the opportunity.— WILLIS' CHURCH RETREAT FROM MALVERN HILL. Considering our rear perfectly secure. Fifth Provisional Army Corps. I directed my cavalry. your obedient servant.

June 29. while the infantry also opened fire. made a brief stand. four officers. by the dense woods. approaching furious charge. one in the lane and the other in open ground to the right which had been placed in position in front killed of the church. amounted to sixty-three killed.86 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. General Rufus Barringer. and reThe enemy's acknowledged losses establishing the picket posts. When the head of the attacking party had reached a point about fifty yards from the guns." Accordingly. the latter. N. emerged on a gallop in a I. As the Confederate column. driving them back in the direction from which they had come. who with a porCompany H. including followed the retreating pickets. operating on the Confederate right. hidden tion of at first H. and captured. early in the morning of the 29th. and then Captains Walsh and Russell. they poured into it two rounds of double canister. charged upon the broken column of rebels all huddled up in the lane. and headed his column in a southeastwardly direction down a lane running to Willis' Church. and F of the Third in column of fours. 1862. the Lieutenant William E. The Confederate onslaught was speedily checked. situated on the Quaker Road about three-quarters of a mile south of the junction mentioned. which itself fell still farther back upon the infantry and two sections of artillery. had been directed by General Lee "to make a bold. with five companies of his own regiment and two hundred men of the Third Virginia Cavalry under Colonel Thomas F Goode. and then fell back upon the reserve. daring scout and find out where the enemy was. Some distance out the lane Captain Walsh was picketing to the front with Companies Pennsylvania. in which Cornelius Vanderbilt was and Joseph Williams wounded. wounded. then Captain in the First North . The enemy. was in command of the advance outposts in lane. Miller. with the three companies of the Third. he approached our lines from the Long Bridge Road (which branches off from the James River or New Market Road near New Market and runs northeastwardly to the junction of the Charles City and Quaker Roads). Crumpler. on approaching the two guns in the lane. led by Major T. uncovered them by opening to the right and left.

At the first round. Here the head of the column was greeted by a fire of artillery and infantry. before referred to. in his "Campaigns page 79. a portion of the Ninth. both under Lieutenant-Colonel Baker. We chatted over "Hunter's Mill" with them. . Baker. Among the mortally wounded was the gallant (now) Major T. all huddled up in the lane. gives this account of the affair the 29th a reconnoissance five of Stuart's Cav- was made on the Charles City Road companies of the First North Carolina Cavalry and the Third Virginia Cavalry. This disaster served as a wholesome lesson in making of the Cavalry. sixty-three Ninth North Carolinians were put lwrs de combat.* with the Third Virginia make a reconnoissance around McClellan's army. and shortly after died. In an instant the artillery and infantry of the enemy opened upon our devoted heads. A mounted charge was immediately ordered. McClellan. and missing. wounded. drove it back to Willis' Church. alry. B. S. The North Carolinians were in front. 1862. 87 June 29. and a charge. 1863.: : willis' church. When the excitement which is inseparable from an affair of this kind had sufficiently subsided to allow of an examination of our prisoners. having sustained a loss of sixty-three in killed. Carolina Cavalry. as will be related in its proper place. universally lamented." Major H. page 420 On the 29th of June. and when lifted from the road was conscious and boasted that he had killed one Yankee. was struck fifteen times. and struck the Yankee line at Willis' Church. Vol. which led through a long lane up to the Yankee camp. Major Crumpler. was ordered to mounted charges. I. cursing the North. * On The Ninth North Carolina Regiment was the First North Carolina Cavalry. and they acknowledged that we had fully squared accounts. His charge had led him unwittingly into the presence of a by large force of infantry. they were found to be members of the First North Carolina Cavalry. notably at Yates' Ford on October 15. where orders and maneuvers were alike impossible. The enemy's cavalry was discovered on the Quaker Road. and the whole command was forced to retire in utter confusion. and Colonel Baker was forced to retire. History North Carolina Regiments. under the command of Colonel L. the First North Carolina leading. N. gives the following account of this action. of the First North Carolina. We faced those North Carolinians often again in the after years. Crumpler.

Averell. It gave the first information to the Confederate commander of our movement to the left toward Malvern Hill and the James River. Artillery. and the discovery of the movement to the westward resulted in the Confederate commander making his countermarch in the same direction. and the Eighth Pennsylvania Reserves." as Colonel Powell states in his History of the Fifth Army Corps. Colonel Averell with his cavalry and Benson's Battery crossing over into the Quaker Road. 1862. and retraced its steps to a point about a mile west of the forks of the roads from which it had started. leaving. which were to be pushed forward in rear of Keyes' and Porter's Corps and placed under protection of the gunboats on the James River. "At 5 p. and he was prompt in taking advantage of it. "McCall's Division. moved out all under the command of Colonel William to assume position at the front as ordered. the enemy. By some mistake Road until (the advance it continued down the Long Bridge having passed the junction with the Darbytown Road) at about midnight it came in contact with Longstreet's pickets." acknowledged that they did not get the better of us. June 29-30. Here the division again halted. General McClellan ordered McCall's Division to occupy an advanced position on Long Bridge Road during the passage of the trains.88 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. Benson's Battery of the Second U. a squadron of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. This was one of the very rare occasions when "our friends. under Captain Town. m. left in front.. Soon after the repulse of the cavalry attack. On that day the fierce battles of Savage's Station and the Peach Orchard (or Aliens Farm) were being fought north of the Swamp. Newhall contains the following graphic account of some other incidents of the "Seven the W . The affair near Willis' Church was the only contact between any portions of either army on the 29th south of the White Oak Swamp. and near where a by-road crossed from the Long Bridge Road into the Quaker Road at Willis' Church. Shortly before daybreak the command was withdrawn. and thence to Malvern Hill. preceded by an advance guard of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. in position to watch the Long Bridge Road towards New Market. however." The Memoir of Lieutenant Walter S. S.

on Saturday [June 28] the army was in motion. „ s WlLLIAMS> A A G •• As Mrs. tions for sounding the swamp.t- White Oak Swamp: "Headquarters. For the last five days we have lived on excitement and a few crackers. with instructions to say to General Woodbury. He was so positive and minute in his details on these points that the General ordered the work to proceed without further inquiry. and gave the depth at various distances. The bridge was finished at sunrise. Took the following order to General Woodbury. and the direction of all the roads within the field of operations. shattered. in and stood him especially during the terrible Newhall interposed. until. way back by half a dozen He was a natural topog- course of his scout and picket duty gained a knowledge and stream.. This faculty. which he knew from occasionally crossing it. No time is to be lost. remarkIn riding over a country. June j H < To /- * ur General Heintzelman. the depth of the waters. YYister wrote in her Memoir: ably developed. the latter began to give direcTime pressed. every moment was rior officers. i> 1862. Then followed the seven days' fight. 8 r p. "The General commanding directs you to send an officer at once to White Oak Swamp.. they found themselves once more in safety on the banks of the James River. in order to sink the piles. 1862. the danger was imminent. who was sent there this afternoon. rapher. precious. Averell. but he could find his roads to the point from which he had started. broken. all "We . or rather instinct. and the wagons had mostly crossed by afterarrived here last night." which are also mentioned in brief by Colonel He wrote home: June 27. rapidity. he seized its prominent features as if by intuition. he comprehended the "lay of the land. He could not only find his way back over a road which Newhall had the he had once traveled. but undaunted. At 2 a. m. Newhall arrived at General Woodbury's at 10 o'clock p. On carrying the above order to General Woodbury. m. week which was beginning. the extent of the woods. m. 3: having acted through the day as rear-guard of the army. 1 • 1 27. bump of locality. that the General orders the bridges he is to construct across the swamp to be pushed to-night with all possible Let the officer you send bring back General Woodbury's reply. Newhall writes from Harrison s Landing.— MOVEMENT FROM THE YORK TO THE JAMES." and never lost his bearings. as the phrenologists call it. presenting an impregnable front to the enemy. through which we need not follow our army in its disastrous retreat. July right. June 27 89 July 2. Days' Fight. to hasten building the bridge across . was well known to his supe- and in the of the situation of every hill good stead constantly on the Peninsula. the enemy was advancing.

When beyond our lines. The fatigue of the previous week had been excessive. On reaching the bridge at White Oak Swamp. he performed an act of signal daring. m. as the service was one of extreme danger. throwing them into the greatest confusion. I was sent to General Heintzelman to pilot him across the swamp. artillery. the nearer camp fires blinded the messenger with their glare. Franklin and Heintzelman were left at different points to protect the retreat. noon. our regiment their batteries in less than two hours. fighting and falling back with the rest of the forces. Our regiment crossed at daylight. and by the James River. during which two of our companies dashed at them splendidly. moreover. the eve of the battle of Malvern Hill. June 28-30. and the mission was eagerly accepted by Lieutenants NewNewhall was to report to General Franklin. which was done The enemy effected a crossing at Woodbury's Bridge about dark. regiment of rebel cavalry came charging down Newmarket Road after our pickets. silencing In the meantime. and keeping the roads prisoners. who replied handsomely. and a strong force came down Charles City Road. bewildering him by their number. nothing General McClellan asked for volunteers to carry dispatches to the missing Generals. the road was blocked with troops." The Memoir continues Newhall was constantly engaged during the whole week. which well deserves to be recorded. When we James River (Fitz John Porter's left). 1862. was supporting batteries. which was mostly too high to do us any hurt. the communication probably being cut off.: 90 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. early on Sunday morning. the chances of meeting the enemy in force were a thousand to one. the distant ones flickered like ignis fatui. and a general engagement throughout the day was the consequence. It is impossible for one who has not been in the field to evening. and we were obliged to pass along the Newmarket Road under a strong fire of artilAt 7 o'clock a lery. still greater. and taking about sixty and two wounded. he found that General Franklin was already on the retreat up the Nine- . attended by two orderlies. fall. On this night [June 30]. killing and wounding several. he had traveled the road but once. and wagons. or detached parties. the rebels had just commenced an attack on the General. when the rest of the army had reached had been heard from them. or pickets. the aspect It was after nightof things had entirely changed within a few hours. and at hall and Treichel. with a loss of only one killed arrived on open. Our regiment was ordered to General Fitz John Porter. fancy the danger and difficulty of the enterprise. but a section of artillery opened on them. and. which must have left him little leisure to note the landmarks. driving up stragglers. and those of falling in with scouts. once took the road to the White Oak Swamp Bridge. At about 11 a. Colonel Averell said he knew two officers in his regiment who would undertake it.

in safety. The man replied. he boldly made for the road again." in a suspicious tone. who assured him that his service would not be forgotten. out of disappointment. who put a pistol to his head and ordered him to dismount. was to be lost. June mile 30 91 July i. and struck across He was stopped by a swamp. received the reply. and not be galloped on. m. to his extreme mystification. and pressed on at full speed through the increasing darkness. he asthird. through the darkness beyond. but at last reluctantly Newhall let him go. and asked if the other was a Mississippian. It was 3 o'clock a. and having almost seven miles to go before ." was the reply. Newhall galloped on. "That's a good joke!" but in another moment he discovered that his captor was one of our own pickets. the soldier observed. him that it would be impossible to return. He overtook the General about six miles from the bridge. For nearly a mile his road lay through the camps and hospitals of the enemy. ''We are Mississippi troops." But he managed to push by without raising any alarm. but immediately afterwards rode into an encampment. at which. but he resolved to attempt it. The man would not believe it. Newhall replied that Franklin had said it would be impossible even to return the first time. and knowing that no time the country. till stopped by a With perfect coolness. delivered his message. alone: "As everybody said I'd be taken. and set off a second time. sumed an authoritative tone. But it was of the greatest importance that a second message should reach General Franklin. General Franklin assured to go back by the way by which he had come. and not speak above a whisper. and detained him for half an hour. that the road was already in possession of the enemy. He delivered General Franklin's report. and asked one of the soldiers what his regiment was. "Yes. and some new obstacle arose and the risk increased every instant. and was warmly thanked by McClellan. which he could not remember having seen when he passed three hours before. and almost leaving the other behind. and General McClellan asked if he would attempt it again. losing one of his orderlies altoHe recrossed the bridge gether. when I fairly got on the road again. and at the same moment another thrust a flaming torch almost into Newhall's face to see "who was riding about at that time of night. half-minded to shoot him. which was the first news that had been received from him. and immediately turned his horse's head. towards the James River." said Newhall. He reined in his horse. ''Then hold your position. Newhall at once complied. and I thought that one was enough for that purpose. endeavoring to pass himself off for a Mississippian. leaving the blaze of the burning stores behind. hurried on. He got a fresh horse. He found General McClellan on horseback. At last he was suddenly brought to a halt by a sentry.— movement from the york to the james. and finally reached Headquarters. leaving everything that could carried away in flames. anxiously awaiting his return. 1862. but that he was willing to try. Road. who challenged him as he passed. struck a light.

and Privates E. anxiety. 1862. resolute face." forget his appearance. James Nicholas. who arrived at General McClel- woods headquarters just as I caught him. lan's General Hancock subsequently wrote. want of food. called for a detail of his escort to carry an important order to General Kearney. 1862. It was considered a hazardous mission. Charles Doude. I rode slowly for a short distance before reaching the turning-point. came thundering over the bridge and up the hill with a cheer. between dusk and dawn in the short summer's night. and. taken from the two companies then attached to his headquarters. of Com- . of Comof the perilous ride of a The following account pany A "Late in the afternoon of June 30. had anticipated the second. After all the fatigue. and loss of sleep of the preceding week. promptly reported for duty: Sergeant Edward McLaughlin and Corporal John McFeeters. and returned with one to General McClellan. Francis Delaney. Thomas McCormick. Wm. General Heintzelman.: — 92 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. as of everything he did. Newhall's head had been cool and clear enough for such exciting work. I didn't stop to ask any questions. acting on the first order. reaching the fork at the bridge. but it was remembered long afterwards by those who had no personal interest in him as one of the most gallant exploits of the campaign. Since that time I have but rarely seen him. June 30 July i. and arrived in the neighborhood just before daybreak. beset with perils of every sort. Peter McCabe. in case I had to run the firing." General Franklin. My horse caved in just after getting me out of harms way. but I shall "I recollect never night. and followed the General. to give the beast a few miles of fresh wind and legs. He brought to General Franklin a message. in reference to Lieutenant Newhall and his memorable ride: to him well during the night march from White Oak Swamp James River. He made light of this feat. on that eventful squad of the Third Pennsylvania during the "Seven Days' Fight" is furnished by Corporal (afterwards Sergeant) John McFeeters. and the following troopers. being then on the Charles City Road. I gave him the spur in time to get up a pretty fair 'home stretch just as we were passing the most dubious place. McFeeters. and he had ridden sixty-four miles. I made the horse put his best foot first. and I recollect the hair-breadth escapes he made from capture on that occasion. finding the coast clear. his calm. and I dismounted to rest us both. I had been here about five minutes when the enemy commenced shelling the 1 in front of the bridge. Dickson.

but the Sergeant. ''Proceeding at a rapid lines. strapped to his saddle. Townrow. poral McFeeters' attention. and return with possible dispatch. 1862. no one else being able to see anything. which was the signal for the rebels to jump to their feet and open fire upon the flying troopers. sylvania Cavalry. Nicholas' horse was likewise killed. ceived three bullets and resembled a fishing net when opened His brother William received a bullet on the side of his carbine. but his rider ran into the woods on the other side and escaped. Nicholas insisted that he saw arms and legs of men in the underbrush. McCabe and McCormick were killed and five horses. "The rebels had evidently noticed the approach of the squad and had hurriedly concealed themselves in the underbrush and . he gave the order to retreat. and if they kept on they would soon run into the rebel army. as also one from a masked battery which opened upon them. being charged to keep a sharp lookout for scouting parties of the enemy and not to get off the road which the troops had passed over. Delaney's horse was also killed and he was captured. only to be killed afterwards at Mine re- Run.movement from the york to the james. until General found. June 30. and Edward B. the squad rode on. refused to turn back. the detail was soon outside our and about sundown the Sergeant was told by one of the were on the wrong road. When the top of the hill was almost reached. All the men were struck except Dickthe son. Corporal McFeeters' talma. that no troops had passed that way since the rain of the night before. 93 pany A. and again started men that they forward. and he then saw the rebel line lying in the underbrush about ten yards distant. not agreeing with him. of The Sergeant in Company C. a dog This attracted Corcrossed the road and stopped in the woods. Doude's mare received five bullets. who escaped untouched. but carried him out of the fire before falling dead. out. trot. The small squad rode the entire length of the front of at least one full regiment and received their volley. "Reaching a wood-covered hill. but after a casual examination. and his pistol stopped another. deliver the order. Third Penncommand was instructed to Kearney was all follow the road taken by the troops. Quickly wheeling his horse.

however. and after the bridge over Turkey Run was destroyed. expecting to receive a large party. Lieutenant Miller's Company (H). and proceeded leisurely along to Harrison's Landing. the First Brigade of Regular Infantry. and it was set on fire immediately after by Lieutenant-Colonel Gibson. Colonel Averell commanded the rear guard all the way to Turkey Bridge and a mile beyond that point. and by our own actual knowledge. and the New York Chasseurs of Keyes' Corps. but he cannot take from us that to which we are entitled. If their left company had closed in on the road. here and there. and was carrying it in a sling. of Keyes' Corps. simulating the movements of a light battery how we rushed over the field. successfully deceiving the enemy. was him that the rear guard was assigned. comprising the Third. He is entitled to whatever credit belongs to him. and then withdrawing after we had given the opportunity to the Regulars to safely retire. Those of us who were there know that we were there. The latter had been wounded in the arm. as can be proved by an examination of the official reports of every General in the neighborhood except himself. — . not a man could have escaped." The masterly manner small command in in which Colonel Averell handled his covering the falling back of the army from Malvern Hill McClellan for the to Harrison's Landing on the James River is well described in his narrative. and Buchanan all mention the fact of Averell's having covered the retreat. we passed in behind his line. and Fourteenth United States of Porter's Corps. it in his official report gave General Keyes the credit movement which properly belonged official According to the to report of the latter. Through some inadvertence. 1862. was the last party to cross Turkey Bridge. As it was. his command consist- ing of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Twelfth. it is almost incredible that any of them passed through that terrible fire and came out alive. of the Third Pennsylvania. where he found General Wessells. The official reports of Generals Fitz John Porter. General to Colonel Averell. June 30 July 2. Fourth. and can vouch for every statement of our gallant Colonel. General Keyes was fully three miles away.— 94 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. placed the battery in position. We can recollect very distinctly our impromptu maneuverings. Sykes.

.

Company F. Miller. Captain Walter Company S.'. Company L. Xewhau.. Captain Francis J). r J iVww^Bi 1 dB ^ ' ^""wfci^ JrW^ H WWW Captain William E. Captain IIuwakd Kh.• '. A.moxds. \Yktiii:i:ill. Company H. .

Army. is hereby appointed Acting Brigadier-General. Headquarters Army of the Potomac. After the retreat from Malvern Hill. the General commanding this the proper performance of may 95 . 1862. 6. In general engagements he will assign to the different portions of the army such cavalry force as may be necessary. 194. is from the command of the Cavalry Reserve. and will proceed to concentrate it without delay.— CHAPTER Harrison's VIII (Continued). [and] will be held responsible for all outpost and other duty appertaining to cavalry. the — July 3 September 1862. July 5. on the James River. Virginia of cavalry sycamore church return march to yorktown and washington. where the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac were established. not far from Harrison's Landing. and is assigned to the command of all the cavalry serving in this army. and that we had helped him to earn it: Special Orders Cavalry went into camp No. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Averell. Colonel William W. the Third Pennsylvania at Westover Landing. We all felt that the promotion was the reward for his efficient services. and from duty with army. relieved this instructions to the Adjutant-General of the ********** ********** Camp near Harrison's Landing. United States Army. He will detail to the different corps such mounted force as be required for orderly duty. detaching our much-esteemed Colonel from the immediate command of the Third. 13. St. The Peninsular Campaign landing. George Cooke. No sooner had we settled down for a much-needed rest than the following orders were issued. He will report direct to. and receive his orders from. —rearrangement 6. and will proceed without delay to Washington and report for Brigadier-General P. especially during the present campaign.

will remain on duty at general headquarters. Keyes. The Second United States Cavalry will be under the orders of the Provost Marshal-General as heretofore. 195. Third Pennsylvania. at T^ -P 5(C The cavalry serving in the different corps Westover Landing. General Stoneman will report direct to. Brigadier-General is assigned to the command of the Orders No. and will. of yesterday's George Stoneman. Williams. and Mclntyre's squadron. near Harrison's Landing. Headquarters Army of the Potomac. without delay. Paragraph 13. of Special revoked. and will report to Brigadier-General E. 1862. July 5-0. Fourth Cavalry. Gregg. is cavalry. Emory is relieved from duty with the Brigadier-General Cavalry Reserve. however. Averell. and without delay. H. General Stoneman. and receive his orders from. July 1862. be kept fully instructed as to the roads. at these headquarters. The Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry will be organized as a corps of guides. Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. and In case of a movement. the General commanding this army. 194. and Colonel David McM. Rush). by frequent reconnoissances and scouts. to be commanded by Colonel William W. Camp 8. and the two following orders were issued. General Stoneman the character of the country. D. com- W . In general engagements he will assign to the different portions of the army such cavalry as may be necessary. effecting an important rearrangement of of the all the cavalry in the Army Potomac Special Orders No. He will organize the cavalry under his orders. returned on the following day from sick leave. the cavalry serving in this of the army except Second United States and Mclntyre's squadron will Fourth Cavalry. Assistant Adjutant-General. 2|C report to General ^ i|C ^C ^jC SfC ^fC By command of Major-General McClellan: S. with the exception of the Sixth Pennsylvania (Colonel Richard H. Averell. will army. He will detail to the may be required for orderly duty. will send detachments from this regiment to guide the different divisions.: 96 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. into two brigades. 6. He will be held responsible for the proper performance of all outpost and other duty pertaining to cavalry. chief of all date. The commanding officers of cavalry serving in the different corps will at once report in person to General proceed to concentrate it different corps such mounted force as Stoneman 9.

making the same reports daily as called for from Colonel Averell. Colonel Gregg. Colonel Gregg. Barker's squadron is assigned to the First [Second] Corps d'Armee. temporarily. Colonel Averell Cavalry. Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry. De Laney's [?] squadron. 1862. Peck's Division. General Sumner. to the Second Brigade. 5. General Orders Xo. One squadron of the Eighth Illinois to the Third [Fourth] Corps. 97 manding Fourth Corps. One squadron of the First New York to the Fourth [Fifth] Corps. The following organization Cavalry. Fourth Pennsylvania First New York W. Brigade. Gregg commanding. Childs. 1. Williams. Colonel Averell. The brigade commanders will make the details specified in the foregoing paragraphs at once. 4. Headquarters Cavalry Division Army of the Potomac. Colonel D. The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. of the cavalry forces in this army is published for the information and immediate action of the commanding officers of the various regiments and detachments: 1. and will make a daily report to these headquarters of the results of the operations of his brigade for the information of the General commanding the Army of the Potomac. Lieutenant-Colonel McVicar. 3. will do the same in regard to the left wing of the army. Colonel Averell. Assistant Adjutant-General. July 8. will keep the country in front of the right wing of the army and on its right thoroughly scouted over and patrolled by strong parties. The Eighth Illinois Cavalry. vicinity in the of 7 . both become thoroughly acquainted with all the country officers and men. One squadron of the First New York to the Fifth [Sixth] Corps. of Naglee's By command of Major-General McClellan: S. are assigned to the First Brigade. General Keyes.REARRANGEMENT OF THE CAVALRY. the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. ********** for the command. Colonel William commanding. July 6-8. General Heintzelman. Colonel McReynolds. 2. and the Sixth New York (two squadrons). commanding First Brigade. General Porter. McM. General Franklin. 1862. to the Second [Third] Corps. commanding Second Brigade. Colonel Rush will see that his regiment. Lieutenant-Colonel Gamble.

Camp H. Brigade commanders will see that the regiments in this brigade are so located that they can have open country to form in. set clear. A. army. were well placed in our camp at Westover Landing. Alexander. near Harrison's Landing. Weather clear. excepting that our proximity to an extensive marsh gave a rapacious breed of flies opporThe summer sun multiplied tunity to feed upon our horses. 1862. on the James River. them into the millions. and every man who had a good horse was anxious to be sent out on picket duty. July 3-8. Fifth Cavalry. and detail an officer and twenty men to report daily at the headquarters of each army corps. 6. 8. 72). Drill for two hours. Each company will be allowed but one wagon. at the Regimental Journal (Continued from page July 3. Received orders for review by General commanding. end of three days. E. Review postponed. The whole regular cavalry will be consolidated into as many comthis plete squadrons as the numbers present will allow. Small detail of orderlies. F. Sun I. 7. the men would coax their comrades to exchange places with them so as not to have to return to camp. By order of Brigadier-General Stoneman. so as to get out of camp and for a time be relieved of the terrible pest.98 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. on reconnoissance. and near Harrison's Landing. to straggle after orders had been given. to act as guides in that corps. and. Companies D. July 1862. Sun set clear. their men 5. Captains White and Jones ordered under arrest for allowing 4. and in addition one wagon will be allowed to the officers and one for the field and staff. stamping their feet and whisking their heads and tails. 1862. All transportation over this in the regiment will be turned over to the Quartermaster-in-Chief of this army. When the picket relief appeared. Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. on main avenues of communication. that many of them became unable to stand up. and wore themselves out so completely. The horses were so worried. and actually died from exhaustion and the sting of the flies. 1862. Clear. which annoyed the We men as well as the animals. and the officers will be assigned to each as the interests of the service may demand. Colonel K . Returned to camp. July Camp at Charles City Point. Companies turned out small. commanding division: First Lieutenant. J. the line Cloudy. Small parties engaged in examining ground to the right of of the army. if possible.

Clear and very warm. H. Clear. A. E and K on reconnoissance. 1862. con- tinued until dark. Clear. July 7. reconnoissance. 1862. Companies E and L not returned. 1862. G. 1862. Army of July 6. 1862. July 5-22. July 21. and Robinson. 99 Averell appointed Acting Brigadier-General of the the Potomac. Sun set July 10. and I. and G. commanded by Cap- July 22. and B on nightfall. Sun set clear. Companies A. July 8. Sun July 9. Camp Clear. At retreat heavy rain. D. 1862. G. Companies C. clear. Cavalry. F. M Sun set clear. accompanied with vivid flashes of lightning. on reconnoissance. on reconnoissance. Clear. 14. warm morning. Companies D. tain Same. L. 1862. Twenty men and one commissioned Sun set clear. Companies L and M on Slight rain after dark. Clear and warm during the day. Forty men detailed for picket duty. reconnoissance. Three at stable call. Sun set clear. Clear and warm. Sun set clear. continued after July 18. officer de- July 12. 1862. Clear and reconnoissance. 1862. F. July 11. tailed for picket duty. F. 1862. At tattoo heavy thunder shower. H. set clear. Companies D. and M on reconnoissance. Two non-commissioned officers and twelve privates detailed for picket duty. Morning brought clear and warm. 1862. Clear and warm in morning. . B. rebels from reconnoissance. returned Georgia reconnoissance. commanded by Captain Robinson. July 13. C. 1862. July 15. Grounds policed by details from regiment.CAMP NEAR HARRISONS LANDING. Companies B. Clear and warm. Companies A. 20. Sun set clear. 1862. and K on reconnoissance. Heavy in rain at retreat. Afternoon cloudy. Companies Rain commanded by Captain Walsh. 1862. E and sent L in. 1862. C. 1862. continued July 17. L. 1862. on rebel prisoners in. Two Companies G and H detailed for Sun set clear. Same. July 16. Rainy. and near Harrison's Landing. Clear and warm in morning. Clear and warm. I. July 14. July 19. Ground policed according to circular dated July after dark. on reconnoissance. I. E.

1862. 1862. Sun set clear. Regiment engaged duty. 1862. E. were recalled. continued with few intermissions until after dark. Companies D and G. I. and on reconnoissance. and M on reconnoissance. Orderlies furnished. Morning clear and warm. Morning drill. Sun set clear. 1862. and noissance. Encamped without the camp about three miles and returned on morning sance. Clear and warm. policing grounds. Clear and warm. Fourth day of the G. M. killed. 1862. H L. Brigade review in morning. commanding Cavalry Brigade. and police duty generally. Camp and fatigue duty. Lieutenant-Colonel Owen assumed temporary command of the regiment by Special Order No. Clear and warm. Sun Camp bombarded by rebels at 12 midnight. and M After form- ing and proceeding a short distance from camp. Clear and warm. Drill in Companies G. Regiment engaged generally Sun set clear. H July 31. B. Slight rain at dark. Police and fatigue duty. Companies A. set clear. 1. C. commanded by Captain Robinson. L. Camp Landing. Sun set clear. convened in this camp by Special Order No. on reconJuly 25. Various Warm details and clear. in fatigue duty. near Harrison's July 29. Heavy rain. 1862. Companies A. August 1. saddled and held in readiness for reconnoissance. Drill in morning. 1862. Clear and warm. Morning drill. 1862.— IOO HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Regiment ordered to move at 6 o'clock precisely by Colonel Averell. Drill morning. Companies B and C returned from cattle guard. K July 30. Sun set clear. preparing for review. July 23 August 2. Companies F. C. Fatigue parties. Company I. K Sun on near Harrison's Landing. B and C not yet returned. in fatigue July 28. Sun set clear. Company D on reconnoissance. . August 2. Grounds policed and fatigue duty. reconnoissance. 1862. Drill in Company D detailed for reconnois- morning. Police and fatigue duty. 1862. July 23. 1862. E for furnished set clear. July 26. 1862. I. on account of scarcity of officers. 1862. of the 2d. F and on reconnoissance. at Mounted drill in morning 8 a. Companies B and C detailed with three days' rations for cattle guard. 8 ordered by BrigadierGeneral Stoneman. and Lieutenant Treichel of Company A. Warm and clear. assumed temporary command of Company D. etc. Clear and warm. Three horses Clear and warm. morning. Regiment engaged in policing grounds. carrying forage. on reconnoissance. dated July 23. July 27. Clear and warm. Lieutenant Hess. July 24. m.

Sherwood. Chas. Captain Company A. July 8. Weather changeable during the day alternate rain and sunshine. Hezlep. under command m. Gillies. Company H returned from reconI. H. In obedience to General Order No. Lieutenant Company E. Took three prisoners and two horses. Returned to camp about dark. T. Jno. of the dismissal of Lieutenants Lodge and Chandler. Surgeon of this regiment. and proceeded to White Oak Swamp. and Fifth United States Cavalry. Captain Gary from absent to present for duty. Camp drill. Regimental Quartermaster. and K on reconnoissance. 1862. in conjunction with a detachment of Fifth Regular Cavalry. 1862. in conjunction with Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. killing three. of Colonel Averell. to be Director Medical Affairs of Brigade. Companies B and F returned. E. H. Companies E. Company A on reconnoissance. and had one man slightly wounded and one horse killed. 1862. which we burned. Wm. Morning 5. D. m. Geo. constituting the First Cavalry Brigade. Lieutenant Company B. and K left camp at 5 a. Vernou. Clear and very warm. Clear and very warm. appointed Assistant Surgeon to this regiment. King. Companies A. I. Colonel Averell assumed command. Lieutenant Edmonds from absent sick to present. Captain Company M. B. Brigade Quartermaster. Sun set clear.camp near harrison's landing. August 6. noissance. Clear and warm. Sun set clear. Sun set clear. clear and warm. 7 from Headquarters Cavalry Division. H. They succeeded in capturing twenty-two rebel prisoners. August 1862. C. 1862. C. started at 1 a. 9. August August 3. Walton. 1862. ception of Companies B and Companies returned with the exF. First New York Cavalry. crossed the river to the opposite bank in transports. Companies returned at retreat. B. 1862. H. L. Company I. T. F. of the following regiments: Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry. set clear. ioi 3-9. Charles City Road. and M. Fighting at continued intervals until we reached their camp. commenced firing about a mile from the shore. Robt. also Dr. these regiments. They belonged to the Tenth Confederate Cavalry.. F. discovered the enemy's pickets. A. Brannix. Companies A. H. The following officers have lately resigned from the regiment: Chas. F. The last three weeks the regiment has lost upwards of seventy horses . Acting Assistant Adju- tant-General. G. D. and K ordered on reconnoissance. 1862. Same. 1862. Received official notice on the 8th inst. The following appointments were also made: Second Lieutenant H. First Lieutenant Philip Pollard. Weather August 7. — August August 4. Sun August 8. formerly Second Lieutenant Company L. Sun set clear. near Harrison's Landing. Douglass. Warm and clear. and wounding one. Lieutenant Company C. Companies B.

and clear. 153. D. Weather August 10. of which one Long Bridge. Sun set clear." The has also vacillated. and prompted the enemy to try at us with their artillery across the river. 1862. Wagons packed and all worthless articles condemned preparatory to moving. and two horses and three men were captured. August Camp near Harrison's Landing. Companies C and H returned from Companies I and G on same. August 13.. thereby giving a shadow apparent through a shirt without any biting through shoe leather. upwards of fifteen and twenty The new order to of an increase in percentage and then decreasing.102 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. August 12. 1862. and I on July 10. on reconnoissance. Lying at night as we did along the banks of the James. ready to move Special attention called to General Order No. The reconnoissance made by Captain Walsh and Companies H. 1862. at 4 a. animals seems almost unendurable even in them. from cook houses is properly disposed the common fly. Companies A. cover the sinks with boughs and disinfecting and burying dead animals. August 14. Regiment paid clear and warm. Order countermanded. this day with two days' cooked rations. Sun set clear. but the heat are somewhat bars Mosquito all day. 1862. as mentioned in the Regimental Jourwent to within three miles of light cavalry picket. Warm noissance. G. E. Sun set clear. on reconnoissance. etc. Companies A and Thunder showers at tattoo. F. mosquitoes yarn of of truth to the Western the horses. Received orders at 9 p. m. Companies C and H on reconnoissance. July io — August 14. Warm reconnoissance. and 11. m. at a moment's notice. Company A returned from reconCompanies D and E on same. has had a salutary effect. 1862. 1862. nal. the grounds being policed every morning health of the men and great care taken that of. which appears to sting effort. M and clear. and worry the poor penchant to take quite a to They appear in request. etc. which was accordingly done. offal A peculiarity of this place is M by Major Richardson. Orders to hold ourselves in readiness to move at 2 p. six miles of The party then went to within White Oak Swamp without further signs of any enemy. cartridges. encountered a man was killed. During the night of July 31 we were awakened about an hour . but the provision of first order to be carried out. to move m. Clear and warm. from the excessive heat and disease called "lung and putrid sore throat. in the morning of 15th. Warm and clear. our camp fires were plainly visible from the other shore.

Crossing by means of a ferryboat which was in waiting at Westover Landing. under command of Captain Belton. and followed Lieutenant Mcintosh so closely that it was they distance until the advance was near Cox's Mill. that they impetuously pressed to the front. While we would not detract from the bravery of the Fifth Regulars. the Third. July after taps 31 103 August 3. Waiting only long enough to be sure that our men were really coming. of the Third Pennsylvania. and Lieutenant William E. were so anxious to get into the advance. There were no casualties in our regiment. led the advance. the opposite bank near the Coles house. excepting the killing of two horses. and whizz of a shell. of Company H. 1862. consisting of Companies E. by a distant boom! then the whirr. Mcintosh.— SYCAMORE CHURCH. We were powerless to defend ourselves. F. the fact is that the men under Lieutenant Miller. the rebels fell back in haste. followed closely. and the balance of the command ful at close supporting distance. Miller. and one hundred and fifty men of his own regiment. Colonel Averell took over a force. Lieutenant Mcintosh ordered sabres to be drawn. but our renowned "Monitor" and other gunboats in the river moved up to short range and gave back doses of double canister with such precision that the whole affair was over in thirty minutes. and Colonel Averell was ordered by General McClellan to take a party across the river and drive away the enemy from the other side. whirr. with twenty-five men of the Fifth United States Cavalry. followed in quick succession by many others. but maintained a respect- There they and tried to stand us off with their carbines. and we chased them beyond Sycamore Church. Accordingly. It was neither pleasant nor comfortable for us to contemplate that the enemy could annoy us in this manner. on August 3. consisting of Captain Owens' squadron of the Fifth United States Cavalry. of the Third. capturing their camp. and led a charge over the bridge. four companies of the First Michigan Infantry. in a few quick trips he had landed the force on Lieutenant John B. Thirteenth Virginia The rebel cavalry—the —were soon found. rallied in rear of the mill who first reached the camp of the Thirteenth Virginia Cavalry . and K. Colonel Averell rode with Captain Owens. H. when the charge was ordered. dashing up the hill after them.

and they retreated with a celerity which soon placed them beyond the range of the carbines of their pursuers. The men of the Third. and try to catch some cavalry at Sycamore Church. August 3. with their commissary and quartermaster stores." and also commends Lieutenant William E. and one by a sabre cut. August 3. He found a cavalry force of five hundred and fifty men. to my entire satisfaction.. at 10 o'clock as follows p. routing them out from it.: : 104 HISTORV OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. made of brick brought from . 1862. which is on the main road from Petersburg to Suffolk. and then collected the camp equipage. and some five miles from Coles' house. cooking utensils. intending to burn this also. drove in their advance guard to their camp. The troops engaged were of the Fifth Regulars and the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. where we had a sharp skirmish. Another participant has given the following account affair of the "Our camp near Harrison's Landing was situated in rear and west of the Westover manor house. and then returned and recrossed the river. He took but two prisoners. on their own account. The gallantry of Lieutenant Mcintosh in leading the charge and his zealous pursuit brought him prominently to the notice of his superiors. attacked them at once. however. had one man wounded by a ball. officially re- ported the expedition to the Commander-in-Chief of the Army I sent Colonel Averell this morning with three hundred cavalry to examine the country on the south side of the James. appropriated. He burned their entire camp. but at other times and in a more deliberate manner. what they could find of tobacco. and burned them. it. etc. at Sycamore Church and captured Colonel Averell. of Lieutenant fine "The conduct Mcintosh was a General McClellan. Miller. After being chased two or three miles they disappeared. and eventually resulted in his becoming the Colonel of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. in the that official report of the affair. commissary stores. Colonel Averell conducted this affair. m. Captain Mcintosh made a handsome charge. That regiment mistakenly took the small attacking force to be the advance of more troops to follow.. Lieutenant Mcintosh's horse was shot in the charge. mentions model for cavalry soldiers. and drove them off in disorder. We passed the enemy's camp. as he does everything he undertakes.

then crowded with shipping. when the gunboats. of the Third. England in Colonial days. "The next day the regiment was moved northward about !' three miles. thinking a shell had struck him. a force consisting of Companies E. only a few men and horses were killed. and while getting his saddle a shell In the burst just over the company and the horse ran away. done. stooping so as to be out of range.— SYCAMORE CHURCH. The Sergeant for months afterward was very sensitive when asked about his black steed. and in a few moments the shells were ploughing through the camp and bursting overhead at a fearful rate. but the situation was soon realized. Sergeant George McKeag. 1862. On August 2. on the high bank of the James. the rebels had placed their guns in position and opened fire upon the army transports in the river and the camps on the other bank. crying out. dropped over. and prevent any assemblage of the enemy upon the opposite bank. F. Accordingly. 'Oh. and K. Under cover of darkness. darkness a big darkey. I'se killed and it was some time before McKeag got through kicking him that he comprehended what struck him. July 31 I05 August 3. 'Steady. H. The brilliancy of our camp fires at night attracted their attention. about n was startled moving along behind the bales. and the First Michigan Infantry. General McClellan ordered Colonel Averell to cross the river and develop the strength of the enemy. Lord. assembled at daybreak on August 3 at Harrison's . and was mistaken for the horse. exclaiming. was o'clock. the "On the night of July 31. It was first thought that the rebels were attempting to cross. Shellbark!' The darkey. Several gunboats were deemed sufficient to guard the river. Little damage was got their range and soon silenced them. moving back. and placed his horse behind a pile of baled hay. ordered his men to saddle up. "Several amusing incidents occurred during the excitement caused by the bombardment. McKeag threw the heavy saddle on the darkey's back. They kept up a steady fire for about an hour. belonging to the pontoon train. of Company I. a squadron of the Fifth United States Cavalry. regiment by the heavy firing of artillery from the south side of the river. returning the following morning. and the men were quickly assembled.

This work was superintended by all Colonel Averell and pushed with of the boat. when the Colonel ordered Wilson to open his haversack. cigars. ready for the serious work before them. while the troopers calmly enjoyed his eatables. He fumed and boiled over with wrath. charged John Wilson. With terrible oaths. and while change the troopers had his basket among the horses. who had a well-filled haversack. landed next and took position on the left of the road. Upon some time was lost in Lieutenant Wm. The steward was shrewd.106 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY August 3. "This detachment. The rage of the trader thus robbed of his stock and expected golden harvest was unbounded. 1862. by which the horses could be led off the boat. killing one horse belonging to . The rebels tore up this bridge. brought on deck an immense basket filled etc. with the robbery. and nothing else being visible. under command of were the first to embark. A ferryboat was in waiting. and the contents were quickly distributed. was placed on the west side of the road leading to Petersburg. reaching the opposite bank. and standing alongside of Colonel Averell. after reaching the top of the bank. he was told to move on. and twenty-two men of Company H. possible dispatch. "The Confederate Cavalry appeared in the distance and fell back to just beyond Cox's Mill. he related his grievance to Colonel Averell. and the line being delayed. tobacco. This was denied. or he would tie his mouth shut. Landing. He was soon engaged counting in a wrangle. who told him to point out the offenders. "Lieutenant John B. and every man enjoyed a smoke at the expense of the greedy steward. The honest trooper had put a top dressing of hard tack over the stock. At this place the road turned to the right and was were scarce with sweetcakes. and knowing that luxuries in camp. and when the whole force was over the advance was sounded. as the horses were led off the boat. Miller. The Confederates opened fire. carried over the forebay of the mill dam by a wooden bridge. Mcintosh. and also to stop swearing. where they formed in line on the hill. these two commands acting as skirmishers. : An epi- The steward sode occurred here characteristic of soldier life having an eye to business. with about twenty-five men of the Fifth United States Cavalry. E. throwing the planks into the water. constructing a staging.

and good conduct of Lieutenant Mcintosh on this occasion secured his promotion to the colonelcy of the Third when Colonel Averell was made Brigadier-General.SYCAMORE CHURCH. August 3-5. knocked him from his horse. fruit. A Confederate officer rode Lieutenant Mcintosh. "The bravery. out to meet him.. The men of Company H coming into action. accompanied by Captain Custer and supported by Captain White with his squadron of the Third Pennsylvania. struck a portion of the Tenth Virginia Cavalry. supplied with poultry. IOJ 1862. I. ing their camps at . having killed. and quickly moved his command over to the meadow. L. It was a spirited dash." took two hundred men of the Fifth United States Cavalry and the same number from the Third Pennsylvania. killing three men and capturing twenty- two with their horses and equipments. Hearing that the enemy were in camp in force in the neighborhood. to give the supports time to get up the camp on the right fell to the lot of the Third. and the expedition returned. When his men were in line. Captain White pursued the rest across the bridge and three-quarters of a mile beyond it. with a tremendous cut. C. Mary's Church and Nance's Mill. Gibson's Battery under Lieutenant Pendleton. and what could not be moved back was destroyed. etc. being unable to cross in front of the mill. leav- Sycamore Church entirely unprotected. lost but two horses and among those commended . which was covered with water from a very heavy rain storm encountered while on the march. routed it. resourcefulness. These camps were abundantly the one on the left to the Fifth. to within a short distance of White Oak Swamp Bridge. and M. with Colonel Averell. Colonel Averell withdrew. sabres were drawn and he led the charge. of the Fifth United States. Company H. Lieutenant Mcintosh. A was sounded by Lieutenant Mcintosh. the rebels broke and halt in the rapid pursuit scattered in every direction. and for a time the fighting was fierce. found a rude rail bridge over the tail-race below. which were quickly appropriated. by the way of St. The advance guard under Lieutenant Byrnes. His appointment was regarded as meritorious and was much appreciated by the men. tobacco. on August 5. consisting of Companies B.

he again made the attempt to persuade the Administration at Washington to order that the new Army of Virginia. on August General McClellan received orders from General Halleck to withdraw his army from the Peninsula By to Acquia Creek. mained in Having become the rear guard camp until the main body of of the army. on the Potomac below Washington. of the Third Pennsylvania. crossing the Chickahominy by a pontoon bridge and passing through Williamsburg. they became fearful position to advance of its — safety. Mcintosh. so as to be in a — new Com- on Richmond from that quarter the same movement which. Left camp and moved to within a 1862. Lieutenant Henry H. short distance of Jones' Ford and encamped for the night. by Colonel Averell in his official report were Captain George A. King. Moved across Chickahominy to the clear. Regimental Journal (Continued from page August 15. and Newport News to Fort Monroe.108 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. Accordingly. signs of the enemy. Some of the troops were sent down the James River on transports. The movement was effected without opposition on the part of the enemy. Custer and Lieutenant John B. August August 16. 3. while others marched by land. and which eventually ended the war. under Grant. and that the whole be transferred to the south side of the James to take Petersburg. of the Fifth United States Cavalry his Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. . . and when this came to the knowledge of the authorities at the National Capital. 17. the mander-in-Chief of all the Armies should be sent to reinforce the Army of the Potomac. we re- the army had passed. August 5-17. as also Captain White and Lieutenant Hess. of the same. But the people of Richmond were clamoring for a transfer of the seat of operations to the neighborhood of Washington. No 1862. was made two years later. The Third embarked at Yorktown. Weather 1862. After General McClellan had securely posted his army at Harrison's Landing. island and encamped. 1862. Yorktown. August 16 the evacuation of the position at Harrison's Landing was completed. 102) On the march. On the march. recently organized under the command of the bombastic General Pope —the favorite of General Halleck.

Camp near Yorktown. 1862. Horses taken from 7 to 9 a. at retreat. iamsburg. Conm. Seal. 26. 1862. First Lieutenant Company I. Regiment detailed for picket duty guard the approaches to Williamsburg. 19. I left Clear and warm. Clear and warm. Also appointing Frank W. Regiment proceeded to move to Yorktown. Hess. to Quartermaster preparatory to Companies C and camp to embark at 2 p. Came to Williamsburg and encamped for the night. having been relieved by Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Brought in a deserter from a Mississippi regiment. August 1862.— return march to yorktown. Routine as usual. Heavy rain in the mornfollowed by beautiful afternoon and evening. 1862. m. Camp near Williamsburg. 24. Orders issued to prepare for embarkation in transports. Boots and Saddles sounded at 9 a. Same. Routine as usual. Clear and warm. to 22. to the vacancy from this date. near the Williamsburg battlefield. August 1862. 28. Details furnished for guarding propto graze erty. Clear and warm. relieving First Lieutenant John F. August August August 18. Sun set clear. On the march. Horses taken to graze. August August 21. Sun set clear. Sun set clear. 1862. Sun set clear. Marched to within six miles of Williamsburg. 31. Clear and warm in morning. Regiment returned from picket duty. Clear and warm. H. Men allowed to bathe in River company James by or squadron. Rain August August 27. Horses taken to graze. 29. Encamped on Allen's Farm. 1862. etc. August 3 to 5 p. September 1. ing. 1862. Camp near Williamsburg. 20. Second Assistant Sherwood detailed to take charge of Lunatic Asylum in Will1862. 22. 1862. etc. m. rolls sent to clear. Acting Regimental Adjutant. having seen no signs of the enemy. . Slight fall of rain. Wilson. Orders from War Department to be accompanied by remarks of absentees. and from m. 30. to Witnessed the destruction of the various bridges on the route. 1862. of the One Hundred and First Pennsylvania 1862. This is the burial place of Colonel I. 1862. 25. and encamped about one mile from Yorktown. August 17 iog September i. Arrived about 4 p. Absentee Routine same as yesterday. demned horses turned over regiment embarking. August August 1862. Marched Roper's Church. Muster of regiment according to General Clear. m. Volunteers. and assigning him to Company F for duty. Sun set Washington. Sun set clear. where we encamped. Special Order 68 issued.

C. m. in our march down the Peninsula. where we encamped. The companies were put aboard of several schooners. Weather clear and pleasant. Left this camp and proceeded about one mile above to Camp No. 2. 1862. where we did not fear molestation by the enemy. 3 p. No accidents occurred. the Third Pennsylvania and First to New York covering the rear on the march and being the last troops embark. camp. September 4. 2. We re- . Companies K and L left camp Balance of regiment embarked from wharf at Yorktown. 1862. Rain all night. as he was busy marching on Washington by a more westward route. for embarkation. of the tents in the m. On board steamer.— IIO HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. It was necessary. and part of F. which were towed by propellers and tugs. shortly after reveille. Weather clear to mar the pleasure of the and pleasant. 1862. Guard placed upon bell wires and in different parts of the vessel. 4 day. The cavalry. Heavy wind left all Sun set clear. No accident occurred trip. 1862. 1862. 1862. regiment. September 5. D. about the middle of August the Army of the Potomac began its retrograde movement en route to Washington. Washington. heavy gusts of wind blew down most camp. Companies B and H Company D. and headed in the direction of Washington. two miles of Washington City and left the four schooners and proceeded to within a short distance of the wharf. New As noted in the Journal. with a couple of batteries. on board the commodious steamer New Brunswick. September 6. Water and forage issued to horses. however.. that a sufficient guard should remain to protect the wagon train of supplies and ammunition. H water September a. at Companies B and call. accompanied by General Kearney's Division of Infantry. Disembarked from steamship Brunswick and proceeded to within two miles from the city. Water and forage taken on board and steamer left the wharf having in tow four schooners loaded with the September 3. marched down the Peninsula to Yorktown. August 15 September 6. until all were safely embarked upon the fleet of schooners which layoff Yorktown. with Companies E and L. There lingers yet an indistinct recollection of a transient camp not far from Jamestown. Steamer arrived to within in the stream. Staff and non-commissioned staff. under orders to move. Commenced raining continued with small intermission until after dark.

the horses. and a dozen empty canteens were taken by a couple of the men in search of applejack. and were craving for news. as when the tide ran out. The propeller went on her way. 1862. and they were the deck became a all forced to the one side. of which was daily visited by the men. Here the schooner in the rear struck a sand-bar. at Yorktown. as they were very plentiful and easily The darkies supplied us with hot biscuits for a small price. and soon were struggling and kicking viciously. and pandemonium reigned that night on the schooner. The intelligence imparted to them . and tilted the vessel into a dangerous position. They came back full. both men and canteens. caught. They could not keep their The only feet. and proceeded on her way without mishap until we had entered the Potomac River and were close to St. having our camp near Jamestown and the James River. A rustic fisherman living on the island came out in his yawl. The stranded On cavalrymen had been without newspapers or letters for weeks. The boat was borrowed. Running aground it at high tide made the situation worse than otherwise would have been. the James and the York.— RETURN TO YORKTOWN AND WASHINGTON. It was a short swim to the island. and there they went ashore. When seen. the morning dawned no vessel of any kind was to be and the captain of the schooner tied his flag in the rigging Union down. one large them in tow. and we feasted on these rather than on salt pork and hard When at last we emtack. August 19 Ill September 5. and impatiently awaited results. George's Island. indicating distress. and it proceeded on its way. in close proximity to a long row of substantial negro We were near both rivers. thing to do was to unload them by throwing them over into the river. leaving it grounded high up on the sand. which sliding board for occurred during the night. each huts. until it came our turn to go aboard. the third day a steamboat arrived and took the wrecked schooner in tow. and always secured a supply. and the cable snapped. perfectly barked on schooners from the landing propeller took three of indifferent as to the safety or welfare of the company occupying the stranded schooner. and some of the men coaxed him to come aboard. mained on this duty. who fished for crabs.

Sergeant Samuel P Boyer. or immediately close. Jr. Town. First Lieutenant John T. First Lieutenant and Adjutant Robert 8. Galloway. Walton. Captain Charles Gillies. resigned. Captain Alexander S. 1862. dismissed. the ranks: July Sept. of Company I. Vernou. Lieutenant Peter Lane. H. Chandler. Sergeant-Major Samuel S. Aug. and much more of the same character was disheartening. First Sergeant Joseph D. after its changes took place left among the officers as follows: Those who 1862 June " " " the regiment were: resigned. " 5. Captain Thomas H.. resigned. 13. Second Lieutenant Charles A. dismissed. Brannix. 29. 17. Sergeant E. Charles Lieutenant discharged. 10. of Company L. Green to Second Lieutenant Company E. During the Peninsular Campaign. First 22. 22. Captain George H. First Lieutenant Robert P Wilson. Major Ernest M. Sept. Woodburn. Pope in three battles — affairs. Douglass. 112 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. June io — September 13. First Lieutenant William Walton. to Second Lieutenant Company I. 25. to Second Lieutenant Company D. Second Lieutenant James E. July " 5. Heyl. First 1. First Sergeant Edward M. 8. The men were impatient to get ashore.. " " 17. 7. 1. Second Lieutenant Company M. Lodge. of Company C. of Company E. to to . 8. 6. Bement. and do their share toward retrieving the sad state of of General . The following promotions were made from 1862 June " 23. Willard Warren. Second Lieutenant Company C. —the defeat and his falling back toward Washington the deaths of Generals Kearney and Stevens the continued advance of General Lee.

to Captain 23. of Company K. of Company I. to First Lieutenant Company K. S. of Company B. of Company D. Second Lieutenant Franklin C. Gilmore. of Company Frank Company M. Sept. Rogers. Second Lieutenant Wm. of Company E. 13. to First Lieutenant of Company I. Davis. of Company L. to Captain Company B. 31. 1. 13. to First Lieutenant Company D. of Company Company A. officers Second Lieutenant Alexander M. Newhall. of Company F. First Lieutenant Walter G. to First Lieutenant Company G. Wright. 1. 1. to First Lieutenant Company M. Second Lieutenant David M. King. Second Lieutenant Henry H.— CHANGES AMONG THE June 10 : OFFICERS. July 8. Promotions and transfers among the 1862 April 18. W to Captain W . Aug. 6. to First Lieutenant Company C. Hess. June 23. 18. Second Lieutenant Francis D. Second Lieutenant Thomas H. First Lieutenant I. to Assistant Surgeon. to Company K. 113 September 1862. Wetherill. Sherwood. First Lieutenant Charles Treichel. of Company C. Second Lieutenant Jacob Lee Englebert. of Company A.

known as the Army of Virginia. Fremont. its Upon sula. 1862. began to look to the north of the Potomac as the scene of his further operations. had kept them in position in its vicinity for its protection. We readily recall his bombastic order to his troops he would have no bases of supplies and lines of retreat there were to be no more entrenchments no picks or shovels were to be used his headquarters were to be in the saddle his army was destined to follow the leadership of one who had never seen anything but the backs of his enemies and such like nonsense and bad taste. and Lee. The most important of these bodies were the armies of Generals McDowell. While — — — — — — . and his disastrous defeats at Cedar (or Slaughter) Mountain on August 9 in the Second Battle of Bull Run on August 29. which by orders of June 26 had been consolidated into a new army. 114 . September 2-19. at Chantilly on September 1. But he soon found that Lee and "Stonewall" Jackson were too much for him. and his retreat upon Washington followed. fearing for the safety of the city. mcclellan again takes command of the army—the advance from washington— the regiment develops the enemy's line at antietam— services in the battle— chasing the enemy's rear guard across the potomac. for the Government.CHAPTER IX The Antietam Campaign. On the same day the President and General Halleck. placed General McClellan Capital in an almost desperate condition. and Banks. after return from the Peninaffairs Army of the Potomac found at the it National was on the Peninsula various other bodies of troops much needed by McClellan to carry out his designs upon Richmond had been held back from him. On September 2 orders were issued withdrawing the defeated army within the defences of Washington. and placed under the command of General Pope. the reaching Washington. abandoning further pursuit. in dire distress.

mcclellan takes command of the army. and moved in the direction of Leesboro. on September 5. The advance was made by five parallel roads. the center. command of the fortifications of Washington and of all the troops for the defence of the Capital. was reorganized into a compact body a work that had mostly to be done while the army was on the march. and without further orders to make arrangements to counteract Lee's offensive designs." On September 3. was by order of General Halleck relieved from the command of the Army of Virginia. McClellan's reappearance at the head of affairs had the most beneficial effect on the army. with his wonderful genius for organization. with which for the present we have more to do General McDowell's old command had been placed under the command of General Hooker. anticipating Lee's movements. "There appears to have been no one. The heterogeneous mass. at once began to bring order out of chaos. and the left wing. and the right on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. whose morale immediately underwent an astonishing change. These were followed in a few days by the other columns. and it was consolidated with the Army of the Potomac. September in 2-7. and the columns were so disposed as to cover both Washington and Baltimore. of the Sixth Corps under General — Franklin. 115 1862. thus ending his and its short-lived existence. under General Lee. made up of the aggregation of the remnants of the two armies and the garrison of Washington. "to gainsay the propriety of the appointment or dispute the magic of his name with the soldiers he had led. and such cavalry as was available to watch the fords near Poolesville. of the Second and Twelfth Corps under General Sumner."' wrote Swinton. The First Corps. crossed the Potomac by the fords near Leesburg and invaded Maryland. Between the 4th and 7th of September the entire Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. ordering the center column under Sumner to Tenallytown. for the left flank rested on the Potomac. McClellan moved toward Frederick to meet him. General Pope. The right wing consisted of the First and Ninth Corps under General Burnside. and as soon as it became known that Lee had crossed the Potomac. McClellan. McClellan. — — . started the army in motion.

Two regiments. First Massachusetts. Rush. and was ordered to bring the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry to Washington as early as possible in the morning. composed of the Fifth and Sixth United States the Second Brigade under Colonel John F Farnsworth. L.1 l6 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry September 3-6. were attached to the Second and Third Brigades respectively. pushed as far to the front as possible. on September 4. B. composed of the Fourth and Sixth Pennsylvania the Fourth Brigade under Colonel Andrew T McReynolds. Washington. composed of the Eighth Illinois. The well-conducted and successful affairs occurred. was unable to reach Washington until the 6th. and the Fifth Brigade under Colonel Benjamin F Davis. The regiment. were throughout the Cavalry Division as above mentioned. Third Indiana. leaving orders for the rest of the brigade to follow as rapidly as it could. In the meantime Colonel Averell was stricken down with the Chickahominy fever and was prevented entirely from participating in the ensuing campaign. in consequence. and C and G of the Third United States Artillery. scattered The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry was disembarked Street at Seventh into Wharf. Whiting. had been informed by General McClellan that his brigade was to be sent upon service along the Upper Potomac. Colonel Averell. "Own "The advance from Washington. were unattached. Horse Batteries A. and went bivouac for the night at the upper end of Fourteenth Street near . with whom several the greater portion of the cavalry During these was formed into a division commanded by General Pleasonton. the First Maine and a detachment of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania. and of the Second United States Artillery. on September 6." wrote AlcClellan in his Story. composed of five brigades the First Brigade under Major Charles J. however." "was covered by the cavalry under General constant contact with the Pleasonton. and Eighth Pennsylvania. and soon in enemy s cavalry." movements : . owing to the delays in its transfer by water from Yorktown. the Third Brigade under Colonel Richard H. composed of the First i\ ew York and Twelfth Pennsylvania. T — W M regiments of his brigade. 1862. . composed of the Eighth New York and the Third Pennsylvania the latter regiment under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Owen.

Arrived at Frederick City about dark and encamped about five miles beyond the city. Near On the march. 1862. sounded 7J4 10 o'clock to Poplar Springs. 13. etc. and proceeded to Triwhere we encamped. after our hard and exhaustive work on the Peninsula. 3 and proceeded to Sun set where we encamped. Mechanicsville. 2. and not far from camp Potomac and that McClellan was after him. noissance Sept. 1862. there were many. 1862. . 14. 1862.THE AJ1VANXE FROM WASHINGTON. Regi- ment on reconnoissance towards Carriers and Franklinville. Camp Xo. Md. Sept. Company A detached to general headquarters. Heavy and continuous firing heard in the direction of Frederick City. Regiment on reconSunday. Battle still raging. m. where we General Unionville. Passes given to citizens. The passing of long columns of infantry toward Bladensburg and Rockville afforded us a clear intimation that Lee was on our side at the Mount Pleasant. Sun Sept. 1862. Regimental Journal (Continued from page no). Company A not and L detached at headquarters on recon- Left m. Companies C and I on patrol in Washington. 8. D. Washington. Three suspicious characters sent in by Captain Jones: oath of allegiance they were released.. Sept. 1862. of whom. Sept. Proceeded to Unionville. its first 1 17 Park. camp Springs. Camp by the enemy. through Woodsborough. 11. at Morning cloudy. Creagerstown and New Liberty. Companies E Poplar at 2 p. Mechanicsville about 8 clear. Upon taking the Frederick City. Emmetsburg. Sept. Sept. 7. and the skeleton of the regiment on September 9 started out for the front to take the advance of the First Corps. Leesboro. set clear. Md. Regiment moved from camp beyond Frederick and proceeded over the mountains in pursuit of shelled rebels. Camp No. C. September 6-15. slight call rain. Marched about m. Tridelphia. No 3.. Regiment ordered to move. Sun set clear. Clear and warm. 1862. D detailed for reconnoissance. noissance. p. from Camp No. Com- pany p. Sept. 1862. Left a. 10. Clear and pleasant. tents 8 p. delphia about 8 returned. 9. Sept. Encamped for the night. m. about seven miles from Poplar Springs. Clear. Heavy cannonading. Regiment moved encamped for the night. 1862.. 15. m. pitched. 12. 1862. were sent to of the Giesboro Point. On the following day our dismounted men. Sun set clear.

Sun set clear. Although the "Johnnies" had been there. 1862. however. Sept. the displaying of the Stars and Stripes from the houses as we passed. Regiment formed in line of battle Fourth day of the and making recon- noissance towards the enemy. While our regiment was on the march over the South Mountain. out of which they departed as we entered. Sun set clear. of course when we had the money. The battle of South Mountain on September 14. Clear. with their respective staffs. and had the effect of concentrating the scattered forces of the enemy about Antietam Creek and the town of Sharpsburg.Il8 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. of headquarters moved to the regiment. the waving of greetings by lovely things to eat. Wagon train in the valley. 1862. it was accompanied by Generals McClellan. in which. Fine farms lay all along the line of march. We passed elegant old mansions. We paid for them. The pleasant smiles of the citizens. 1862. took the place of our former scant supplies of salt meat and hard bread but they did not come to us by way of the Commissary Department. — — . September 7-18. We passed through several beautiful towns on the way. battle. on September 15. resulted in our favor. driven from the front and making repeated efforts to cross and turn the left flank. Wagons Our trip up through Maryland was very different from anything we had previously experienced." as we were wont to express it. and Meade. On the mountains. Sun set clear. all tended to women and pretty girls. with well-filled barns. Cooked rations sent to the regiment. 17. We were soon face to face with our old enemy. with a profusion of fresh vegetables. over the hills and through the green fields of Maryland. Sept. Heavy firing. we did not see or hear of them until we reached Frederick. 1862. Everything quiet. Turkeys and chickens. too. we were not engaged. Md. Regiment still engaged. Fighting raged all day with alternate success on both sides. Hooker. as mentioned in the Journal. was being "in God's country. 16. Enemy Fifth day of the battle. and the realities of impending battle confronted us. Sept. Heavy shower of rain for three-quarters of an hour. How could we when we did not? Marching as we were. 18. and gifts of good make our stay among them far different from our first year's sojourn in the enemy's country.

McClellan determined to throw Hooker's Corps across the creek by the upper bridge and the ford below it. formed part of the right wing of the army. who had escaped from Harper's Ferry by swimming the who commanded Ferry. and took position on the extreme right of the whole line of battle. with the two believed. right extending as far as the extreme in left flank of General Lee's army.THE ADVANCE FROM WASHINGTON. occupying a particularly strong line. to the eastward of Antietam Creek. General Lee had located his headquarters at Sharpsburg. to whose headOwen. under Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel was attached during the campaign. 119 On the same day Company C of the regiment was ordered out on a scout toward Harper's Ferry. quarters the Third. the advance valley. Marching for some miles along the ridge of the mountain. The examination of the ground and the posting of troops and of artillery to silence the fire of the enemy's guns on the opposite side of the Antietam occupied the hours of September 16 until the afternoon. During the 15th and 16th of September the two armies indulged a lively. The Army of the Potomac its rapidly concentrated to the eastward of this stream. a superior one to ours. During much of W . Maryland. guard saw two men jump down behind the trees. When Confederates. Galloping up to them. a lively artillery duel being meanwhile carried on intermittently between the opposing batteries. the party descended into the When the bottom had almost been reached. its taken back to Captain Jones. This. it men to General McClellan's headquarters. As the three lower bridges were commanded by the enemy's guns. under General Hooker. cannonading while maneuvering for position. September 15-16. The First Corps. it was found that they were two of our own men from a Maryland regiment. 1862. near Keedysville on the Sharpsburg and Boonsboro Turnpike. both near Pry's Mill. the party. Our army pressed forward after gradually closed in around Keedysville. but somewhat intermittent. and received of the disastrous occurrence. with his army in position to the west of Antietam Creek. first is was the intelligence which the commanding general the retreating rebels. they informed him that Harper's river. had that morning surrendered to the The party at once returned to our lines and sent garrison.

with the Bucktail ing the Williamsport the advance guard under Lieutenant Miller turned to the left along the Smoketown Road (which runs in a southerly direction through a piece of woods. formed line facing by the left to the south and southwest. while Company took the advance of the infantry on the Williamsport Road. this in a field time the Third was drawn up in close column of squadrons south of Keedysville on the side of the turnpike. and then through the East Woods on to the Dunker Church above mentioned). however. circling around. Company H. under Lieutenant William E. composed of his own (C) company and Company I under Captain Walsh. moved over the hills and by a farm lane running to M. By this time Road toward Smoketown. Jones' squadron of the Third. . then through open ground. Miller. so as to conform to the line of the enemy's left. the first platoon commanded by Lieutenant E. September 16. Followled the advance. and d those dragoons !" time to do it in Meanwhile. at its junction with the Hagerstown Pike). Guided by an old farmer. and. Willard Warren having the advance guard. was ordered to move directly to the westward to ascertain the location of the enemy's line of battle in that direction. Captain Edward S. and then on to the Dunker Church. and the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry was ordered by him to cross the Antietam by the ford mentioned and to take the advance. with Company C in front. 1862. "Double up little There's a d sight to do. which is situated General Hooker. moved out to the northwestward by and alongside of the road leading from Keedysville to Williamsport. The infantry column. Miller's house. H ! Regiment of the Pennsylvania Reserves of Meade's Division close behind him. seeing that the squadron was moving forward in column of twos. and immediately after fording the creek. called out to Captain Jones in an emphatic manner. General Hooker rode at the head of the regiment until after it had all gotten across.120 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. after in crossing the creek out of sight of the enemy's gunners. Before this movement was accomplished. Captain Jones' squadron. About four o'clock in the afternoon Hooker's Corps was put motion. then turning to the left into a side road (which runs southwestwardly through what is now known as the East Woods to the Smoketown Road.

to see what was going on. as well as the in rear. Miller's house. and in his absence Sergeant Miller ordered Private John Mca Coubrie. and twilight was beginning. There has always been an amicable rivalry between Companies C and H of the Third as to which of them (apart from the artillery firing which had been carried on at intervals during the entire day) first developed the enemy s line on the battlefield of Antietam on the evening of September 16. Captain Jones' squadron. head of the column under Lieutenant Miller to gain ground to the right. The members of the Committee appointed to compile this history have carefully investigated the matter. so that the in concert. under Captain Walsh) doing the same. however. movement against the enemy should be Captain Jones halted the skirmishers. The men of the second platoon being in the open. and called out to Sergeant Miller to "Who ordered off their sit men !" dismount? horses The Sergeant replied them to be that he did not want to no place for there . and on approaching nearer to them In order to give time to the back on their reserve. and from the testimony of the witnesses who have come before them. the second platoon under Sergeant proper distance Thompson Miller. the supports following by the lane running to in the M. Captain Walsh rode on to the front where Lieutenant Warren was. with Lieutenant Warren and the first platoon of Company C deployed as skirmishers in advance. Four men. the latter at the second company (I. Some vedettes distance. moved forward over were seen they fell the hills and across the fields. Captain Walsh came : back those at a gallop. The two platoons numbered from twelve to sixteen men each.THE REGIMENT DEVELOPS THE EXEMVS LINE September 16. Hearing the This is firing. some sharpshooters in woods to the left front began taking shots at them. who was a crack shot. 121 1862. the afternoon had well passed. the sun had set. to dismount and try to pick off one or more of the troublesome sharpshooters. dismounted. they have arrived at the conclusion that the two occurrences about to be related took place at practically the same moment of time. and taking careful aim over a rail fence fired in a volley at one of the rebels as he stepped from behind a tree to take another shot.

and side by side at the head of the attacking party they advanced at the gallop. walking inside the being mounted. Everything remained perfectly quiet until the lane running eastwardly to George Lyon's fence alongside of me. Sergeant Miller was ordered to move forward with his platoon and drive in the enemy's picket reserve. when it seemed as if the whole Confederate line opened upon us with artillery and musketry from the skirt of woods to the east of the Smoketown Road a short Lyon's house. the Colonel. driving the rebels into the East Woods. and followed them until they suddenly came within thirty feet of a battery of artillery. as already stated. "As I turned into the road. Marvelous to relate. afoot.'" as Captain Miller relates the incident. The advance guard of Company fell rapidly back upon the infantry supports who were following in the rear. would not like company. which had turned in from the Williamsport Road higher up and moved to the left oblique The across the fields. and but one horse slightly quietly wounded. Lieutenant Warren joined him. "I met Colonel McNeil at the head of the Bucktail Regiment." wrote Bates. came up to where the squadron was halted. Accordingly. fell back upon one of the regiments of Pennsylvania Reserves which The men of that regiment was advancing toward the woods. 1862. Meanwhile. General Hooker. I farmhouse was reached. gave the word to advance. and. September 16. wore bucktails in their caps." "The Bucktails. The party. Colonel asked me where I was going. and at once ordered them to do so. Lieutenant Miller and his company (H) in advance turned to the left from the Williamsport Road down the Smoketown Road. Upon my telling him that my instructions were to find the enemy. not a single man was hit. and be made a target of. accompanied by his staff. he asked me if I Upon my replying that I would. which let fly at them with canister. "rushed forward with a shout through a terrific fire of artillery and musketry distance south of H . and that it didn't take long to mount. when the proper moment had arrived. Colonel McNeil deployed one company on each side of the Smoketown Road a short distance behind the supports of the cavalry advance guard.122 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. thus gaining ground on the advance. finding the place thick with rebels.

Colonel McNeil. and it took some time to get into line again and count It off. particularly distinguished themselves by rallying and leading back to their guns some of our artillerymen whose batteries were in imminent danger of being captured. Later in the night the regiment was moved forward a short distance to the southward in such close proximity to the rebels that we could distinctly hear them talking. some to support batteries. Company being detailed to report Captain to General Hooker personally for the latter purpose. of Company I. near and covering the junction of the Williamsport Road and Hagerstown Pike. and Lieutenant Edward M. There they remained . particularly of two batteries at point blank range. Frank Hess. a short distance north of what is now known as the North Woods. Heyl. Lieutenant William Allison." At dark our infantry formed line of battle in close proximity to the enemy While this was in progress the main body of the Third took position in close column of squadrons on the Joseph Poffenberger farm. and of no earthly use. some to prevent straggling from the infantry line of battle.services in the battle of antietam. on the east side of the Hagerstown Pike. hungry. in everybody s way. 1862. standing "to horse" tired. Our frightened horses soon caused our ranks to be badly broken. Some of our horses were killed and many men were dismounted. and some to act as orderlies and escorts. and uncomfortable. to re-form our ranks which had become tangled out of shape. — — Just as day dawned on the 17th. 123 and gained the woods but at a fearful cost. of Company M. all because we were attached to an infantryman's command. was not long before the several companies of the regiment were sent to different parts of the field of battle. September 16-17. The wicked fire. as their horses had stampeded. some to picket and cover roads on the flanks. the artillery of both armies opened upon everything in sight. and afterwards to picket the extreme right M W beyond the infantry line. Captain Walsh with his company (T) was sent out on the 17th to support a battery. filling the air with shrieking and exploding shells. soon caused us to fall back behind a hill. and twenty-eight men were killed and sixty-five officers and men wounded in this single charge. Here we were compelled to remain until daylight.

slipped quietly of the 18th Lee's army abandoned its posiaway. for that is where I saw him last The vigorous at night and found him early in the morning. S. General Hooker sent an order to Lieutenant-Colonel Owen. "by a mail which arrived after we had skirmished into position on the evening of the 16th. a trivial offence when I assumed command of the company on He the previous evening. and I received the General's order to deploy my men at wide intervals behind the First Sergeant infantry line to prevent straggling. with the exception of a small rear guard. ginia.124 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY September 17-18. and took command of this orphaned company which had been without a captain for some time. during the 18th. and I reported with it to General Hooker. I have always a says he slept that night slept under a big locust tree. which position I had filled for a short time only. retired) has furnished the following account of some incidents of that September: appointment and commission as Captain of Company. attack that we made early in the morning was successful. As my company had but twenty-four men for duty it He was detailed. detailing twenty men to report as orderlies. commanding the regiment. and I at once restored him to duty. and the enemy gave way for some time. expetent authority." he writes. prior to being wounded. and burying the dead. I ordered him to remain with his men near a clump of trees. Army. but the resistance became greater and our lines ceased to advance. thought he in barn. the 17th of "I received my M . During the night tion. and was a very conterrible battle-day. was under arrest courageous very Bradbury. which I did. in resting. morning of the 19th the regiment was and discovered that the rebel army was at which was once reported to General McClellan. in full retreat. and recrossed the Potomac into VirEarly on the sent out reconnoitering. half was on the left of the line and a little in advance with a dozen of the men. 1862.' posed himself fearlessly to the enemy's fire. U. and relinquished my duties as regimental adjutant. Captain Hess (now Lieutenant-Colonel. and not to come away unless ordered by 'comGeneral Hooker. which was spent by both armies gathering in the wounded. for some man.

"I kept on across the field and found Bradbury. Companies C and evening of September 16 led the advance of the infantry of General Hooker's Corps in developing the enemy's line of battle. afterwards being moved a short distance to the south and closer in the rear of the infantry line .: SERVICES IN THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM. alongside of the Hagerstown Pike. and after some difficulty brought the guns away. and the guns could not be taken away They were good men. I rode over and heard their statement that the Lieutenant had been wounded. 125 was on a white or gray horse." The following account battle of the 1 of his personal experiences J. and I knew from his character that my order would be literally obeyed. where the balls were striking. They were in great numbers and coming rapidly toward me. as was shown by the little puffs of dust which arose from the ground around me. "The regiment bivouacked during the early part of the night on Joseph Poffenberger's farm. during the 7th is given by A. I observed that the men who had been serving two guns in the line were about to abandon the pieces. I then began to be solicitous about Sergeant Bradbury and his men. This was the severest musketry fire I was exbattlefield. north of the North Woods. Speese. September 16-17. one of the having on the bloodiest battles of the war. I think the men were glad to see me. under his command he was Miller and the men of Company shortly after the battle promoted from Second Lieutenant to "To the Third firing the first shots (other than H H Captain of that company. 1862. spicuous object on the mounted as he posed to during the war. They meant business. About the time he started to the rear. gone but a short distance. For the gallantry and good conduct of Lieutenant William E. Between him and myself Having there intervened a plowed field and I started to cross it. of Company H Pennsylvania Cavalrv belongs the honor of by artillery) in this. wounded. and easily encouraged to return. who was dismounting his men and preparing to defend his position. as I decided this was not judicious and ordered them back to the rear. as I had directed him to remain until ordered away by competent authority. I saw the rebels coming out of a cornfield.

and I delivered the General's order to the officer in command. without a moment's hesitation. a few to support batteries and the greater portion behind the the entire day. officers and men rising to their feet. At once 'Attention rang along the long line. He ammunition and would not make the charge unless ordered to do so by General Hooker in person. and at the time was personally directing the placing of a battery in position. don't report back to me. September 17. but their aim was bad. who. At the time I was the only orderly left. who. firing line in open order. was supporting a battery posted in an orchard on David Miller's farm near the turnpike. whose name was out of I have forgotten. forward. and about nine o'clock. if your man does not return promptly. mounted on his white horse. Ac- cordingly a detail was ordered out and placed in my charge. the shelter of a slope in our rear was quickly enemy. had ridden out along the line. 'Fix and after a fearful volley from bayonets. rode up to Lieutenant Miller. and General Hooker. If everything goes right.126 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. He said to me: 'When I give you an order. and asked for a detail of ten well-mounted men. Then. with his company. With much disorder. the shot and shell passing overhead and landing in a hill half a mile beyond. as nearly as I remember. to prevent stragglers getting to the rear. I quickly returned with his answer. Within five minutes I reported to the General. 1862.' "Soon my men were scurrying over the field in different directions. double quick replied that he !' !' . The next morning obtained without any casualties. "Some little time afterwards. the General sent word to General Mansfield that in ten minutes he would make the assault upon the enemy. a volunteer aide on General Hooker's staff. in front of a corn-field. occasioned by the loose horses. to the artillery at short at daylight the Confederate range opened a furious fire upon us. to fix bayonets and charge through it. and remained on duty "About eight o'clock on the morning of the 17th Captain Moore. the companies were assigned different positions on the battlefield. A short time after he ordered the brigade lying down in a clover-field. send a second one with the same order. rode down through the firing and asked why his order was not obeyed.

but it gave him too much pain. and after I took off his spur I attempted to pull off his boot (he was shot through the left foot). General Meade said he was not the next ranking General and could not take command without an order from General McClellan. . and the Confederate line broken. and the boot was cut off. which complied with at once. September 17-19. and he would send one of his staff for it. which was refused. Scarcely had the order been given to an orderly. to open on this latter body. Two days later the detail was relieved and we returned to the regiment. he told me I to tell General Meade to take command of the corps. . a battery and many prisoners captured. he ordered an advance of his own army. I reported this to General Hooker. General Hooker ordered the nearest battery to be brought up on the gallop. \2"J the enemy's line along the fence. and it was with difficulty I could sustain his weight and guide our two horses. When we got back to the captured battery our jubilant men crowded on the guns and caissons and cheered 'Fighting Joe' to This seemed to arouse him from the shock of his the echo. and the Third Pennsylvania was sent trotting to the Observing the extreme rear guard of the enemy's cavalry front. who was then at army headquarters. 1862. to the right the enemy rallying near the Dunker Church. A surgeon. We then lifted him from his horse. and he directed me to send for a canteen of fresh water. but them closely. probably one hundred and yards. early in the morning of the 19th. who had just returned.SERVICES IN THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM. rode beyond fifty the gap. when he told me to come up close to him he wanted to lean on me. the corn-field was entered. wound. seeing he was wounded. and when we put him — into it. In front of us were the remnants of the fleeing Confederates to the left a barn and stack of hay or straw on fire. offered his canteen of brandy. who had followed beyond the corn-field. "'Our men halted on the crest General Hooker. as he was wounded. that almost the entire rebel force had crossed the river into Virginia. He then ordered an ambulance. He put his right arm around my neck and rested very heavily upon me. and he raised his hat in acknowledging the compliment." As soon as the intelligence reached General McClellan.

118) of the Morning clear. no less than seven of our Generals being wounded. to invade the Northern battle of the war. resulting in the death of Colonel Miles. the rear guard having effected their retreat leaving a great number of their sick and wounded at Sharpsburg and along the route. country and then retiring with the arm of might and justice smote them in their tracks. Colonel Childs. Regiment on reconnoissance. while their and foot guns from the heights beyond fired shells at us to cover their retreat. no doubt encouraging them. 19. leaving States by into of Pennsylvania. General Garland on the rebel side. and to Sharpsburg. no doubt. in pursuit rebels. in conjunction with at least six other regiments of cavalry. guarding the place of crossing. the rebels vastly predominating.J28 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY September 17-19. General Longstreet wounded and a prisoner. The regiment proceeded to the bank of the river through Sharpsburg. the enemy's vedettes being on the opposite bank. the enemy being driven almost by inches from the soil of Maryland. which town showed conclusive eviQuite a large dence that the conflict had extended to its limits. classes this as the most desperate Their intention being. 1862. with a range of at least seven miles. Mansfield being killed on our side. the stench being at this date This battle extending along the Blue Ridge almost insufferable. driving them from hill and mountain. who have been retreating across the Potomac River evening. continuing five days without intermission. 1862. We have so far taken a large number of prisoners. The rebels opened fire upon the regiment from the opposite bank of the river. and the desperate character of the fighting. the fields and valleys around the heights being literally filled with the bodies of the rebels. and the success of the rebels taking Harper's Ferry. their loss having been. of the Fourth Pennsylvania . immense. devastating the way Virginia. We also have to mourn the death of a comrade in arms. Our brave troops a trail of sire blood in their course. destroyed. the comsince last after passing mander of that place (but at this date recaptured by General Burnside's forces). most of the number of houses were shattered and several inhabitants having vacated their dwellings. Friend and foe lay side by side. Regimental Journal (Continued from page Sept. near the river bank dismounted on the towpath of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The regiment returned by way of Sharpsburg and encamped about two miles beyond the town. Mountains. A portion of the regiment was then posted along the river. Hagerstown Heights. the fresh recruits showing no less a de- General than their more tried comrades to mingle in the fray. no doubt. we chased them so it closely that they had to abandon their horses across the breast of the dam at the ford. and the varied success attending it.

the ball passing along his face. Our loss amounted to seven horses killed and eight men wounded. One horse had its head literally blown off. wounding his rider but slightly. September Cavalry. chains of sympathy and union. 129 the foe. and that it chased the last of their rear guard back into Virginia. no doubt. A great many narrow escapes. his abdomen while leading his men upon and the interchange of courtesies from soldiers and brother officers in arms having endeared him to us with Peace to his memory. 1862. although supporting different batteries during the day and supporting the infantry under General Hooker. While recounting the events of the battle of .services in the battle of antietam. and receiving charges of heavy shot and shell. The regiment (Third Pennsylvania). spent before reaching him. being. many good qualities Antietam it is a great satisfaction to remember that our regiment was the first of the Union troops to open the skirmish which defined the Confederate line of battle. some almost miraculous. met with its usual good luck. He died a soldier's death upon the battlefield. being shot through the 16-19. one of the men being actually struck in the face by a grapeshot. taking the skin from his cheek and falling into the lap of his comrade alongside.

and objected publicly to the appearance of Company B.— — CHAPTER X After Antietam. and picketing along the poTOMAC stuart's chambersburg raid CAMP AT ST. The first dress parade after the battle approached the burlesque. dred and Eighteenth men of the Third had gotten through watering their horses a bugler with General Porter sounded the "recall" and we returned. began to cross at Blackford's Ford. the subsequent condition of the 130 . saying abruptly: "Captain Treichel. as well as remounts. 1862. I'll march it off parade. force across the the Fifth Corps. We remained in line along the Maryland shore until the cannonading had ceased. the The Third was ordered disaster occurred to the to follow the infantry horses were watered. Jones was in command. While we were doing so the enemy's artillery on the heights got our range and several shells burst in our ranks. reconnoitering. On the morning of September 20. and while this was going on the unfortunate Corn Exchange Regiment (One Hun- Pennsylvania Volunteers) on the bluff on the opposite side. In crossing. Many equipments were needed also. commanding make a reconnoissance in Charlestown. scouting. JAMES' COLLEGE. and Before the the two divisions were ordered to recross the river. Although we naturally felt elated over our share in the battle regiment was one almost of destitution as regards clothing. The ford was shallow and good. below Shepherdstown. Potomac in the direction of Shepherdstown and The divisions of Generals Morrell and Sykes ac- cordingly. at about seven o'clock. Forward !" and in a few moments the Right face ! of Antietam. — September 20 October 31. received orders to General Porter. The reconnoissance was not a success. have not your men better clothing?" The answer came promptly: "If you are not pleased with my company's appearance. Captain Edward S.

25. Morning clear. battery of flying artillery. and encamped for — the balance of the night. 27. The friends of Company H are forming camp to welcome our weather-beaten soldiers with a hearty shake hands. 1862. on account of ill health. and was ready to resume active campaigning. 1862. scouting. direction of Williamsport. Near Sharpsburg. Orders to move countermanded. 1862. and picketing. announcing the time of divine worship. 1862. Pleasonton. 21. in their quarters. moment's Sun set clear. Received order of resignation of CapHe leaves retain Woodburn. m.. Rain at 11 a. In a few days the regiment was furnished with what was needed of clothing and equipment. brigade broken by Colonel Davies' command. Day pleasant. the train following in the rear. Sept. . At 6 p. near Sharpsburg by order of General near Sharpsburg. notice. i3i men were applauding their Captain for his display of backbone. Sun set clear. 22. Received orders from headquarters to hold the regiment in readiness to move at a Clear. recruit. Same. 26. to fall back. Company H. Regiment under brigade command Colonel Davies. my good fellow?" The scene between the friends and soldiers is quite exciting. Sept. Nights W. how are you weathering the storm. Regimental Journal (Continued from page Sept. Sept. 28. By order of General Franklin. 24. m. a brisk cannonading having been opened upon the rebels by our batteries. Sun S. 1862. Sept. and "My God. Sept.30 p. but were ordered Near Williamsport. 1862. returned to vicinity of Sharpsburg. to field Regiment on reconnoissance with Returned of and encamped. m. set clear. September 20-28. Camp Evenings getting cool. Owen. ordered to Hagerstown to Sept. Boots and Saddles sounded and the regiment moved. Clear and pleasant. Arrived to within miles of above place at 11.. 1862. 1862. Sept. Weather cloudy and disagreeable. Eighth New York Cavalry. very cold. 1862. The bells in the distant village are ringing. 20. At tattoo received orders to march immediately to Williamsport. 23. awaiting orders to move. 1862. Sept. Regiment moved in the direction of the river.reconnoitering. Md. 129). left camp Washington to-day. where we encamped. gretted by all his brother officers. in Clear and pleasant. moved from Williamsport and reported to headquarters. Regiment encamped Sun set clear. tor The Lieutenant-Colonel.

There are now encamped close to this by the bell tolling the time. consisting of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. At 3 o'clock this morning the bugle sounded "Boots and Saddles. A portion of Company F were sent out on the left to prevent being flanked by the enemy. with two days' rations. 3. Oct. he being at that place encamped in a fine grove half a mile from the east side of Williamsport. left Regiment Blackford's Ford. We then rode through the town. about squadron. At about 5 o'clock the column moved off under the command of Captain E. with great satisfaction of once more having our old commander. Drill in afternoon under Captain Query. the brigade. deployed as skirmishers on the bluff to protect the artillery while fording the river." . and continued to the left in the direction of Harper's Ferry. the regiment was recalled to a nearer point skirting the river. our field officers all being absent. Fifth U. Having crossed. as we thought. K. camp Were as at usual Averell's orders to report at Williamsport.— 132 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry September 29 October 3. L. 1862. in the direction of Sharpsburg. the rear portion of the column having been After considerable deploying and no fired upon by the enemy's pickets. daybreak and moved toward first on the ground. 1862. Cavalry. Clear and warm. "Sbepherdstown. commenced crossing the Potomac. and two batteries. Companies E. 1862. 29. of Company C. 2. S. James' College." the commander having received orders on the previous evening to prepare and hold his command in readiness for a reconnoissance on the Virginia side of the river. B. S. fighting. and H left camp for scout through the rebel country. Cavalry. but soon found ourselves at a beautiful place called St. 1862. Third Pennsylvania. which held us in abeyance for some two hours. m. At this moment a flag of truce was reported. General Pleasonton having arrived. the column moved to the river and recrossed safely. circling it. Oct. The balance of the regiment were then formed in squadrons. where we were greeted by General Sept. The whole force having crossed. D. Third Indiana. and moved rapidly to camp. one of the most magnificent buildings in We were awakened frequently during the night all this part of the country. some eight miles. 1862. C and I I Company ordered on reconnoissance returning at once to camp. Fourth Pennsylvania. place General Averell's command. the Third in advance. General call was sounded by the band. and in half an hour we started. S. for a march. which is as follows: the Fifth U. We arrived at Williamsport about 4 p. Captain Gary's column was sent forward with directions to move through the town and overcome all resistance. and First Massachusetts Cavalry. ready for battle.* On mounting the hill the enemy's pickets were seen in proximity. First Massachusetts. 30. and reported to the General. Jones. Sept. when we countermarched. Eighth Illinois. up which the column made.

This distance was covered between Sunday night at 12 and Monday morning at 8 a. There are adFlint Stone Fields. a most beautiful little place. We prepare our rations. 1862. our camp a tannery of some pretensions to importance. where it bivouacked until nearly midnight. but twenty-seven miles (the distance between the towns) of up hill and down dale pretty nearly wore us all out. attended with considerable excitement. a stony. skirting the Potomac on one When we and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal on the other. 7. By tiresome and toilsome ways we mounted the steeps. and make ourselves comfortable for the night. the ing the different orders with precision and alacrity. 133 commanding 1862. Leaving this picturesque spot. Md. Beautiful morning. The road is hilly. looking as though joined to that place to hold it in peaceable possession. again shut in by long and large walls of stone on either But just at this side high above us. Oct. we again resumed our march and arrived at Hancock. and one or two nice looking dwellings. but the rest . a store. crossed the Cannagagee Creek. Towards noon we commenced the ascension of a mountain. Skirmish drill. was severe upon the horses through want of shoeing. The road. m. narrow. and taking a steady gait.. moved towards Oldtown. it is the sight of Fairview. possessing all the attributes of a badly-kept country road. Md. October Jones. 1862. and ten miles further on. Oct. Brigade distance of fifteen miles. A distillery was discovered somewhere in the neighborhood. period of our journey and while casting our eyes around. winding by narrow causeways. Drill in forenoon. 4. post office. Secesh sentiments apparently predominate. our hearts leap almost out of their resting place. Clear. the commander having received orders from the brigade General during the night to be ready to march at 4 o'clock with two days' rations. We were joined by the balance of the brigade. 1802. SCOUTING. Oct. precipices of fearful depth. and many a fair face smiled as they witnessed the passing of the column. and some of the boys got bitten by the worm. 1862. AND PICKETING. we took the old arrived at Clear National Road.. From Hancock to Gilpinsville the road appears a little less flinty. Without stopping the brigade proceeded to an open field about two miles beyond the town. Clear The inhabitants turned out en Spring. About half a mile up the creek lies Gilpinsville. 6. letting in faint glimmers of light. jacent to Oct.. m. the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. 5. at 5 a. when the march was resumed to Gilpinsville. and near it a house perched on the side of the mountain. 3-7. Day clear and warm. At that time the column moved off towards Williamsport. From Clear Spring to Hancock the distance is seventeen miles.RECONNOITERING. camp. though in good condition. masse Spring side in their Sunday clothes to see us. 5 p. passed through the town. men obey- Quite a stirring time in the regiment very early this morning. and m.

— — 134 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry September 30 October ii. Rations for the men and forage for the horses were furrail. where we were joined by General Averell. Ten men were sent back to camp near St. assigned to the Cavalry Division for duty with the brigade which he had commanded as Colonel. Lieutenant-Colonel Sargent. Williamsport. from which place we were frequently sent out on picket and scouting duty. 1862. Halted long enough to feed the horses and allow the men to prepare a meal say about three hours. nished by — The men are satisfied to stay where they are all winter. Fortytwo miles of mountain road were covered this day. but the different reports disagreed as to their course and probable distance from us. Rumors is are rife of another raid into Maryland. remain 11. While on the Peninsula he had been stricken down with the "Chicka- . — The cavalry of the enemy kept up their incursions across the which was not attainable on the Virginia side. m. 1862. Oct. Along the road positive information of the visit of the rebels was obtained. On the same day Captain Newhall also returned to duty from sick leave. 9. General Averell having recovered from his illness was. having been up to this time in command of the brigade. 8. we went into camp at St. James' College. Maryland. but nothing definite known. We Oct. of the First Massachusetts Cavalry. 1862. importance takes place here. Potomac October 3. where a bivouac was made in a field where there was plenty of forage. Boots and Saddles were sounded and in a few minutes we were winding along the hillside in the direction of Hancock. in this camp until An early start was made and we arrived at our camping ground at Gilpinsville about 11 o'clock in the forenoon. We arrived within a mile of Hancock. but the regiment eats. and our camp was made by 9 p. by orders from the Headquarters of the Army of the Potomac. Nothing of and sleeps. with horses unfit for further service. We crossed the Potomac immediately into Virginia. dated fords of the in search of forage. Hunting them up and chasing them back kept us busy moving about until eventually. our horses had received the day and night previous fortified them against over-fatigue. 1862. Arrived at Oldtown about 11 o'clock. Lieutenant Philip Pollard "may his shadow never grow less !" Oct. drinks. and were welcomed by officers and men of the First New York and Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry. and enjoys a holiday. through the untiring energy of our Quartermaster. on September 30. James' College. about six miles south of Hagerstown.

he recrossed the Potomac below the mouth of the Monocacy and bivouacked during the night of the 2th at Leesburq-. Maryland. on what is known as the "Chambersburg Raid. . Pennsylvania in which latter place he spent the night of the ioth and burned a large quantity of government property Emmittsburg. and a horse battery of four guns under Major Pelham crossed the Potomac at McCoy's Ford. His line of march was through Mercersburg and Chambersburg. raid. Since October 7 Captain Gary with his squadron of the Third had been picketing along the river from McCoy's Ford to Cherry Run.stuart s chambersburg 7-12. at daylight on October 10. General "Jeb" Stuart. Notwithstanding that Pleasonton's column marched seventy-eight miles in twenty-four hours. While we were reconnoitering and picketing along the Upper Potomac. officers and men. and Averell's almost as rapidly. Hyattstown. Fitzhugh Lee. so quick were his movements that no one knew where to intercept him. Virginia a wonderful march. 1862. When the enemy's advance guard began to cross the river the pickets at cavalry. and Robertson. some miles above Williamsport. Though the news of his crossing was not slow in reaching Headquarters. with eighteen hundred picked cavalrymen six hundred each from the brigades of Generals Hampton. during part of which he made as much as eighty miles in twenty-seven hours. searching for his whereabouts." which laid low so many of our and had been sent home on September i. Liberty. i35 October hominy fever. Stuart was — — — — 1 — not intercepted or overtaken with sufficient force to prevent his recrossing into Virginia. New Market. and Barnesville. and after making a circuit of McClellan s army. When Stuart started on his raid General Averell with his com- mand was at Green Spring. and Captain Treichel with his squadron performing similar duty at Four Locks. Pleasonton and Averell were sent groping about in the dark. As soon as the intelligence of the movement was reported at Headquarters he was ordered to march rapidly down the north side of the river with all his available and to use every exertion to get upon the trail of the enemy and follow it vigorously. our enterprising antagonist." one of the boldest and most successful enterprises in his brilliant career.

Army of the Potomac. October General : 9 p. forty-six miles away. have the honor to report the return of my brigade to this made by telegraph. Imboden went to Wardensville. Commander-in-Chief.. Romney. Private Henry High. which could not fail to furnish the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac with the earliest and most reliable information of the movements of the rebels along the Upper Potomac. m.* While at Green Spring I endeavored to establish a line of pickets from New Creek to Cherry Run. had been informed that a force of thirty thousand rebels were in Franklin County..) there were no rebels west of the Great Cacapon Mountains and east of Floyd's forces. At Mercersburg. That thirty thousand could have crossed this side of Cumberland without immediate notice being sent to you from the troops I left When along the line. I believe impossible. and the country in my front. My report should be ment of the rebels in that vicinity. Everything. via Hagerstown. except light cavalry parties. 1862.I36 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. in Fulton County. m. This was but one of the many wild rumors afloat at the time. who reported that there was no moveI place. it was reported to me officially. 1862. through Franklin County. Having marched from McConnellsburg. by an officer of the Eighth New York. of Company H. yesterday is just received. and nothing but a few saucy pickets From prisoners taken. and sent an officer to Clear Spring. but were driven in. but I think this the most expeditious. no doubt. being wounded and taken prisoner. was withdrawn from Springfield. to-day without seeing any rebels. Md. The following is General Averell's report of his share in the chase after Stuart: Headquarters First Cavalry Brig. Captain Gary then fell back to Dam Number Five. except Imboden's force of eight hundred and fifteen hundred mounted infantry. McCoy's Ford offered such resistance as was in their power.* it was learned that the rebels were aware of my and strength at Green Spring. I am inclined to believe that the report of Governor Curtin is based upon unreliable information. that the rebels were crossing at or near McCoy's Ferry. which message had been forwarded to Genera] McClellan. about noon to-day. Green Spring (Saturday. position could be found. Near Downsville. was made with a full knowledge of the position of our cavalry forces. The recent raid. * This referred to a that he . 3 a. who had ordered General Averell to investigate the matter. October 10-14. I turned from my intended line of march with the brigade. message sent by Governor Curtin to General Halleck. as directed. Your dispatch of 2 p. m. 14. nth.

When the main regiment crossed the Potomac into Virginia on October 7. proceeded to within a short distance of SmithThe field. On the 14th the battalion marched to Downsville. 137 My march has been about two hundred miles the first fifty-five miles in twenty-eight hours. driving back the enemy's cavalry pickets and bivouacking at Kearneysville for the night. The rebels had left the latter place. and from his letters. the longest march. 1862. that has been made recently. G. forming part of a detachment of five hundred men from the First Cavalry Brigade. On the 17th at sunrise LeeFifth United States Artillery. as has been stated. and on the 13th to McConnellsburg. early on the nth. a battalion of the Third. I am. composed of the detail from the First Massachusetts. Virginia. C. Averell. consisting of Companies A. very respectfully. marched to Green Spring. the detachment returned to Shepherdstown and recrossed the river at . W Chief of Staff. proceeded over to Sharpsburg. October 7-17. Brigadier-General Marcy. all town was reached. Wm. with artillery. in the Regimental Journal from October The hiatus can be supplied in part from the scanty notes contained in Captain Newhall's pocket memorandum book. There are no entries 12 until the 19th. where it rejoined the regiment. and I. exact orders of the expedition having been carried out. and by the 13th were safely back again in Virginia. remained there until the nth. Maryland. On October 15. Captain Hess. I believe. My brigade is in need of a little rest. your obedient servant. on the 12th to Harrisonville. then marched in search column to Hancock. Pennsylvania. Brigadier-General Volunteers. or Downstown. one of which. During the recent marches no wagons or pack-animals have been used by my command. and a day or two is desired to organize a small pack-mule train for its use. which had arrived there the same day and gone into camp. with fifty men of the Third. Maryland. general. and scouting parties sent out in different directions. . with of Stuart's two guns of Hazlett's Horse Battery of the under the command of Major Curtis of the First Massachusetts Cavalry.stuarts chambersburg raid. where the enemy's cavalry was encountered in force. On the following day the detachment crossed the Potomac at Blackford's Ford and proceeded to Shepherdstown.

1862. A very inconvenient place for water. as it Nothing of notice to-day except a rumor having somehow got among the men about the breaking up of a camp. Martin tendered his resignation. with provisions for sale. We are now within the Couch's division. Oct. 22. The fields this morning foretold the coming winter at no great distance. to part with him. m. which was accepted. a band about a quarter mile to the rear of our camp. cakes. Regimental Journal (Continued from page Oct. 1862. 20. which kept up delightful music until a very late hour. thence to nearly opposite St. Preparing tor inspection and review. 1862." The column moved to the road running from Downstown to the main Williamsport road. the review was a failure. October 17-26. Camp limits of General Oct. did. D. m. near Downstown. 23. such as pies. Citizens can be seen pouring into camp from every quarter this morning.. At 8 a. A few days ago Captain H. Md. and the General not making his appearance. 1862. The rain falling too fast. Blackford's Ford. the eatable line. everything good in Oct. 1862. his guns shelling the rear with little success. 1862. the bugle sounded "To horse" and the regiment was soon in line on the ground. 19. to attend to business. 1862. being followed by the enemy at a distance. 26. a. cold. it Clear and pleasant in early morning. Oct.. All his brother officers and the men of his company were loth Oct. Oct. m. 24. where we again encamped on the old ground. . 134). 21. Last evening our ears were greeted by the sweet sounds of music. but in a short time the column was perceived moving towards the camp. everything being clothed in a white garment of frost. Wind high and At the sound of the bugle the men saddled their horses and made the necessary arrangements for inspection and review. both of a private and public character. James' College. soon followed by "Boots and Saddles. We kept on this road until reaching the road running from the Hagerstown Pike to Williamsport. and much to our relief from the dust. Md. The Colonel left camp to-day for Washington. but about 8 rain soon followed.138 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. The rough Oct. 1862. of most every description: in short. bread. General call sounded at 8 a. created no little consternation. owing to injuries received by being thrown from a carriage in Washington. which always has done. 25. became cloudy. 1862. W. C.

Citizens still continue come into camp with good eatables. m. them clothed with the best the Government Oct. Halted one hour. which like all this steep every fifty yards. Still in ceased at 11 camp.camp at st. and after climbing many steep hills and crossing some fine valleys.*) Orders from headquarters to have every available man and horse in readiness to move within one hour's time. 1862. Wind continues high. 27. Oct. Rain a. The camp was aroused and into shape to move at daylight ''Boots and Saddles" were sounded and orders given for inspection. 1862. passing through the town. move at 4 a. 30. & O. and will soon have issues. At length we reached Knoxville. 1862. R. Captain Jones officer. when we again moved and encamped for the night. and then moved down to Sharpsburg. Captain Jones. 1862. The column moved between 1 and 2. Orders to everything put men being entirely out of money. Dress parade halfhour before retreat. In the evening the squadron reported to Colonel Williams. and with the to this Sixty-first Pennsylvania and * It is regretted that access was not allowed exceedingly valuable source of information. 29. 1862. with two days' rations and ten pounds of forage to each man. We moved out the Frederick Pike about seventeen miles. but our Quartermaster. but are obliged to go away with full baskets. 31. R. aided by the Adjutant. We countermarched on past our camp ground. 18-31. . (The substance of these orders may be found in the Order Book. & O. to Pleasant. m. The B. Wind high in afternoon. close to the B. The men were soon ready and reported to the commanding officer. We passed through this town. james college. headed for the pike. 28. We left the college and took the road leading from the Hagerstown Pike to Williamsport. R. being the inspecting Oct. after which the order was given to forward. The column moved to We moved slowly part of the State. Again aroused is at an early hour. the Oct. Oct. but expecting orders to move. crossing a branch of the South Mountain into Pleasant Valley. after which we encamped on a hill. passes through the place. from whose summit we could look many miles down the valley. one of the army. leaving the ferry to our right. is of the men the best in exerting every nerve in their behalf. reached an elevated portion of land from which we could overlook part of the river. First Massachusetts Cavalry. to hear General and Special Orders. 139 October weather coming on so suddenly has a bad effect on some who need warmer clothes. the buildings bearing the appearance of being inhabited by a poor class of people. Captain Newhall's notebook contains the following memoranda: October 18. the roads in the road in direction of Harper's Ferry. taking the right-hand road. R. down a the hill road. The canal runs parallel with part of the town. 1862.

October Baltimore 19. October 26. m. m.30 p. No rebel cavalry in the neighborhood. Returned at 9 o'clock p. Colonel Williams promises us something to do. dashed into Hedgesville. very wet and tired. Broke Re- camp 4 p. and Drill at 8. ported crossing of rebels below Cherry Run on Recall at 7 o'clock. 27. arrived at 10. and as we received three days' rations yesterday we feel more independent than straggling infantrymen ever did. m. October 23. m. bringing off nineteen rebel cavalry. Immediately ordered in pursuit. Stable call 11. and marced to neighborhood of Clear Springs. without seeing any rebels. Encamped by canal after fording the river. October 25. R. m. and the probable change of our location at St. m. notice. October 24. Officers ordered to attend Dress parade yesterday. guide lost. Scouted yesterday toward Hedges- ville Received news of the presence Shanghai over the Potomac. Reached camp Received orders to be ready to march at an hour's 3. Moved to Hancock by Virginia side. October at 21. Details from each command out for forage.30 .30 o'clock p. m. Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Lieutenant Warren's Company C just ordered out pursuant to "ridiculous" order of Colonel Williams. where we were entertained by the captor of Colonel Ashby. Reveille did blow at 4. where we encamped during the night. to do. Evening: Ordered to be ready 9 o'clock p. and a party gone to break the track between Hancock and Cumberland. in the afternoon. Arrived at cross roads to Hedgesville 6 o'clock p. October 18-28. during which the Captain made his escape. Very rainy of one hundred and fifty rebel cavalry at October we at Received orders to be in the saddle at 7 o'clock a. Camp at Indian Spring. and changes his mind in behalf of staying here three or four days. October 28. James' College. which were rather ahead of time. & Ohio Examined the roads towards Hedgesville on Virginia side of Potomac. Forded the Potomac at Cherry Run Station.30 o'clock with a vengeance. were. General Newton is awfully afraid that we don't get enough and in spite of our crippled condition keeps sending scouting parties along the main road to Hagerstown daily. march at a. m. Boots and Saddles at daybreak. Captain Park. m. En route at 9 o'clock. Evening.30 p. R. We hear to-day of the skirmish at Hedgesville by a squadron of Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Got off at 2 o'clock a.I4O HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Corcoran's Brigade took up the march toward Clear Spring. m. October 22. the main army (three thousand) was thrown into confusion. three thousand rebels at Hedgesville with thirty thousand under Jackson at Martinsburg. 1862. Water to [call].. which Williamsport at 1. Captain Jones didn't sleep since 12 o'clock and he ordered reveille according to his feelings. 20th inst.

and having examined the neighborhood of Hedgesville. our object being to cut the rebels off at this point. We learn from the Union people of Virginia that Jackson has gone to Bunker Hill. Ches. it was not to be wondered at that those who were denied them should take "French leave. and that the coming fight will take place in that neighborhood. & Ohio Canal. 1862. him. 4. October 30. October 31. we What Our camp at St. Camp at Indian Springs. AND PICKETING. Reached camp at 10. The rebels have about three thousand men at Hedgesville. Reveille at 4 o'clock. next day our squadron moved across the canal and river at Cherry Run Station (Baltimore & Ohio Railroad). relatives. Birthday. to picket the roads in the vicinity and to guard the fords. and having escaped the other cavalry recmssed the Potomac. a foraging party in its The country around was explored by many quest of chickens. We left camp on the 18th.: RECONNOITERING. SCOUTING. Marched to Dam No. The temptation to visit their friends. 141 October 29. October 13-31. have road. and sometimes a duck or a goose found way . Twenty-one. we were ordered to this place. one. a fortunate thing that he's so modest. and sweethearts became unendurable to many of them. m. should be following up another raid about once a week. October 24th. supplying this great need of a of camp of cavalry. and marched to Clear Springs on the same evening." They all returned. same day. Two of Captain Newhall's letters are preserved McConnellsburg. cold water. While some were granted leaves. however. on the Virginia side. and reported for duty. which for a time was in "Company Q" (the sobriquet of the guard house). Marched to Berlin The opportunities for writing home during the foregoing move- ments were few. Marched to Pleasant Valley toward headquarters camp at Valley Hall during the night. October 13th. At 12 o'clock changed direction toward Williamsport. marched to Hancock. via Hancock and Harrisonville. After a rest of two days. We arrived here this morning. James College was an exceedingly pleasant was inhabited by loyal and Near the college buildings was a remarkable spring.30 o'clock p. which sent forth a perfect torrent of pure. Of course they took another sent out after them. The members Company H were now in close proximity to their homes. Captured six pickets on Virginia side of Potomac. and the surrounding country friendly people. Great spree. through Knoxville on Potomac River. mostly infantry and if Jackson only knew how afraid our officers are of .

These foragers became so numerous that the Fifth Regulars were detailed as a provost guard. and was distinctly in contrast with picketing in Virginia. James' College. Picketing the fords of the Upper Potomac. 1862. During one of these tours of picket duty. and after nightfall crossed the river with a detail of ten men. secured the services of a guide and the use of an old flatboat.142 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. a party of the enemy's cavalry came over and captured one of our vedettes. The next day Captain Treichel. us no further annoyance on that tour of duty. who. perhaps. commanding our picket force. into . was not sufficiently cautious. was the duty assigned us while encamped at St. at Four Locks. where little else than desolation existed. and guarding the canal. returning at midnight with all the enemy's They gave pickets which he could find. without firing a shot. October. camp.

.

Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.ioi.kni.and ].ri:yet-Ma.Brkjadier. .kal .-(.IoIIN Fi>nni'i ly Colonel I'». MciNToslT.

reconnoitering. Bidding adieu to "Maryland. Rain and 11 in moved on little until about o'clock.CHAPTER XI Return to Virginia and the Rappahannock. who had crossed on October 26. The course clamoring for at Washington Richmond" advance was resumed with unabated vigor. m. My Maryland. of "On by the pontoon bridge at Berlin. Regimental Journal (Continued from page 139)- November camp until 6 p. 1862. passed through Lovettsville. in the afternoon. our brigade under General Averell following that of General Pleasonton. We village of a stirring Union sentiment. After the two brigades were united. One and a half hours after reveille finds us on the march again. November 2. and fighting— mcclellan relieved from command of the army— burnside succeeds him— mcintosh succeeds averell as colonel of the regiment—camp on potomac creek. on November 2. moved out the pike a considerable ways. "un to richmond" again— piedmont—markham— picketing. and a series of brilliant encounters ensued. 1862. 1862. and advanced once more into Virginia. below Harper's Ferry. in which the enemy. and camp was struck. Broke camp and moved across the Potomac on the Pontoon Bridge. On November 1. found himself as each day passed nearer home than upon the previous one. November 1-24. driving back the Confederate cavalry. We The roar of the artillery from the front could be distinctly H3 . though always victorious according to his own accounts. leaving the pike again." we marched across the Potomac another to — —by the non-combatants. one of them took the advance one day and the other the next. scouting. a fine We encamped that night about 5 miles further on the Manchester Pike. We pushed forward. The column 1. took a cross country road and moved on to the Crossed the Leesburg Pike at that place and moved village of Filmore. at a rapid gait. the "General" was sounded.

which almost hid the road from view. The enemy succeeded in gaining a second position to the west of Upperville. At this place the main body halted and the advance guard began as usual to look up their game. and held it until the next day. The battery was soon into the work on both sides of the mountains. After taking a number of prisoners the brigade returned to the town. five miles below Piedmont. Moved again one and one-half miles and halted in a corn field for the night. The field was soon cleared of what corn was in it. shots the enemy were well-directed brought into action. a small town on the Upperville Pike. November 3. when they were ordered to follow the regiment. at an early hour and commenced our three miles. The advance attacked them. S. Broke camp the enemy.T44 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November 2-4. but fortunately doing no damage. 1862. The scouts The artillery was soon in the meantime found out the enemy's position. 4. The firing having ceased at 5 p. 1862. Cavalry. and on a road to the right moved a few miles and encamped about 10 o'clock by the fires which the rebels had built— so that night we slept within one mile of the Alexandria & Richmond R. When a second charge was threatened by our troops the rebels broke and fled in confusion across the Blue Ridge.30. R. which had crossed the Blue Ridge in the morning. field close to move on was then formed Moved about and crossed a The regiment the road. moved. station at 9. and the enemy were again forced to limber up and dust. 1862. However. This part abounds with forage. a way . and with a section of artillery and four companies of the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry moved to a point considerably up the Gap. and we rode at full speed for about one hour. These two companies were ordered on picket." General Averell and his brigade in pursuit. m. supposed to be inhabited at Part of the regiment halted on the outskirts of that time by the rebels. The rebels limbered up and commenced to "skedaddle. m. Cavalry moved to a hill on the opposite side of the road. They fired several well-directed shots. and after a few forced to abandon their position. heard at this time. with the exception of Companies E and L. At this place they suffered a charge from a portion of the Fifth U. The enemy were seen raising the dust in the direction of Manassas Gap. the wood. At 9 a. while the other part in company with the battery and the Fifth U. Our battery was soon brought into action. not a great deal of time was lost in finding them. such as corn and hay. Our loss is very light considering. S. November Pleasant day. they made a more successful stand at Markham Station. on the road leading through the Gap. then into squadrons through a strip of woodland joining the field. After running them beyond the ridge our regiment returned and all. close to Markham Station. halted at the village of Unionville until dark. Reached Piedmont on the Alexandria & Richmond R. R. a number of the shells falling among the men. our forces in pursuit. camped for the night. and then the main body was ordered up.

while that 7.. and feed their horses. Regiment moved at 8 a. The column moved down the pike within a short distance of Amissville. the rebels being entirely out of of the . This place The Eighth Illinois Cavalry dashed on the enemy at this place and completely routed them with the loss of two of their number killed and a few wounded. and after scouting the country for around Amissville. We have also captured four pieces of cannon. The men slept quiet during the night. gathering themselves behind stone fences and everything that would shelter them from an advancing column. but about 10 a. We have since the commencement of our advance taken and sent to General McClellan three hundred and fifty prisoners. The main body of the regiment crossed the Blue Ridge at 11 a. at 8 a m. and they still continue to arrive from the front. and after a this morning and short but spirited engagement the rebels were routed. November 1862. consisting of tents and camp equipage. 1862. surprising and routing the rebels wherever they showed themselves. a distance of eight miles passing through Orleans wc move on an hour and a half and encamp four miles beyond. attacked the The brigade moved forward again enemy in the valley. to cross roads. a small village on the road and camped in a small grove close to the road. 1862. enemy was heavy. Everything this quiet day. 1862. the column moved forward and crossed a branch of the Rappahannock at Fuller's Woolen Factory. SCOUTING. and a number of small arms. 9. and in the afternoon the Fifth squadron was ordered to follow. We have no reason to be displeased with our success. November 1862. RECONNOITERING. Quite a large amount of rebel property was destroyed in this town. and moved out to the Warrenton and Culpeper Pike. The artillery was soon run out and 10. November m. After giving the men time enough to cook breakfast 8. hearing.. the enemy's pickets remaining within gunshot of our camp all night. yesterday was the scene of bloody work. the rebels being at this time very close. the enemy was reported in or trying to get in our rear to capture the train. The few citizens who are left in this part of Virginia may thank General Averell and his small band for ridding them of their half-starved and ragged friends of the Confederate Army. m. m. A sharp lookout was kept November during the night. November At 4 a. 1862. IO .PICKETING. After being once more together the regiment camped in the valley about five miles beyond the Ridge. 1862. From the time our forces attacked them beyond Upperville the enemy have had every advantage. returned and camped one mile beyond and to the southwest of Amissville in the woods. The column moved to Orleans. AND FIGHTING I45 November 5-10. Moved fifteen miles morning had the appearance of a m. the squadrons on picket in the Gap advanced 5. some distance and began skirmishing. November 6.

which direction cannonading could be heard. during the skirmish they succeeded in surrounding Companies E and L. which were on picket at Gaines' Cross Roads. The enemy not in sight. 2. m. Regiment moved at 8 a. their services not being needed. to which the enemy quickly replied. Drove him from fine position towards Ashby's Gap. after procuring a guide. m. m. Marched five miles through Lovettsville. and ordered which we reached about 3 p. work. However. The rest. OrEncountered the enemy about n o'clock a. which place we reached about 3 p. November to Very cold dered the front. set to rebels November 11. Dress parade m. Marched toward Union. November the night. m. 1862. General in direction of Captain additional Newhall's pocket notebook contains the following- memoranda: Berlin. 1. After a short fight the were forced back.146 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November 1-14. November November high hill Regiment ordered on picket near Gaines' Cross Roads 12. Captain Jones says "There is a good chance for the young : officers. m. Blew up very cold and rainy towards midnight. November 1802. 13. and captured five of them. It subsequently transpired that the men which were seen on the hill proved to be our own men. left their camp During tbe excitement yesterday the regiment never in the woods. m. Six o'clock p. Pennsylvania Reported capture of two of the rebel pieces. crossed pontoon bridge across canal and river. November in Broke camp at 6 o'clock a. Rebels driven about two miles. . four of Company L and one of Company E. to give way in favor of the youngsters. night. Encamped on a last Considerable excitement preevening owing to a report that the enemy was seen on the hill opposite our camp. m. 1862. Went into camp about dark within one-half mile of enemy's guns. 1862. left Berlin. General Averell threatens to capture everything in the shape of "opposing force" in case he is ordered to the front to-day. within one-half mile of Waterloo. the vailed among men call sounded. Squadron of Cavalry picketed the roads in vicinity of camp. Regiment relieved from picket this a. Fourth All quiet. Picket the vicinity with Captain Drummond's in center. Camped there p. reached the main road in safety. Warrenton. took the road to Piedmont Station. and all after the rebels were driven back they rested quietly during the night. 1862. Drill skirmish in the forenoon. Boots and Saddles at 7 o'clock. 14. Laid around near the battlefield in the afternoon. Every one expected a shelling during the night. Va. through Upperville. where we encamped during the night. to Waterloo. Took an easterly direction and moved from the main road about one and one-half miles and camped in a beautiful field." Ever willing 3. and remained there during the day.

Boots and Saddles at 7 and cannonading on our left." Boots and Saddles five at . Took right-hand road at the cross roads. See no more of the enemy here. Passed about twenty stone walls and fences. 4-10. Still on right flank. Thirty killed and wounded rebel cavalry. November 9. Very cold night of 6th. with a good view of the "change of base. continued up to 10 o'clock Fifth vanced this a. for one-half mile. Firing in front. Lieutenant Ash. "To Horse. m. and left. Somewhat snowy during first part of the night.. . two days' meat and crackers by supply train. and lost twelve horses and five men during the day. where three guns were planted—this position flanked by Captain Tidball on left. A. coffee and In the saddle all sugar. during which the firing Johnson Section of Tidball's Battery ordered to the front.PIEDMONT November November left. Lieutenant Ash on charged the rebel three-gun battery with his skirmishers. horse cut on one of them. G. noon and marched to the battlefield. with Valley. A. The rebels thought better of it and we didn't go out. where we encamped the night. Adp. marched miles had gone over the mountain and got into the towards Orleans. Move in northeast direction continued. turned out to be Wilcox's Corps d'Armce en Followed the wagons to the extreme advance and . wagons and went into "park" opposite our camp. Rations for three days. m. MARKHAM. last night. Returned to camp below this town. Marched through Orleans. Enemy retreat in hot haste. encamped through the night three miles out of town. I47 Skirmished on right flank. Jackson and Longstreet reported in the November 8. saw a wagon train in the distance route to Orleans. November 7. and five miles beyond. horse 12 o'clock noon. Countermarched to the cross roads found the enemy left-hand main road at 2 p. To At 9 o'clock a. Boots and Saddles 7 o'clock. Regiment in front. Camp near the battlefield with horses saddled and packed. Morning of 5th trot at Sixth PennsylCavalry charge the rebels with success. day without doing much. Left camp at a New York November 6. rear. Snow m. o'clock." Skirmishing on the right did not amount to much except hard travel. of the Fifth 4. Lieutenant Ash driven back by the enemy and reported wounded. 8 o'clock. Drove the enemy from all his positions towards Front Royal. Fifth Regiment charged up towards Gap. Left-hand road and march four miles to camp in the woods over night. Pickets were fired into and Boots and Saddles ordered. m. Take a prisoner of Hampton Legion at cross roads. King received his commission as captain and assistant adjutant-general. vania Cavalry and eighth 12 o'clock inst. Price came up with his November heavy firing 10. Take position on main road until dark. taking the position. A. 1862. Joined Lieutenant Ash in front about dark. Snow fell in the forenoon.

Adjutant. we caught up Marched Sigel is The old Captain got tired of waiting. Communicated with pickets of Eighth New York Cavalry stationed at cross roads. 13.30. "General" sounded at 7 right in "Boots and Saddles" Warrenton. F.: : I48 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Va. First squadron passes cross roads posts reserve in the ravine beyond and . The Third ordered out on picket. Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry drive the enemy. Newhall. Lieutenant W. November o'clock. 1862. Sir F. Lieutenant Potter assigned to Company A to Captains Treichel and Johnson at cross roads. Va. (rebel) this spring. November 12. to Waterloo. By order. Amissville. then we marched front to . but on Warrenton Road. portion of Eighth Illinois while picketing two and one-half miles from main reserve.. Edward S. Wright. Jones. Captain Commanding. last night. Captain Sir : W. but managed to escape through the mountains. Headquarters Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Captain Commanding Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Wetherill saw nothing of Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry charged them and returned to camp. November 9. W S. thought a great deal of the military man. Potter assigned by the fol- viz. he will be obeyed and respected accordingly. November 10-14. A. November 11. have your squadron join the regiment. date from the 10th inst. 14. Paris. Stood three rounds and withdrew Unsaddled and went to bed. Potter having this day been mustered into the United States [service] is hereby assigned to your company as Second Lieutenant. Burnside receiving congratulations of his friends this November lowing order. Withdrew the pickets on reception of the following order. and in renewing the charge discovers the mistake in time to prevent any loss of life. viz. S. Commanding A Company. in one-half hour where Sigel opposed Jackson in this section as a field. losing four men wounded. to the old camp. Edward S. Adjutant. from last night's encampment near Gaines' Cross Roads. W. You will withdraw your command at once and report to me at the cross roads. Camped at Waterloo 8. Wright. Captain : Newhall. Jones. Both throw out skirmishers and Fourth calls for more men. Va. Waterloo. We hear of McClellan's removal from the army in the is General evening. 1862. and myself as support. White nearly surrounded yesterday by the rebels. pickets the roads in vicinity. five hundred strong. White in reserve.

and so 13.. All well. have been very hard at We have been driving Hampton and York Cavalry. He is a fine man and a good officer. Several times "draw a bead" on an imaginary foe and keep him so until the shadow approaches. 3-17. . New Colonel takes command. Ordered to withdraw and join the regiment. rejoin the regiment five miles beyond War. We marched here from Amissville yesterday. As related in the Journal. Captain Jones acting Lieu- tenant Colonel. We since leaving camp at St. November 14. dislodging the enemy and taking a number of prisoners. On the 5th the advance was resumed and the enemy driven into and through Manassas Gap. successful fight in the valley beyond. General McClellan had on November 5 ordered General Pleas- . Fired on by citizens of W. General Averell has gone to Warrenton sick. m. Broke camp 11 o'clock a. made of the proper material for Harry [his youngest soldiering. Colonel Mcintosh takes charge of our regiment to-day. Private McLoughlin. and a person not acquainted with the facts might suppose he had been at it all his life. General Stuart's signals flying about all night. Captain Newhall wrote: Camp work near Amissville. are his command. the march was continued the next morning to Markham. James' all College. Pickets driven. and self try to force the position. we have no fears of being badly off under find Waterloo. After bivouacking there for the night. and. Warrenton. 17 Salem. Orleans. November November 16. near Upperville and later near Piedmont. also rear guard. where the spirited fight mentioned in the Journal occurred in which Company A of the Third. and New Baltimore Roads. Va. having very comfortable. Junction. No rebels in sight. we first encountered the enemy on November 3. and being in a first-rate fence-rail country. Some splendid charging has been brother] made by in the Fifth Regulars and Eighth New Nobody hurt our regiment. Dismount. is Stuart from their chosen positions in the Gaps. 149 1862. Sergeant Lyon. November no forage.piedmont November markham. and on the following day we had a ported by a company of the Fifth Regulars. There were but few opportunities for writing home during these active movements. First squadron on picket Thoroughfare Gap. Captains Johnson and Hess. November 9. sup- made a brilliant charge. we probably tents. leave to-day. We marched here from Waterloo this morning. we manage to keep the weather out. leaving us under General Pleasonton.

while Stuart himself. in his "Campaigns of view: of Stuart's Cavalry. on an expedition from Manassas Gap to Thoroughfare Gap. and remained there until the 17th. These men should be promoted. as every man should be in these times for gallantry. of Captain Treichel's Company B. On the 8th we marched to Amissville." and this is how Major H. Since the crossing from Berlin up to the Many present. They left sixteen dead on field. on the 7th Averell's brigade withdrew and marched to a — point four miles beyond Orleans. . During Thursday's fight they over one hundred killed and wounded. lost the persons have decried our cavalry. and John Murray and Lawson Speelman. unaccompanied except by his staff. and Pleasonton's commands have proved themselves fully They have driven Stuart in every fight.150 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. These cavalry battles have been very severe upon the rebel officers . contained the following comment on the series of brilliant actions above referred to: The Philadelphia Inquirer. B. a number have been killed and wounded. with R. McClellan. and on the 14th to Warrenton. and on to the Rapidan if possible Accordif the enemy was holding the Rappahannock in force. 1862 onton to concentrate the whole of General Averell's brigade with his own and move upon Little Washington. It is interesting sometimes "to see oursels as ithers see us. whose war dispatches were among the best. After three busy and lively days there and in the vicinity we marched on the 12th Passing through to Waterloo. of Company H. They captured a rebel major of the Eighth Virginia Cavalry on the way. comparing it as next to nothing alongside of Stuart's. mile east of it in a fine that beautiful town we halted about one large field near a good stream of water." writes from the Confederate point ber] Hampton's brigade reached Millwood on the evening of the 3d [Novemand was ordered to Markham Station on the morning of the 4th. November 3-17. in which the dashing Lieutenant Penrose Ash was wounded in several places. Averell's equal to any cavalry. Several days ago General Averell sent Sergeant John Markley. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Keys and John Parker. The hazardous errand was completed by the men in two days with success. ingly. rode by a nearer but much more exposed route toward the same point. and Culat any rate to ascertain peper. Sperryville. and brought him along to camp. of Company B. the Fifth United States Cavalry having a sharp skir- mish at Newby's Cross Roads.

: infantry here to-night. On the evening of the 3d Major Douglas had occupied Piedmont. This series of engagements was over a beautiful portion of much of it new to our command. Virginia. the unwritten tradition among the Southern cavalry. and offered battle to Averell. But we can glean some interesting items from the dispatches of General Pleasonton. and was compelled to make a detour toward Markham's. men may corroborate it. however. on this day thus writes to General McClellan "General Averell has sent for assistance at Markham." An hour later he again writes: "I have sent Colonel Gregg and the Sixth [Eighth] Cavalry to reinforce Averell at Markham. he found the town in the possession of the enemy. I expect he has had a hard fight.45 p. There is. but through a misunderstanding of his orders had retired toward Markham s on the approach of Averell's Brigade. Stuart was not present at this fight. I fear. and that these gallant fellows. and manned by the French detach- — ment were surrounded by the Federal cavalry. I have advised him to be very careful. and as they can so easily throw infantry upon him through the Gap. An hour still later he thus writes "Averell's command is. and Aldie. and only when compelled to. The force opposed to us was the best of the rebel cavalry. The reports of this affair are meagre. As Rosser approached Piedmont in the night. and it fell back reluctantly. all the while singing the Marseillaise Hymn. Having thus reunited the brigade. and the country is bad. Union. Rosser made no report of it. but tells me one of his squadrons was overwhelmed by superior : numbers. and reports having had a hard fight with Stuart." time. m. Middleburg. from his report. a good deal crippled. and attacked at the same time both in front and rear. 3-4. Upperville. Stuart refers to it only by saying that the enemy advanced upon Rosser in such force that he was compelled to withdraw. 151 1862. Averell's We give the story by a successful charge of one of Rosser's Perhaps some of for what it is worth. between which place and Manassas Gap he found the regiments commanded by Major Douglas. but without suffering any serious loss and that the battery of horse artillery under Captain Henry behaved with conspicuous gallantry. and his report was written many months after its occurrence. fought their guns with unfaltering courage until relieved — from their peril regiments. Waterloo. It would be well to send some . will . who at 3. Amissville. Rosser moved forward to Markham's on the morning of the 4th. afterwards distinguished at Fredericksburg. I am moving forward to reinforce him. He does not give me his killed and wounded. that on this occasion two of the guns of Henry's battery one of which was the Napoleon. Averell sends me word he had two guns and three hundred prisoners of Stuart's at one and then lost them. The mention of Orleans.piedmont November markham." This is all that we can learn from the official records.

we had to bivouac every night where darkness found us. took the post of honor and introduced Colonel Mcintosh to his command. But it also evinced the same spirit of loyalty in obediently following the orders of its new commander. Our camp is one and Furnished two squadrons for picket. infantry Our con- tinued march. sometimes face to face with the enemy. to succeed Colonel who had. and our new Colonel ushered at once upon his arduous duties. Morning cloudy — strong wind. however. much discom- was experienced by the officers and men of the regiment. as our had marched in the same direction. our much-esteemed generalin-chief. though keeping on the east of the Bull Run Mountains. of the Fifth United States Cavalry. one-half miles from Warrenton. McClellan. Men and equipments looked well. On November 15. for often afterwards we visited those places and fought around them. so as to cover Washington. We were notified this morning that our late Colonel. which idolized him. would take leave of us. now General Averell. for parade and inspection. 1862. This change did not immediately separate us from our old commander. Another change occurred about this time which concerned the Third more intimately. . Mcintosh. Captain Jones. General Averell's farewell to the regiment was neatly. memories. Warrenton. 1862. soon brought us up to our army. after spirited fight- ing during the day. been promoted rank of Brigadier-General. at On November Burnside. November 7-15. The Regimental Journal under that date has the Averell. November 15. to the following entry : Regimental Journal (Continued from page 146).15- history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. Lying on the ground. General Ambrose E. m. The campaign occurring fort so late in the autumn. was relieved and bade adieu to the Army of At parting with him the Third shared the keen the Potomac. was a rather rough experience. sense of regret pervading the whole army. a new Colonel of the Third arrived in the person of Lieutenant John B. being the senior officer. as we were retained in his brigade. Regiment formed at 2 p. 1862. They were comprised within that section of country to which was given the name of "Mosebv's call up thrilling Confederacy " 7. as has been already mentioned. during these cold nights. as bridle-reins in hand.

November M November The storm still continues. wind swept over our camp. A and G on politeness. on the Richmond. moment's at a move order to ready to day closed with an be November Morning cloudy. 1862. it We entered into possession of until on November 24. immediately after stables. They reported burning a large and valuable woolen and cotton The greater part of the cloth had factory. during a chilling rain storm. rendering all available means of keeping warm a necessity.• mcintosh succeeds as colonel of the regiment. The place looked desolate enough. This proved to be the most comfortable of all our camps. November feelingly 15-18. Va. marching back through Warrenton and on to Dumfries. and no heart in the regiment but words of kindness and regard. Moved at 11 a. Boots and Saddles sounded and we . and appropriately worded. The Colonel has entered at once upon his duties and taken the requisite steps to fully equip the regiment and place it Companies B. H. and was occupied the longest in our experience. been removed. thrilled with his On November the west of the camp near Warrenton. but there was undoubted evidence it had been largely used A match applied soon for the benefit of the so-called Confederacy. sent out to picket Two squadrons were on the Salem and Baltimore Pike. picket. ruins. notwithstanding which. 1862. near Falmouth. After this we retraced our steps. situated on Hedgman's Creek. 1 53 1862. we tour of duty was ended remaining there fully six months. and L returned at sunset from in good condition. and a blasting 16. where also three times three were given for our General. Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad. Regimental Journal (Continued from page 153) The morning broke dark and cold. where we settled down for the winter among the pines. and then to Brooke Station. through Warrenton. moved out to town about four miles. 18. Companies F and the Salem and Baltimore Road. m. where we encamped in a field as barren of forage as the Virginia people are of on picket. prepared to like. The smouldering of rendered what was a fine manufactory a heap notice. He has ever commanded the confidence and respect of the Third Pennsylvania. and nominally remained there May 25. 1863. E. though we were often on duty away from it. 17 left we desolate spot. Our march ended some four miles beyond Warrenton. Night stormy. One might readily imagine their hopes dead and the inhabitants absent to the funeral. He was greeted cordially by the men after parade. 1862. 1862. and encamped in a barren. towards and 17. and leaves it with Our new Colonel the men are the warmest admiration and regret of all.

" and admired the lavish manner in which they distribute the culinary utensils and other property of the Government. where we enjoyed the warmth of the fires left by the "dough boys. moved out on the road and proceeded at a slow and steady pace over a road sadly impaired by the long rain. 1862. rendering the march disagreeable and The column was delayed some two hours by a herd of cattle fatiguing. and camped for the night. which had to be gathered and driven forward. continued our march. Toward noon the sky cleared somewhat and rain ceased to fall. and during the afternoon halted for a short time at Warrenton Junction. Captain Treichel. The camp has assumed a 22. and the storm fast and furious. Darkness alone was visible. November 19. The rain continued to fall at inter- vals throughout the day. The smoke of doubtful fires clung to earth. It rained fiercely all night. ere the first continued. having caught up with the infantry. when we were ushered into a large field to camp. in fact fattening on the spoils of the "Yanks.154 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry November 18-22. With the two remaining squadrons we slowly progressed. 1862. commanding the second squadron. It grew worse as we advanced. When again on the move. guarding the Salem Road. preceded by TidbalFs Battery. gloomy a looking camp as could well be imagined. coaxing a cheerful blaze with twigs of pine. more cheerful look. and no choice of location. Our regiment. Storm 20. Daylight brought the same storm. During the night our orderly reported the signal lights of the enemy in close proximity to the first squadron. 1862. In some of the worst places the infantry were trying to make it passable. and lighted up as 21. November Sky comparatively clear. consisting of We continued on our way until darkness. All the companies remaining in camp were drilled morning and afternoon in sabre exercise." A picket from the Fourth Pennsylvania was established here. It was truly refreshing to see the "inevitable darkey" increasing his worldly store. 1862. November 1862. and after a severe march to men and horses. Another threatening sky greeted us this morning and duties of the camp were over the floodgates opened and a perfect sheet of water fell as an accompaniment to Boots and Saddles. Raw and chilly. came up with General Pleasonton's Brigade. we reached at nightfall Stafford Court House. was sent with his command to VYarrenton to render assistance if required. just beyond which we went into camp. Tidball's Battery moved in order to find a more con- November . and were forced to wait in a pelting storm for them to move forward. and at nightfall we located near a place called Hartwood. and the men with drenched garments and chilled forms moved slowly arouad their skeleton fires. three squadrons. The regiment (for our squadrons joined us here) was formed I think by instinct and bivouacked where they dismounted. The wagons returned from the depot loaded with grain and the horses look as much improved as the men.

Second Lieutenant Company H. resigned. 4. resigned. The regiment arrived within sight of the railroad and camped for the night in a beautiful field. promoted to Captain and Commissary of Subsistence. noon. Nov. resigned. November Between the beginning settling of the down into winter quarters in Antietam Campaign and the camp on Potomac Creek the officers. and L. 1862. 15. John F. resigned. grove for a camp ground. Second Lieutenant George Captain Henry S. from without the regiment as follows: Stille as Louis R. with provisions and forage. Mcintosh as Colonel. venient camp. promoted to Briga- Oct. Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel First Lieutenant W Owen. but failed to find him. which were on In a short time A and G came in. the following changes occurred among Those who 1862. commanding the fourth squadron. 9. Harrison L. leaving a guide for Captain White. Companies E and L. Captain Newhall. John B. 25. Day dawned with and Saddles a heavy frost. Captain William filled J. E. m. to clear a beautiful 24. at which place they still remain in strong force. 26. The cars made their appearance here last evening for the first time since the enemy destroyed the bridge and left for Fredericksburg. The column then moved in the direction of the Fredericksburg & Richmond Railroad. General call at Regiment remained in camp some time waiting for Companies A. Sept. .— CHANGES AMONG THE OFFICERS. Captain White commanding. 15. continue on picket. left the regiment were: Colonel William dier-General. W Averell. Citizens employed by the Government are repairing the railroad in order that the cars may follow the army on its advance on Richmond. Several orderlies were sent for picket. Boots sounded. 1802. Newhall as Second Lieutenant Com- Nov. William Franklin Potter as Second Lieutenant Company A. September 9 1 55 November 24. Captain White. 5. 1862.Seal. G. First Lieutenant Philip Pollard. and and G. A 12 November 23. deserted. pany B. Griffin. Oct. Gary. 9. Preparations made this a. 30. W Martin. 20. 23. Sept. Vacancies were 1862.

September 9 November 20. Company C. 1862. Commissary Sergeant Samuel C. The following promotion was made from 1862. to .: — : i56 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. to Second Lieutenant Company I. of Company H. of Company M. Abel Wright. Captain Edward S. " First Lieutenant to Adjutant. Sept. " 17. 16. to First Lieutenant Company M. " 20. 17. Galloway. Nov. of Company I. Second Lieutenant Joseph D. Jones. the ranks Nov. in the The following promotions officers regiment occurred among the 1862. of Lieutenant-Colonel. Wagner.

November Thr Preparing the ground for camping purposes. that we were to remain there in winter quarwere bronzed and hardened by the wear and tear of this. 155). Rations and forage in Three squadrons great demand. Clear and cold. but pleasant. daily record of the regiment for sin months while in winter quarters there first picket surprise at hartwood church. November 24. conflict. or frolic. and as ready for "fight. The three squadrons which were on picket for the two or three previous days were this morning at daybreak surrounded by overwhelming numbers and were forced to sur157 . fun. Mounted drill by squadrons twice to-day. the trains are not sufficient in number to carry forage any great distance. 1862. Regimental Journal (Continued from page November of rain. 1862. General of the brigade and his staff visited the grounds to-day. We exposure. After our extensive wanderings it was welcome news. November 27. vember 24. November entirely 28.— CHAPTER Winter of 1862-63 XII on Potomac Creek. It might. and the men who marched into camp on Potomac Creek on No- were as toughened in fibre. perhaps. and possibly would have been more appropriate later in the war. made veterans of us. Owing to bad roads made by recent rains. Horses suffering for want of forage. Sky shows evidence ordered on picket with four days' rations. as loyally zealous for duty. be thought that it was rather soon to claim the appellation of "veterans. 1862 May 25. 26. 25. but our condition of discipline and readiness for duty was excellent." The application of the term ters. 1862. coupled with the strenuous discipline which we had undergone. still remain on picket. when we settled down in our comfortable camp on Potomac Creek among the pines. and constant duty." as ever in the subsequent career of the regiment. Three squadrons Cleaning and preparing the camp. 1S03. 1862. 1862.

December Cool and cloudy. Pleasant. m. wounded. 1862. 1862. Same. Mounted drill in December ment in assume better appearance. The regiment returned without escaped with their booty. S. Latter arrived in camp at 3 p. m. Captain Gary having tendered his resignation Washington to-day. m. for picket. Afternoon mounted regimental drill charging by companies and squadrons. repaying them. 1862. A and Companies B and L. both principal and 29. Order countermanded. Sabre drill and manual of arms. Drill. Winter is at Rain with snow in afternoon. No drill. . The regiment still out. Boots and Saddles. November Clear and beautiful. hand. when 8. all Ten a. Two regiments of new troops passed our left camp at 8 a. m. suitable riders. We will live in hopes of some day. camp at early hour Nine p. Forage and provisions plentiful. this Early this a. In some of their charges they kept pretty well together and at times scattered very much. 1. and a forward move- ment hourly expected. m. December December December . 1862.— 158 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November render 28 December 10. Mounted inspection. 1862. and some of December the horses became unmanageable for want of 5. and things The men witnessed drill of Fourth Pennsylvania 4. Snow still covers the ground. 1862. Heavy frost. 1862. sooner or later. Companies B and L left an for picket in vicinity of Stafford Court House. Reinforcements arriving. one hundred men left the camp of regiment under charge of an officer of the Fifth U. No drill. who interest. Clear and cool. m. 7. and about 2 o'clock they proceeded in search of the enemy. Regiment reviewed by General left for Averell. 1862. 1862. Several of our men were dangerously As soon as the bad news was received General Averell ordered the regiment to saddle up. and pleasant during day. m. Roads frozen and in fine condition for December 10.. this a. Companies B and L ordered out afternoon. from landing to different parts of the army. Cavalry charging by squadrons. without firing a gun. the men performing the movements with alacrity and skil- December — fulness. seeing the enemy. 6. Calm 1862. to relieve camp looked fine. 1862. 1862. Cold. Cars passing and repassing conveying supplies 3. transporting heavy artillery. Snow at 2 p. November 30. 1862. weather too cold. returned to camp nearly frozen. Decided improveboth horses and men. rain and snow still continues. Camp near Potomac Creek. H December 9. Very cold. Va. December 2.

Battle raged all day our loss is heavy. has up to this time been trifling. After marching seven miles over mountainous and rough roads we camped in a grove of pines within one and one-half miles of Fredericks. . It is hoped that the wound may not prove fatal. which were in position. which are The struggle for this place has at last begun. which our men have been trying all day to secure.daily record of the regiment. 12. after 12 noon. . The battleground of yesterday covered with the dead and wounded. The loss of the The regiment still remains in the pines. awaiting army in front of the enemy's works. the enemy opened a brisk fire on our men from the houses. December burg. 1862. and at 9 we moved towards Fredericksburg. is some still relief. and one of them succeeded in sending a bullet through the leg of the Lieutenant. The enemy replied at an average of one shot to four of ours. 1 59 Last evening orders received to prepare to move at an hour's notice. almost on every elevated piece of ground in the neighborhood one can see a red flag floating to the breeze. The men with forty rounds. 11. Enemy driven from his first line of entrenchments. No signs of the battle being renewed this morning. Notwithstanding the whole night has been spent in burying the dead and removing the wounded. . Acting Provost Marshal for the brigade. December Cavalry. and pack mules followed the column. About daylight this morning. 1862. December 1862. and by 12 noon column was moving in the direction of our old camp at or near Potomac Creek. General Burnside immediately ordered our guns. near Fredericksburg. 1862. with a heavy loss. Clear and beautiful. Preparing to move. Boots and Saddles 16. Roads in bad . Boots and Saddles followed. Firing Reinforcements are continually crossing over the river to the aid of those now hotly engaged with the enemy. while the Engineer Corps were finishing the pontoon bridge over the river opposite Fredericksburg. December December 15. About one hundred and fifty opened fire the shock was tremendous the firing lasted without intermission one hour. Trains of wagons. 1862. twenty minutes later. awaiting orders. Regiment still in order to move General sounded at 11 a. to rake the city. Camp at once. of the strongest nature. 1862. Firing continues at intervals until late in the night. ambulances. The roar of heavy artillery from the front can be bridges are finished and the troops are being orders. December 13. 10-16. m. killing and wounding quite a number. Edmonds. Regiment still in readiness to move. rapid. hurried over. The plainly heard. is 1862. rode to the front and came into range of the enemy's sharpshooters. but only to fall back on a stronger one night comes on and the flash from the enemy's cannons still gives evidence that they hold the hill. in the order assigned to them by the Brigade Quartermaster. Regiment Lieutenant H. General sounded in our regiment. showing where the wounded may seek December 14.

to witness the race which was to come off at 3 p. a few of their pickets in sight. No news The men more of any importance. . Policing the camp in progress. Snow- 19. The Colonel becoming provoked by their almost continued appearance. About 2 p. the racers began to assemble. gave orders to charge. In like manner at the .. Unluckily on the first leap Colonel Mcintosh. 1862. 1862. 1862. 1862. turkey or goose will deck the tables of those at home. was thrown from his horse and severely hurt. Horse racing. the race was abandoned and the column returned. his horse falling at the same time. reached camp late in afternoon. m. and brooms of brush demand — every camp. Lieutenant-Colonel Jones returned camp from picket. December 24. but skedaddled when our men made any attempt to advance. . The good things at home will fly to-morrow. and not able to catch them. m. Quite a pleasant time on the drill ground. Mounted inspection. m. December Cloudy. and will not fear and freezing winds of the coming month. owing to the freshness of their horses. December 22. Shovels. Forage for December to face the sharp the horses Camp near Potomac Creek. and after running them for several miles. Wind rose during forepart of day and continued until late in the night. etc. ground from early in the morning. Heavy details made in clean the axes. warmly clad. 17. Cold . but at a reasonable distance. Cloudy and cold. Symptoms of snow. m. busy issuing clothing. 1862. 20. But to little preparation left for the following day. 23. Warm and pleasant. All the available men with two days' rations left camp by dark in company with the balance of the brigade. was of short Boots and Saddles sounded at 5 p. coming into contact with the other horses. Two p. mild and pleasant in after part still of the day. December his part. 1862. 21. December December Clear and very cold. Camp near Potomac Creek. In this race the horses had to make three jumps in order to complete the round. of this regiment will be plentiful. condition . this side of the Rappahannock River.l6o history of the third pennsylvania cavalry December 16-25. Many a to fine fattened they are indulging in the luxuries of home. but mild. 1862. 1862. 1862. Column moves in direction of Stafford Court duration. While we can be thankful to have the opportunity of standing up to our salt bacon and Uncle Sam's biscuits. one performing December December 18. 1862. heavy frost . Cloudy and cold. Quite a gathering on the drill 25. Clear and moderate. Va. Regiment returns about noon reports the enemy to be in no force. owing to cold. House. storm in afternoon sky clear before sun set. and between 3 and 4 the horses were brought into readiness about forty paces from the first jump.

they draw one right to the tent door. Regiment still remains in the direction Shoeing and feeding horses as if preparing for a long and fatiguing journey. very quiet. . by LieuGuards furnished to the brigade headquarters and commissary. The good fat turkeys. best mounted men them in the special work for to perform. 1802. of the pickets. and rain expected. January Cloudy. Saturday. 31.1 — DAILY RECORD OF THE REGIMENT. The day passed without any more accidents. December drill m. Sun rose clear and morning A large tent pitched for the purpose of storing away the stores which were brought here yesterday. Major White also had a similar num- ber preparing for either scout or picket duty. 1862. Camp expected. at 10 a. January of a beautiful. men detailed for picket to-morrow. with but little change in our regiment. mince pies. 4. Eight a. duration. Cloudy. Orders to prepare for scout to-morrow at 8 a. 1862 l6l January 4. Cloudy weather and cool rain Xothing has yet been heard from the men who left December Weather still cloudy. The old year has passed and the new year has come. Sixty 1862. under the charge of Captain Walsh. 1863. 28. the General having some 29. Friday. Clear and pleasant. December 25. January Pleasant. until proper time for distribution. More than onehalf of the men are out looking up rebels. m. Afterpart of day beautiful and pleasant. 1862. More rations and forage sent to regiment. one hundred of the most available and regiment were drawn up in line on the ground. under the charge of a gentleman from Washington. 1862. tenant-Colonel Jones. on foot.. 27. The 3. 1863. No signs of an immediate move. December yesterday. while attempting to cross the course in front of the runners was thrown and severely if not dangerously hurt. 1. Camp near Potomac Creek. 1862. Regimental inspection. Commencement is new and another year. Men remain quiet in camp. Small snowstorm of short A Government wagon arrived with clothing. December December December 26. Although our Chaplain 1 . hospital stores. his name not given. Thursday. sent here by the Philadelphia Union Relief Society. and cakes have quite an attraction. and eatables for the sick and wounded. second leap another and more severe accident occurred an officer. Brigade still absent. Sunday. January 2. m. Rations have been sent out with forage. 1863. 30. After getting everything ready the column moved off about 11 o'clock in direction of the Rappahannock. carriers report the command in good condition and anxious for an advance.

January 9. January twenty poral 7. One of cor- About dark a number its men still remains in former position. with the First Massachusetts. January notice. Orders to move at an early hour on 17th. January 6. 13. Clear and cold. January Tuesday. Tuesday. January all 19. Saturday. falling in torrents all night and continued so day. Rain Weather cloudy. Warm and pleasant. 20. The creek is Wednesday. Move unsuccessful attempt to cross the creek made again abandoned for the day. it —afternoon cloudy snow expected. . The regiment. January One hundred and twenty men Everything quiet this afternoon. Thursday. Orderlies and guards furnished to General Averell's headquarters. Ready to move at the shortest notice. . Orders for one hundred and and three returned from picket. looking very well after his sad accident. Quiet in vicinity of pickets. Forty horses received for the regiment to-day. More Monday. m. Friday. Orders to move at 1 p. etc. to-morrow. Monday. Wind high. January 18. 1863. Weather cloudy with rain. January Major White should be. Seventy men furnished for picket returned from picket Saturday. Weather pleasant Cloudy. January 12. January Tuesday. Sunday. January 4-21. Clear and cool. Colonel Mcintosh returned to camp this afternoon. Monday. January Cool.l62 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Wagons packed and it swollen to such a degree that ready to move. January men with three men to guard the Brigade 8. January n. Orders to move at 1 deferred to 1 to-morrow. Dress parade in the evening and orders read. is not expounding the unsearchable riches of the Scriptures the men appear to enjoy themselves. Cold. Weather changeable. Sunday. at the outposts. furnished for picket this morning. Wednesday. Men of both regiments presented a fine appearance. horses received to-day. January this 21. Regiment not inspected to-day as usual in consequence of most of the regiment being on picket. days' rations for picket duty. Friday. reviewed to-day by General Averell. January 15. pickets and reports everything as Thursday. railroad. Dress parade in the evening to hear orders. Awaiting orders to move. will be impossible to cross. Ninety men 17. visited the Wednesday. Ninety men furnished for picket yesterday morning. An morning. rain expected. January 16. still Orders to move at moment's Regiment out. 14. 10. 5.

Orders to prepare for review to-morrow at 2 p. continued until about 3 p. Orders to move countermanded. Evening very cold. February 5. and Saturday. That welcome visitor the paymaster made his appearance to-day. m. The Colonel left camp Monday. Snow falling very fast. Three officers and sixty men left camp this morning for picket. Still raining at nightfall. About 3 p. Monday. rain. when rain began to fall. Paymaster expected. and presents the appearance of Sunday. m. January 25. Cloudy and cold. Sunday. January 22. Davis. Review postponed. and Potter returned from picket about 4 p. January 22— February Thursday. respective men furnished this morning for picket under commands of Lieutenants Miller. m. February 4. 26. Va. time during the last five days a welcome visitor indeed. 2. January 23. 3. Cool. February Tuesday. Regiment left at 8 a. Wednesday. Dress parade in afternoon.DAILY RECORD OF THE REGIMENT. January 28. He went to work immediately and in a short time the boys were displaying the greenbacks in every quarter of the camp. Davis. Orders received to have two hundred and fifty mounted men with three days' cooked rations and ten pounds forage to each man to-morrow morning at 8 a. Friday. The roads are very deep and almost impassable. Lieutenants Miller.. the sky again — became cloudy. January 30. January 27. who returned to camp last evening from a visit to his family in Pottsville. day. Thursday. Cloudy. Sixty the Potter. Sixty men left camp this morning for picket under charge of Major White. morning and good earnest. Thursday. . pleasant morning for Washington. m. Three Colonel officers and sixty men detailed for to picket this morning. January 31. 1. January 29. Three officers and sixty men for picket in the vicinity of left camp this morning Hartwood Church. Rain falling since 9 last evening. Friday. The returned camp this evening. February Cold. 5. early this continued all Winter has commenced in Saturday. falling Snow Commenced day. m. m. Wednesday. were not long favored with its warm rays. January Tuesday. 163 1863. Rain has ceased. Weather still continues cold. Consequently it took almost every man to furnish the detail. Guards furnished to brigade headquarters. Pa. The wagons and recent rains have rendered the roads impassable to heavy artillery. February this Sun rose clear. Mounted drill in afternoon. January first We The sun made its appearance this morning for the 24.

Tuesday. Mcintosh. flooding the creek to such an extent as to be impossible to cross. However. February condition. Saturday. rain expected. Morning clear and cool. Friday. Clear and cool. etc. and camps are in a deplorable Thursday. . men left camp this morning for 11. Sky cloudy. February 17. Pleasant. February Tuesday.164 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. Regiment inspected in afternoon by Colonel Mcintosh. picket. Guards furnished for headquarters. Rain has ceased. riding almost day and night for the past three days through storms of snow and rain. Pleasant. 1863. 10. Friday. February 12. Nothing of note. fields. February Clear and pleasant. Detail of three officers and eightyfive 9 and 10 this morning. February 8. m. and left in a short time to reinforce the pickets near Hartwood Church. Drill Thursday. m. Regiment returned at 1 7. Wednesday. Mounted regimental Weather pleasant. officers Saturday. February 6. The roads. when it changed to rain. Storm of snow somewhat abated. which fell in torrents the whole night. the wind blew a strong northwest gale followed by slight showers of rain. Cloudy .. February 13. Inspection of equipment and company and Monday. Monday. Notwithstanding all this the column pushed forward under the command of Colonel J. accomplished the duty for which they were sent and returned to camp without the loss of a man. m. After dark the brass band from the First Massachusetts Cavalry favored the camp with music. of this regiment. Guards furnished to brigade headquarters commissary. entertained of having fine weather. Hopes are now p. grounds at 11 a. February in afternoon. February Sunday. February 6-19. February 9. General Stoneman reviewed the regiment between Expressed great satisfaction at appearance of company grounds. Snow has been falling from early this morning till about 5 p. 18. . February 15. From their appearance they seem to be tired and worn out. 14. Seventy men were routed from their slumber about 12 midnight last night. February 19. nothing worthy of notice occurred. February 16. for picket. this morning. Mounted drill several handsome charges made by regiment. B. It was thought by the officer in charge that it was the intention of the enemy to attack our pickets in full force. Weather clear. drill Wednesday. Three and seventy men leave camp Sunday. about 8 p. Regiment still out. m.

falling in torrents all day. fatigued and nearly worn out. Showers of rain during the night. Saturday. Three officers and one hundred men left 2. S. Boots and Saddles sounded. The Second Cavalry Brigade Wednesday. but nevertheless held his ground. Seventy men left camp this morning in a dreadful storm to picket. March 4. and half an hour later the brigade moved forward under the command of Colonel J. Wednesday. February Tuesday. m. 3. Lieutenant-Colonel E. Snow has been falling since 9 o'clock last evening and continued until 12 noon to-day. Jones and Lieutenant J. 5. March Major Robinson detailed to visit the pickets to-day. Sunday. The gunboats at Acquia and the batteries at the different camps opened about noon and fired twenty guns each in honor of the 22d of February. Regiment still in pursuit of the enemy. Thursday. cold. Notwithstanding the rain and mud covered both men and horses every one kept up their courage and finally reached camp. Friday. appearance of more rain. February 23. weather changeable Evening. Monday. March Colonel Mcintosh still in command of brigade. D. The extreme difficulties under which the reinforcements were compelled to labor were almost unsurmountable. 165 March cold. High wind and Cloudy and Guards furnished to division headquarters and commissary. March 6. February 21. 1863. B. Clear and pleasant. and nothing but the good judgment of the Colonel commanding saved the command from total demoralization. Wind Friday. high wind. camp for picket. Clear. Major Robinson detailed by orders from division headquarters to visit the pickets. Rain has ceased to fall. Nothing of importance in camp. February 22. Sunday. Thursday. February 27. including three commissioned officers. Clear and pleasant. Rain Roads almost impassable. Some hopes can now be entertained of being favored with a few days' pleasant weather. Cloudy. Wind high and weather cold. tenant-Colonel Jones. February was ordered to their assistance. Galloway left camp this morning for the purpose of establishing a new picket line for the cavalry pickets. February 26. continues high. February 20 Friday. of this regiment. February 20. . of this regiment. Saturday. Mcintosh. 24. that Lieu25. Monday. Received orders at 3 p. February 28. March 1. Clear and pleasant. while in command of the cavalry pickets near Hartwood was attacked by the enemy in overwhelming numbers.— DAILY RECORD OF THE REGIMENT. to-day. March Tuesday. 6. Loss as far as known will not exceed forty.

Averell. Sunday. p. Pleasant. Inspection at 9 a. Regimental inspection at 9. for picket. Drill at . of the assumes command of Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sun appeared in afternoon. Cloudy rain during night froze as 15. March 13.l66 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry March 7-18. m. m. Wednesday. March 16. m. information received from the front that General went. Monday. m. Orders read from General Hooker. and led out on parade ground for inspection at 11 a. commanding the cavalry forces. and after a short but brisk skirmish succeeded in cross17. Secesh what Sharps carbines can do with the right men to handle them. March 8. while our loss is so slight as to cause little ing the river. Colonel Mcintosh again this brigade during the illness of Colonel Kerr. etc. Morning cloudy. m. March left Pleasant and clear. looking. the men have told Mr. The battle lasted till when the enemy proved to be badly whipped. m. Charging by squadrons. and equipments. Details for brigade duty. 1 drill at p. Dress parade at 5 p. made Tuesday. m. Two drill officers and forty-seven men Lieutenant- camp 9. Regiment returned to camp at 5 p. like many others. m. Cloudy. March 10. All quiet to-day. m. 1863. Ten a. fell. also several splendid charges with the whole regiment. brigade headquarters in relation to duties of regimental commanders. m. Regiment left camp at 8 a. with four days' and twelve pounds forage. Friday. with rain. Saturday. m. From good authority the enemy lost at least one hundred and fifty in killed and a much larger number wounded. 7. Orders read orderlies furnished Several orders received from for Second Army Corps. it m. Thursday. loud and cannonading heard from the direction which the regiment Three p. m. this Wednesday. Every available man ordered to be ready a. Sunday. He nearly nightfall. Colonel Jones in command.30 m. arms. It is hoped that his wound may not prove serious. March Pack mules saddled 12. Dress parade at 5 p. forming to leave camp to-morrow at 8 m. March 11. ." In this case. . Tuesday. March Mounted in afternoon. Dress parade at 5 p. Clear.. m. Sun appeared for a short time. p. men term it. March ice. Showers of rain during night and morning until 9 a. Dress parade at 5 . rations Monday. Mounted drill at 1 p. a. March distinct then attacked the enemy in force. had come up with the enemy at the Rappahannock. March as the 18. or no consideration except that for one of our bravest and best officers of regiment being wounded by a cannon shot. General Couch. "in bully good spirits. Mounted Saturday. March 14. Inspection postponed on account of inclemency of 1 the weather.

. Wednesday. Monday. Saturday. but this afternoon the sun shone forth in all its beauty. April and pleasant. Cloudy. and changing skies dies out to-night at 12 midnight. . m. afternoon. 24. Sun set clear. Thursday. It seems more like a joke than a reality. Sun set hazy. Dress parade at retreat. cleared at 8 for a. 2. Night cloudy. To-day very chilly and damp. Clear and pleasant. 26. to hold ourselves in readiness to move at a moment's notice. Dress parade at retreat. with strong easterly wind all day. Colonels Mcintosh and Jones returned from leave. and Dress parade inspection in morning. 22 April 2. Arms to in Clear and pleasant. evening. Tuesday. March 28. Monday. as this is "All Fool's Day. Night clear and moonlight. Rained until 3 p. Averell. rapidly to disappear. 27. Clear at intervals during day. 25. 167 March Sunday. May we be spared the hardships of passing through another month like it. March with its winds. Received orders at 3 p. 1863. to be ready notice. in Clear and pleasant. Friday. April noon.— DAILY RECORD OF THE REGIMENT. good condition. March 31. wind high. move at ten minutes' Pickets reported attacked. Mounted drill foredismounted. Whether it was only a feint on the part of "Johnny" or a false alarm we do not know. March 30. but we didn't go. Sunday. March this Rained all night. Inspection by Major Robinson. and windstorm. after which were drilled by Majors Robinson and White. Dress parade." Morning clear Wednesday. Clear and pleasant. Colonel Mcintosh left on Regiment reviewed (with balance of brigade) by General Presented fine appearance. Dress parade at usual time. m. rain. dispersing the clouds and causing the light sprinkling of snow which lay upon the ground men on picket duty. having rained and snowed from far in the night previous until noon evening cool and clear. commenced rain- ing before morning. Regiment inspected by General Stoneman and by General Averell at 2 p. clouds. . Thursday. March Clear. m. March 22. March 29. Lieutenant-Colonel Jones with three hundred and fifty Weather has been inclement the last few days. March 23. Sun set clear. 1. It has been made up of one continuous snow. Men preparing review m. with the report that "Johnny Rebs" had driven our pickets in. March Tuesday. Lieutenant- Colonel Jones on leave. Dismounted drill in the forenoon and mounted drill afternoon by Major Robinson. Again our peaceful slumbers were disturbed by being ordered to saddle up at 12 midnight. March leave. Sun set clear. Afternoon the regiment returned to camp from its late tour of picket.

Monday. Returned to Bealton Out of forage. Tuesday. 11." drill. April 4. days. Monday. April 15. all day. April Thursday. 8. No attempt made to by. daybreak 13th Sun inst. Regiment at an early hour commenced preparations to attend the grand review of cavalry by President Lincoln and General Hooker. April 3. and went into camp. Regiment from on Friday. Regiment rear guard for the Marched to Bealton Station on Orange & Alexandria camp about 4 p.30. drill. still for three Wednesday. at 5. a misty. Clear and beautiful. m. Sun set cloudy. Tuesday. rain. 12. parade. April 5. Cloudy. Night cool. Raining this morning. Colonel Jones in Regiment went on picket command.30. April picket. Short of forage. Reveille at 4. few shells into our midst. made for a move. April day. m. day. Rained all day. m. 1863. of Ad- jutant Wright relieved and assigned to command Company K. Enemy opened on sending . Re- ceived orders to be in readiness to saddle up at a moment's Clouds portend 17. Dress parade. Newhall Acting Adjutant.l68 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY April 3-18. Saturday. and drove in rebel pickets. Station. Clear and cool. L. Marched to Beverly Ford on Rappahannock River halted close Ford well fortified and supported by enemy. rainstorm. set clear. dismounted drill and mounted Blew chilly Sun set clear. in line 6. . Friday. Still opposite Beverly Ford. Lieutenant H. Details for us from opposite side of river. Cloudy but pleasant. Saturday. Went into and warm. which took place at or near Falmouth about 12 noon. April Clear and warm. Thursday. Mounted Dress parade. Storm continued noon . cross. April patrols Cloudy and and picket. April Railroad. set clear. April 7. giving credence to the saying "winter the lap lingering in of spring. April notice. Boots and Saddles m. Cloudy and windy. till Sunday. Regiment on picket. Friday. Sun Sunday. Clear and warm. Dress Saturday. a. m. Saddled at 4 a. It was very imposing and grand. and continued until late in the night. Regiment returns picket. April 9. Cloudy. Orders to march at Rained during Preparations 13. Bright division. still Clear and warm.30 column moved 9 a. April 18. April Cloudy. Sun set clear. Commenced raining about 8 p. 16. 10. Regiment on picket. Wednesday. April 6. Clear and cool. continuing all At dark heavy snow and cloudy and cold all night. Went into camp short distance from the ford. Cold and windy. Regiment in advance. Marched to Elk Run 14. Grounds drying up.

Considerable skirmishing with the enemy posted on opposite side of river. Dismounted and mounted drill. April 28. noon. skirmishing until dark. Saturday. camp. Rain all night. making a detour to the left and crossed 29. April 22. Tuesday. Cloudy. Remained saddled up all day and night. Left camp. Dress parade. Tuesday. where m. 1863. Passed over the battlefield of Cedar Mountain. Several divisions of infantry had crossed and built a pontoon bridge. m. encamped one mile from the Springs. April 24. Clear and pleasant high wind. of musketry from the opposite side of the river. May 2. April 26. Stood to horse all night. l6o. Regiment unsaddled. Ford at 12 noon. m. 30. Wednesday. April 25. Clear and warm. m. on Rapidan River. Rain nearly all day. all Monday. not we meeting or seeing any of the enemy. Still in camp. 20. Rain in afternoon. Clear and warm. Sun commanded by set clear. on picket. Received forage during evening. Friday. Clear and moonlight. Friday. \rtillery firing on both sides. April 19 Sunday. After some delay moved out on the road to Culpeper Court House and met the enemy. More forage from Alexandria. Evening cloudy. Still Monday. Captain Miller. Passed on to Rapidan Ford and camped near at 8 p.. Sun in set clear. Pickets and patrols furnished. Clear and cool. Inspection at 10 a. m. Wednesday. April 23. Orders to move at 9 p. through Stevensburg to Ely's Ford. and Moved at 9 a. Rain all day. Regiment just got composed for the night when it was startled by a volley re-saddled again. groomed. on the banks of the river. May 2. Cloudy. The men were surprised . Sunday. April 27. Third squadron. April 12 Rain during night and continued striking day. m. followed by two others. three miles from White Sulphur Springs. Sun set clear. Thursday. Clear and warm. Moved at Warrenton Pike. Encamped about 9 p. Moved to near Rappahannock Station and camped at 2 a. Moved five miles beyond Warrenton and encamped near to Warrenton Branch Railroad. causing a general stampede among the horses. Warm during day. Still at Bealton. April Kelly's Thursday. April 21. Two trains from Alexandria with forage came up. Saturday. 1. Still in camp. m. Pickets and patrols furnished. . Cloudy with drizzling rain. April arrived at 11 a. with skirmishers thrown out. Moved in column of close squadrons. Details for picket Night cloudy. on to Culpeper Court House. and patrol. April 19. Skeletons and other evidences of the conflict were visible.— DAILY RECORD OF THE REGIMENT. with rain all day. Clear and pleasant. Clear and warm. Rebels burnt railroad bridge May at this point.

m. Friday. Came to our old May 8. Heat very oppressive. Raining. About the same. 7. May 14. May Saddled up at 3 a. Thursday. Wednesday. Rain all Orders to move at noon. Very warm. rained at 2 p. May 10. States United Saddled up at daybreak. May 9. Clear and warm. Monday. Clear and warm. Cloudy. Clear and warm. and moved our army that had been engaged for United States Ford on Rappahannock River. and continued all day and night. quarters. May 15. Friday. May 16. . Arm equipments. patrols. Very warm. May 18. Friday. Rain Details made. Several noisy brawls and much The Colonel ordered the regiment out and had the men drilled at double quick. May 21. Clear and warm. May 20. May Cloudy. May also. debauch the evening before. Tuesday. May Thursday.170 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. of Evening clear. evening and night. Cool and pleasant. Heat very op- May 12. etc. . Clear and warm. May 22. Tuesday. Monday. May Details Clear and pleasant. Sunday. 2-22. Crossed Ford and camped on opposite side of river. May pressive. etc. inspected by inspecting officer of Second Cavalry Brigade. Clear and pleasant. cool. and warm. m. Dress parade. Camped Crossed the river at 9 a. Camp was then moved to May 3. m. May 19. rebels back. inside rear several miles. Company inspection of arms and Regiment paid four months' pay by Major Sabine. Morning misty 5. Clear and Clear warm . May 17. Cloudy Cloudy evening. Saturday. quarters. 4. Thursday. of the lines at several days past. and Saturday. Cool and pleasant. returns and takes com- mand. Colonel Mcintosh Tuesday. 6.. Wednesday. note. Sunday. Clear and warm. The camp exhibited this morning the effects of a drunken disorder prevailed. Returned at dusk. 11. Inspection made by brigade inspector. Monday. Sunday. dismounted. Showers of rain. but were soon rallied and rushed to the river and soon drove the Only one man slightly wounded in the regiment and several horses. pleasant. during day. May 13. Cloudy. Details on picket. made for picket. 1863. Nothing of Wednesday.

and perstation ! probability we were once took on a more building log huts and associating in told that in Everything at haps the riders also the worse for wear Of all our drills none were more exciting than when Major Claude White was in com! mand. Between the and our camp was a splendid level stretch of ground. m. Our army had settled down on the north bank of the Rappahannock. "Halt!" he loved to charge us down to the station. November Saturday. May 23. The river was the separating line. stands out in our individual remembrances with special distinct- was while there that we passed the last week of our second fateful November. with Fredericksburg as his headquarters. and any effort to cross by one Our infantry camps covered party or the other meant a fight. Hot weather. It was while we were stationed there that we crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford and successfully fought the first real cavalry fight of the war. the men squads for mess purposes. 24. . permanent aspect. Sunday." was near our camp. Those which could not be cured of this habit were relegated to the wagon train. and some not so It agreeable. many miles of territory Acquia Creek Landing was the base of supplies. "Fours right wheel! Forward. and out of which they usually came with a broken girth or some other part of equipment. 1863. head of column right !" All of this was for the fun of seeing It was not the men get untangled and find their place in line. which was utilized by our brigade for parade and drill purposes. There winter ness. The railroad was put in condition and stations arranged at convenient distances for the distribution of supplies. How often we charged over it at imaginary foes How vividly do we recall that broad ditch into which sometimes our horses would go rather than over it. When we all staked out our company grounds we were to spend the winter there. always an easy task to keep our line. "Brooke Station. with "Hartwood Church" as a memory. Heat increases daily. while Lee's army lay along the opposite bank. much that is pleasant in the recollections of our It camp on Potomac Creek.— WINTER QUARTERS ON POTOMAC CREEK. as some of our horses persisted in going into the ditch. One of these. May 24. How quickly. calling Then adding. 24. 1862 171 May 9 a. Company inspection at is Dress parade.

in the Shenandoah Valley campaign under Sheridan. but unfortunately came out of the war minus one leg. 24. His dash and gallantry upon the occasion of the charge into the camp of the Thirteenth Virginia Cavalry at Sycamore Church. The officers under him were Captain Hess and Lieutenants Englebert. and he certainly became assured of the excellent quality of the regiment he had been commissioned to command. as a Second Lieutenant in the Second United States Cavalry. he was promoted to a First Lieutenancy. often taking them prisoners. and a very martinet in discipline. 1861. our vedettes. The cavalry picket lines were established some distance outside of those of the infantry. which he had left on the battlefield of Cedar Creek. to a fault. 1848. and kindhearted. and Warren. 1862. was transferred to the Fifth Cavalry. 1862. for the weather was bleak and wintry. and perhaps. at camp on Potomac Creek that we learned the capabiliour new Colonel. Our tours of duty were incessant and details for picket constant. Heyl. went further to recommend It ties of was him for the office than any other circumstance. vet firm in his bearing He was when on brave duty. until May He entered the army on June 8.17- HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November 15-25. in cold blood shoot- Hartwood Church happened imcamp on Potomac Creek. It was exceedingly disagreeable and dangerous work. Captain Johnson was somewhat of first The of the surprises at mediately after our going into . from a military standpoint. about three miles northeast of the junction of the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers. Aklntosh. which has been referred to. He had served as a midshipman in the United States Navy from April 27. He finally wore the stars of a Brigadier and of a Brevet Major-General in the United States Army. when he resigned. Two squadrons of the regiment were sent out under Captain George Johnson on November 25 on picket duty around that place. had brought him prominently to the notice of General Averell. and in that regiment on June 27. While encamped on Potomac Creek two disasters happened to our regiment at or near Hartwood Church. the headquarters of the reserve being at Hartwood Church. and the midnight prowlers and These last were constantly annoying guerrillas were numerous. 1850. John B. and where several roads centered. or ing them while on post.

and galloped back to the reserve all there huddled together on the floor wrapped in their blankets and asleep. and the result was the capture of all who were at the reserve. had Potomac River and partially concentrated on the . continued after repeated warnings from his commanding officer. Lieutenant-Colonel Frank YY Hess. and they kept their friends well informed as to our force and the position of the various picket posts. into the at the The vedettes fired their carbines advancing crowd. and instead of looking properly after the safety of the reserve stationed at the church. Resistance was in vain. These sketches are were until recently. including Lieutenants Heyl and Warren. visible there to the present day. an artist. has furnished the following interesting account of the unfortunate affair crossed the "The Army of the Potomac.: FIRST PICKET SURPRISE AT HARTWOOI) CHURCH. after the Antietam campaign. Though there could never be any sufficient excuse on the part of Captain Johnson for such a happening. now on the Retired List. This was our second "November shadow. in which the enemy was invariably represented as being defeated and our troops victorious. who were on outpost. our outside post on the Morrisville road was greeted with the unearthly yell of a charging squadron of rebel cavalry. holding those officers and men who were there as prisoners. 1862. There were not many men at the reserve. Some citizens during the daytime came and went without proper restriction. of the United States Army. On November 28. to find stated that our picket line covered so many miles that it was im- possible with the force detailed for the purpose to keep the coun- around so closely watched that no one could slip through unnoticed." Captain Johnson's dismissal from the service four days later by the Commander of the Army for "his negligence. 173 November 25. it may be church. and shortly afterwards some. he rating its amused himself in decowhite inside walls with pictures of gallant cavalry encounters. or followed by a larger force. the third day of the tour of duty immediately after dawn. for the greater part of the command was on outpost and patrol duty In a few moments the rebels had surrounded the church." cannot be said to have been unjustitry fiable.

Its commander. under the command of Captain George Johnson. but as few of the enemy's cavalry had reached there we got off easily. This road crossed Potomac Creek. Acquia Creek Landing on the lower Potomac became the base. This little command seemed to have been forgotten when the army moved away. but no attempt was made to follow. streets of Warrenton between us. when we once got out of it. Rappahannock River not far from Warrenton. When Warrenton and the railroad from there to Washington was abandoned. was a quick one. and. a deep and sluggish stream. a camp was selected for the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. on November 25. had not been forgotten. consisting of his own and my company. The discovery that all save it had gone was accidentally made. was left on picket at Waterloo. at a point about midway between the Landing and the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg. who had just relieved General McClellan. We stuck to that gait Shortly steadily for some hours before we came in sight of it. Virginia. on a pine-covered knoll. The enemy's vedettes were in sight across the river. We moved cautiously through the town. which brought the army in front of Fredericksburg. after joining the regiment we ran against a detail for picket duty. It seems to have been contemplated to cross here before Lee should be ready to resist with his whole army. "This flank movement. which. Virginia. with four days' cooked rations our squad- . North of and near this bridge. and. M. receiving no orders to follow. We could not account for this civility on the part of a not over courteous foe until we arrived at the edge of Warrenton and discovered that the enemy was in town ahead of us. a village on the Rappahannock some miles west of Warrenton. following the withdrawing pickets in from there. one squadron of the regiment. we took up the trot on the trail of our lost army. 1862. unlike A slight skirmish ensued in the us. and no time was lost in taking up the march for Warrenton.- 174 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry November 25. General Burnside. From there the railroad to Fredericksburg helped solve the always trouble- some problem of getting up supplies. which it occupied during the ensuing winter. They had crossed at a ford far below that which we had been picketing. determined to move it by its left flank further down the Rappahannock to Fredericksburg.

No armed or uniformed enemy or mounted man was in sight at any time. The officers were Captain George Johnson. caution was observed and the plan was carried out most successfully. and remained quiet until daylight came. but to the natives well known as short cuts and paths from house to house. himself commanding. and taking one of the roads leading to the church. our third night out. Well. Much of the country between the roads we were picketing was of this character. Heyl. commanding Company F and the squadron. as it was not believed that any considerable parties could get through the woods. two or three citizens came along at different times.FIRST PICKET SURPRISE AT November 25. cient A suffi- and being tortuous the along broken up into small squads. and Captain Hess. Much cleared land. but these were confined to the roads. while the Lieutenants were Englebert. having become too poor to raise crops. but out of sight and hearing of our extreme outpost. The vedettes were frequently inspected and patrols kept moving. commanding Company M. and consequently were familiar with the woods. As information had been gained of the precise location of . Being there by superior orders we simply did the best we could. had been abandoned. and Warren. 1862. crossed the Rappahannock River. HARTWOOD CHURCH. ''The country here was well wooded. The critic may say this was no place to send cavalry. For over two days not a man was seen by any of our patrols or vedettes. but we did not send ourselves. The main reserve was established at the church and three of the roads centering there were picketed well out. Through these thickets there meandered cow paths and other trails almost undiscoverable by a stranger. and by soldiers who had lived in the neighborhood before the Great war. this command would have agreed with him. but gave such accounts of themselves as persuaded the commander to let them go after a short detention. and on all this there had grown up a thick crop of scrubby pines. a portion of General Hampton's troops. halted near. 1 75 ron proceeded to Hartwood Church. On the third. too dense to be seen through and at some places too thick to penetrate even on foot. they were guided paths threading the thickets by friendly residents of the country number of men being detailed for the purpose. During the night of the 27th. about three hundred in number.

now trotting down the road towards the reserve stationed at the church. of the vedettes. the greatest of all cavalry crimes. about every picket post we had. to which he made courteous and During our association with him and his officers. We were all treated well. where we remained until next morning. The rest of us were mounted and hurried away on the road down which the main party had come. Some of the bolder of the vedettes and small patrols seeing the state of affairs. When the proper place was reached these As at this little the roads. and as there was no longer any danger of prematurely alarming us. the Confederate cavalrymen charged with their well-known yell among our men. few were wounded and left at the church. A. The officers were treated with courtesy by General Hampton. and were picked up in detail by other parties of this attacking force. but.176 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. November 25. some them approach from the direction of the main reserve. Seeing themselves outnumbered more than four to one. and later. it was easy for the enemy to avoid them and thus prevent discovery. outposts. our men made but little resistance. only to find themselves confronted near the outposts by the main body of Confederate cavalry. giving him assurance of what hearty hospitality and welcome awaited him when he visited us under similar circumstances. alarming made a dash toward the all on the way. the painful reflection that we had been caught napping. the arrival of which had been expected for some time. We parted with him the next morning. as every known outlet had been closed. as the relief. or had been totally surprised. well becoming the princely gentleman he was. no halt being made until the river had been put between us and our army. supposed them to be comrades coming from camp. "The surprise was complete. out of which they then squads were mounted and debouched into moved towards our outposts. and a few escaped. the Confederates sharing with us what they had to eat. witty reply. 1862. Lieutenants Heyl and Warren were out with patrols or relieving parties. seeing- men wore parts of our uniform. The sudden demand for surrender placed those approachtime many of their ing in their true light. while acting as the "ears and eyes of the army/' weighed heavily . firing their pistols as they came. We all met on the south side of the river and were taken that day to General Hampton's camp.

as our captors being guarded. was left back with Mr. arriving at the station after we had all left. and after going half way he broke down and it became evident that with it the trip could not be finished in time to catch the train. for convenience of politely put it. namely. while we were together. which would have. maledictions fell thick and fast on the commander of the picket whose carelessness and seemingly low sense of duty were the cause of . greatly the enormity of the disaster. Heyl while we hurried on. a private soldier and a true gentleman. One of General Hampton's headquarters couriers. upon us and then and thereafter. railroad station ville. 177 25. lessened He declined the advice. without court martial. The horse ridden by Lieutenant Heyl was an inferior one. Heyl. "It as soon as the circumstances of the capture became known at headquarters. our present mortification. we spent the night in a railroad cattle pen. to avoid the unpleasantness of being under the guard of enlisted were asked to give their paroles not to attempt to escape while on their way to Richmond. and Mr. prerogative. where he learned that there would not be a train ride to the railroad 12 .FIRST PICKET SURPRISE AT November HARTWOOD CHURCH. We were then mounted. The from General Hampton's camp was a rapid one to catch the morning train. and he was advised to remove the reserve to another point and change the outpost somewhat after nightfall. especially so since he received the greatest punishment that could be inflicted on any soldier who holds honor dear. gave the courier his word that he would go to Gordonsville and not try to escape. commander's resenting it as an interference with a At this distant day crimination would be unkind and unnecessary. The man left him and overtook us while the Lieutenant plodded on alone and on foot. This we all declined to do. a dishonorable dismissal from the army. men. "Next morning verv early the men were marched away to a and placed aboard the cars and sent to Gordons- The officers. In a short time the horse could go no farther. where. seeing escape was improbable in a country with which he was so little acquainted. at least. had been pointed out to him the day before it occurred that the danger of a surprise was imminent. 1862. and under a small escort were also taken to the railroad and by this to Gordonsville.

for twenty-four hours. and tried to explain who he was. ominously shaking her head in negation of all these 'doings. and apologizing for being any one. is related of little Miss young ladies 'sat came rushing down the stairs and joined in the commotion. mansion within it and rapped Just before our capture Heyl had received a new some chance had it on when he was taken young chap.' who. and for the commotion he had created. not the least like one. one of the sweet little It would be a profanation for me to tread longer flowery path which has become holy ground. I suppose. he was invited to a seat. when she opened it and saw the dreaded and hated "Yankee' in all the glory of his war paint. etc. of have come to the romances that make life worth I —but in . 1862. and this spick and handsome a span newness made him the envy of us all. he was told that he was not a Yankee. The husband and father of the family was himself a soldier. gave a scream and collapsed on the floor. down Two After this explanation. lovely his intended visit. He was haired Virginia matron appeared.25. pitality. while the old 'mammy' gathered herself up and limped away. was pressed to stay and pay a longer visit to the family. The sound of hurrying feet came from a room adjoining and the stately form of an iron-graydress uniform. anywhere. why he was. In the morning the Lieutenant.' and that it would be embarrassing to them to harbor him. as Muffet's insect. he claimed their hos- and seeing no evidences in his smiling face of a disposition to commit immediate murder. with true Virginia hospitality. but like one of their own Southern dawning this gentlemen. the living. Seeing a fine old Virginia a quarter of a mile of the station he approached at the door. Cap in hand he begged everybody's pardon.' "Before nightfall Heyl's personality had conquered a respectable place in this home..178 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry November . etc. while the gallant Heyl stood. and now absent with his regiment. threw up her hands. a colonel in Lee's army. and when he pointed out that he was a 'Yankee. and. and. badly scared at the havoc he had wrought. expressing his regrets that he had not written to apprise them of beside her. In answer to his knock at the door there soon appeared an old black 'mammy. and that he had given his promise to go to Gordonsville. and by prisoner.

The chance for breakfast looked rather slim for us that morning. with lots of push and vim. He seemed a little distrait and looked like after "A day a at man dreaming dreams. would. he was killed at Hatcher's Run a little more than two years later. because a certain sentinel. saying he had two. On a certain afternoon it clouded up and commenced raining. and I hope he lived to raise a family of such men as he was. we knew. but I I slept when I awoke in the morning comfortably that found both of Coyle's had put them there while I slept. If he did he has been a blessing to the old Tar-heel State and the whole country. came to me and offered me his. Poor fellow. along came Mr. an officer of the prison guard came into our room and announced that we had been paroled. seek shelter when it rained a few yards away from where he usually stood. from Nash County.FIRST PICKET SURPRISE AT HARTWOOD CHURCH. I was cold. the good bacon and fried chicken. 179 November 25. for that evening. of my company. I do not know to this day which I enjoyed more. We were simply blankets over me. night. A plan for an attempt had been settled upon and we awaited a dark and rainy night to carry it out rainy. or Nash's clever tongue. What may have happened will never be known. "Libby Prison has been often described and is well known to all. but I seemed to have become the special charge of a Confederate corporal whose name was Xash. Coyle. very much in our way. and the attention touched deeply. He was a kind-hearted gentleman. But this was long enough for us to be hatching conspiracies to escape. just after dark. He me — . and that we would be required to leave for City Point via Petersburg early in the morning. but I declined them on the grounds that I could sleep without blankets as well as he. and significant looks began passing between those of us who were in the secret. and who claimed to have the best fighting cocks in his State. our arrival at Richmond. 1862. Heyl to join us in Libby. He took me down the railroad nearly a half mile to a workingman's restaurant and set up a fine breakfast. There were not many prisoners when we arrived there and we were fortunate enough not to be kept there much over two weeks. North Carolina. The night we spent in the cattle pen Gordonsville was a frosty one and my blankets having fallen to the lot of some persevering follower of Hampton.

for the princely government coat worth about ten sum of money. to the scene of his former capture.' whose stars had never seemed so bright to us. then our eyes. with his company went on picket the day he returned. And as it billowed and surged. he was unhorsed and again taken prisoner. to march to the depot. and. in the gentle breeze. 'Old Glory. paralyzed with delight. seventy-five dollars in Confederate a thrill like that one. The whiskey was new and fierce. and we rejoined the regiment. and then came the dreary wait for exchange and orders back to the regiment. was like a joyous dream. always a beautiful river. One of our number. but the pines had disappeared for firewood.l8o HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November 25. The inspiration it furnished showed itself in our eyes and sent the I never experienced fresh. Over it floated. is necessary To felt. we tried to shout and cheer. Many who have had similar experiences may perhaps read this. those no words of mine can convey what we who have The trip down the James. and the landing at historic old Annapolis. but in those days the mucous membranes of our throats and stomachs were tough. We were assigned to quarters in the parole camp. hot blood tingling through our veins. still in the same camp on the pine-covered knoll. and this time was kept in Libby still longer before he was exchanged. crisp air of a December morning fanned our cheeks. the fresh. and paid fifty of these same dollars for a gallon of whiskey with which to make merry with his friends. To them no description of our emotions not. in its stately way. on the pavement. but one more touchingly eloquent sparkled in the eyes and glistened down the cheeks of these stalwart men. Lieutenant Warren. "When we arrived at City Point we found a large river steamer awaiting us. It aroused merriment and inspired song and dance until a late hour. but our voices would not obey Spoken language was inadequate. into more so than ever to and up the Chesapeake Bay to the Severn. and deep draughts of it filled our lungs. and it did not kill. We were up betimes in the morning to take our last breakfast in the historic old tobacco warehouse. a dollars. One of the party sold his overcoat. The enemy that day made a raid on this part of the line. When we were paraded outside. 1862. Before winter was over these came. . in the fight which ensued.

1862. The regiment was in column of fours in the road and just where Bradbury's company halted the road was so sunken beneath the surrounding land that a man on horseback could not see the surface of the ground on the left hand side of the road. and when within ten or a dozen steps two double-barreled shot guns were thrust out from the pines and a voice demanded his 'instant and unconditional. Bradbury had had some varied experiences in life he had been one of Walker's filibusters in Nicaragua. bound for the 'Southern of the capture of Albert — — . The regiment was returning from a scout along the upper Rappahannock and. defeat of our in Richmond long before we heard of the army before Marye's Heights and Fredericksburg. The prisoners who succeeded us at Libby and Belle Isle remained. and in a moment one of the men had his arms and the other his horse. about thirty yards from the road. many of them. afterwards a Lieutenant of Company D. and in the next he was trotting along ahead of them. it was necessary for the Confederate government to parole and send us back. to make room for the large number of prisoners taken about this time.' He was so taken by surprise that without thinking an instant he dismounted. no unIt was easiness was experienced at first regarding his absence. To discover the cause he approached it warily. half an hour the troops moved on again. and after going a mile or so the Sergeant was missed. which made him a most competent field soldier and on account of his reputation for alertness and coolness. in the "As further illustrating the difficulties of cavalry operations piney woods country about Hartwood Church. l8l November 25. It seems nearly six months before he returned and explained. that just after getting up the bank his eyes were attracted by the shaking of a few twigs in a clump of pines. where he could keep a lookout. it halted for some purpose unknown to the writer. a year or more "We had not been in the enemy's hands. then First Sergeant of Company M. and.FIRST PICKET SURPRISE AT HARTWOOD CHURCH. His captain ordered Bradbury to go up the bank. is the story Bradbury. but it was supposed that he was somewhere in the column. remaining himself near the column. upon arriving within a short distance of the Hartwood Church picket line. and give notice of the approach of any parties from In less than that direction.

" . but it served some good purposes. 1862. Reason taught him that had he turned quickly toward the road and bolted a regard for their own safety would have caused his captors to Confederacy. and put eyes in the back of their heads. "The surprise and capture at Hartwood Church. 'Remember Hartwood Church!' How it steadied and steeled the men and knit them to their saddles. "In one of its most brilliant fights. on that day.r82 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry November 25." the He never ceased while in self for momentary panic hurry away instead of firing at him. in the manner it was made was humiliating to us. 1863. to a sense of their great responsibility that disaster was avenged.' on St. and how gloriously. I remember the effect on the Third Pennsylvania. that of Kelly's Ford. It awoke all on outpost cavalrymen duty. I knew him to abuse himwhich he dismounted. when there rang along the line from the throat of the gallant Mcintosh the cry. It 'called down' an unreasonable pride. Patrick's Day. and on many others thereafter.

.

Captain Alexander S.i lmore Captain William Company W L. ( . Company E. .Captain William Badghman. < 'aptain David M ( . [tCMJKli 'oinpany I*. Woodburn. Company H.

and snowy days of December were now upon us. on Potomac Creek FREDERICKSBURG THE MUD MARCH BURNSIDE RELIEVED FROM COMMAND OF THE ARMY HOOKER SUCCEEDS HIM ORGANIZATION OF THE CAVALRY INTO A CORPS SECOND PICKET SURPRISE AT HARTWOOD CHURCH. by General Franklin. before settling down in into winter quarters. Wm. Shortly after taking fine The command of the Army of the Potomac. — General Reynolds and the Sixth Corps under General Smith. upon the death of of the Cavalry General Bayard. Before the battle of Fredericksburg. which was posted strong position on the heights of Fredericksburg and along the right bank of the Rappahannock. The Third was not called upon to take part The result in the battle of Fredericksburg. McM.— CHAPTER Winter of 1862-63 XIII (Continued). 1863. composed of the First Brigade under General Farnsworth. Gregg. to fight Lee's army. composed of the Second Corps under General Couch and the Ninth Corps under General Wilcox the Center Grand Division. November 24. F To the Right Grand Division was attached a cavalry division under the command of General Pleasonton. autumn days had passed and the cold. 183 command . but remained quietly in camp. and the Left Grand Division. was assigned to the Brigade of the Left Grand Division. composed of the Third Corps under General Stoneman. at first under the command of Colonel D. and the Fifth Corps under General Butterfield. and subsequently of Colonel Devin. by General Hooker. General Burnside carried into execution a plan of his own conception. composed of the First Corps under . General Burnside deter- mined. was the defeat of our army and a terrible sacrifice of our brave troops. 1862 March 17. when the former. to consolidate the six corps into three grand divisions of two corps each the Right Grand Division to be commanded by General Sumner. wintry. and the Second Brigade.

with four pieces of horse artillery. with Horse Batteries B and L. for the first time. at first under the command of General Bayard." writes Swinton. however. to consist of one thousand picked men and officers. "despondency. the Army of the Potomac could The morale of the be said to be really demoralized. he officers of the On Army of the had represented that ment that all the preliminary arrangements were made. But on the 30th General Burnside received a dispatch from President Lincoln. After he was killed Colonel McM. if . and to carry out the plan which the latter had previously submitted. In accordance with the latter idea. and all evil inspirations. he gave directions." In a fortnight. under General Averell was attached. GenBurnside conceived another plan to cross the Rappahannock below Fredericksburg. recalled the cavalry expedition. under Lieutenants Woodruff and Vincent. discontent. under the command of Captain Walsh. instructing to enter on active operations without letting him not him know of it. army suffered greatly after its disastrous defeat at Fredericksburg. Gregg was assigned to succeed him." wrote Swinton. and in connection with this operation to send a cavalry expedition in the rear of Lee's army for the purpose of cutting the railroad communications of the Confederates. and that thev. 1862. As noted in the Regimental Journal. the First Massachusetts. attached. until. as above mentioned. on December 28. seeing Mr. To the Left Grand Division a cavalry brigade was D. November — December 30. was informed by him that certain general Potomac had come up to see him. the detachment started out on the 29th. The detail was to include one hundred and fifty men and six officers of the Third Pennsylvania. and everv prominent officer in the army. with their natural consequent desertion. ''As the days went by. Second United States Artillery. were satisfied. respectively. and the army was on the eve of another move- . seemed to increase rather than to diminish. Lincoln. 1862. composed of the Third and Fourth Pennsylvania. and the Fifth United States. to General Averell to organize such an expedition. "Surprised at this message. with a view to turning the Confederate eral position. To the Center Grand Division a cavalry brigade.184 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. "General Burnside and proceeded personally to Wash- ington to ascertain the cause of the presidential prohibition.

But there were no more . the camp to-morrow morning. December 29 [28]. December the 28. The fact is.— WINTER OF 1862-63 ON POTOMAC CREEK. A couple of days after leaving camp they reached Warrenton. owing more to somebody in Washington pretending to tell us at what corner of the street we shall find the enemy than to inactivity on our part. supposing that they were at last to test whether they or these bold rebels were the better men. had been detailed make a raid through the neighborhood of Richmond. 1862 185 January it 2. and General has sent for some forage and "McClellan pies. as contained in Wister's Memoir. at that time. In consequence of condition of facts. and goodness knows. on picket on the New Ball's ton in good style. immediately formed and charged." preparatory to going somewhere . We have just halted in the woods for the night. movement was entered upon. this would result in disaster. Newhall being one of the foremost of the column. where they saw a body of Confederates. to be gone four January 2. because they never let us do anything for which cavalry author of this branch of the service. and Newhall was one of the captains. A band number of a thousand." Accordingly the cavalry expedition was brought to a halt and was sent in another direction." wrote Mrs. ''is his only mention of the charge through YVarrenton. It was commanded by General Averell. and our soldiers dashed on at full speed up the long street. without prohibiting a move. and General Burnside returned to his headquarters amazed at the revelation of the state of feeling in the army that was notorious to everv one in it save the commander himself. Stuart was known to be close at hand. we are worked to death and nobody knows it. expecting at every instant to encounter a stronger force. Four or five was intended by the The "Happy New Year" found us Road. to the to and our troops. 1863. the President. would be injudicious. Captain Newhall's relation of events. continues: Mrs. of picked men. a spirited though bloodless affair. Wister. we hope to do something to bring cavalry out of the sort of disgrace into which it has fallen. after having charged through Warrenhurt. We leave days on a scout or picket duty. judged that any large enterprise. "This. The enemy immediately broke and scattered. 1863. drawn up in the main street of the town.

The party whom our men saw was only the rear guard.' as at the onset they fancied nothing than Stuart's entire force awaiting them. Among others the Third was detailed to carry "McClellan pies." General Averell's disappointment at the lost opportunity of showing what the cavalry could do was keen. This was the whole fruit of their expedition. through the mucky roads. We and were then marched in the late from Falmouth Hartwood Church. and the roads in good condition. Notwithstanding this the march was kept up. this time at Banks' Ford. Southerners to be seen. Consequently General Burnside was prompted to attempt another movement across the Rappahannock. In a very few six miles above. but during that night a terrible storm came on. some of which had been corduroyed. and rain descended in torrents. and the army and its wheels stuck immovably in the clayey This expedition will go down history as "The Mud March. to take place hours it was seen in to be a hopeless task. command. 1863. and often stumbled and fell. soil. as at that very juncture they were recalled by an order from Washington. and had withdrawn not two hours before. on January 20. to report Stuart had been there with his whole that the coast was clear. The charge was none the "nine less gallant because their opponents turned out to be less men in buckram. were wagons could get called to the front. pontoons were hauled to the proximity of the river. as being the only element of the army which could upon. chafing under the restraint and disappointment. For a month after the battle of Fredericksburg the weather had been extraordinarily fine. to allotted to each rider hungry dough-boys. and in many cases the hard-tack was . and heavy guns to elevated positions. and the cavalry rode back again.l86 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY January 2-20. A to box was placed on the single file pommel of his saddle. Our horses as well as their riders showed their distaste for this sort of work. but he bided his time." as the the men dubbed the hard-tack biscuits. and "Kelly's Ford" was in the future. It was almost impossible to manage the horses and hold the boxes at the same time. and forced to return to camp. During the 19th the columns were put in motion." No move commissary about. during hours of an intensely dark night. so the services of the cavalry.

1863. its "Then wrote Colonel F. "In fact.: — THE MUD MARCH." By general order dated February quarters. "With Sheridan in Lee's Last Campaign. C. and apparently an endless stream of horsemen pouring from every avenue leading to the parade ground. Averell." as General Merritt On has said. seeing that the Yankees were not felt all dead yet. and was succeeded by General Joseph February 6 the organization by Grand Divisions was abolThen and for the first ished and that by Army Corps substituted. February 12. dumped in the mud. nobody was more astonished than the troops themselves when they saw the face of the country swarm with cavalry. regarding the magnificent mass from the heights of St. time a separate "Cavalry Corps" as such was organized under the command of General Stoneman. and which in consequences went far toward revolutionizing the whole theory and practice of cavalrv operations and mode of fighting. army When President Lincoln came down to the army for a grand review." of all General Hooker's order inaugurated a complete reorganization the cavalry in the Army of the Potomac. across the river. thus affording relief from a kind of duty which we should never have been called upon to perform. 26. and Gregg. "after Gaines's Mill the cavalry of the Army of the until the reorganization of the Potomac had no history of which it had reason to be proud army with Hooker in command. January 19 187 1863. Marye. The enemy." regiments seemed to creep out of every the defile within the lines of Three divisions were organized under Generals Pleasonton. Newhall in his charming book. 1863. and General Buford commanded the Brigade of Regulars. Superb for the first time. General Burnside was relieved from the command of the army on January Hooker. from its headwas organized and commanded as follows . must have a slight reaction from the victorious glow of Fredericksburg. This was the inception of that new system upon the basis of which the cavalry organization was maintained until the end of the war.'" "it was realized what a capital mounted force there was. the Cavalry Corps 12.

Brigadier-General John Buford commanding. the On Wednesday. general headquarters. The Philadelphia Inquirer of February 28. with about twenty "About 12 o'clock Lee. and First Maryland (one squadron) Second Division. Fourth Third Division. Brigadier-General Pleasonton commanding. of Company C. 1863. Va. Lieutenant E. February of being on the detail at the time of each surprise. Third encountered a second The pickets were surprise and disaster near Hartwood Church. with headquarters near Brooke's Station. Eighth Illinois. and Warren. Sixth Ohio. Va. Sixth New York. Fifth. Tenth New The Reserve Brigade. H. of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. in which Lieutenants Wetherill. First W Island. Fourth. New York. Davis. Second pendent company. had the unpleasant experience 25. First Maine. Third Pennsylvania. Seventeenth Pennsylvania. Brigadier-General D. —First Massachusetts. Richmond. February 28. Ninth New York. with headquarters near Acquia Creek Church the Second Division. and an inde- New Jersey. General Fitz Hugh rebel cavalry. 1863. After a sturdy resistance. — First McM. Brigadier-General YY Averell command- First Division. Gregg commandYork. First Maryland. the center. Fourth Pennsylvania. He had in just been restored to duty after a visit to Libby Prison.— l88 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Willard Warren. The First Division was ordered to constitute the right of the army. and Sixteenth Pennsylvania.. First. Second. York.. attacked our picket line at Hartwood Church. under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Jones. with two thousand . "Stafford C. and Sixth United States. ing. contained the : following account of the affair "The attack of Rebel Cavalry on the Union Pickets at Hartwood Church : "Gallant Conduct of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Eighth Pennsylvania. February 12-25. The Reserve Brigade was ordered to encamp in the vicinity of — . and the Third Division the left. 1863. ing. First Rhode Pennsylvania. in when this attack caused him to return to his former quarters that city. Eighth New New York. Third Indiana. with headquarters near Belle Plain. on the morning of the 25th inst.

when Major Robinson their advance completely. About noon on the second day. The enemy supposed that this determined dash meant the approach of reinforcements and immediately commenced their retreat back to their camps. although attacked by such superior force. They fought with great gallantry and entirely checked the advance of the enemy. Robinson. Jones. but as they had the advantage of time they had recrossed the river before he arrived. of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. checking They returned the volley. on his way to visit the he met the retreating pickets as "Field Officer of the Day. His charge was entirely successful. The reserve force was about two hundred men. The commanding officer. were taken prisoners by the enemy. and some six or ten of the enemy were observed at several points. 189 men. G. satisfied the I reported the enemy would attack at and that I felt some point on our extended . fact to General Averell at brigade headquarters. trampling the Major and bruising him considerably. and his men fell back in confusion." column he halted in the road and by almost superhuman efforts succeeded in halting and rallying some seventy-five men. and delivered a terrible volley into them." he wrote. gave the following relation of the facts of this occurrence "We were detailed — I forget the exact date. After arriving and assuming command of the line. wounding four. killing two. our pickets were driven into the main reserve at the church. holding his the Third. who was in command of the picket. two or three points on our left. and followed them over a mile. February 22-25. arrived at the scene of action.: SECOND PICKET SURPRISE AT HARTWOOD CHURCH. which caused us to send orders along the whole line (some ten or eleven miles) to be extraordinarily vigilant. General Averell pursued them with a portion of his division to Kelly's Ford. whom he formed in line fronting the enemy. and waving his sabre rallied them. 1863. the pickets were fired on. He immediately got on his feet. being As soon as advantage until reinforcements arrived. He thoroughly routed them. At this moment Major O. Before reaching their line his horse was shot under him. Lieutenant-Colonel Jones. and mounting a riderless horse led them again in a charge on the enemy. ordered and led a charge on them. O. and taking prisoner a captain and two privates. "for three days' tour of duty from camp at Potomac Creek. until the enemy deployed on both flanks and threatened their rear if they continued in that position. ordered his men to fall back slowly until he could take up As soon as our men turned the enemy charged and the a better position." The late Lieutenant-Colonel Edward S. who formed in line and received the enemy in elegant style. during the first day at nothing of interest occurred. of retreat turned into a rout.

and putting their artillery in position. and when halted he let them advance without dismounting. I found the enemy moving into the cleared fields east and north of the church.190 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. The column of the enemy immediately appeared. in such force that it would be folly for us to make an attack. by which means I escaped capture. having on our regular army overcoats. and in almost a through.' line. The whole situation was then apparent to me. and the corporal hastened to report to our headquarters. Davis with some ten men to go be observed that night. I then and to stand to horse to await develop- With one or two orderlies I then rode out in the direction Hartwood Church. and only lay hours. whip them. On emerging from the woods. with orders to be to the support of our left. forces. a corporal in charge of one of the picket reserves came and reported that he had (being posted so that the picket at the church could be seen) observed how the enemy captured our three vedettes at Hartwood Church. Upon reaching the reserve. filling the road and charging at full speed. not having over — . 1863. My judgment was that they numbered some five hundred or more strong in fact. by the Telegraph Road. A bend prevented me from seeing any great moment a squad. ordered the reserve in ments. "Up I to the time of the charge not a shot had been fired. I had proceeded about half way when I was met by an officer of the Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. and I rode again in a direct line toward Hartwood Church. commenced firing at me. February 25. I then detailed Lieutenant F. C. I was singlehanded and turned my horse (my faithful and gallant Old Ironsides) toward our reserve. and was at great loss to account for the surprise. Our pickets at in the church belonged to the Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. His reply was : 'If the "I remember that I directed the utmost care and vigilance to down myself two or three waked before daylight. In a moment our pickets were made to dismount and marched off. Three of the enemy rode up. shouting that the rebels were charg- ing down the road. and asked for additional enemy attack. as the enemy mired and I got distance. After the usual breakfast hour a report came in that our left had been attacked. of the line and report to me the situation. directly through swampy ground.

and he was vigorously followed up. among whom was Lieutenant Horner. They were attacked and made a gallant charge. who was whom I sent out to the the picket line. and by we were occupying very nearly our old picket line. and the next morning the enemy was followed. and upon General Averell's arriving with reinforcements he took command. This he declined. and that he would obey any orders I would give. I directed him to cautiously move his command over to the Telegraph Road. men in the reserves. February twenty-five or thirty 25. being my rankpeared under command of Colonel ing officer. was captured. the ball passing clear through him. and said that I should keep in command. I threw forward the reserve upon the parallel road. "I immediately returned to reserve headquarters. I asked to direct affairs. but distinctly remember that Lieutenant E. . It was driven back by two charges of the enemy to Wallace s Farm. with the view withdrawing the pickets and forming ourselves into scouting At this juncture the head of the column of relief apwhom. Scouts were sent out. I have a remembrance of several of our men getting hurt. whom I directed to receive the enemy at their next charge (he having gathered some of our dismounted men) with a volley. Cavalry.SECOND PICKET SURPRISE AT HARTWOOD CHURCH. left. who were the officers in command. but were surrounded by overwhelming numbers and captured. Lieutenant Davis. especially a member of Company C. . and quite a number of men on nightfall "After the above charge and its repulse we advanced. and driven back some one or two miles. of the Third. I also selected a small squad of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry who were in the relief. 191 1863. where I was joined by Major Robinto parties. \A'illard Warren was of the party. son. but who eventually recovered and reported for duty in six weeks (his name I cannot recall). which was done. Several of the enemy were unhorsed. and directed them I forget to move out the road parallel to the Telegraph Road. of the Virginia who subsequently died at Wallace's during the night. He did so and was violently attacked by the enemy. Cavalry. but we did not succeed in coming up to them. last charge of the enemy. with a picket line ex- tending nearly eleven miles in length. Third Pennsylvania This was the shot through the left breast. and defend it.

and his body was coffined and sent by flag of truce to General Fitz Hugh fault Lee's headquarters for burial. of Philadelphia. hearing firing in the distance. On reaching there one hundred men were assigned to dered me to turn over my command. affair should not be characterized as a surprise. After detailing the twenty men and Lieutenant Davis. near which the main picket reserve was established. I On the third day of our tour. to be swept off in detail. having been sent in by General Fitz- hugh Lee to see after Lieutenant Horner and others of his wounded. of Company E. I returned to the reserve and reported the facts to Colonel Jones. February 22-25. sleet. and wind. The quota from the Third composed was of Lieutenants Franklin C. left rode out to the and ascertained that a small body of the enemy had made an attack but had been repulsed by the men of the Third stationed there. of Company D. . but Colonel Jones ormy men and act as adjutant of the picket. I J 863- "One of the incidents which recall to mind was that a Lieu- tenant or Doctor Palmer. proceeding towards Hartwood Church. as he seemed to occupy an equivocal position. Davis. Wetherill. 1863. of the picket line. and seventy men.: 192 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. and myself. Lieutenant of affair who at the time was the First Company K. Lieutenant E. I refused to acknowledge him and treated him as a prisoner of war. under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Edward S. ''Upon the whole. "The The and blunder lay in the neglect of duty of the pickets at the church not dismounting every one capture opened out our whole who approached. Jones. a detail of five hundred men from the different regiments of the brigade. He then ordered me to detail twenty men and one officer to go out beyond the picket line and follow the enemy in order to learn what their force was. and their line. but took quite a number of our men prisoners. We started out in a violent storm of snow. the enemy suffered more than ourselves in killed and wounded. Horner. of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry." Captain Francis D. gives the following account of the "On Sunday February was all sent out on picket 22. Lieutenant Horner was a nephew of Dr. Willard Warren.

and we found ourselves surrounded on all a twinkling sides by different bodies of the enemy. F Lee. They tried to surround us. elaborate arrangements had been made to capture us. it we of course supposed it zvas our relief. surrounding thicket. but we slipped away. and 13 . "On hearing my name called I presented myself to the officer. about nine and seven years old respectively. knowing that my party was outside. came upon the enemy. about noon. an officer who was looking over the list called out 'Who's Wetherill ?' "At Bolmar's School. When was too late we discovered that the force in front of us consisted of three squadrons of Confederate cavalry it —the Fourth Virginia line. February Colonel Jones ordered 25. near West Chester.' proved to be. "After we had given in our names and were taking off : our sabres. the Virginia opposing us. and they gathered us in. about a company. Commander of the Army of Northern "Lee was exceedingly kind to me. there were two little fellows who were great chums. Pennsylvania. I immediately gave the order. 1863. throwing out the usual advance and rear guards. and just the hour at which we might expect our relief to appear. We were marching by file along a narrow path through the mud and snow. and seeing in front of us a party which We in blue overcoats. and seeing my depression of spirits on account of having gotten into such a scrape. and had a slight skirmish with them in a narrow ravine. and the in What with the deep mud and snow. I did. the second son of — General Robert E. who said 'Are you the little Wetherill who used to go to Bolmar's School ?' Upon my saying that I was. I93 me to take command of the party myself. the two smallest boys in the school Bill Lee and Frank Wetherill. afterwards Major-General of Cavalry in the Confederate service William H. and having seen the enemy and ascertained their number we returned toward the reserve. we could not manoeuvre quickly. he said he was 'Bill Lee' : no other than Colonel. 'Front into with the intention of charging upon them in hopes of being able to cut our way through. It was the last day of our tour of duty. with thick woods on both sides of us. Lee.— SECOND PICKET SURPRISE AT HARTWOOD CHURCH. he tried to comfort me by telling me that.

who had been having a conversation with one of the Confederate Generals. They were too courteous to take watch us. I'm goin' to make you eat half of it. had Colonel Lee to thank for that. that their succeeding ever. a run to pay a social visit. It was hard luck. 194 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY February 25.' So he broke his only biscuit into halves and gave me one of them. after we had bivouacked. "General Fitzhugh Lee. afford was no fault of mine. He of the Confedalways was especially fell so to the officers of Averell's regiment who into his hands. talking of our old school days. When we awoke and got up the prints made by the bodies of the rebel and the Yankee were side by side in the snow. "On the march our captors honored the very riding by giving fast mare I was me two guards with drawn sabres. especially to The mare had been the winner in many races. and presently we came up with Warren. her from just then. 'Look here.' On the march we heard singing ahead of us. and of what had become of this or the other of the boys. Lee brought me teen of 'apple-jack' whiskey and said. covered with the same horse blanket. We became very hungry. howa can- me any comfort of mind.' 1 said. 1863. we laid down don't try to escape to-night and we'll have a together. in the snow. On the second evening of our sojourn he took us to the Soldiers' Theatre at Culpeper without guards. "There were five officers captured by the enemy on that occasion three of them.' so we had something to eat and sat together by the camp fire. and before he could get clear the rebs had him. Lieutenant Shurtliff of the First Rhode Island Cavalry. I've got one cracker left. At last. I took off my spurs and presented them to him as a remembrance. Wetherill good time. thereby 'aiding and abetting the enemy. erate forces. 'Yank. taking an occasional nip at the apple-jack. "That night. when sleepiness overcame us. and they saw her good qualities. All right. and one of my guards said. This did not. having taken — . for he had only returned a day or two before that detail from a visit to 'Libby. I me — .. had joined our party outside the line. Lieutenants Davis and Warren and myself from my own regiment.' "Lieutenant Warren was captured on account of his horse falling with him. who was in command was also very kind to us.

The coffee made us very happy in our feelings. But we got to skylarking and the authorities threatened to shoot us. We were very weak and we relished it as never before. it is "The for story of 'Libby' has been told so often that to say needless I me much about it. which expressed exchanged. and we sat on the roof in the sunshine. Being somewhat of a gymnast. and so reach the trap door. 1863. but of course we could not accept anything. "When every one. "After we had been hard time. The toes stuck out of my boots. I95 locked up in Libby Prison. After a while some naval officers joined us. the seat of my was gone. and as they were in training for that sort of thing. February 25. trousers themselves in great talkativeness. Some of the party had not tasted coffee for a year. and placed a guard over the trap door. Warren and I He got the 'mumps' and had a slept on the same planks there. I got back to the regiment I was cordially received by Instead of finding myself in trouble on account of having been captured. that General Fitzhugh Lee left with the surgeon whom he had ordered to remain behind to look after some of his wounded in our hands. When we arrived at City Point to be exchanged. they got to coming up with me. "I was about three months a prisoner in 'Libby' before I was the roof to let in the fresh air.SECOND PICKET SURPRISE AT HARTWOOD CHURCH.' but the 'Chickahominy fever' lingering it. and my cavalry jacket was short. 'Uncle Sam' had strong coffee ready for us. the bantering note to his quondam West Point chum and intimate It pickets at . was made use of by my fellow-prisoners to open a trap door to I was the only man among some two hundred who were confined in the room who could jump up and catch the joist. so that we could not go out on the roof any more." in my system precluded my accepting was upon the occasion of the second attack upon our Hartwood Church related above. "General Fitzhugh Lee sent Colonel Hill Carter to see us in Libby and offer us money or anything we might want. there was awaiting me a commission as Captain of Company F A year and a half or more afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel Walsh offered me a Majority in the 'Veteran my Battalion. but nothing could break down his spirit.

The them commenting gave two half-page illustrations. and from that time the papers ceased their flings at the cavalry. These unkind thrusts were never merited. was printed in the Publications of the First It is Maine Cavalry here inserted as Association of July and October a chapter by itself. published some years ago 1893.I96 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY March 17. and right well they improved the opportunity. latter The pictorial weeklies of Harper and Frank Leslie gave full-page illustrations of one of the charges. . of in lavish praise upon the dash and valor of our troopers. to include in this history a graphic account of that brilliant fight. when we crossed over to the south of the Rappahannock for our historic encounter at "Kelly's Ford. of which we shall hear in Chapter XIV Twenty days later General Averell answered the note in person. 1863. The National Tribune. but they had been founded upon the remarks of some of our own infantry generals. as is proven by our first year's record of service. It We also are enabled." This last engagement gave the newspapers something to talk about. as we beat our adversaries on their own ground. each "Kelly's Ford'' put an end to all such unfair criticism. through the kindness of of Washington. friend. General Averell. in that journal.

.

Captain "William Rkdwood Company ( Pkici: Captain J [.i: Company G.kxaxihcr Company I'. . Captain A i. Fiiazi. Company K. T>.i-:i-.' Captain Abel Weight.i:kt. 1'n<.kli.

By Frank W. To any one acquainted. The important part which mounted troops were destined to play in the great drama was equally unappreciated. magnitude which the War of the Rebellion was destined to assume was not appreciated by the military leaders at its commencement. kelly's ford. march i~. perceived that while infantry could be improvised to meet the pressing cavalry could not be prepared for effort. 1863.. retired. and the very best instructors should have been selected. Not error. to grapple with the difficult}' from the very was an The mounted men offered early in 1861 should have been accepted. va. Lieutenant-Colonel United States Army. difficult to the importance of cavalry was early appreciated by those in authority on that side. Third Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry. and persistent and constant drilling should have been commenced with it at once and continued until a large force was organized and ready for the field. freely offered by the loyal States. who had been educated in the profession. emergencies of the service without long and patient and were appalled. perfirst haps.CHAPTER XIV The First Cavalry Battle of the Civil War. though but casually. Stuart. Hess. Lee. serving at the time as Captain of Company M. Our professional who comprehended conflict. It was long after hostilities commenced before the authorities began to accept the many regiments and companies of volunteer The cavalry soldiers. the necessities of the hour. at the herculean task. and others. 197 . with the requirements of this arm it is unnecessary to note the fact that it is much more make ordinary cavalry out of the average citizen The Confedin a given time than it is to make good infantry Through the leadership of erates did not make this mistake.

its forests and swamps. and many were scattered all Diomede. Timoleon. and took with them to the field their own thoroughbred chargers. fostered through many generations. North Carolina. Shooting and fox hunting were the favorite manly pastimes. as Sir Archie. much tions of their and the young men of the rural districts spent time in the saddle most of their work on the planta. a better weapon. All the}' had to learn was the simple lesson of the drill ground. for their use. Eclipse.I98 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Sir Woodpecker. and to shoot well with a pistol from the saddle was an acomplishment not rare. Among these people chivalric traditions. 1863. a weapon never much relied upon by them. but knitted this kinship closer. and almost all were good wing shots with the shotgun. and Ken- tucky produced the best of the latter suitable for saddle work. Conditions in the Southern States had been such as to produce riders and good horses. Red Eye. tocratic blood. From good the beginning the cavalry service there was very popular. or who could not obtain them. Recruiting for the cavalry with this environment was not in these States among men who had grown up difficult. March 17. The knowledge possessed by these men of the topography of the country. and the use of the sabre. Gray Eagle. was superintended while in it. Exchequer. Wagner. Boston. and a Virginian especially who was not a lover of the horse and a good rider was indeed verv rare. The knight and the horse are associated in our minds as almost akin. these young men were also skilled in the use of firearms. Virginia. Glencoe. being already masters of the art of equitation. For all who had the opportunity to indulge in it. Bertrand. its highways and byways. others more or less famous in turf annals over them. which weapon plaved no inconsiderable part in the great Civil War. abounded in horses of aris- The sons and daughters of such noble racers Charles. . In addition to being accustomed to horses. became non-commissioned officers and privates in the cavalry. From the verv beginning the Southern cavalry may be said to have been at its best for the purpose for which it was used. Sons of the best families who did not care for commissions in other arms. as their familiarity with the deadly pistol made it. riding was the favorite pastime. too. These States.

and is afraid of him. but the horses bred here were unsuited for that work. rarely anything A contemporary writer remarks on this subject: seemed that the qualifications of a recruit for the cavalry might be summed up in this he neither knows how to groom. fear of their horses than they ever did afterward of terror depicted The wild fumbling after mane or saddle strap. made their daring raids and sudden dashes on the unsuspecting picket. and trains of their enemy possible and comparatively easy. Let us now take a glance at the volunteer cavalry of the find Army The men we who composed if it came largely the shops. water." The horse throughout the Northern and Western States had Those procome to be used as a draft animal or roadster only were unfamiliar with work under cured for cavalry mounts as the saddle as their riders were with work in it.cavalry fight at kelly March streams. and manufacturing establishments. mines. by the cruel machinations of their riding . or ride his horse. The troop scenes witnessed while they were being taught the mysteries of the riding school will never be forgotten. 199 1863. or about riding. The ludicrous city. Many of these timids. Many of them showed much more the enemy. to which the writer was attached came from a large and most of the men had not been astride a horse until they were mustered into the United States service. scouting parties. patrols. to whom the "four-foot wall" of Lever's "Man from Galway" was but a pleasure. and light or heavy wagons as were their riders from the farm and workshop. Union from They knew nothing about the care of horses. Not only were trained saddle horses scarce among us. fords. and the hastily-formed cavalry regiments were mounted on horses as fresh from the plow. the dray. "It they did. Few out of hundreds could be forced to attempt a narrow ditch or low fence. s ford. turned out to be fine soldiers and daring riders. But at this period. feed. however. and bridges 17. are a lasting source of amusement. and much more dignified for a horse who had any dignity to : maintain. Not until they had been thrown into the one or over the other did they learn that jumping was easier than falling. the on some faces when the commands "trot" or "gal- lop" were given.

1863. tion in a systematic manner. battalion drill. Instruc- with proper views of what constituted real discipline. rear guards. then. . its Fortunately for the regiment to which belonged the troop before alluded of the to. with a view of preparing these men for the service expected of them. and from memory I will enumerate the First (Bayard)." The duties of pickets. From two to four drills a day was the order. and convoys were taught. and from earliest dawn till darkness fell the embryo trooper knew no rest. McM. all from Pennsylvania. The camp being not far from those of the enemy. followed each other in such rapid succession as to make his head swim. He was an excellent drillmaster. This was most especially so of those which were commanded bv officers of experience. the Sixth (Rush). in which men learned more in a day than could otherwise have been taught in months. the Eighth (D. patrols. All of the regiments of cavalry organized in the summer and fall of 1 86 1 which served in the Army of the Potomac turned out well.200 history ok the third pennsylvania cavalry. and many minor skirmishes occurred. advance guards. they were thrown from their saddles more than once. This was wholly true of Virginia and largely so of Kentucky. Squad drill. fame. was commenced and persistently followed in the most industrious and painstaking manner. it fell Lieutenant W W Averell. flanking parties. that the cavalry of the Confederacy should its have early asserted first superiority and maintained it during the year of the war ? into proper hands. Is it wonderful. Rifles. The few in the North who cared to indulge in the luxury of saddle horses had relied for them on the States of Virginia and Kentucky. These sources of supply were no longer available. the Third (Averell). First enemy was Rhode Island (Duffle). March 17. facilities were at hand for the practical illustration of some of these lessons. Gregg). was Mounted made afterwards General Averell of cavalry Colonel. troop drill. in order that they might learn that the most serious result of such a calamity was the hearty laugh with which the exploit was greeted by their comrades. and a detail for a scout or a tour of picket duty in the presence of an active and day of rest. squadron drill. industrious hailed as a "'sweet the First Massachusetts (Williams). scouting parties. master.

Unification commenced. see a paper. and no difficulty would have been encountered in finding the company officers and enlisted men by simply making requisitions on the Governors of the loyal States for battalions and companies. and with this was banished from the trooper's mind the thought that he was dependent on the infantryman to help him out of his little difficulty with the enemy go to show that the relation towards each other The first purely cavalry fight of the war. where more than one . instructors. An improvement also came in the cavalry administration. In the Peninsular Campaign of important part.CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March First 17. Volume II. '"With the Cavalry on the Peninsula. 201 1863. was undertaken it later With the very best system of instruction. and for this work received a large share of praise from the Commanding General. The vastly superior excellence of that of the Confederates no longer existed. part of the of 1861. and finally came the Cavalry Corps. I think was found that cavalry and under the best fit in any respect for the field could not be than one year. brigades into divisions. the cavalry played a very aration. winter of 1861 and 1862 for prep1862. For a truthful and graphic description of the duties performed by the cavalry in this campaign. and an example for others to follow. regiments were consolidated into brigades. but that ours had improved. pages 429 to 431. The Colonel should have been The cavalry events a great of the early part of 1863 of the cavalry of the change had taken place in two armies. "Battles and Leaders." by General Averell. 1861. New Jersey (Kilpatrick). Not that theirs had deteriorated. serving with infantry in the it field. for which American cavalry afterward became noted throughout the world." The daring expeditionary work. S FORD. published by The Century Company. and the the autumn of They had part of the summer. Therefore produced from our material in less time I have said it was an error on the selected Government to refuse the material offered in the spring by the Commander of the Army or by the War Department from the officers of the Regular Army who had shown an aptitude for that arm of the service. doing the routine work of that corps in small detachments.

and while the list of casualties was not enormous. send them across the river at various places. From these camps it was an easv matter for him to detach commands of from two to five hundred men. it was but a short time until the precise location was known at the headquarters on Women and children as well as the the other side of the river men took a patriotic pride in giving information as to our movements. concentrate on any given point on the line. and drive in or capture our pickets. after the reorganization it had been made a part of its duty to protect a very extended front from Acquia Creek above its junction with Much the Potomac to and along the upper Rappahannock River. Every inhabitant in this country was in full sympathy with the enemy. and no matter how frequently the posts of our vedettes were changed and the reserves moved. These forays were numerous during the winter. was that of Kelly's Ford. the cavalry had hitherto acted it small bodies. bank of the Rappalow stages of the water could be forded in many places. its results were fraught with more importance for this arm of the service than were many battles where the losses on each side were ten or twenty times greater. 1863. occurring anywhere in the East. larger masses What cavalry could do acting was the lesson to be taught by this engagement. but had been abandoned as such. and very annoying to our people. March 17. During the winter of 1862 and 1863. by innumerable paths. information of the enemy's position the opposite The enemy's cavalry was on hannock — right bank—which in the . was engaged on both sides. On the other hand.202 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY March battalion 17. These forests had once been cultivated land. of this line was through a densely-wooded country. and were now thickly studded with a dense growth of small pines. and they were threaded of our cavalry. As has in before been intimated. the foliage of which was so dense as to prevent one from seeing for more than a rod or two through them. 1863. and vied with each other in schemes and ruses by which to discover and convey to the enemy facts which we strove to conceal. and bv the hidden roads which his men knew so well. and may be truthfully stated that no officer present in this affair had ever before seen more than a squadron in or two engaged at a time.

had been at West Point three years while General Averell was there. that of Hartwood Church.: CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March 17. Fourth. who had risen to the rank of Brigadier-General and commanded a division. before which he always gave way. Altogether the responsibilities of the cavalry were assuming a graver aspect. and they had been warm personal friends. and each brought with his service all of the skill taught by his Alma Mater. with the purpose of measuring strength on a fair field with the . who commanded a brigade composed of the First. abandoning their posts without making proper and noisy ance resist- when attacked. War. and in which he had been partially successful in effecting. General Averell had long been considering the project of an advance into that portion of the country guarded by Lee's cavalry. November 28. Second. and ennobled by the enthusiastic loyalty with which each espoused a cause that he deemed the grandest for which man ever contended. and Fifth Virginia Cavalry. In one of the forays in which Lee himself commanded. Fitzhugh Lee. This was the last perany considerable body of our cavalry. he left with a surgeon whom he deremain within our lines to care for his wounded a note is of which the following a copy Dear Averell: Please let this surgeon assist in taking care of my wounded. though at the cost to his command finally of a very considerable loss in killed tailed to and wounded. reinforced. however. fortified. with a horse battery (Brethed's). 203 1863. Send me over a bag of coffee. and for this purpose frequent reconnoissances were made in considerable force. added much to its efficiency by promptly dismissing from the army the officer who commanded one of these surprised advance posts. retiring to his own side of the river. I wish you'd quit shooting and get out of my State and go home. Fitz. I ride a pretty fast horse.a surprise. Enlisted men were frequently court-martialed for Averell. Third. but I think yours can beat mine. found them commanding opposing forces. 1862. S FORD. Good-by. and intentions could be procured by us only by personal observation. and against which the warm personal friendship of a lifetime weighed as but service fectly-successful surprise of a feather.

An advance guard for the main body had been selected. on the 16th of March. the battery. men Accordingly. and bivouacked for the night. from which places outposts had been silently captured and the way made clear for their larger bodies to dash down on the unsuspecting reserve posts. by paths known only to them. Some of these troops. with a view of protecting the flank of the main body. He own satisfaction their superiority as cavalry. men who. 1863. with a view to carrying the crossing . promising good results.204 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY March 17. in order to mask the intended movement of the morrow. He sought and obtained permission from Commanding General of the army to take command across the river with this purpose in the a portion of his view. did not arrive at Morrispickets the rendezvous. had so successfully stolen. about three thousand of his command. through the in small pines to points in rear of our pickets. These two commands started very earl) in the morning. made a march of thirty-two miles on the owing ville. with instructions to across the river and take up a position some miles westward. and by 6 o'clock the ford had been reached. he wished the officers and men of his command to meet and measure strength with those of the enemy. left their the ford (Kelly s) at which camps near Potomac Creek and marched to the vicinity of it was intended that he should cross. 1863. and were pushed back. and. He had an abiding faith in the results of the painstaking instruction imparted to his own regiment. notably 16th. with orders to move on the roads westward. leading to or near the river or points drive the The enemy's enemy all much further up. thus reaping the reward of the hard service and many privations endured through the era of preparation. and the better morale which was everywhere showing itself in all the regiments of his division — in short. and pickets of his own command were placed well down toward the ford. A force of nine hundred men was here detached. which was to move southerly toward and across Kellv's Ford. including a battery of horse artillery. scouting parties led by civilian partisans. until 11 o'clock at night. to the bad condition of the roads. were met before arrival at this point. that they might practically demonstrate to their desired a fight for the fight's sake.

rifle-pits. and much deeper both above and below. Organizing from the troops in support of the advance guard a as he its head. they recoiled suddenly. first at his own retreating and then emptied of the river. The river at this point. He enemy had dismounted a large number of his men and thrown them into a well-constructed rifle-pit which thoroughly commanded the ford. and many of . either civilian or military. troopers. Here occurred a very stubborn resistance on the part of the rebels. through had been apprised of our approach. site side it said. side of his neck. S FORD. and placing himself at made a charge for the fording but water he was wounded. so there was no possibility of getting over except at the fording. it was repulsed. A dash was made at the crossing by the advance was found to be defended. In addition to the sides. at this stage perceived that the of water.CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March by a dash. Chamberlain was about entering the his men and horses were shot down. Chamberlain. The enemy. Seeing their leaders shot down and floundering in the rapid cur- charging party. General Averell little knoll to the left of the head of his column. First Massachusetts Acting Chief-of-Staff to General Averell. had placed himself and from overlooked and directed all subsequent operations. this his revolver at the enemy on the oppo- While on a this point was going on. is about three hundred feet wide. inter- . and who bore an unenviable reputation. The stream was swollen by recent rains until it was four or five feet deep at the fording. and. but berlain. had been placed in charge by him of the advance. Major (afterwards Colonel) ChamCavalry. if it 17. who were posted behind an intrenchment which commanded thoroughly the fording and its approaches. his scouts. is He sat up on the ground. the enemy had thrown trees into the road on both and on the river bank had driven stakes into the ground. and they were on the lookout for us. the shock throwing him from his horse. This attack also failed. These troops were from a regiment which had been badly handled. the ball entering his face and passing out at the rent. and the guard at the fording had been increased. though partially blinded by the blood. with indomitable pluck fired. guard. and did not speak or understand English very well. while trying to rally and force them into the fording. received another and very dangerous wound. 205 1863.

and was responded to by the whole regiment moving to The nearest platoon. Simon A. Into this General Averell directed the placing of one hundred men. the battery. was selected and made ready for the dash. with orders to keep up a constant fire on the rifle-pits opposite. having left their carbines behind them. The remainder of the Rhode Island regiment was moved up to Brown's support. The left bank of the river is traversed for a short distance bv a sunken road. As soon as Brown's men and the opposite shore. swinging was a their axes above their heads. The pioneers (axmen) of the brigade were now ordered forward to clear the way of obstructions on one side of the river. that commanded bv Lieutenant the front. and away he went. 1863. and. having been worn away to the depth of about three feet bv long usage. March lacing 17. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. the fire began to approach from the sunken road had to be sus- . Brown. intermingling with scene Browns men. the better to facilitate mounting and dismounting. the men therein but the General wished to exhaust cross before using it. At this time volunteers were called for by the General to carry the crossing. would have made short work of the defenses behind which the enemy crouched. and suggested thoughts of the the pioneers ancient Roman and his battle-ax. Of course. The axmen. The opportunity to volunteer for this duty was given to the regiment nearest him (the First Rhode Island). the word was given. them with brush in such a manner as to prevent horses from getting out of the ford at all. the picturesque one. all other means in efforts to his as the sound from guns would have apprised Lee in his camps of the precise place at which the cross- ing was being made. had their sabres fastened to their saddles. As they dashed forward in the rear of. under the command of Lieutenant D. Gilmore. which had now come up.200 HISTORY OF THR THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. until the whole command had passed over. and under its protection the axmen partially succeeded in making an opening to the ford. dismounted. M. indeed. The fire from the sunken road was now keeping down that from the pits. of both of which he was ignorant. as well as of the magnitude of the expedition. with a view to preventing from rising to take aim when they fired.

killed one of the enemy Turnbut three ing. to the right slightly. looking down on the men in the pit. and this gave the enemy an opportunity to increase his. but being as courageous The Lieutenant rode as his rider. First Rhode Island) was killed in the water. and made a hasty examination of the field. The horse of one of the three (Private Parker. some of the horses swimming. to files This they were already doing. as will be seen by the letter of Captain Moss. While this was going on the remainder of the division Some was moving into the position assigned. S FORD. pended. horses. the water being so deep as to flood the ammunition tion for the battery chests. as it was necessary to water the horses. The axmen obliqued its passing men came out on the enemy's side. up the bank and. delay was occasioned here. The remainder of this brigade pushed rapidly across the river. perceiving their inability commenced retiring toward their which were some distance in the rear. and he swam and waded ashore. Brown's horse was shot in many places. it is claimed. and his horse. His clothing was cut in many places. Satisfying himself that the proper place for the expected battle was farther from the river. the General galloped to the front with a detachment. This crossing was a very conspicuous act of gallantry on the part of Lieutenant Brown and his men. the regiments forming promptly on the south side. went at the obstructions with a will. a very conspicuous gray. and the officer's escape seems miraculous. and in almost any other service than our own would have been rewarded by some substantial or sentimental recognition. The ammunilonger hold their position. Troop G. 207 1863.CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March 17. and only those occupying the fording could be watered at one time. had five or six wounds. and emerging above the road. he waved his sword to the balance of his regiment. the whole . and. all the rest having been either killed or wounded or had their horses disabled. and a few arriving. going up stream. they broke through or over the ob- In the meantime the enemy. was carried over by the cavalrymen in their nose bags. fired a shot among them. bore up under him bravely. to be quoted hereafter. of the leading structions. and called on them to come on. They were pursued by the mounted men and twenty-five of them made prisoners. Of the eighteen men of Brown's platoon who entered the ford with him. after middle point.

with the Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry on his right. steadiness their quickly. These two regiments were now a considerable distance to the right of the road. command was moved forward on House The via the road to Culpeper Court on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. the advance of the enemy was discovered coming rapidly from This was what General Averell the direction of the railroad. unsteadiness. division. which was in front of the right of General Averell's line. properly protected by skirmishers. as we shall presently see it does not agree with the recollections of one of the historians of this event. Brandy Station. some personal exertion on the part It was but momentary. while the section in position also opened. and on its left the Fourth Pennsylvania. formed a little to the — — right and rear line of of the latter. requiring be well to keep in mind. and opened with effect regained as they from their carbines. now states in his report at a halt.208 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. Immediately to the right of the road the Fourth New York was formed. One section two guns of the battery was advanced and went into position between the left of the Third Pennsylvania and the right of the Fourth New York. Volume little XXV. he tells us in his report. while Reno commanded the reserves. the Third Pennsylvania next. in support of the two regiments on the right and the guns. this severe fire from the Confederate sharpshooters. and to which they were now ordered Under to reply. however. By his order Mcintosh deployed his small brigade. March 17. . these two regiments. a little retired. This was the only exhibition of nervousness or unsteadiness shown by our people on the south side of This is a statement which it will the Rappahannock this day. preceded by a fire mounted skirmishers. whose became very annoy- ing to the two regiments near the road. The enemy was now advancing heavy rapidly in line. Official Records). advancing the meanwhile toward the Wheatley house. had anticipated. 1863. while Reno. General Averell (page 49. composed of the detachments from the Regular cavalry. moved in "order of battle" as nearly as the conformation of the ground would permit. Part 1. With him was the battery After moving about three-fourths of a mile from the fording. Mcintosh having the right and Duffle the left. exhibited a of himself and staff to correct.

apparently. This charge was not delivered on anything. Lee's strength had not yet been developed. They cried out lustily. however. resulting in the enemy retiring with several empty saddles. According to Major McClellan. was made by about a regiment of the Confederates. the charging. too. joined by the Fifth. moved out against Averell's left. and hurrying them forward toward the buildings. but when they discovered they were heading into the regiment that was deployed across their front and using its carbines. This was without orders. clearing the ground from the charge of the Confederate left. and he was resolved at all hazards to try his hand at the charging. Gregg (Colonel Irvin). thus advancing the left of AverelFs general line). of obtaining possession of Wheatley's house and outbuildings. These two regiments were badly shaken up. 200. He had not long to wait. Immediately after the Virginians had passed Duffle's flank (who was at the time in column of fours moving to the front under orders to gain ground in that direction. gap in the stone and formed his leading regiment (his own. S FORD. just described. A few moments later came another charge. this was the Third Virginia Cavalry. they turned off toward the left and retired in the direction from which they had come. It was a "charge in air. his First. and would have been charged as they retired. on Mcintosh's right. This fence was perpendicular really to both lines of battle.CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March i". according to McClellan. who commanded the Sixteenth Pennsylvania. and fired their pistols at our people. Lee himself. General Stuart's historian. he passed through a fence. dismounted a squadron or two. with a view. on the other side of which was the First Rhode Island and Sixth Ohio in column of fours. and Fourth regiments. for as Averell advanced Mcintosh on his right up to and past Wheatley's house. First Rhode Island) in line. Second. but General Averell had no troops in position from which an effective charge could have been made besides. a brisk fight for the possession of them ensued. and there was plenty of time left in which to do little A after this a charge . It is presumed that the temptation to pitch into men who so boldly threw themselves at him was too much for the volatile Frenchman. They came on in fine 14 . with." They rode down along a fence. perhaps not so great a number. 1863.

1863. The First Rhode Island was well instructed and was kept well in hand. they were encouraged. and soon met the fire from Lee's battery of four guns. General Averell moved forward his whole command. Firing sometimes at a single squadron advancing. but it failed to recapture the men who had been made prisoners. It afterward transUnforpired that Stuart and Pelham were accidentally there. These guns were well served. Here came the first real sabre contest of the war in the East. as the ammunition was of very poor quality and the fuses thoroughly unreliable. two officers and eighteen men of Duffle's regiment were captured. so far as the behavior under it of the Rhode Islanders was concerned. and their projectiles were very annoying. and was heard. according to the drill book. . you Yanks. and were met at a short distance from our line by Duffle. and were now anxious to fix their pistols rather freely. Prisoners captured in the last charge in- formed us that Stuart himself. and fight like gentlemen. with his Chief of Artillery. they very frequently knocked out The firing from our own battery was discoura horse or man. As the enemy's line broke up and retired they were pursued a little too far by some of our men. point. taking up a position about one mile thrust. from the Confederates. they replied only with cut. but used was heard the shout remembered and spoken of by so many. and Lee withdrew from the field. for they knew that the sabre was doing its work. was on the field. too. This reinforcement to their charge was met by a charge of two or three squadrons from Mcintosh. parry. "Draw your pistols. The enemy had now been driven at every point. and as a squadron or two of fresh Confederates were thrown into the melee. and charged compactly. and from this we had reason to believe that more than Fitz Lee's Brigade would soon be before us." But as our men had established to their own satisfaction the fact that they were gentlemen. 17.210 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry March style. After a short delay. The shock would have pleased the most critical of old-school cavalrymen. aging. The Virginians. stood up well to their work. When the banter further to the rear. Soon after this meeting their status as cavalrymen. in which his front was cleared of the wounded of both sides and his regiments formed again.

who stood like a wall. Under cover of this he was seen moving forward his main line. The fields in front of these squadrons. and at a gentle trot swept down a slope at the which ran a stream that now separated us. and preparing for a charge with a very large part of his command. 211 1863.CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March 17. necessary General Averell to extend his and to this part of it was sent the Fifth United States Cavalry. he pressed forward. the brave Pelham did not leave the field alive. and await the approach of the enemy. through which the charging column was now coming. which had been posted on the outer edge of a small wood. Our whole front at this time was assailable at any point by a charge. Crossing this and forming again. and as the enemy's long lines moved forward all felt that the great struggle of the day was about to comfront The enemy's ployed in a heavy line. Before arriving within a hundred yards of its objective. and the rear rank had drawn their sabres. On came the Confederates. As we advanced formed in line it was discovered that their cavalry had been on both sides of their battery. More than half had halted or were proceeding in a half-hearted sort of way. all contributed to destroy the vim and enthusiasm of this charge. but the soft ground. In the squadrons of the Third Pennsylvania the front rank had advanced carbines. and their sharpIt was now found by line farther to the left. which I think was on the right of the Third. that it might be more effective. and a few only of the most daring . the charging column had lost its momentum. mence. deand they soon commenced advancing and firing rapidly. shooters opened on us again with effect. tunately for the artillery of the Confederacy. heading for the center of our right wing. while his battery of four guns seemed to redouble its energies. and the steadiness of the troops in their front. a scattering fire from some squadrons of the Sixteenth Pennsylvania. S FORD. and commenced sifting to pieces. were heavy. until this time held in reserve. and the horses were sinking from hoof to fetlock deep. foot of He led off with his left wing. The men were cautioned to reserve their fire. was again masked by his sharpshooters. and the whole Union line halted to await the attack. directing his course on the three squadrons of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.

not a magazine arm. he hurried up Reno's command the First United States Cavalry it having been in reserve until this moment. composed of the * The writer of this article was one of them and particularly distinguished himself in so doing. however. leave as competent to give without orders from himself or some one designated by him such orders. from the front rank of the Third were given with terrible effect. had made contact with that regiment. fiftv on the best horses. that troops once assigned to a position in line would. Had this charge. with the intention of it Now was that the volleys / — — — — making a counter-charge on as soon as he It is first the right flank of the enemy's column. which drew from the Division Commander a very emphatic order. . as necessary here to explain that previous to this and on the field after before intimated. As soon as General Averell had perceived that it was the purpose of the enemy to charge on this part of the line. and of which. some of Averell's people. in an issue of a few days after the event. goes to show that the efforts of our men were fully appreciated by the enemy. and with one accord they say that they never passed through such a fearful fire as thinned our ranks in that charge. and from the ordinary Sharps carbines. "There were men in our lines who were engaged at Malvern Hill. it is presumable that the effect is overstated." As this was the fire of cavalry mounted. under no circumstances. at Gaines's Mill.212 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY March spirits. 17. and placed it in position some distance about one hundred yards to the left of and slightly in advance of the Third Pennsylvania. in many of Jackson's battles. arrived within from twenty-five to yards of the objective. it is difficult it was to obey this order literally. The Committee. too anxious to flesh their maiden sabres. The article from the 1'hig.'' had indulged in some unauthorized charging. says the Richmond Whig. To show how required. 1863. This order prevented the Third Pennsylvania from charging at the moment the enemy had it exhausted himself. and swayed by the intoxicating enthusiasm of "thundering hoofs. as only necessary' to state that individual officers* and men rode forward into the ranks of the Confederates and engaged in hand-to-hand contests. crossing the river.

strong mounted skirmish line. third position. which was hurrying into position. the Fifth United States Cavalry. Prisoners captured from this column stated that the charge was led by General Stuart in person. both from its wild cheering and the numbers in the column. and repulsed. and by Reno. While the events narrated above were happening." Reno would have been precisely in the right position to have prevented them. except flying detachments and two guns. It was better managed than that on the right. which were on its right and rear. From this point there was no enemy visible. and was driven nearer home. his ( ) . with severe loss to the enemy.CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March First. with his other two regiments (the Second and Fourth Virginia). driving back a Third. and the enemy were driven entirely from the field. estimated by our officers at seven hundred or eight hundred we are told by Major McClellan that these two regiments were stronger than the other three charged on Averell's left. and Fifth Virginia Cavalry. the right of the center. It was gallantly met by the Fifth Regulars. as seemed inevitable when it started. who was now driven from this. from retiring to form again. been delivered. after having been broken on the troops in their front. with his squadrons of the First United States. at all points. under Walker. 213 1863. and not have ended surprisingly ''in air. did not return but reached a point nearly one mile in advance. the objective being the battery. where he was joined by the whole command. Lee now. with the reserves. to the line at all. and with the Third and Fourth Pennsylvania. the Sixth Ohio. numbers being captured and wounded. S FORD. The order for the Third Pennsylvania to charge now came. and carbines were dropped and sabres drawn. 17. Reno. was pushing forward on the extreme left as rapidly as the deep ditches which traversed the fields here would permit. This left General Averell's command victorious on all points. Not a foot of ground once gained had been yielded by any part . the field would have been cleared and these organizations lost to the Confederacy But the abortive effort of the enemy to reach our line in the face of the withering fire of the Third Pennsylvania rendered the preparations being made for the counter-charge of no avail.

having marched thirty miles over heavy roads the day previous. with a dangerous river between. had effected the crossing of a deep and rapid stream in the face of most formidable obstructions and determined opposition by Being an isolated enterprise of a single small cavalry the enemy division. To reach him the Union cavalry was now 5. 1863.: 214 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. who was the true objective. in this expedition across the river. making many charges. and unsupported on this occasion by any co-operation of the army. Undoubtedly command could have gone to Culpeper without serious opposition. No pursuit could have been effectual. The whole division retired across the river that evening with- out molestation. were much fagged. could easily have kept out of the way. with the following note Dear Fitz : people. the bag of coffee for General Lee. had been realized. The Confederate cavalry had been met with field about equal force on a well and had been driven from it. and rapidly shifting from place to place on the field over soft ground. and the dead were buried. known to him. The prisoners and wounded were carried across There were two officers so the river. March of his this line. Reno remained at the farthest point reached by our It and until the field was cleared. without being assailed by the enemy. 17. and on the follow- 214 . whose horses had been weakened by an arduous and engrossing picket duty throughout the winter. and encamped at Morrisville. badly wounded that they could not be taken from the field. but strange to us. Here's your coffee. not much of daylight was left. and thev were left at a farm house with a surgeon and some medical I have since been told by General Averell that he left supplies. The full result hoped for on the enemy's own ground. But why should it? Lee. from which it was separated by a distance of over thirty miles. and seven miles the morning before the action commenced. and after that having been engaged directly with the enemy or in support. The horses.30 o'clock. it is difficult to imagine any sense of duty which would have prompted its commander to have gone farther. How is your horse ? Averell.

twenty-one hundred men. and from this time to the end of the war the prowess of their antagonists was. feeling not confined This was to the regiments engaged. First Rhode Island.: CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March 17. portions of the First and Fifth United Fourth Xew and Martin's (New York) Horse Battery. and captured. Reserve Brigade (Captain Reno). The esprit de corps and morale were greatly benefited. too. All told. Killed Wounded Captured 1 Officers 3 11 Men 8 77 33 Total killed. and Shepherdstown — The troops all go to prove the correctness of this deduction. 215 1863. Official Records of the Rebellion. upon the Confederates. ing day returned to the army. Williamsport. for they also had been taught a lesson. Upperville. Brigade (Colonel Duffle). Fourth. held in high esteem. wounded. Aldie. to ability own put it mildly. Second Brigade (Colonel Mcintosh). cession during the The engagements which followed each other in rapid sucsummer of this year Brandy Station. Third. bringing with it an experience which thrilled the country and assured the cavalry arm of the service that the days of unjust criticism of its operations had come to an end. Horses 71 87 133 12 . The losses as reported. The most substantial fidence in its result of this fight was the feeling of con- which the volunteer cavalry gained. Kelly's Ford was the making of our cavalry. the fights at Boonsboro. engaged on the side of the Confederates have already been named. S FORD. and Sixteenth Pennsylvania. were as follows States Cavalry Confederates. the work on the right flank at Gettys- — burg. and now recorded in Volume XXV. The Union troops as follows: First consisted of parts of the following regiments. organized temporarily for tactical purposes into three brigades. Middleburg. Sixth Ohio. York. The effect was apparent. but was imparted to the whole of our cavalry. commanded by Lieutenant Brown.

and the to Kelly's and you can have them. As his work is one of the most important contributions to the history of the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia that has yet made its appearance. no report . It must also be remarked that of the three officers left behind by Lee in his raid on Averell's pickets a few weeks before. other one recovered and was sent to Camp Chase. in his official report to his chief General Averell. his facts stated. Killed Wounded Captured Officers 1 12 2 Men . Major H. wounded.. except at the fordings. the undue prominence given it. 1863. and an utter failure on the part of the Union troops engaged. the literary style forcibly and general character of his book such as to give it a place in most public libraries. where they ought to be. it may be interesting to state that when the two cavalry officers who were left on the field had sufficiently recovered to permit of their removal. McClellan. General Fitz Lee sent a flag of truce to AverelFs picket line. wounded. two men . as well as his manner of treating it. saying "Your two officers are well enough to go home. and missing Horses. in the "Life and Campaigns of Major- and as to be of : General J." officers went to their homes. E. three five men. Send an ambulance This was done. loss small. March 17.2lb HISTORY OF THli THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. I have felt that it will not be well to allow his statements to go unchallenged where they appear to me to be incorrect. The officers loss at the ford was : Killed. As showing the humane feeling which often actuated the leaders on both sides. gives rise to the suspicion that he feels under some compulsion to explain away the result." devotes over twelve pages to a descrip- tion of this contest. it When we consider that from his standpoint seemed but a slight affair. two of them died and were placed The in coffins and sent under flags of truce across the lines. of this affair. B. Union Troops. 5 38 20 78 Total killed. Stuart. his deductions skillfully drawn. . B. and fifteen horses killed or so badly wounded no use.

and probably was carelessly its made it but on account of the prominence of distinguished author. just one thousand more than he had. however. and is frequently quoted and paraded by Major McClellan.J . 21 17. of their adversaries that there were at least twice as man}' ship. the very last sentence he states it to be "less than eight hundred. Lee. in a manner to leave the impression on the minds This. However this ma}' be. would be an eloquent commentary on Fitz Lee's generalparticipator in that fight. since it is a part of the same report "The defeat was and the enemy. in his report. were handled in itself. He claims that Fitz Lee s command that day. any report from this brigade that gives the number of men in it at A this precise date. 1863. now in charge of the War Record Office. forwarding that of Fitz Lee. All agree that five regiments and a four-gun battery were . remarks that it was the "most numerous eight hundred I ever saw. This of is unfortunate. though he is careful to state that of his adversary at. something seems has awakened the ire of this have occurred that writer. I "From what I have learned of Lee's position and from what knew of his character. E. CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March says ' S FORD. vainglorious demonstration. does not state his own strength." General Lee. broken and demoralized. I expected him to meet me on the road to : his camp. who exhibits a feeling in his account of this battle which one does not expect to find in the work of an impartial historian. It is." This seems to have been construed as a slur on General Lee by the author of the sentence. in round numbers." This estimate may not be exact. Major Davis. consisted of only eight hundred men. The only mention made last of the number In men he had occurs in the sentence of General Stuart's report to General R. exclusive of the If this be so they battery. open to grave suspicion. retired under cover of darkness to his place of refuge (the main army). an experienced and coolheaded officer. and he proceeds to roundly to berate General Averell and to belittle his conduct of this affair. has kindly made diligent search for. seems about to be passing unchallenged into history. having abandoned in defeat an expedition undertaken with boasting and that contains such glaring inaccuracies as this : decided. but has failed to find." The quotation is verbatim.

he admits that twenty-five men were captured there. and were captured by mounted men. the number in five regiments. 1863. These men were all taken while running from the pits to their horses in rear. were but eleven or twelve men in the rifle-pits at the fording during the contest for it. On page 207 he gives prominence to Fitz Lee's statement be given. at Provi- dence. the above. there would remain forty-two. on page 217. 1863.2l8 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY." published by the Sol- and Sailors' Historical Society of I. brochure on "Kelly's Ford.) Subtracting the Ford from the supposed "less than eight hundred" one hundred and thirty-three officers and men and one hundred and seventy horses we perceive that there must have note on page 225 of losses at Kelly's — — been an unusual recruitment in these few days. (See also Major McClellan's book. before the as In the light of numbers given by Stuart can be received even approximately correct. R. numbered fifteen hundred men. who saw many others that there escaping. these organizations were found to contain forty and fifty were not in said that four squadrons were the fight. fourteen days after Kelly s Ford. some explanation of this extra- ordinary condition of numerical demoralization should certainly The four squadrons on picket are the only absentees which Fitz Lee pretends to account for. on picket duty and Deducting eight companies from fifty. later on. March there. little am indebted to Lieutenant B. This information was obtained from his monthly return for March 31. In his Chancellorsville address. It is in reply to a letter addressed to him by Captain . On other occasions not remote from this period. Rhode Island. and these others are not confined solely to the men who rode under the National colors that day. General Fitz Lee states that his brigade. men per troop. and. which was composed of the same organizations. referring to the battle of Chancellorsville. For the following letter from the Confederate I officer who comJ. Eight hundred men in forty-two troops would mean nineteen men only to each troop. There are many statements in the account given by Major McClellan of this fight which are not corroborated by the recollections of others who were there. It is 17. manded Cook's diers' there that morning.

for few regiments would have undertaken it under the heavy fire that was poured upon them that cold morning. and harmonizes well with which. making in all one hundred and forty-five men. Captain Co. Providence. giving find to out his force. 1863. facts. to rhetorical and unpretending character of that whole document. Captain Breckinridge stated before the Court of Inquiry that he did not fire. so all the execution that was done was due to me. Fourth Va. my papers about the time of the surrender at Appomattox that I ing of the 17th of March. K.. 2IO. be fully appreciated. To Captain George N. Wm. about one-half mile back from the ford. should be compared with the efforts of his antagonists of that and flamboyant Buckingham Court House. 1886. that I left as a to the rifle-pits near the ford. Your stated to having lost all Court House. The charge on your part was a gallant one. but am sure he must have had sixty men with him. Cav. First Rhode Island Cavalry. five men. A. R.. 1863. CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March Bliss. 17. Moss. Gen- eral Averell's estimate in his official report of the battle — —eighty day: is a very modest one. Very truly. June My Dear Captain: hasten to reply. Va. Let us see : this officer was a Captain. I am dependent almost as to occurrences which took place during the war. letter of the 20th inst. 22. entirely As on memory I and I you some time ago. and the record of the dav shows that there were field officers with that . is just received. men . on the road to Brandy Station. as I fired at him more than at his brought him down the rider would be helpless besides. inferentially at least. and may be useful which seem hard to get in establishing at in a manner more direct. the rider had challenged my admiration by his courageous bearing under the trying circumstances. taking with me eighty-five is My memory now carried with me to Kelly's Ford. This letter Bliss. S FORD. I. speaks for itself. I have often wondered how it was that I could have missed the gray Captain Breckinridge was already in position. feeling sure that if I Browns). about ninety on the mornguard with the horses in the edge of the wood. me no opportunity do not remember what force he officially reported. and I horse (referring to Lieutenant rider. your friend. sharpshooters the truthful made therein. asking In view of the statements for his recollections about the matter. being short of ammunition.

only. a suspicion of this "wavering" or attempt at "flight. or has had since. No officer in that column had at that time. which equals sixteen hundred and eighty men. But no outlet through the stone fence could be found. except at the end of Let us be generous and assume that there were but forty men (average) to the troop throughout the brigade. He it therefore must probably had a Captain's command troops. and the utmost exertions of were required to keep their men from flight.220 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY March regiment. his arrival there. and for his failure to attempt the punishment of his assailant when he ceased his pursuit of him and withdrew This is especially so when we consider that across the river. The enemy's Page 210. at most. If made by it the most General Lee's comis mand was so abnormally reduced on this occasion. 1863. for duty which is about the average mounted. Here of eighty and ninety men respectively. holders from this squadron had been left in rear. in the manner prescribed in the drill book. as is intimated on page 207 of Major we have two squadrons forty and forty-five men number found present severe campaigns. and the regiment turned across the field to its left and moved down toward Wheatley's It is ice house." If the Major is not laboring under a misapprehension about this. seems. remark- able that he should have made no mention its of it in a report which bears the marks of carefulness in preparation. line the Federal officers wavered throughout its length. This comports with the estimates that day conservative of General Averell's officers. delivering the fire of their pistols. then this squadron had eighty men in it. it would have been the very best excuse he could have made to his chief for the ground he lost that day. it strikes me that this would have ." hoped its reception here was as cool as it had been warm when going in the opposite direction. which. McClellan's book. finding. 17. "The regiment (Third Virginia) swept down the line of stone fence which separated them from the enemy in the wood beyond. he "carried' with him to the ford and got eighty-five of them in the rifle-pits. If horse- another command consisting of not less than sixty men. would have been a squadron of two on and these. and we have forty times forty-two. to the troop.

B.CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY'S FORD.Vice-President of the United States. March 17." Page 212. pursued by the First Rhode Island with great spirit. Had he not at this moment had his fence with him. Cook. says : "The First Rhode Island Cavalry went at them with a will. It was the fences." lan all this fighting oc- may not have intended it. But we are led to presume. hardly waiting to feel the sabre. previously quoted from. Of this charge Lieutenant J. throughout this account. The Major's friends may have been so preoccupied in looking for the "wavering" which did not materialize that they could not perceive the broken wall. this is Though Major McClelThe map misleading. among them being Major Breckinridge. who was captured by Lieutenant Fales. they were not engaged in looking for a hole in that wall. with which the Union commander persistently kept himself surrounded. led by Captain Gould. "It should not be forgotten that curred in the vicinity of Kelly's Ford. bv halting and pouring its pistol fire across the fence. which is "wavering throughout" is easily assisted to flight. The last we "Yanks" saw of them. stone and other. that it was not the Yankee horsemen who gave Major McClellan's friends any uneasiness that day. Volume XXV page 60. which took many prisoners. who gave as an excuse for quitting the trail he had been following. we may presume that there would not have been left enough of the "certainly not less than three thousand horsemen with a battery" (see Fitz Lee's Report. They retreated in disorder. a cousin of the ex. menced. which was certainly there. the scale that Lee's opposite page 207 in his last position own book shows by was still was fully three miles artillery from where the fighting comhalf a mile further back. A few moments later the First Rhode Island and Sixth Ohio moved through a wide opening in this same fence into the field through which Major McClellan ing. that it was getting too fresh. It seemed to us to be a case similar to that of the young bear hunter. proceeded to charge and rout another column which came from the same direction as did the last. and his . s friends had been wildly cavort- and. forming line. its been a good time for his regiment to have stopped sweeping. 221 1863. Official Records) for the remainder of this terrible eight hundred to line A have made a light lunch of.

is diffi- a hostility and temper shown. the cause of which cult to comprehend. Our author becomes absolutely spiteful at and presents the singular anomaly of one of the parties to a "difficult)''' retiring from the arena whipped." This is perhaps true. in kept to rally on "A year later in Lees whole which he states no reserve was the war Lee would hardly have ventured on such a charge. indeed. the report of increased strength. after describing a charge of the last charge he made. could have swept that field beyond the hope of recovery Wherefore? It was already beyond that. 222 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. The difficulties with which information of the strength and thoroughly. conduct. that the information is false. Listen to : He : . "He had a large to rout or destroy Fitz Lee's Brigade" force in reserve. Averell had no further use for it. ing. 213. When the night patrols — — : or pickets report that large campfires have been seen where the General knew that no camps existed but a day or two previous. but muttering imprecations on the successful party for not beating him more times. . and when he went home he left it there. worthy of consideration. one on either side of " the road. or on the railroad between that is . and suggests the possibility That the enemy should have had a brigade or more of infantry at Culpeper. and two fresh regiments. 1863. It was not recovered. position of the enemy in a community where all residents are his friends is obtained has been previously remarked. This often mislead- When the scouts and pickets of an expedition into the enemy's country they are the General's eyes and ears report that drums have been heard beating.. Military operations are based on the best obtainable information. him "We cannot excuse General Averell's ought to have gone to Culpeper Court House" and again "Now. It was presented to them. In his criticisms of the Union General's conduct of this there is affair. and the statethat for such information ment has been made we had is to rely almost wholly on personal observations. and he might have added that a year later he and Stuart would hardly have ventured to make just such reports as they did of this little battle. that infantry is in the vicinity the other. 17. there was a chance for General Averell and. there are two most probable inferences for him to draw One. March Page line. He : says.

" etc. In the vicinity of the chiefs the air is laden with rumors. 223 1863. or under the glare of that which right my moving towards my rear . in view of the reports that had been made to him. have been. To do this without error always. and was done by his order to create the impression that help was coming to his side. referring to General Averell's report. probably bringing up reinforcements. Every particle of information Major McClellan's experience gathered on any part of the lines. It is more than hinted that he may have deemed this quite as necessary to cheer cars on the railroad it The running of General Lee has said since that his own men as to demoralize Averell's. on page 216. such an impression had taken possession of General AverelFs mind. or by patrols or scouts in the neighborhood. he would If have been blameless. view. Hostile criticisms on military operations in the light of subsequently-obtained information. was heard by many. and the bridge over the Rappahannock. as has been seen that he accomplished satisfactorily the only purpose he had General Stuart's reports and orders on the occasion and of the affair lead Major McClellan's description entire rebellion one to suppose is that they thought Averell's purpose to have been to crush the and put an end to the war. therefore. CAVALRY FIGHT AT KELLY March 17. as a staff officer during a war which engrossed the attention of the civilized world for more than four years must have familiarized him with the uncertainty of information obtained on a battlefield. if That a mistake he only meant to defeat Fitz Lee he could. formulate grains of truth from the chaff of and give the proper orders is not possible for even the greatest. to draw rapid conclusions. is hurried to these points. Major McClellan. he rings all the changes in startling italics on "imaginary drums beating retreat and tattoo.. it Whatever his opinion on this subject it may in did not affect his action that day. distance to Imaginary infantry seen at a Imaginary cars heard running on the road in rear of the enemy. would not have been wonderful. S FORD. Imaginary earthworks and rifle-pits which could not be easily turned. does himself injustice when. To quickly sift the rumor and exaggeration is the most difficult task for the generals and their advisers. and that he did.

224 HISTORY i [" ) THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY March r~. are not. damaging. It is rare commander in war that be at the commander of the attacking forces knows all that would Even interesting to him about the defense. Lee's horses were quite as fresh as Averell's. T863. . this late day I fail to perceive what good purpose could have been gained by further pursuit. and he could have kept out of the way indefinitely. could not possibly have been in the possession of the criticised. and vice versa. as a rule.

when the skirmishers commenced popping away at the advancing enemy. following up with a charge. and returned to camp safely at 4 a. I reported for special duty as directed. on Sunday. etc. and the First Rhode Island and Fourth Pennsylvania were ordered against them. evidently about to charge the guns. found no suspicious parties. when a large body advanced at a sharp trot.— : CHAPTER XV Winter of 1862-63 on Potomac Creek (Continued). It was a magnificent spectacle. and be there at 10 p. AND RECONNOITERING CHANCELLORSVILLE AND STONEMAN's RAID NIGHT ATTACK NEAR ELY'S FORD. chief of General Averell's staff. but I arrived at the house at 9. KELLY S FORD (CONTINUED) PICKETING. when he sent back word to General Averell that he had carried out his instructions to the very letter. the family had gone to bed. We were massed just above the ford. m. on Monday. March 18. the rebels became belligerent and drove in our skirmishers rapidly on the reserves. ready for the charge. and the whole force ordered to advance. On the other side of a wide plain the rebels were drawn up. So it struck . We didn't become generally engaged until the whole force was on the other side of the river. m. — March 17 May 25. ten miles beyond our pickets. The ground was everything that could be wished. He was picked up more dead than alive. Captain Newhalls account of the cavalry Ford" is graphic and entertaining battle of "Kelly s "Potomac Run. and surrounded it. while forcing it. The artillery opened upon them. understood to be a rendezvous for spies. The crossing was admirably managed.. The guns were unlimbered in an instant. but he still lives. The night was fearfully dark. Our passage at the ford was disputed.30 p. and the first volley changed the aspect of affairs. bushwhackers. before the shock should mix To minds the lessening distance didn't appear to suggest any 15 225 . There were several men killed and one wounded. Major Chamberlain. m. About midway in a narrow strip of woods. SCOUTING. We were rapidly deployed into line. was shot twice in the face before a crossing was effected. The movement was anticipated. things. At 8 o'clock we started on our little raid. His wounds are very bad. which we did in fine style. and gave us a chance to push beyond the woods. where we formed in column of echelon. who their halted a moment to look. and was ordered to take fifty picked men. and carried to camp. the rebels. 1863. and proceed to the house of Mr..

My squadron. closely followed. which lasted from sunrise till about dark. Harry did his whole duty handsomely. seemed suddenly to become an object of great ill-feeling: scarcely a man but had dirt thrown over him. McClellan of the fight at Kelly's Ford.. Colonel Duffie. We held our carbine fire till we could almost see the whites of their eyes. leaving an open but not dangerous Private James Farto wound. Harry acted as Adjutant of our regiment during the engagement. for almost half a mile. A piece of shell had passed through the fleshy part of the buttock. ley. marching across their fire. Rebel loss still greater. and plied us with questions regarding the wounds which were apparent on many of the men and some of the horses. fair field the rebel cavalry can't stands ours. so they ! 17. and General Averell looked on his old regiment admiringly. March change for the better. F. resolution to clear out unanimously adopted the wise but ignominious This party was headed by the immortal Stuart this. but with worse success than at first. We are both well and in good spirits. we recrossed the river and passed the night at Morrisville. but very fortunately escaped with only a flesh wound. We lost six officers killed and wounded and twenty-three men thirty more were captured. but in spite of away they went. etc. of Company all way back cared for him until he fully recovered. by the men under command pierced the rebel line. At last they charged down in three columns. also Charley Treichel's. and tenderly and rode him afterwards on many a hard day's march and tour of duty. The Secesh tried twice more in this neighborhood. as we wended our way through the camps of the infantry The latter had heard the cannonading. Some were wonderfully fortunate in their escape. and Fitzhugh Lee . 1863. Charley had his leg a little in the way. and more than ever sure that in a . led his the but their owners would not part with them. but we had it all our own way with them.226 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY." Colonel Mcintosh was proud of the Third. the brave fellows were lost. When we read the long and detailed account given by Major H. and study his ex- . and away they went and we after them. About this time Major White's horse was killed. becoming more easily and worse demoralized each time. Again their whole line was ordered forward. The wound on the horse which Colonel Mcintosh was riding was especially noticeable. and again they tried for the guns. Our ammunition being nearly spent. and though I say it. however. which now opened upon us vigorously.. which became the head of the column. Several horses were shot but not a man hurt. camp. B. Some of the men's horses also received small injuries. a portion of whose but being unsupported. This rout was well covered by their artillery.

Rained a little Broke all camp this at 7 o'clock. Marched day . General Averell with his Cavalry Division was engaged in the important duty of divert- army by marching around to its Orange and Louisa Court Houses and in the direction of Gordonsville. April 13. in the best of all our camps. The candid and terse form of his statements commend themselves. — Monday. until later in the spring. map of the field. April 13 moveexpedition men- We have been — is under marching orders and we last night. which was known as "Stoneman's Raid. we feel satisfied that we have not magniThe account he gives is very full. although on claiming satisfactory results for his side. for he seems too good and true a man to of the contests of the cavalry are complete many have been against us. : AND RECONNOITERING. blankets." allowed to take the following extracts from it April 12 Sunday. although it inflicted great damage upon the ing the attention of the rebel rear. This march was not as fruitful of results as was hoped for. in the destruction of Lieutenant W F. he insists and helpful to a proper understanding of them. . morning Clear and mild. SCOUTING. and we almost wish he had been upon our side. We have one mule to carry feed. One valise for each officer is carried in a etc. Xothing of special importance happened during the remainder of our sojourn on Potomac Creek. The regiment break camp to-morrow at daylight. . and with an abundance of forage for our horses we were content. 227 March cellent fied its 17 1863. wagon. south of property and the severance of their railroad communications between Richmond and Lee's army. As a preliminary to the great battle which General Hooker fought early in May at Chancellorsville. importance. rebels. He has given to history in his "Campaigns of Stuart's Cavalry" one of the His accounts best and most truthful of all the records of the war. During the winter months there were several welcome visits from the Paymaster plenty of clothing and equipments was ever ready on demand at the Regimental Quartermaster's everything needed to cultivate a headache could be purchased at the Sutler's.— PICKETING. Potter's Diary gives an outline of the ments of the Third previous to and during the tioned.

Captain Newhall is on Colonel Mcintosh's staff. and All feel pretty well last on the other side of the river are most beautiful meadows. and we were obliged to keep walking up and down that we might be warm. Will probably cross the river to-day. The first two shots fell short. We went from there to Bealton and encamped for the night. Our camp is very muddy. In the afternoon we were sent down to the river to cover the crossing of Colonel Davis. we were afraid of our blankets catching went down to the river other side. We find shells and solid shot lying around here. It has — rained hard April 16 all day. The ford is badly situated. Major Robinson commands our squadron. His rear guard was fired upon by the enemy. Got back at 9 in evening. All Grazed our horses this morning and then began to saddle up and move out. and no fires last night. Our horses are on half rations. Then moved on and came up with our division at Bealton's Station on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. and from there to Washington. and encamped in woods close to it. We were detailed to support Tidball's Battery. halted and got our breakfast. Were fixed tolerably well last night. the Road from Hartwood. Found the April 15 Wednesday. April 13-18. About 8 a. and in good spirits. There is no doubt but what they are well prepared to meet us if we attempt the crossing. but hurt no one. Just as we were saddling the enemy began shelling us. I walked down to the view of the other side. Wilson is with him. 1863. and is defended on the other side by six earthworks. This is the ground from which General Pope retreated to Manassas. m. and six miles out turned off to Drove the enemy's pickets before us. Did not rain last night. . sleep On Had no picket all night. Captain Brown evening and was wounded by a rebel on the The country here is very fine. who had been across the river.228 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. we rejoined the column. Rained off and on during the night. —Thursday. Don't care how soon we leave it. This ford is called Beverly. — The one river this afternoon rather strong. out the YVarrenton left. only fire. April 18 — Saturday. Our squadron went out on picket in the evening and remained all night. A heavy frost. Clear and enemy's pickets in several places. At 4 this morning mounted and left camp at Bealton Station. April 17 Friday. directly opposite the ford is and had a fine quiet last night. Marched up the river about five miles. and feed scarce at that. The third went over and the next two dropped in our camp fifteen yards from my squad and burst. Cloudy. Raining since 2 o'clock this morning. All ready to start. We have had nothing but two biscuits since we left camp. They hurried us some little. April 14 Tuesday. — fine. Clearing off. It was quite cold. Cloudy with occasional glimpses of sunshine. I went out on picket with fifteen men to a place called Germantown. particularly for farming. I ride over to headquarters and take meals with Captain Newhall.

His place does not appear to have been disturbed by either army. Formerly there was a bridge across to Warrenton. and I have not had anything to eat for two days.30 in Must Crossed one creek which helps form the Rappahannock. m. April 19 Sunday. The country each side of the railroad here is level and the fields afford pretty good grazing. a post A All quiet last night. It has been a beautiful place. Has been suppose the water is too high in the river for us to cross. Grazed our horses in afternoon. Still raining. and it is hard to keep awake. Men tired and sleepy. bank very water deep and running rapidly. This ford is bad. in the evening. Reported to Major Turner and then to Colonel Mcintosh. try and get another. Cleared off at 9 a. but it has been destroyed. roads very bad. April 23 — Thursday. Rode down to Sulphur Springs. we are camp about 5. has a number of negroes planting corn. Captain Porter. A turnpike runs from the Springs It has been quite a place in times past. down at the river. Raining and no prospect of clearing off. All quiet last night. and the fording is bad. April 20 Monday. Has rained all day. m. I don't see why I am not relieved. Has been raining all night. Has been raining all day. We the third night Rained hard all night. Major Turner lies only a short distance from me with a squadron or more. steep. — Forage and ammunition was brought up to-day and to-morrow we will most probably move. and has been a beautiful warm It has been a very warm day. SCOUTING. but to it. It is on post for them. . Light clouds floating about obscure the sunlight. Went into Moved My horse will not a dull day. land good. the evening. The men are out of rations. April 22 — Wednesday. There are some fine farms about here. April 21 I — Tuesday. Porter's white frost covers the ground. 229 19-24. April 24 — Friday. Sulphur Springs are close to the Rappahannock and around them is quite a village with two large hotels. which is better than either of the others. The river is rising rapidly. after 8 and removed it at daylight. relieved by a Lieutenant and fifteen men of Fourth New York. Below the Springs is Fox's Ford. There were two It was shelled by the rebels when Pope was there. out about 9 a. Eleven o'clock a. No disturbance last have no shelter and consequently are pretty well soaked. The grounds very pretty. Have removed my reserve to a stone shanty for better shelter. but now is in ruins. whose farm lies at the ford. endure long. night. Warrenton is northeast from here about four miles. we are not surprised at that. a distance of six miles. and I am slightly damp. Ford. large hotels and several smaller ones. day. At 4 this evening I go with thirty men to picket Porter's Ford near Sulphur Springs. It is about one mile above Sulphur Springs Ford. 1863. I wish we could get a mail. becoming quite used — Raining. the river at this place. m.PICKETING. April AND RECONNOITERING. Had Clear and cold. The cavalry has fallen back to Warrenton Junction. Our camp is in the neighborhood of White Sulphur Springs.

Cloudy. It is about thirty-one miles Captain Walsh with four officers arrived this evening from to Alexandria. all the eastern slope of all Cedar Mountain. We have yesterday's paper in camp. will get a mail to-day as clear. Brigade andria.— 230 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. The division camps are there. one on the court house. has two spires. Started about 8 in the and advanced in three columns. It is surrounded by hills and the Orange & Alexandria Railroad runs along one side. April 27 Monday. and thought he could see the dawn of a prosperous day when all their wishes would be realized. Took a bath in the creek. soon drove them. is near Warrenton Junction. April 28 Tuesday. Three or four April 30 —Thursday. Brought a number of horses. at Has rained most all night. morning for Culpeper. halted on Cedar Mountain battlefield. Clear and windy. Four p. The sun is delightfully warm. Clear and warm. have had a touch of rheumatism.. Just arrived. April 24 May i. beautiful. Had quite a skirmish in the evening. and with squadron front. I — April 26 — Sunday. On the next day. Beautiful and Hope we or two. Sherwood received last night a commission as surgeon in the Twenty-seventh Pennsylvania We have feed issued for Infantry. The minister said in his sermon a better time was coming. five thousand strong. formerly Sergeant of Company K. m. I was glad to rejoin my regiment. Somewhat cool last we have been expecting one for night. none for me. 1863. — — night. five days from this morning. Broke camp at 11 o'clock at Rained this afternoon. Drilled to-day on foot and mounted. Captain Walsh has gone to Dumfries to bring down as many men and officers as he can raise. human bones lay uncovered. Quite a party of officers Dumfries. Last night was fine and clear. Our parties are ranging . Captain Walsh got back last night. Cannonading duty part of the night as officer of the guard and day at the river. and cars running to and from Alex- April 25 Saturday. but surrounded by hills covered with pines. Culpeper 12 noon.. but went down the river to Kelly's Ford. April 29 — Wednesday. trenches filled with May 1 — Friday. Six p. first in one limb and then in another. Are near Bealton where we arrived about 3 this morning and got two hours' sleep. Found the enemy in small numbers with one or two pieces of artillery. evacuated the place last night. Encamped last night on Clear. under my tent most all the afternoon. came down with him. m. Dr. Did not cross Rappahannock Ford. Met no opposition. The enemy. on the march for Rappahannock Ford. about three-quarters of a mile apart. The country around the ford is level. Clouds floating about. The view as we approached the town was It is a very pretty town. Morning damp and misty. The whole army is moving and a great part of it has crossed at this ford. a day went up to Warrenton Church this morning. Lay Station. Lieutenant Haslett. with five guns. We are all very sorry to lose him.

m. night. Crossed the Rappahannock at United States Ford on pontoon bridge. We made a long march yesterday. Received commission as First Lieutenant and — am assigned to 6 Company K. stopping on the railroad to feed and let the men get breakfast. The cannonading has mostly ceased. when the Eleventh Corps walked in and took their guns. Broke camp about 3. S RAID. and encamped five miles this side. land very the night and Sunday. * This was the Battle of Chancellorsville. About 3 p.30 this morning the rebels commenced some one or other.30 a. Remained in this camp. We stopped to graze our horses. and marched through Falmouth. Passed a miserable night. May down 2 — Saturday. Moved off the Rapidan about 7 a. etc. shelling reports are afloat.. and in a short time we incessantly. May s Tuesday. and our 3 is May — horses are getting weak from want of feed. Cannon sound not far off. Various May 4 — Monday. Have got a darkey with a horse. Clear. commenced to rain and blow. Wagon and ambulance trains are passing to and fro. m. The enemy thought we wished to preserve it if it so they fired it first. The view from the hill where the Colonel has his quarters is grand. m. farms. grand. Captain Wright. About 3 p. The cannon are heard at intervals. and kept it up for about two hours. General Averell has been relieved of his command. we started for our old camp on the Potomac Creek. Lieutenant-Colonel Doster commands the brigade. and marched over part of the battle ground. The army was fighting all of yesterday hard at it this morning. Clear and cool. Clear and mild. We have burned the railroad bridge across the Rapidan. m. where we arrived at 5 o'clock. Saw two beautiful fine. then encamped. Clear. Cannon incessantly roaring. 23 May the country in search of forage. will be in it hot and heavy. sixty miles from Richmond. crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford. Broke camp about 10 a. At 4. The camp is flooded. Captain Wright put his fly up over the site of our former house and we were fixed for the night.1 CHANCELLORS V1LLE — STONEMAN 1863. and every gun sounds as The echo from the mountains is most were a dozen. passed through some beautiful country and through a deserted village called Stevensburg. We encamped for on the banks of the river.* The cannon and musketry are roaring There is a big battle being fought now. m. Broke camp about I p. Our squadron immediately went down to the river as skirmishers and drove them back. and General Hooker's army has come back to this side of the river. 1-6. . which caused some confusion. Got six days' rations and three days' forage. with some mist. m. Rained hard all May — Wednesday. had fires made and were just about to sleep when a volley from the Sixteenth Virginia was poured into us. and continued all night. All quiet last night. and still continues..

the Third Pennsylvania in front. when a rattle of musketry was heard close by and the air became filled with bullets. with a number upon it. and became so mixed that it was impossible to tell one from the other. It was many days before the difficulty was rectified. which had crossed the Rappahannock. "A night battle scene. filled us with apprehension. 3 P or 16 P. Before us. opened to our view. creating confusion among the men. it became a serious problem where the junction could be effected and what obstacles were to be overcome. of intense interest. J. which did not continue very long. The horses stampeded.. and were smoking their pipes of contentment. leisurely retracing our after our participation in the raid. and tended to settle any disputes which might arise in the future through the straying of the horses. the shouts of the combatants. Which army would first . on the slope of a near Ely's Ford. The above incident is Speese. thrilling in the ex- treme. "After nightfall on May 2. As soon as we got into camp each regiment was furnished with a branding iron. The trouble occasioned in the mix-up of our horses was not easily remedied. the head of the column turned the hill sloping down to the Rapidan River. men rushed for their arms and returned the fire of the rebels. of musketry. and the order was given that the horses should be branded on the hoof of the right fore foot. of Company H : described as follows by Corporal A. "When General Averell's Division was returning from the south to rejoin Hooker's army. as the case might be. on The Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry bivouacked The men lighted fires. and some of our horses were never returned. the Rapidan. the road led to Chancellorsville over the tree tops in the distance. May As we were of Saturday. 1863. way back towards our army we bivouacked for the night hill. the shells were bursting in air or with fiery trail falling and exploding in the woods the volleys . The alongside of us. 2. This identified ownership of the animals. cooked their coffee. On the opposite bank was a rebel force firing into our camp. 232 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. beyond the valley. May 2.

said. if they were Confederates. one of the advance guard came back and reported to Captain Miller. was unable to distinguish the color of his uniform. dismount. and again asked what troops they were. and the column was soon in motion and about 9 o'clock went into bivouac on the south bank "I could hear the clicking of the locks of rifles of the Rapidan. leading my horse. fed. 233 May 2. "Captain Miller. which threw out an occasional flame. and food pre- pared over numerous down to sleep. and advance. turning to the writer. Some of the men had already lain when suddenly a volley was poured in upon us on the opposite side of the river. He proved to belong to a New York Infantry regiment. in the darkness.' He then crossed the barricade and kicked the brands together. "When within about a hundred yards of Ely's Ford. 'Corporal. every one was busy.NIGHT ATTACK NEAR ELY S FORD. 1863. as he raised cocked and could dimly discern the form of a up from behind the barricade. He said.' At : the person speaking scattered the fire so that. beyond the hope of escape. and beyond where they were halted received a peremptory challenge to 'Halt. "After further inquiry the officer told me to go back and report to General Averell that the road was open and held by our troops. and picketed. hills from the fires. "After the long march. that they were halted by a strong force at the ford and could see picket fires burning. "The reply was sharp and most mandatory 'If you don't mount and shut your mouth I'll blow you off the road. The sparks flew . go is. "Of course. groomed. as they were man. 'Now tell me what regiment you belong to. and replied. secure possession of the road beyond the ford was the question in our minds. I dismounted and. 'Third Pennsylvania.' "I was in their power. and in the light. "I returned with this message. a short distance above the ford. the horses were watered in the river.' I then asked to what regiment disthis I they belonged. I saw he wore the blue and I was among my friends. who was in command of the advance. riding through the advance guard. approached the flickering embers. to my great relief.' down just and see what the trouble "I started at once.

Stuart hills adjacent to the ford. deployed in fire line. every direction . "Major McClellan. who retired after firing several more volleys. and hold the road to Ely's Ford. B. and that the Jackson command of Jackson's Corps devolved on him. we recrossed it at United States Ford the same day. Bricker was heard above the din. 1863.' and soon many of the Third opened fire upon the Confederates. without seeing anything of him." Who is were who fired upon us. H. and then retire and rejoin his Without awaiting the result of this attack. and much disputing followed as to the ownership of animals. and his cavalry to The statement that General Fitz Lee was at least for.: 234 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. of General A. moving around the left flank of the rebel army. he received the information. he hastened to assume the responsibility which had so unexpectedly devolved upon him." brigade. and the Sixteenth North Carolina Infantry was placed under his orders. wounded horses galloped over and among. and found there Averell's division of While making disposition for an attack. shouting. in his 'Campaigns of Stuart's Cavalry. "Finding no room for the use of his cavalry on the field of battle. that both Hill and had been wounded. left to guard the road from Ely's Ford was erroneous his troops there the next — we did not find him or morning. May in 2-3. as our services were needed on the other side of the Rappahannock. were found the next morning grazing in the adjoining fields. The permission was readily granted. 'Fall in quickly. however. creating much disorder. We were not engaged in the battle of Chancellorsville. P Hill's staff. . McClellan in his book the troops it came about. Stuart asked permission of Jackson to take it and a small force of infantry. Stuart ordered the officer commanding this regiment to three rounds into the enemy's camp. and the men were out at daybreak. and leaving Fitz Lee guard the road from Ely's Ford. and taking position close to the Chancellor House.' tells how his chief borrowed a regiment of North Carolina Infantry of horses to "Hundreds do work which the Virginia Cavalry seemed incapable of per- forming. The Sixteenth North Carolina had already been reached the cavalry.the men. ringing voice of Sergeant Wm. At once the clear. and. through Captain Adams. Many were never recovered. looking for mounts. we marched along it. and how told by Major H.

and felling every man that attempted to pass. in dismounted party across the Rappahannock. and in the middle of the night a party of the enemy's infantry fired upon our men from across the stream. but the scheme was abandoned. 'Take your arms and follow the Third suddenly The others. fell commanding and into order. and 'two o'clock in the morning courage. the authoress having from participants on our side in constant motion. which has been mentioned. to carry the enemy's rifle-pits upon the opposite side. which were rained upon them by the invisible enemy. the saddles and arms were lost. 235 May The night attack on 2. while. which. and the example of such daring and discipline as his brought to a stand. seeing this threatening figure in their way. whose Colonel was thought not quite equal to such an occasion yet. but the time had not yet come. wearied out with a succession of forced marches. and the whole regiment was in the direst confusion. May General Stoneman was common with all the streams in this part of the country was prodigiously swollen by the spring rains." : NIGHT ATTACK NEAR ELY S FORD. shouting. the men running from the bullets. and aided them in driving the rebels away. rallied for a moment. as an illustration of coolness.' young aide's . It was a complete surprise. an officer having been sent to picket the opposite side. and having carefully studied the position. who was on his the and told the story in Washington. were seized with a panic. and the th. however. Newhall had started up at the first volley. th. and in a short time were at the water's edge returning the fire. and the river crossed at another point. followed. but they became known sometime afterwards through General spot. The pickets were not properly posted. seized their carbines. at Beverly Ford. The Third Pennsylvania. Newhall was acting on General Averell's staff. is deNewhall Memoir. One night they had bivouacked in an open space on the bank of a small stream. and startled from their sleep to find themselves under fire. and rallied round their officers. scribed in part in the obtained the facts 2. Several attempts were made. A number of the latter were killed. a Shortly afterwards he was put in command of the regiment. 'Follow the Third!' again shouted in a cheerful voice. strangely enough. 1863. not one of ours was fatally hurt. on the first alarm. where there were heavy woods. and their comrades on the ground at his feet. He mentions none of the particulars. followed the Third to the bank. He looked forward to this with great enthusiasm. Averell. The terrified horses broke loose and galloped madly to and fro. This is the circumstance to which Newhall refers in the preceding letter. made all his plans for the attack. and hearing the simple order. began to pluck up their spirits. and was chosen to lead a as "The cavalry was now watching his opportunity to cross the river. posted him!' self directly in their path. and seeing the men of his command flying. Newhall led them all through the brisk work that new must have had a lasting effect on raw troops.

Second Brigade Colonel Percy Wyndham. and Sixth United States. First Maryland. 1863. Second Division First — Brigadier-General William W Averell Brigade— Colonel Horace B. Second Brigade Tidball's — Colonel John B. they reported back in expedition brought back over five hundred prisoners. composed of the Twelfth Illinois. Sixth Ohio. 1863.: : 236 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. due time to the regiment for duty. Second. — — . May 1-6. the organization of the cavalry at that date was as follows Cavalry Corps— Brigadier-General George Stoneman. composed of the Sixth Pennsylvania and First. 1-6. Gregg: Brigade— Colonel Judson Kilpatrick. composed : of the Eighth Illinois. and Sixteenth Pennsylvania. and First Pennsylvania. Eighth and Ninth New York. According to the Roster of the Army of the Potomac. produced its logical consequence. Horse Battery A. of the Third. Conand rapid marching. Fourth. and First Rhode Island." Dumfries. Sixth New York. Regular Reserve Cavalry Brigade Brigadier-General John Buford. where Major Claude White. composed of the First Michigan (Company L). Fourth York. Second United Third Division First — Brigadier-General David McM. Davis. and Eighth and Seventeenth Pennsylvania. States. without forage for days. Martin's Sixth — New York Horse Battery. Devin. Second Brigade Colonel Thomas C. and many of the horses "played Their riders were sent back to "Dismounted Camp" at out. composed Maine and Second and Tenth of the First New York. First Division First — Brigadier-General Alfred Pleasonton Brigade — Colonel Benjamin F. Sargent. composed New of the First Massachusetts. After being supplied with remounts. Third Indiana. work. Mcintosh. Fifth. May The stant duty. was in command. composed of the Third. First New Jersey.

of Company B. promoted to Surgeon Twenty-seventh Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. and Elder's Battery E. Carter as First Lieutenant Company C. Hospital Steward Henry J. composed of Vincent's Batteries B and L. Vacancies 1863 " filled from outside the regiment May " 9. (Before muster under this commission he under appointment for several months. Miles G. 17.: : — : : CHANGES AMONG THE OFFICERS. 1863. Fourth United States. 237 1862 May 23. resigned. . spring. changes as follows occurred among the officers Those who 1862 Dec. as Second Lieutenant of Company F. pany E. . William Rawle Brooke as Second Lieutenant " 16. " " left the 2. L. Charles A. C. 18. while the regiment During the winter of 1862 and 1863. Durant. to Assistant Surgeon. Second Lieutenant Alexander M. Cauffman. Sherwood. disAssistant Surgeon missed. Second United States. without commisserved sion. Company " " 16. dates unknown. Promotions from the ranks 1862 Dec. 23. regiment Captain George Johnson. George S. 1863 April " May 2. Ward as Second Lieutenant Company M. Robertson. and in the following was stationed in camp on Potomac Creek. December i. Wright. Vernou as Second Lieutenant Com- 16. 2"j. Thomas H. Captain Timothy P Russell. dismissed.) 1863 March 26. Ellwood Davis as Second Lieutenant Company H. First Sergeant Eugene L. Second United States Clarke's Battery M. Reserve of Horse Artillery under Captain James M. to First Lieutenant Company H.

First Lieutenant J. First Lieutenant William Baughman. of Company H. First Lieutenant William Redwood Price. of Company H. First Lieutenant Francis D. of Company M. to Second Lieutenant Company K. to Regimental Commissary. 20. 1. Company L. First Lieutenant David M. G. to Second Lieutenant Company D. 1. May 1. Promotions among the 1862 Dec. Regimental Commissary. to " 1. " 1. Company G. to Captain Company D. to Captain Company F G. '' officers : 1. 1. Second Lieutenant William E. 1863. Company First Lieutenant and Adjutant Abel Wright. of Company pan}. First Sergeant James Heslet. Miller.A.Beaton. of Company H. Lee Englebert. O. 1862). to Captain Company (to date from September 1. Wetherill. . of 11. Captain J Claude White. I. Second Lieutenant Samuel P Boyer. to Captain " 1. B. to First Lieutenant Company C. V Vandegrift. of Company K. First Sergeant Robert F. to Major.— HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY December 1863 April " i. to Captain Company C. to Second Lieutenant Company B. First Sergeant Charles C. Bricker. Captain O. Lieutenant H 1. 238 1862 May 23. Gilmore. of Company D. Robinson. of A. of Major. " 25. of Company G. of Company D. to Captain Company E. First March 8. William Redwood Price. First Sergeant Albert Bradbury. 1. to Company Second Lieutenant Company G. May " 1. to Captain Company K. of Com- pany K. 1863 Jan. to Second Lieutenant Corn- First Sergeant William H. of Company M.

1. 1. First Lieutenant pany C. Stille. of Company M. of Company C. May 1. First Lieutenant Samuel C. Heyl. Second Lieutenant Samuel S. December 1863 i. of Company B. Second Lieutenant Louis R. I. W 1. of ComCaptain Company L. Willard Warren. of Company H. 1. 8. 21. of Company E. of Company A. to Regimental Commissary. to First Lieutenant Company F Second Lieutenant E. Wagner. of Company C. 239 1862 May 23. 1863. . to First Lieutenant Company K. to First Lieutenant and AdFirst Lieutenant jutant. Second Lieutenant William F Potter. Newhall.— changes among the officers. Second Lieutenant Harrison L. to First Lieutenant Company I. Samuel P Boyer. to William Rogers. 1. of Company I. Green. to First Lieutenant Company E. Of new 1862. named. without a commission. to Regimental Quartermaster. Second Lieutenant Edward M. Lieutenant Carter had been a First Lieutenant Vernou Sergeant in the Fifth United States Cavalry had served previously with the regiment from April 18 to July the officers 8. to First Lieutenant Company A.

and upperville covering the falling back towards aldie the army crosses the potomac again into maryland the march toward gettysburg after stuart chase daily record of the regiment during the gettysburg campaign. 1863. as in Washington. and otherwise. of Toward the latter part leaked out from Richmond that an invasion of Confederate States as a soon end in their favor. journalistic. over-zealous newsmongers. and thus the war would powers May cordingly. the hard work and The return on May 240 . reconnoitering and scouting to ascertain lee's movements and intentions cavalry battle of brandy station rearrangement of the cavalry corps cavalry battles of aldie. In that city. political. did not hesiActate to divulge the secrets of their respective governments. After ville their two victories of Fredericksburg and Chancellors- there was a strong feeling successful battle. Preparations were at once begun to repair the damages which the regiment had suffered from the wear and tear. in various directions to ascertain 6 from Stoneman's Raid to our former comfortable camp on Potomac Creek brought relief and pleasure to us all. though our stay did not prove to be a long one. the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac was sent out if possible the whereabouts and gain information as to the doings of Lee's army. Europe to acknowledge the separate nation. May 22-July 17. middleburg.CHAPTER XVI The Gettysburg Campaign. especially chief among if the people of the South that the success of their cause was almost assured and of more that one gained north of the Potomac. would induce the rumors the North was in contemplation.

commanding. Soon the regiment was again thoroughly fit for duty. absent at Yorktown. reported for duty. — — — — — — Columbia Cavalry added. commanding. ments. Second Brigade Colonel John Irvin Gregg. The officers and men who had been sent to Dumfries returned with new horses.Va. Second Division Colonel A. Third Division. Dufne. having recovered from his wound received at Kelly's Ford. commanding. These have been mentioned at the end of the preceding chapter. Douty. on being released from confinement in "Libby" as prisoners of war. and their riders sent back to Dismounted Camp A general refitting of arms. During the month many changes occurred among the officers by way of promotion and new appointment. Artillery Pennington's Horse Battery M. Whiting. N. Captain Treichel. and clothing also took place. commanding. and Lieutenants F C.PREPARING FOR ANOTHER CAMPAIGN. commanding. General Averell was relieved from duty with the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac and transferred to the command of the Cavalry of the Army of West Virginia. — One company of District Second Brigade —Twelfth — 16 . First Division Colonel Benjamin F Davis. commanding. Davis General Stoneman was on of the May 22 relieved from the command 31 the fol- Cavalry Corps and was succeeded by General Pleasonton. Regular Reserve Cavalry Brigade Major Charles J. as did also Captain Wetherill and Warren. added from Reserve of Horse Artillery. 1863. 1863. Elder's Horse Battery E. exposure of the past winter and the stirring spring campaigning. Kellogg. Second United States. 24I May 6-22. In the Roster of the Army of the Potomac of May lowing changes appear from that of May 1-6. Many used-up horses were turned over to the Quartermaster's Department. given on page 236: Cavalry Corps Brigadier-General Alfred Pleasonton. equipat Dumfries for remounts. Second Brigade Colonel Josiah H. Fourth United States. commanding. of Illinois. First Brigade Colonel Calvin S.

Damp and dark. where we halted and camped. Friday. m. Clear and warm. May 29. Saddles at 5. After stopping one hour the regiment again moved off (the other regiments remaining at Deep Run). Saturday. moved some miles up the Falmouth Road. Regiment on scout to Warrenton and returned in the morning. Tuesday. went on picket. June into 1. Appearance of rain. the old picket ground. and passing Hartwood. Took at after a went into camp. Weather warm.30 a. 3. camp moved back and regiment divided order of encampment. last night about Firing was heard along the picket occa- sioned by a guerrilla party attacking our reserve and their repulse. May 31. first In the afternoon the and Newhall. 27. m. June 4. . Regimental Journal (Continued from page Monday. June Condemned property sent to Acquia Creek this a.242 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Our brigade (the Second) moved m. May at 6 a. Clear and very warm. Unserviceable stores and horses condemned. Wednesday. Thursday. May 171). halted one and one-half hours. march of six hours arrived Cloudy but cool. m. m. with appearance of rain. m. Regiment received orders to saddle up this evening with two . the Bealton Road. May 25-JuNE 5. Same. Column moved at 7. and Sunday. Captains Walsh the third. Boots and 25. Bealton Station and Dark and cloudy. May 30. Friday. and camped. at 11 the regiment moved back to Deep Run. Inspection. Clear and bright. 12. Va. Detailed pickets and went into camp for the night. Regiment received orders to saddle up and remained so during night. Reached that place at 4 p. Heat again oppressive. Monday. June Site of the in battalions treat. About one hour before dawn the regiment and brigade moved out and marched from Deep Run to Bealton Station. May 28. Inspection of arms. Broke camp this 3 a. About 12 o'clock last night men About 9 a. halted at 6 p. on the road back to Deep Run reached it at 12 m. and about 7 the regiment and division moved off and we bade farewell to the winter camp and camp scenes at Potomac Creek. the General sounded. May and 26. Evening. 2. Thursday. Clear and warm. 1863. m. a portion of Heat oppressive and enervating. were then joined by remainder of division and marched some miles towards Warrenton Junction. being relieved by the infantry. sultry Boots and Saddles sounded line. two miles from Deep Run. June Tuesday. Marched steady all day. Private Hartenstine accidentally killed himself at reWednesday. 5. and second squadrons. and went into camp. and ordered to saddle up.

Returned Raining during day. Reveille at 1. . bidding a final farewell to our camp on Potomac Creek. retired along the main road and marched towards Brandy Station. now commanded by Colonel J. leaving picketing forces from Rappahannock Station to Fox's Ford. which they crossed. Returned 7. but kept a. but orders out about 8 to picket were coun- termanded and we marched towards Beverly Ford. two o'clock on the morning of 25. and the regiment in support. taking the road leading to Sulphur Springs. June Clear and bright. 1863. Remained saddled all night. m. and Pennington's Horse Battery. the battery and division moved on to Rappahannock Station and crossed the river. and forage. when they recrossed and camped for the night. who had taken position towards Culpeper. 243 May days' rations 25-JuNE 10. m. The regiment was placed in support of the battery on the right and the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry on After exchanging a few shots the battery and the division. on Kelly's Ford Road. On reaching that place the battery was unlimbered and opened on the rebels. our brigade the Second (late Averell's). and three regiments abreast the division marched towards Stevensburg. June 9. June 10. m. throwing out skirmishers. Sunday. Failing. at 10 o'clock and unsaddled. the balance of the regiment remaining at Fayetteville about 10 o'clock p. Regiment broke camp at or near Bealton Station Regiment and division moved a. Moved the road east of Rappahannock Station. June Morrisville at taking the and road leading towards the Rappahannock reached about 8 o'clock.30 at 2 o'clock Wednesday. to dislodge the rebels. and at about seven. numbering in all about five thousand men. Reveille at 5 a. preparatory to forming a junction with General Pleasonton's main column on the right. the General shortly after. m. Skirmishers were then thrown out. While forming in line for encampment the rebels could be distinctly seen filing out from the woods beyond the river and attempting to cut off a portion of our ambulance train. Monday. Tuesday.RECOXNOITERING AND SCOUTING — BRANDY STATION. Crossed the Rappahannock and marched several miles. however. after the left. forming in battle line on the south side and advancing skirmishers after the retiring enemy. 8. Rumors of a general move of the army. June 6. where the battery was again placed in position. moved to cross roads near Unionville. and the regi- this evening. Irvin Gregg of the Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry with the rest of the Second Cavalry Division under the command of Colonel Alfred N. and remaining there until the train was safe. A short gallop brought our regiment again to the river. of the First Rhode Island. Duffle. Boots and Saddles sounded at 2 ment again moved out of camp. saddle packed. started Reveille sounded at half-past May — — . Saturday.

was fond of parades and military music. for the Division Commander. The brigade on the 27th moved back to Deep Run. Colonel Duffie. headquarters. was permitted to take the body to their home near Pottsville. — — . on the march.244 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. and early on the following afternoon we went into camp near Bealeton Station on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. and Private Eli Hartenstein fell dead in his place. and then marched with the division to a fine camping ground in a beautiful piece of woods on Edwards' Creek. a sharp report was heard. on the evening of the 4th. m. The Third was on picket duty from the 27th to the 29th at Banks' and United States Fords on the Rappahannock the enemy occupying the opposite bank and at Hartwood. Quartermaster Sergeant of the same company. As he was unslinging and bringing it to "order arms" the concussion of the piece on striking the ground exploded it. He was an exceptionally good man and a true soldier. and was beloved by all his comrades. While there many of the men returned with fresh horses from Dismounted Camp. There was much "pomp and pageantry" while we were in camp near Warrenton Junction. Pa. remaining there on and off until June 8. and the regiment began to appear again relatively respectable in numbers. His brother. May 25-JuNE 8. The entire division was camped close together and the guards of all the regiments were mounted as one each morning at the Colonel's In the evening we had division dress parade. killing him instantly. between Bealeton and Warrenton Junction. General "Jeb" Stuart had been reported to be near Bealeton. sending the bullet from under his chin out of the top of his head. The night was spent in bivouac near Grove Church. and on the latter date marched to Deep Run. stopped at our camp near Bealeton to get something to eat and to feed and rest our horses. of the 31st we started again. but on arriving there no traces of him were to be found. He had only a few minutes before the bugle call returned from picket duty but had not drawn the cartridge from his carbine. While the officer in command was inspecting the sabres of the rear rank. 1863. At 2 a. On June 3 the regiment went out on a scout to Liberty and Warrenton. A sad accident happened in Company C at retreat parade.

starting at Rappahannock at Beverly Ford. Stuart. driving in his pickets and then forcing back Jones's Brigade of Cavalry about two miles.of ten or twelve thousand men. and passed in review with it before General Lee and The Cavalry other distinguished personages from Richmond. and taking the road toward the Rappahannock we bivouacked near Morristown at the At 4 o'clock on morning — 10 o'clock that night." or "Fleetwood.30 o'clock the same night. Second Cavalry Division went on a reconnoissance in force. when Wade Hampton's and Fitzhugh Lee's Brigades came up to support Jones. accordingly started out early in the morning of June 9 to meet Stuart and to find out what he was up to. and marched to Jefferson. Simultaneously the Second Cavalry Division . E. if possible. if not its superiority over." "Brandy Station. by way of Warrenton Sulphur Springs. B. had by this time ascertained that the whole Confederate Cavalry Corps. crossed the of the Army General Buford. It was the first occasion of the upon which the recently organized Cavalry Corps Potomac went into action as a body. to ascertain the whereabouts of the rest of the Army of Northern Virginia. capturing one man and losing one horse we returned to camp. under General J. June the 6-9. After finding that the enemy was not there in force Captain New-hall's squadron in the advance only having had a little skirmish. under General Alfred Pleasonton. was in the vicinity of Culpeper Court House. and encountered the enemy first. Corps of the Army of the Potomac." according to the point of view of the respective participants. reaching there at 1. and also. in all its pride and splendor. The occurrences of that memorable day established for the first time the equality of our cavalry with. Camp near Bealeton was struck on the 8th. 2 o'clock in the morning. band of the First Rhode Island Cavalry supplying the music of the 6th the at that function also.— THE CAVALRY BATTLE OF BRANDY STATION. crossed the river there. The grand battle fought upon the occasion is variously named "Beverly Ford. consisting. Stuart on June 8 brought it together in a beautiful open plain between that place and Brandy Station. 245 1863. General Hooker. who was in command of the Army of the Potomac. with the First Cavalry Division. that of our adversaries.

when Duffie received orders to move over to the right toward Brandy Station where Gregg had pressing need of him. Second U. the Second Virginia left of it. It is not our intention to recount in detail the different phases of that brilliant encounter. resulting in his taking Fleetwood Hill. moved in the direction of Brandy Station. Gregg had formed a junction with Buford. McM. which solved the doubt we had been sent out to Information was thereby gained that Lee's army was settle. and after some delav crossed below at Kelly's Ford. Butler's Second Virginia Cavalry. drove it back to Brandy Station. Our own battery now began to play. The First Massachusetts Cavalry had the advance. however. and Hooker was thus enabled to move the Army of the Potomac in good time to keep pace with that of our adversaries. In crossing the river Colonel Irvin Gregg's Brigade led the Second Division. therefore. By the time we reached his position. Duffie. The Third Cavalry Division. preparatory to a further advance. C. near by. under General D. retiring at a quick gait. the Third Pennsylvania supporting the whole in echelon of squadrons on the right of the road and the Fourth Pennsylvania on the The advance then became brisk. while Gregg. It then deployed as skirmishers on the left of the road. Gregg. driving in the enemv's pickets. Gregg. while the First Rhode Island did the same on the right. took the direct road to Stevensburg. Pennington's Horse Battery (M. where a spirited fight occurred. upon which it was intended that both his and Buford's columns should converge.246 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. both being under his command. already on the march by way of the Valley of Virginia toward Maryland and Pennsylvania. 1863. with the Third Division. under Colonel Duffie moved out. June 9. no further neces- . encountering Robinson's Brigade of Cavalry. S. This force also was pushed back for some distance under cover of a battery stationed on high ground in its rear. but merely to describe in brief the part of it in which the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry was engaged. During the varying fortunes of the day some of General Stuart's baggage was captured and certain instructions addressed to him secured. There was.) and one squadron of the Sixth Ohio in the road. with his division. until Colonel Wickham with his Fourth Virginia Cavalry came up to Butler's support. moving forward cautiously until it encountered a portion of Colonel M. followed the Second.

and the Third had only just formed column of squadrons behind our horse battery on the heights overlooking the ford. The crossing was made without a single Confederate in view. was asked his opinion. engaged in a discussion as to the distance of the Confederate line. Buford accordingly recrossed at Beverly Ford. Captain ambuNew- ford. scarcely crossed. but they made no movement. one of the best shots in the regiment. who were endeavoring to capture them. and one made a bet that they were out of carbine range.THE CAVALRY BATTLE OF BRANDY STATION. Quietly going up to one of his men. when a couple of ambulances were seen on the road we had just traversed approaching at a dead run from the woods skirting a large open field on the south side of the river. Heyl. We had. and the man tumbled off his horse. We of the Third Pennsylvania can testify to the contrary. A party of officers were grouped just in front of our skirmish line. That settled the question. hostile . The balance of the regiment quickly followed. and we had missed seeing them in our retrograde movement. he set the sight for what he estimated the distance to be. aimed it carefully and with deliberation at the man on the right of the skirmish line. whose carbine he had tried before and knew to be a good one. while Gregg with his two divisions did the same at the Rappahannock Station Ford. The bet was taken. followed by a party of Confederate cavalrymen. and after battery fired a couple of shells just over the tops of the lances into their pursuers. The in Pleasonton to tarry Rebeldom. As the enemy did not seem desirous of any more fighting we returned to the north bank and bivouacked in the woods. fired. squadron of the Third was sent down at a gallop to the dashed across and deployed as skirmishers. however. and Lieutenant Edward M. hall's who at once stopped. the Third Pennsylvania acting as rear guard of his column. Here we remained some little time awaiting developments. Some Confederate authorities state that we were driven back. 247 1863. remaining on the ground of the fighting for a short time undisturbed. of Company I. June sity for 9. The ambulances had been collecting wounded in the woods. orders were received to return to the north side of the Rappahannock. Soon a skirmish line of the enemy appeared in front of the skirt of woods. except by some shelling.

as we had got over the Potomac first. The seeker for disabled cavalrymen could have found one thousand one hundred killed and wounded of ours on that stricken plain. in his "Campaigns of Stuart's Cavalry. This was successfully accomplished. and thereby failed in his whole cam- paign. Major H. however. June 9. Newhall. when he was bound for the Potomac at Edwards' Ferry." gave a succinct and detailed account of its every phase with remarkable clearness and fairness of statement. they gained on this day that confidence in themselves commanders which enabled them the subsequent battlefields of June. the author willing take rank as equals from this time. McClellan. and General Pleasonton pressed him back to Middletown. for he was so late in starting that we got across his path at Aldie. Several excellent accounts have been written of the cavalry fight of ing to officers "Brandy Station" as we called it. was averse to that branch Colonel F. and General — — . in his delightful book already mentioned. that this claim of superiority arose chiefly from the sentiment which had its origin in the favoritism so ardently shown by the Confederates toward their is There that we should cavalry. In conclusion he wrote: One result of incalculable importance certainly did follow this battle — it made the Federal and in their cavalry. B. occupying the positions of Chiefs of Staff of the respective commanders of the opposing cavalry corps. ten days later. and our men won the belt. on the 9th of June. When he got out he was much too late to do any harm. 1863. from daylight to sunset the championship was hotly contested by the rival troopers. sums up truthfully the real state of the facts: General Pleasonton. while with us the sentiment of the service. 1863. C. Up to that time confessedly inferior to to contest so fiercely the Southern horsemen.— 248 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. went across the Rappahannock to look for a fight in which to cripple the enemy's horse. and drove him through Upperville to Ashby's Gap a glorious series of engagements for our cavalry and we bottled him up in the valley until we had no object in keeping him there any longer. There is room for two opinions upon this subject. an incisive thrust in this statement. but not previously. and send them into hospital for repairs. "And the steed with broken rein ran free. and October. and held it against all comers from that time. It is especially interestread those of two accomplished and distinguished writers. July. It may be pertinent to state." Stuart staggered under the shock.

he left one platoon at the About 8 a. II. The following arrangement soon as practicable to Pleasonton's Division I. relieved the First United States Cavalry at Warrenton Sulphur Springs. On the following day the regiment returned to its old camping ground between Bealeton and Warford. . to be formed into three brigades. A. and report the regiments and companies belonging to each to these headFirst Division will be The quarters without delay. and Third. Cavalry Corps. By command of Brigadier-General Pleasonton. m. A. Army of the Potomac. The Second Division will consist of the cavalry of the present Second and Third Divisions. No. headquarters moving back to Fayetteville. to be named the First. IV. III. which remained in effect with but few changes throughout the rest of the war. Cavalry Corps will take effect as composed of the cavalry now belonging and Buford's Reserve Brigade. on the ioth the regiment moved over to the river to picket the fords from Rappahannock Station up. and Third. G. Second. The Horse Artillery Brigade will furnish two batteries to each division to be under the orders of the Division Commanders until further orders. renton Junction. J. Alexander. June of the 1863. Division Commanders will form their brigades as soon as possible. Second. Maryland. McM. a rearrangement of the Cavalry Corps took place. The more important are here given General Orders of the Orders accomplishing this result Hdqrs. A. advancing about a mile beyond. to be named the First. This division to be commanded by Brigadier-General D. j. This division to be commanded by Brigadier-General John Buford. consisting of Companies A and C. but retreated at a rapid gait. Here. 1863. Gregg. 18. the Springs.: : rearrangement of the cavalry corps. and will be formed into three brigades.nd a couple of weeks later at Frederick. . 249 Campaign proves how useless to him was mounted force. Captain Newhall's squadron. and with the remainder of the squadron charged through A squadron of the enemy's cavalry appeared on the opposite side of the river. June Lee's report of the Gettysburg his 10-13. and being informed that a party of rebels were in the village.

1863. I. the Second New York Cavalry was transferred from the Third to the Second Brigade. Maine Cavalry. and the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry to the Second Division. Com- manding First : New Jersey Cavalry. Fourth Penn- sylvania Cavalry.:: : 25O HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Fourth New York Cavalry. June 28. Commanding First Rhode Island Third Brigade Sixteenth Cavalry. Frederick. Second New York Cavalry. Gregg. First Maryland Cavalry. Brigadier-General Judson U. Wyndham. from Headquarters Cavalry Corps. for . Md. Brigade commanders will at once report in person at these headquarters. By command of Brigadier-General Gregg. 4. Sixth Ohio Cavalry. General Orders Hdqrs. 14. the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry was transferred to the First Division. By Special Orders No. June 12-28. First Commanding Pennsylvania Cavalry. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Second Brigade — Colonel A. dated June 13. and the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry from the Second to the Third Brigade. This organization will at once go into effect. Independent Company of Cavalry. was assigned to the command of the Second Brigade of the Second Division. Twelfth Illinois Cavalry. 3. from Headquarters Second Division Cavalry Corps. dated June Kilpatrick. 1863. By Special Orders No. Commanding report without delay to First Cavalry Division. No. C. Weir. Cavalry Corps. H. First Massachusetts Cavalry. — Colonel J. 1863. Duffie. 89. June of brigades is 12. First Pennsylvania Cavalry. A. dated June 14. By Special Orders No. 1. G. Tenth New York Cavalry. S. First New Jersey Cavalry. Volunteers. Special Orders No. A. Second Division Cavalry Corps. Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 1863. Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt will Brigadier-General John Buford. N.. Headquarters Cavalry Corps. First Rhode Island Cavalry. 1863. Headquarters Second Division 1863. 1. The following organization First Brigade made in this division — Colonel P. assignment. 98.

as follows: 7. signed to the 4. The report for duty to the Headquarters 6. and the Fifth New York Regiments will compose the First Brigade. passing Greenville. assigned to is as- command of the Third Cavalry Division. J. June 2. Alexander. 243). will assign 9. . and moved to Warrenton Junction. 25 11-28. which Evening clear and continued heat. Farnsworth. and will report for duty to Brigadier-General Kilpatrick without delay: Brigadier-General E. moved off After feeding and grooming. 11. Custer. regiment towards Warrenton. The First Vermont. Fifth. Saturday. Kilpatrick. there taking the Alexandria Pike and. Com- returned and camped. the Eighteenth Pennsylvania. reaching that place late in the evening and encamping. June 7 a. Sunday. June 15. The Division of Cavalry known as Stand's Division will hereafter be designated as the Third Division. M. J. Rumors reach us that the rebel hordes have Tuesday. By command A. of Brigadier-General Farnsworth. Sixth. A. command The 8. June Broke camp at 10 a. June 12. At 2 p. Second Pennsylvania Cavalry. K.: 1 REARRANGEMENT OF THE CAVALRY CORPS. m. I. Chief of Staff and A. moving along the line of the railroad. A. Robertson. Regimental Journal (Continued from page Thursday. Monday. 1863. and L on picket. United States Volunteers. Army of the Potomac. now on duty with the Third Division. Brigadier-General J. panies B. m. will 5. and Seventh Michigan Regiments will com- pose the Second Brigade. United States Volunteers. commanding First Brigade Horse Artillery. the regiment started about 16. two batteries to duty with the Third Division. camped about the Junction for the day. under . June Friday. Colonel R. United States Volunteers Brigadier-General G. took the road to Manassas Junction. Brigadier-General Kilpatrick will put his of Major-General Pleasonton command in condition for instant service. The following-named General Officers are assigned to duty with the Third Division. and. First. The Third Division will be organized into two brigades. under command of Brigadier-General Custer. 10. m. J. Clear and warm. Halted near the railroad at the Junction about 9 o'clock. Second and Third Battalions relieved the First. 13. the First Virginia. Butler Price. Heat enervating during the day. Regiment returned to camp near Licking Run. then halted and after a short rest proceeded to near Warrenton. G. June 14. 3. The Michigan Battery. will Captain report to Captain Robertson. Brigadier-General Copeland is duty with the Second Division and will report to Brigadier-General Gregg without delay.

resulting in our men taking two pieces of artillery and about two hundred prisoners. we were hurrying on towards Leesburg. in fact. For a while. The stoppages to-day have been unThe long train of loaded wagons and mules gave us as rear pleasant. Once the skirmishers were thrown into confusion. Regiment went on picket. as we did only occasionally. m. The column. Slowly the column retired along the main road towards Upperville and Middleburg. Wednesday. and soon. belonging to the First Pennsylvania and Maryland Cavalry. June 6 a. to Hay- June 20. The rebel rear guard had attacked our vanguard. and were as obstinately followed by the rebels. guard halts more frequent than comfortable. empty canteens replenished. Boots and Saddles m. oughfare Gap. Evening mild at and clear. under charge of Captains Walsh and Newhall. 19. and reached the column of rebels with several pieces of artillery crossing the heights just beyond. Remained in camp till when the brigade moved amidst a heavy rain shower Camped about 12 o'clock. and the third [battalion]. taking the direc- tion we had come for a few miles. and afterwards several wells on the way supplied our wants. 1863. June 21. in the shadow of a wood. Leesburg Pike in time to see a Regiment moved at 8 a. whence we had heard several cannon shots during the afternoon. Clear and warm. Rain had ceased. amid blinding clouds of dust. m. under Captain Hess. Early this morning the pickets were driven in and skirmishers regularly thrown out. then striking the memorable route through Centreville and Bull Run. June First in 22. penetrated Pennsylvania and are again in Chambersburg. evening.252 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Regiment went on picket and scout towards ThorIn the evening the Second Army Corps moved to Aldie and. the thirst for water was intense. Were then ordered back to picket the road in rear of train. and but for the prompt action of our supporting column . All along the wounded and dead and the horses scattered on the road attest the severity of the conflict and that the ground was hotly contested. Regiment and brigade returned moving up the mountain road past Middleburg and Upperville. was halted. The regiment moved with the corps. relieved General Buford's Cavalry at Ashby's Gap. until late in the afternoon. in support of battery. Cloudy and appearance of rain. 17. Cloudy. We halted on the road leading to Winchester and Leesburg. Cloudy. however. and camped for the evening. The constant annoyance combined with the excessive heat of the day made it a pleasure to get. General sounded at 5 a. to Thoroughfare Gap. June 16-22. June market. who attempted in vain a flank movement on our right. Two battalions of our regiment being stationed support of skirmishers. the column slowly started on a trot orders were given the rear guard to close up. About 5 p. m. June 18. moved up the road near Aldie. .

effectively delivered a June June 23. reaching Leesburg about 12 midnight and encamped.ACROSS THE POTOMAC AGAIN INTO MARYLAND. Passing within sight of Ball's Bluff. and encamping at the railroad near Frederick City. and that its advance had already reached Winchester. m. camp near Aldie. Rain in evening. but our men returned an equally rapid and effective fire. halted. they endeavored to drive our column into a retreat. f Should be the 28th. and marched with it through terrible dust and heat to Manassas We Junction. on the 27th. For a while the skirmish firing was rapid and constant. 253 13-27. and once causing a complete skedaddle. m. m.. Barnsville. The division at 9 a. * Should be Edwards' Ferry. All day the tramp June 26 [27]. and towards nightfall they drew in their skirmish Regiment was relieved and went into line and retired a short distance. having recrossed his army to the north of the Rappahannock. we crossed the Potomac at Conrad's* Ferry and camped for the day. 24. Mcintosh took command of the brigade yesterday.! The General sounded at 2. causing each time Towards evening a speedy halt. of the First New Jersey Cavalry News reached us that Lee's army had received reinforcements. and Monocacy. reaching there about 9 o'clock in the evening. passing Poolesville. . at 6 a. Md. m. Hooker. after marching past Aldie. making it number now about ninety thousand men. and by slow marches moved in rear all day until evening. and was moving northward by way of the Shenandoah Valley. Colonel Percy Wyndham. The Third was relieved from picket. moved off and the brigade. Colonel Mcintosh returned to the regiment to-day. the death of men and the roll of wagons crossing the river on the pontoons announces the transfer of the war from Virginia cursed and desolate Virginia to the soil of Maryland and Pennsylvania. June 25 [should be 26]. when the column was closed up and we moved rapidly forward. started and — — marched all night.30 o'clock p. June would have fled panic-stricken. About 8 p. rejoined the brigade on the 15th. on June 13 and the Third joined at Warrenton the brigade as reorganized under its ranking officer. Several times during the day the battery few shots at the rebel column. wanting to punish them. Rain continues. 1863. Regiment remained Colonel in camp near Aldie. Already they have desolated and are desolating the fair fields of our native State. started it on the march towards Manassas. and we hurry after them. made memorable by of the illustrious Colonel Baker.

After a short halt the brigade resumed the march by way of Middleburg and Upperville along the road upon which Pleasonton had successfully encountered Stuart and driven him back. found most of us at Haymarket. The march of our brigade was resumed at 6 a. while another part went on a scout to Thoroughfare Gap. of the Cav- of the Blue The advance of the col- umn struck the Confederate cavalry under Stuart at Aldie. reached Aldie at 9. became separated. found a large part of the Army of the Potomac bivouacked in the neighborhood.30 o'clock. into which the Confederate cavalry had retreated. now temporarily under the command of Colonel John P Taylor. on a quick march during the night of the 19th towards Haymarket in a drenching rain storm. The Third picketed the rear. picketing that night also. thinking that the left flank needed looking after at Thoroughfare Gap. we started on the march at 5. m. and the day was spent by part of our regiment in pulling ourselves together after the night's march. Daylight. having come up and relieved our brigade. and on the 18th moved to beyond Aldie. and the night was spent in bivouac between Manassas Junction and Union Mills. Pleasonton. 1863. The night was spent by the Third on picket close up to the enemy. Early on the 17th Buford's and Gregg's Divisions alry Corps started out in the direction of the passes Ridge.30 o'clock in the morning of the 21st. of the First Pennsylvania Cavalry. and from which it would have been almost impossible to dislodge him without unnecessarily heavy loss. The Second Corps. and on the following day drove it as far as Middleburg. under General Hancock. on the 16th. . and the roads blinding with dust. however. So intensely dark was the night and so rapid the movement that portions of the column got off the road.254 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY June 15-21. The weather was exceedingly hot. horses and mules got lost. and the command much mixed up. sent our brigade. the Third acting as rear guard. Our brigade relieved a regiment of Buford's Division in the extreme advance in front of Ashby's Gap. and retracing our steps. but a hard rain storm in the evening and night made matters more comfortable. finding General Meade there with the Fifth Corps.

He had brought up with him a number of men to rejoin the Third. Here we went into bivouac. corralled Stuart's forces west of the Blue Ridge Mountains and gained much light on the movements of Lee's army. Lieutenants Potter and . relieving Colonel Taylor of the First Pennsylvania. started on the return to Aldie. resting. which caused some annoyance to the rear guard under Captain Wetherill. on arriving at the foot of a hill on the road. following the column. when the enemy's skirmish line came up with ours and lively carbine and artillery firing was kept up as we retired. especially near Middleburg and just before reaching Aldie. Later in the day. the following day Captain Newhall On From refitting. with the Third Pennsylvania in the rear. brought to a close his service as a line officer with the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. about half way between Upperville and Middleburg. We were followed at first by a small party of the enemy. We had just crossed Goose Creek. our brigade covering the retrograde movement. as events turned out. and got a good night's rest. he started his men to the rear up the ascent at a quick gait. all 255 had been sent out to do. creating the impression that he was running away As soon as he had disappeared over the top of the hill he gave the order "Fours about wheel! Front into line !" and as the pursuing party came in sight over the crest he gave them a volley and a quietus. reshoeing horses. that he General Pleasonton having accomplished observing a much larger force following us at a distance. Determining to put a stop to this. which was especially gratifying after our recent fatiguing efforts. Buford's and Gregg's Divisions on the 226. This. ice as was detached for servActing Assistant Adjutant-General on Colonel Mcintosh's staff. On our arrival we found that Colonel Mcintosh had returned to resume command of the brigade. we threw out a line of skirmishers with supports in echelon of squadrons. and fell back. and making ready for what proved to be the most arduous and exhausting campaign ever experienced by the regiment. 1863. June 22-26. the 23d until the 26th the time was spent at Aldie.COVERING THE FALLING BACK TOWARDS ALDIE. evidently the advance guard of a larger force.

and for convenience the substance of his two papers. and February 2. being stricken down with Alexandria. near which town we arrived early the following morning. 1884. fever. The articles were written originally for the series of "Chapters of Unwritten History in the Annals of the War. except a brigade of infantry which was rounding up the stragglers. 1863. and then about dusk started upon an all-night march by way of Poolesville and Barnesville in the direction of Frederick. and some demoralized sutlers. We waited on the northern side of the river for all the remnants of the army to come over. of our regiment. 1878. . of Company C. was struck by 10 o'clock on the morning of June 26. As we formed part of the sumed rear guard of the cross on the army some delay ensued before we began to pontoon bridges. The former of these articles has been reprinted and republished many times." and "With Gregg in the Gettysburg Campaign. but being much delayed along the road by moving troops and wagons it was not until 1. entitled respectively. were sent to Camp. He has for the present purpose combined therein the essential portions of each monograph in a connected form. June 26-28. covering in outline the movements of the whole of General Gregg's Division of Cavalry during the period mentioned. and arrived at Edwards' Ferrv on the Potomac about 10 o'clock in the morning. finding there the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac. was present throughout the entire period). The subsequent movements of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry throughout the memorable campaign of June and July. "The Right Flank at Gettysburg. Early on the 27th Buford's and Gregg's Cavalry Divisions retheir march.30 o'clock that night that we halted near Leesburg. and throwing ourselves off our horses snatched a few hours of sleep on the sides of the road. or rather bivouac.256 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. have been described by Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Wm. Brooke Rawle (who as Second Lieutenant William Rawle Brooke." published in the Philadelphia Weekly Times of September 14. 1863." are incorporated here as Chapter XVII. but by 3 o'clock we were in Mary- land. Ellwood Davis. being the last troops to leave the southern bank.

and it was discovered to be only a rear guard. m. on the Westminster Road marched the . Walsh's squadron daylight. and fed. m." It will there appear slightly revised with the more appropriate title of "The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry at Gettysburg." pubby that company. Marched all night.. we marched to Gettysburg and halted on the right of 17 . reaching and camping at Manches- Md. Reveille at 3 a. June 28-July 2. who were in advance. which appeared in the volume of "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.. who were all night. as they had suffered very heavily by the depredations made by the rebels. moved on to New Market and camped for the night. m. 257 1863. but did not move until daylight.. off and reached the junction of the York and Hanover Roads at 12 m. Captains Newhall and Treichel. we are also enabled to give in Chapter Captain William E. June 29 About after marching all night. to Poplar Springs. Captain [30]. taking a roundabout route. when the regiment and brigade again started and. and halted just beyond the town. Camped until after being joined by General Gregg. reaching Saylorsville toward evening.daily record of the regiment.30 p. Reached Hanover 2 a. in advance. entitled "The Cavalry Battle Near Gettysburg. the regiment charged through the town of Westminster. June 27 [should be 28]. Saddled again and at 6 p. when. Halted for an hour. June 28 [29]. moved towards Hanover. thence to Lisbon in pursuit of reported in force at Cooksville. 1. Regiment marched ter. Md. passing near Frederick City. m. Moved July 2. Moved back to Mount Airy. m. The inhabitants seemed much pleased at the opportune appearance of our men. The rebel forces had left with their main body some two hours previous. and after halting for an hour moved again. 8 p. all day. unsaddled. Everything showed that spoil and pillage were the chief objects of the rebel banditti. By the courteous permission of The Century Company. Some of their horses had been so recently taken that they were regained from the prisoners taken. Moved toward the Hanover Pike and encamped. Moved rebels. Skirmishers were thrown out. Miller. General Kilpatrick's Brigade moved on the Hanover Road and the brigade marched to Hanover Junction." For further convenience that portion serted : of the Regimental Journal is covering the remainder of the Gettysburg Campaign here in- Regimental Journal (Continued from page 253). June July 30. capturing several prisoners with their own hands. of third lished XVIII a paper written by Company H.. Camped until 3.

and the order The rebel is tosh others. and The roar of cannonading m. of our regiment. driving them for one-half a mile. a mile and camped. ended the combat. but the rebels obliged to we were move camp to the left. Some other taken. skirmishers were advanced. Company in the breast Lieutenant Edmonds on the neck. The July rebels 4. the rebels attempting to storm our right flank. cavalry has arrived. when. picketing on the field. Captain Rogers. Regiment moved forward to camp of previous day and threw out pickets. Captain Newhall. Regiment on picket Heavy rain all . and are receiving a heavy return fire. Many of our men are wounded. gathering fifteen or twenty rebel cavalry. In the skirmish infantry were engaged on the rebel side. the first unsuccessfully. Regiment moved back about July 3. 1863.258 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. five miles east of this place. in the arm. was wounded . The loss driven from the field. however. men were mortally wounded. columns are steadily advancing. now Adjutant-General of the brigade. Heavy and continuous rain. twice Company in B. charged a column of covering the retreat of our dismounted skirmishers. but nothwithstanding a longer range gun. although the rebels have been Scarcely an officer of our regiment who does not bear some mark of the desperate resistance of the enemy. of L. it to-day has been terrible. 12 m. Second Artillery) has unlimbered and commenced shelling the woods where the rebel columns are forming. Some prisoners have been Camped near the morning. Our regiment has deployed skirmishers on the right. General Custer and a portion of General Stahl's old The rebels are endeavoring to turn has just been given to our right by moving from Hunterstown. in the battlefield. the battlefield until evening. has been a by Malvern Hill only in the horrors attending The welcome news of the capture of the rebel General Olmstead and a brigade of infantry has just been received. regiments are either killed or Many officers and men of wounded. but receiving a pistol shot and sabre cut in the face. Night. day.30 o'clock to 2 p. one squadron being sent to the rear to picket. men of the regiment. they were obliged to give way before the perfect discipline and cool advances of our men. Captain Treichel. ceaseless thunder rivaled it. have been signally defeated. July 2-4. The battery (M. but quickly repaired by command of move forward. commenced shelling the woods. the left Returned near battlefield Evening moved along the pike to of Gettysburg. Others received the marks of our in their clothing or their horses of rebel determination. The skirmishing is becoming fiercer and the artillery roar more constant. From 11. Several charges have been made. Evening. which was brief but decisive. has been heavy. The presence of Colonel Mcineverywhere through the brigade to inspire the men.

crossed the Maryland heights. July The rebels commenced driving back our skirsquadron of our regiment was dismounted and succeeded in holding the enemy at bay until nightfall. and found the rebels in force beyond that place. 12 noon reached and camped. and. m. is not what she once was. the fre- quent mud holes. when the brigade broke camp and moved a short distance on the direct road through the mountains." The filthy roads. Reached that place 12 noon. taking the Millerstown Road. for the day. took the Harper's Ferry Road. Moved camp Regiment in Regiment returned from picket. mishers. moved back on the River Road to Harper's Ferry and went into camp near Bolivar Heights. July 8. Regiment moved with brigade towards the Charlestown Road and encamped within sight of Shepardstown. Regiment and brigade moved along the pike. Slight rain this p. camp. the mountain road and about Pa. m. the dingy. 1863. taking the Emmetsburg Road. The smoke can be seen where the rebels burnt the bridge over Little Antietam Creek. The enemy retired during the night. July Broke camp near Waynesboro. took the Hagerstown Pike past Leitersburg. July 11. Moved camp beyond Boonesboro and camped tinued rain. 12. we reached the Boonesboro Road. dilapidated aspect of things. at the base of the heights. and. m. when they had succeeded in driving the brigade on our right back until their right rested at our encampment in the morning. July 13.. retired and. that Virginia July 15. Halted beyond the town and threw out pickets. A July 17. . Regiment and brigade on reconnoissance past Leesburg. 10. encamped near Boonesboro. even up in this part of the State. Raining. 16. moved up it until within three miles of the town and camped for the night. camping near Bolivar. Rainy and disall agreeable day. Every step after crossing the river reminds one July 14. July 6. Moved along Waynesboro.DAILY RECORD OF THE REGIMENT. Crossed on the pontoon bridge at Harper's Ferry. July July 9. where. Remained in camp until midday. Md. passing Mt.. moved along the Shenandoah River. were so many remembrances. Twelve midday. crossing Little Antietam Creek. but finding the enemy strongly entrenched. Va. Con- Broke camp and. July 7. turning to the left. a short distance. and reached the Potomac River at 4 p. Captain Miller's squadron sent on picket. Pleasant village. that he stands "on old Virginia's sacred soil. At 2 a. July July 5. inside and out. Pa. passing Funkstown. Regiment returned to camp. 259 5-17.

Captain D. The following Roster of the Second Cavalry Division. Henry Avery. Fourth New York. Smith. Second Brigade Colonel Pennock Huey (at Westminster. Lieutenant-Colonel James M. Captain Robert Massachusetts. Lieutenant-Colonel E. — Doster. William E. Corne. Duvall. commanded by Brigadier-General David McM. Batteries and G. First Brigade First — First Ohio. First New Jersey. E. John P Taylor. July 1-3. Jones. Curtis (served with the Sixth Army Corps and on the right flank). Lieutenant-Colonel Fourth Pennsylvania. Deems. Colonel Major M.. is taken from Headquarters Guard Jones. Major M. Third Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery.: 200 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Tenth New York. Captain Noah Colonel John B. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles H. Third Brigade Colonel J. 1863. Third United States Artillery. in the battle of Gettysburg. Captain Alansori First and Third Brigades). Beaumont.Robison. July War Records: 1-3. Gregg. Section Battery H. H. . — Purnell (Maryland) Legion. Major William Stedman. Company A. First Pennsylvania. Sixth Ohio (ten companies). Lieutenant William D Fuller (served with the Second Brigade). Randol (served with the battle. Captain William A. Battery C. Lieutenant-Colonel JohnK. Rank (serving as light artillery). Lieutenant-Colonel Otto Harhaus. Irvin Gregg: First Maine (ten companies). W — and not engaged in the battle) Second New York. Sixteenth Pennsylvania. of the Cavalry the Official Corps. Mcintosh: Maryland (eleven companies). S. Eighth Pennsylvania. Lieutenant-Colonel Greely S. 1863. Third Pennsylvania. First Company A. etc. First United States Artillery. Not engaged in the E M. Lieutenant-Colonel Augustus Pruyn.

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.S/7ok'"!$ //le pos.f/osis occujiieJiy //it Third PfinnsylvHnia Cavalry IN THE on f En gagemen+5 hERight Flank at GETTYSBURCPA.

Middleburg. The campaign of Gettysburg is generally considered to have begun on the 9th of June. and Colonel Irvin 261 . and the intended invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania was discovered through Confederate papers captured upon that occasion. thus affording to those who remained at home an opportunity of securing the harvest from the fields of Virginia. are well known. crossed the Potomac at Edwards' Ferry during the afternoon of the 27th of June. Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel United States Volunteers. and when Buford's and Gregg's Divisions. to the country north of the Potomac. and was kept actively engaged in watching the movements of the Confederate army. No time was lost in setting about it. The objects had in view by the Confederate authorities. was a bold game to play. The cavalry of the Army of the Potomac had returned worn out and jaded from Stoneman's Raid. in the spring of the year 1863. and Upperville followed. when. In the early days of June. the invasion of the North was determined upon. After crossing the river Mcintosh Gregg's Division. or at all events temporarily. June 27-JuLY 17. the Army of Northern Virginia began to show signs of activity.CHAPTER XVII THE SECOND CAVALRY DIVISION IN THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. but after a short rest was again put in motion. when the cavalry battle of Brandy Station was fought. To transfer the seat of war. 1863. Reconnoissances in force and scouting in all directions daily followed that brilliant passage-at-arms to of the ascertain the enemy. their physical condition was movements far short of what could have been desired. permanently if possible. of after the battle Chancellorsville. By William Brooke Rawle. consisting of the brigades of Colonel (First). The equally well-fought cavalry battles of Aldie. Hard work and starvation told heavily upon both men and horses. covering the rear of the army. and at the same time making probable the recognition of the Confederate cause by the hesitating powers of Europe. General Kilpatrick (Second).

General Buford with the First Divi- sion took the General Kilpatrick with the Third Division the center. under com- . the right flank. of which he Gregg (Third). General Kilpatrick was ordered to take command of Stahel's Division of Cavalry. Colonel Huey.262 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. by way of it up steadily all night long. with its its three divisions. M. and Generals Farnsworth and Custer were appointed to command the two brigades of which it was composed. The Second Cavalry Division. First United of the States Artillery. and the First Maryland Cavalry under Lieutenant-Colonel James M. with Captain A. Gregg. was composed as follows: The First Brigade. early on the morning of the 28th. eral David McM. operated in front and on its flanks. 1863. with more particularly to do. and. on the march about dusk. rarily deprived of It was tempo- much of its strength by the loss of the First Pennsylvania and First Massachusetts Cavalry regiments. Maryland. In the movements of the Army of the Potomac after crossing which eventually resolved themselves into a concentration upon the town of Gettysburg in Adams County. the First New Jersey Cavalry under Major Myron H. started Poolesville and Barnesville. was relieved from duty with Buford's Division and assigned with his regiment to Kilpatrick's late brigade. Beaumont. June 27-28. Deems. Randol's Horse Battery E-G. consisted of his own regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Edward S. Jones. the Cavalry Corps. the day upon which General Meade was there placed in command of the Army of the Potomac. reached Frederick. Mcintosh Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. During a short halt at that place. which as the Third Division. which had been detached for special service with the Reserve Artillery and the Sixth Corps respectively. A section of a light battery (H) belonging to the Third Pennsylvania Artillery. of the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Penninto Maryland. and General Gregg with the Second Division left flank. was assigned to duty with the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac. commanded by Colonel John commanded by Brigadier-Genthe movements of which we have B. of four three-inch rifled guns. keeping thereupon took command. sylvania.

with Lieutenant William D. commanded by Colonel J. were also serving temporarily with the First Brigade. consisted of his own regiment under Captain William A. 263 of Captain William D. Duvall. and the Purnell Troop of Maryland Cavalry. having. while proceeding from Frederick to Baltimore. Smith. the First Maine Cavalry under Lieutenant-Colonel Charles H. Scouting parties were . Robison. and Lisbon. had fallen in with the brigade. The Second Brigade. Gregg's Division about 4 o'clock in the afternoon started out the Baltimore Turnpike to New Market. !863. the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry under Lieutenant-Colonel William E. narrowly escaping capture. consisted of his own regi- ment under Lieutenant-Colonel John K. the Fourth New York Cavalry under Lieutenant-Colonel Augustus Pruyn.the chase after stuart. Corrie. The Third Brigade. the Second New York Cavalry under Colonel Otto Harhaus. but want of time or opportunity prevented their immediate consumption. Rank. After a short rest on the outskirts of the beautiful town of Frederick. Ridgeville. and. Third United States Ar- mand tillery. covering the road to Baltimore and scouting along the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Irvin Gregg of the Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. The division was busily occupied during the greater part of the 29th between New Market. between which place and Poplar Springs the night was spent in scouting the country and in endeavoring to ascertain the whereabouts of the Confederate cavalry. and some rations and forage thus obtained. These were hastily distributed among the men. been cut off by the Confederate cavalry. much needed as they were. on the evening of June 28th. and the Tenth New York Cavalry under Major M. Fuller's Horse Battery C. Henry Avery. Mount Airy. and the Sixth Ohio Cavalry under Major William Stedman. Doster. under Captain Robert E. A supply train which had escaped capture by the enemy was fortunately found by Mcintosh's Brigade on the railroad track at Mount Airy. commanded by Colonel Pennock Huey of the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. It was thus that Duvall's troop and Rank's two guns happened to find their protectors. June 28-29.

and children stood by the roadsides with pails of fresh milk and cold water and basketfuls of bread. while Randol's Battery threw a few shells over the town after it. sent out in all directions. The division thus covered the right flank of the advance of Meade's army. driving out Stuart's rear guard and capturing some prisoners. cakes. Along the route of march men. This enthusiastic welcome continued after we had crossed the line into Pennsylvania. though in some few localities our reception was not calculated to arouse Candor requires it to be in our minds very kindly feelings. Here all . Greetings of hearty sympathy and encouragement met us everywhere. waving flags and handkerchiefs and encouraging us with their smiles and voices. dispensing with free hands to all. braving the flying bullets. and pies. one of which struck the enemy's rear guard. The inhabitants of that beautiful village gave us a most cordial and enthusiastic reception. inhospitable plains and hills of Virginia was most enjoyable. though the pretty girls of Westminster and its loyal and patriotic citizens promised to make our stay a pleasant one. Maryland. There was nothing that the inhabitants could do for us that was not willingly offered. women. led by Captain Treichel and Lieutenant Bricker in the front. Indeed. barren. and just as day broke on the 30th the column arrived outside the town of Westminster. about 7 o'clock charged into and through the town with Company B. The ladies stood on the doorsteps and at the windows.264 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. and about 4 o'clock in the afternoon Mcintosh's and Huey's Brigades closed up and started on the march in hot pursuit of Stuart. to tarry in this delightful spot. having the advance of Mcintosh's Brigade. June 29-30. Meanwhile the advance regiment threw a cordon of pickets around the town and the remainder of the column dis- mounted outside of it to But there was no time rest and get something to eat. our reception through central Maryland was all that could be wished for. stated that some of the inhabitants whose lives and property we had come to save were to be seen standing along the roads with bread and water for sate at the best prices they could induce us to pay The change of scene from the war-worn. 1863. The march was kept up steadily dur ing the entire night. After a short halt to allow the supports to close up the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.

all stood It is out in strong contrast with the region we had just left. whacker's longer did we watch for the crack of the bushfrom behind each clump of underbrush. Upon reaching Hanover Junction it was found that the railroad (July 1) track had been destroyed and the telegraph wires cut. doubtful whether our opponents themselves appreciated the difference more than we did. Gettysburg. During the halt orders were received to send a brigade back on the road we had just traversed. rose to the highest pitch of enthusiasm. where the army was concentrating. small parties of Confederates. The main column halted for a short time at Hanover Junction. the march was reafter a few hours' halt. the fields of clover and of waving grain. June 30-JuLY felt at 1. No rifle horse collecting. by way of Littlestown. crossing "Mason and Dixon's Line" into Pennsylvania. The rich farms. and the fag end of a portion of Stuart's command was encountered and captured or dispersed. Huey's Brigade taking the direct road to Manchester and Mcintosh's Brigade reaching the same None but place after making a detour by way of Hampstead. The spirits of all. though they certainly seemed to take more advantage of their surroundings in the way of foraging and home. Leaving Westminster and all its attractions. and shortly after daybreak of the next day sumed we were again in the saddle. the commodious barns. for the purpose of guarding the rear of the army and protecting the trains which were to assemble at Westminster. The division continued its march. and for the balance of the division to move in the direction of Accordingly. and a scouting party was sent out on the York. notwithstanding fatigue and hunger. 265 1863. for Kilpatrick. whose duty it was to cover the center and front of the advance of the army. had taken the direct and shorter road from Frederick. and at Hanover had intercepted Stuart's line of march. the comfortable dwellings and the general prosperity. That night some much needed sleep was snatched and something to eat. chiefly stragglers.THE CHASE AFTER STUART. were encountered. nearly ripe for the harvest. Huey's Brigade with Fuller's Horse Battery started back for right flank in the direction of . thus heading him off and compelling him to move over to the right in the direction of Dover and Carlisle. At Manchester the division again became united.

Officers and men. under General Gregg. especially from Manchester to Hanover. for by 3 o'clock next morning (July 2) we were off for Gettysburg as hard as we could march. while Mcintosh's and Irvin Gregg's Brigades with Randol's Horse Battery. of being able to beg. or help themselves to fresh mounts. The intense heat at times was almost unbearable.266 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. both half famished. The Union infantry line about 3 o'clock was relieved by the Tenth . continued on to Han- which was reached about one o'clock that night. others without anything but their arms. Horses by scores fell from exhaustion along the road. The route in rear of the column toward the last presented a motley appearance. together with Rank's two guns and the Purnell Troop. the head of the column reached the vicinity of Gettysburg and closed up near the intersection of the Salem Church (or Low Dutch) and Hanover (or Bonaughtown) roads. without sleep and with scarcely anything to eat for either man or horse. leading their worn-out horses to save their strength. July 1-2. Manchester. buy. A couple of regiments of infantry belonging to the Eleventh Corps were found in the advance deployed as skirmishers along Brinkerhoff's Ridge. Such hardships they had never before endured. All strained their energies in the one direction where they knew the enemy was to be found. We had previously been in the saddle on an average for twenty hours out of the twenty-four for three days. begrimed past recognition. borrow. the dust almost impenetrable. struggled along. some carrying their saddles and bridles in hopes over. The march had been a terrible one. whose horses had fallen dead or dying. But little time for rest or other bodily refreshment was allowed at Hanover. Mcintosh's Brigade on the right and Irvin Gregg's on the left. tramped along on foot. there was a considerable force of Confederate infantry. About 1 1 o'clock with wearied men and jaded horses. 1863. which intersects the Hanover Road nearly In front at right angles about two miles east of Gettysburg. Dismounted cavalrymen. The men of Rank's section of artillery implored to be allowed to rest and get something to eat. but the rest denied to others was likewise denied to them. well knowing how much depended upon it. The terrible conflict was there going on and the sound of the artillery in our front urged us forward.

The Confederates fell back instantly under cover of the ridge. The two shells had whizzed about six feet over her head and had temporarily cured her of her of us infirmities. Suddenly a mounted man. 267 1863. July 2. came riding at full speed from the front. and Rank's two guns were unlimbered and loaded in the middle of the Hanover Road on a hill near the Reever House. and. The next thing to attract our attention was the old woman running for dear life across the fields with as much activity as a girl in her teens. "To horse !" sounded at once. thoroughly theirs to nibble the rich clover.THE RIGHT FLANK AT GETTYSBURG. a native of Gettysburg. were trying to get a little sleep. of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. who was leaning against the fence in the road a few yards in front of Rank's guns. and shrieking with all her might. New York Cavalry Regiment of Irvin Gregg's Brigade. though they were the first hostile ones the gunners had ever fired. Every one sprang to his horse. after their wont. We were not through laughing at the occurrence when orders came for the Third Pennsylvania to mount and move forward. During the afternoon there was some skirmish firing between the opposing lines. which drove back the small party of dismounted cavalrymen." and perhaps some of those who were present will remember a crippled old woman with a crutch under one arm and a cane in the other hand. as luck would have it. some were grooming their horses to freshen them up. amused themselves with chaffing the natives. some allowed others. More beautiful shots were never seen. and about 6 o'clock Colonel Irvin Gregg ordered some fifty men of the Tenth New York to advance and clear the front. The residents of the surrounding neighborhood came over to "see the soldiers. whilst worn out. and a moment after a party of the enemy appeared on the top of Brinkerhoff's Ridge where it crosses the Hanover Road. without crutch or cane. and the regiment advanced at a . put two shells into the midst of the party. Some of the men. who proved to be Assistant Surgeon Tate. and who had been vainly endeavoring to get into the town to see his wife and family. A regiment of Confederate infantry was at once sent out to meet them. while the remainder of the command sought some rest and shelter from the scorching heat. In a second Rank's men were at their guns.

taking advantage of the dark- our right unobserved and dislodged a portion of our line. however. turned rendered the heights south of Gettysburg untenable. commanded by Captains Hess and Miller. July 2. of General Walker's celebrated "Stonewall Brigade. as both the enemy and ourselves at once perceived. side there The wall loading carbines. were quickly dismounted to fight on foot. in its advance to the attack of Culp's Hill." which latter was supporting it close at hand. would have ness. well-built stone wall ran along the top of the ridge. which. Later compelled to of in the evening the Confederates. After ineffectually attempting to drive us back the enemy was retire to a more sheltered position along the edge some woods about two hundred yards distant. along the road toward Gettysburg and formed close column squadrons behind Cress' Run. . The threatening position occupied by the cavalrymen and their vigorous fight compelled the Confederate brigade to remain on the ground until too late to participate in the assault of that position. plunged through the run and almost in an instant were deployed at close intervals as skirmishers on the summit of the eastern spur of Brinkerhoff's Ridge Miller on the right and Hess on the left. and trot — was a field of tall wheat just ripe for cutwas the key of the position. which came so near proving successful. Rank's section meanwhile did splendid execution.268 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. The Purnell Troop immediately followed and deployed dismounted on the left of the road on the prolongation of the same line. and by the time our men reached it a line of Confederate infantry was seen running for it at full speed. The fire of Rank's two guns had delayed the enemy's advance long enough to give us time to get there first. the opposing forces keeping up a heavy firing all the time. had it succeeded. 1863. north of and resting on the road. firing upon the enemy wherever he could be seen. Our adversaries proved to be the Second Virginia Infantry. The first two squadrons. The infantrymen were not more than twenty feet off from the wall when we reached it. and which. and we gave them a withering reception with our breechon the other ting. of Ewell's Corps. where he remained until after dark. was re-established after a considerable amount of trouble. acting as a flanking party of Johnson's Division. A strong.

to be available for whatever duty they might be called upon to perform on the morrow. commanded by Colonels Charles H. and the . after his fight with the Confederate cavalry at Hunterstown. between the Baltimore and Hanover roads. 269 the stone wall. taking position be- tween the Baltimore Turnpike and the Hanover Road. Mann. and Seventh Michigan Cavalry regiments. and Horse Battery M. deploying as skirmishers. found in Upon reaching the ground occupied by him on the previous day on the Hanover Road. George Gray. Sixth. It had not proceeded far . under Lieutenant A. General Custer. near the position of the Reserve Artillery. Custer had taken command on June 29. moved through the woods in the direction of Gettysburg. and William D. Second United States Artillery. Fifth. he it possession of the Second Brigade of the Third Cav- alry Division.THE RIGHT FLANK AT GETTYSBURG. M. where it crosses White Run. was withdrawn from Mcintosh's Brigade moved over to the Baltimore Turnpike. known as the "Michigan Brigade. greater part of it was fresh from pastures green." of which Brigadier-General George A. was composed of the First. Upon arriving on the ground General left Gregg placed his two brigades to the of General Custer's line. Town. This brigade. Pennington. a small village on the Baltimore Turnpike about five miles southeast of Gettysburg. 1863. and make a demonstration against the enemy. and again at Hunterstown on July 2. July 2-3. General Gregg was directed to re- his position on the right of the infantry line. with six three-inch rifled guns. Russell A. C. It was a splendid body of men its ranks were much fuller than those of the other cavalry brigades. o'clock in the evening the line About 10 On sume the morning of July 3. Alger. . respectively. was dismounted and. and Irvin Gregg s Brigade bivouacked near it. On June 28 the brigade had been assigned to duty with the Army of the Potomac on the 30th it had been actively engaged with the Confederate cavalry at Hanover. in accordance with orders from Cavalry Corps headquarters. of Irvin Gregg's Brigade. had spent the latter part of the night of July 2 in bivouac with the rest of the Third Division at Two Taverns. The Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

from which. for the purpose of occupying the elevated ground east of Gettysburg. to General Meade. (Kilpatrick's) on the extreme left of the army Mcintosh's Brigade was ordered to relieve Custer's. suffered severely. was placed in General Gregg's hands. while protecting the left flank of Lee's army. It is needless here to follow in detail Stuart's earlier movements. B. when a strong picket force of Confederate infantry was found. This had scarcely been done. notifying him that a large body of the enemy's cavalry had been seen from Cemetery Hill moving toward the right of our line. and extending to the right as far as the Hanover Road. like ours. of course. marching as he had been through an enemy's country. was hastening to join it. and During the morning in and could. but. had been marching hard and long. at the same time. the Confederate cavalry. At the same time an order was received from General Pleasonton. the commander of the Eleventh Corps. his losses from straggling had. when. After driving in the outposts for a short distance the cavalrymen succeeded in the face of a strong resistance in establishing their connecting with the infantry on the left near Wolf's Hill. after having encountered Kilpatrick at Hunterstown. but on July 2. about noon. and there attack it. a dispatch from General Howard. July 3.27o history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. who commanded the Cavalry Corps. While these movements were going on upon our part. under Major-General J. supported by . of July 3 Stuart moved forward to the left advance of Ewell's Corps. be in position to move out at the proper moment. directing Custer's Brigade to join its division Accordingly. and went into position on the York and Harrisburg roads. Men and horses had. he could command a view of the routes leading to the rear of the Army of the Potomac. simultaneously with the grand assault which was to be made upon Cemetery Ridge from the other side by Pickett's Division of Longstreet's Corps. Stuart. He. and to occupy his position covering the intersection of the Hanover and line Low Dutch roads. too. been less than those of the Union cavalry. E. he arrived in the vicinity of Gettysburg. 1863. which for some time had been cut off from all communication with the main body of Lee's army.

the ground occupied by his opponents was lower and less commanding. runs nearly parallel with the Low Dutch Road from the Hanover Reever house along the valley of Cress' Run. which connects the York and Baltimore Turnpikes. and more exposed to his view. Another cross-country road. lay at his feet. the Union cavalry had none As he himself of the states whole country for miles lay at his feet. by Powers' Hill. On the other hand. was Stuart's position to such a move. and. at the George Howard house. The whole country for miles in front of him. crossing over the high ground mentioned by Stuart. a tributary of White Run. affording protection and cover to the supports of the battery which was subsequently placed there. one should stand on the hill back of the Rummel Farm buildings. in his official report. appreciate well adapted To how The position occupied by the advantages claimed by Stuart for his own. and strikes the Baltimore Turnpike by the bridge over White Run about a mile southeast of the bridge over Rock Creek. then as now. and. continuing on about two miles farther in a southwesterly direction. clear up to Cemetery Hill and the Round Tops. The Low Dutch Road crosses the Hanover Road nearly at right angles. all under the command of General Longstreet. strikes the Baltimore Turnpike about the rear of center of our main line of battle. forming two ridges. In his rear a cross-country road. where the Confederate leader was enabled to mass and manoeuvre his command unobserved by his opponents.THE RIGHT FLANK AT GETTYSBURG. close to which. Heth's and Pender's Divisions and Wilcox's Brigade of Hill's Corps. 2JX 1863. from half a mile to a mile nearer Gettysburg. and that east of it as Cress' Ridge. about three and a half miles southeast of Gettysburg. that west of the run being known as Brinkerhoff's Ridge. runs in a southeasterly direction toward the Low Dutch Road. A piece side on the southerly of woods crowned the easterly of the ridge side of the cross-road. branches off from the York Turnpike about two and a half miles from Gettysburg. July 3. Screened by this and another piece of woods on the opposite side of the cross-road is a large open space on the Stallsmith farm. This high ground is divided south of the cross-road by the upper valley of Cress' Run. the Reserve at the Road .

By these roads the rear of our main line of battle was directly accessible. In addition he had with him Jenkins' Brigade of . consisting of the Second North Carolina and the Ninth. Third. F. 1863. and General H. and Cobb's Georgia. A piece of woods. Chambliss. is a small creek known as Little's Run. Lee's Brigade. and the ammunition trains were stationed. This. consisting of the First North Carolina and the First and Second South Carolina Cavalry Regiments. Fourth. which lies about three Artillery miles east of Gettysburg. the Jeff Davis. On the other hand Stuart had under his command General Wade Hampton's Brigade. under Colonel John R. Irvin Gregg's Brigade. starting from the springhouse at Rummel's. and force under five The Gregg numbered about Phillips' Georgia Legions General Fitzhugh Lee's Brigade. and Thirteenth Virginia Cavalry Regiments. as will appear. extending about equi-distant on each road from near a lane leading down to John Rummel's house and farm buildings on the north. which since the battle has been much reduced in extent. though not more than three thousand were actually engaged in the fight about to be described. was used by our troops in operating between the Baltimore Turnpike and the Hanover Road. The Rummel farm buildings eventually became the key-point of the field. W . but close under the latter. to near the Lott house on the south. About three-fourths of a mile northeast from the intersection of the Low Dutch and Hanover Roads the cross-country road first above mentioned branches off to the northwest toward the York Turnpike and the left center of Stuart's position. a total distance of a half mile or more. thousand men. Tenth. consisting of the First. July 3. covered the intersection of the Low Dutch Road and the cross-road running toward the enemy's position. It consisted of the three regiments of Mcintosh's Brigade and the Purnell Troop.272 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. and Fifth Virginia Cavalry Regiments. being a rather shorter and more direct road than the Low Dutch Road. One side of this piece of woods faced the northwest and the enemy's position. and Custer's Brigade. Second. which. Between the ridge on which the George Howard house stands and along which the Low Dutch Road runs and that part of Cress' Ridge occupied by the right center of Stuart's line. remained on the field.

however. and a few minutes after one o'clock. he ordered Major Beaumont to move the First New Jersey forward toward the wooded crest about five-eighths of a mile in front of him and a short distance beyond Rummel's. though short of ammunition. he made the necessary inquiries as to his picket line. Ferguson. expecting there to find the enemy. about 2 o'clock. upon the magnificent spec- As soon as the the purpose of Michigan Brigade had begun to move off for joining Kilpatrick near Round Top. under Colonel Milton 3. While in this position. determined to ascertain what force was in his front without waiting to be attacked. who had looked well over the ground. and that an attack might be expected at any moment. mounted. and which at once occupied a line of fences a short dis- 18 . Everything was quiet at the time. This movement was a signal for the deployment of a skirmish line from Rummel's barn. Sixteenth. the tremendous artillery firing which preceded Longstreet's attack began. however. awaiting developments. July Cavalry. his brigade upon the ground occupied by Custer for the purpose of relieving" him. This entire force has been estiGriffin's Maryland batteries. Custer reported. The artillery with Stuart consisted of McGregor's Virginia. Accordingly. and consisting of the Fourteenth. 273 1863. Xot being within range. and the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-sixth Virginia Battalions. The First New Jersey was at once ordered out. Mcintosh. while allowing their horses to graze. Breathed's Virginia. and the Third Pennsylvania and First Maryland were drawn up in columns of squadrons in a clover field west of the Lott house. When came with the officers and men of the brigade. taking position in the piece of woods on the Low Dutch Road. to relieve Custer's pickets. Jackson's Virginia. facing to the northwest. Mcintosh. shortly before one o'clock in the afternoon. looked with astonishment tacle. and the position and force of the enemy. and J. armed as mounted infantry with Enfield muskets. that the enemy was all around. mated by reliable Confederate authority at between six thousand and seven thousand men.THE RIGHT FLANK AT GETTYSBURG. where a strong picket force of the enemy had been concealed. and Seventeenth Virginia Cavalry Regiments.

That brigade was yet some distance off. The enemy. at the same time reporting to General Gregg that he was engaged with and requesting that Irvin Gregg's Brigade be sent up at a trot to support him. and a battery was placed in position in front of the of wooded crest back Rummel's. were deployed dismounted to the left in the open fields along Little's Run. Hess. tance in front. under the command of the writer. Mcintosh at once sent back for Randol and his guns. and the Purnell Troop. Heading his column about. and Walsh. 1863. replied with promptness. ever ready for a fight. * In the exceptionally hard work of the campaign. . the The First New Jersey was dismounted and took position behind a fence running parallel with that occupied by under Major Janeway. men. and the left under Captain Boyd and immediately became hotly engaged. ordered him to reinforce Mcintosh. while General Gregg came upon the field and took command of all the Union cavalry. and the three other squadrons* of the Third Pennsylvania. Captain Newhall's squadron (he being at the time upon the Brigade Staff) had become so much reduced in the number of officers. meeting Custer at the head of iiis brigade. and Gregg. and to remain on the ground until the Third Brigade could be brought up. he moved up at once to Mcintosh's support. under Captains Treichel and Rogers. July 3. and horses that in order to increase its efficiency it was. under Captains Miller. was not loath to do so. Custer. To meet movement skirmish line was strongly reinforced by dismounted men. consolidated with that of Captain Miller.274 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. with Walsh this still further to the right. while picking off our men. Captain Hart's squadron of the First New Jersey deployed in the the Confederate woods on Miller's left. having filled the large barn at Rummel's with sharpshooters. The Confederate battery now opened fire. which had started on the march in the opposite direction. in the woods covering the cross-road above mentioned running toward the enemy's position. whose battery had not yet moved off but was still in position on the Hanover Road near the Spangler house. deployed mounted to the extreme right of the whole line. who. Miller on the left of the road facing to the northwest and Hess on the right of the line enemy —the — right facing to the north. were completely a greatly superior force. and Pennington. Two squadrons of the Third Pennsylvania.

but it was at once driven back. held by the dismounted skirmishers of Hampton's and Fitz Lee's Brigades. to give way also. the Fifth Michigan. Randol's second section. F Lee's Brigade advanced to the support of the enemy's skirmishers. was ordered to relieve them. No sooner had it reached the line than a dismounted regiment from H. Captain Randol. on the left of the Purnell Troop. By the accuracy of their fire and superior range.the right flank at gettysburg. the remainder of the regiment supporting them. placed in position. the center of our line advanced and occupied the enemy's line of fences near the farm buildings. a force was sent out to take the enemy in flank. an officer of General Tyler's staff who had volunteered to serve with the battery. the two batteries soon silenced the enemy's guns on the back of Rummel's. having come up. so as to cover the Hanover Road. 3. July protected from our fire. Shell after shell from Pennington's battery and Chester's section struck the building. and moved up to the front. 275 1863. and opened upon the barn. The Fifth Michigan. a few yards southwest of the Lott house. on the edge of an orchard north of the George Howard house. soon compelling the enemy to abandon it. under Lieutenant Kinney. by the effective fire of our artillery. The center and left of our line were thus advanced and four squadrons of the Sixth Michigan went into position dismounted along Little's Run. armed with Spencer repeating carbines. along the line of fences which intersected the field lengthwise. Having thus pierced his line. extending still further to the left. and made a terrific onslaught upon the position. and. a section of his battery under Lieutenant Chester. as also some others in position more to our left on Brinkerhoff's Ridge. Meanwhile a column of Confederate cavalry began to move out of the woods to make a charge upon the right of our line. and the the ammunition of the First sylvania As W . with some loss. he placed it to the left and some distance to the rear of Chester's section. This movement caused the left of the enemy s line. though short of ammunition from the beginning of the fight. which succeeded in driving back a portion of Jenkins' Brigade in front of our left center. dismounted. as he did so. upon coming on the ground. crest New Jersey and Third Pennwas becoming exhausted.

the First New Jersey and the two Third Pennsylvania squadrons. which was to take its place. endeavored to withdraw. first on the right and then on the left. Michigan gave way. Mcintosh rode over quickly to the place near the Lott house where he had left the Gregg. whereupon the Seventh in close pursuit. and advanced with it to meet the attack. almost reached Both regiments then fought face until it to face across the fence with their carbines scorching flank. believing it a signal of retreat. the right of gan swung back and took a position behind the the Fifth Michi- fence which ran First Vir- nearly parallel with the line of the charging column. ordered close column of squadrons to be formed at the gallop. and then fell back. and again and again was this repeated. among the killed being the gallant Major Ferry of the Fifth Michigan. had come up to relieve. fire was centered upon the at The enemy's reinforcements and revolvers. howFirst Maryland prepared for such an emergency. upon coming on the field. As it was seen to start. the enemy following . Custer. while a First Virginia from either last came up. The Seventh Michigan advanced boldly to meet the on coming up to a stone and rail fence. in spite of the heavy the fence from the other side. of Fitz Lee's Brigade. 1863. ginia. and assisted the First Virginia to pass the fence. had moved the regiment over to the right to cover the Low Dutch and Hanover roads for the purpose of guarding more effectually that important quarter. who was near. instead of pushing across Virginia began firing with their carbines. The Jerseymen and Pennsylvanians came back upon the line and assisted in the repulse of the attack. The right of the First New Jersey and of the Fifth Michigan remained at their part of the line until the last cartridge was used. This movement was taken advantage of by the enemy. and the First Virginia. fire had slackened. The Seventh Michigan. The enemy. was just then coming upon the field from the direction of the Reever house in column of fours. also saw the emergency. troops it When the As the First New Jersey retired. advanced. held the ground stubbornly. which had been ordered to retire when the Fifth Michigan came up. it. but. ever.276 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY July 3. but not until they had suffered heavily. fire. The First came on. was ordered to charge upon our right center.

.

Ld I I- .UJ O DC < I o Q Z < O UJ DC I ILl o O _i UJ u.

in a letter written a few days after the battle. he ordered the First North Carolina and Jeff Davis Legion to its support. fire at whose guns were opened once. a murmur Chester. 320. seeing that a portion of Chambliss' command was being driven back by a large force. General Stuart further states that the First North Carolina and Jeff Davis Legion were sent to the support of the First Virginia. t According to the writer's diary this was about 3 o'clock. but encountering our reserves in heavy force. the Rev. with a range of three-fourths of a mile. XI. and in the hand-to-hand fight which then occurred he was wounded. confirmed by a letter of General Fitzhugh Lee to the writer. General Wade Hampton states in his report that. the fate of the day would be decided against the Army of the Potomac. of admiration. becoming strung out by this movement. . H. F. and that gradually the hand-to-hand fighting involved the greater portion of his command. On the other hand. emerging from behind the screen of woods on the cross-road by the Stallsmith farm. was checked. In close columns of squadrons. his and Fitz Lee's Brigades charged. while a battalion of the Fifth Michigan. No official reports of the battle made by General Fitzhugh Lee or Colonel Chambliss are to be found among the Confederate official records in the War De- partment.* Just then there appeared in the distance. advancing as if in review. George W. July 3. Lee's Brigade. The ance. and published in Vol. then a Lieutenant in the Ninth Virginia Cavalry. and havoc created in our rear. 277 1863. commanded by Chambliss. which drove our people back. with sabres drawn and glistening like silver in the bright sunlight — the spectacle called forth a deed.f Everyone saw at once that unless this. It was more than even the gallant First Virginia could stand. These writers evidently confused the various preliminary charges and the final grand charge. innearest. which had succeeded in mounting. the important moment had arrived. Pen- * The statement that this preliminary charge was made by the First Virginia Cavalry of Fitz Lee's Brigade is based upon the authority of General Stuart's report. They were Stuart's last reserves. Southern Historical Society Papers.— THE RIGHT FLANK AT GETTYSBURG. stated that the charge was made by the Ninth and Thirteenth Virginia of W. which were fast advancing to its assistFirst Virginia. and his last resource. the grandest attack of all. as Longstreet's command was even then moving up to the assault of Cemetery Ridge. memorable one. a large mass of cavalry the brigades of Hampton and Fitz Lee. If the Baltimore Turnpike was to be reached. It was. was exposed to a terrific fire from the two batteries in front and the skirmish lines on the flanks. Beale. p. and it was compelled to fall back on its supports. advanced under Major Trowbridge to assist the Seventh.

the warnings of the present were not heeded by the jump. but the long rents closed up at once. which. nington and Kinney soon did the same. The execution was fearful. as it had come upon the field a short time before. but those behind came pressing on.278 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Staggered by the fearful execution of the two batteries. There the cry had been. Custer. but the alignment was maintained. Chester the charge As man put charge after charge of double canister into their midst. Chester kept on firing until the enemy was within fifty yards. cavalry. and gripped his Though ordered to retire his guns. — of his brigade. and the column fanned out to the right and left. As Town ordered sabres to be drawn and the column to advance. toward which the head of the assaulting column was directed. and at Aldie had been severe. "Keep ! sabre was never a favorite weapon with the Confederate all. As the opposing columns drew nearer and nearer. The two columns drew nearer and nearer. every horse on yelling like a demon. waved his sabre . Canister and shell were poured into the steadily approaching columns as fast as the guns could fire. The mounted skirmishers Then Gregg rode over to the First rallied and fell into line. and placed himself at its head. The orders of the Confederate officers could be to your sabres. every was ordered the speed increased. every man weapon the tighter. at Brandy Station. gathered his horse well under him. seeing the men in the front ranks of the enemy hesitate. Some turned. then the gallop. The dismounted men fell back to the right and left. in spite of the lessons of the past. "Put up your sabres Draw your pistols and fight like gentlemen !" But the heard. his men bringing it up to the guns by the armful. the men in the front of the Confederate column drew in their horses and wavered. 1863. July 3. and the head of the First Michigan had come into the line of his fire. The gait increased first the Hampton's battle-flag floated in the van trot. had formed closed column of squadrons supporting the batteries. and now. keep to your sabres !" for the lessons they had learned at Kelly's Ford. the Confederates outnumbering their opponents three or four to one. each with perfect alignment. men. The columns of the Confederates blended. and gave the word to charge. Custer dashed up with similar orders. and such as could got to their horses. Michigan.

with his squadron of the Third Pennsylvania. At the same moment the color-bearer lowered his spear and struck Newhall full in the face. with his staff and orderlies. July 3. and shouted. charged into the overwhelming masses of the enemy. 279 1863. all making for Hampton's colorguard. which seemed like hours. Custer four lengths ahead. and Lieutenant Edmonds. to rally their men for a charge on the flank as it passed. Nearly every officer and man in the little band was wounded. Miller. Newhall. and sharing the excitement of the moment. Rogers. with orders to Treichel and Rogers.THE RIGHT FLANK AT GETTYSBURG. at the head of the little band. by the side of Treichel and Rogers. the frenzied imprecations. sent his Adjutant-General. — — arms. and Wetherill. "Come on. you Wolverines !" and with a fearful yell the First Michigan rushed on. and part of the Fifth Michigan. the demands to surrender. Going through and through. amid the clashing of the sabres. the . Meanwhile the heads of the two columns had met the one led by Hampton and Fitz Lee. he cut off and drove it back past Rummel's up to the Conand nothing but the losses which he had suffered and the scattering of his men prevented his going farther and taking it. Newhall. and he was compelled to parry it. and with five officers they made for the battle-flag. and the other by Custer and were fighting hand-to-hand. charged in on the flanks with their sabres. But sixteen men could get their horses. the rattle of the small the rear portion federate battery. For minutes. back once more with the officers and men of his own regiment. Captain Walter S. Newhall was about seizing the flag when a sabre cut was directed at his head. and then. whose squadron of the Third Pennsylvania was already mounted. as he saw the Confederate column advancing. Miller. and such scattered men from the Michigan and other regiments as he could get together. rallied and fired a volley from the woods on the right as the Confederate column passed parallel with his line. The small detachment of the Third Pennsylvania on the left under Captains Treichel. rushed in. who were on the left. struck the left flank about two-thirds of the way down the column. Almost at the same moment. struck the enemy first. Mcintosh. wounded though he was. knocking him senseless to the ground. Mcintosh. with sabres drawn.

remained in ours until the end. . Gregg remained all night in possession of the field of the hand-to-hand contest.. were carried away by the overpowering current of the retreat. and the enemy was driven back into the woods beyond. our men following in close pursuit. 1863. Then it was that Wade Hampton was wounded. As Hart's squadron and the other small parties charged in from all sides. and the outside men to draw back. and many of our men. near the colors. Thomas of the staff.28o HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. the enemy turned. and in the morning his Third Brigade started in pursuit of the retreating enemy. Captain Hampton S. cut his way over to the woods on the right. The pursuit was kept up past Rummel's. The line of fences. and for a time kept up a brisk firing. A. but all serious fighting for the day was over. who were lying thickly strewn over the field. By this time the edges of the Confederate column had begun to wear away. established and maintained a skirmish line on his side of the farm buildings. Am. The enemy.t dark Stuart withdrew to the York Turnpike. Then there was a pell-mell rush. Ill. Many prisoners were captured.) p. the greater part of which was in our possession. seeing that a little more was needed to turn the tide. and the farm building. up at intervals by both forces until after nightfall. and the two headed the squadron for that part of the fight. of Civil War in America. Hist. 673.* Paris states (Vol. who had mounted his squadron of the First New Jersey. In the evening Custer's Brigade was ordered to join its division. and the victory along our line was comSkirmishing and some desultory artillery firing were kept plete. which in the beginning of the fight had been in the possession of the enemy. however. preparatory to covering the retreat of Lee's army toward the Potomac. Ed. for Longstreet"s simultaneous attack upon Cemetery Ridge had also been repulsed. July 3. and thus separating it from * The Comte de etc. the Confederate column stood its ground. that Stuart's object was to move his command west of Cress' Ridge. the key-point of the field. through their impetuosity. undaunted replies and the appeals for mercy. where he knew he could find Hart. was an officer of high rank. these disturbances being for the most part caused by the enemy's endeavors to recover his killed and wounded. In the melee. so as to turn the left of the Union cavalry unobserved.

which also were soon forced Jenkins' Brigade and to join in the fight. four enmen wounded. and until late into the night.) come upon the field during had consequently been held in reserve. under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Greely S. and seventy-five enlisted men captured or missing total. two hundred and fifty- — — the rest of the army. the consequence being that he was prevented from accomplishing his object. for. twelve enlisted and Irvin Gregg's Brigades. and preventing a flank attack from that quarter of the field. were. near the Spangler house. the Michigan Brigade had gotten so deeply into the fight that it could not be withdrawn. exchanging at frequent intervals a brisk fire with the enemy's infantry. The Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry remained all day. which were filled with his sharpshooters. July 2-3. upon the skirmish line established in the morning. and Mcintosh having forced the fighting.1 THE RIGHT FLANK AT GETTYSBURG. The moral effect view of the field of fighting. one officer and twenty-nine enlisted men killed. to strike the Baltimore Turnpike without waiting for the issue of the great struggle. Curtis. Those on the Union according during the fighting of the 2d just described. in order to create a panic in the rear of our main line of battle. he (Stuart) was compelled to leave those brigades to detain the Union cavalry north of the that Hanover Road while he continued his movement with commanded by Chambliss. Irvin and three enlisted men captured or missing total. to the official reports. but that his presence having been disclosed by the debouching of Hampton's and Fitz Lee's Brigades into the open fields beyond Rummel's. went far toward of the presence of these troops in full securing the successful results of the day. the effect of which would be decisive upon the battlefield. and at one time repulsing a vigorous attack upon the line. twenty. and easily observed from the enemy's position. in Mcintosh's. and one officer 3d. 28 1863. in Mcintosh's listed men killed. The Third Brigade (together with a part of the First Massachusetts Cavalry. The losses of the Confederate cavalry were undoubtedly heavy. especially about the Deodorf farm buildings. had the fight. close at hand. side. which. drawn up in column of regiments on the south side of the Hanover Road west of the Low Dutch Road. July Gregg's and Custer's Brigades. by the time the Third Brigade had come up. eighteen officers and one hundred and thirty-one enlisted men wounded. thus efficiently maintaining the connection between our infantry and cavalry. The brunt of the fighting in Gregg's Division was borne by the Third Pennsylvania and First New Jersey Cavalry Regiments. . but were never ascertained.

statements. Pleasonton. therefore. thus insinuating that he was the victor of the fight. and reported to General Pleasonton.* The "Glorious Fourth" was the field of its spent by Mcintosh's Brigade near in the hard fight of the previous day. of who assigned him to duty with Colonel Huey's Brigade. two hundred and seventy- This exclusive of any losses in the batteries. and in denying Stuart's unwarranted insinuation every Union man present will bear out the truth of their trary. it moved over to the left of the Army of the Potomac. Gregg's Division. total four. but Stuart omits to report correctly what followed our countercharge. the Comte de Paris endeavors to settle the question by stating that the ground was abandoned by both parties.282 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. On July 5 the brigade started in the direction of Emmitsburg in pursuit of the enemy. on is right flank July 2 and 3. commanding the Cavalry Corps. claimed in his official report Union cavalry was driven from the field of the engagement. and the lapse of time before the rolls were prepared. * As has been stated in the text. He accompanied the latter to Middletown and thence to Boonsboro. Since the Union and Confederate commanders each claimed to have driven the other from the field. . July 2-9. 1863. Here Duvall's Troop was detailed to guard some artillery and hospital stores. some of the killed were included in the report of "captured and missing. Stuart." The official figures. for the purpose of picketing the different roads and observing the movements of Lee's army. and other Confederates have done likewise. and in the evening. according to his custom. That we. which he subsequently turned over to General Sedgwick's Corps. It was learned that Stuart and his command had passed through the place the same morning. cannot be relied on as entirely accurate. Slyder's house. at one time. where he arrived on the 9th. on the conthat the remained masters of the field is maintained by Generals Gregg and Custer. when the two Confederate brigades almost reached our guns. drenching rain. and his words leave an incorrect impression. the Union cavalry. In consequence of the movements of the cavalry during and following the battle. of which no reports have been found. in their official reports. at and beyond J. the Third Pennsylvania taking position in front of Round Top. was nearly driven from the field of the main fight. four. and that evening went into bivouac near the town. and Colonels Town and Alger.

July 6 Huey's Brigade accompanied Kilpatrick's Division to Hagerstown. and there. bivouacking for the night and receiving a supply of rations and forage. whereupon the command moved to Boonsboro. A sharp fight followed. ensued. many of them wounded. The command at once started out for the mountains after the wagon train of Ewell's Corps. Huey's Brigade guarding the rear. It remained there. 1863. proceeded to Brigade morning the two divisions and Huey's .movements of huey's brigade. arriving there about midnight. Huey's Brigade had on July i parted company with the rest of the division and had been sent back from Hanover Junction to Manchester. picketing the roads and scouting the country. Huey's Brigade being on the left of the line. the command bivouacked at Jones' Cross Roads. which resulted in Stuart's withdrawing. however. late in the afternoon. who was at that place with the Third Cavalry Division. which was reported to be in the vicinity of Monterey Springs. went into bivouac. came up to Huey's pickets and drove them in. which place was reached at 11 o'clock that night. On the 4th the brigade marched to Emmitsburg. when it moved to Westminster. and received orders to report to General Kilpatrick. with a large number of horses and mules and about fifteen hundred prisoners. Stuart. of Huey's Brigade. lasting for some hours. On A hard fight. and after connecting with Buford's Division at Williamsport. The column with the rest of the prisoners moved on to Smithsburg. though exposed to an exceedingly heavy fire. About 3 o'clock next morning (July 5) the wagon train was overtaken near the Springs and one hundred and fifty wagons captured. but the command was forced to fall back in the direction of Williamsport. where Rodes' Division of Ewell's Corps was encountered. July 1-7. The officers among the latter and some of the other prisoners were sent to Frederick. the brigade covering the movement and holding the enemy in check. The retreat was successfully accomplished. where it also had gotten into a tight Next place. arriving there about noon. until the 3d. Soon. who had left Emmitsburg that morning. 283 As has been stated. and all the wagons and ambulances not required to transport those unable to walk were burned. The enemy's pickets were soon struck and handsomely driven in by the Sixth Ohio.

A renewal of the attack was ordered in the morning and the brigade again advanced. on the following day (July 8)* they were attacked by Stuart. The battery was brought up and the Eighth Pennsylvania and Sixth Ohio were deployed dismounted as skirmishers. Moving forward thus to the attack. Hampton (under Baker). with the brigades of Jones. and Jenkins (under Ferguson). the enemy along the whole line was driven into his breastproceeded far before it works. Buford and Stuart report and Kilpatrick on the 9th. when it the enemy. Fitzhugh Lee. James' College buildings. lasting from 5 o'clock in the morning until 5 in the evening. and after a The brigade then sharp skirmish driven for about a mile. The enemy was soon driven from his position and some prisoners taken. which he was busily engaged in strengthening. July 8-14. Huey on the . It then threw out pickets and withdrew. On July 10 the brigade marched by way of Keedysville to uncover the bridge over the Antietam at Booth's Mills. 1863. F Lee (under Chambliss). when he marched to Jones' Cross Roads and went into camp. The brigade established itself in a strong position about one hundred and fifty yards from the enemy's line of works. except a small party which took refuge in the St. The brigade remained there ordered out to feel until the 14th. the enemy was repulsed and driven about three miles in the direction of Funkstown. infantry to cross. The ground was held until after dark. Upon approaching on the his was again works it * 7th. so as to enable the moved out the Williamsport Road to Jones' Cross Roads. The command remained for three days at Boonsboro. The artillery was brought up to the skirmish line and the command deployed dismounted. but it had not came upon the enemy's infantry in considerable force and strongly posted. and remained there for some time until Huey received orders to retire. this fighting as taking place 8th. On the following morning Huey's Brigade was ordered to make a reconnoissance on the Williamsport Road. Boonsboro where. After a severe engagement. where the enemy was found. \V H. when the cavalry was relieved bv infantry and went into camp a short distance to the rear.284 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. in which the whole force was engaged.

near which Here orders were received General Thomas H. After spending the night at Hunterstown the brigade started out by the Cashtown Road of the day before. directing the brigade to report to Fairfield. 1863. showing the position of the greater part of Lee's army. On the 7th the brigade started for Middletown. His pickets were soon encountered and driven in and an important dispatch. fight with the rear guard of Lee's army become engaged. where Genat eral Gregg. pursuit was continued on the 6th to Chambersburg and Marion. The movements of Mcintosh's Brigade have been followed to Emmitsburg. After feeling the enemy and becoming satisfied that that was no place for effective cavalry operations. was found that they had been abandoned. had established his headquarters. abandoned caissons and limbers. and the march was continued without opposition to Williamsport and thence to Falling Waters. who was having a severe It did not. The night was spent in bivouac at Falling Waters and on the following day the brigade moved to Boonsboro. ("Beau") . Brigade. A large number of The prisoners were also taken and sent back to Gettysburg. but remained in reserve in full view of the fighting. where it joined Kilpatrick. where his pickets were struck and driven in. and on the nth it marched to Boonsboro. the exigencies of the occasion requiring their services in different directions. two davs before. being the freshest in condition. arriving there on the 9th. The main body of the Confederates was found to be strongly posted in a deep mountain gorge. however. was captured and forwarded at once to General Meade. intosh on the 6th started in that direction to hunt him up.MOVEMENTS OF IRVIN GREGG'S AND M'lNTOSH's BRIGADES. we withdrew and moved to the right toward place we came across the Sixth Corps. Stuart's position in proceeded Finding it abandoned it Hunterstown. 285 July 4-14. where it went into bivouac on the evening of July Hearing that the enemy was on the Waynesboro Road Mc5. overtaking them Greenwood. The road was filled with their broken-down wagons. From immediately until July 12 the after the close of the battle of Gettysburg two other brigades of Gregg's Division operEarly on July 4 Irvin Gregg's moved forward toward as far as ated separately. search of the enemy in pursuit of the retreating Confederates.

Cavetown. July 6-14. commanding the Third Brigade. Corps. to head him off. In this vicinity three days were pleasantly spent in getting some rest and food. for service in following up the Leaving Fairfield about daybreak on July 7 Mcintosh's Brigade of cavalry and Neill's Brigade of infantry. came up. crossed the mountains at Monterey Springs. of Jones' Brigade. The two brigades under General Gregg left Boonsboro about 7 o'clock in the morning of July 14. In our trips around we succeeded in capturing some of his foraging parties. crossed the Potomac at Harper's Ferry. in order. in frightening our militia they thought from the sounds of the fighting that we were about to bring back the whole friends almost out of their senses. and artillery strongly posted. stirring up quite a lively little skirmish at Old Antietam Forge. if possible. There were at this time no other troops of the Army of .286 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. had burned the bridges over the Antietam Creek after crossing it. 1863. Shortly after reaching Waynesboro the emergency troops. picking up many of the enemy on the way. where Irvin Gregg's Brigade and the division headquarters were found. Maryland. Second Division. marching steadily all day by way of Leitersburg and Funkstown in a drenching rain storm. The chief results — — of the expedition consisted. the passage being feebly contested by a small party of the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry. which was soon driven back on Charlestown and its colonel and some others taken prisoners. however. it was ascertained. and in the afternoon arrived at Waynesboro. and Leitersburg.them we were glad to find many friends from home. the former in advance. while the rest of the army moved to Middletown. While there Mcintosh's Brigade made a reconnoissance in force on July 10 in the direction of Smithsburg. and marching by way of Rohrersville. Sixth enemy from that point and harassing him. The brigade left Waynesboro early on the 12th. The night was spent in bivouac on Bolivar Heights and on picket. Neill. and among. and spent the night at Boonsboro. which. as of Lee's army upon them. and in picketing and scouting about to see what the enemy was doing. where we found the enemy cavalry. only a couple of hours behind the Confederate rear guard. infantry. under the command of General William Farrar ("Baldy") Smith.

Just as Gregg had made all his preparations for raiding the country in the direction of Martinsburg he received a dispatch from the corps commander warning him that the whole of the enemy's army was south of the Potomac. Counting on this reinforcement Gregg. and Gregg was therefore sent to destroy the enemy's trains on the other side and cut off his communication with Winchester. the march was continued to Shepherdstown. which place was surrounded and taken possession of. VA. started out with Mcintosh's and Irvin Gregg's Brigades for the purpose of operating on the enemy's flanks and rear. The regiment held the position until the next morning. 287 soil. Irvin Gregg's Brigade in the advance. and that Huey's Brigade of the division had been ordered to join him. was at Martinsburg. The column proceeded as far as Halltown. The latter was speedily distributed among the men. It was also ascertained that Robertson's Brigade of cavalry was picketing up the river above Shepherdstown. while a portion of Ewell's Corps. early on the 15th. unable to cross on account of the high state of the water. when it returned. driving in the enemy's cavalry pickets and having a little brush with them. But Lee had quietly slipped away during the night of the 13th and had crossed the river. About a mile out the Winchester Road the pickets were struck and driven about three miles farther to Wolpert's Cross Roads. Potomac on Virginia it whose light supply of food had become exhausted. whose drums could be distinctly heard. with some wagons and ambulances belonging to the enemy and a goodly supply of flour and bacon. and the First Maine Cavalry scouted as far as Charlestown. while Aleade attacked him in his works around Williamsport. where it was learned that Stuart had crossed the Potomac early on the previous morning and was in force at Leetown and Charlestown. Leaving the Thirteenth Pennsylvania and Scott's Nine Hundred at Halltown. 1863. July the off 14-15.CAVALRY FIGHT AT SHEPHERDSTOWN. The Martinsburg and Winchester roads were found to be picketed by the enemy's cavalry and the Fourth Pennsylvania was sent forward to ascertain what force was in front. three miles to the right. having crossed the river at Williamsport and Falling Waters. . When the expedition was ordered was supposed that the whole of Lee's army was still north of the river.

Attack upon attack of dismounted skirmishers was made upon the position. A gallant resistance by the picket reserve delayed for a time the advance of the enemy. Soon the conflict extended along the center and left of Irvin Gregg's line and the right of Mcintosh's. and Jones' Brigade was ordered up from the direction of Charlestown to form the right of the attack. Irvin Gregg's Brigade on the right covering the Martinsburg and Winchester roads and Mcintosh's Brigade on the left covering the Charlestown and Harper's Ferry roads. and from 5 o'clock until after . July 16.288 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. and then that of Chambliss. which was just at that moment in the vicinity on a foraging expedition. About 2 o'clock. With his customary coolness. before proceeding farther. Two batteries of artillery and a sent in the balance of his section of howitzers raked our line. Fitzhugh Lee. but soon the pressure became greater and the battalion was forced to retire a short distance. in po- between the Martinsburg and Winchester roads. on the 16th a vigorous attack was made upon the battalion of the Tenth New York Cavalry.dark the fight raged with unceasing fury. Convinced that the enemy was around in force Gregg determined. which proved to be a portion of Fitzhugh Lee's Brigade. charge after charge of mounted cavalrymen. fences. but. came up to its support. 1863. formed his command. and other obstacles. however. to await the arrival of Huey's Brigade. soon own brigade by the Winchester Road. dismounted. which was picketing the Winchester Road. The enemy's main efforts were directed toward the possession sition . but Randol's Battery. was more than a match for them and did splendid execution. behind a line of stone walls. while Jenkins' Brigade was directed to advance by the Martinsburg Road. no ground was given up. who in Stuart's absence was in command. well appreciating the precarious situation in which he was placed. With the assistance of this reinforcement the enemy was held in check until the two brigades got to horse. Fortunately the First Maine Cavalry. with the exception of the falling back of the pickets and some readjustment of the line. Gregg. That same tenacity and determination which always characterized Gregg's defensive fights and which saved the army on the right flank at Gettysburg again stood him in good stead.

July of the of i6. The river behind Shepherdstown was unfordable on account of the swollen state of the water. but all were no Jones' Brigade. Huey.CAVALRY FIGHT AT SHEPHERDSTOWN. About 3 o'clock in the afternoon. desperate. which since morning had marched all the way from Boonsboro and crossed the river at Harper's Ferry. About 9 o'clock in the evening it was ascertained that the enemy in our front was retiring. a narrow pathway along the banks of the Potomac previously unknown to us. upon leaving Boonsboro. he received a dispatch from General Pleasonton informing him that Gregg was surrounded at Shepherdstown. which had been ordered up to the front by some one before it was known Matters now began to look that the enemy was there in force. of of this reinforcement federate army was in the neighborhood. came up by the river road. and upon arriving there he supposed that his was the only force south of the Potomac. not knowing that Gregg was in the neighborhood. He accordingly made preparations to go into bivouac and threw out pickets in all directions. and capturing some of our light wagons. of the stores left there. for we had supposed that we were completely hemmed in by the enemy. however. our retreat. town and the recovery avail. Upon making inquiry. Nothing was to be gained on our part by remaining on the ground. he learned of the existence of the old which Gregg had not been informed. took possession of the road to Harper's Ferry. Fortunately. and. had merely been ordered to march to Harper's Ferry. as it was supposed. As the ammuniMcintosh's and Irvin Gregg's Brigades was exhausted 19 tion of . 289 1863. there was nothing to do but fight it out in hopes of something turning up. barring. while the Army of the Potomac was still on the other side of the river. surrounded as we were by greatly superior numbers. than that taken by Gregg. coming up from the direction of Charlestown. VA. among others that belonging to the headquarters of the First Brigade. about 7 o'clock in the evening Huey's Brigade. as the whole of the Conriver road. by which we had come up. and ordering him to go to his assistance by some other road. which had been speedily put to flight. The arrival was gladly welcomed by all. if possible. therefore. which was in possession of the enemy. without having encountered a stronger force than a squadron of cavalry.

who. change of clothing. however. and they were in no condition to cope with Lee's entire arm) Gregg determined to return to Harper's Ferry during the nighl The road we had marched over the previous day was still ii possession of the enemy. and perhaps those of the other regiments. for over forty-eight hours. that our adversaries wer making extensive preparations to "gobble" the whole concern after command but their expectations. We re mained two days at Bolivar Heights. The rear guard reported that th enemy was nowhere to be seen when it left the town. the head of the column reached Bolivar Heights abou 8 o'clock next morning. with his troop. We were heartily glad to get back. having had no rest or anything to eat. in which the way was lost severa times. on th 19th. All of our wounded who could bear transporting wer brought along. July 17. wen enabled to get at their valises and repair the ravages upon thei wardrobes. hac accompanied Huey's Brigade from Boonsboro to Shepherds town. th plight we were in may be readily imagined. and when is stated that during the campaign we were once for a weel without an opportunity of pulling off our heavy riding boots. cavalrymen who fought with Gregg on the right flank a Gettysburg have always maintained that we saved the clay a the most critical moment of that. fortunately for us. It wa midnight when it started and daylight before the last of th left Shepherdstown. so with Huey's Brigade to lead th way the division retired by the river road unmolested. no any forage for our horses. At Bolivar Heights Captain Duvall. but tha the latter had barricaded the roads to prevent or delay pursuit It was afterwards ascertained. July 16-19. were disappointed After a slow and tedious march by file or by twos along a bai road in the intense darkness.29O HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. the greatest battle and tin We . had started out on that day from Warrentoi We Junction. for we wer thoroughly worn out. was relieved from duty with the Army of the Potomac anc many of us without a i ordered back to Lockwood's Brigade. and while there. were made glad once more by the sight of our wagons For the first time since June 13 the officers of the Third Pennsyl vania Cavalry. 1863.

struck the Army of the Potomac infantry in the rear of its line of battle. of which the infantry bore the brunt. Longstreet's magnificent and furious assault in when our — had all it could do to hold on to the line of Cemetery Ridge. Full justice has yet to be done to the services of General Gregg and his command in the Battle of Gettysburg. with his large force of cavalry. nor. to give us credit for having done anything. coming to a proper appreto write ciation of those services. and each in proper sphere. It has not always been among historians to give us credit for having done except until recently. and. each within supporting distance its and within sight of the other. So fierce was the main engagement. Had Stuart succeeded in his well-laid plan. July turning point of the the custom so. or what he thought he did. He was not given to writing glowing descriptions of what he did." "Oh glorious field of Gettysburg High in the rolls of fame. but surely. and no news correspondents were allowed to sojourn with us to do it for us. It has often been said that Gregg's fight at Gettysburg was one of the finest cavalry fights of the war. ! With Waterloo and Marathon Shall men inscribe thy name!" . that the fighting on the part of the cavalry passed almost unnoticed. as was the case with some others. vet this was one of the few battles of the war in which the three arms of the service fought in combination and at the same time. But the country is gradually. simultaneously with its front. or would have liked to have done. 2-3. War of the Rebellion. 2C)I 1863. As Custer said in his re- port of brilliant it: "T challenge the annals of warfare to produce a more or successful charge of cavalry than the one just re- counted. The turmoil incident to an active campaign allowed us no opportunity up our achievements. and but little more was needed to make the assault a success the merest tyro in the art of war can readily tell what the result would have been.! THE RIGHT FLANK AT GETTYSBURG.

and it was echoed back by the cavalryme on the northern hillside. Captain of Company H. About dusk "to horse" was sounded. Miller. infantry. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. E. broke the monotony of the long and weary march from Fa mouth to Gettysburg. 1863.was transferred froi Buford's Division to the Second Brigade of the Second Divisioi who had commanded Division.— CHAPTER By William XVIII THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY AT GETTYSBURG. while they were drawn up on the slope of the north ern bank of the Potomac awaiting the crossing of McCandles. the Second Brigade of Gregg was promoted to the command of Stahel's Divisioi which was then added to the Cavalry Corps of the Army of tl" Potomac as the Third Division. and formed one of the happy incidents th." The me took up tue refrain. Before leaving Frederick the First Pennsylvania Cavalry w. was the last regiment to cross the Potomac into Marylan by the pontoon bridge at Edwards' Ferry. A tedious night's march along a road blockade with wagons and other impediments brought us to Monocac Junction. 1863. Well do the men c Gregg's cavalry command remember the evening of the 27th c June. A soon as the band of McCandless' Brigade placed foot on th bridge it began to play "Maryland. different cavalry Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. June 27 July 3. My Maryland. after participating in th engagements from Brandy Station to Upper ville. the 281I A reorganization of the cavalry there took place. on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. and Colonel Pennock Hue with the Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. The which was somewhat delayed on the opposite side. General Ki patrick. Huey succeeding Kilpatrick in command of the brigade. between whic place and Frederick we halted on Sunday morning. except McCandlesi Brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves. 292 . The scene was beautiful and touchin beyond description. and the division agai put in motion.

so that he might be delayed in communicating with his On the evening of the 28th Mcintosh's Brigade was sent chief. where it remained until after the battle of Gettysburg. such as pinching themselves. June 28-30. As the officers were responsible for keeping the column closed up. on all the roads leading frotfi Frederick to the north and east to prevent his gaining information. and from there one squadron went northward to Woodbine. and from there scouting parties were sent in every direction. the next station east of Woodbine. 1863. Gregg's Division was concentrated at Mount Airy. The men fell asleep in their saddles. and pricking themselves with pins. m. and passing New Market it halted at Ridgeville. When within about five miles of Westminster it was discovered that the left of the line was not up. the prospect of another night march was. pounding their heads. and whenever the column halted the horses would fall asleep. to night was very dark and both Westminster was one of unusual severity. they had to resort to all sorts of expedients to keep awake. to say the least. on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. on the 9th. north of Ridgeville.the march toward gettysburg. too. since the battle of Brandy Station. quarters. A halt was ordered. chusetts was also sent on detached service. and to push him as far away as possible. Five o'clock found it on the march for Westminster. and that whilst the portion of Our march . on sending back. and. 293 ordered to report to General Meade's headquarters. It was ascertained that Stuart was tearing up the tracks near Hood's Mill. discouraging. night and day. the fact was disclosed that the artillerymen and battery horses were sound asleep. eastward on the Baltimore Pike. for the men and horses were worn out. where it was supplied with a scanty allowance of rations and forage. and by 4 o'clock p. with the Third Pennsylvania of Mcintosh's Brigade in advance. at Boonsboro. Having been on almost continuous duty. it did not rejoin its brigade before the 12th of July. and Information was sent to headthat he was moving northward. The First Massa- While we were halted near Frederick it was discovered that Stuart was making a detour around our army and had crossed Our cavalry was sent out the Potomac below Edwards' Ferry. On the morning of the 29th a portion of the Third Pennsylvania was sent to Lisbon.

— 294 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Pennsylvania. carriages and wagons. Here we met with a cordial reception. After losing some valuable time in consequence of these conflicting orders. sylvania. that some oi the houses remained closed. and the women. and upon inquiry it was ascertained that these had in a similar manner been open the day before for the reception of Stuart and his men. 1863. however. waved their handkerchiefs and cheered the old flag. that in the rear was standing still. column in front of them had been moving on. we were making direct had taken the Hanover had cavalry while intercepted the line on the previous day. hay-ladders. while right flank. of Kilpatrick's encounter with Stuart the marks the Third Division. .. of the Third Penn- Westminster and captured a lot of Stuart's stragglers. standing on their doorsteps and at the windows. and obtained a little sleep. where we went into bivouac. gave their horses the last grain of feed they had with them. and at daylight on the 30th the the advance. where we arrived during the forenoon of July 1. during which the men consumed what was left of the rations procured at Mount Airy. and to march with Mcintosh's and Irvin Gregg's Brigades westward to Gettysburg. came At Hanover we found the streets barricaded with boxes. Just as we were starting in the latter direction the final order came to send Huey's Brigade back to Manchester. old etc. and then by the Grove Mill Road to Hanover Junction. At Manchester a halt of a few hours was made. Mounting again we moved north along the Carlisle Pike for half a mile. The majority of the houses were thrown open. Maryland. we (Mcintosh's and Gregg's Brigades) advanced over a crooked road to Hanover. Scarcely was the division drawn out on the road when a second order directing him to turn about and move north as rapidly as possible toward York. and at of march of the Confederate it we had been following up. June 30 July i. for the detour on the road from Frederick. charged into Our movements uncertainties of some extent the the campaign. on the Northern Central Railroad. barbers' poles. After a short delay General Gregg at this place illustrate to received an order to proceed south toward Baltimore. As soon as the latter was brought up the whole command moved forward. under Captain Charles Treichel. It was noticed.

The regiments were closed up. in a field to allow the Gregg that the shortest route Bonaughtown or Hanover Road. about three-fourths of a mile distant. appeared in the road on the top of Brinkerhoff's Ridge. Rank (serving as light artillery). Near 6 o'clock some mounted men. men About 3 o'clock the Tenth New York Cavalry of the Third Brigade was ordered forward and directed to occupy Brinkerhoff's Ridge and fire relieve some infantry of the Eleventh Corps. became very sick. 295 1863. Resuming the march we arrived at the intersection of the Low Dutch (or Salem Church) and Hanover roads about noon on July 2. and we halted and horses some much-needed rest. without a change of clothing or an opportunity moreover we were much reduced by short for a general wash rations and exhaustion. and placed them on the Hanover Road opposite the Reever house. The column was halted. who were mish in possession of the ridge and were keeping up a skir- General Gregg took two H. a section of Battery W — bursting in their midst and scattering the party like chaff in a . Tate took him to Mr. Leaving Hanover at 3 o'clock on the morning of July 2 we had proceeded along the Littlestown Road for two miles when Dr. advised General to Gettysburg was by way of the The doctor piloted the column across the fields and we struck the Bonaughtown Road at McSherrystown.from hanover to gettysburg. where with careful medical attention he was in a short time restored and again made his appearance at the head of his command. and Dr. who had been suffering from exhaustion. about three miles east of Gettysburg. who was a citizen of Gettysburg and familiar with the country." which he did in the most approved style the two shells with the in their front. having been in the saddle day and night almost continuously for over three weeks. T. By this time we had become a sorry-looking body of men. Geiselman's house. . Third Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery. enemy guns. whereupon Gregg ordered Rank to send them a "feeler. July 2. On reaching Geiselman's woods. one of the assistant surgeons of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. T. Tate. Captain D. who seemed to be making observations. Colonel Mcintosh. and mounted on horses whose bones were plainly visible to the naked eye.

under repeatedly charged. on the right the road. which was driven in. two battalions of the First New Jersey. where it bivouacked for the night along White Run. About 10 o'clock the whole was withdrawn and movec over a country cross-road to the Baltimore Pike. and my squadron de ployed to the right of Hess' On the left side of the road. wind storm. discovered that a stone fence ran along the crest of the ridge and that some Confederate infantry were advancing from th< opposite direction. and drove back their oppo nents. it wa. Retracing oui steps. peared. but the men.296 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY July 2-3. division Between 9 and 10 o'clock on the morning of the 3d "to horse' was sounded and we were again in the saddle. was ordered into Cress' woods. on Culp's Hill. "Double quick" was ordered. of Johnson's Division. and a race fo: the fence ensued. with his left resting on the road and deployed to the right. beinj in the advance. to hold their position until daylight disap Rank's guns in the meantime kept up a lively fire anc did effective work. Our oppo nents proved to be Walker's Brigade. They punched holes through the wall with their carbines and behind this formidable breastwork they were enabled. and it was our good fortune to hold them in checl long enough to prevent them from participating in the assaul. Hess on the left. we resumed our position on the right. they opened fire with their carbines. con necting with Hess. After crossing Cress' Run and gaining the elevated ground beyond. am on passing beyond Rank's guns the Third Pennsylvania. but with a more . 1863. The First Brigade was now ordered forward. unde Major Janeway and Captain Boyd. and Duvall's Maryland Troo] whole supported by the Third Battalion o Major Beaumont. not being discouraged made a counter-charge and regained their position. thougl the First were deployed —the New Jersey. The men seeing the importance of the positioi quickened their steps and arrived at the wall about twenty pace: As soon as our men reached the wal in advance of the enemy. After dark a charge was made against oui right. The squadron of Captain Hess and my own wer directed to dismount and advance across Cress' Run to the to] of Brinkerhoff s Ridge. o Ewell's Corps.

.

CD z =) 00 DC < u. LU D DC UJ I .

dismounted the First New Jersey and moved it forward under Major Beaumont in the direction of Rummel's. Custer's Brigade occupied the ground to the right and front of Mcintosh. they were in full view of the enemy. which were situated in the plain about three-fourths of a mile northwest of the Lott house. and firing began.the cavalry fight on the right at gettysburg. On the southeastern slope of the ridge there were cultivated fields. North of this ridge there were open fields. through which ran a country cross-road leading from the York Pike to the Low Dutch Road. 297 1863. The First New Jersey soon adjusted their line to correspond with that of their antagonists. The place was most admirably adapted to the massing and screening of troops. To meet this advance the Confederates pushed out a line of skirmishers and occupied a fence south of Rummel's. After some delay Mcintosh moved forward to relieve Custer. in a clover-field south- were drawn up relieve Custer's west of the Lott house. summit was covered with heavy timber. About 2 o'clock Mcintosh. who well understood Stuart's tactics. At the same Stuart's center occupied the Rummel . while the First New Jersey was sent to men on General J. A party of Confederate skirmishers thrown out in front of farm buildings. who had been ordered to report to his division of Round Top. extended line. the Stallsmith farm. in commander (Kilpatrick) in the vicinity The Third Pennsylvania and First Maryland columns of squadrons outpost. through an open country. Occupying a line about three miles long from Wolf's Hill to Lott's house. Stuart. almost surrounded by woods. now occupied what command known as of the Cress' ConfedRidge. E. while Mcintosh moved to and halted at the crossing of the Low Dutch and Hanover roads. and had correctly discerned his position. who had come out from the direction of Gettysburg along the York Pike. concentrated his forces on what was known as while its Gregg's troops were not so favorably situated. July 3. about three-fourths of a mile north and west of Lott's house. Behind the woods Stuart. who was in is erate cavalry. Irvin Gregg connected with the right of the in- fantry line near Wolf's Hill and stretched his line to the Hanover Road. B. and near the base of Cress' Ridge.

and consequently he sent word to General Gregg to that effect. whilst the other occupied the right. requesting that Irvin Gregg's Brigade be forwarded to his support. stationed across the road from the Howard house. was also ordered forward. during which Custer's Brigade returned. and therefore not immediately available.298 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. had ordered him to return. and finding Rummel's barn filled with sharpshooters. Second U. C. 1863. Randol's Battery (E. eager for the fray. had wheeled about and was field. deployed along the edge of the woods north of Lott's house (near where the Cavalry Shaft now stands) and extended to the crossroads running toward Stallsmith's. Artillery). and a section under Lieutenant Chester placed Pennington and in position a little southwest of Lott's house. A lull in the firing now ensued. M. July 3. soon on the . instantly replied. S. and at the same time had sent word to Irvin Gregg to concentrate as much of his command as possible in the vicinity of Spangler's house. while Duvall's Troop was extended to their left. It will thus be seen that the Third Pennsylvania was divided. Lieutenant A. Pennington's battery (M. The First Maryland was posted near the Lott house and held in reserve. Captains Walsh and Hess were ordered out the Low Dutch Road beyond Lott's woods. S. in position in front of Spangler's house on the Hanover Road. time a Confederate battery appeared on the top of the ridge and commenced shelling. one-half being on the left of the line. Chester soon silenced the Confederate battery. First U. Artillery). As this brigade was some distance to the rear. Captain A. meeting Custer. M. who was about to begin his march in the opposite direction. with instructions My squadron was to hold the position and protect the right. Gregg. occupying their position. facing northwest. The Third Pennsylvania was ordered forward. After the engagement had opened Mcintosh had discovered that the force in his front was too strong for his command. Custer. who were picking off our men. they turned their guns on it and drove them out. In the meantime our front line was advanced and we drove back that of the Confederates. and two squadrons under Captains Treichel and Rogers were moved across to Little's Run (which flowed southward from Rummel's spring-house) and placed to the left of the First New Jersey.

dismounted. but they were followed up so closely that they were obliged to face about and resume the conflict. which aided materially in holding them in check. The right of the Fifth Michigan swung back. together with the shells contest followed. and the Seventh pressed forward to a stone-and-rail fence and opened fire with their carbines. and it was obliged to give way. The First North Carolina Cavalry and the Jeff Davis Legion coming up to their support. these regiments attempted to withdraw. The short supply of ammunition of the Fifth Michigan having by this time given out. and whilst it was moving H. July 3. and soon the two regiments were face to face. which charged our right and center. Ferry. began to run short. which occupied the right center. they soon drove the enemy back. who was in command of the line. Fitz Lee sent forward the First Virginia. and of the First New Jersey. and the Fifth Michigan was ordered to relieve them. the fence alone separating them. opened a flank fire on the Virginians. The First Virginia advanced with steadiness. the whole line was driven in. The latter was dismounted. Improving this opportunity. Gregg Little's at this juncture appeared and took command left of in person. But they became scattered by the flank fire they received. 299 1863. and Major Noah H. The Seventh Michigan at once moved forward from the direction of the Reever house in close column of squadrons and advanced to the attack. A heated which the First New Jersey and the Third After the firing abated Pennsylvania remained to take part. However. A more determined and vigorous charge than was made by the First Virginia it was never my fortune to witness. F Lee's Brigade to the front a dismounted regiment from Pennsylvania which was on the W came to the support of the Confederate skirmishers. extended the the line along Run with a portion of the Sixth Michigan. Custer. the Confederates following in close pursuit. inflicting severe punishment. and which up to this time had not been engaged. in . having been killed. they crowded the Seventh Michigan back. as soon as he arrived.THE CAVALRY FIGHT ON THE RIGHT AT GETTYSBURG. My squadron. At this stage the ammunition of that portion of the Third left. in position to the left and at the same time Randol placed and rear of Chester the second section of his battery under Lieutenant Kinney.

and horse after horse staggered and fell. like the falling of timber. and also sent Lieutenant S. They were formed in close columns of squadrons and directed their course toward the Spangler house. Shell and shrapnel met the advancing Confederates and tore through their ranks. main body. and off they dashed. Custer. was ordered by Gregg to charge. to rally the headquarters' staff. which proved to be the remaining portions of Hampton's and Fitzhugh Lee's Brigades. 1863. As the two columns approached each other the pace of each increased. whilst he him- Maryland. when suddenly a crash. July 3. The First Michigan. All eyes were turned upon them.. As the columns were drawing nearer to each other Mcintosh sent his Adjutant-General. and cries of the combatants now filled air. and so failing to regiment where he had expected. who was near. where the cross-road passes through the woods on the Stallsmith farm. and Pennington on the left opened fire with well-directed aim. betokened the crisis. Their polished sabre-blades dazzled in the sun. Newhall. just north of the for the First Hanover Road. Closing the gaps as though nothing had happened. from our their artillery. Mcintosh gathered up . Kinney in the center. of his staff. About half a mile The clashing of sabres. on they came. canister was substituted by our artillerymen for shell. But Gregg rode to the Lott house when he first arrived and looked over the field. the the demands for surrender. Chester on the right. A grander spectacle than their advance has rarely been beheld. find this in order to strengthen his right. Wagner. drawn up in close column of squadrons near Pennington's Battery. They marched with well-aligned fronts and steady reins. So sudden and violent was the collision that many of the horses were turned end over end and crushed their riders beneath them. Our mounted skirmishers rallied and fell into line the dismounted men fell back. As they drew nearer. the firing of pistols. C. and a few of them reached their horses. buglers self and orderlies. there appeared moving toward us a large mass of cavalry. and were distant in the end obliged to fall back on from the last-mentioned fence. 300 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. had moved the First Maryland over to the Low Dutch Road. Still they came on. placed himself at its head. Captain Walter S. to the left with orders to Treichel and Rogers to mount and charge.

the enemy's These flank attacks demoralized the Confederate column." The Lieutenant. sent up a shout. joined them in their charge. Hart. and the was ours. A portion of them. Breathed's Battery. at bay. tearing and shattering his lower jaw. "I have been ordered to hold this position. In the charge my men became somewhat scattered. but. got into Rummel's lane. whose tenacity had kept the head of the column Many of the enemy had fallen. always ready to "pitch in. lowered his spear. which caught his opponent on the chin. field starting point. Wade Hampton was wounded. Every My command pressed through officer of the party was wounded. I accordingly directed him to close in the left and Sergeant Gregg and Corporal Weakley the right. Xewhall. the Confederate column. while I should select the proper place for the attack. left flank about two-thirds down the column. but my men were so disabled and scattered that they were unable to take it back. drew their sabres. now got the advantage. and Their column was swept back to its at length the enemy turned. unsupported. 3OI 1863. in front of the farm buildings. and sending him senseless to the earth. seeing that Xewhall was about to seize the colors. cut off the rear portion and drove it back. but directed his charge to the head of the enemy's column. My squadron was still deployed along the edge of Lott's woods. who seemed stubborn about leaving. when he reached Treichel and Rogers. and there encountered some of Jenkins' men. what loose men he could. if you will back me up in case I am court-martialed for disobedience I will order a charge. Custer and Mcintosh. the men fired a volley from their carbines. I turned to him and said." as I he expressed it. however. joined them to his headquarters' party and charged. As soon as the line had rallied. . Standing in company with Lieutenant William Rawle Brooke on a little rise of ground in front of my command.THE CAVALRY FIGHT ON THE RIGHT AT GETTYSBURG. which struck the right flank of column near the color-guard. whose squadron was in the woods on my soon followed. and "sailed in. with an energetic reply convinced me that would not be deserted. of New Jersey." striking the enemy's the First left. was only one hundred yards away. The standard-bearer. and seeing that the situation was becoming critical. July 3.

was driven back out of the field and forced to retire to his original position. the Confederates held virtually the same line at dark that they held in the morning. the field of the hand-to-hand contest thus remaining possession. led by their most distinguished commanders. .302 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY July 3. This was no mere reconnoissance to develop the position or movements of the enemy. Stuart's adjutant-general. Mcintosh took the First New Jersey and part of the Third Pennsylvania and Duvall's Troop. with twenty regiments and battalions. tance and determined character of the fight. The field of this cavalry fight was south of the Rummel buildings. and four batteries. by Rummel's spring house and along his lane toward the road. Some artillery firing and light skirmishing was kept up until after dark. according to the surmise of Major H. At the opening of the engagement Gregg's outposts were on the southern side of the battlefield at its close they were advanced The losses on both sides show the importo its northern side. Stuart had with him the main strength and the flower of the Confederate cavalry. but this did not include the field of the main engagement. In the meantime Custer's Brigade was relieved and sent to its division. With the exception of the Rummel farm buildings. His avowed object was to strike the rear of the Federal army in co-operation with Pickett's grand attack upon its center. After the repulse of the enemy's grand charge. For this movement he succeeded in attaining a most commanding position. 1863. gave to Lee the preconcerted signal for the attack. and established a skirmish line along Little's Run. crossin our The Confederates established their line along the edge of the woods on the summit of Cress' Ridge. To this field Stuart advanced his whole force. . B. McClellan. engaged in an obstinate and desperate struggle with the Federal cavalry. and. His force comprised four brigades.

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. Company M .. Captain Edward M.K UlUHiKK Company B.. \Vai:i>. IIeyi. . Captain* William Franklin Pottef Company F.k S.<h.<.i. Captain <. I. m-9 1 f* 4i HBRjr' 1 CAPTAIN AVlLLlAM KaWI. Company I.

that sixteen men of the Third. there was one whose experience and gallant charge led skill The with the sabre merits special mention. as was the good fortune recollections of Third Penn- sylvania Cavalry. Treichel. and was met by the counter-charge of Custer and the First Michigan. There are other matters. as so participants have passed it it many of the away in the forty years and more since took place. Especially is with those of us of the who served there under Meade. of As Sergeant Joel G. may well find place here. swarthy rebel raised his sabre to deliver a "front 303 . and against great odds. SOME INCIDENTS AND DETAILS OF GREGG'S CAVALRY FIGHT LOSSES CAPTAIN HARBORD's DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGHT. While every participant deserves recognition.CHAPTER XIX The Gettysburg Campaign (Continued). who afterwards became the much- esteemed Chaplain of the Third. without dwelling too long upon this important part of the narrative. It was when the front of the combined rebel force had reached a point about two hundred yards or more west of where the Cavalry Shaft now stands. Company B. All of those officers were wounded and many others of the little party more or less seriously. is regarded with more interest than any other battle which occurred during the Civil all By Pennsylvanians "Gettysburg" this the case War. however. an immense long-haired. Rogers and Wetherill and Lieutenant Edmonds made this gallant effort. charged in with his comrades and forced his way into the ranks of the enemy. which. and but little can now be added to the accounts of appearing in the two foregoing chapters. when it was evident that more hard blows and stern fighting were required to fully decide the contest. THE 1863. Rammel. by Captains Newhall and Treichel was one of great daring. July 2-3. The many interesting inci- dents of our cavalry fight have been lost. under Captains Newhall.

cutting the third finger open to the bone. July 3. subsequently sergeant-major. showing the force and severity of the rebel's blow. . The counter-charge from the center. from which a good view of the conflict could be obtained. of the battle that position was occupied by James of Company A. As he saw the immense column of the enemy's cavalry advancing with apparently irresistible force toward the position in which he was standing. nor much more than what came under the immediate notice of the writer of it. and to-day it remains in his family as an honored heirloom. They halted upon a knoll behind Kinney's two guns of Randol's Battery back of the George Howard house. This who had gave Rammel raised in his stirrups to deliver the stroke.304 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY." and received the blow on the center of his blade. made by the First Michigan. who was in command of the regiment. the advantage. three on the right and two on the left. however. Rammel to pass without The sergeant's horse had broken his curb chain and consequently was difficult to manage. 1863. His place of duty was always close to the regimental commander. At the time McCorkell. was in the center of the field supervising the whole. That interesting and valuable manuscript book necessarily could not contain more than the briefest of references to occurrences." Rammel quickly assumed a "head parry. he ordered the Regimental of Captain Miller's brilliant attack The W Clerk to stay with the color guard. obscured what was occurring on the right. cut. It was always kept by the Regimental Headquarters Clerk. fact that no mention was made in the Regimental Journal from the right center of our line is not altogether surprising. Lieutenant-Colonel Jones. As the several squadrons of the Third were posted in different parts of the field. but he headed him for our line and rolled his spurs into him until he got safely back out of the melee and repaired the curb chain. as the concussion threw his antagonist off his horse and allowed further wounds. that of his opponent sliding down to the guard and crushing it on his hand. the one striking that of his opponent. He never parted with that sabre. and for the most part acting independently. his saddle firmly As he received left the blow he gripped with his knees.

why no mention was made of the latter This fact explains among the regimental meager reports forwarded to Brigade and Division Headquarters. Well. dash from the left left. and when all was by Captain Miller himself to his brother. The Official Records of the War had not then been published. the principal thing I have accomplished was to bring my hide through safe. and here given in supplement to the entry contained in the Regimental Journal: "I have had but Station. and a want of skin under the seat of my pantaloons. It is a well-known fact that. It was then ascertained that papers. Tired as we were. four days after the close of the battle. first little having been in the saddle ever since. it is Waynesboro on and dated July 7. the self-styled Official Historian.INCIDENTS AND DETAILS OF GREGG'S CAVALRY FIGHT. the recollections of participants are apt to expand. 1863. fresh in his mind. and consequently. "We arrived at Gettysburg on the evening of the 2d. Then at last General Gregg and the officers and men who had served under him took steps to claim the credit which was rightly their due. Colonel Bachelder. with my arm. written from 1863. how20 opportunity to say that am . and from them and from other available sources him. and sometimes to approach romancing. in the very in the preparation of his Government map of the battlefield. I time to breathe since leaving Brandy I embrace the the exception of a slight scratch on through the campaign safe. had taken little or no notice of that superb feat of arms. and with what success. but not that under Captain Miller from the right. — evidence was gathered to establish the claims of Gregg and those who had fought under extract is Among other contemporaneous records produced was the original letter from which the following given. 305 July but not that on the 2-3. It was not until some fifteen years had elapsed since the battle that any but the most cursory notice was ever taken of Gregg's magnificent fight on the right flank at Gettysburg. with slight exceptions above mentioned. worn out and with our ranks very much depleted. There were many more survivors of the battle then twenty-seven years ago —than now. as time goes by. They made by the distinctly saw the magnificent party under Captains Newhall and Treichel into the overwhelming mass of the enemy. I suppose you are anxious to know what hand I took at Gettysburg.

When they reached within about five hundred . and for some reason that I cannot account for. we were forced into an engagement with some of Ewell's men. and with a determination that bespoke business. who were now being driven in. but before I had time to station my men I was obliged to open fire. I deployed as skirmishers. with his whole command. tearing large gaps in their column and slaughter- ing as many of their men and horses. the balance of the regiment was sent off to the left of the First New Jersey. and the men were grazing their horses. and attacked the First New Jersey. They moved in column of squadrons and at a walk.306 history ol" the third pennsylvania cavalry. We remained undisturbed until about 3 o'clock. with his usual kindness. 1863. The Third at this moment were dismounted. to a point where we had a good view of the town and the firing along the infantry line. and had quite a spirited engagement that lasted until long after dark. Captain Walsh was placed in my rear. My command (consisting of Captain Newhall's squadron and my own) was directed along the edge of a woods to the extreme right. Whilst we were conducting this little game Captain Treichel over to the left occupied himself cleaning up some mounted infantry A calm now ensued that indicated that seemed to be in his way. July 2-3. Stuart's whole command rounded a corner of woods and made a direct march for our batteries that were stationed between my squadron and Treichel's command. who were at the time deployed as skirmishers some distance to our front. expecting to move to the extreme right of the First New Jersey. and soon the storm came off to my front and right. Our batteries opened on them and did ever. and encamped near a creek on the Baltimore Pike. I was suffering with an attack of cramp. Soon. and we were immediately pushed forward.both parties getting the best of it. On the afternoon of the 3d we moved to within three miles of the town on the Hanover Road. They moved right along. a storm. however. — splendid work. appeared on our front. For a few moments things became so lively that I commenced to wish for more fellows. During the night we were withdrawn. the Rebs gave way and the First New Jersey drove them for some distance. was rubbing me with whisky. Orders to mount soon jerked the cramp out of me. if nothing was occurring. when suddenly Stuart. and Captain Gilmore.

and unless some diversion was made all would be lost. of Mcintosh's and Captain Treichel on the opposite flank. cut We struck Stuart's left flank in rear of his colors and him in half. to close up the squadron. Custer. They work and met with heavy losses. charge. s cavalry fight. we had to leave it and make good our escape through the crowd that Custer had by this time succeeded in turning and was driving like the d This almost settled the business for the day. As things were. but at Brooke's suggestion. A number of Company H were wounded and taken prisoners. I have a small hole through my arm but it will be healed up in a few days. with Sergeant Gregg and Corporal Weakley." number The extended references which have been made to the charge of the squadron under Captain William E. c. Miller do not include. by way of acknowledgment . but more to the front. assistance. yards of our batteries General Custer. Sergeant Heagy. charged in did effective . of I lost quite a men. I ordered him. however. however. and we considered ourselves the victors. "Captain Newhall. where we had an elegant view of all that was going on. we would be whipped like the d "I was without orders. John Nicholson. Lieutenant Brooke of my squadron and myself stood on a knoll in front of my command. but none killed. and but for the scattered condition of my men would have hauled it home. sent a who had just come to our regiment to meet a dismounted regiment that This regiment acted badly and came near breaking our whole line. General Mcintosh complimented me on the field. 307 1863. We soon discovered that Stuart was too heavy for Custer. The men were restive to get their fists in. i. of course. I will send mother the coat I had on when wounded. and myself rode up to a rebel battery. Some sharp skirmishing kept up until after dark. whilst I looked out for a point to strike. I will send you a list in a few days. and I feel that I did what was required of me. and before I gave the order they started to they had thrown out in advance. led in two more regiments of his command and soon clinched with Stuart's main column. what has occurred since. staff. and in accordance with what I thought my duty. . turned the rear portion and drove them like sheep. principally out of Companies A and C.ixciden ts and details of gregg July 3.

was the extreme right squadron of the army during this engagement. commanded by Captain Walsh. David M. McM. through the Secretary of War. The command was taken to the right in the neighborhood of the junction of what is known as the Hanover Road and Low Dutch Gap Road. 1897. and aided materially in bringing success to our arms in the engagement mentioned. A portion of our regiment was placed on the right. and I was administering some medicine trying to relieve his suffering by creating a counter irritation.308 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY July 3. Gilmore. I was Captain of Company D. I am well acquainted with Captain William E. man and remained in the field during the entire fight. Gregg and the Confederate forces under General J. 1863. B. of the same regiment. and the squadron to which the writer was attached. Gregg. while doing so fire commenced along our front and the order came Captain Miller went into the action a very sick for us to mount. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. Stuart. and was therefore eminently competent to decide the question of merit in its bestowal. Just prior to our engage- ment Captain Miller was lying on the ground and suffering terribly with a severe attack of cramp. E. and with Colonel Rawle who commanded a troop in Captain Miller's squadron. General Russell A. Third Penn- At the time of the battle of Gettysburg. The charge made by Captain Miller was a gallant one. The conferring of this tribute was especially appropriate. 1863. on the part of the Government. inasmuch as General Alger himself had participated in the cavalry fight on the right flank as the Colonel of the Fifth Michigan. We were occupying an extended line of observation in a woods. In July. I have always had knowledge of it. derived from conversations had with Brevet BrigadierGeneral Mcintosh. and participated in the cavalry engagement between the Union forces commanded by General D. commanded by Captain Miller was on our left. who at the time of this battle commanded a squadron. McM. Miller. the commander of the Union cavalry forces engaged: Whilst the gallant service performed by Captain Miller in the engagement mentioned did not fall under my personal observation. The squadron. and while we could not see much . sylvania Cavalry: late Captain of Company D. in July. his brigade and regimental commanders. a Congressional Medal of Honor was bestowed upon Captain Miller by direction of President McKinley. Alger. From among the papers on file in the War Department relating to the matter the following statements and affidavits have been deemed proper for insertion here: General D.

H. Accompanying this statement will be found an extract from a paper read before the Loyal Legion of Minnesota some four years ago. line that by the time we were position to in retreat. but the effort had to be made. INXIDENTS AND DETAILS OF GREGG July that 3. or even check the advance of this apparently irresistible body seemed almost hopeless. from behind the woods. and all prepared for the mighty conflict. but learned at the time that he like others instinctively saw the necessity of The breaking column. had cnarged into and through this column and that the enemy was writer was not an eye-witness to Miller's charge. S CAVALRY FIGHT. The First Michigan was ordered by General Gregg to charge the advancing column. Every man on our side realized that the critical moment was at hand. cut their column in two. Lee. copy of the extract referred to in the foreand of a further statement by Captain Gilmore is a attached thereto: was that we observed coming into the opening. The following going affidavit. . from which they had emerged. in a So extended was our a charge. was transpiring on our immediate left we could observe some of the movements of the enemy occurring on the high ground off on our front. Captain Miller's was the first. which paper was entitled. Those who are familiar with his course that day always conceded that his act was on-: of the many brave and daring ones performed during the war. It was from this commanding position that we observed the enemy moving out and across the field to the attack of our forces. and with other charges following compelled their retiring to the protection of their guns and to the woods. make we found that Captain Miller. When the enemy came down in force the squadron to which the writer was attached was rallied as I understood at the time to be ready to charge into the flank of the advancing column. marching in close columns of squadrons they directed their course through their erect bodies and deliberate the fields towards the Spangler house movements indicated their determination to march through our thin lines and complete their purpose of creating havoc and panic in the rear of our army. "With Gregg at Gettysburg. near the Stall smith farm a half mile from us what proved to be the brigades of Generals Fitzhugh Lee. "Now barn. with his squadron. and that he had made the charge on his own reand with the most magnificent result I do know that he was highly complimented for it at the time by all who saw it and were familiar with its effect. This charge checked the enemy's advance. although himself wounded. To turn back. 309 1863. but if my memory is correct. Miller swept like a thunderbolt from the right and struck the column about the middle and cut his way clear through.. cutting out a portion and driving it back as far as Rummel's it . F." Other charges were made against this column. and justly entitles him to recognition by the presentation of one of the medals of honor. this sponsibility . Wade Hampton and W." and refers to this cavalry fight and Captain Miller's charge.

Gregg and General J. Gregg and General J. whilst the balance of the regiment was placed to the south and east of our line and on an opposite side of the field where the main engagement took place. on the right flank. and they were met in front by the First Miller. McM. on the afternoon of July 3. the squadron of Captain William E. west of a cross road leading to the York Pike and facing the Rummel farm buildings. near the Low Dutch Road and eral D. During the battle of Gettysburg. This charge struck the enemy off. I my my possession a ball that on that occasion lodged in the pommel my saddle. sabre. it. Bricker. I did not know at the time who led this charge. but was informed after the engagement was over from men who had participated. Captain from the balance of his regiment. 1863. the 1st day of On . Lott's woods. nessed the charge led by Captain Miller on the enemy's left flank. 1863. commanded by Captain Charles Treichel. that the charge was ordered and led by Captain Miller. In the midst of this charge I and had have in of I was with him up to the mouth of the hat was taken off with the blow of a not made a sudden parry my head might have gone with it. Stuart. and 3. Stuart. Captain Miller's squadron of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry was stationed along the edge of Lott's woods. the portion of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry with which At the same time I witI was engaged charged the enemy's right flank. between GenMcM. a battery After reaching Rummel's buildings Captain Miller attempted to capture on the rising ground close by. when the final attack was made by the brigades Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee. being separated I Michigan Cavalry. During the engagement between General D.. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry: May. Company Company B. m. but did not succeed in rallying to take charge of enough men guns. July 1. I served in a squadron of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry.3io history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. 1863. William H. 2. late Sergeant of Company H. to be Second Lieutenant of Third H. E. and when the final melee occurred and when General Custer charged the enemy's front. About of 3 o'clock p. E. broke through their column and scattered that portion cut reached the Rummel farm buildings. We were captured. ordered a charge in which took part. late Second Lieutenant of Company B. the squadrons of Captains Rogers and Treichel were stationed along Little's Run. I was promoted from First Sergeant of Pennsylvania Cavalry. where we met the Fifth Michigan in contact with Jenkins' Brigade and where some of our men in flank. Miller being placed along the edge of While the engagement progressed we were hotly engaged. July 3. George W Heagy. B. Third Penn- sylvania Cavalry: During the engagement on the afternoon of July 3. B.

My Company (C) was squadroned with Company A. the order of my name having been transposed after the war by legal authority. first to a trot. I squadron of Captain William E. 1863. My Walter S. . which proved to be Hampton's and Fitzhugh Lee's Brigades. who was not present. Gregg) of the Cavalry Corps of the Army I was then Second Lieutenant of Company C of that name appears on the rolls as William Rawle Brooke. Newhall. and then the charge was sounded. promotion on May 1. s cavalry fight. 3ii 1863. then to a gallop. alry: late Captain. from the northern side of the field. beyond the Hanover and was deployed mounted as skirmishers along the western edge of the woods. The enemy quickened his pace. and Captain Miller and myself were the only commissioned of Captain H H officers then serving with it. 1863) after the varying phases of the battle. Miller. was seen approaching in magnificent order. On that day Captain Miller was the only officer present with either Company or K. which was serving temporarily under General Gregg. regiment. He said to me. As Captain Newhall's squadron was much reduced in numbers of both officers and men the two companies were temporarily serving with the and." This was in order to Pike. under the command of the Potomac. with his squadron during the battle. and was always ready for the most perilous William Brooke Rawle. Captain Miller and I saw at once that unless more men were sent against the enemy the Michigan regiment would be swept from the field. K. Mcintosh) of the Second Division (General David McM. Captain Miller and I rode out a few yards in front of our position to a slight rise in the ground to get a good view. although the Confederate brigade greatly outnumbered the Michigan regiment. however. When in Lott's the cavalry fighting began Captain Miller's squadron was stationed woods to the west of the Low Dutch Road. a large body of cavalry. It was ordered to meet the enemy's charge by a counter-charge. composed of Companies think.incidents and details of gregg July 3. "I have been ordered to hold this position at all hazards. I was the only commissioned officer present with either Company A or C during the third day of the battle. but if you will back me up if I get into trouble for exceeding my orders I will make a charge with the squadron. Up to the time of my company with Captain an opportunity when it task. mounted. The four companies acted together as one squadron. I served in the same and am pleased to say that he always seized offered. The nearest available compact body of Union cavalry at hand to meet the enemy was the First Michigan Cavalry of General Custer's Brigade. About 3 o'clock in the afternoon (July 3. There was considerable long range firing before the climax of the fighting came. as he was serving at the time as Acting Assistant Adjutant-General of the brigade. Third Pennsylvania Cav- The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry during the battle of Gettysburg was attached to the First Brigade (Colonel John B. Miller.

and I had to make a slight detour to get around it with the left wing of the squadron. and the right wing. written by Major (now Colonel) Arthur L.312 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. He then ordered me to rally the left wing of the squadron was done the squadron fired was within easy range. failed to avail himself of the opportunity thus . including myself. and as the impetus of the latter had stopped while his men had full headway on. which ceed in getting myself with the rear portion of Captain Miller's squadron did not sucall the way through. I learned it from the men engaged. and received a counter-charge at a halt. make I a diversion in favor of our troops. When this a volley into the Confederate column. and the men on the flanks were beginning to turn back. Captain Miller was wounded in the arm during the fight. Captain Miller. This and the fact that the head of the squadron was headed somewhat to the right oblique. though narrowly escaping capture. From a work of exceptionally high merit." the following extract is not inappropriately inserted here: At Balaklava (the only battle of the entire war [in the Crimea] in which cavalry played any considerable part) a heavy force of Russian cavalry. he drove well into the column and cut off its rear and forced it back in the direction whence it came. Wagner. In this action the flank of the Russian cavalry was exposed to the Light Brigade. assured him in an emphatic manner that I would stand by him through thick and thin. advancing to attack the British Heavy Brigade. with his men. about two-thirds or three-fourths of the way down. running at right angles to it. of the Adjutant-General's Department of the United States Army. headed by Captain Miller. As to this last. 1863. struck the left flank of the enemy's column pretty well towards its rear. deliberately slackened its pace before contact. while he did the same on its right. A stone and rail fence divided the line of the squadron front. caused a gap of some thirty yards or so between the rear of the portion of the squadron under Captain Miller and myself with the head of the left portion. and the head of the Confederate column was fast becoming jammed. started off at a gallop. whose commander. without orders from a superior officer. where we got back into our own lines again. Lord Cardigan. July 3. entitled "Organization and Tactics. A fact that made it all the more commendable was that it was done upon his own responsibility. The gallant conduct and dashing charge made by Captain Miller and his men were commented upon by all who saw it. The men were very impatient to begin their charge. succeeding in working our way in one's and two's to the right. and thus help the Michigan men. some of us. and the Captain and some of his men got as far as the Rummel house. Just as I and my men reached the flank of the enemy many of the latter were getting to the rear and we were I swept along with the current and scattered. Meanwhile the two opposing columns had met.

Their heads and shoulders were severely cut. who aided in removing the dead. as well as the character The first two incidents were related to Captain Miller by Mr. The last came under his personal notice. presented. Mr. 254. one a private in the Third Pennsylvania. turned to his First Lieutenant with the remark "I have been ordered to hold this position.f book mentioned is one of the greatest of and strategists. which furnishes a theme for poets. . incidents will illustrate in some degree with what men of both sides fought. Miller's conduct on this occasion is in striking contrast with that of Cardigan at Balaklava. the other a Third Pennsylvania man. who had cut each other down with their sabres. and no mention : of a court-martial was ever made. of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. n. . and were lying with their feet together." The charge was opportune and effective. the owner of part of the ground upon which the two men. the other a Confederate. it is officially recommended from the Headquarters of the Army to officers subject to examination for promotion and is used as a text-book at the United States of the The author living tacticians Military Academy at West Point. *Page tPage 208. second edition. Rummel. because his orders did not contemplate such action but he after- wards engaged in a heroic. Moreover. with a world-wide reputation.INXIDENTS AND DETAILS OF GREGG'S CAVALRY FIGHT. Other references in the work to the cavalry fight on the right flank at Gettysburg are found on pages 249. and when found. as also in England. charge on the Russian batteries. but not a model for a cavalry general. but senseless. The work has been published in several editions in this country. found two men. if you will back me up in case I am court-martialed for disobedience. and 415. seeing an opportunity to strike Wade Hampton's column in flank as it was charged in front by Custer. their fingers. and the blood-stained sabre of each still tight in his grip. 1863. On going over the field. I will order a charge. At another point he found cavalry fighting occurred. The following desperation the of the struggle. Captain Miller. who fought on horseback with their sabres until they finally clinched and their horses ran from under them. their heads in opposite directions. one a Virginian. 313 July 3. but. Rummel. 251. 246.* In the great cavalry battle at Gettysburg.

losses in Mcintosh's entire brigade as furnished by the War Department ever been reconciled with the facts or their statement understood. with the regiment until after the termination of the war. A singular coincidence occurred in connection with the above Eyster was taken prisoner in the fight. Especially so was this . Before Gregg had time to stiff in death. sent to Richmond. shot Eyster's horse. 1863. In the midst of the engagement. July 3. and who died in 1886. of Company H. Eyster's attention becoming drawn off by the firing around him. rarely remaining in one place for any length of time. and in time returned to duty and served circumstance. and eventually was exchanged. of Company A. Mr. Rummel further informed Captain Miller that after the battle he removed thirty dead horses from his lane. and vice versa. his hat to Gregg.314 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. being wounded. Accurate details as to the losses in the Third Pennsylvania Nor have the Cavalry at Gettysburg have never been obtained. on the very spot where the above scene had occurred. Eyster. so that they never met again until sixteen years afterwards at Gettysburg. and. where the regiment was holding a reunion. E. had only to remove show a head as neatly tonsured as a priest's. who subsequently rose to a captaincy in the regiment. was removed in an ambulance and taken to a hospital. We cavalrymen. though were so firmly imbedded in each other's flesh that they could not be removed without the aid of force. G. when Gregg came up and they met for the first time since their separation on the ground. sliced top of Gregg's scalp. was carefully nursed. captured a dismounted Confederate and covered him with his carbine. turn another Confederate off the came up. Gregg. came upon the scene. had few opportunities to properly comply with the requirements regarding the furnishing of official papers. In going over the field Eyster was relating the story to Colonel John B. Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. and held the rider a prisoner. who were always moving about. It so happened that when one came back to the regiment the other was absent. the Confederate drew his revolver. Bachelder. and immediately in front of Rummel's house. with a right cut. Just then Sergeant Gregg. and with his sabre cut the Confederate to the ground.

:

THE
July

LOSSES.
2-3, 1863.

315

the case in the Gettysburg campaign.

Our

regimental and com-

pany desks were not accessible from June
renton Junction, until July
rolls

13,

when we

left

Warother

19, at

Bolivar Heights.

No

have been accessible to us for examination than those pubvolume of "Bates' History of Pennsylvania Volunteers," pages 369-406. Men who disappeared from company roll-call for a while were at first generally reported missing, and eventually dropped. There are many names of such on those rolls reported "Not on Muster-out roll." Although there were many more than those given in the official return, the only names of the killed, wounded and missing in the battle of Gettysburg that we have been able to obtain after this long lapse of time since the close of the Civil War are as
lished in the second

follows

Six officers of the Third were

wounded on July

3

—Captains

Newhall (who though on duty as Brigade Adjutant-General was wounded while actually with part of his regiment), Treichel and Rogers and Lieutenant Edmonds, seriously, and Captains Miller
and Wetherill
slightly.

Of

enlisted

men, three were

killed

July 3

— Privates

John

Company B, and George Wilson and Frederick Stripe, of Company L; two died July 5 of mortal wounds received July 3, viz., Corporal Joshua Rue, of Company F, and Private James H. Smith, of Company C; two were wounded July 3, viz., Sergeants Thomas Gregg, of Company A, and Joel G. Rammel, of Company B, and three men taken prisoners: Corporal R. G. M. Fitton, of Company C; Privates Major Lee, of Company F, who was also wounded, and Elias G. Eyster, of Company H.
Stansfield, of

The only portions of the Third seriously engaged on July 3 were the three squadrons of Captains Treichel, Rogers and Miller. The following is the Official Return furnished by the War
Department:

: :

: :

.

1

316

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY.
July
2-3,

1863.

Return

of Casualties in the

Union Cavalry engaged on the

right

flank at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2-3, 1863.

[Compiled from nominal

list

of casualties, returns, etc.]

Killed.

Capt ured or M iss g
a V
(ft

fl

c
41

COMMAND.
->

0)

a v
W
a

a 0
W
a

*5
i

,n

T3

u
1

O

£ O

\B

O

C

July Mcintosh's Brigade First Pennsylvania. Third Pennsylvania Gregg's Brigade
First

2.

Maine

....
1

Tenth

New York
2.

2

Sixteenth Pennsylvania

Total Gregg's Division, July
July
3-

12

l!

3

20

Mcintosh's Brigade
First Maryland First New Jersey First Pennsylvania ....
3

9
1

Third Pennsylvania Gregg's Brigade
First

20

Maine
1

Total Gregg's Division, July 3 Custer's Brigade, July 3.
Total on right flank, July 3
.

7!

28 29
5

11

19 112
«3'

8

35

67 219
75 254
1

18
7

Total Gregg's Division, July 2 and 3..

31

55

While
in the

this historical sketch of the services of the

Third Penn-

sylvania Cavalry was in course of preparation, there appeared
ary, 1904, its Prize

Journal of the United States Cavalry Association for JanuEssay for the year 1903, written by Captain

James G. Harbord, of the Eleventh United States Cavalry, entitled "The History of the Cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia." It is an admirable piece of work, well worthy of the subject, and one which should call forth a similar history of the Cavalry of the

CAPTAIN HARBORDS DESCRIPTION OF THE CAVALRY FIGHT. 317
July
2-3,

1863.

Army

of the

Potomac, as such has never been
that
it

fully or

properly

The writer's description of the mers Farm is so graphic and to the point
written.
of great interest to those for

cavalry battle of

Rum-

cannot but prove
intended:

whom

this

book

is

When Stuart rejoined the army at Gettysburg on the evening of July 2, he was placed on the York Road behind the left of the Confederate infantry. In the plan for Pickett's assault on the 3d of July, a diversion was to be created by a cavalry attack on the Federal right flank. The right rear of the Federal army was to be struck by the cavalry in cooperation with Stuart moved about noon for the Pickett's grand attack upon the center. point from which he was to deliver his attack. "This was no mere reconnoissance to develop the position or movement of the enemy. Stuart had with him the main strength and flower of the Confederate cavalry led His force comprised four by their most distinguished commanders. brigades with twenty regiments and battalions and four batteries" ("Battles and Leaders of the Civil War"). There were the brigades of Chambliss and Jenkins, which moved first toward position, followed by those of Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee, with the artillery. They moved two and a half miles on the York Road, turned off to the right by a country road which ran southeast by the Stallsmith farm, where Stuart posted Chambliss and Jenkins and some artillery on Cress' Ridge. The brigades of Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee were placed on the left of the first two the Confederate line extending opposite the Federal front and a mile from it, and being screened by two patches of woods between Rummel's and Stallsmith's farms. The ground was not unlike that at Brandy Station, the Confederates at first, as there, having the advantage of position. The ridge
;

occupied by Stuart

commanded

a large area of cultivated

fields.

Some

distance to his front were the farm buildings and fences of Rummel's,

which eventually became the key to the
battle.

field

and gave the name to the

The Federal cavalry occupied the extreme right of their line, General Custer and brigade on the morning of the 3d being in position along the
Hanover-Gettysburg Turnpike. General Gregg, with two brigades of his division, came in on the left of Custer's position and nearer Gettysburg. Their line faced nearly north, just above and parallel to the Hanover-Gettysburg Road. Their right controlled the junction with this pike of the Low Dutch Road, which crossed it about at right angles and connected the three roads, which, diverging from Gettysburg on the east, take the directions respectively of Baltimore, Hanover, and York. The Hanover Pike, along which the Federal line extended, was some two miles north of the one to Baltimore. If Stuart could force the Federals from their line along the Hanover Road and get possession of the Baltimore Turnpike, then by both of these great roads he would have direct access to the rear of the Federal main line of battle, with no troops intervening. General Stuart sent a

3l8

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY
July
3,

1863.

strong picket post of a battalion from Jenkins' Brigade to occupy the Rummel barn in front of his line. About 2 p. m., when the sound of the cannonade that preceded Pickett's charge was still echoing, the Federal Colonel Mcintosh, commanding one of Gregg's brigades, determined to develop what was in his front, and accordingly ordered a New Jersey regiment to move to the wooded crest to his

and slightly beyond the Rummel barn. Its advance caused a deployment of the battalion in the barn to a line of fences a little in front of the buildings. The fight was a dismounted one from behind parallel fences. A Pennsylvania regiment was now put into the combat, partly dismounted. The left of the battalion which had originally occupied the barn was reinforced by a dismounted squadron from Chambliss' Brigade, and still more on the same flank by sharpshooters from Hampton's and Fitzhugh Lee's Brigades, the Second Virginia Cavalry holding the extreme left. On the crest back of the Rummel barn a battery was doing good work, being rivaled by a Federal battery in position on the Hanover Road. This last, with the help of another which now came up, concentrated so severe a fire on the Rummel barn, which during the foregoing events had been filled with Confederate sharpshooters, that the place became untenable and was abandoned. It was at once occupied by the Federal center. These dismounted Confederates, part of Jenkins' Brigade, armed with Enfield rifles, were driven back still farther toward the woods, behind which lay Stuart's reserves, and the movement caused his left, composed of dismounted skirmishers from Hampton's and Fitzhugh Lee's Brigades, to fall back also. The Federal line correspondingly advanced, and part of a Michigan regiment was sent in on their left dismounted, the balance of the regiment supporting it. Stuart now determined to try a mounted attack on the Federal right, and a column moved out of the woods and formed for that purpose, but were driven back by the accuracy of the Federal artillery, which had already silenced the Confederate guns posted on the crest back of Rummel's barn. The New Jersey regiment which had formed the Federal attack on the buildings was now out of ammunition, and it was relieved by the Fifth Michigan, commanded by Colonel Alger, destined many years after to figure in another war. This regiment was armed with Spencer carbines, repeaters. and was itself already short of ammunition. As it reached the line it was to relieve, a dismounted regiment from the brigade of Chambliss came up to
right front
line.

support the Confederate skirmishers, and made a hot assault on the Federal The troops the Michigan regiment had come to relieve tried to with-

draw, but the gallant Confederates advanced again on both flanks. Three times the line wavered backward and forward, the honors lying first with

one

and then with the other. Then the Federal line fell back from the fences, and the Confederates pressed them hard. Another Michigan regiment, which now charged mounted from the Federal right, swept back the Confederate dismounted line, but itself retiring was struck in flank by
side

CAPTAIN HARBORD

S

DESCRIPTION OF THE CAVALRY FIGHT. 319
July
3,

1863.

the Ninth and Thirteenth Virginia Regiments of Chambliss' Brigade. The Fifth Michigan, they of the Spencer carbines, had now partly mounted, and

charged in on the flank of the two regiments just named, only themselves to be charged in flank by the First Virginia of Fitzhugh Lee's Brigade. The
First Virginia

and the Michigan regiment now had a

pistol

and carbine
fire

fight across a stone wall, the

brave Virginians also enduring a flanking

North Carolina and the Jeff Davis Legion now came to the support of the Virginians, who, still under a terrific artillery and carbine fire from the flanks, were compelled to fall back. Then came the first breathing spell. Pickett's charge was even then failing in front of Cemetery Ridge. Far over on the Federal left the gallant Farnsworth was riding to his death before the Confederate infantry of Law. Stuart, on the Federal right flank, had been forced by the Federal initiative into a defensive fight instead of the offensive action for which he came. So far there was little advantage on either side. Both had gained, and in
from each
side.

The

First

turn

lost.

The Confederates

still

held the key to the

field,

the

Rummel
at

buildings,

and had so far outweighed

their antagonist in

numbers

each

particular point.

Now

the

Plumed Cavalier brought out

his last reserves,

the superb brigades of

Hampton and Fitzhugh

Lee, and

made

the final

supreme
the

effort to turn the fortunes of the

moment for which cavalry wait all seldom comes that vanishes like shadows on glass. If the Federal cavalry were to be swept from their place on the right, the road to the rear of their center gained, now was the time. On the result of the charge he was to

day for the Lost Cause. It was their lives the opportunity which

make hung

victory in the last battle the Confederacy

Potomac for Gettysburg; the was to fight north of Mason and Dixon's line; more, the very fortunes of the Confederacy itself. It was about 3 o'clock on that July afternoon when the columns began to appear in
the fate of the

Army

of the

the open, eight gallant regiments, taking their places for the charge. close

"In

column

of squadrons

advancing as
of

if

in review, with sabres

drawn

and glistening
of admiration."

in the bright sunlight, the spectacle called forth a

murmur

The banners

Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee
it

fluttered in the

lead; the gait increased; orders could be heard;

charge of cavalry ever
the batteries.

made on American

soil.

range opened on them with shell and canister,

was the most dramatic Every artillery gun within and they charged true for

The First Michigan, led by its Colonel, with the gallant Custer at his side, charged squarely from the front to meet them. The Fifth Michigan charged in from one flank, parts of the First New Jersey, Third Pennsylvania, and scattered men from other Michigan regiments,
charged in with Mcintosh on the
left flank.

No more

desperate conflict

Murat and La Salle. It was hand-to-hand, terrible strife, all weapons and strength possible being used. With both flanks pierced by charges, and facing one from the front, the column split and melted, the Southern cavaliers were scattered, and routed and driven back to the woods beyond Rummel's farm. Stuart recharacterized the cavalry fighting of the days of

320

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY.
July
3,

1863.

lines and skirmished with some semblana more charges the serious work of the day anc summer was over, and the Confederate tide was receding. As the darkness fell, Stuart returned by the York Pike and prepared tc guard the retreat of Lee's beaten army to the Potomac. The battle ol Rummel's farm had lasted four hours, and the casualties had been about ten per cent, of the numbers engaged. The importance of this battle on th< Federal right flank at Gettysburg cannot be measured by casualties or b> numbers engaged. The battle of Gettysburg is generally regarded as th( turning point of the rebellion. It had wavered for two days in the balance Had the Confederate horsemen gained the rear of the line of battle, there i< small reason to doubt that the Federal army would have been struck b> panic Lee would have swept on to Philadelphia, New York, Washington who shall say what might have followed? Who can be sure that w«

formed

his

men, established new

of energy, but there were no

;

;

should have been a united nation to-day?

I

Second Lieutenant William
Company
B.

II.

Beickee.

First Lieutenant Henry
Company
I.

II.

Ki

Reg-'l

Commissary Samuel

C.

Waoner.

Second Lieutenant

Ai.iseiit
D.

Bkai

Company

CHAPTER XX
Movements After the Battle of Gettysburg.
a last "scrap"

army

following in pursuit of lee's retreating fairfield gap old antietam forge recrossing the potomac into virginia again.
July
4-16, 1863.

regiment, utterly exhausted, spent the night of July 3 in bivouac in Lott s woods on the field of the cavalry battle,

The

where the men who had become scattered in the fight came together. On the morning of the 4th part of the regiment was sent out on picket. As was generally the case after a battle in which much artillery firing occurred, a hard rain storm came on. About noon the portions of the regiment on picket were relieved and it moved back a short distance to get rations for the men, but there was no forage for the poor, starved, tired-out horses.

A little "scrap" occurred during the afternoon of the 4th between a party under Lieutenant Rawle Brooke and some rebel cavalry, in which it is believed the last shots were fired in connection with the battle of Gettysburg.

He

gives the following

account of

it:

was no forage for our horses, I started out with an orderly to hunt up some for my own. In wandering around the neighborhood of the York Pike, not far from where the enemy had been posted during the battle of the 3d, I came across a farm house near which was a
of July 4, as there

"During the early afternoon

found a quantity of oats and bought from the farmer a bushel's measure for which I paid him one dollar exactly one-half of all the money I had left. Filling the sack which my orderly had brought along I returned to the spot where the regiment was lying and poured out some
large barn.

In investigating

its

contents

I

of the oats to feed

my

horse.

I

had scarcely done so when Lieu-

tenant-Colonel Jones came up and asked me where I got the oats. Upon my telling him, and that there were about one hundred
21

321

$22

HISTORY OK THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY
July
4,

1863.

bushels

more

there he ordered

me

to report with thirty

men

to a

Lieutenant Boyer, the Regimental Quartermaster,
short time before

who had

come up with rations for the men, and to accompany him with his five wagons to bring in the oats. The wagons were taken to the barn mentioned, and some of the men began filling them. Meanwhile I had thrown out some pickets
as a precautionary measure,

and then started out with the remainder of the men to look around. We had not gone two hundred yards from the farm buildings when my advance guard was fired on, and riding up I saw in the distance a squadron of rebel cavalry drawn up across the road. A few shots were exchanged at long range, and I sent back word to Lieutenant Boyer, who ranked me, that he had better get away with his wagons. Without taking the time to fasten up the tail-boards he started his mules off as fast as they could gallop, and shortly afterwards I
did the

same with

my

detachment, following the track of oats

which marked the line of his flight. As neither the enemy nor I were just then hunting for trouble my party was not pursued. I have never heard of any encounter with the enemy near Gettysburg occurring later than the one mentioned. I have endeavored to ascertain what force it was we ran into but without success, nor have I been able to learn the location of those particular farm buildings. I have always believed that upon that occasion the men of the Third Pennsylvania under my command fired the
last

shots in connection with the battle of Gettysburg."

During the evening of July 4 a part of the regiment was ordered, under Major Robinson, to picket on the left of the infantry line of battle, in front of the

Round Tops.

In going there

main battlefield. By the time we reached the place to which we had been ordered it had become very dark, and in the hard rain it was difficult to find. We scouted around as well as we could, posted pickets and established our reserve at the house of J Slyder, on Plum Run, a short distance west of Round Top, and near where General Farnsworth was killed on the previous day in the brutal and useless charge ordered by General Kilpatrick. The house was being used as a field hospital and was filled with wounded upon whom the

we passed over

part of the

THE PURSUIT OF LEE's RETREATING ARMY
July
4-7,

323

1863.

surgeons were engaged in their revolting work. As fast as the men died their bodies were taken out of the house and into
the rain and
left

there temporarily

The scene was
of rain.

so painful

and sickening to us that we determined to remain with the picket
reserve out in the pitiless

downpour

About noon on the
Emmittsburg.

5th the picketing party at Slyder's received

orders to rejoin the regiment, and marched with the brigade to

On the 6th we moved out the Hagerstown Road. had not gone more than two miles into the mountains at Fairfield Gap when we ran into the skirmishers of two brigades of rebel infantry guarding trains. The advance of the Sixth Corps coming up we marched to the town of Fairfield and spent the night there. The next day our brigade, followed by General Neill's Brigade of the Sixth Corps, crossed the mountains by Monterey Gap the pass in the South Mountain through which Lee had entered, and out through which his army was retreating. We began our march in the night, amid the continued torrents of rain. The It then seemed to us to rain as it never had before. predisposing cause was the tremendous cannonading during the battle. The tons of gunpowder which had been burned had produced the atmospheric disturbance which caused the rain to fall in sheets rather than drops. Lee's army was hurrying homeward, with the two brigades after him, while the rest of our army made a detour to head him off. During the battle some of our cavalryhad gone to Williamsport, Maryland, and burned Lee's pontoon bridge over the Potomac by which he expected to get back into

We

Virginia.
culties, as

The tremendous downpour of rain added to his the Potomac was rapidly rising, becoming a flood.

diffi-

He

was

in a

predicament, and stationed his forces at different places

to stand

back the Army of the Potomac. General Kilpatrick had been through Monterey Gap shortly before, and had caught up
with a

wagon

train stretched out over four miles in length in this

narrow mountain road and destroyed it. We hastened over and around the many obstructions in the road, broken-down wagons, ambulances, etc., and down the side of the mountain until we had neared the town of Waynesboro. Here we were cautioned to vigilance, so that we would not be surprised or ambushed. The leading squadron of our brigade formed platoons, and

324

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY.
July
7-16, 1863.

charged in on the gallop. We were prepared for opposition but none materialized. There were many rebels in the town, but they were stragglers, and some were suffering from the effects of too

much

stimulating the night before.

The

proprietor of the hotel

in the place told us

about a couple of lank specimens
all

who

boasted

that they could drink to
fill

the intoxicants in his stock.
all

them

up, gave

them

agreed they wanted, and very soon they

He

were stupid and helpless. He laid them aside in a room, and when we entered town they were awakened to find themselves prisoners. One of the citizens, a fine-looking old gentleman, was standing on his porch as our column came in sight. In his enthusiasm at our coming he ran out into the road, waving his hat, and shouting his welcome. The first platoon had struck their
and could not halt, so the men opened ranks right and left, from harming the old gentleman, and when they had passed he realized what a lucky escape he had made. Waynesboro is delightfully situated on the side of the Blue Ridge, and surrounded by the most beautiful mountain scenery. The view from the Overlook Rock, Penn Mar, and the Blue Mountain House in the pass at Monterey, is regarded as one of the most notable east of the Rocky Mountains. We enjoyed the beautiful scenery as we passed over the mountain, and recalled the fact that Colonel Averell had, during the preceding year, taken us over this road while we were encamped at St. James'
gait

to keep

College, after the battle of Antietam.
for several days,

Waynesboro taking advantage and making good use of the
tarried at

We

time by getting our horses reshod, and looking after other matters needing attention. Letters came to us from home, and most of us sent in reply accounts of our doings. On July 10 we marched to Old Antietam Forge, and there had a skirmish with
a rebel force.
since the night of July 4, but

had been separated from our division ever on July 12 we rejoined it, after an all-day march by way of Leitersburg and Funkstown, bivouacking for the night within a mile of Boonsboro, Md. We crossed the Potomac to Harper's Ferry on the 14th, and on the 16th had a lively fight at Shepherdstown, an account of which, as also of our

We

movements following the battle of Gettysburg, has been given in Chapter XVII, relating the doings of "The Second Cavalry Division in the Gettysburg Campaign."
other

Awst.-Suegkox Theo. T. Tate.

Rkij'l Qn. -Master

Samuel

P.

I'.oyi.i;

Adjutant Harrison

I,.

Nkwiiau.

Captain Mii.es
Company

<;.

(artek

C.

after its fight at Shepherdstown. Va. Terrific most effective covering. return to the vicinity of warrenton and the upper rappahannock consolidation of the second cavalry division. Baughman's squadron returned with wagon 325 . Regiment train. penetrating the and immersing tents. baggage and almost every- thing with water. 1863. Regiment camped. picket.. when we crossed the Shenandoah River at Harper's Ferry. near Harper's Ferry. Meanwhile. Moved back to Hillsboro and encamped. Remained in camp.] Crossed the Shenandoah River. July 17 September 9. [Near Harper s Ferry. The movements of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry have been followed to Bolivar Heights. camp. July 23. rain shower this p. where our brigade arrived early on the morning of July 17. m.. Regiment relieved and ordered to camp. Regiment Captain Gilmore's squadron sent on foraging expedition. Captain Baughman's squadron sent to guard wagon in train to Harper's Ferry. July 21. Remained brigade in camp.— CHAPTER XXI Picketing and Scouting in Mosby's Confederacy. 259). in camp. July 25. July 24. protecting the immense trains of the Army of the Potomac on its movements towards Warrenton. Regimental Journal (Continued from page July July 18. 19. We rested there until the afternoon of the 19th. on the river road to Shenandoah. July 20. Regiment on July 22. Brigade broke camp and marched to Snickersville. Regiment on picket beyond Hillsboro. the Confederate Army was marching by parallel routes up the Shenandoah Valley. picketing the Gap. Va. and started on the march southward along the east side of the Blue Ridge. passed through Hillsboro and moved along the Berlin and Middleburg Pike a short distance and camped for the night.

Regiment on picket at Corbin's cross roads and Jefferson. 5. Dress parade. Regiment and brigade moved that place. Regiment on picket. In camp. This morning the Paymaster with his strong box of "enchanting greenbacks" left for Washington. Passed through Jefferson. 1863. 15. August August August 4. August August and 2. C. along Waterloo Road. . 6. A portion of the regiment came up with the brigade. Clear and warm. and marched to Middleburg. Balance of the regiment returned this morning and went into camp. 10. A.. 1 In camp. the remainder left on picket. at 9.. 17. Hunter held divine service at 10 a. above Glens Mills water high moved along the Culpeper Road and went into camp beyond Amesville. Regiment on lieved Captain picket. July 30. River and at Corbin's cross roads.30 a. fifty men re- Wm. 19. E. "A" Company paid Dress rarade. Heavy rain shower. Va. m. Heavy and and uncomfortable camp. Broke camp at Snickersville through that place and the town.— 326 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. August 2. m. Brigade camped in oak woods on the Waterloo Road. reached Sulphur Springs about noon and went into camp. Fifty men for picket under Captain Baughman. off for four months. Major Sabine pays the men. On their return the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry will vanish. Camped near Sulphur 12. Boots and Saddles sounded 7. J. moved and 8. Moved Moved Moved to Warrenton Junction and encamped. Brigade moved at 9 a. Inspection to-day. Bradbury with six scripts" men went on to Carlisle. Captain Baughman and Lieutenants R. to near July 31. August August 16. Warrenton and encamped. Springs. Clear and sultry. 11 a. Miller. July 26. July 29. Relieved from picket. August August August August 7 9. 11 Heat excessive. Regiment rain in camp. 3. On picket the 14th. m. . Camp near Warrenton.. crossed the Rappahannock River. July 26 August 19. Pa. Appearance of storm. Warrenton and camped at July 28. August August 18. August August Regiment moved at guard mount for picket along Hazel 13. in rear of the train. . Dr. Showers of rain. Arrival of the Paymaster. and crossed the Rappahannock at m. Beaton and to conduct "con- to regiment. passing encamping about half a mile from to July 27.

in August August 28. men to go to Washington for horses. Brooke and Heslet. 9. Lieutenant Bricker and twenty men on reconnoissance to Manassas and Chester Gap roads. moved off towards m. 21.30 a. At reveille a motley crowd of ninety men with arms and horse equipments were assembled and marched away under charge of Captain Baughman. 1863. too late to effect anything towards the recapture of our men. Regiment camp. August 24. 31. Clear and chilly. crossing at Sulphur Springs. Regiment on picket at Barbee's Cross Roads. Lieutenants Potter. Dress parade. Va. September 3. August 27. m. the regiment Orleans. Regiment on picket. detail for near Warrenton. September 5. Clear and cold. 23. of the day. 327 September 6. went on September 2. and camping near the river. August 26. The unusual 30. Warren and Vandegrift. Regipicket. Inspection and muster by parade. Va. Review by Colonel Mcintosh. Va. towards Chester Gap. Evening.— PICKETING AND SCOUTING IN "MOSBY's CONFEDERACY. 22. An attack made on in the loss of three men a scouting party of our pickets resulted captured. Mounted drill. to go to Washington for horses. Moved back to old camping ground. Brigade dress September scout." August 20 August August 20. Inspection at 10 a. Captain Gilmore. with gusts of wind. Brigade moved towards the Rappahannock River. . cold of the morning displaced by excessive heat Evening clear and cool. and encamped in the old camp near Warrenton. ment returns to camp from August 25. Camp camp and hospitals. and one hundred men sent on picket. Another scouting party of fifty men sent out. Regiment and brigade moved back across the river.. Camp near Sulphur Springs. Returned after finding traces of the retiring enemy. and. Regiment on picket. 29. a detachment of fifteen men came up to the regiment from dismounted September 4. Rain. Major Robinson. August Camp near Warrenton. Lieutenants Heyl. Scouted marching twenty-five to thirty miles. Horses to graze. Regiment on picket. 1. Lieutenant Bricker and three men of Company L were captured and several August horses lost. September 6. reaching that place. ninety Received Return to camp near Warrenton. On picket.

in possession of the enemy. however. m. and soon were on the march again for Snickersville. September Orders received 9. to prepare for scout. a tremendous mountain thunderstorm drowned us out. with a detail of non-commissioned officers and men from . then on their memorable raid into Maryland and Pennsylvania. where we remained in camp until the 26th. and then along the pike to Middleburg. One year ago to-day our regiment left its camp in Mary- land in close pursuit of the rebels. morrow. Camp near Warrenton. the rebs disappeared. During the night. from which the regiment went out into 21. The brigade went camp near Hillsboro on July — on picket for the night. 1863. kettles. and on the following day rejoined the rest of Gregg's Division near Catlett's Station. As the enemy was as apprehensive of an attack by us as we were of one by him. Ward and eighty-six men sent to relieve Captain September 8. marched along the mountain range to Upperville. Being relieved by the First Maryland during the night we rejoined the brigade early on the morning of the 23d. Lieutenants Carter and Gilmore's detachment. where we remained until August 7. The march was resumed on the 27th by way of White Plains and New Baltimore to beyond Warrenton. after an exceedingly hot day. through which we were expected to pass. to- and the Third was sent to picket Keys' Ford on the Shenandoah. Captain Englebert. but few shots were exchanged.— 328 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. clothing everything which could be floated off. to move 6 a. boots. near Snicker's Gap. The next day we returned to Warrenton and on the 30th the division crossed the Rappahannock at Waterloo and relieved Custer's Division at Amissville. September 7. washing down into the creek camp kits. on the evening of the 25th. July 21 September 9. and on the following morning we were enabled to reach the ford without trouble. While there the regiment was kept busily employed on picket duty On August 3 Captain Miller and Lieutenants Bradbury and Beaton. But on our way there we found Vestal's Gap. While there. ville. much of it On the 26th the brigade left Snickersall never to be recovered. coffee pots.

On the contrary. for the purpose of filling up our depleted ranks with drafted men. On the 16th we again moved camp to the vicinity of Warrenton. Sergeant Jones had shortly before been commissioned Second . as well as organized bodies of cavalry. chiefly women. and scouting. We were in close touch with the enemy's cavalry. near the Warrenton Sulphur Springs. patroling. were the chief objects of their "bushwhacking." Vedettes were frequently captured and run off or shot. Orderly-Sergeant Jones. every woodcutter's road. one of the tributaries of the Rappahannock. known. but we did not trouble each other. Camp was moved on the 7th to the vicinity of the Warrenton Sulphur Springs.— return to warrenton and upper rappahannock. we labored under great difficulties in performing our duty. from August 24 to 26. and small scouting parties ambushed. Individuals. by-path. of every house friendly to them and hostile to us. 1863. covering a line of six miles. Much of this time. The duties imposed upon the brigade during the period men- tioned were arduous in the extreme. and others of the Third were captured. Smith. comprising the greater part of what was facetiously called "Mosby's Confederacy. started for Pennsylvania. or small parties of our men. with the interruption of a couple of days. As the country was perfectly familiar to them. The 4th was spent by the greater part of the regiment on picket at Corbin's Cross Roads and Jefferson. was occupied in picketing. when we occupied our former ground on the south side of the Rappahannock. August 3 329 September 12. Lieutenant Potter returned to duty on the 27th from absence on sick leave since June 24. and privates Artley. Williams." some of the picketing stations being near the Blue Ridge Mountains. remained there until September 12. There we remained nominally until the 16th. Titus. A vast extent of country had to be covered. The entire region was infested with irregular bands of guerillas. In this way Lieutenant Bricker. The brigade on the 15th moved across the Rappahannock and camped on the Waterloo Road. there was much friendly trading between us of coffee and sugar for tobacco and applejack. the Third. Bloom. as well as the highways. Martin. however. the inhabitants. but for much of the time the regiment was out on picket along the Hazel River.

August Sunday. Captain Gilmore's squadron was stationed at Orleans. out from here with twenty Before daybreak Lieutenant Bricker was sent men on a scout on the Chester and Manassas roads. but to no avail. Just before daybreak I sent out scouting parties.30 our regiment We relieved the First Maryland. On their return. but had not been mustered. I took command of the picket post reserve. Before daybreak I sent patrolling parties out to Scouting parties were sent out after Lieutenant Bricker. and Lieutenant Carter's a mile and a half to the right. On picket we live well. the Blue Mountains in the distance. but when I got out after them August they hid in the thick bushes. passed a more anxious night. having supposed that the rest were "gobbled.330 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. however. beans. we continued on. 24. Orderly-Sergeant Jones and three men of "L" Company were missing when Gap the rest of the party returned." reserves I never who Monday. Guerillas are numerous. five miles back. and a patrol between two of our 23. The man who takes care of my horses was lost among the number. about four or five miles back. the Sixth Ohio came out to relieve us. reported that they saw nothing but tracks. new potatoes. Lieutenant of Company way L. It is One of the men returned in the evening. This is the most dangerous place to picket I ever saw. To-day for dinner I had fresh butter. First Massachusetts having been "gobbled" near here the other day. during the night. As the brigade had moved. his to Andersonville prison. Roads. In the evening the posts were doubled and the reserves reinforced. with barely enough men to protect ourselves. cucumbers. The scenery around here is beautiful. a lot of the August 21. August 21-24." Titus Augusta on latter place. This The main reserve was stationed at forms the extreme right of the army. everything. crossed . having seven posts and patrols sent out every two hours. m. — was fired into. and such like unheard-of delicacies. We are protecting the extreme right of the Army. when a mile this side of Barbee's Cross Lieutenant Bricker. He died at while a prisoner of war. We rejoined tht main reserve. but they found nothing. and Williams in the The diary of Lieutenant Rawle Brooke refers to some of the occurrences mentioned: was ordered out on picket. About 8. and there were several other alarms. they were attacked by superior numbers. Martin also died in "Libby. corn. A few Rebs (guerillas) showed themselves at one of my posts. No alarm." Several Rebs were seen by our (Gilmore's) posts during the day. Friday. and the regiment moved back to Warrenton. the front. August 22. expecting to be "gobbled. Guerillas are plenty around. Saturday. over a terrible road. 1863. In charge of picket post reserve during the night the third night without sleep. About 1 p.

were ordered out to picket the Salem Road. where we arrived about 1 p. who relieved us here on August 24. and it blew up cool.— picketing and scouting in "mosby's confederacy.. with Colonel Mcintosh and Third Pennsylvania Cavalry members of the brigade staff. Springs. Officer of the day. and September 5. Cool and airy. If so. The Sixth Ohio. and that it would require the whole Cavalry Corps to do so. 1865. 2. entirely useless i. "General" sounded. the First Rhode Island Cavalry and two squadrons of the Third Pennsylvania went out on a scout through Chester Gap in the Blue Ridge. half a mile outside the infantry pickets. morning. Tuesday. "Boots and Saddles" sounded and the regiment marched as fast as we could out to Orleans to support Colonel Sargent who is His pickets were driven in. He says he is unable to picket the country properly. e. all who have seen the ground consider Bricker blameless. August 25. about 5 p. We lay in camp near Warrenton White Sulphur Rain in the afternoon. and the guerillas got in between them and fired on patrolling and relief The officers of the regiment and parties. after his release and return home. Wednesday. whence picketing here with three regiments. It was all we could do to protect our own picket reserves.. in higher and done for the purpose of shutting up the faults The picket line was a very bad one. About 8. was a mounted regimental came over and took a group of nearly all the officers in the regiment now present. the alarm. it will be scandalous. getting back to Orleans about 2 a. About m. m. near Warrenton. The roads were very bad and we marched hard and steadily. Orleans and marched back to camp near Warrenton. It is into reported that Lieutenant Bricker * circles. Rappahannock at Warrenton White Sulphur Springs. It is terribly hard work in all — about thirty-five miles. September to duties. 26th. About 8 a. to follow out its design. We then September drill. and the brigade moved back to the beautiful ground we occupied before. and I.30 p. camp was struck. August the — 331 24 September 5. In the morning there In the afternoon a photographer had a full dress parade. We were picketing during the day. September 4 p. m. is to be dismissed. Saturday. During the morning the regiment 3. losing thirty men and Major wounded. In camp all In the afternoon.. m. going from one to the other. pretty well tired out. a detail of * He was honorably discharged. Lieutenants Potter. had some trouble. ************* 1. . m. left Thursday. reading and attending one hundred men Captain Gilmore. 1863. Heslet. Tuesday. January 25. m. Wednesday. to protect the right flank of the Army with so few men. and went camp on the old ground near that place.

the outposts brought in information that a party of six had moved across the Salem Road in the direction of our right front. He was about seventy-five yards ahead. good lookout on the right. Seeing another large party on my left. and to go out about two miles. We did not advance. falling back about a mile and a half. trying to flank me and cut me off. and about 2 p. So much for sending out small parties into a country of which nothing is known. At the same time Lieutenant Potter was sent out with nine men on a branch road to the right. 1863. about two miles from Warrenton. and another party of the same number from my left. I had been expecting something of the kind. then sent back for the to keep a advance guard to follow at the proper distance and act as rear guard. living in a house in the neighborhood. Captain Newhall having returned from leave of absence on account of his wounds received at Gettysburg. and sent out one man as advance guard. and resumed the duties of that office. I lost two men of "B" Company and one of "H" Company by the bargain. cut our way through. We. I went out about two miles without seeing anything. September 5-7. the summer Second of . and reared and jumped up in the air about three feet. so we changed the reserve back about one hundred yards. but the rear guard was cut off by the party on my left and the men I had cut my way through. My horse was wounded in the head by a pistol ball. however. in the midst of the skirmish. and I withdrew carefully. At the same moment a party of about a dozen rebel cavalry charged from my right front. however. and as soon as he got to the top of the hill he yelled out. and sent the advance guard out on a hill to take a look around. We were on the watch for guerilla bands day. I was immediately sent with seven men out the Salem Road. and in order to increase its efficiency. September Sunday.33 2 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. when Captain Gilmore came up. of trouble. but with the other four I immediately charged the first party and cut my way through them. I waited a few moments. Captain Wright. and Captain Gilmore with a lew more went out also. "Here they are. and tried to unhorse me. under Lieutenant Mountjoy. After the affair I was told by an old negro woman. and I was lucky in getting out as well as I did. In consequence of its incessant hard work during the 1863. Some of our pickets were driven in during the evening. m. returned on Septem- ber 7 to duty with his company. halted the main body in a hollow. who had for some time been acting as Assist- ant Adjutant-General on the Brigade Staff." and fell back on me. that the rebel party was a company of Mosby's men numbering forty-eight. One of my men fell back on the rear guard. and there were several alarms. maddened by pain. I sent one man ahead to bring up reinforcements. There are some guerillas around here all who give a good deal 6.

Deems. First Maine — Colonel Charles H. —Lieutenant-Colonel James M. First Rhode Island — Lieutenant-Colonel John L.— CONSOLIDATION OF THE SECOND CAVALRY DIVISION. consolidated into as two brigades. Robison. Sixteenth Pennsylvania— Lieutenant-Colonel John K. Galligher. . The Roster of August 31. First Massachusetts (eight companies) — Colonel Horace B. Mcintosh. Smith. August. Sixth Ohio — Lieutenant-Colonel William Stedman. 1863. Eighth Pennsylvania— Major Joseph W Wistar. G. : — Gregg). Maryland son. Tenth New York— Lieutenant-Colonel William Fourth Pennsylvania— Lieutenant-Colonel William E. Doster. Robinson. First New Jersey — Colonel Percy Wyndham. District Irvine. Third Pennsylvania — Major Oliver O. of Columbia (Independent Company) — Captain William H. First Brigade First — Colonel John B. 333 Cavalry Division was. Sargent. First Pennsylvania — Colonel John P Taylor. during the month of August. ThompSecond Brigade — Colonel Pennock Huey. 1863. Thirteenth Pennsylvania— Colonel James A. Orton. reports it composed as follows Second Division Commanded by Colonel J Irvin Gregg (in the temporary absence of Brigadier-General David McM.

at 5 the back covered by cavalry and artillery. Va. part of our brigade steadily driving the rebel column before them. September 11. which moved towards the Salem pike. September 12. September ahead. September From about 4 a. thence on the Middleburg Pike and on the mountain road within three miles of Upperville. to daylight the regiment stood at two brigades comprising the division moved off towards Hazel River. compelled them to evacuate three A heavy rain and darkness well chosen positions. m. Colonel Mcintosh commanding the brigade. Regiment and brigade crossed the Rappahannock River. satisfied no doubt. after passing through Culpeper (just beyond which town the wreck of some pieces of artillery captured by our men were seen) and about a mile beyond the town the regiment was 13. after 14. sion at 7 334 .CHAPTER XXII The Campaign of Maneuvers. 1863. returned to camp with the regiment. our regiment in support of the battery. in less than an hour. encamping near Jefferson for the night.30. Regimental Journal (Continued from page September 10. the army again advances to the rapidan culpeper court house skirmishing along the rapidan guarding the line of supplies meade's retreat yates' ford or occoquan return to warrenton and its vicinity September io — November 22. passing Salem. which we soon proved to them was ineffectual. Steadily advancing. halting near that place for the night. Culpeper. Went into camp about four miles beyond Culpeper. Camp beyond a. Regiment moved with divim. and their squadrons relieved. Returned to camp near Warrenton. The time had now arrived for the movement toward the front. coming on obliged us to halt for the night. Found the rebel pickets about one-half mile They immediately decamped. and we found the rebels waiting to receive us with a storm of shot and shell. however. Captains Walsh and Wright having been on the skirmish line. m. At daylight the advanced at a trot. About 3 o clock. Reveille at 3 a. horse. at 4. thence taking the road leading to White Plains. the Army to make another Confederate Army having fallen 328). which they crossed and marched towards Culpeper. Boots and Saddles regiment moved out and joined the brigade.

. Regiment in camp. September an hour. picket towards Greenwich and Brentsville." "Steadily on" we marched until we reached the south tain. September 20. passing that place and at Catlett's Station. Regiment in September 22 [error]. Moved camp a short distance on the road leading to Madison Court House. Returned to near Cedar Mountain and camped for the night. Monetary affairs are still the rage. 29. September 14-29. Camp near Cedar Mountain. Regiment line. Regiment moved at 4 m. Regiment remained on skirmish line all day. Regiment still on skirmish Towards even- ing lively firing by both parties commenced. Warrenton Junction. halted The regiment moved on and encamped at Kettle Run. considering he new personage. 28. September Regiment in camp. September 19. Broke camp and moved towards Culpeper. side of Camp near Cedar Mountain. 335 yesterday's experience. still on skirmish line. 17. 27. Camp near Culpeper. September 26 [25]. Much gratification was expressed by the men. 1863. camping beyond the town. Regiment and brigade September 25 [24]. and with the brigade proceeded to Stevensburg. September 21. reaching just outside of the town at dusk. with the First Pennsylvania Cavalry and relieved pickets near Rapidan River. September 24 [23]. Camp Same. near Culpeper. He made quite a brilliant debut. for them. near Rapidan Station. Camp to near moved back camp Stevensburg. Va. Regiment moved at 4 a. September 15. Heavy showers rain make the camp anything but pleasant." Cedar Mountain. lasting about half One year ago to-day the memorable battle of Antietam took September of 18.THE ARMY AGAIN ADVANCES TO THE RAPIDAN. place. so famous under the name of "Slaughter Mounand made memorable by the fearful decimation of Major-General Pope's retreating army. Details September Camp near Kettle Run. Camp near Culpeper. "rather slim. at 8 p. Regiment and brigade halted (our skirmishers having advanced almost to the Rapidan River) and camped for the night. Regiment and division moved towards Bealton Station and. camp. m. Regiment relieved by infantry pickets. a. Same. that the chances of a fight would be. Regiment and division moved towards Rappahannock Station and encamped beyond the station. September 23 [22]. on the road to Bealton Station. m. September 16. on September was a Major Staples made his appearance in camp to-day as the paymaster. Captain Englebert and squadron sent on picket.

but nothing transpired during the night.— 336 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. 30. m. near the Brentsville Road. Regiment on picket. by the way. we moved beyond Kettle Run October 10. 3-6. Gilmore and detachment sent returned to In camp and were Dress Patrols towards Catlett's Station. m. In camp. and reached Bristow Station about 6 p. on the road leading to Brentsville and Dumfries. The regiment was drawn out and a scout of thirty mounted and twenty-five dismounted were sent out. The patrol sent out towards dusk to Catlett's Station were attacked while on their return to camp. was moved forward through the night. m. Captain paid. as about a division of their cavalry could by that time be seen ordered on picket. About 5 p. that the rebels were advancing when word came on our pickets in line of skirmishers. Scouts sent out last evening returned Traces of the rebels or guerrillas (more to camp this morning. October October 12. Colonel Devin. Regiment was reported to Brigadier-General Buford for duty and moved with his division about 7 a. 1863. September October 1. m. of which we were rear guard. October 8. The pickets had just been posted . probably the latter) were discovered in the neighborhood of Dr. one came into camp badly wounded. but nothing of information was elicited. Quietness of the day succeeded by a sleepless Shortly after Taps a report reached us that the patrol was again attacked. 7. The wagon train. in camp. commanding the brigade. 13. the column was halted and the regiment October 15. without success. endeavored to cut off our rear. Same. p. Regiment m. Regiment camp. when orders were countermanded and we again returned to camp. of the remaining three. Pickets sent on the Brentsville Road in rear of camp. Regiment in camp. moved to Warrenton Junction. Regiment in camp. Camp near Catlett's Station. October October October 2. At 9 a. October n. while. Two of the number (five) were taken prisoners. attack on our patrols turns out was the one from the Thirteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry instead of our own. September 30 October 15. A vigilant lookout was kept. but (intending to move to Catlett's Station). In camp. Regiment in camp. Some of the arms lost by our patrol were also found. October 14. At 9 in camp at Warrenton Junction. Osborne's house. Regiment moved as rear guard. night. was ordered by General Buford to drive the enemy across Occoquan Creek (rather difficult job. Moved to Catlett's Station and went into camp. On the march near Brentsville. October 9. and a party of rebels. but without success. The reported it to be true. parade. About one-half the regiment on duty.

yates ford. a Company H. was withdrawn. About 8 p. are confused. and passing through the town we encamped beyond Bull Run and near the right of the battleground of the memorable first Bull Run. Moved to Gainesville. October 18. Forage very short. Camp beyond station October 19. m. it is almost miraculous that they were so few. Another Regiment broke camp and went to near Fairfax Station. and went into October 17. crossing which we went into camp. under Colonel Taylor. and Private Joseph Kern. 23. m. one of whom was ordered to "fall in" (a rather cool joke.* Camp near Fairfax Station. Stood to horse all night. entry under same date says: Regiment in camp. and none too soon. Company F (one of the most efficient non-commissioned officers of the regiment). or occoquan October moving towards us in return to warrenton.* Camp near Cob Run. the shot fell thick and heavy. young officer prospects were good that he October camp. which then moved towards Centreville. Although we met with some Among the casualties. killed we have to lament the loss of Second Lieutenant Ellwood Davis. 337 15-23. To the right and left. inclusive. to Cob Run and camped. Seven of the men were wounded and four are missing. by the way). Besides we have to mourn the loss of Orderly Sergeant Charles Dodwell. on picket at Occoquan Creek. October pression * Dress parade this a.* Regiment rejoined the brigade Camp near Bull Run. 1863. The dates and occurrences from October 16 to 20. The rebel guns having been silenced some time before. m. which place was reached at 10 p. Orleans and Waterloo. of Company B. m. Many and deep regrets follow his memory from those who knew him best. and quietly relieved by the rebels. In camp. moved and joined the brigade.* Evening moved near Fairfax Station. 16. 22 . through Thoroughfare Gap. and in our midst. The rebels had caught sight of us and directed their shot and shell with great precision towards our column. with a view of eliciting an exon the order for "re-enlistment of veteran volunSee post page 358. whose would prove as brilliant as he was strict in the performance of his duties. passing through little Georgetown and New Baltimore. October 20. m. our battery. whose career was just commencing. Camp near Warrenton. near Fairfax Station. the column silently and quickly moved towards Bull Run. front and rear. in battle line). Our regiment was at once formed squadrons behind a small eminence. Moved on the road leading to 22. Regiment at 5 a.* Camp moved at 12 Regiment and brigade near Bull Run Battlefield. m. October October 21.. Encamped for the night in our former camp beyond Warrenton. which had done good service during the afternoon. at 9 p.

Orders to move seem to be postponed. Va. forming October October 25. picket the 27th." — 338 November 16. One the advance guard of the army. Twice. November November 3. captur2. November n. and regiment went on picket from Sulphur Springs to Rappahan12. November November Inspection. Again attacked our On November November November November Return from In camp. and brigade went Va. nock Station. November November 13. 26. . and unsuccessfully. 14. Regiment and brigade moved camp a short distance. however. camp. Regiment on into picket. in Uncle October Regiment on picket. 1863. November 16. A On movement? year ago to-day. to-day. Guerilla bands from the neighborhood of Warrenton disturbed the picket line near that place. Camp near Cox's Ford. Regiment in camp until Rappahannock Station. into Broke camp. October 30. In camp. picket. Regiment in camp. 24. breaking into the camp of the First Pennsylvania Cavalry on duty near that town. Regiment 7. In camp. The rebels made a raid on our pickets to-day. but without success. to camp. our regiment and a brigade moved from October 29 James's College through Maryland and into Virginia in Inspection of horses at pursuit of the retreating rebels. camp Camp near Warrenton. towards nightfall. The men. 11 a. 4. on the preceding evening. seemed unable to see the point Sam's greenbacks. Regiment returned St. rapidly returning again across the river. 15. halted at Fayetteville. Regiment on picket. 6. November November Rappahannock 10. has camp stragetic been broken to-day. "To arms" was sounded. pickets. and wounding several of the men. 5. towards Bealton Station.— HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. October 23 teers. In camp. stormed and taken by our infantry moved to Station. etc. Regiment returned from picket and went camp near Fayette. 8. and we went into 9. Regiment in camp. 27. Orders to move with three days rations. 28. (a small place and peculiarly illustrative of Virginia romance consisting of a nigger shanty. Inspection and muster of the regiment by Lieutenant-Colonel Jones. Orders to move to-morrow. Regiment and brigade moved at daylight and taking the Sulphur Springs Road for some distance. Va. a well and a barn). m. when it camping near the rebel fortifications. 1. ing three of our men and picket.

Nothing worthy of record. the left. Mosby was in that neighborhood. rations for two and the at want of them is November 19. and the region thereabouts. Returned last night from a raid to Middleburgh. 22. there joining the rest of the division. but we had no luck. Rain falling. General Gregg. I came to the conclusion that hunting guerrillas with four regiments of cavalry and four pieces of artillery was very much like shooting mosquitoes with a rifle very mashing to the little bird if you hit him. September 12 339 November 22. as a preliminary to the conto the front. crossing at General Kilpatrick. with the First Division. — m. and occasionally take a stray Close search has so far failed to elicit their whereabouts. Regiment in camp. with the Second Division. but without success. ing country in front and rear. the centre. Straggling were fired all night November November 21. Regiment on picket by guerrillas. in camp. Guerrilla bands infest the surround17. 10 the brigade. 1863. with the Third Division. making things rather miserable. November for the Camp near Fayetteville. the two former concentrating on Culpeper Court House. picketing from thence toward Rappahannock Station and Sulphur Springs. vicinity of and the regiment falling into line scouted around the pine woods camp. covered by the Cavalry Corps in three columns. took 3 a. in the November soldier. General Gregg's Division started on the march at daylight. line beyond Sulphur Springs shots dis- turbed line. commenced last night. Captain Newhall referred to the trip in his diary: September 12. on the 12th and the brigade at Warrenton Sulphur Springs. The days. Rappahannock Station. It was reported that Mr. 18.— the army again advances to the rapidan. Regiment received rations at noon and went on picket Cox's Ford. On September templated movement made a reconnoissance in force from Warrenton to Salem and Middleburg. and bivouacked for the night near Jefferson. in a hard thunderstorm. and General Buford. and crossed the Hazel . November along the 20. We break up camp this afternoon. returning to camp the following evening. Regiment men have not been forthcoming beginning to be seriously felt. The General sounded at crossed the Rappahannock the right . On the 13th there was a general advance on the part of the Army of the Potomac.

Colonel Irvin Gregg's Brigade taking the advance and driving the enemy's cavalrv pickets and their supports to Culpeper Court House. the First Rhode Island. but the falling of large branches of trees upon us made the situation even more unpleasant. and another regiment were sent. dismounted. with part of the First Rhode Island in support. sup- enemy which stood hill in its rear. pouring into us a large assortment of shell. the First Massachusetts on our left.34-0 history of the third pennsylvania cavalry. well to the front. near which we spent the night. the sole credit for the achievement. we dashed forward in close columns of squadrons. Time and again the rebels turned upon us. At daybreak on September 14 the division again moved forward verv carefully. With the Sixth Ohio on the right of us. who had a newspaper reporter connected with his headquarters. but we kept them on all the way to the battlefield of Cedar (or Slaughter) Mountain. The First Massachusetts. of his they command. So vigorous was the attack that the enemy soon General part gave way. making great havoc with the trees around us. ported by a battery on a Some very lively carbine and artillery firing ensued. hearing our fighting. About a mile south of the town the enemy made a determined stand. sent North by a strong escort to the nearest telegraph post a glowing dispatch claiming came over from our left with we had cornered two other guns. m. and they felt him themselves very decidedly . across our path. before The battery also skipped off in a lively manner. River at Oak Shades Church. 1863. with about one hundred prisoners. round shot and spherical case. over the battlefield and to within about two miles of the Rapidan River. The projectiles were bad enough. meeting with some opposition. but not we had secured one gun and a couple of caissons. There our brigade under Colonel Mcintosh took the advance. lying along the road in a downpour of rain which kept up incessantly all the time we the run were there. These were rightly ours. but Kilpatrick. Kilpatrick. towards the river to feel the The rebs enemy. and our battery in the road. and Colonel Mcintosh gave orders for the Third to charge and take or dislodge the battery. about 4 p. Seeing that dashed on and captured them. being struck a force of the in front with skirmishers deployed. September 13-14. The Third Pennsylvania.

Hearing Buford on our left. After leaving our camp near Warrenton. wrote home about the Culpeper Court House fight willingly fasted. By this time the rations of the men had become exhausted. September 15th. however. We got so close to the river that we could distinctly hear railway trains bringing up reinforcements. nor protection for our artillery. P Hill's Corps of Infantry. the Second Brigade in front. Captain Newhall. Buford on our left. We halted for half an hour. as follows: Slaughter Mountain. and it wasn't long before we went from skirmishing to battery firing. At 4 o'clock a.SKIRMISHING ALONG THE RAPIDAN. and they unwhich the officers had been doing for three days. 341 were found to occupy an impregnable position. As we approached Culpeper the enemy disputed the ground a little. and there was no suitable ground for our mounted troops to maneuver. and the rebel sharpshooters put Before daybreak on the following day in their work effectively. and later in the day other regiments came out all to reinforce us. The brigade worked to a charm. and occupied by A. towards Raccoon Ford. the hills on the opposite side being covered with earthworks and batteries. we crossed the Rappahannock near Sulphur Springs. on the 13th. which General Kilpatrick took advantage of. with a force of cavalry and some artillery on our side of the river. and Kilpatrick still further down the river. and encamped just outside Colonel Gregg's Brigade. We kept up the firing at close quarters that and the following day and night. As we advanced in three columns the rebels were a little mixed. and great yelling on the part of the enemy on the other side. who was still acting as Adjutant-General of the brigade. (15th) the Third and two other regiments went out to the relief of those on the skirmish line. bands playing "Dixie" and other airs. m. the Third changing position to the left of the line. and our battery of four light twelve-pounders did splendid execu- . 1863. There was some hard fighting. they captured about one hundred prisoners and three guns. At Culpeper our columns joined. September 12-15. as the pack train was back in the rear. drums beating. and ordered up the Michigan Brigade (Custer's) to charge. Open fields lay to the north of the river. one division towards Rapidan Station. we took the road and forded the Hazel River. and then to breakneck charging and regular bull-dog fighting. but debouching at the other side of the town we commenced working our several ways towards the Rapidan River. they didn't allow themselves to remain very long in any one place. Our brigade now took the advance.

where we had been on the Stoneman Raid. on the 17th the Second Corps came up and remove back about two miles for a night's rest. and in one-half hour's time you occupied their chosen position. This was a magnificent sight. and the Sixth Ohio on the right of th. and of your subsequent conduct near the Rapid Ann Station. as they were skirmishing. tion. To-night. our loss probably not more than seventy. allowing us to m. what between the rebs and the Quartermaster's Department." To compensate us in part. no serious attacks made by either party. This is a second Fredericksburg. the following order was read before the different regiments About 4 p.. only that a much stronger natural defence is found here. Skirmishing all day. which. the First Massachusetts and Third Pennsylvania on the left. in the crescent shape of the hills overlooking the fords. Under the most galling fire you advanced impetuously on the enemy's line. and two squadrons of the First Rhode Island in the road. Cavalry Corps. Am very well. Headquarters First Br. There are no . road. To-day we hold our line in front of the ford. we were about "kilt dead. including one Weather good to-day. General Order No.: 342 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. We had been worked terribly hard. where we encamped for the night. and the General could not help saying "Beautifully done. while it was taking position. Our first position was a killed. lieved us. the day before yesterday. and two drivers little rough. 1863. 1863. We bivouacked on the level ground at the base of Cedar (or Slaughter) Mountain. belonging to one piece. but the guns opened with grape and cannister.gade. nine horses were wounded. with small loss. September 20. was rather bad. All yesterday we were feeling their position over the Rapidan River. heavier firing." We pushed them to within a mile of Cedar Mountain. charged and carried the enemy's position. as was Fred officer wounded. Just at this moment the First Pennsylvania was reported in want of ammunition. however. you fought the severest fight that the corps was engaged in that day. the 13th inst. and as we were without sufficient food or forage. Officers and soldiers of the First Brigade: The commanding officer of this brigade takes the first opportunity which has presented since your glorious advance from Culpeper to express to you his unqualified admiration of your conduct in the engagement near Culpeper. It is some satisfaction for you to know that on Sunday. Second Division. and it is his greatest pride and pleasure to bear witness to your great gallantry on the occasion. of which we were sadly in need. No troops could have done better. September 13-17. 14.

We were in the saddle again by 5 a. on Kettle Run.30 p. two miles to the west. through Culpeper Court House. 1863. As it. Walter Newhall. S. we bivouacked for the night in its vicinity. when it returned to camp near Culpeper Court House. on the 24th the "General" was sounded. and crossing the Rappahannock at the station of that name. country. where the Third left the brigade and went on seven miles further to Bristow Station for picket. the line of supplies camp had become so much some stretched out. leaving all tents standing. September exceptions. superiority. reaching there about 6 and bivouacking for the night. m. the Third was ordered to report for temporary duty with Eustace's Brigade of Terry's Division of the Sixth . m. Gregg's Division was sent to guard distance. for did nobly. Kilpatrick's Division having received orders to proceed with Buford's on September 22 on a reconnoissance. marching along the Orange and Alexandria Railroad to Catlett's Station. and guerillas were troublesome. being strung along the railroad for The infantry having been ordered to relieve part of the cavalry. m. all 343 18-25. McIntosh. B. and remained there until Kilpatrick's return on the following evening. establishing the regimental near by. after a hard and fast march. past Brandy Station. But at 2 p. We had put in a good deal of work making our camp and quarters comfortable. You have won an By command: Colonel J. and by 4 o'clock the brigade was again on the march. party returned to the regiment with a large lot of new horses for the brigade. the division started back towards Culpeper Court House. Great were the uncertainties of a cavalryman's life.GUARDING THE LINE OF SUPPLIES.. You Your conduct on that day has proved to the enemy your and entitles you to the best wishes and gratitude of your enviable reputation. moved over to near Stevensburg to relieve his pickets on the left flank of the army. Camp was changed on the following day to a beautiful but shadeCaptain Baughman and his less place. camp broken up. Captain and A. expecting to be there for some time. Mcintosh's Bri- gade at daybreak. A. acted as veteran soldiers of the First Brigade. m. The seemingly incessant rain continued all of the 18th. reaching that place about 10 p. G. A. At 1.

camp was struck. While there Captain Rogers. Lee was again on the march northward.. not far from Warrenton Junction. m. On October 10. Corps stationed in the vicinity. between that place and Brentsville. at wounded and Lieutenant Ellwood Davis. at 11 a. parked opposite Bristow Station. taking the road east of the railroad.— 344 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY September 25 October 14. Colonel Deven's Brigade of Buford's Division of Cavalry was much nearer to us. Army trains and As Genrolling stock were being sent to the rear in great haste. m. struck. and to him we reported and went into bivouac near his command.30 o'clock on the morning of October 14 we started with our new. not far from Bristow Station. trying to stop the whole of Lee s Army. About 8. m. resulting in . and we moved a few hundred yards on the Catlett's Stirring Station Road. From our comfortable camp on Kettle Run. sion Gregg's Divi- was over on the right at Warrenton Sulphur Springs. eral Terry did not seem to know what to do with the Third we were Catlett's Station. of Company L. the "General" again sounded. we picketed assiduously from Kettle Run on the left to the infantry pickets near Bristow Station on the right. who had been absent on sick leave since June 26. 1863. patrolling the country round about and frequently encountering small parties of guerillas. all returned to duty on September 27. movements were now again in the air. from Lee's Army to reinforce Bragg in Tennessee. who had been slightly wounded there and afterwards had been sick. and then we returned to camp. about 10 a. marching to the rear. but whither and where no one could tell. of Company H. but on the following day. the "General" sounded. as it was estimated. some seventy miles in length. camp was again struck and we moved over to General Terry's headquarters at Late in the evening of the 12th camp was again and we moved up to Warrenton Junction. came up with the rear of the immense wagon train of the Army of the Potomac. and about 4 p.. but temporary commander. ordered to report to the nearest cavalry at hand. Captain Wetherill. of Company F. The reason of all this marching and counter-marching was Longstreet's Corps had been detached difficult for us to divine. who had been badly (infantry) Gettysburg.

with the Second Corps. having the interior line. and Lee determined to force Meade back. on the 14th. The latter. and thinking that he had abandoned the line of the Rapidan prematurely. covered by Buford's and Kilpatrick's Cavalry Divisions. On reaching it. and on encountering Lee's advance near Auburn. when Lee with his main army had approached that place. outmarched his adversary. Meade. meanwhile. 345 Army at Chickamauga. Fifth. he found himself practically alone. and Sixth Corps and Buford's Cavalry to the south of the Rappahannock. Meade. he not Rosecrans' only extricated his tion. command from an exceedingly perilous posi- but inflicted a severe blow upon the Confederates. Owing and finding that by reason of the celerity of Meade's his well conceived plans had been foiled. movements . from which. The Eleventh and Twelfth Corps of Meade's Army were then sent to reinforce Rosecrans. to this. which disclosed Lee's movements. not knowing that Meade's main army had passed Bristow Station and was well on its way toward Centreville. countermarched his Second. with the intention of crossing and moving to Warrenton. fighting and delaying the advance all the way to Auburn. making a magnificent fight. was now covering Meade's rear. fell back upon it. being thus weakened. endeavored to cut off his retreat by striking the railroad at the Station in his rear. but. thus giving time to Meade to meet the emergency. was put upon his defence. A close race now took place between Lee and Meade. the Third Pennsylvania was at the time temporarily detached. thinking that the Fifth Corps was at Bristow Station. as has been stated. Lee fell back after destroying the railroad from Bull Run to Rappahannock Station. But Warren. Lee. he had ordered a quick falling back of the three corps. October. and finding that it had been abandoned started to move quickly around Meade's right flank. had been watching the Upper Rappahannock with his main force at Warrenton Sulphur Springs. however. On October 12th.MEADE'S RETREAT. ignorant of this. On October 11 Lee had reached Culpeper. Gregg with the Second Division of Cavalry. hoping to strike the Orange and Alexandria Railroad north of the Rappahannock in his rear. As soon as Meade had learned of Gregg's encounter. his defeating 1863. Gregg had resisted with all his might.

took his command. was fired upon. over to the other side. The country around Bristow Station was in places open and hilly. and their cupidity was excited. greatly reduced in numbers. and as the guests of his division he gave us the usual place of honor in military parades.346 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. white-covered wagons of the train. and . The envious Confederates had seen in the distance the conspicuous. between Bristow Station and of the Brentsville. Horsemen were occasionally seen at a disThere tance behind us. with the fourth platoon of sixteen men having the extreme rear guard. At a small place called Bradley. We soon found that we were the extreme rear guard. Captain Wright's squadron was in the rear. food. in the triangle formed by Cedar Run (marked on some maps as the Upper Occoquan) and Bull Run. The regiment was drawn up east of the railroad. under the started Early on the morning of Captain command Walsh. The head of it had pulled out and the rear of it was hastening across Bull Run at Yates' Ford. as stated. which was being moved as rapidly as possible to a place of safety beyond Bull Run. The Third Pennsylvania. the rear guard. near immense wagon train of or forage. had during the afternoon of the 14th joined forces with Deven's Brigade of Buford's Division which a large part Meade's army was still in park. General Buford. and we felt that we were being followed. That night was spent in watchfulness. without sleep. from two to five miles off. upon an open hill from which a fine view was had of the battle of Bristow Station going on below. 1863. alone to look after the safety of the wagons. which is a mile or so below the railroad bridge. or the greater part of it. on the march northeastward. of the 15th the Third. notwithstanding that they had not yet all crossed Bull Run. and that a large number of them were stalled in the bottom. in comparatively open country. Leaving Captain Walsh and his small regiment. General Buford had known Captain Walsh from early army days. preparations for resistance were taken by Lieutenant Potter. October 14-15. the rear of its column. were doubts at first in the minds of some as to whether our followers were not some of our own stragglers. Increased about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. most of the time in standing to horse. Lieutenant Potter.

While these dispositions were being made. The regiment consequently came to a halt and faced about to the rear. in About 5 o'clock. Captain teen men. deployed dis- mounted on Treichel's right. preparatory to fording at Yates' Ford. in the diswas seen going it tance. and at once made dispositions to meet the emergency. the rear of the train into park on the banks of Bull Run. with the exception of Captain Wetherill's which was held in reserve. dismounted. was deployed dismounted in this open space. with his platoon of sixof the line. October he fell 15. forming the left centre of the line. OR OCCOQUAN. outside of the obstruction on the side of the enemy. went into line in the woods on Potter's right and rear. then placed two men. We had not gotten very far when. two miles from Yates' Ford. with on Lieu- tenant Davis' right. covered by the woods. Lieutenant Ellwood Davis. when nearing a place called Buckhall. and the remainder of the platoon about one hundred yards still further to the rear. occupied the road some distance in advance. Captain Wright. his right extending to the edge of an open Company H. Lieutenant Potter at once threw up a barricade of trees and fence rails across the road. a strong force of cavalry was observed the distance approaching by a road from the west at right angles to the one by which we had been marching. . which was plainly visible. The other squadrons. about two hundred yards from Captain Walsh's line. a short distance behind it. back slowly. under space about two hundred yards in width. Meanwhile Captain Walsh sent word to General Buford that the enemy was in his rear in force and that he apprehended an attack. which there ran through thick woods. the column of the enemy had drawn nearer and was forming line of battle in the open fields between the woods. 347 1863. the remainder of his squadron. evidently with the intention of cutting us off from the ford and capturing the wagon train. forming a half-circle around our position. The General replied by the messenger that General Gregg was on his way from the direction of Bristow Station and would cover the wagon left train. deployed dismounted Captain Treichel. with his squadron. and two other men. with Sergeant Ewing in charge of them all. Baughman. forming Lieutenant Potter.YATES FORD. with the three other platoons of his the squadron faced to the west.

and upon my replying in the negative. asked a sergeant to see what I wanted. I asked them what troops they were.' and that he would send word to him. had set in and the Confederates were wearing their ponchos. was not discernible I When within about fifty yards of them could see the gray knees of their pantaloons between the ponchos and the tops of their boots. and raising 'General Gor- . as I had a mes- sage for him. that they "As orders had life. I to undertake hazardous mission. and the General said. even possibly at the sacrifice of so Corporal Speese. By this time General Buford had himself arrived on the ground. unlimbered and got ready for action. 'Well. but not being altogether satisfied he ordered that some one be detailed to go out and make sure of it. guard. two of them rode out from the ranks with cocked pistols. states. hold up your hand and go ahead.' At this juncture the officer whom I had first spoken to rode forward and I asked him where General Gordon was. so that the color of their uniforms at a distance.348 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. and galloping down the skirmish line directed Lieutenant Davis to ascertain who those people in the distance were. ordered The man. fearing perhaps a Yankee trick. The officer. his This inquiry threw him off his hand and pointing to the woods on the don is up there placing a regiment in position.' A drizzling rain started at a trot for the Confederate line. me if I was going to shoot. of this Company H. He thereupon directed the sergeant to inform General Gordon that a messenger was awaiting him from the Yankee General." to be obeyed.' I replied that I did not possess such an article. 1863. October 15. I suggested to the Confederate officer that I was out of left said. "While this conversation was going on a Confederate battery came up and went into position in front of their line. The reply came quicker than I had in readiness to open fire. as well as hundreds of carbines unslung and Riding directly to the front of the line I called out to an officer sitting on his horse that I had a message to deliver. expected: 'General Gordon's Brigade of North Carolina Cavalry. He was told were Confederates. Advancing my General Buford shouted to me: 'Drop your carbine and hold a white handkerchief in your hand. "I was directed carbine. hesitating. "Not wishing very particularly to meet General Gordon just then.

As soon as they had gotten close up the men of the platoon on the right delivered a well- among the wagons. 'This is a damned nice story for line. I advanced and met him half way. and then fell back through the woods. own and got to their horses. Captain Walsh sent out Lieutenant Heslet with his platoon of Wright's squadron to Lieutenant Potter's support.' I then told him that I had no message. place so near his line and that I would wait half the to way between two lines for General Gordon's arrival. Then." As soon as the large force of Confederates was seen. He then said to me. four men under Sergeant Ewing held the barricade with their carbines as long as they could. . pected reception the rebels drew back. the rebels charged in column in strong force down the road toward the two ambushed platoons. Suddenly a large column of cavalry appeared. and Heslet's platoon on the left of the road facing to the right oblique. Riding leisurely back at a walk. OR OCCOQUAN. October 15. facing to the left oblique. with great execution. leaving several dead and directed volley upon the head of the attacking party. ness to get in The clearing away of the barricade delayed the attacking party for a short time. with eager- almost in their grasp. his horse who was there waiting. Whereupon the Confederate from the sergeant said. 'General Gordon's Brigade of North Carolina Cavalry. on the right of the road.YATES FORD.' and galloped back to his and soon the battery opened fire. when within hearing distance of our line I called out to General Buford. and drove in Potter's outside post. which were and then Staggered by their unexthose on the left.' Whereupon the General for reinforce- wheeled ments. that it was only a ruse on our part to find out who was in front of us and if necessary to bring up the infantry. and galloped back. platoon in line. apThe proaching by the road. presumably "About ten minutes later the Confederate sergeant rode out line holding up his hand. 'General Gordon presents his compliments to General Buford and is ready to receive his communication. so as to clear the road and form an ambush. whereupon the latter placed his mounted. me to tell General Gordon. This he consented and rode with me beyond the battery. 349 1863.

enemy pressed upon us at different parts of the line Captain Wetherill moved his squadron. crippling several horses. sir!" After holding the line for about one and one-half hours two guns of a horse battery with a regiment of cavalry came up to our support. Lieutenant Warren accordingly was sent out with the left platoon of Captain Baughman's squadron and deployed on Lieutenant Potter's right. As it arrived on the ground General Buford called out to the commanding officer: "Where have you been. sir? You have had time to come from Washington!" The cause of the delay was explained to him that Yates' Ford was choked with wagons. which made it necessary for the regiment and guns to — cross at Wolf Run Shoals.else. Part of the supand the other by a heavier column still more vigorous charge was made on Potter's position in A the road. as circumstances required. stands characteristic. soon getting the range. seeing the effect of the shots and that they did not knock out the squadron. The enemy s line then fell back a short distance. and each time they fired upon the squadron as it passed. Walsh drew himself up and in his grandiloquent manner replied. Captain." nothing. a solid shot struck Orderly-Sergeant Dodwell. left of porting regiment was sent to the part to the right. extending on each side of the road. as Wetherill was moving his squadron over at a gallop to the right of the line and was passing the exposed place. General Buford. and a line of skirmishers was deployed. our line. At one point its movements were visible to the enemy's gunners through a gap between two low hills along which our skirmishers were deployed. "My men know fire well. the to the right As and left. and then into a set of fours. 1863. turned to Captain Walsh and was heard to say. then passed between Lieutenant Rawle Brooke's head and that of his horse. It "You had better keep that squadron under cover. third attack. some time later.350 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY October 15. tearing him to pieces. square in the body under his bridle arm. some distance below. bv God. the balance of the squadron supporting him. of Company F. On one of these occasions. but he still held it and gallantly repelled the attack. met with the same fate. though even Shortly after this a of rebels . wounded men and horses in the road. which was kept mounted. to reinforce the line.

and that I with sixteen men had the extreme rear. on its way back to Manassas Plains. 35 October closer were reached. and just 14. had the rear of the regiment. This he did just in the nick of time to repulse in fine style a force of the enemy moving round to take advantage of the weakening of our right flank. who heroically held the road with the little rear guard. the big wagon train before daylight the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry took up as rear guard. I took every precaution As against attack. and Meade's "Campaign of Maneuvers" would have proved a disastrous failure. Had Stuart with his cavalrv succeeded in reaching it a most severe catastrophe would have resulted. almost entirely unassisted. served him in good stead. 1863. OR OCCOQUAX. the we had saved of the a large part at least of Potomac. and as the darkness of night approached the enemy ceased troubling us. Throughout the gallant little affair which we have endeavored to describe the most brilliant perhaps in our career Captain Walsh fought the regiment with the remarkable ability for which he was well known. The Third Pennsylvania Cavalry under Captain Walsh was stationed about one mile west of the railroad and was on guard during the night. 14-15. His experience on the Plains in engagements quarters — — with the Indians before the war. and parked for the night. immense train of the Army Lieutenant fight: W F Potter.1 YATES FORD. Captain Wetherill. Soon after arriving on the ground our two guns opened on the Confederate battery. While we were so vigorously engaged in standing off the enemy the rear of the wagon train had succeeded in crossing to the other side of Bull Run. to which I belonged. and was thus saved by our efforts. "On October 1863. . in one of his movements right. in fighting greatly superior numbers. About midnight the train moved on toward Manassas. The firing of our two guns was very effective. and sent Lieutenant Heyl with the first platoon to deploy and take its place. found that for some reason our support on the to the right had retired. gives as follows his recollections of the gallant belonging to General Meade's Army arrived at Brentsville. as the enemy were following us at a distance. firing over our heads. It its march happened that Captain Wright's squadron. We all felt after it was over that.

all seemed as quiet and a few crows that were foraging among the huts lazily flew off. and whatever I could get hold of. but with no other attempt to follow up. The . The road down which woods. antici- My vedettes were fired at from time to time during the afternoon. dismounted. I then placed the rest of my men. as we pated by them. 1863.30 in the afternoon the Bull Run. in the woods. was the abandoned camp of General Lee. of making a strong attack and getting the train if possible. Not until after we would noon did the enemy with the inten- begin to show themselves closer to us. part on each side of the road. as the grave. as I faced the enemy. facing obliquely back toward the road down which we had come. About wagon train got blocked in crossing Pennsylvania Cavalry was at 4. except on the west side. rails. This opportunity occurred when the train was crossing Bull Run at Yates' Ford. facing almost at right angles to me and to the south and west. This On left open country in rear and to the left. The regiment took its position in my rear. About two hundred yards to the rear (toward the enemy) I barricaded the road with fallen trees. the direction being from west to east. making I quite a formidable barrier. my right. and was. at a distance of two or three hundred feet through the defend the position. of these streets. October 15. As I rode into one troops in 1862. as soon as the favorable opportunity occurred. with orders to fire on the enemy's skirmishers soon as they came within range. the train would halt or get blocked from time to time halt and face to the rear. and. and there it continued for about one hundred yards. Behind the barricade I posted Sergeant Ewin<x.352 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. occupied by his Here were company streets lined each side with the roofless huts of their former occupants. The place where I made my stand was where the wood ended. moved along after the train. examining my surroundings. evidently tion of finding out our disposition. and then to fall back. and for the last half mile it was through the woods. no doubt. another platoon having been sent to me. "Captain Walsh sent word to barricade the road and that the position must be defended at all hazards. In front of this barricade posted two mounted as vedettes. and two men. and the Third once put on the skirmish line to I had come was rather narrow and hilly.

Soon. their part. When within about filling the road and firing as they came on. We had not long to wait before the second charge was made and repulsed in the same way. back to where my men were line. as ours had not as yet come up. As their skirmishers came on. giving way and coming in on my command. OR OCCOQUAN.YATES FORD. All nature seemed as though there was no enemy between us and Richmond. while at the same time receiving a severe fire. giving them great advantage. side of the road them volley. only some confusion was occasioned among my men by to me some troops that had been sent to reinforce the Third. the rebels came on again with their peculiar yell. October 15. enough here. under General Gordon. At this time Captain Walsh sent Lieutenant Carter know if we were all right and could hold the position. as the barricade would soon be down. The confusion was great those on the barricade swearing and yelling to those in the rear to get back. 353 1863. The fight had now begun on my right and rear. I replied that we would hold the road. made his attack in a semi-circular right being on my road and the rest of his line covering the front of our regiment. The enemy then charged in force and rode upon the barricade. first from one thirty yards we gave a and then from the other. The wood protected me from their guns. however. This checked the charge and stopped their noise as effectually as though they had lost the power of speech. We were all ready now. his — The men mounted posted. I met them there and with the sergeant and his four men put the shots into them as rapidly as we could load and fire. while those A very few minutes were in the rear were trying to get forward. joining the sergeant and his two men. This caused me great anxiety for a few minutes. the opportunity for which they had waited having occurred. They soon made their appearance. and the regiment was evidently having a hot time. until I got the men separated and into 23 . The enemy had artillery in position. as We we quickly got into shape for another charge on knew to that as soon as they got the road cleared again we might expect them. nervously awaiting my appearance. They were evidently puzzled at not seeing their foe drawn up across the road. mine fired and fell back. enemy. the road being cleared. I took my little party as quickly as possible. and took their places among the others. awaiting developments.

head of the column. I was riding at the side of Captain Baughman. They fired three shots at us before we got out of range. he came toward me at a his gallop. well coming remember his to my assistance. closed the day for on my right did not give the regiment. his head was caught on my bridlecasualties to report. we will walk. though this time they came closer to us. A corporal sprang from his horse and. and the regiment having been withdrawn. but tall. sir. as I had had all ForI wanted that day. aided by brave Sergeant Alker. and urged him to trot. attempted to rejoin the regiment and came out from the protection of the woods. let them rally on me. from Wetherill with his in squadron. "This was their charge. he was moving back to reinforce the right they succeeded well. erect figure as we did not need him. causing off the my horse to jerk his head and pull back.354 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY October 15. 'No. who. 1863. the army wagon train having crossed the creek and reached a place of safety on the As we other side. Captain to allow my command me and my men. the fighting was going on in front of the "While the fight was going on I was several times visited by . rein. dragged off his belt him road and out of the way. the rebel gunners promptly turned one of at the guns on us.' tunately we had only a short distance to go before the nature of the ground afforded us protection. sent Captain F D Captain Walsh. called out: 'Lieutenant. position again. as he fell from his saddle. and so far as the fighting was con- cerned. last first taking and pistol. riding in advance of the others. The rebel artillery me any trouble until I was recalled to Baughman with his squadron came up to move off the field. but his reply was. taking position in the middle of the road and holding up his carbine. got so close that.' his position in the rear. the rebel gunners trying to get range before he got the protection of the wood. flying to and fro across the open space occasionally I my rear. sending a ball through Sergeant Dodwell's body and so close to Lieutenant Brooke's body that When by the merest chance there was only one instead of two A third charge upon my position met with no better success. One poor fellow. During all the time that my comtheir mand was engaged regiment. taking the man by the heels.

who had been killed on the skirmish line. and was sent on June 26 to Alexandria. lull the during a Later in the evening. tall." Early in the fight Lieutenant Ellwood Davis. who had joined the regiment same time with him. of Company B. "The day was now over and we forded the creek and bivouacked among the wagons and artillery. October 15. "Among regiment. asked permission of Captain Walsh to go out to bring the body in. back a few rods to a position more advantageous for defence. acting as aides to Captain Walsh. He joined and was mustered into service May 16. In establishing the line fell the squadron by a splinter of a shell striking him under the which was maintained to the end. who brought in the body of Private Kern of their company. line. at the body lying in an exposed Two of his close friends. OR OCCOQUAN. he unselfishly left a home of every His career in the regiluxurious comfort to serve his country. leaving Lieutenant Davis' place. but their request was refused. content and glad to be there. of without asking permission. On the terribly trying march from the Rappahannock to Gettysburg he was stricken down with fever. across the saddle. the Captain telling them that he needed every officer and man to maintain the field. A similar action was performed by Sergeant Rammel and Private Hunterson. and thence home. Lieutenant Carter and Lieutenant Vandegrift. placed it Company H. refrained from firing upon them. who came over to my position to see if I needed assistance. walked out to the spot leading a horse. After being carefully nursed through a long and severe illness he re- . and soon were asleep on the ground. handsome though he looked somewhat older. of Company H. coolly picked up the body. those killed was Lieutenant Ellwood Davis of our He was from Germantown. 355 1863. Sergeants Whaler and Wag- ner. slender. doubtless observing the brave act. but I got along without any. just before leaving in the firing. and came back into the line uninjured. but eighteen years of age. We were played out. Belonging to a wealthy family. ment was a short and unfortunate one. The enemy. and a friend of Treichel's and mine.YATES FORD. was instantly left killed eye. Lieutenant Davis was an exceedingly lad.

We During the night and the next morning our own brigade. Our discomfort was not lessened by the fact that it was the sixth night without any sleep worth mentioning. joined the regiment on September 27. a short distance above its confluence with Bull Run. he was held in high esteem by his fellow officers men of his regiment. October 15-16. hard that night and then the weather turned cold. account of this brilliant fight can be found in the Union Official Records of the War. short as was his career among and the them. highly complimenting him for his skill and the gallant conduct of his men in their brilliant fight. Brave to a fault. remained upon the field of our engagement until the last wagon was safely over Bull Run. and moved over to the Fairfax Court House Road. but we had gotten along without them. either in official reports or in the newspapers. leisurely and without being followed. In the official list of battles in No which the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry was engaged it is called "Occoquan.356 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. This was especially the case regarding the "Campaign of Maneuvers" of October. enthusiastic about military life. about 10 o'clock at night. The Confederates called it "Yates' Ford. which was fighting miles away from us. we crossed also. bivouacking at Wolf Run Shoals on the It rained Occoquan. at camp on Kettle Run." A few days after its occurrence General Buford wrote to Captain Walsh. 1863. and the Third Division of the Third Corps. and bivouacked near the ford for the night. as a general rule. Official The Confederate . either for ourselves or our horses. under Colonel Taylor. 1863. thoroughly tired out and still without anything to eat. We were not given to exploiting ourselves upon paper." near which river. Our losses are included in those of our division. more comprehensive and full than ours. the fight took place. came over to our support. and then. and we picketed that river up and down. near Bristow Station. showing every promise that he would prove an exceptionally fine officer. a perfect gentle- man. We rejoined the brigade on the 16th. Reports of the doings of their cavalry were. and was killed eighteen days later. His letter was read by the Adjutant to the regiment at Dress Parade.

one regiment (the Eleventh Virginia Cavalry) being sent on the Brentsville Road. commanding the North Carolina Cavalry Brigade. Gordon. E. The enemy withdrew. to start the nearest brigade (Gordon's) with the guide for this promised prize. attacked them with such spirit that they retreated across Bull Run. here are from our point of view. apprehending such a move. had. OR OCCOQUAN. and some drawing greatly upon imagination —a frequent practice of his. his words: morning of the 15th. 357 October 1863. Stuart was not so brief in his reference to the affair in his official report. leaving their dead upon I the field. and which there was some prospect of my being able to capture. it being a part of my instructions to create a bold demonstration. advanced in pursuit of the enemy to Manassas. Our sharpshooters occupied the rifle-pits on the bank and held possession of the ford. where found the enemy's pickets and drove them in. pressing on to McLean's Ford. Gordon was speedily engaged in a brisk artillery duel . and portions of Lee's divisions. 15. which lasted until dark. having dismounted and moving forward en masse. I was informed by the guide that by making a circuit farther east I could get entirely between the train and Bull Run. Found quite a force of cavalry about two miles below the junction. therefore.— YATES' FORD. General J. came upon their cavalry in considerable force with infantry supports. which turned here at a sharp angle toward Yates' Ford. B. At Manassas. The enemy. Brigadier-General James B. Made an attack on them. as if our whole army was following up. the On In this affair the Stuart horse artillery played a conspicuous part. He refers to of gallant doings which we did not know of his statements suggest the idea of his his some movements and at the time. I hastened. About this time I was informed that there was a train of the enemy's wagons which had not yet crossed Bull Run. The cavalry. Gordon drove in the enemy's pickets. the enemy having withdrawn during the whole command (Lee's division having joined). with the exception of Young's Brigade (which had moved from Culpeper around by way of Bealeton and had not yet arrived). while others cannot. however. his story can be fitted in to the facts of the Some portions of case as we saw them However. alludes to the fight at Yates' Ford very briefly as follows: On the 15th it [his command] was ordered to Manassas Junction. a large force of cavalry and some artillery posted so as to cover the road which the train was traveling. the night. while with Funsten I moved as above indicated. I therefore directed General Gordon to attack them in front.

at daybreak on the 21st we went to Gainesville and through Thoroughfare Gap. was ordered to charge the barricade. Several prisoners were taken here. with their customary skill and gallantry. Darkness. prevented any general engagement of his command. its comforts to any great On October 24 the regiment relieved the First Rhode . as throughout the entire expedition. which was gallantly done. and bivouacked that night in our old camp ground. F Beckham. one of the best officers and most gallant soldiers in the service. just at dark. was seriously wounded during the day. different fords of the For the next few days the Third was kept busy picketing the Occoquan River and Bull Run. when. being in front. 1863. At daybreak on the 19th we rejoined our brigade near Fairfax Court House. During General Gordon's engagement Major-General Lee. Gordon was also engaged in a brisk encounter with small arms with their dismounted men. to precipitate flight. though we did not have the opportunity of enjoying extent. retaining it as our home until November 7. the following day to a beautiful piece of woods on the Warrenton Sulphur Springs Road. under Major R. strongly posted in dense thickets. the skulls and bones of those who had been hastily buried where they fell were exposed to view and scattered when our After horses plunged or scrambled to regain their footing. as our horses' hoofs sank through the thin covering of earth. marched past Union Mills and over the battle-ground of Well do we remember that gruesome ride the First Bull Run. one mile outside of We changed our camp on Warrenton on the Waterloo Pike. Captain Haynes. which furnished a safe cover for the enemy. upon this occasion. after tance from where Gordon reached. fighting. Moving with Funsten's Brigade a very circuitous route I in the direction of Yates' Ford. retired. however. The Twelfth Virginia. a point out a short dishad been engaging the enemy. moved to his support. their and the enemy were driven from their strong position Soon afterward their batteries ceased firing and entire force retreating behind Bull Run. and a part of his command (Lomax's Brigade) became also engaged here. who had been notified by me of what was going on. the horse artillery. with their batteries. where the road passed through a dense thicket of pines and was barricaded. spending that night and the following day lying on the Warrenton Pike. of the Ninth Virginia Cavalry. about two and a half miles from Warrenton.358 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. October is — November 7. The command bivouacked for the night in the vicinity of Manassas.

and three corps of our infantry on November 7 effected a crossing at the former. and "gobbled" several of our vedettes en route. bivouacked there. Island on picket at and below Waterloo the enemy's cavalry being on the on the Rappahannock. The main Confederate Army lay near Culpeper. give us a little stirring up. we and our friends the enemy refrained as annoying each other during the daytime at least. Before daybreak on the same day all our superfluous baggage was sent away. for a party of them made a break through the picket line of one of our regiments on our flank at Carter's Church. for the rebs had a way of midnight prowling which was far from enjoyable to us. trains. on the afternoon of Novema general rule from — ber 2. were spent knocking about in the uncongenial work of escorting wagon tion. while two others made a brilliant and successful fight at the station. and "To Horse" at noon. dashed along the Waterloo and Warre- renton Pike. and we had many friendly visits from them and chats. crossingat Waterloo. the "General" sounded at 10. 1863. with outposts at Kelly's Ford and Rappahannock Station. They did. however.. On November 2 we again went out to relieve the First Rhode Island. the railroad by this time having been restored to working condition. the regimental camp being at perience near Yates' had gotten to detest the sight of Ford three weeks previously At daybreak on November 10 the Third started on the march for Fayetteville. October 24 359 November 10. m. and on the following morning We Rappahannock Stathem after our ex- . tobacco for coffee and sugar. where we bivouacked for the night. The First and Third Maryland Mounted Infantry were picketing opposite us. 't> The Commander took of the Army of the Potomac about this time it into his head to advance its line and recover some of the ground which Lee's recent flank movement had caused it to retire from. exchanging newspapers. and the Second Cavalry Division marched by way of Fayetteville and Liberty to BealeThe two following days ton. We thought ourselves well off in having ten days out of sixteen in camp. opposite bank.30 a. and the like. But after nightfall we had to keep on the alert. On the 5th the First Pennsylvania relieved us. and on the 27th our regiment was relieved by the First New Jersey.— return to the vicinity of warrenton. By mutual consent.

1863. withal. First Maryland Colonel Horace B. the sentence being that half of their heads. should be shaved off. amusing. but. Colonel John P Taylor First Brigade Major Charles H. including beards and mustaches. establishing a line seventy-five the brigade region with guerillas and independent bodies of the enemy's troops that. having relieved the Sixth Ohio. our division was constituted as follows. this So infested was strong. According to the Official Roster of the Army of the Potomac dated October 10. a pitiable sight. the brigade band preceding them playing the tune: soldier. brigade formed in a hollow square. soldier. First Massachusetts — — — — . men were marched along "Poor old Poor old the several regimental fronts. Tarred and feathered and sent to hell Because he wouldn't soldier. Sargent. dismounted camp guards. The brigade turned out on of the sentence of a General the 15th to witness the carrying out Court Martial imposed upon two and Lewis who had deserted. from which place Gregg's Division proceeded to picket the surrounding country. On the 20th the regiment relieved the First Rhode Island. in addition to miles in extent. been arrested and returned to their company. which in turn relieved us. camped about one and a half miles from there toward Warrenton. all under the charge of the Officer of the Dav For twelve days we were in and out of camp. Gregg. that they be branded on the left hip with The the letter "D. Major-General Alfred Pleasonton being still in command of the Cavalry Corps. From the 12th to the 15th the regiment pick- eted along the Rappahannock from the Sulphur Springs to Freeman's Ford. each regiment of our brigade found it necessary to establish a line of vedettes a short distance from its own camp. with plenty of picket duty interspersed. and two barbers with their implements and after the shaving and the branding the two men of Company C — Garrison — . 1863." and then drummed out of the service.— 360 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY October 10 November 20. in the centre of which were a blacksmith's forge to heat the irons." It was a sad. Second Division Brigadier-General David McM. Russell.

First Pennsylvania Lieutenant-Colonel David Gardner. Thirteenth Pennsylvania — Major Michael Kerwin. Sargent. Weed. October First 10 361 and November 20. First Maine — Colonel Charles H. By the Roster of November 20. Sixth Ohio Lieutenant-Colonel William Stedman. Jr. Independent Company — Captain New Jersey Colonel Percy Wyndham. Thompson. the division tuted as follows Second Division— Brigadier-General David McM. First Massachusetts Colonel Horace B. Covode. District Columbia. Thompson. of William H. First Rhode Island — Lieutenant-Colonel John L. First — — — Thirteenth Pennsylvania Mallery. Second Brigade — Colonel Irvin Gregg. Tenth New York — Major Theodore H. Orton. First Xew Jersey Colonel Percy Wyndham. Second Brigade — Colonel Irvin Gregg. Mcintosh (absent). Eighth Pennsylvania Colonel Pennock Huey. 1863. — — First Pennsylvania — Lieutenant-Colonel David Gardner. Second Pennsylvania — Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph P Brinton. First Brigade Colonel John P Taylor. Sixteenth Pennsylvania— Major Seth T Kennedy. 1863. Eighth Pennsylvania— Colonel Pennock Huey. Sixth Ohio Colonel William Stedman. Smith. Third Pennsylvania— Captain James W Walsh. Maine— Colonel Charles H. Smith. — — J. J. . Third Pennsylvania Colonel John B. was consti- Robinson. Gregg.: ROSTERS OF THE SECOND CAVALRY DIVISION. — — — — First Rhode Island — Lieutenant-Colonel John L. Sixteenth Pennsylvania — Lieutenant-Colonel Garrick — Lieutenant-Colonel John K. Tenth New York Major M. Fourth Pennsylvania— Major George H. Henry Avery Fourth Pennsylvania Major George H. Covode.

and the result was the "Mine Run Move. Camp near Rappahannock City. and about 10 a." an operation which. Regiment moved with the division this morning. Regimental Journal (Continued from page Orders to move at 4 a. consisting of a large dwelling house. November November 25. encamped on the road leading to Spottsylvania Court House. November 27. and marched to Bealton Station. Va. the army again crosses the rappahannock and rapidan rivers into the wilderness the regiment takes the advance of the left wing of the army engagements at new hope church and parker's store the army falls back behind the rapidan winter quarters camp established around warrenton. Regiment still in camp. 1863. squadron as a vanguard. crossing at Ellis' Ford and halting some time. but afterwards returned and encamped near Rappahannock City. Road. By this time there must needs be another movement of the army before settling down into winter quarters. Morrisville.— CHAPTER XXIII The Mine Run Campaign. m. Major-General Sykes command- 362 . m. Camp at near a. Captain Treichel's At 10 a. where we joined the Fifth Army Corps. two wooden tenements and about half a dozen outhouses. we arrived at Parker's Stores. Marched to Rappahannock River. when the division started and moved towards the Rapidan. Regiment and brigade midst a heavy rain storm. H. crossed the Rapidan River at Raccoon Ford and moved towards Chancellorsville. Regiment joined brigade near Fayetteville. "de- met. — November 24. at 6 a. Brigade and regiment went into camp. Camp on Spottsylvania C. — — — — November 23 December 13. and about 10 p. Regiment moved 26. m.." 339). m. the regiment joined the brigade and went into camp. a prosperous place. in advance of the division. November 23. which lasted some hours. m. Halted Towards evening three hours the brigade moving on to Morrisville. moved 6 m. served better success than it to quote Swinton.

Camp this a. the regiment and brigade moved to Parker's Store and the regiment went on picket. and yet the whistling rush of many bullets told of their close proximity. pleading almost with the straggling men to rally." fell upon our ears. moved to Parker's Store and camp guards where the main reserve had been. caused the first time by guerillas. 11 a. Captain and sixteen men wounded. On the road and at the front of the skirmish line. About 10 p. tighten girth and loose halter and jump rather than get into the saddle. while just behind them were Lieutenants Carter and Galloway. The regiment fell back to brigade headquarters. rode Captains Walsh and Treichel. About this time the rebel cavalry were relieved and a line of infantry skirmishers charged upon our men and drove them a short distance. when they rallied. the regiment. m. and. 1863. reinforced by the remainder of the regiment. commissary stores and forage. m. The rations had just been issued to the companies. drove them back again. Twice this occurred. As it was.HEW HOPE CHURCH November ing. 363 We moved on and when near New Hope Church. until it has to us become the fated month. No one was hurt. hardly occupied the time it takes to tell it. commanded by General Stuart in person. but to bridle up. one our rear. two of whom subsequently died.. when the cry of "They are coming. About 7 p. A few of the men stood manfully with their leaders. Main reserve m. On picket. Twice has the besides a large number of horses and ordnance stores. the Johnnys are coming. They took as spoils almost all the camp According equipage of the regiment. when two other squadrons were dismounted and sent on the skirmish line. and the second by a detachment of the Second Pennsylvania Cavalry. and had the men of the First Massachusetts Cavalry but acted with the spirit of their officers the enemy would have fared far different from what they did. Regiment in camp. near Parker's Store. were mistaken for the party of guerillas. November . The horses were feeding. The ammunition of our men being exhausted we were relieved by the infantry in In this engagement the regiment lost four men killed. Va. m. The attacking forces consisted of Hampton's and Fitz Lee's divisions of cavalry. met the advance of the rebel column. being out of carbine ammunition. decimated the ranks of our duty men. to their own account their loss exceeded thirty in killed and wounded. failing to halt when ordered. who. Colonel Jones' horse was shot. Our loss was one man killed. wagons arrive with 29. The advance squadron was dismounted and drove them one and one-half miles. Twice has it regiment experienced the ill-starred November month. The regiment took twenty-nine prisoners during the engagement. PARKERS STORE. 27-29. urging and cheering the men. five wounded and twenty-six prisoners. we had but a small force to pit against their overwhelming numbers. and half of it being on picket. besides the newly issued rations. the main reserve was alarmed by the firing of several shots along the picket line. November 28.

and regiment went on picket near A party of about fifty rebel cavalry charged Parker's Store about noon. a. tion points to the retreat of the army. and the Paymaster arrived The Paymaster succeeded in paying off the regiment at that moment. Regiment and brigade moved at daylight and about m. H. Camp moved a short disground having been selected and fixed for a permanent camp. 7. Before daylight on November 23 our pickets were all drawn in. forage . December The indications are that we Regiment in camp.— HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY 364 November November 23 December 13. encamping near the Sulphur Springs Road. where we halted until 4 p. Road. December 10. at 9 a. Moved and joined the brigade encamped near Bealton Station. gade moved at 8 a. fixed upon a place as a site for winter quarters on a hill south of the town. 5. Regiment moved a short on the Sulphur Springs Pike. Rations and forage beginning to get 10 plenty. distance back of Warrenton. orders to move. 6. better December December Regiment and brigade moved at 8 a. December a. regiment joined the brigade. Camp near Parker Store. after considerable discussion. of wagons have been passing all night and the steady tramp of infantry Every indicacolumns and the roll of artillery have been constant. About 11 but seven or eight by the road we were obliged to take. m. Evenvance picket of the rebels near that place and returned to camp. Warrenton at 1 1 a. December ing. Camp on Orange C. our pickets but were repulsed.. 11. Camp near Ellis Ford. Regiment on picket. and. About 2 a. 4. we reached the Rapidan River. 13. and reached 12. Regiment and bri30. went into camp near Brandy Station. December December Camp on Brandy Regiment in Station and Stevensburg Road. m. the regiment and brigade moved from Parker's Store and by slow marches by daylight reached the former headquarters of brigade. This evening the Third Army Corps arrived from the front and Later. tance.. Captain Walsh's squadron went 3. long trains camped on the opposite side of the Plank Road. 1863. soon go into winter quarters. m. Va. where rations. will Regiment in camp. Went into camp. m. m. about two miles from Parker's Store. camp. Va. December December 2. when the regiment went on picket towards Ellis Ford. December December Regiment in camp. m. At 4 o'clock we rejoined our brigade and started from our camp near Fayetteville on the march for Bealeton. m. Camp near Warrenton. 1. Drove in an adon reconnoisance to Hartwood Church. 8 and 10 and 9.

well into "The Wilderness." —a large tract of land about ten by twelve miles square. both of Company B New Hope Church. we took the advance of Corps. with the Fifth the left in the Army midst of The Wilderness. that. we came up Passing it. scrub oak and heavy underbrush and bivouacked for the night on the Orange Court House Road. taking the lead.CROSSING INTO THE WILDERNESS. still being in front. In the extreme advance were two men*.. At the head of the two squadrons rode those officers and Captain Walter S. and at noon we forded the Rapidan Thence the division. we had to exterminate most of the animals. covering the left flank of the army.15 a. the Second Brigade having at Ely's Ford. had the advance guard. We were in the saddle Orange Plank Road. of these. The whole Army of the Potomac was on the move. on the Third Pennsylvania in the advance. It was much swollen by the storm. 1863. The tatter's horse was . and Gregg's Division. So perilous was our situation chickens and vegetable gardens. followed by that commanded by Lieutenant Potter. at 9. and we found ourselves surrounded by sheep. followed * Privates shot under him near Jacob P. where we bivouacked.30 o'clock next morning.. Newhall. the Third Acting Assistant Adjutant-General of the brigade. in a hard rain. who assumed the command. Some of the few settlements had recovered in a degree from the devastation caused by the two Our camp was near one armies in the Chancellorsville campaign. with the At Parker's Store. arriving. with his squadron. There we remained until the 26th Thanksgiving Day when "To Horse" sounded. 23-27. under Colonel Taylor. Wenner and John C. again by 5. There we had a good supper the best for a long time and a — — — restful night. and covered chiefly with dense thickets of dwarf pines. . the advance. and came in contact with the enemy's cavalry about two miles beyond. with very few open spaces or roads. crossed the Rappahannock at Ellis' Ford. marched about at 8 p. pigs. the wing of the army. 365 November and ammunition were issued. At daybreak on the 24th we were in the saddle. — — ten miles. the First Brigade. and many amusing scenes in the fording were the consequence. at Morrisville. in self protection. Captain Treichel. on the road to Ely's Ford on the Rapidan. m. We went into bivouac for the night about a mile beyond Ellis' Ford. m. We then continued on. Hunterson.

while the remainder of the Third Pennsylvania formed close column of squadrons and dismounted in the open space on the left of the road near the Church. The cavalry in our front by this time had been reinforced and offered a strenuous resistance. forward. though hausted. and drove our opponents still farther. 1863. which regiment was fol- New Hope lowing the Third Pennsylvania. until a heavy battle line of infantry. on the straight road bordered by trees. as we rose to the top of a hill. setts came up. More reinforcements coming up to the enemy. deployed dismounted as skirmishers on the right of the Plank Road. The enemy's artillery now fired a few shots up the straight road. to relieve us.366 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November at the jj. near Church. we of the Third bortook what remained on our dead and rowed some cartridges. squadrons. deploying right on top however. Without retiring. At the same time Captain Crowninshield's squadron of the First Massachusetts. but we kept on driving them for some distance. the part of our line on the right of the road was driven back about twenty Our ammunition was now almost exyards. and when a formidable resistance occurred. for it was cold and all wore their overcoats. recovering the ground we had lost. Treichel's right resting on the road. and then the whole of that part of the line made a dash of our line. It was a beautiful sight. proper distance by their supports. in column of platoons. charged across the open ground. drove back the cavalry in their front. gained the opposite skirt of woods. and deployed as skirmishers on the left of the Plank Road. . to see the column of light blue. and they again by the two About one hundred yards in the rear of the latter followed the remainder of the Third. marching by platoons. dismounted. Lieutenant Potter's squadron on the left and Captain Treichel's on the right. wounded. The whole line then advanced. The advance squadron drove in the rebel pickets. and then. but at that Soon the remainder of the First Massachuwith great difficulty. led by the officers named and others. both squadrons dismounted. formed in line along the edge of the woods bordering an open space around the church. and soon the other squadrons of the Third Pennsylvania moved over dismounted to the right and deployed as skirmishers on Crowninshield's right. point we made a determined stand. but no farther.

the whole Massachusetts men. quickly and oftener than they with their muzzle-loading and asked us with curiosity. With a W grand hurrah. under Lieutenant-Colonel John sent up dismounted. While we were waiting for them. General Gregg sent back word to General Meade that we were fighting infantry. taking prisoners thirty- four of their number. and infantry reinforcements were ordered up. When those of the herd which had escaped had passed. coming up to the support of their cavalry." our erstwhile antagonists of Brinkerhoff's Ridge. both parties endeavored to bag the game and resumed shooting at each other with more zest than ever. near Gettysburg. Then we had it hot and heavy. Fortunately. Meade would not believe the report. an amusing incident occurred. appeared in the underbrush.NEW HOPE CHURCH. November 27. Between the two opposing lines there was a depression in the ground. with?" "What in hell are you-uns shootin' The Confederate infantrymen now held us outside of their With the force on our line we could not move them. a herd of razor-backed hogs the wild game of that region of the country came trooping down from our right. Alarmed at the firing which we were keeping up. on the second of July. As we were unable to advance farther. firing at each other and concentrated their energies upon the hogs. but when subsequently we were — — . They did not understand the shots from our breech-loading carbines how we got in so much more rifles. and that we wanted some of the same sort of people to help us. our prisoners to show. owing to their greatly superior force. to behold the consternation of It was amusing some of our prisoners. Yanks and Rebs stopped rushing along between the two lines. and demanded ocular demonstration of the fact. and with fixed bayonets. and deployed on top of us. 1863. 367 with their Enfield muskets. was at length Jersey. battle the infantrymen into a line of earthworks. of —dashed forward and drove line First side side. the First New Kester. for more than an hour. and First ing almost a single rank line —Third Pennsylvanians. we had earthworks. Our opponents proved to be of the cele- brated "Stonewall Brigade. Such being the case. but neither line could budge the other. makby New Jersey men. who close apparently had never before met dismounted cavalrymen at quarters.

" who had Ik en ball. 1863. holding the barn for some twenty minutes the enemy's infantry was seen advancing on the plateau on the top of the hill in a heavier skirmish line than ours. and driving the enemy's dismounted skirmish line before them." while Treichel extended his skirmish line to the left. and were pressing hard in front. Meanwhile the two squadrons on the left also advanced dismounted Treichel's on the right. acting as Lieutenant Potter's orderly. under a fire. so as to cover the ground from the Plank Road to the railway bed.368 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November 27. still driving back steadily the enemy's dismounted cavalry in front of it. About twenty yards in ad- was a wooden tobacco bam. Upon reaching a low crescentshaped hill in a clearing the skirmishers dashed forward. The graded men when — — bed of an unfinished railway ran nearly parallel with the Plank Road a short distance on the left and south of it. were turning our left flank. As they advanced the skirmishers of Potter's squadron took ground ubliquely to the left. driving back the enemy and occupying it. they drove Green and his men out of it. and as the vance and to the left of the hill top Deeming that this latter retreated to gain the protection of the slope of the hill they were exposed to a galling fire. and Potter's on the left of Treichel's keeping up with the right of the line across the road. withdrawn the dead hogs were still there. so as to cover the front to the left of the railway bed with his right resting upon it and his left "in air. had his leg broken by a musket The hot position behind the fence was held for some time. nick-named "Jersey. would be an advantageous position for sharpshooting and observation. As a particular sharpshooter behind an oak tree was . Probably our infantrythey came up profited by our sport. our line fell back a short distance across the open and took position behind a zigzag fence running along the edge of the woods east of the clearing. was killed Company F man. In doing so Private George \V Trout. As the rebel infantry together cavalry with the dismounted still on the line. Lieutenant Green rushed out with some After they had been of his men and took possession of it. with its right resting on the Plank Road. of and a Company H. In this manner the line advanced. Enfilading the barn and the left of our line.

Private James H. which were posted at and near Parker's Store.30 o'clock in the afternoon. with their heavy boots and softened leg muscles could be. men the open. of Company C. of Company K. with the exception of the Third Pennsylvania and First Massachusetts. Private Thomas Hagerty. Sergeant William M. Private George Wounded Of and Company K. some of the squadrons being placed out the main roads First [Massachusetts. Sergeant John McFeeters. of Company H. leaving — the rest of the job to the "doughboys. and Privates David Lamb and John C. General Sykes' Division of "Regulars" of the Fifth Corps came up to relieve us. Lieutenant : — W — . of Company F.. 369 Thomas Crout. Sergeant Thomas J. considering the size of the Our Lombard. Pickett of Company D. NEW HOPE CHURCH. Privates William Bainbridge and Robert Brierly and of Company M. to a stump in in the regiment. Sergeant 27. Private William Smith. Crout and Private Edward P Rook. Tietjen. The remarkably good luck which generally attended the officers of the Third was exemplified upon this occasion. was killed. one of the bravest crawled out on his belly. 1863. of Company G. at At We had been fighting hard for more than five hours and were thoroughly exhausted tired only as dismounted cavalrymen. Of these only Captain Englebert was wounded. The regiment then fell back to where our led horses were." regiment at the time. Corporal Patrick Murray. in the hand. . November especially annoying. necessitating last. Crout in the arm. while side by side with them one officer of the losses. 24 . Corporal Edward Dickson and Privates David Auld and Jacob Miller. raising his carbine to fire he exposed himself to the rebel. and that slightly. to get a better position to fire at the sharpshooter. hit In who its subsequent amputation. Private John Daubman. of Company L. Trout. Private Henry Mulholland. Captain Henry P Bowditch and Lieutenant Charles A. Serrill of Company E. were very heavy. about 3. and two others. of Company G. of Company F. against the remonstrance of Lieutenant Potter. I. Among the losses in the regiment in the fight described were the following Killed or died from wounds Of Company A. Longfellow (son of the poet) were wounded. Company A. Private David Dill. About dusk our brigade fell back and bivouacked at the Wilderness Tavern.

with the First Massachusetts in their rear. and for about half a mile to the south and southeast of it was a comparatively narrow stretch of cleared ground. a good sized road ran south- eastward from the Plank Road toward the Catharpin Road. During the following day (the 28th) the different squadrons were drawn in nearer to Parker's Store. From the position at Parker's Store along the northeast side of the cleared ground mentioned. were out of ammunition. after the fight of the covering this position. being strung out to the eastward of the Store. and a small narrow wood road ran southwardly from a point on the Plank Road about a quarter of a mile to the westward of the LieutenantStore. each. of the Store on the where the pickets of the Second Pennsylvania Cavalry of the That Brigade was lying near the Second Brigade were posted. with his squadron. throwing out vedettes a short distance. with his squadron. The four squadrons of the Third Pennsylvania near Parker's Store were drawn up. Colonel Jones. previous day. saddled and in line. During the morning of the 29th our regimental wagons came up and stopped on the Plank Road. along the edge of the timber to the north of the buildings. also in the direction of the Catharpin Road. About nightfall Lieuten- Rawle Brooke. The two regiments. The several squadron commanders were ordered to keep their horses saddled and in line. unsaddled. according to orders. and remaining there during the night. 1863. had been given to understand that an outside picket line had been established to the southward.37° HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November 27-29. so as to be prepared for any sudden attack. was posted about half a mile east of the Store. where General Gregg had established division headquarters. They brought up to us some much-needed ." already described. converging at Parker's Store. with all geant McLoughlin. in all directions extended "The WilderAround that settlement for about two hundred yards to the northward. commanding the post. about half a mile ant still farther to the eastward. his platoon of eighteen of About Parker's Store ness. Lieutenant Potter. not having more than one round per man. and Captain Wright. men and SerCompany A. Church. was sent to the westward Plank Road to patrol it to New Hope Church.

however. which were issued to the men. All remained quiet for about an hour and a half after posting the vedette. then emptied his pistol. were heard from the direction of seeing a party of the enemy coming toward him. called up Private Charles Wilson. manner. mile.PARKERS STORE. in an irritated at the Store what he had done. had gotten through. Wilson. relief did the same thing. November 29. 1863. and together they Early in the W rode out the tracks fifty wood road about a it. told the Lieutenant to return to his post. a quarter of a mile west of the Store. having been issued. Scarcely had he and his six men. he did return Some forage to his reserve. and there being no indications of any enemy. the Lieutenant ordered the six men of one of the two reliefs that were with him to loosen the saddle girths of their horses. 371 food and forage. consequently. but did not withdraw Wilson. of Company A. bring up any ammunition. who was at the Store. Lieutenant Rawle Brooke discovered the wood road running in his rear southward from the Plank Road. and not to trouble himself about the road. the Lieutenant stationed Wilson at a place where he could see the wood road for a short distance to the southward. and the horses of the second relief were still When the first relief feeding. and let them feed while the other six men stood to horse. About noon the Lieutenant. it was useless to picket it. on hearing the shots. as soon as it was light. who were . had fired his last carbine cartridge. They did not. morning of the 29th. and then he rode back as fast as he could to the reserve. Accordingly. finding no horses' or other upon Returning to a point about one hundred and yards from the intersection of the wood road and the Plank Road. the men of the second The third relief was out on patrol. and then brought back his reserve to the southwest corner of the intersection of the two roads. and. still anxious in his mind. the when several shots vedette. the Lieutenant ordered his men to mount. obey orders and withdraw his picket. At once. as the Second Brigade had pickets out to the southward. reporting immediately to Colonel Jones The Colonel. take the bridle bits out of their mouths. The Colonel told him that no danger was to be apprehended from that quarter. and all being quiet. and reported the fact to Lieutenant-Colonel Jones.

In a flash. had swooped down on the two regiments at Parker's Store. with Sergeant McLoughlin. standing to horse.372 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY November 29. in a new butternut-colThe Lieuored uniform at its head. The Lieutenant and his retreating party took prisoners two of the most adventurous of also escape. and for the mounted men to fall back to the left along the Plank Road. and were the first to get their men into line. kept in rear of the horses while feeding to for the thick make six that the dismounted men might But a large force. in two columns. made a stand until their one round of carbine ammunition was exhausted. would have gotten into fighting order. give the alarm the tenant to The sylvania. the balance of Hampton's whole division of Confederate cavalry. The Lieutenant. Pennto Second and Sergeant. and his would follow him and men along in the direction of the force at New Hope the Plank Road Church. followed them closely. not knowing that the whole of Hampton's Division of Confederate Cavalry was making the attack. their pursuers. kept firing their pistols at their pursuers. who were on the fighting order. rode in on the reserve. and field officer out of Confederate The others followed in body was found by the roadside. which. . which. north side of the open space at the Store. his later fell his saddle. advancing by the wood road mentioned and the road running from the Store southeastward. Thev then fell back into the woods. and thinking that probably the party attacking him did not that if they know of the force at the Store. by this time. where the Second Pennsylvania. had partially gotten into Captains Treichel and Walsh. as there were no roads. had formed in column of platoons across and along the The six men of the picket party who were off Plank Road. 1863. he gave the order for the men who were hemmed off their woods. under Colonel Joseph P Brinton. gotten into their saddles when a large party. hoping Meanwhile. with a North Carolina field officer. owing to Wilson's alarm. pursuit at a dead run and drove those who had escaped the three miles or so to New Hope Church. the rebels would be in. men who had mounted. their horses were all taken prisoners. too large for him to resist. hearing the firing. fully a regiment of the rebels. nothing but swamps or thick underbrush on either side.

PARKER S STORE.
November
29, 1863.

373

Captain eastward with his squadron, stood to his post, but was surrounded and taken prisoner, as also Lieutenant Heslet and some of their men. So impetuous was the attack, however,

Captain Gilmore, with his squadron, did the same.
off to the

Wright,

from three different directions, and so overwhelming the numbers of the enemy, and our men having less than one round of carbine ammunition per man, that they were all soon forced back into the woods. The wagons along the road, many horses, the rations and forage which had come up but a short time before the attack, the in-coming and out-going mails, cooking utensils, blankets, overcoats, extra clothing and nearly everything, were captured by the enemy The squadron of the Third Pennsylvania under Lieutenant Potter, being cut off, made a circuit to the rear into the woods, and joined the First Massachusetts. There as many as could rallied, and though their ammunition had been exhausted in the fight two days before, with the one round of ammunition in their carbines, and with their pistols, they made such resistance as was in their power, until the Second Brigade had come down the Plank Road from New Hope Church. The Second Pennsylvania charged past the Store, cleared the road, and recaptured Captain Wright and some of his men, while other regiments came up, deployed and recaptured all the wagons, with the contents, and as much of the property as the rebels had not actually carried away with them. This last, however, unfortunately included most of the blankets, clothing and cooking
utensils,

of which the rebels had most need and were careful
first.

was recovered, though scattered in all directions. The horse battery, which also had been near division headquarters at the Church, also moved down and
to secure
of the mail

Much

shelled the

woods

in the direction of the

enemy, who replied

in

Eventually the enemy was driven off, without accomplished anything of importance to themselves, though it very effectually knocked out the two regiments stationed at Parker's Store, and made it very inconvenient for
a similar manner.

having

them

in the

way

of creature comforts.

affair thirty-two officers

and men

killed,

The Third lost in the wounded and missing,
pris-

Lieutenant James Heslet, of

Company K, among those taken

374

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY

November
oners.

27-29, 1863.

Several of the

enemy were taken
to

prisoners,

who informed
failure.

us that

Hampton had expected

"gobble" both the regiments,

but that the whole affair on their part was a dismal

Lieutenant William F. Potter, of

Company K,

gives the

fol-

lowing account of the surprise from his point of view: "After the fight at New Hope Church, on November 27, 1863, we fell back to the rear near to a point about half a mile east of Parker's Store, on the Orange Plank Road, and went into bivouac, after a hard day's work. Here we remained through the night, and on Saturday, November 28, Lieutenant-Colonel Jones took most of the regiment to Parker's Store, leaving me with the remnant of my squadron to remain where we were then lying, with orders to keep up the camp guards of the night Captain Wright was sent to the east of imbefore as vedettes. position about half a mile. The next morning, Sunday, November 29, the weather was cloudy and windy. I kept my horses saddled and in line, and the men bridles in hand, overcoats and ponchos on the saddles, and blankets on the ground on which the men were lying ready to mount at a moment's notice, as we were

were lying on our blankets in front of the command, on the edge of a thin and open piece of woods. Some of the men from headquarters at the Store, half a mile distant, had straggled down to my front, I had complained of this to Colonel Jones, as it shooting hogs. was very annoying to us, and we could not tell by whom the About 2 p. m., shots were being fired until we investigated. as well as I can remember, several shots were fired in quick succession, some distance off on my right, and I jumped up from
expecting orders to move.
I

Lieutenant Green and

the ground, saying to Green,
time.'
I

'It's

more than hog shooting

this

men to mount, and prepared to moment my vedettes came flying in with move out. At the same As I rapidly moved out to join the enemy at their heels.
instantly ordered the

Colonel Jones, Captain Treichel and the rest of the regiment, the enemy swept between me and the Store, in a concave
line,

and cutting me off completely. I immediately turned the head of my squadron toward the Plank Road to reach it at a point below the Store, expecting
the right end passing

me

PARKER S STORE.
November
that the regiment
I
29, 1863.

375

would be driven down the Plank Road and that Captain Wright, from my left, had anticipated the same thing, and had arrived on the Plank Road in advance of me. I drew up in his rear and reported to him. We had but one round of ammunition, all the rest having been expended in the engagement at New Hope Church, and we were, therefore, in poor shape to make any resistance, as the country was wooded and the road too narrow to permit of the use of the sabre. Directly after arriving on the Plank Road Captain Gilmore came down the road on a gallop, having become separated from his command, and passed on. Then came a Lieutencould join
it

there.

ant of the First Massachusetts,

who

stopped with me.

Follow-

ing him, about one hundred yards in rear, came the enemy's

column

of cavalry, with colors flying,

and

filling

the road from

side to side, presenting a gallant appearance.

"Captain Wright, thinking that he had remained there as long as was prudent, then gave the order 'By fours,' and the com-

mand moved down
First

the road at a jog trot, the Lieutenant of the

Massachusetts remaining with

me and

bringing up the
the
the

rear

when

the

column had moved

out.

road continued for about half a mile,

The retreat down the enemy keeping

same distance in our rear and firing at us with little or no damage. I presume that they were afraid of the main part of the regiment becoming reinforced and cutting off their retreat, as it had been driven back at right angles to the road, and not down the road as Wright and I had expected. Upon reaching a cross road the two squadrons were turned to the left and I then took command, as Captain Wright had been thrown from his horse and took refuge in the woods, where he was captured, but was subsequently recaptured when a regiment of our Second In this cross road I met Brigade charged down the road.
Newhall, Acting Adjutant-General of the brigade, who led us to brigade headquarters, where we were supplied with ammunition, and, as I remember it, we were ordered to at That night Captain once recover the ground we had lost. to, on the roadtried Walsh, Captain Treichel and I, slept, or in the side at Parker's Store, a section of artillery being planted
Captain
S.

W

roadway.

I

remember

it

was very

cold,

and we lay close to-

376

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY

November
gether, and the
Treichel,
tails of

27-29, 1863.

my

overcoat being longer than the others,
tall,

who was about

six feet three inches

insisted

upon

getting a part of his legs under them.

"Our picket line must have been very poorly managed, and not far enough to the front to give sufficient warning to the regiment when it was attacked. My orders were to maintain onlv
the guards that had been thrown out the night before, and as
believed that another regiment was

we
I

somewhere

in

our

front,

concluded that we were in a very safe position."

The following account of the affair was given by John C. Hunterson, of Company B: "After our fight at New Hope Church, on November 2", the Third marched back on the Plank Road about three miles to
Parker's Store to guard the
left flank.

The

Officer of the

Day

had quite a time to secure five cartridges for each one of his camp guard, begging them from those who had remaining ones, though the possessors of them were none too willing to part with them. But we were told the wagons had been ordered up and a supply would be distributed. The pickets were placed on the several roads, and orders given to be watchful, as the enemy was

around us

in

every direction.
that night the outside vedette heard the
feet,

"About 10 o'clock

and awaited their coming. Soon their riders were in hailing distance and he fired his carbine up the road. For a moment they halted, and then again
steady pitty-pat, pitty-pat of horses'

the sound of their coming was heard.
of the picket

By

this

time the

officer

was up with

a squad of the reserve, for his orders

were to hold that road.
did the strangers,

The darkness favored

us as

much

as

it

who now made

a rush to secure our picket, but

he slipped aside as they were coming, and the squad in waiting closed in on two of the charging strangers and thereby settled the controversy. We were relieved to learn that they belonged to
the Seventeenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and they were equally pleased to know that they were in the hands of the Third Penn-

go back and around scout extended been on an join their column, which had We were gratified to learn that none the rear of our position.
sylvania.

They were

liberated with instructions to


PARKERS STORE.
November
of the shots fired
27-29, 1863.

377

had harmed any one. All of the 28th we remained quiet and unmolested. Our wagons came up early in the morning of the 29th and forage was given out plentifully. No ammunition was distributed, however, and the men spent their time cleaning their arms and taking a breathing spell. But two days remained of November, and, alas, we were to be doomed to another dose of calamity. About noon on the 29th the distant pop! pop! of the pickets was accompanied by the rebel yell, and before we could get saddles on our horses they were among us. Fortunately, about a dozen men had been wary enough to keep their horses saddled, and this squad formed in front of the Store, rallied by Captains Walsh and Treichel, and halted the advance. It was a complete surprise, and we were unable to successfully resist, as so many of the men were hastily getting their horses saddled. We could see that the woods were full of the enemy, and knew that the force surrounding us was overwhelming, and but one thing remained to do, and that was to get away hastily, and in some manner, which was done. All who remained, of whom there were many, were killed or captured. We retreated through the woods until we heard the rumbling of coming reinforcements, which proved to be the Second Pennsylvania Cavalry They grasped the situation quickly and charged down the Plank Road upon the rebels, just as they had begun to appropriate the various articles which we had hastily abandoned. They recaptured Captain Abel Wright and the men of his company who had tarried with him until it was too late to get away. Captain Wright had been
relieved of a fine gold
to lend
it

watch by a rebel who asked the Captain

to him.
it

prisoner, and
tain

This audacious scamp was afterwards taken was refreshing to see with what satisfaction Cap-

Wright

insisted

upon the return

of his timepiece.

The
more
it

Captain did not ask any

special privileges for that fellow.

"We have no glory over Parker's Store, although we had than enough to go round two days before, and we charged
against fateful

up

November. had two brave men mortally wounded in this melee Sergeant Wm. Crabtree, of Company B, and Sergeant James Bronner, of C. They would not come away, and were shot

"We

.

378

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY

November

27-29, 1863.

down almost

side by side. This advance on Aline Run was undertaken at an unpropitious time, and of course resulted unfavorably. It was a ludicrous fiasco, and deserves to be catalogued with the

Mud March

under General Burnside
to their old

in the previous year.

The

army returned

Rappahannock, and settled down for winter quarters. Many of us drew a long sigh of relief, remembering that November was past, and before another came our three years' enlistment would end."
sides of the

camp along both

The

losses in the affair at Parker's Store, so far as they have

been ascertained from the very defective rolls, were as follows: Mortally wounded Sergeant William Crabtree, of Company B, and Sergeant James H. Bronner, of Company C. Wounded Captured of Company Private John Wilson, of Company H. A, Corporal John Croghan*, and Privates William Green*, William H. Maroney*, Thomas Patterson*, John C. Pickett*,

and Frederick Shuster* of Company C, Privates Patrick S. Courtney and William H. Kiger* of Company D, Privates Henry L. Burdge*, John Leach* and Samuel A. Lewis* of Company F, Corporal Alexander Bradley* and Private George Campbellf of Company H, Privates John Cline*, Clinton J. Dock, Anthony Kindig, John Nicholson* and Amos Worrel of Company I, Privates Edward Kelleyf, George Mversy, and William T West of Company K, Second Lieutenant James Heslet and Privates Willis Brown, George C. Hodges and John Kanet, and of Company L, Private James McCabe* Colonel William F Fox, in his exceedingly interesting and valuable work, "Regimental Losses in the American Civil War,"
; ; ;
; ;

;

page 444,
losses in

in

giving the
battle,

each

list of regiments sustaining the greatest mentions the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry

as losing in the

Mine Run Campaign:
..

Five

killed,

twenty-two wounded and twenty-six missing,
53

aggregating

And
Five

the Second Pennsylvania Cavalry:
killed, fifteen

wounded and

thirteen missing, aggregat-

ing

.

33

Total
*

86
f

Died

in

Andersonville Prison.

Not on muster-out

roll

;

probably died

in prison.


THE ARMY FALLS BACK BEHIND THE RAPIDAN.
November
29

379

December

3,

1863.

After the position at Parker's Store had been recovered and such movable articles as the rebels had not carried off, the Third

Pennsylvania and First Massachusetts bivouacked with the rest
of the brigade near the Wilderness Tavern.

On

the following

morning (November

30) the brigade
its

came

over to Parker's Store and established throwing out pickets from each regiment.
a party of about fifty of the
front, forcing in

headquarters there,

During the afternoon
a demonstration

enemy made

on our

our pickets, but they were soon driven away. Second Division, of the Third Corps, came over next day to our support. During the evening and night of December 1 the whole army fell back, our brigade starting at midnight in rear of the infantry. The suffering of the officers and men of the Third during the exceedingly cold nights was great. As most of our blankets, overcoats, food and cooking utensils had been spirited away, we spent the time crooning over the camp fires, and were compelled to cook what little meat we could get on the ends of sticks, or in

The

First Brigade,

the ashes.

on the return march we poked all night long, and it was not until noon of the 2d that we crossed the Rapidan on pontoons at Culpeper Ford. The infantry moved on and Gregg's Division of Cavalry remained to picket the Rapidan and Rappahannock, our brigade headquarters being between Ellis' and Culpeper During the Fords. The regiment picketed at the former place. evening Captain Walsh's battalion (Companies I and K, A and C) started on a scout, crossing the Rappahannock at Ellis' Ford, Finding the rebels to find out if any of the enemy were there. picketing the opposite bank, he remained there until daylight, when, observing that they had withdrawn, he crossed over and scouted the country to Morrisville, Grove Church and Deep Run, driving in the enemy's pickets to Hartwood Church, where From their maneuvering the enemy was found to be in force. Captain Walsh concluded that they wished to draw him on and He did not give give him another "Hartwood Church" ambush. them the chance, however, and returned towards Ellis' Ford, It reaching there at 1 p. m., after a very hard and quick march.
at last

When

we got

started

along in a slow and tedious manner

380

HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY
December
3-13, 1863.

was well he did so, had been sent over
off.

for, as

was subsequently
of the

ascertained, a party
in

at

one

lower fords

order to cut him

During the afternoon a lot of rebels attacked a party of eight men who were out foraging, wounding three and capturing the others. Wenner, of Company B, was so badly hurt that his arm had to be amputated. At midnight the regiment was again in the saddle and marched to Shepherd's Grove. We remained
in

camp

there until
Station,

December

6,

when we moved

to the vicinity

and there we obtained a few days' rest and to eat. We and our horses had been almost reduced to a state of starvation, and were thoroughly tired out. While in camp there Captain Walsh, on the 4th, received his commission as Major, to the great delight of every officer and

Brandy something
of

man

in the regiment.

On

the 6th Captain Gilmore, with Lieutenant Potter and
to

fifty

men, went out
succeeded
in

Oak Shade

after a party of guerillas.

They

capturing a notorious one

named Joe Hackley.

men of the Second Cavalry Division, belonged to the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry, returning, on December 12, from Dismounted Camp at Giesboro Point, each leading a spare horse, was ambushed and surrounded, between Warrenton Junction and Warrenton, by a much larger body of the enemy, said to have been commanded by Captain Stringfellow, of Mosby's Battalion, one of the best known and
party of twenty-two
of

A

some

whom

most daring

of the rebel scouts.

Every man was

either shot or

sabred mercilessly and then taken prisoner. Among the number were Privates William Frost and James Clegg, of Company I, and Willis Brown and James Johnston, of Company K, who were incarcerated at first at Richmond and afterward removed to Andersonville.

On

the

1

ith the brigade

moved over

to Bealeton,

and on the
its

following day to Warrenton, where the Third went to

old

camp ground on

the Waterloo Pike, about a mile outside of the

town, with a view to going into winter quarters.
regimental

This location

not proving altogether satisfactory, however, on the 13th the

camp was changed

to a

more

desirable spot on the
to

Warrenton Sulphur Springs Turnpike, on the outskirts and


WINTER CAMP ESTABLISHED AROUND WARRENTON
July
15

1

38

December

13,

1863.
it

the westward of the town, overlooking
to

and with a beautiful

view, though at that time bleak and dreary.

We

then set hard

work in making ourselves coming winter.

as comfortable as possible for the

From

the time the regiment
it

the spring of 1863 until
13, 1863, at

left camp at Potomac Creek in went into winter quarters on December Warrenton, the following changes took place among

the officers:

Casualties.
1863 July " Oct.
"

15, 15,
4.

Nov.

Major J. Claude White, resigned. Second Lieutenant Ellwood Davis, killed in action. Chaplain Moses Hunter, resigned.

Promoted.
1863 Dec.
4,

Captain James

W

Walsh, of Company

I,

to Major.

CHAPTER XXIV
Winter
of 1863-64, in

Camp at Warrenton, Va.

winter quarters constructed warrenton and its people picketing, scouting, and reconnoitering in "mosby's confederacy" hunting and chasing AFTER jNIOSBY AND HIS MEN "VETERANIZING" IN THE REGIMENT DEATH OF CAPTAIN WALTER S. NEWHALL.
December
14,

1863

February

25,

1864.

The Army of the Potomac now settled down behind the Rapidan River to make itself as comfortable as circumstances might permit during the long and weary months in which no campaigning was practicable. Its Headquarters were established at Brandy Station, on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, the line of supplies. General Gregg's Division of Cavalry picketed and guarded the right flank of the army, the First Brigade, alternately under Colonels Mcintosh and Taylor, lying around Warrenton,
while the Second Brigade, under Colonel Irvin Gregg, lay along
the branch railroad between that

The

division headquarters were established in the town.

officers

and men of
of

town and Warrenton Junction. The the different regiments constructed rough
and pine-brush
shelters
for

log cabins with canvas roofs to protect themselves from the
bitterness

the winter weather,
all

their horses for

camping.
north.

arranged according to the proper regulations Although Virginia nominally is a Southern State,

the weather at times in winter can be as severe as places
farther

much

The extremely

cold

spells

during the winter
of time, but while

of 1863-64 did not last for a great length

they did the
spells

men

in

the

field,

with their insufficient shelters,

suffered intensely.

What was

lacking in the length of the cold

was made up by long and continued rainy weather, which added much to our discomfort, and to the difficulty of moving about in the deep mud. That winter, taking it all in all, was 382

KEY

In Front, Sealed

Standing Behind

Capt. Harper,
IstN.
J. Cay.,

Pro. Mar.

Asst. Surg. Tuft, Exec. Med. Officer.

Asst. Surg. Marsh,
Act. Div. Surg, in Chief

Capt.

Adams,

Signal Officer.

Capt. Charles Treichel,
Asst.

Com. of Musters (formerly Pro. Mar.)

Capt. H. C. Weir,
Asst. Adjutant-General

Major
Gen. D.

1st

C. Taylor, Me. Cav., A.

I.

G.

McM.

Gregg,

Com. 2d Cavalry Division

Lieut.

Thomas

Gregg,

A. D. C.

Capt.

Edward

Fobes,

Commissary of Subsistence

r.

\

o m z m I
D > <

>

z o

»
>

,

o

o

s

o
O O
m

30 p. 383 without doubt the most severe and trying one during the whole of our campaigning. at Rappahannock Station. Regiment on picket. m. A. 1863. All day long the pioneers have been busy fixing up the headquarters of the regiment. in the new camp. ment for picket to-day. notwithstanding the regiment has just returned from picket and is very poorly supplied with boots and overcoats. Regimental Journal (Continued from page 364). Later the first snow of the season has commenced to fall. Regiment returned from picket last evening. 17 Screens of pine and log huts are springing up all over Regiat least begins to look like a camp. Acting Adjutant. December December take its 20. character incident to "Every inch a soldier. Newhall. of the First Brigade. caused by guerillas shooting at the pickets of the First Massachusetts Cavalry. 15. December 14-23. Morning raw and chilly. despite the sternness of December him as a strict disciplinarian. A. December December December ment still 14. Camp were received. He was drowned while crossing the Rappahannock River. Camp looks gloomy. cleared it away. In camp. he had won for himself. . the respect and admiration of officers and men who could appreciate the sterling qualities of one who could be relied on. 16. Light fall of snow last evening.WINTER QUARTERS CONSTRUCTED. made on the picket line about 10. on leave of absence. Heavy details have been made on the regiment for picket. ant Stille. which the biting cold of the season render absolutely necessary. Evening cloudy. 21. To-day the first furloughs granted to the regiment this winter December 19. 18. and A. Almost as soon as one part is relieved another is detailed to is place and the duty 22. The rain storm has ceased and given place to high winds and bitter cold. and headquarters on picket. Rain still continues. Va. A bright sun has December 23. rain December Heavy during the night. Company "A" of this regiment. Heavy details from reginear Warrenton. This morning Lieutenthe first regular guard mounting. very hard on the men. left for Philadelphia on leave of absence. accomplished as a tactician and ever foremost in the place of danger. A brave and efficient officer and wholly devoted to the discharge of his duties.. G." his death will be regretted wherever he has been known. took place. December ing an alarm was In the evenNothing of importance transpired to-day. A telegram just received communicates the sad intelligence of the death of Captain Walter S.

A scouting party of two hundred and fifty men from our 24. together with the wild galloping of horses. . January 1. The wintry appearance of the ground. Details for picket and other duties. The party only succeeded in capturing two of the band. taken altogether. Raining. a chill northThe mud continues unabated. 1864. Lieutenant-Colonel Jones absent on 31. New Year: Reveille 5 a.. Christmas. 4. mustered the regiment for pay. December 24. 30. owing partly to Clouds all day. and led by Major Janeway of the latter regiment. and to Lieutenant Cauffman. All day long the cackling of hens has proven that if last night's expedition did not frighten away the Salem guerillas it did clear out the Salem poultry. 27. 1864. Blacking on boots count. regiment and the First New Jersey. January During the day a portion of the Second Brigade. and that. at a dis- Raining again and slushy. of Winchester. lowering and the absence of the "spirit-riser" whisky. formerly belonging to General Buford's Division. Snow falling.30 a. but they had finished their Christmas eve jollity and hastily adjourned their convivialities some ten minutes previous to the entrance of our men. Camp very muddy. 28. — rainy. 3. 2. December December December December 26. January January January gloomy. 1863 384 January 5. Brigade returned to camp. broken by a series of yells. leave. and the mud. went to Salem.— HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. Raining. Brigade still remains out. under comWater Mountain. wester has given a freezing aspect to everything. Camp near Warrenton. Evening. Regiment in camp. m. Camp very disagree- able. Major Walsh in command. 29. in Regiment moved to brigade headquarters at 6. wind. went far to induce the belief in some minds that the "Johnnies" had again succeeded in breaking into our camp. but soon returned and the remainder of the brigade. moved in pursuit of Stuart's Cavalry. joined by the Second Brigade from Bealton Station. Slight rain. in search of Mosby and his guerillas. encamped in the neighborhood and relieved our pickets. December December Cold and freezing. who were reported to be in the neighborhood anticipation of a move. has not been a lively day. who returned to camp. makes all the surroundings of this place look chilly and Pickets sent to-day on the Sulphur Springs Road. No prospect of clearing. Muster to pay. December December This morning about daybreak the quietness of camp was 25. together with the 5. m. under command of mand of Captain Gilmore.

January 20 to 31. Several of the men and many sets of arms and horse equipments. Keen. freezing the ground. wounded in the unfortunate affair this morning are in very bad condition.. This morning. and the woodland country of old Virginia are to-day beautiful in their Around this place especially the panoramic beauty is fallen quite heavily to-day. 18. forty-three horses lost taken. picket line. January January January January 11. Regimental ReLieutenant Vandegrift left to-day Cold. snowy grandeur. chill drizzling rain. pickets — — January January January 8. Picket around outside of our lines. On the 19th fifty-three men are furClear and pleasant. but the constant Rain drizzle which renders everything around chilly and uncomfortable. In camp. ! ! January January January Rain Rain Not a heavy shower. 385 6 February 10. cutting air. 17. Cloudy. two having suffered amputation of the leg. they fired on our men even where they found them sleeping by the Captain Gilmore was seriously fire. 7. Regiment hill in Pickets furnished. cruiting Officer. while all the horses at the reserve had been Six men were wounded. for the Regiment in camp. 1864. camp near Warrenton. details. 2. Picket details furnished. 19. about 5 a. but pleasant. Nothing February February Dismounted Portions of regiment on scout and picket. a large number taken prisoners and some wounded. 14. Captain Phillips. but without success. Va. Regiment in worthy of note. Rebels reported prowling 13. evening. wounded. ! Disagreeable in camp. every details are to be sent beyond the pickets 1. Cowardly.— PICKETING AND SCOUTING IN MOSBY'S CONFEDERACY. Chilly shelter of a tent 12. 10. to report at the Pittsburg draft rendezvous. To-day the men re-enlisting of this regiment were sworn in by the mustering officer of the division. as guerillas usually are. m. Lieutenant Brooke. eighteen captured. All quiet in camp and along the camp. High winds. and when they could not resist. the camp was aroused. succeeded by 9. nished for picket and the regiment has little relaxation from duty. January 15. January January January 6. In camp. 25 . 16. In camp. left on leave. February February 3 to 10. 9. The snow has and great. and cold and gives one a constant desire and the warmth of an inside fire. Tardily three hours afterwards a squadron was sent in pursuit. straggling on post having brought the news that the picket reserve on the Sulphur Springs Pike had been surprised. Regiment in camp. A better change from yesterday.

Wind high. Pleasant weather. prisoner within sight of the rear guard. thus slightly crippling the Major's party and his resources. regular picket Weather fine. all unavailing with our hard hearted veterans. February 20. February 16. Clear Intensely cold and heavy and cloudy. prisoner The 13. The laughable tales told of routing out these poor folks. 23. having escaped from his guard. Extra vigilance is being exercised and additions are being made our own and other regiments to the dismounted pickets outside of our 21. 15. in camp.. Slight fall of snow. Scout not yet returned. Regiment Chilly. February 24. the various regi- The party ments of the consisted of five hundred men from division. Lieutenant-Colonel Vernou left February February February February taken yesterday came back to-day. they captured thirtyfour men and forty horses. of young the Major's (Monsieur couples asleep in the next room. Lieutenant 12. About one thousand men was the number out. full Brigade review to-day. Scouting party started at 6 a. line. and the excuses. On twenty-third review of division looked rather small on account of the great number of dismounted and on duty and on re-enlistment furlough. Markham. 1864. wind all day.— 386 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. 25. February in Parties of rebels have been seen around our picket line. on high ground. and others who in merrier mood were amusing themselves with cards and wine and good company. Wind abating. Weather chilly. they divided and making various detours by way of Piedmont. February February 17. From its situation the ground . for Pittsburg draft rendezvous. Paris. 14. the most considerable and important in that region. February n. Warrenton is a beautifully situated village. Detail of fifty men to scout to Amiss- ville. Cold still intense. of invalids who could not bear disturbance. and that nobody was at home. tenant Warren. wind abating. 18. February 11-25. Jones left Scout sent towards Salem. overlooking the country in all directions. February 22. Weather pleasant. The scout abounds with an unusual quantity of rich stories. returned minus one man on taken leave. under command of LieuSunshine and storm alternating to-day. February 19. would fill a small volume. m. Newby's Cross-Roads and Gaines' Cross-Roads. Ashby's Gap and returning by way of Upperville. Middleburg and Salem. Regiment in camp. Piloted by one of Mosby) men. Scouting party returned last evening.

nevertheless in their absence they were not always lukewarm in receiving or encouraging the attentions of the "Horrid Yankees. and whose sweethearts in the town were ever ready to receive them with open arms and treasonable inforA veritable "underground railroad" or secret means mation. It was also the home and headquarters of the famous troop of "Black Horse Cavalry. of the Fourth Virginia. of whose invincibility and prowess dire tales were told. Barten. or even with inferior numbers on their begins to roll westward toward the Bull part. at whose parsonage. a warm welcome was always ready for the officers." especially when the resources of our Commissary Department could be made available for them. to discourse in eloquent terms of the gallantry and invincibility of their dear ones. the commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. — 387 February. as also of Colonel Chilton. 1864. especially on Sunday evenings. Governor of Virginia. It was never supposed for an instant that the "secesh" girls were disloyal to the cause of their lovers. the Homers. Run Mountains. who gathered there to drink his excellent whisky punch. but this did not seem to interfere in the slightest with their appreciation of the attentions of the gentlemen on They were ever ready the other side of the questions of the day. saturating the minds of the Yankees. Warmly attached as the}' were to their gallant cavaliers. 1863 ITS PEOPLE. It was famous for its aristocratic society and pretty girls. under the ministration of the Reverend Mr." H. whether on equal terms. and to predict the terrible disasters which were in store for the Northern intruders when they were to meet.— WARRENTON AND December. while his charming wife chaperoned the young members of the fair sex. the Lucases. a well-known officer upon the staff of General Robert E. the Paynes. of communication existed somehow between these last. It was the home of "Extra Billy" Smith. The country from the Rappahannock northward to the Po- . and while our forces were in occupation many were the schemes concocted by our charming antagonists to entrap us. by fair means or foul. Lee. who also gathered there to partake of her delicious egg-nog and gain information for their friends. There was a beautiful Episcopal Church in the town. and other families. especially the infantry and the Quartermaster's Department.

However.: 388 HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. or in out-of-the-way places in daytime. Nobody hurt. who look forward to innumerable and cut-throat. as we have already mentioned.30 p. so a party was sent round to the front Before the echoes of their thumping had died away." They had and places for regular meeting. our delighted eyes feasted on the forms of five or six of Mosby's beauties. his hungry followers are looking down upon our weak points. he wrote: We tled marched from Bealeton Station yesterday. December 12-13. who were enriching as many young ladies with all sorts of sutler's trinkets. they were continually on the watch. leading up hills. and appear to have set- down at last for winter quarters. on looking in. couldn't think of such a thing. or small scouting or isolated picketing parties. I joined a regiment in a "hounding" expedition after a party of these guerillas. I know the programme by heart "Successful attack on wagon-trains Mosby off with his plunder. from golden hatIt cords down to cakes and candy. was delightful. even the fires." That's how it will be. who. and. December 13. tomac. few able-bodied men were to be seen. gave an account of one of them. and great was the trouble and annoyance. were making their way to the deserted wilds of Thoroughfare Gap and Salem. After nightfall. only I was afraid we shouldn't get anything if we didn't The Colonel shoot first. with perfect disregard of expense. Many were the expeditions made in pursuit of these troublesome people. we surrounded a house in the immediate neigheverywhere. For individuals. when the Northern troops were in the neighborhood. Captain Newhall. back through dark pine woods. stated times who were known only as "guerillas. or with scattered rebel soldiers. and ascertain the facts of the case afterwards. as well as a certain code of signals which brought them together at short notice. and often the disaster. Mosby. which they brought upon us." In daylight. all the doors and windows were simultaneously slammed and re-slammed. was known as "Mosby's Confederacy. much to abouts.. door to knock. In a letter dated Warrenton. We struck the trail at 3 in the afternoon of a very rainy day. Three or four weeks ago. 1863. it however. time even will have difficulty in telling. in his graphic style. when we discovered that the trail divided into about twenty minor paths. borhood of our discomfiture. down ravines. How many fruitless mud-raids we shall make after them this winter. Even now. teemed with the most active and bloodthirsty of partisans. the delight of citizens here- jolly raids by their favorite Mr. having captured part of a wagon-train. every light in the house was extinguished. both before and after going into winter quarters. and . from the tops of the neighboring mountains. five women . m. and they of the most peaceful and loyal disposition. and galloped in pursuit until 8.

and every one was required in Another equally dangerous and turn to take his share of it. fences. in ad- the Government and the Quartermaster's Depart- ment were so economical views or derelict in their caring for the soldiers. two dinner bells were violently rung from garret windows. As this was an especial object of the enemy's attention. In a moment all was quiet enough. so much so that during the long and bitter and weary winter of 1863-4 the officers and men of the division were able to obtain on an average but one night out of to disappear three in their huts. 1864. Mosby had just don't believe that I left that hat to be called I for when wanted." We it. the duty was dangerous and distasteful. to obtain supplies of firewood.— PICKETING. but fourteen serviceable pairs of boots could be produced in the regiment. Upon it a signal staguarded by details from our brigade. as well as camp guarding and fatigue work. upon an inspection during the bitterest of cold weather. 1863 AND RECONNOITERING. in their and." We caught two in an old clothes basket. for long before this every vestige of the sort. A as Warrenton there is a high hill. known "Water Mountain. several pistol shots were fired into us. February. picked up a very suspicious-looking hat. And the Paymaster never was prompt in his men visits. dition to it all. and am at all disheartened. can't help feeling that the result was what might have been expected. Reconnoisances in force. with a long black feather in Don't tell anybody that Mr. to prevent them from freezing. but highly delighted with the escape of those "dear men. and on forcing the doors we found the young ladies panting with excitement. that at one time. trees. and the majority of the rascals got off. had been made by the troops of one army or the other. scouting and picketing over a great expanse of country were continually going on. "where there wasn't anything but ma's wash. the Many were the times when turned out for duty with their feet tied up in pieces of cloth cut from other garments." from which the country could be observed short distance west of in all directions tion and for a great distance. which remained on duty for tours of three days and nights at a time. frame buildings and the like. 389 screamed at the top of their lofty lungs. SCOUTING December. or from grain sacks. The regiments became decimated. often disastrous duty which we were compelled to perform was the sending out and guarding of fatigue parties of men detailed was established. .

the each man. The depressing circumstances attending the kinds of work the of the regiment men were without interruption of called upon to per- form. by special orders from brigade headquarters. orders were read relative to re-enlistments. militated against the success which had been hoped ing bait and the majority offered by the Government. being done in that line until December 20. The duty entailed an immense work. to those up the decimated ranks On October 23. 1864. recruited entirely anew. made up. 1863 February. with an abundance of red tape of many descriptions. at regimental dress parade. as already described. prevented anything when. its them declined the temptThe seventy-five men who did "veteranize.— 39° HISTORY OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY. mustering in of the "Vets. 191. carried the colors of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry with honor and credit to it and to themselves through all the succeeding days of the war. at Appomattox. 305 and 396. up in the very forefront of the Army of the Potomac at the surrender of Lee's army of their several companies. Lieutenant William Rawle Brooke. for. and for several months later. as will later appear. ." however. of Company C. who would re-enlist was. correspondence. 1864. three companies of as magnificent material as existed in any regiment in the army. home at The offer then made payment of $402 bounty to once for six weeks on recruiting and the promise of thirty days' leave of absence during The active campaigning which followed the following August. but subsequent to the original formation and consequently remained in the service after the main portions of those companies were mustered out of service on August 24. was appointed "Regimental Recruiting Officer in the Field. which offered a leave of absence of thirty days immediately upon being remustered into the service. to be sent service. Early in the Autumn of 1863 steps to filling began to be taken by the of the Government with a view various regiments. preparation amount of of papers. with those who had joined the regi- ment early in career." to superintend the reenlistment of such of the men in camp as were willing to reenlist as "Veteran Volunteers" under the provisions of General Orders Nos. and these. December. besides the $100 of the former enlistment bounty. with five additional companies. and the payment to each man of $402 bounty." obtaining their leaves of absence and bounties.

" Captain Charles Treichel. parents and family at to spend the Christmas holidays with their (Philadelphia). There was one moment. of Company H. where Cavalry Corps headquarters were situated. and began to struggle. his lifelong bosom friend. brother. took his corpse home to their parents. intending to ride out to Brandy Station. ing of 18 he bid farewell to his friends. He plunged in. of Company A. a crushing The calamity came with blow to his regiment.DEATH OF CAPTAIN WALTER December 18. the staff of General Pleasonton. in a calm. S." to quote from Mrs. but about midway his horse became mired. He then quietly attempted to quit his saddle to swim to shore. but as he was in the act. that they should obtain their leaves at the same time and go home together. Captain Frederick C. NEWHALL. 'Go for my brother.' and sank. by . his horse. as his orderly. who was looking for him to talk over their plans for the holidays. His body was recovered in half an hour. and such as he had forded and swum a hundred times." "he was obliged to cross a small stream. then acting as Assistant Adjutant-General on the brigade staff. but recent heavy rains had swollen it considerably. Hubley. and where the two brothers were on the following morning to take the train for Washington. and. It had usually very little depth or width. and converted the bottom into a morass. Newhall. his frightened horse reared and fell over upon him. His unfortunate brother. but it was only his body. clear voice. Walter instantly perceived the danger. 391 1863. also accompanied it home. with Private Joseph E. before he disappeared. the He arranged with his who was serving upon Commander of the Cavalry Corps. on the other side of the Rappahannock. one supreme moment. Germantown On the morn- mounting gay spirits from brigade headquarters in Warrenton. and waved to his orderly not to follow. Having settled down in quarters for the winter and active cam- paigning being for the time at an end. Wis"Memoir. one of those little runs which intersect that country in every direction. and he called to his orderly. leaves of absence for ten days began to be granted. Among the first to apply was Captain Walter S. Newhall. started off in December ter's "Before reaching the Rappahannock.

to