THE

CAMPAIGN
FROM

TEXAS TO MARYLAND.

IBY RET^. jSriCHOI^S A. DA.VIS,
CHAPLAIN FQffRTB TEXAS ,REG.,
-

C. S. A.

SECOND EDITION.

iioxJSTOisr. H BOOK AND JOB ESTABLISH* MNTBD AT THE TELBG^VH

1863,

dl Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight ,f9 J ?e *? and sixty-two by NICHOLAS A. DAVIS, in the Clerk's Office of the strict Court of the Confederate for the Eastern District States,

^

of Virginia

I

either active participants in the stirring occurrences of the time. and was voted upon by the people February 23d. atid uncover hidden causes which had long been at work to bring these evil days upon us and he will establish. True it is. sed with a system of government acknowledged by the world to confer the r^gcst liberality of personal freedom known among organized communities whose facilities for the attainment of knowledge or wealth were unexampled among nations. will.. 1861. As early as the month of April. and anarchy and confusion prevail. the wonder self-gratulation. in the sablehabiliments of mourning. all at once stopped iu their onward career. have shown themselves able awl willing to breast the storm. the changes takingare such as must ever mark it memorable place. or passive spectators of the drama being enacted before them the period which ensued from the election of Abraham Lincoln. but yesterday. The spring of 1861 forms a memorable epoch iu the history of America. where ambition was unrestricted. robed in the bright garments of a bride. 1860. and whose deeds have formed a portion of the history of the times. that it Avas necessary that these things should come to pass. at a time of unexampled prosperity and plenty. in the history of the American people.CAMPAIGN FROM ||| TEXAS TO MARYLAND. by a system of logical argument. and the people were preparing for war. and spread a pall of sorrow and dismal woe from one extremity of the country to the other but at the same time. Law and order disappear as if by magic. It is not our province "to speak of the causes leading to these result*. To those who -were living at that day. that the time alluded to is not full of startling events or tragic consequences. were marching back . Peace gives way to discord. these days. armed and unarmed. doubtless. The spectacle of a people. and to meet the whirlwind in its course. -. the State of Texas had undergone this transformation. and liberty of speech unquestioned and unlimited whose books and periodicals were.nd the Ordinance of Secession had passed iu the Convention of Delegates of Texa?. religion untrammeled. and took effect on tne 2d of March. Such were the results of that excited period of time on which we now dwell. from a state of peace to a state of armed hostility to the Federal South Carolina and several of the Southern States had seceded. To tra. at the time of which we speak."' Our task is less diffiWe only propose taking a glimpse of a band of heroes who lived in cult. on the 2d of November. and chaos takes the place of system. Argument had been estopped. The historian. 'which now "overcome us to our special wonder. as some that have succeeded events which haveclothed a land.ce the career of a body of men who. who shall write of the?e things. dive through the dusty and time-worn labyrynth of the past. 1 . as it were. progress unfettered. Camps of instruction for the training of troops were established at different points in the State: militiamen. filled with songs of rejoicing and paeans of a people. whatever part they may have taken in bringing on or keeping off the days of peril.. but yesterday. on account of these manifold blessings of the world and the admiration of mankind. -roy eminent. down to the commencement of open acts of war between the Northern and Southern sections of the people of the United States will ever be looked upon with a degree of interest fully equal to that which marks any other stage of our Continental career. .

Captain Ed. The companies had a day or two given them in order to make preparations for thejourney. . of instruction. one was established on the San Marcos river. and that through influences brought to bear on the President or Secretary of War. so different from what the men had expected. and offered every their Lomes. and in a few days after the The companies of Captains first arrival sixteen companies were in camp. as they were harangued by some on evfcry side could be heard the din of warfriend to revolution in . were filled forth through the State with country people. where the new'y formed Confederate Government had affixed its capital. Mustang Greys. were filled with the shouts of excited men. hurry to send the troops off* Under one pretence or another. visited The citizens of Texas were full of enthusiasm. a^vvord. nouncement caused considerable disaffection among the men. of Travis county. Robertson. disorganized the camp of instruction but so eager were the men to enter into the service of the country. editor of the State Gazette. P. to come to town to get the at news a crowd -could be seen every post office and on every corner churches at night. instead of sending forth the voice of prayer or song of thanksgiving. of Gonzales county. had obtained the privilege that Texas should. to offer their services to the Government for twelve months. and who were going to represent the ancient valor of Texas on a distant theatre. .C. . Among other camps 1- . as a matter of favor. established by order of Go v. of Bexar county and on the llth day of July. Gen. and when organized. in Hays county. these volunteers as speedily as they were raised. Captain B. Key. and those of them who did not live at too remote a point. to arm and equip them. (as was un. of Texas. mere especially as the announcement was accompanied by the declaration that two regiments for service during the war would be received.J. and the ginia. and reported themselves to the Governor.and towns and villages. Capt. Clark. these companies were ordered to break up camps and rendezvous at Harrisburg. Cunningham. at Austin. it was made knoAvn offiThis ancially that no twelve months' men would be received from Texas. of Guadalupe county Hardeman Rifles. The companies formed at that time were the Tom Green Rifles. but late so quiet. F. on this occasion. This course of arrangement. It was given out that Colonel John Marshall. . had just arrived in Texas from Richmond. chose to be in no great route. and to send them to Virginia by the quickest practical Gen. Van Dorn. the President reserving to himself the authorityto appoint regimental officers. Cleveland. however. near the city of Houston. who had gone there for the purpose of organization. that four companies/or the war were immediately formed upon the ground. . the men were kept in the camp at Buffalo Bayou for weeks. be allowed a representation in the programme about to be enacted on the soil of VirThe companies were to be formed by the enrollment of men. and until the General could send a messenger to Richmond remonstrating against the orders which he had received.. . C. and the organization of the regiments to be completed after their arrival in Virginia. Turner. . About the time that the organization was to have . who left their farms neglected. facility in the way of wagons and conveyances in order to expedite the departure of these first troops to leave the State. who had assembled at the camp by virtue of a proclamation from the Governor. by authority of the Confederate Government. a prominent politician. Rogers were received afterward and like preparation."been perfected by the election of regimental officers. and J. election of company officers. He had signalized his advent into Texas by the rapid transaction or dispatch of business entrusted to his superintendence. The companies arrived at the place of rendezvous in the latter part of July. Van Dorn had been ordered to dispatch. The messenger at length arrived with a verbal dispatch. Bane. sent forward. Va. Carter. Guadalupe Rangers. G. in which were placed some twelve or fifteen companies. and had impressed all classes most favorably with his character as a man of energy and ability. Captain J. Brigadier General Earl Van Dorn was at this time in command of the Department of Texas.

started for Beaumont. which was filled to the utmost capacity with our sick. the first to flash the rusty steel from its scabbard. Van Dorn to obey his orders. and every bosom seemed warmed by enthusiasm." It Avas midsummer when the troops were taken to the camp on Buffalo Bayou. were distinguished among their fellows as peculiarly endowed to endorn and enrich society by their lives and conversation. the of five companies each. that of all those whom this war has drawn to the field. of Company A. Dr. enterprise and fire. orders having been issued by Gen. He gave his medical attention to all that were sent. hoarse whisper of the locomotive placingdistance between us and our horned At this. and away the 15th On Dorn. men who. G. when they first tieard the shrill shriek of battle. with colors fluttering in the breeze. D and E. . speed over the flowery prairies. and the next morning. the last greetings among friends were interchanged. One instance is deserving of mention here.derstood at the time. Key. each-. and at the expiration of the time spent at that place. from which they never recovered. to do so. who were first in the paths of social communion. the last good-byes were said. C. with whom for a time w. 1861. whose places when they left were unfilled. on the Sabine. all under the command of Captain J.ness was shown the troops by the citizens of the neighborhood. unhealthy region.it is. and it is proper that we should here notice this friend to the soldier. and to flash it in the first shock of battle. had a commodious house fitted up as a hospital. C.the anathemas indulged in by the men at the cause of delay. impetuous and fresh. and many were . and by 'those in the city of Houston. DEPARTURE FROM TEXAS. on the Neches. A.'- we . of energy. It is a singular fact. at the first sound of the tocsin of war. at once^eased to argue with themselves or with their neighbors as to . should be the first to leap from their sequestered seats. at home. and many of the men here contracted disease. While in this camp much kind. The camp was in a low miasmatic. and on our departure would receive no compensa- Such pation whatever for his services. The time spent there was spent most disagreeably. will he found to possess more of interest than the gay and lightsome spirit here portrayed would seein to foreshadow. but who have failed. during the war. The hour of departure was hailed with rejoicings by the men. through their sordidness of soul. and x we venture to assert. But so. that very little was done towards drilling them. but no less singular than true r that those men who. The men of whom we are now writing had come together from the hills and valleys of Texas. there will be pone more missed at liome than those who left with the first troops for Virginia. as it came from the far-off coast of South Car^ ojina. So exhaustive was the climate and die place on the constitution of the men. L. little or no improvement was discernible. triotism is in marked contrast with the course of many who. They were reptentative men from all portions of the State young. Vandetachment of troops broke up their camp at Harrisburg. the beginning of our travels.. and all countenances were beaming with animation all hearts were high with hope and confidence. On that night the companies were quartered in a large warehouse in the suburbs of the city. and torn away from the domestic fireside.e are to be so intimately connected as to be their biographers. men of action. day of August. B. in order to meet the exigencies of transportation companies comprising the first division being A.\ ihepersonellc of our friends. where they embarked per steamer Florilda for Niblett's Bluff. The first harsh blast of the bugle found them at their homes in the quiet employment of the artsand avocations of peace. the first came into Houston on the . and until they return again must be as deserted shrines. have J)een able to do something for the soldier. and The troops were dispatched in detachments cars. which ere we are done with them. Bryan. it may not be amiss to take a glance at . at an early hour. or reimbursement for his expenses. of Houston. .) for "Gen..

and from whence our journey had to be made by land. merchants. Van through the swamps of Louisiana. and unaccustomed It could not be expected that they could make the tedious trip to marching. and that he is but the victim of all official miscreants who chose to subject him to imposition. our quartermaster. and splutter among the streets of Houston about his teams . The tooops were new to service. all imbued with one self-same purpose. Where companies had not been formed in their own counties. selves under the leveling discipline of the army. whatever may have been the resources of. all animated and actuated by the self-same spirit of patriotism. and to place them. camp-equipage. editors." Among them could be found men of all trades and professions attorneys.lt's Bluff for this grand exodus of two thousand soldiers. the men went into camp in the edge of the town.fight for "Dixie. &c. on arriving at of . Ward to transport these troops from Texas across to Louisiana. one would have thought that the weight of the whole Quartermaster's Department of the Confederate Army rested upon his shoulders. men hastened to adjoining counties. and some came up from the savannahs of the South. them without open rebellion. which it was important should be carried with us. scholastics.the why-fores or the wherefores it was enough to know the struggle had comjnenced. The poor soldier receives many such lessons. nevertheless. roads and preparing the means of transportation had delayed us in getting off from Texas until his vast arrangements were systematized. for the time being. and that his overburdened head was taxed with the superintendence Be this as it may. we here chronicle the circumstance for the benefit of all concerned. Gen. on this especial occasion he fell short of an approximation to our necessities. and all of them were suffering more or less from the enervating effects of that confinement. and that they were Southrons. and there joined in with strangers. upon which we glided off fro nj the landing. but awaiting Mecca his movements to begin their onward pilgrimage to the great To hear this man. Dorn had unwisely and unjustly kept them in the sickly miasma of Buffalo Bayou until disease had already fallen in the veins of many. &c. the terminus of navigation. although the selfconstituted and acknowledged champion of liberty. had started on the trip with clothing. mechanics. The citizens of Texas had left nothing undone on their part to send their sons into the field well supplied with everything essential for their comfort. and. the Bluff. BAD TREATMENT Here we had the first realization of the fact. doctors.. the "Old Dominion. Ward. his wagons and his mules. medical stores and commissary supplies. and Ward had undertaken as per agreement to furnish transportation in wagons across the counHe had been going back and forth for weeks. and had the first lesson illustrated to us. T. and set sail for the Bluff. parted with that boon.trains from California to the Potomac. The trip was unattended by any feature -of particular interest. immense resources could be deployed into proper order and concentrated at Nible. that we were actual soldiers.and his teamsters.. Ward. to. and after debarking and getting all the baggage ashore. at Houston. spout of their hopes. who were . a large and comfortable steamer. at an early hour. unaided by liberal transportation. farmers. looking at the different try. has. that he. and all for the time being willing to lay aside their plans of personal ambition. Some came in from the far off frontier.. and that he is remediless under injustice. but as this was the first instance in which we had an opportunity of seeing and feeling such lessons ex- perimentally. amd his fortitude and patriotism is often taxed to bear. and until all his. Van Dora had entered into a contract with one J. On the evening of the 16th we were embarked at Beaumont on the steamer Florilda. ' ? We . that a soldier must be patient under wrong. in addition. many things had just been drawn from the agent of the Government. all complete. Some came down from the hills of the North. and all arrived at Niblett's Bluff on the morning of the 17th.

on the Calcasieu river. On Monday. and fell upon many of them with inconvenience. the 19th. Calcasieu as it was. the only one of the kind which was experienced on the entire trip. . the line of march was taken up. but had gone immediately back. dependent alone upon others new condition. The march had been ar- duous and fatiguing. Such an inauspicious introduction to "the service was far from being encouraging to patriotic ardor. some had wagon-beds. and Calcasieu as it must ever be in our recollections in future days. . medical stores. but it was our only recourse. about six miles distant. and some by mules. which Ward had procured for the purpose of transporting five hundred men. and our means of locomotion considerably increased thereby. etc. . or learned the arts of the blacksmith. pfnecessity. some by Some rejoiced in four wheels. and the men set about relieving themselves of their difficulties soon as possible. about sundown we arrived at Escobar's store. The morning was wet and rainy. and some in two horses. was the resort . and every hour or two during the day the agreeable fact was made known by a cheer from the boys that a transport had been captured. clothing. some of them with indifferent teams. Men from each of the companies were out hunting up wagons.Such was the condition of the men now thrown into a thin and sparsely settled for every necessity to their region of Louisiana. and the men while^ were engaged in pitching a few tents for the accommodation of the sick. and. when the windows of Heaven were opened and the floods descended. but from the vain attempts made in some cases to conceal their stock from our inquisitive detectives. and try and secure additional transportation. j. Under this state of affairs we found seven wagons. the 18th of August. no fitful gloamings of lightning had pre. The next day the journey was resumed over aflat and piny region. The consequences were. and scarcely had the train halted. The sky had given no premonitory warnings of a storm. it was evident that their virtue. The column halted in the evening at Cole's Station. Some of the transports thus pressed into the service were of a most interesting and unique fashion. On Sunday. before men had discovered the uses of iron. after leaving assurances that his preparations for our conveyance were ample. It is said that the wagons that he did furnish. were gathered up in that immediate vicinity. and many vented their curses against Ward. and some had none some showed the handicraft of: modern mechanism while here and there a creaking set of trucks would lead us back to antediluvian times. and the boys were all dripping when they arrived at camp but no hoarse mutterings of far-off thunder. cooking utensils. it had been drizzling rain during the day. Wagons were sent back to bring up our sick. and the roads soft. Some eight or ten were procured during the day. and details were made to go out inta the neighboring country. Ward had comedo the Bluff with us on the steamer. with the equipments and outfit mentioned. Tents. Van Dora. It was a bright sunshiny day. the troops remained in camp at Cole's Station. were stowed away with whosoever would promise to take care of them for us until they could be sent on. and that he engaged some of them even at so late an hour as our arrival at the Bluff. This mode of improvement was a harsh method of introducing ourselves to the inhabitants of the Calcasieu. and most all of the victims resigned themselves 46 the tyranny with patriotic composure . Some were drawn by oxen.. Here we had an illustration of Calcasieu as it is. that the officers in command had to rely upon themfor the means of prosecuting the march. to a large amount. . and so deep their confidence that all things would work right when we once got fairly under the protecting aegis of our new Government that soon all mutinous mutterings or complainings were as suppressed. and all concerned but so earnest were the men in their devotion to the cause in which they had engaged. and bivouacked for the night. and our journey commenced with what selves few things could be carried in these wagons. Our sick men were left behind.

and with some difficulty got our wagons over. The next morning a rude bridge was constructed. This stream is wide and deep at this point. where the alligators lay basking in the tall grass. and we had no respite from its peltings until sunrise the next morning. the wagons were next in order. on the Calcasieu. but at last it was accomplished. added to the discomfort. and the boys having formed a line on top of the hill. over which the wagons were hauled by hand. immediately on a stream. The banks on the east side of the stream were very steep. This day's march was. and every imaginable species of watery element. and seemed to be only desirous of learning our necessities in. the most severe on the trip. Many were bayoneted by the soldiers. after a day's journey of 10 or 12 miles. The distance traveled was not so great as on some other days. at a point called Pine Island. and the continued rains had made them so slippery that our animals could not holci their footing. The . and again we were travelers. and his open-hearted and hospitable lady set to work with her whole retinue' of servants. but in all other transactions with the soldiers. It was on this day that we made the crossing of the "Grand Marais. 25th. until at length we came to a halt. and we proceeded eight miles to a stage stand. a resident of the place. and once more we are reatfy to proceed. order to minister to them. preparing food for the weary and hungry soldiers. who not only in this. as if disputing the passage. and The wagons could not be crossed. and here came the tug of war. Louisiana.." or more aptly termed by tfye boys the "Grand Miry. were pouring themselves on that devoted spot of Confederate domain. while the animals swam across. perhaps. a nice little town in Lafayette Parish. Leaving the Calcasieu. the weather still continuing rainy. the 28th. The troops having crossed over. when we encamped late in the evening. The bright god of day again showed his face. our march was continued through a constant rain. to Welsh's Station. and held up in triumph as they went on plunging through the dangerous waters. lagoons. A rope was attached to the tongue of a wagon." In many places the men waded up to the neck through the swamps.pared us for this copious visitation of Heaven's bounteous showers.await the developements of the night. and the men had to perform the labor of getting them up the bank themselves. All the night long was thus spent. The labor was severe a continuous rain falling all the time. arrived at Lafayette. The teams were then hitched up. many of them over waist-deep. Came to the Mermenteau river. and that the rivers had burst their channels in serial space. we . The troops were crossed over without difficulty in a schooner owned by Captain Goos. and on the next day. and daylight found them still at the work. On the 24th we had the same sort ot road. through swamps and marshes. Leaving this stream on the 27th. The morning came and brought rest from the merciless peltings of the rain. and similar weather for about 12 miles. Here we crossed the stream on trees which we felled across it. and bounding over the limitless expanse.* They set no price upon their labors. We were halted in a prairie. and would receive no compensation for their bounteous outlay of provisions. creeks. It seemed now as if all the arteries and springs which feed the rivers of Hc^venwere swollen to high water mark. The rain continued all the night through. diversified by the same series of watery trials. but at every step the toiling and wearied pedestrian encountered what appeared to be a little deeper and A -little softer spot. known as Calcasieu. thus drew them up. His house was thrown open to the reception of as many as could be entertained. a long march of 26 miles was made. acquitted himself as a clever man and a true patriot. whose waters were running out of its banks. and navigable for vessels of respectable tonnage. and seemed reluctant to give way without a stern admonition in the way of a bayonet thrust to impress them with a proper respect for the character of the new comers. and we -went into camp to still rising. A day's journey of 12 or 15 miles brought us to Clendenning's Ferry.

chiefly engaged in the business of shipping lumber out of the numerous lakes and bayous.. and sent us away witji their best wishes and prayers. and by 4 or 5 P. During this entire period we had seen but one dry day. were furnish? ed us in abundance. As a matter of course great joy was manifested on our arrival at the terminus of our long pilgrimage. We We We jng transportation. and left on the evening of September 1st. and fathers and mothers cheered us with approval as we came. but called in his neighbors and gathered togf ther all the vehicles that were serviceable in the community to forward us on to New Iberia. or now and then a herdsman with a herd of cattle in charge. it was unattended by any feature of particular adventure. had preceded us in order to engage a steamer to convey us to Brashear city. In older to travel better. without accident. on the cars. as tramp. even to their coats. carriages and horses were kindly placed at our disposal. and the men had not known what it was to have dry clothing or dry blankets. Win. where they shivered . tEey were wholly unprotected from the peltings of the elements. and on this account were more or less the objects of attention. tarried in New Orleans but one day. in grounds owned by ex-Governor Mouton. splash. where we arrived at night. very frequently without fires. of Gonzales. We had now traveled a distance of one hundred and fifty-five miles in a period 'of about twelve days. eatables. Tennessee. drinkables. for Richmond. the night through. almost every one had/some sort of conveyance to ride upon. Evenjng found us gliding down the waters of the last Louisiana bayou which we were for a time to know. etc. arid were placed in . While the trip possessed an interest as the showing mighty revolution going on in the country. minus everything in the shape of clothes except a hat or shirt. Hitherto our journey had been made through a country almost destitute of No smiling towns or villages had dotted the watery waste no civilization. pants and shoes and it was a common spectacle on the road to see a manly specimen of human nature trudging along. we threaded the uncertain depths of swamp and morass.. . The advance part of our train arrived at Iberia about 12 o'clock' M. On the march. or fields of w'aving grain had delighted our visions. singing Dixie as he went. and in the morning. The Governor net only offered his grounds and timbers adjacent for bur use. and on our arrival we found the steamer at the wharf. our largely increased transportation ennabling by far the greater number of the men to ride and as we continued our day's journey. and that they appreciated the patriotism and devotion that had thrown us in this plight among them. What few settlers we had passed were a poor class of citizens. on Vermillion Bayou. Now we had again arrived in the white settlements. The journey was slow and tedious. The roads were thronged with soldiers from New Orleans to Richmond. . the whole party were up and ready for embarkation on the steamer.. other wagons. we Jay at the wharf at Brashear City. during the day. splash. H. Stewart. Such was the appearance of our men when they entered the little town of New Iberia. until by the time we reached New Iberia. We ^. crossed the river and were quartered in an old cotton warehouse for th& night. sight of groaning barns. M. and were />nce more among a generous and hospitable people. ready to bear us on our journey. and the whole country presented the appearance of a vast camp. tramp. and at night threw themselves on the wet ground.troops bivouacked that night about two miles distant from the town. From hence we took the cars for the Crescent City.. await. arrived at Richmond on the 12th day of September. and laid over at Knoxville. the beautiful ladies greeted us with the witchery of their smiles. distant 25 miles. Provisions. But the generous and whole-souled denizens of the town soon gave us assurances that we were among friends. the men divested themselves of all heavy articles of apparel. were de|yed at several points. . were the first Texans that had passed in a large body. The next day we maae an early start.

and the all-absorbing question was. arid as his name will appear interwoven through many pages of this narrative. ar Department It had been represented in Texas that the President and the had taken this matter of military appointments especially in charge that their wisdom had grasped the subject. The Secretary of War then offered him a Captaincy of Artillery." in honor of our Lone Star State. and the 'whole body of Texans were removed out of the city about thre. But alas! for the deoeitfulness of human hopes. These two latter appointments were.e miles. "Who "Who will command us?" It has been will be our Regimental Officers?" seen that the two regiments had come on to Virginia without organization this matter having been deferred to the Confederate authorities in Richmond and now that the time was appro aching. and the President of the Military Institute at that place. Here the drill was again resumed. Colonel. although a man of thorough military education. which he respectfully declined. It state was intimated that at Richmond there would be found sitting in imperial an imposing board of military savans. and the interests of freedom too dear to permit incompetent men to have places in the army as offi- and was styled "Camp Texas. the 4th regiment. and considered it in all its details. and were resolved no mishap should befall our arms by reason of neglect in this particular matter the appointment of leaders to show our brave boys the nearest and easiest paths to victory and glory. of Virginia. and we had come on in calm trust of these flattering promises of the Government. and the men had there come to the conclusion that did not suit their views of a commander. * It was said that the lives of soldiers were too precious. in a healthy earnest in preparing the men for the field. Texas. a citizen of Bastrop. and admired as an eminent and devo- up to the . it is not necessary to speak of hinf here. ted to the cause of the South. deeply skilled in all the mysteries of military science.10 camp at Rocketts. and were heie ready to undergo the transmutation from a state of provincial rusticity and greenness to a state of military system and perfection by some legerdemain of the West point tactician. This gentleman. Our new camp was locality. John B. civilian. an able editor and a good democrat. it did not appear that we were so likely to get as competent officers over us by the appointment of the authorities as we had left behind us in TexThe first attempt at giving a Colonel to as. Neither appointment was acceptable to the % Camp command. he at Clark. and Colonel Allen returned to Texas. situated in convenient proximity to the city. and our company officers Set to work in W . Hood was then appointed Colonel of the 4th. cers. matter of serious animadversion among the men. Texas. received the appointment of Lt. In a few days the remaining companies arrived. a friend to Secession. T. several gentlemen of ability and experience in the field had abandoned their association with us in Texas through fear of submitting their humble pretensions to so severe a system of analyzation. P. and so deeply imbued with occult lore that no one but a man of military requirements and personal ability might hope to pass the ordeal of their examination. John Marshall. the question became one of interest to all Texans at the Capital. The great topic of conversation. But it was not deemed that he came Colonel Marshall was esteemed as a brave man. CAMPgTEXAS ORGANIZATION. of Austin. at the time. He had been in command of the Camp of Instruction. to await our organization into regiments. whether belonging to the army or not. Allen. that of Major. A protest against this appointment was made by the Captains of the regiment. Under such an apprehension. and the mutability of human calculations. and Bradfute Warwick. or brought with us to Virginia. was not acceptable to either men or officers. was the appointment of R.

was appointed Sergeant-Major. R. J." . and was never heard of by the 5th Texas again. by the name of Shaller." remarks were the ears of the Lieutenant-Colonel greeted and while he was at a loss somewhat to comprehend the conduct of tc boys in its full significance. spirit and zest worthy of the cause which they had consecrated themselves. F. they soon learnt to esteem and love him. who assary. G. B. Lieutenant-Colonel Robertson the only Texan among them. " "What.Regiment entered the field. policy was pursued in the appointment of officers for who presented himself with his credentials as Lieut. "'Don't you see his legs?" 'Well. and into all our exercises. where he came from or whither he went after his untoward His career was of short duration. Quattlebum. J. The measles had thinned our ranks. was appointed Adjutant and T.standard as a military man. H. Robertson. Colonel. And although somewhat dissatisfied with -their Colonel at first. CommisThomas Owens. In the exuberance of his satisfaction at the prospect before him. sumed the position Lieut. On dress parade there were so many of the convalescents coughing at the same time. but we don't call them men. The regiment was then organized by the appointment of J. but we still had quite a respectable line." says one. the noise made by one hundred and . and being a Virginian. and a similar The first individual it. with the splendidly mounted on a steed as splendidly caparisoned-^-glittering tinsel of gold. K. and new life and vigor diffused itself through every department. Lieut. the men and officers to all entering into the exercises with a. Thus was the 4th Texas organized. Without a remark of any kind.'" The boys gathered around him and manifested their wonder at the liberality of the appointing power. he thought they would do for him. of Co. which he resigned in favor of Lieut. ^No steps were taken. The 5th Texas regiment was being organized at the same time. In fact. The time was improved by a daily system of drilling. in no Major Warwick was altogether unknown. and his selection over the heads of others. he exclaimed "I links I can manage te Texas boys. reput forward. What is it ? Is it a man ?" "Of course it is a man. however. Archer. Colonel Shaller left. j says another. Cunningham. J. polite With such on every side. who were qualified. ins appointment was looked upon as unjust to the men and *o the State of Texas. their intrepid bearing and that speaking force. by divers and sundry remarks. of Co. wise connected . He came ception. and Q. The question of "Who sha*l be our officers?" gave place to speculations as to the ability and relative qualifications of those who had been appointed to command. in a manner He rode among and examined his new command. Lieut. Colonel. is altogether unknown. of Co. D. out to the camp in all the pomp and circumstance befitting his high position. Burress. Co. was a represenHow he came to be tative of the Tribe of Benjamin. H.or identified with Texas or Texans. and bearing about him all the symbols of his rank. J.*without one last sigh of farewell. . Major. Quartermaster. that it was difficult sometimes to hear the command of the ColonelBut -when the Colonel himself (with whom the men were not sufficiently acquainted to take liberties) was absent. after looking over the tall forms of our boys. was looked upon as savoring too much of a spirit of political favoritism. without a solitary good-bye. F. and quite unexceptionable. Bassett. Colonel. and had as little doubt he would do for them. Wade. which to be appreciated properly should have been heard. in opposition to the appointments. We were now organized. expressed himself satisfied with the material turned over to his care." says another "that thing may be a man. with the rank of Captain Lieut. and with these officers the. save in one thing. he saw enough to give him some uneasiness and misgivings as to the task he had assumed. and I tinks pofe togetter we can clean out te Yankees. of Co.

and were present. who informed us that it was a mistake. But we had not gone far when a courier arriving in post-haste. whether to the Peninsula. another with breaking down to The winter coming ." All were satisfied. down and select a camp on the Potomac. about half an hour before which we reached the ancient city. Here another courier. tiresome tramp. with the interesting style and unique orders given by the opportunity to the boys for the exercise of their to risibles. big knife. and tremendous knapsack. and prepare for the march. After a mile through the deep mud. said "the Yankees are comjng. have it. and we were allowed to sleep and rest during the day. There were no Yankees on this side the river. six shooter. teries firing at some little . and with a loud cheer moved off. and not until the 7th did we know where we were going. and the we met surplus was piled. And if I were allowed to guess. commanding officer afforded which they improved REMOVAL TO THE POTOMAC. and there were some good jokes and hearty laughs passed along the line. we would be ordered or if we were to go into winter quarters at this place. and the corfnonading which we heard was the batAll felt disappointed. Orders were . The boys signified their readiness. the boys begun on each other. Wigfall to move forward on the next morning to Dumfries.to send away all surplus baggage. while making arrangements to march..schooners passing the river. No further evidences were given of such a design up to the 12th inst. all felt anxious to know to what part of the field. now for a lively time. muddy. cartridge-box. It was rumored that the enemy were making demonstrations on the Maryland shore as if they intended crossing. begun to steady the men down to a moderate g^ait. but we had daylight to travel in. The camp. and now it became apparent that our baggage was much beyond the capacity of transportation. and especially towards daylight.'when we received a telegram from Gen. In a few minutes every tent on the field dropped. if not ready. Here at the mouth of Aquia creek we first witnessed the firing of those tremendous engines of death the batteries were shooting at the federal schooners on the Potomac. . and a little before sunset the line was formed and wheeled off for a long.was illuminated by bonfires. on. while the brass band deOn the 8th we marchlighted the ear with the patriotic sentiments of Dixie. and as the boys were spoiling for a fight. One was accused of turning pale. At last it was announced that we were to become a part of the "ARMY OF THE 'POTOMAC. for a fight. Now we had to sight for the course and guess at the bottom. This was the place to which we wished to be assigned. "and it is unnecessary for me to say that they had a good time of it that night. For it was believed that that would be the scene of active operations. Wigfall soon rode up and told us we must meet them. Next morning we were ordered to move. where we arrived in the evening and pitched our tents for the night. In a short time another message by the wires came for us to move up without delay.. great advantage. We were halted. the wagons were packed and piled. for the enemy were threatening his position. the weight of gun. We had traversed the swamps of Louisiana when they stood at high-water mark." Gen. Holmes to remain. We had been in the service just long enough for the company officers to feel considerable pride in keeping their lines well "dressed. received on the 4th of November . ed in and took the cars for Brooks' Station.12 one men coughing. We had moved 1 miles during the But as good luck would night. they were delighted with the prospect. the "soundings" were not so amusing as when aboard the Florilda. and on the line moved for about three miles. But in the absence of a chance to annoy the Yankees. Western Virginia or Potomac. and a large quantity had to be stored and left. Next morning. we received orders from Gen. judging from my own feeling. crossing the Bay. It was an interesting march. the signs fer a fight had disappeared. for they were packed like Mexican mules for market. And many of them were so delighted at the displays as to be heard even until a late hour of the night going through the manual of arms.

with the same rank. received the appointment of Commissary. Stewart. snow and mud. When the fact that no troops had came. in front of his regiment. 'All hands were called up. Archer being greater than that of the other commanders. and one of the officers had get to therrear. saying. and another in that shape. on the Maryland shore. while others . taken the ring off bis finger and given it to his servant. 5 had a short house. while Mess No.' To the right we could hear that "same old. One was in this shape. Wigfall. sleet.. . from the tracks left on the beach. Wigfall. Hood tell General Wigfall that battle. And the doors where do you suppose they were ? But I must here call to mind the important night alarm we had about the time these skillful builders were laying out their plans and laying off their buildings. to catch our pickets and introduce them to General Sickles. For it was in the midst of their consultations as to whether they would have the door by the jam. and the three regiments. consequently we will not attempt the task. had taken his position down on the hill-side. unless he had seen the ter. W. Wigfall became Brigade Commander. it morning developed crossed. ley. and No.' 13 Somebody had taken the cholic. Char. and it was several days before we went into a permanent camp.but the Yankees showed themselves equally gallant by extinguishing the flames and pulling the sehoo'ner off under fire of our guns. Calcasieu. As soon as it was understood we were quartered for the winter. with the rank of Major. it would be needless to tell any one with the expectation that he would believe it. For some of them were on the hill. 2 had a high house. The boat was fired and they pulled off towards our side. &c. except about a dozen. but had failed. under command of Brigadier General Louis T." &c. a picket came dashing in and reported the enemy crossing the river and marching upon us. and the preliminaries for a night attack were hastily disposed of. 4th and 5th. . he marched his men out to meet them half way. any regimental organization. And the ardor of Col. Over on the other side of the run Col. "Here. on Powel's Run. But as the rain conlarge. How often it rained. . Some were were small. Col. Mess No..drum" calling up the braves of the fifth to go after the disturbers of our dreams. and all were in readiness for a fight or a foot-race. commanded by Col. we are of opinion although we never heard from him on the subject that he returned to camp considerably cooled down. and some under the hill. No. When the Brigade was formed. and was ready with his pistol cocked. H. where we remained during the win- We There was but little of interest in our. or in the gable-end the shelf on the floor or out of doors whether all should sleep in one bed. which had been abandoned by the Yankees on account of the fire of our battery. George that of Quartermaster. Wm. in the midst of a drenching rain. with which we were blessed in great abundance. was . The 18th Georgia was afterwards added to the command. to blow them up if they came. awaiting the onset. McLeod. ment was composed of companies that had hurried to Virginia on the first breaking out *of hostilities they have come on without. give it to then moved to the river and witnessed an attempt by some of the men of the 1st Texas to burn a schooner.quarters. from South Carolina. tinued to fall during their reconnoissance. as future developments should iifdicate would be for the best.' Wofford had his men in line of And we heard Col. .two miles from his camp. except rain.ground. and if I get killed. 1st. and at a The ]st Texas Regilater period Hampton's Legion. 3 had his chimney inside. and were at first formed into a Regiment and placed under the -command of Col. were organized into a Brigade. and how deep the mud got before spring. were on top of the ground and others were under the . he thought. and Moses B. or each by himself when at midnight. whose object. 7 had his on the outside. take this ring. the men set about building cabins and it would puzzle any artist in the world to give the style of architecture in the cantou?nent. We here met with the 1st Texas Regiment. on the organization of the Brigade. We camped for the night. some styled the Texas Brigade.

fearing they might be their own men. a Quartermaster. and annoy them in their advances. Wade Hampton. W. W. which was briskly returned. S. and each permit. and chances for a shot be came more unfrequent as the enemy became better acquainted with them. They soon became a terror to scouts and pickets from the other side. Hood addressed the 4th Texas as follows "Soldiers I had hoped that when we left our winter quarters. and cooking. yet Afthe Yankees did not fire on them. for the want of a comfortable place for meeting. immediately opened fire. of the 5th. who left about the 10th inst. to spend the night. Webb. Willingham. S. Col. as it moved back via Manassas to Fredericksburg. and then made their way back across to our side unhurt. our men fired and brought down a Colonel. a detail from each company of the different regiments. Watrous and J. Burk. in a written order. : . but they w ere too late. of a commissioned and non-commissioned officer was made and sent to Texas men from : r for recruit?. They did so. But after removing to the Potomac. scouts. On the date above mentioned. Previous to the 5th March. night when circumstances would EVACUATION OF THE POTOMAC. but those who' have better opportunities of judging than Ave have. S. where they arrived March 11. from sleep. and gathering their guns. Col. Burns and Templeman. I hear him on the bridge. While at Richmond we had Divine Services regularly on Sabbath. they sent off for four companies to surround the rebels. At a late hour. a detail of 20 men was made from each of the three Texas Regiments. but for their services on former occasions. Spratling. that drills and even dress parades had to be dispensed "with. on the other side of the river. 21 of the 18th Georgia were ordered to this party. After our men passed them in their ambuscade. You must not regaid it as a disgrace it is never a disgrace to retreat when the welfare of your country requires such a moveOurs is tho List brigade to leave the lines of the Potomac. to watch the enemy's movements. put up at a house near the Accotink Mills. In the latter part of January. and through prisoners learned they had wounded as many more. After three 'rounds one of the men shouted. boys. J. But when in proper distance. Mills. Trowbridge. being led by a citizen. with 90 men and a detachment of cavalThe boys were aroused ry." at which the Yankees took Next morning revealed the fact that they had killed as many fright and left. and B. but to their surprise they came in a different direction to the one* anticipated. Y. but were in good time to bury those who had sent for them. 37th N. J. kept on the Occoquan. W. with orders to report to Col. Webb. nothing of stirring interest occurred.14 During the greater portion of the winter there was a detail of about twenty each of the Texas Regiments. eating and sleeping constituted our chief employments. our men concealed themselves to await the coming of the enemy. we had the privilege of preaching only when the Sabbath was suitable for out-door services. the Brigade decamped on the afternoon of March 8th. ter going about half a mile.. Early in February. they passed up to the Poheick church for the purpose of ambushing the enemy's scouts. Upon us ment. as there were men of their own party. "Hurrah. viz C. About the 1st of March. not only for the manner in which this duty had been performed. a Captain and eleven privates. Orders having been previously issued. and formed a rear guard to lus command. . For while the weather was so unpleasant. The ame unvarying round of camp duties was performed. After forming for the march. but the enemy ambushed them. then on the Occoquan. (who was mortally wounded) of the 1st. and were highly complimented by that excellent officer. surrounded the house and demanded a surrender. and being thus reinforced. it would be to move forward. Hampton's coming. Lieut. Burk. but little interest was felt by either officers or men. ten of these. order otherwise. ouropportunies were lessened. The weather was so disagreeable and the ground so muddy.

Left our camp on Potomac Run. and the dusky forms of the soldiers moving to and fro. and showed a disposition to fight. March 13. They captured prisoners daily. This made Lieutenant-Colonel Marshall our Colonel. we reached Austin's Run just before dark. They are equal to the emergency. Texans. kept the house before them. at all times. facing each other. a campaign which will be filled with blood. and the minies whistled harmlessly. The countless fires. wounded if not killed. and with his leathern belt administered sucli a chastisement as that ruthless invader had probably not received since childhood. lent a wild grandeur to the scene. back to Evansport. attempted to cut off and capture four of their guard. camped about 4 p. and a lingering look at the old camp. Colonel Hood received notice of his appointment as Brigadier General. This camp will long be remembered by every lover of the wild and beautiful who was there. captured by the citizens. were forced to abandon a portion of our personal baggage.accordingly.and on the 18th. they saw a brigade cross the Potomac. sparkling and crackling the dense shadow of the heavy forest. To prevent our movements being known to the enemy. 4th Texas. Two hill-sides. and when the struggle does come. Moving next morning at daylight. but the scouts. With three cheers for Col. and in order to discharge them faithfully. owing to the wretched condition of the roads. brave. at March immediately opened the fight by shooting down the two nearest. the quartermaster threw away a great part. On the next day a Yankee Chinaman. March 20. six more had rolled from their seats." and so thought the scouts but it was too late "to run. I have done. Hood. the Yankees "took water" and pushed out from shore. land at Glasscock's Hill. when instead of three. with commendable prudence. Judge of their surprise. we took up the line of march." and they . On the 2d of April Barker. feel no hesitation in predicting that you. and fraught with the destinies of our young Confederacy. and the squad broke . were occupied each by two regiments. and hastily Berepeating the fire. This was what "Old Abe" would call a "big job. was turned over to them. every man must be in his place. having discovered a regiment encamped near Evansport. the scene of many a merry and idle hour. and for want of transportation.15 devolves the duties of a rear guard. The crew briskly returned the fire. we left our tents and cabins standing. On the llth. on Potomac Run. and the other officers took raink % . and fuel plenty.) and proving a little stubborn. Xorris. Its success or failure rests upon the soldiers of the South. took a position about two miles west of F-redericksburg. wr ho being committed to^the care of Barker. A detail was made from each Texas regiment of one Lieutenant and fifteen men. at least. McAnnelly. that practical frontiersman quietly placed the Celestial across his lap. at Glasscock's Hill. will ever be found in the thickest of the fray. But their motions were discovered. M. Started early next morning. and camped that night on the south side of the Chapewamsic. whose camps could be seen on the Maryland shore. fore getting beyond range. placed by the hand of beauty Fellow-soldiers. however. and crossing the Rappahannock 12. Gee and Barker visited our old camp and brought away a considerable quantity of baggage. G. that in the keeping of the proud banner you bear. The night was dark and cold. fifteen men made their appearance. Falmcuth. they demanded a surrender. Of the small amount with which we started. and marching all day through the rain. (of Co. who were ordered to return to the vicinity of Dumfries to watch the movements of the enemy. On the 27th McAnnelly and Barker discovered a boat with what they thought but three men. and destroyed most of the tents." let us stand or fall together. Slipping up under cover of a fish-house to within thirty steps of the river.. which fully exhibited the charms of a gipsy life. pass up to Dumfries. both officers and men. and by so doing bitterly disappointed many. You are now leaving your comfortable winter quarters to enter upon a stirring campaign. and recross the river. combined with the impenetrable dark ness of t^e back-ground. Horn and Dickey. will discharge your duties.

On the following day. but that official showing a disposition to be troublesome. On the 6th orders were issued to be ready to move in an hour. and an anti-slavery God!" What was now left us ? Naught but the refuge our fathers* had. Leaving here we took the road to Yorktown. and 18th Georgia. on the ground occupied by the rebel army of the first revolution. asked for equality of rights and privileges. and the God of Battles. in raising contributions from the sacred pulpit. Here we were assigned the position of "1st Brigade of the 1st Division. be respected. Reserve Corps of the Army of the Potomac. they succeeded. and that oiir domestic institutions." On the 3d Sickles' Brigade landed at Glasscock s Hill and Evansport. where we remained for two or three days. Dispatching a courier to Gen. Our Representatives in Congress pointed to the Maelstrom. we started. Marshall. They had been oppressed with burdensome taxation so were we.houses. or sitting thoughtfully by his faggots. The avowed object of this foray was the capture of these same scmits but old rangers were not to be caught so easily. the weather alternating with snow. the God of Justice. at noon. but they refused to see it. and moving in two columns. until we reaehed Milford's Station/ General Hood pronounced this the severest weather he had ever experienced on a march. They appealed to Parliament. In a short distance the road forked and we took the wrong direction. Whiting. won by the common blood and treasures of the country be recognized. These petitions were answered by ministers (?) of the Church of Jesus Christ. and arrived at Ashjand about noon. of his some the courier did killing wounding eight Through mishap not succeed in reaching headquarters until after dark. and moved in the following When within about three order. when we found the 5th Texas waiting for us. and so. just previous to the memorable battle of Yorktown. How many pleasing recollections crowd upon the mind of each soldier as he walks over these grounds. To Him have we appealed. from exhaustion. ' . As overtaking them was impossible. They remonstrated so did we They submitted until submission ceased to be a virtue and so have we.for camps. Sickles' own assertion.. the 5th regiment moved off unawares. having fallen asleep 'On his horse while the men were resting a tew minutes. considering the rain and mud we had encountered. Here we were placed upon the cars. The South asked that their claim to territory. was out of sight. Barker shot him down and did what he could for "number one. yelling "Rebels. Here we learned that Gen. where we arrived in tolerable condition. after pillaging most of the houses at Stafford.' and Barker succeeded in capturing the Sergeant in charge. the headquarters of thej'exans. The spring here referred to is about two miles above the old city. and come out conquerors in the. and the battle ground about the same distance below. Our fathers to which they were driving the ship. and by His aid and our good right arms. met at Acquia church. Two of the scouts fired. and did not regain the right road until daylight. are we. when we returned to camps. which were not written by the pen of ? . and taking advantage of every hill to pick off a straggler. Their Representatives declared upon the floors of Congress that they were "in favor of an antirslavery Constitution. Col. Sickles. 5th 4th and 1st Texas. H. of Sharpe's rifles to shed Southern blood on common territory. of that battle to be found in the . The Txas Brigade was immediately ordered to meet the Yankees. and compares it with the scenes of the present. But to return." and bivouacked about one mile in rear of the line of defences. recalls the history of the past. miles of Stafford C. an antislavery Bible. and when the Colonel was roused up. There are yet historic." at every jump. we will pass through the ordeal of blood. according to Gen. The patriots of the Revolution were struggling for liberty. in and men. sleet and rain. as guaranteed by the Constitution.end. had taken the alarm and left the Court House in retreat just one hour before we left Fredericksburg in pursuit. but it was refused. wounding one Yankee. on the holy Sabbath. and severe punishment threatened all ''stragglers" and "foragers" while on the march. they quietly retreated before the baffled enemy. but were unheard. we remained in bivouac until the following morning.

and after that confined themselves chiefly to their fortifications. claim the ability to discern. when a minie ball ploughed through his cheek. however. While here the horse arrived which had been purchased by the privates of the 4th Texas. and though unsuccessful in their search for liquor.' " General Hood here advanced. for not a ball touched him. came out of the house considerably "elevated. the emblem of liberty. the trenches were armed with smoothe-bored muskets. On one occasion a Mexican. Secret mines had been placed in several houses. as the troops in The Texans. as did the troops of old. were supplied with Minie and Enfield rifles. rifle pits easily picked off every man who thoughtlessly This they could do in comparative safety. but with iron shot from British cannon. and woe to the man who exposed himself for more than a few seconds. and gathering there. and promising we should not look in vain for a rallying point when the struggle came. He was selected and purchased by us for this purpose. but simply because we. look for your commanding form and this proud steed as our guide. following morning. as freemen and Texans. Exasperated by so severe a reminder of his duty. and what was still more to the knew how to use them. who rallied around the white plume of Henry. Previous to our arrival. although he wal ked back very deliberately and climbed inside our works. During the first day's shooting." though with' mismanagement of some commander along. This important movement. In you we have found a leader whom we are proud to follow -a commander whom it is a pleasure to obey. sport then consisted principally in watching for each other's heads above the breastwork.the lines. At dress parade on the 26th of April. and this horse we. to explode on entrance. sir. we will. 'you stand by us and we will stand by you. This they declined to do and commenced firing but either he bore a charmed life or their nerves were unstrung. battle conies. of Co. the sharp-shooters of the enemy had approached to within two hundred yards of our fortifications. I present you this war horse. Addressed the regiment in a few feeling and eloquent words. and flanked noth right and left by navigable streams occupied solely by the enemy's fleet. our enterprising troopers burst open a door. presented him in tho following words "SiR: In behalf of the non-commissioned officers and privates of the 4th Texas regiment. we recogthe right to reward. M. was delayed until the A . mark of confidence. and springing into the saddle. and. evidently very much tq their stirThe prise. Ignorant of this fact. he sprang over the defences and in full view approached within a hundred of the enemy's lines. 1st Sergeant I. and dared any and all to come out like men yards and tight. had not the whisky-drinking propensities of some of our cavalry 13d them into a trap which had been arranged for the reception of the Yankees. not that we hoped by so doing to court your favor.17 the scribe.tender as a slight testimonial of our admiration. rendered necessary by the fact that wo were confronted by a superior force. Take him. would so soon -become the sign of oppression ? During our stay at Yorktown. Who would then have believed that the Sfrars and Stripes'. all owing to some carelessness or bravado of their own. Bookman. Nothing further of interest occurred until the little affairs two Texans were killed and several wounded. Iri you. ankees were picked out of trees and holes. In a word. General. as a present to General Hood. details were made daily from the Texas regiments to act as sharp-shooters in the trenches. In and from tree tops and exposed his head. we will conquer or die. expressing his gratitude at this. when the hour of. several Purpose. Some of their skirmishes were brisk and interesting. but owing to the . merit wherever it may be found. It might then have been accomplished in secresy. incautiously raised his head above the trenches. when mighty hosts meet in the struggle of death. nize the soldier and the gentleman. G. and these : EVACUATION OF THE PENINSULA. becoming interested in some object outside the works. . was fixed for the 3d of May.

Finally the lower sun disappeared. battling for freedom. they expected to retard our progress until they could debaik troops at Eltham's Landing. It was a grand scene. ancl the command was allowed a few hours rest. M. as in the case of Hampton's Legion in evacuating the Potomac. discovered that they had joined a Yankee company.d westward through the heavens. Not beim? ceremonious they obeyed promptly and marched off. notwithstanding their hard day's march. but they stood the test like true Southrons and patriots. not only to the army corps to which they belong. opposite West Point. and a hearty laugh went ound when some wag. they quietly surrendered their arms and acknowledged themselves ''taken in/' BATTLE OF ELTHAM*S LANDING... Great energy and courage were now required to save the retreating army. called imperiously for "a bundle of fodder and bucket of salt and water. Many of the buildings caught fire." and the commissary missing. which was put on picket duty. It was now evident that by a rapid movement on our rear. Two well defined suns made their appearance in the heavens. news reached our Generals that the enemy with gunboats and transports was pushing up York river. Our loss was also severe. from the reflection. and such corn-cracking as followed has seldom been heard outside a hog-pen. looked like a sea of molten fire. On the following morning afield onset was made and continued until morning. just as the order "Fall in. little city. and passing through. Judge of their surprise and chagrin wheri they. and began their march in good spirits. This being "ration day. About an hour after we had passed through. the Texas Brigade in the rear. This enterprise was committed to proper hands. All were hungry enough to appreciate this liberality. The explosion which followed started otjier matches. to be eaten raw. bivouacked about two miles above town. out any serious results to themselves. of which we were a remained here in line of battle until after sunrise. On the night previous to this battle. Why our men were so often used as the rear guard. or roasted in the ashes. Through the rain and mud they marched until day. The command was put in motion at daylight of May 7th. which gave a wild and exaggerated aspect to every obOur army had already passed up the ject in sight. hungry and wet. for the position of the enemy. and the other move. An atmospheric phenomenon occurred. which was to our men one of great interest. unless it was for their superiority in woodcraft and skirmishing. Whiting's Division. If they were allowed time to select and occupy their positions. but detailed for other portions. leaving Whiting's Division. and soon it seemed as though a fierce battle was raging in tho ancient. as their different tastes might prompt. too late. retired. and just as the gray of mgrning began to tinge the eastern sky. I never could imagine. P. seated on a log. wounded We and prisoners to about 5. and tired. we reached Williamsburg. Gen. part. two men of the 5th Texas got separated from their company. where the army had halted at about 5 P. the men dropped where they stood and The next morning scouts were thrown out to feel slept in spite of the storm. and by cutting our army in two. the men were informed that they could go across the road to a corn crib and help themselves to some corn on the cob.000. road towards Williamsburg. a lurid glare was thrown upon the surrounding country. They felt that the scene was an omen for good. when a halt was ordered. amounting in killed. serious disaster must be the result. and about 7 o'clock ^." was delivered. company. as a rear guard. and while searching for it came upon a squad of men in the woods. when we took up the line of march. In this battle the Yankees were repulsed with a heavy loss." After night. at least capture our artillery and wagon train. The Bay. and amounted to about The courage and endurance of our troops were -fearfully tried in this ?. and tho 5th Texas in rear of that. during which we were several times thrown into line of battle. were called up and put in motion.500\ engagement. After a tiresome day's march. the advance guard of the enemy appeared. and being unable to "sunound it" as the Irishman did the Hessians. . At 11 o'clock that night. and on until night again. and after exchanging a few artillery compliments.

began a "running fight. several wounded. . who immediately began falling back into the timber. H. but not until several random shots h. Plere we witnessed. however." Co. to deploy on the latter course was adopted. many of their guns missing fire. the Yankees made a stand behind an old mill-dam. attacked them so vigothat not dared and were so unnerved that they fired volley run." were his constant exhortations. Bewildered. which had a precipitous -descent. of cutting them off." which tftey did at double quick.' 7 Sixteen obeyed the order. for tite first time. Just as the command "charge" was given. and advanced steadily to within 80 paces of the 1st Texas.". which we afterwards discovered had killed five and wounded as many more. Hood to deploy as skirmishers and "feel the enemy. the boys."Aim low. turned and fled. M. Captain Hutcheson with his company and part of Company E. and entering the timber. who fired two shots at Gen. immediately "freed. charge them. and the remainder taking advantage of the momentary cessation of hostilities. when they halted. under Lieutenant Walsh. inflicting a severe but not dangerous wound Private John Deal. "Charge them. throw them down. some twenty -five in number. who was a Chesterfield in manner. and he would send support. did not for a moment forget himself during the fight.. doubtless. appeared upon the left flank of the palisade. whose gun was loaded. A. At this juncture General Hood appeared. Beyond this hill. if necessary. and line of battle was immediately formed on the brow ofahill. Company B (Captain Carter) was then ordered by Gen.19 uj5on a picket of tlie enemy." They advanced across the open field. On the opposite side were some four or five companies of the enemy. One shot struck Corporal Sapp. THE GALLANTRY OF THE FIRST TEXAS. While pursuing the^n. in the head. and the boys with a yell. and struck the only one in sight. This . they took the wrong direction. which left not one standing. Company G had also its share of "fun. leaving the ] 8th Georgia to support the artillery in the rear. until a portion of the enemy cried for quarters "Throw down your arms. A Yankee regiment now appeared upon the left and rear of the skirmishers. While these events ^ere transpiring. riding at the head of the 4th Texas. and protected by a heavy palisade. killing. and ordered the Lieutenant in command to charge ihe works. gentlemen. and Company G. and with three huzzahs> attempted to charge. and the enemy. Captain Hutcheson. While Compafcy B was thus engaged. Company K (Captain Martin) was its right next sent to support Company B. threw them down and fled. Hood." Discovering a company of about eighty Yankees. gentlemen. now in front.irl been fired by our men. The fruits of Captain H's victory. and sixteen prisoners. if not. ground. the 1st. and the Yankees fled *in confusion. and Company E (Captain Ryon) to the support of Company G. and coming upon the 5th Texas where it was lying down in line-of-battle. The firing now became general. the first platoon of Company B. under Captain Carter. rously they after volley into the tree-tops. but Gen Hood immediately called out to the men to "move up. leaving seventeen killed and several wounded in the track of their flight.him instantly Some confusion was observed at first in consequence of empty guns. had started for the works. Captain Hutcheson Company H (Captain Porter) now arrived upon the . . After retreating about half a mile. they were greeted by a volley. with tho intention. with orders to support the left platoon of Company B. B. A. G (Captain Hutcheson) was then ordered forward to support Co. was an open field of six or eight hundred yards width. were eleven killed. came who was . 11 and 'answered their volleys by picking off every one who showed his head. the second platoon of Company B came upon a large force (some two hundred) This was more than was bargained for. you scoundrels. of Co. gentlemen. and a spirited engagement ensued between them and the right platoon of Company B. poured in a volley. of Co. The regiment now advancing 1st California evidently intended to fight well. immediately firetjl upon the pickets as they ran. together with several stand of arms. 5th. and remainder of the 4th Texas had entered the timber. aim at their waistbands.

Yank yours.again.again. Decatur. and exploded just over our heads. in aH probability." This paragraph caused considerable sport among the boys. ready and willing to do and die for our common cause. about two hundred killed. These are the men wh came from their distant homes. gagement was thirty-seven. chargBut the Californians were not yet ready to yield. the out. doing us the slightest injury. and a discharge followed that seemed to mow down the whole front rank. 4th Texas. exclaiming. being regarded as a direct reflection upon the state of the brigade toilet. as previously related. and for about twenty minutes the fire raged with terriThe Texans charged . because it has long been understood that Indians won't stand to be sftot at by wagons. though a New York paper. gun mine. "Major. Of that number Captain Denny. and the enemy broke and fled. was killed by ral Sapp. before the President had called upon Texas for troops to assist in this great struggle. for just at that period the question of enlisting slaves in the United States army was being agitated. in reference to which the Richmond papers have been silent. tie enemy did not again attack us. tree-tops. and "aim low. And. reproach him.the former we regret to chronicle Lieutenant Colonel Black and Captain. were the of the 1st Texas. with the brief announcement. "Where 3^011'. was three and wounded. viz Albany. McClelIan s estimate is even greater. troops participating in this battle were chiefly from that section. was more knave than fool. and private Spencer. with its screaming inquiry. and had even succeeded in capturing a Yankee. finy was ordered by Colonel Raiuey." they have shown in numberless instances that they can march as far and fight as hard as any troops in the service* THE ENEMY'S LOSS iundred ? by General Hood in his official report. who were loved and mourned by all as brave men. Corpo5th. and such an assertion would not be without its effect on the unthinking masses of the North. where you?" he uttered a At that' instant another came significant "ugh!" and listened until it burst." and again parAVhen the first shell came tearing through the ticipated in the smuggle. which claims that the cers. he had conducted himself in the most gallant manner. cannot speak too highly. and several prisoners in our hands. cannot bejuetter ilPresilustrated than by reference to the language of some of our general officers. THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS BATTLE. Among. of Company G. merry set. gravely asserts that they "were charged A by four regiments of negroes. writing from West Point soon after the fight. the conduct of an boj-s had a hearty laugh at ' INDIAN WARRIOR. they made ed. "no good for Indian." and made for the rear with the agility of an antelope. more particularly when the The entire loss of the brigade in this enprojectile itself shoots so terribly. correspondent of the New York Herald. and sweeping the woods with grape from a baitciy they had planted upon the river bank. when he sprang to his feet.20 was expected. however. and sent the remainder in confusion back . and rallying. They are a lively. Commissary of the a men picket. and two captured. \vho was attached to the 1st Texas Regiment. with musketry. A whole-souled hearty yell now went up i'rom the Texans. in this engagement. a stubborn resistance. and one hundred and twenty-six prisoners. and wounded on the field. however. withWhile tlrs' was going on. The boys did not. though their names have not occupied a place in th journals of the day. and though often hungry and "ragged. and they in turn. The loss of the 1st Texas in this engagement was six killed and twenty-two wounded. The writer. leaving ble fury. . During the entire battle. of which regiment w^j other casualties were all wounded. whom he turned over to the proper officer. at their own expense. as estimated killed : states the loss at twelve hundred. After the rout of this regiment. such as only Southerners can give. as he reported a loss of five hundred men and offiThis is probably correct. but contented themselves with shelling us from their gunboats. they have ever been at their posts. of Company H.

the brigade was drawn up in line of battle. They are. I coukl talk a week. to be held until our army could reach and road. General Hood. we again assumed our position as the rear guard. This was owing to the fact that the road was blocked up by the rear of our artillery and baggage train. and the enemy showing no disposition to . "Hurry up. listening every moment for the dreaded sound of the guns of troops who were miles on their way to Richmond. their State. Returning to the camp. and leaving the Texans. I would not hesitate to invade the North. and not daring to lie down or rest. moving swiftly and stealthily along. But in praise of the Texas Brigade of my division. in speaking of the Texas Brigade. and a heavy soaking rain above. and still going. FnaJTv a" w^reFafelyland'-. they would end the war 'in months. in conversation with one. sir? lam General Whiting. for the roads had been cut by artillery and Wagons until a perfect mortar had been formed from one to three feet deep. and for their commander." "General don't you reckon I know a General ^ from a long-tongued cowier ?" says the fellow. men. and would before winter. the best lighters in' the Confederacy men upon whom one could depend under all circumstances. baggage and all. Melton also writes. at length discouraged the General. writes. and conquer a peace in a month. incomparably. About noon on we decamped. At length. we reached the bridge. I am sure no troops ever marched more swiftly. don't mind a little mud. to sbcstthey nrght. in preparing to receive the furious onslaught which they knew the rebels would make at Then to have watched the Yankees in the morning. from which we had started in the morning. of our Senators. all exhorting us to "close up. . leaving only a sufficient force for observation. in front of Doctor Tyler's residence. the brigade was ordered back from the bottom. about 1 o'clock at night. casting many and anxious glances to the rear. in a letter to Colonel Horace Randall. make them sue for peace upon our terms. fearing to discover the head of a pursuing column theirs. Forty light for the very love of it. when the whole army. properly led. about 6 miles. had he been in a position to observe both armies that night. The fighting ended at 2 o'clock?. the men floundered on.leave their gunboats again.henKloa v^. near West Point. found several Generals." and for God's sake to hurry. under Hood. when all others having passed over. five miles west of New Kent Court House." three . only reached the Chickahominy. take its position in front of Richmond.! on thlssUe. or destroy their whole country. digging. and then not say half they deserve. Late in the afternoon of May 8th. having passed up the road. . "the Texanswon immortal honor for themselves. Ours. stranger I'll hold your horse. hurry up. at the battle of Eltham's Landing. losing all patience. through the woods. With forty thousand such men. This was more easily said than done. daylight. . or kept more obstinate silence than we did until How ludicrous the scene. however. "they saved the rear of our army and the whole of our baggage train. toiling and sweating. General Whiting dashed upon the bridge. What a hearty laugh a man could have had. come up. we could only "mark time" in the rain and mud until the hour above menHere we tioned." General Samuel W. thousand such men could march through Yankeedom now. as he disappeared in the darkness. when we moved one mile up the and formed a new line of defence. and though constantly in motion." WHILE THE YANKEES 'DIG. / THE BRIGADE "CUTS DIRT. and we remained here until the following evening.' s'pose you git down and try it. said. as the enemy were threatening to attack us. who seem to * * * Oh! that we had more of them. M. This. They did not. with their attendant aids and couriers.. feeling cautiously daylight. from one end to thp other.21 dent Davis. in the lawn. and through this below. "Here we first had a fair sample of your Texans." "D'ye call this a little mud. Smith." General Gustavus W." "Do you know whom you address. repeated with sundry variations at several times. we remained until 10 o'clock at night. whose spirits he had threatened to subdue. Strict silence and quick time being enjoined. If the regiments now organized in Texas could be transported hre and armed to-morrow.

and going. 6 o'clock. At ten o'clock the firing ceased. In storming these batteries. HOW THE REBELS FIGHT. ammunition. and without waiting to eat or build selves fires. but were repulsed in every instance. but owing to some atmospherical phenomenon. Pursuing this road until within a mile and a half of the enemy.back near the York river railroad. and several w ere severely shocked.. during the night. having just returned from Texas. knowing how much * depended upon their safety. when the enemy had been driven from his As our movements position. Regiment after regiment. to render what aid 1 could to any who might be w ounded. were almost impregnable. M. the sound of battle was not heard until five hours after. Soon after General Johnston was wounded. and in a few moments wr e were moving dowr n the Nine-Mile road.22 * the Chickahominy. The enemy having. On the next evening a most terrific thunderstorm.. and then marched back and camped betAveen the Mechanicsville Turnpike and Central railroad. where we had gone on we had divine worship. June 1st. better . on the Meadpw Bridge road. and by 9 o'clock A. in Casey's Division. attempting "balance and upon left. which always acMay cumulates with amazing facility when the camp is near a city or town. Orders were issued to send off surplus baggage. and marching and '-'marking time" all night. May 31st. Whiting's Brigade suffered severely. the men threw. Here we remained until the following day concealed in the woods. except one. protected front and flank by earth-works.. All efforts. ve halted. The Island. and finally at 8 1-2 o'clock P. not only upon tke field. and as I could be of but little use alone against so many. M. were thrown against their batteries. and watching the recruits who had recently arrived. Sunday. fallen timber and swafhps. were endeavoring to regain their lost position. when despairing of his arrival. and suggested to General Johnston the movements which resulted in 26th. the Brigade was formed in line of bat lie. msn gave their whole attention to eating." On cruiting service. the firing ceased. was killed by lightning. and the name of the 4th Alabama was again written in letters of blood. a large quantity of camp equipage. camped near us. at some distance. and ordered forward. The battle had now become terrible. and the weary soldiers slept upon their arms. and had fallen . We occupied this point until evening. which I could not but regard as imprudent. but directly under the fire of the enemy's guns. Following. which. palisades. and marching to the rear we camped at '-Pine Nothing of interest occurred here.. I met Generals Lee and Johnston and President Davis. One man in the 4th Alabama regiment. I soon discovered that I had lost my regiment in the swamps. thoroughly drenching the "men. It was this storm which filled the Chickahominy. New York Artillery. r THE BATTLE OF SEVEN At PINES. strongly reinforced. and then moved back about two miles. orders were received to march immediately. and until 2 o'clock wait- ed for the signal of battle. It subsequently appeared that General Longstreet had begun the attack at or near 9 o'clock A. the engagement was renewed. leaving us in possession of all their positions and batteries. I immediately determined upon a "change of base. we -waited until 4 o'clock. and brigade after brigade. re- PREPARATIONS FOR THE MARCH AGAIN. with its left resting on the road. several hundred prisoners. sleeping. were dependent on General Huger. M. r proved unavailing. The Cincinnati "Commercial" publishes an extract from a private letter. accompanied by torrents of rain. and at dawn were halted one mile this side Chickahominy. small arms." and started to the rear. washing bodies and clothes. which was remarkably well attended. had become almost as general as on the day previous. and bivouacked until the command was relieved. At daylight. we accomplished a distance of seven miles. &c. began and lasted through the night. In passing to the rear. written by a member of Battery A. which was to be the roar of fire-arms on our right. however. riding at speed. themthe muddy ground and slept soundly until morning. On the following evening at sunset we departed." three miles east of the city.

and the dead lay in swaths. Our battery threw 24 of these a minute. These men operated beyond and independently of the regular pickets.". wounded and missing. two hundred men and the requisite number of officers. After occupying the field until the evening of June 2d. The Confederate loss in this battle was about four thousand five hundred in killed. They seemed to be animated with the courage of despair. 'and as we had the exact range of every part of the field. shotted with canister. were steadily advancing. and came steadily jra. will forever remain a mystery to me. and a gap was opened through those three lines as if a thunderbolt had torn ^through them.in which the unyielding and irresistible prowIf the writer had only. over the fence. three lines. in range of one of our guns. arid hailed a perfect torrent of balls upon us. however.23 known dauntless resolution of brave men fightingifor liberty and home. and shattered them asunder in a manner that was frightful to witness but they closed up at once. they were within fifteen or twenty paces of us. blended with the hope of a speedy victory.3 fire. Much dissatisfaction was expressed by the men at having had so much "double quicking" through swamps and fallen timber. never faltering or wavering. every shot told with frightful effect. and down went those three flags. but they had closed up with an order and discipline that was awe-inspiring. that The missile first acts as a solid shot. After this battle the Texas Brigade was thrown to the front. and stating that he had driven our routed and panicstricken army into the very lines of the city but neglects to state why he * did not immediately perfect his "on to Richmond. one behind the other. is fired with a fuse. and then exploding. The enemy subsequently admitted a loss of nearly ten thousand. Our shot tore their ranks wide open. At each discharge great gaps were made in ^heir ranks indeed. whole companies went down before that murderous fire . each of them consisting of a clotted mass of seventy-six musket balls. professing to have retaken on the third day all he had previously lost. as well as our horses. what loss I do not know. and while their dead and dying lay in piles. Why we. He is speaking of the battle of The Seven Pines "Our spherical case shot were awful missiles. and soon became a terror to . if they could by an overwhelming rush drive us from our position.spies. hurls forward a shower of musket balls that mow down the foe in heaps. and came on as steadily as English veterans. and no opportunity to vent their wrath upon the enemy. although under during a greater part of both days. but kept pduring our caseshot into the dense masses of the foe. ess of our troops is described as something wonderful. And they fought splendidly. and such destruction I never elsewhere witnessed. right up' to our guns. closed up and still kept advancing right in the face of th. the same as a shell. When they got within four hundred yards. -'. This afforded a fine scope for the lying talent of McClellan. who came on in prodigious arid overwhelming force. and no "brilliant bayonet charges" made. It was awful to see their ranks torn and shattered by every discharge of canister that we poured right into their faces. he would have learned still" more of the fierce and t this battle. stood to his gun a little longer. and he immediately published a flaming report of a three days' battle. and the Yankees re-occupied their old ground. with ed. we could not carry off a gun. The Texas Brigade was not directly engaged during our army was entirely ignorant. we closed our case shot and opened on them with canister . and three of their' flags were brought. and there held the enemy in check until reinforcements arrived. Of this third day's battle fire . When we delivered our last fire. We did not mind the leaden hail. with a charge of powder in the centre. our troops fell back to their oldline of defences.. and then kept our position till night put an end to the battle/' : . sharp-shooters and . and. '-Fire !" shouted the gunner. as all of our horses were either killed or woandOur whole division was cut to pieces. But the enemy were not at all daunted they marched steadily on. as theie were no guns fired. We fell back to a second line of entrenchments. were not every ene shot down. captured every piece. But they at once closed up. At one time. . and sweeping everything before them. ploughing its way through masses of men. right through the woods. through the field. a the "Napoleon Battery. too. and detailed each day as scouts.

" running. Here morning. when we were moved to Charlottesville. &c. and for half a rnile made regular "Bull Run time. while ours was but six in killed and wounded.carry out his instructions. over in their flight a regifnent of infantry. after this affair. M. Jackson that if any one asked a question. the Texans poured an effective fire into their dense ranks." the On We . knew him. fighting front and flank. On the morning of the 7th a party of one hunured and fifty Texthe enemy." said he. "pell mell. visiting his pickets. and in 24 hours arrived at Lynchburg. of the 1st Texas. passing through Richmond and over James river to the Danville depot. teur. On the 18th marching orders wr ere issued. we remained until the 15th. a Yankee Lieutonant-Colonel. 'I don't know.. sir ?" "I dori't K11QW. present or future. but no one knew. securely protected by trees.' In This was just as much fact. rode up to a member of the 18th Georgia. and thence to Staunton. the following then took the cars. as far as practicable.." said Georgia. to answer. some to flank McClellan. "Well now. The regiment. that they fled. where we remained until 8 A. where from ? who are you ? etc. also took to their hefils. who was widely known in Eastern Texas as an editor of ability and promise.nk. "you will often be asked. which was supporting them. Hood's headquarters. which we did. as his gallant conduct in few days the field and social qualities in camp had endeared him to all. I think I'll take " 'out of the wet. They immediately proceeded to . and at the same time enjoining silence. "I am Lieutenant-Colonel th New York regiment. and they forthwith knew nothing of the past." of the "Ah. that Gen. Colonel. "I don't know. and attacked the Yankee outposts with such fury. ! morning of June llth. M. This necessitated a retrogade movement. he asked." license as the men wanted. "You fool. and we started back toward Charlottesville.. So successful was this fory. who promptly presented for his inspection the muzzle" of his rifle. and Lieutenant Nash. Davis. under command of Lieutenant Jamison. of the 5th.24 that's just what I was thinking. and General Hood delivered General Jackson's orders to us ver"Now. they rallied. our brigade was halted. Lieutenant Barziza. and as it's rainin' a little. "Where are we going?" now became the popular question. The enemy afterwardfe confessed a loss of between forty-five and fifty in this skirmish. formed and opened on our men with a will. and you must answer. an amaAmong our killed on this occasion was Mr. but alas! no one could answer it. where are you going? bally. "Where are you going." exclaimed the indignant officer." After a few miles of our march had been accomplished. His fall was regretted by all who. as they fell back to the cover of our batteries. what the main body were doing. but were so promptly answered that they dared not advance.' Let's have your pistol and sword. of the 4th. thinking from -indications which they saw. - A . and ascertain." Just as the gray of dawn appeared. Hood issued an order complimenting the men and officers. and receive'd his fine "Colt" for his trouble. On the following day General Jackson noticed a "straggler'^ making fot a cherry tree near the road. some of our scouts penetrated the Yankee lines by ''relieving" one of their pickets. Here." and the elated Georgian marched him to Gen. That all possibility of our plan being discovered might be destroyed. that at least half the "rebels" were coming. Some "guessed" to the Valley. orders were received to be in readiness to move at 5 p. orders were issued by Gen. ans. were ordered by General Hood to drive in the enemy's picke^. and would probably have given theni another chase had they not discovered a Yankee regiment moving up on their left fla. where he turned him over. officer of the day. some to Alexandria." Having at length discovered that they were flying from a mere squad. you need not give a direct answer to any one. Riding up. if you please No alternative was left the chagrined "Yank. none missing. to see what they could "pick up. you in HO FOR STONEWALL JACKSON. which they promptly executed.

25 'To what command do you belong ?" 'I don't know. and we are not going to disobey Hood The General said no more. That all may readily understand this. or saved himself by flight. The head of the iron horse turned towards the South. Jackson. M. The Chickahominy was the theatre of action. Leaving the railroad at Frederick Hall. At 3 P. and having ordered the rear regiment of the division forward to assist the pioneers. no doubt.. Just an amusing scene took place. The other regiment immediately followed. and by the time the infantry had crossed the bridge was We proceeded cautiously for some two or three finished. The Yankees were on the other. "Old Stonewall and General to know orders. which are to change the entire aspect of the campaign. M. AND PLAN OF ATTACK." issued orders yesterday that we were not anything until after the next fight. . Here we had a slight exhibition of the generalship of Gen. leaving a number then in trees the on the ground and sticking they had been chopping. as if they thought the old boy was after them. we moved in as many columns as there were roads towards Ashland. and concealed from view by the underwood. and* the sound of axes could be plainly heard in the timber ahead. I transcribe from the ''Seven J)ays Battles around Richmond. and for the want of roads we sometimes marched through fields and Avoods. they or the Yankees. screaming and running for dear life. a wooden structure. but rode on in silence. taking the Hanoveproad." the following simple explanatifn: "Place* Nanre of a Pennsylvania Brigade. were at work in the field a little to our When the first shot was fired from the "big gun. it becomes necessary to give the reader some idea of the position of the two opposing armies. and drove in the Yankee pickets. we reached a small creek. During the morning the sound of cannon could be distinctly heard and each discharge quickened the step of our men." they let all holds rear. was solved.. loose and started for the house. reflecting. Orders were received that night to move at 3 A. forcing axes of Yankees to save themselves by a precipitate flight. Soon the enigma. on the opposite side of which our scouts reported two regiments ambuscaded. miles. upon the perversity of human nature in general. -*>. where we arrived on the evening of the 25th. and halted for the night in line of battle. and occasionally the clear crack of a rifle announced. which we did. cross the artillery. ordered the 4th to cross the creek and drive the enemy from the hill beyond. Avhich was still farther to the rear. that some "Bucktail"* had received his quietus. and all moved on.i'!! ." The General was ' fast losing patience. who understand the use f the hoe better than the fire-lock. For Gen. and soldiers in particular. it was hard to tell which made the better time. And from our position. Whiting had halted his command and sent forward the 4tli Texas to protect the pioneers while they were reconstructing a bridge to The position of the regiment was on this side the stream. DESCRIPTION OF THE FIELD. Jackson came dashing up from the rear. when another "straggler" explained the matter. thinking As we it unnecessary to ask th'e soldier if he knew the way to the cherry tree. A number of darkies. Riley's" the Battery was immediately thrown forward and shelled the timber. Gen. move on Washington oi Riching. which had roused many a drowsy brain. was burning when we arrived. neared Gordonsville." 'Well. what State are you from?"' 'I don't know. where the enemy were obstructing the road. mond. Before proceeding with the history of the important events now ready for development. the problem of our destination grew intensely interestv Would we turn to the left or the right. The bridge. and send the "Young Napoleon" back in his retreat from Waterloo. Sharpshooters and skirmishers were in advance.

During the night General Longstreet crossed the Chickahominy. which runs to the southward of the White Oak Swamp.. Hill 1 was M on the right but they were soon overpowered and driven Iron: rite field. Jackson's forces moved down between the Chickahominy ami Pamunkey. . and over the heads of our troops poured into the infantry such a storm of shot and shell as almost to silence their fire.s the Nine Mile or New Bridge road. of skirmishers was heard on the right. the Confederates turned their own guns upon them with terrible effect. Hill. it is a matter vf wonder how any of our troops escaped destruction. until the front of General Branch was so far uncovered as to allow him to cross at Brooke Turnpike. but the creek and abattis which still intervened rendered the capture impracticable. P. facing north. and uniting with the command of Gen. THURSDAY. attempted that night.3 he attacked the enemy at Mechanicsville.uLA. . . the railroad running between the two fingers. and formed a junction with the two Generals Hill. . and to the rear. Our own troops. and the bed o Beaver Creek* which passed in front and to their left flank. and was dqferrniied to hold it.Hill. Early in the afternoon a scattering fire. Here they had erected formidable earthworks. At this juncture our batteries took a commanding position. Hill. The left wing fronting Richmond westward. Gen. occupied a similar position. while Longstreet moved down with his right resting upon the swamps of the Chickahominy.26your hand upon the table with the index finger pointing a little north of east. <] in position and opened with a view tp attract attention from Longstreet a. OUR LINE OF BATTLE ON FRIDAY MORNING : fully completed. and marching down the north side of the stream. and mounting their works. the different commands taking positions as follows extreme left. uncovering the front of. This division crossed at the Meadow Bridge about 4 P. The third as the Charles City Turnpike. however. but of course a smaller circle immediately around the city the heaviest body being on the centre. first finger a. and his right at right angles. Commanding these several avenues were the forces of McClellan. and the storming of these defences is justly reckoned among the most. P.next D. About 2 P. the inner edge as the Mechanlcsville Turnpike. running nearly parallel with the York river railroad. the second as the Williamsburg Pike. Branch. both batteries ceased firing. several of our batteries were pla^. This position was attacked with a furious onset The charge was made on the rifle pits. but when we view the nature of the struggle. south of the York > river railroad. No further advance was. Imagine Richmond as situated on your wrist. immediately attacked the enemy and drove them from their strong positions. ':. the fourth as the Darbytown ^and road.?a awkward one. abattis. woods and Jackson on the valleys. and extended for miles over hills and plains. A. leaving some of his disabled Dam guns upon the field. P. fepread your fingers so that the tips will form the arc of a circle. The indomitable valor of our troops soon sent the Yankees flying.. The radius of this arc averaging about seven miles to Richmond. M. H. if possible. and mounted upon them were heavy siege guns. then Ewell. who were at Ashland twenty miles above the city. The morning dawned bright and beautiful. All arrangements being completed. Soon afterwards the enemy abandoned his position. It was now discovered that McClellan had made a strong stand on Games' Farm. and to entirely distract the attention of their battery from our infantry. BATTLE OF MECHANICSVILLE. Avho were protected by rifle pits. 4. M. Whiting and A. His position was . except those under Jackson. About a mile further down was another formidable battery of sixteen guns. gallant and bloody scenes of the campaign. The loss on both sides was heavy. driving the enemy before them. supported by heavy bodies of infantry. JUNE 26. the outer edge of your thumb as trw Central Railroad. and at 10 o'clock P.

of That the reader may have an idea of the manner in which each raiment Whiting's Division acted. "The works carried by these noble troops would have been invincible to the bayonet had they been garrisoned by men. and Sixth North Carolina. P. "There have been many confused and contradictory statements of the forces engaged in the attacks of the enemy's works nejlr Games' Farm on last Friday. As two they fled from their works. Hill's division. it was deemed inexpedient to follow the wretches through the swamp. Second and Eleventh Mississippi. fith North Car.' The field was nearly covered with the dead and wounded Yankees. 4th and 5th Texas. accordingly. who were comparatively secure from danger behind their works. driving the enemy the Chickahomiuy. 1st. and the 'Old Third Brigade' by the dashing Colonel Law. but. made the first assault upon the enemy's works. 2d Mississippi. to pass through an open field. M down : THE FIGHT AT GAINES' FARM AN OFFICER'S STATEMENT. advanced at a 'double-quick. : "It was about half-past (four o'clock when Pickett's Brigade came to Hill's support. "The struggle was brief. . Brigade after brigade advanced upon the fortification. A fierce struggle was then going on between A. supported by Gen.Division are'the 4th Alabama. It w as nowliearly dark. "The brave Texans were led by Brigadier-General Hood." In the "Examiner" of July 2d. composed of the 'Old Third' and Texas Brigades.. The regiments compoWhiting's. JUKE 27TH. Whiting's Division. Pickett's regiments fought with the most determined valor. "Whiting's Division is composed of Hood's Brigade. but the formidable character of the works. succeeded in dislodging the Yankees. Several of our regiments fired at the fugitives and killed a very large number of them. charges were made by Hill's troops. \ ^. and seemingly impregnable. I reached the lines of the enemy's entrenchments near Games' farm. and Colonel Law's Brigade. Whiting and Ewell took up the fire. appears the following article. routed them. and the work of death begun. which in view of the many reports in circulation. Fourth Alabama. llth Mississippi. A. the most bitter of the war. and Hampton's Legion and Eighteenth Georgia. and Hampton's Legion. Gen. about hundred yards in width. as follows "Gen. Hill. We have received the following statement from an officer on the subject of this doubt "At about two o'clock on Friday evening last. This was the signal for a general assault. P. our men were recalled.. Pickett's Brigade from which Longstreet's Division.! insert as an act of justice to those noble men who Contributed so largely to the success of that memorable day. Whiting's Division.27 THE BATTLE At 4 o'clock' P. FRIDAY. eral hours without result. sing olina. 1st." -". I transfer from the "Whig" a letter Written by . were of the most formidable character. Hill's division and the garrison of the line of defence. and. Fully . This part of the day's work is correctly given in the "Whig" of the 30th. one-fourth of the entire division were cut down in< this gallant charge. and though the pursuit was continued for some tjme. Wauzee. to which they fled. and delivered their fire. in prominent facts. and in quick succession. they had. but were compelled to fall back under the terrific fire of the Yankees. and poured volley afAfter the fight had been prolonged for sevter volley into our brave troops. At 5 o'clock. which.- bama.' charged them. advanced to the assault. late commander of the Fourth Ala. and murderou's volleys qf grape and canister from the artillery covering them. now of Jackson's corps d'armec. kept our troops in check. Repeated. perhaps. and captured - their artillery. is correct: : : . "I mention these regiments because their names will be historical. before reaching the woods. 18th Georgia. 4th and 5th Texas.iV^ r v Longstreet commenced the fight. -OF GAINES' FARM.

mad shout. The 6th North Carolina.28 To THE EDITOR OF . while to their front extended a vast undulating plain. the 2d Missis sippi. which he joined C^pnelJeukins. fruits of the victory.secured. These five regiments then made a brilliant charge on the plain beyond the works. a flank attack from the enemy. This division is composed of the brave Texan Brigade. a breastwork of logs was erected. at the crest of the almost perpendicular bank. the most formidable of the kind that was ever buiH. canister and ball. regiment after regiment. of Hood's Brigade. it was now 5 o'clock. and driving the flying foe terror-stricken before them. 1862. with the irresistible determination of men who fight for all that men hold dear. when ^ Colonel Law detached Colonel Stone's regiment. swept through our lines like a storm of leaden hail. grape. formed a junction with the 18th Georgia and 4th Texas. The sun was getting far in the West. owing to the deep foliage that screened them from view. of Manassas ges. yet still. NEAR CHICKAHOMIXY. under Hood. Col. were successively led forward still our repeated charand dashing though they were. struggling up the precipitate bank. At this juncture. flinging themselves into the trench. he led a dashing cttarge upon the enemy's entrenched position. A little after dusk some apprehensions were entertained lest the enemy should make a night attack and attempt to retake the batteries we had captured. General Anderson. here and there. he held in reserve then taking the 4th Alabama. vf * It was early in the evening when your 'correspondent reached the enemy's jnain line of defence. while on the other side. It that we should carry their line. and our troops. capturing two batteries. and to do was absolutely necessary. . this. with deep gullies and wood-girt water courses. The voice ot Colonel Law was heard. and that point must be carried. gallant t Suddenly a halt was made. and successfully repulsed a flan^ assault. The pause made by our troops. "Forward. Col. but night coming on deprived us of most of the on. In this charge the 6th North Carolina pame up. they might have held it till doomsday. darkness would soon be upon us. June 25th. shot and shell. brigade after brigade. ploughed up. A ravine. the momentous issue stood trembling in the balance. yawned before us. and it. hut of the nature of their works. Major Webb. Their position skirted a strip of dense woods. however. : $ * * -# . there was a deep pause. and our noble boys fell thick and fast.THE WHIG * * * * BATTLE FIELD. where it successfully resisted. * memories. climbing over the breastworks. and . was but a brief breathing space. fell steadily back. boys charge them !" and with a wild. but to meet this emergency. and the line wavered from right to left. and turning some of the guns on the enemy before he 'could make good his escape. All the artillerv we took is . however. and sent it some distance to the right. . at the united request of Colonel Law and gave permission tn detach Jenkins' regiment. done half their duty. and had the wretched Hessians. for more than two mortal hours. who garrisoned it. with one of his own. This charge was made under the most galling fire that I ever witnessed. That they were entrenched we knew. uniting with Law's other regiments. The rOut was absolute. We now saw th'e character of the enemy's works. the division of the gallant Whiting hove insight. and the old Third Brigade. we knew but little. from behind which the dastard invaders were pouring murderous volleys upon our troops. deep and wide. commanded by the dashing Law. On reaching the field these troops were rapidly deployed in line of battle. perhaps. and llth Mississippi. our*gallant boys rushed . still fighting. This position was. McLemore. failed to accomplish the end. our impetuous soldiery dashed forward. Thus. Scaling ladders and boarding pikes would have been far better adapted to its reduction than bayonets. Liddell. with heavy loss.

according.Texas. moving by the right flank at double quick. Games' Mill. and a detachment of the 2d reg)" ^ 1 ." Wauzee should have said that Col. Several regiments claim to have taken batteries.to the account of numerous prisoners and wounded men. perhaps. had been directed by him. 5th Texas. urging his gallant troops to*\jctory. in the engagement at Coal Harbor or part enacted by them on Friday. ular cavalry on the left. better known in the brigade as the -"Sd. Texas was subsequently changed to the right of the 18th in this order the brigade advanced through. The following letter from "Chickahominy. obtained a view of the terrible work that then remained for them to do. HOOD'S BRIGADE. Here they were just in range of a heavy battery of the enemy. Advancing across a deep muddy swamp. 18th Georgia. they were halted in an open space to the right of a piece of woods and in rear of an apple orchard and formed in line of battle. 1st Texas. We aro All is quiet now. To THE EDITOR OF THE WHIG For the gratification of the relatives and friends of the members of this regiment." as gallant a regiment as ever fought beneath a Confederate flag. said to be the Hoboken battery of fourteen splendid brass pieces. They remained behind this battery about thirty minutes and lost some twenty or thirty men killed and wounded. Then advancing under a shower of shot and shell down a long slope which was completely commanded by a body of the enamy's infantry on their left. which was filling. they were placed in position to support a battery and ordered to lay down. and here. advanced up the steep hill on the opposite sidt . After which. posted on a wooded eminence on the opposite side of the ravine at the foot of the slope.29 - Gen. CAMP 18TH GEOIIGIA REGIMENT. and taken part in them. whose position is said to have been chosen by McClellan himself. for there was enough for all to have a showing. Another came up but was also compelled to retire after a few rounds. for the first time. Having been with them through the whole action. press : THE EIGHTEENTH GEORGIA REGIMENT. . : (J Twenty-five miles from Richmond. ready to renew the conflict at any moment. apparently with a view to turn the enemy's extreme right. that McClellan is said to have assured his men that it was impregnable. Several had been taken up to the moment the 18th reached the crest of the hill. and the missiles fell so thick that our battery soon became disabled and had to withdraw. which being so thick we soon lost sight of all except our own regiment.the woods. After marching by the flank for about half a mile. and dealingdestruction all around. besides the approach to it was completely commanded bybatteries. Whiting has won imperishable fame. and up a steep ascent. It was supported by a large body of infantry in the rear. The position of the 4th order. but passed on without returning the fire the enemy poured into our ranks. wherever the fight raged fiercest there was he.the air with its deadly missiles. and no doubt justly. Here we lost many more men. at the moment it came in sight of two other . your correspondent had. and crossing the ravine at the point where the 4th Texas had so gallantly driven the enemy back. too. the whole brigade was halted about 4 o'clock and formed in line of battle in the following4th Texas. Law's command "paused and wavered'' long enough for the 4th Texas to pass them. Marching rapidly through the woods and fields." is introduced as an act of justice to the 18th Georgia. I desire to give a brief account of the particular 27th June. It will be remembered that the fight began with great fury while Hood's Brigade was early in the afternoon and was raging yet a considerable distance trom the scene. There is no demoralization among our men. a better opportunity than any one else of knowing exactly what they did. And but a iew men of the lltk Mississippi were all of the 3d Brigade who were with the 4th Texas and 18th Georgia when they took the last battery. but the main. and whose guns. who gives the most correct account of the battle of any publication which has yet appeared from th. was still playing with terrible effect. the regiment was ordered to change position. battery on the hill in trie field. So admirable was this disposition of the forces a-nd the nat ural conformation of the ground. In front of the 18th.

Colonel Ruff ordered the charge. with four men. the clear. running for dearlifr. was wounded a few steps further on. but before they succeeded in floing so.to the jV. Seizing the opportunity. fell terribly mangled with a shell. while adjusting a friction primer. At this moment the scene in front was indescribable. of Co. battery. under Captain Townsend. at the command. after crossing the ditch. ized condition. they lound themselves under cover of the hill in company with a detachment of various other regiments. the men being compelled to get across as best they could. and another from the 4th Texas. Lieutenant Lieutenant John Grant. lay a long . the linejWas necessarily broken. and rushing to the front. which were quickly closed up. after which." the 18th moved steadily up the hill in the very jaws of Death itself !' As soon as they were discovered the enemy's cavalry made a desperate charge at the right wing. Some few cannoniers. an impassable ditch. which they did so effectually that for a moment the firing of the battery ceased. The whole line halted to deliver their fire. Shot after shot tore through 4he ranks. however. seemed to have lost their organization. who succeeded him in command of the company. Down this first slope the 18th advanced in splendid order. deserves 'great 'credit for the gallantry with which he bore the battle (lag. and all. these the colors of the 18th was planted. artillery limbers and caissons and infantry all rushed away in one wild scene of confusion. nine pieces of the battery was theirs. and so discomfitted them that they changed their direction and endeavored to make their escape. while the living pushed on to the work before them. but found their forces so much scattered. and could do little else than seek. under the command of Colonel Liddell. of Co.ofiCo. C. Stewart and Lieutenant Callahan. K. scores of their saddles were emptied and many a crippled steed left hobbling across the field. comCallahan taking command of the company. was also wounded and left. and the infantry began to fall back. Preceding regiments had done their work well. Jackson County Volunteers. coolly commanding "close up. that afforded some protection from the guns above. H. Thus supported. was shot down by private Monroe Windsor. under a cross fire from two batteries on the right and left and a terrible direct fire from the battery in front. and in less time than it takes to write it. another. command devolving on 1st Sergeant Cotton. Here Lieutenant A. and the men quickly rallied^and short consultation among the officers was held to secure concert formed. some 'their regiments. instantly killing Lieutenant Dowten and a private. rushed forward and shot the men at one piece while they were on the eve of firing it. of action. the. H. McCullock." while every other Dead abd wounded officer exerted himself to preserve the line unbroken. a small detachment of the 13th Mississippi.30 the battery." "dress to the right. protection under the crest of the hill from the guns above. slrrilPtaftces of Major Griffis and Adjutant Pattou could be distinctly heard amid the bursting of shells and whistling of shots. Lieut. Lieutenant Sillman. who were in a broken and disorganSome bad lost their leaders. Lawes. which might have broken and ruined the line. at double quick. then a quick rise. B and C. On reaching the ditch. some three hundred yard3 distant. and gallantly had they driven the enemy from same of its Some had even advanced ou this strongest works and taken several batteries.sloping hill. that they became powerless. command- A ed respectively by Captains O'Neal. was a deep. and his bag of friction primers captured by him. and wounding half a dozen others. formed in support of the right. leaving wide gaps. waived the boy* onward. of Co. F. . Cavalrymen. when one of them delivered a volley of grape full into the ranks of Co. D. "forward. and then poured in a deadly volley that broke their front. and in some pja*ces. manding Co. supported the left. Corporal Foster. brought down their leader. men fell on every side. Just as this charge was made the left wing had come up within range of the guns. In front of all S" for the time being. bat in hand. stood to their guns and continued to load one was shot at the piece while ramming down a cartridge. had they not been received with so much coolness and deliberation by the gallant men composing companies A. Advancing a short distance. at the foot of which. who held their fire until the enemy were within good range." or "left.

conAt this vsequence of the terrible concentrated fire of the concealed enemy/. commanding Co. to the rear immediately after the engagement was over. for perhaps half an hour. they made one grand rush for the fort. commanding Co. halted us in an open space to the right of some timber. Every officer and man acted with great gallantry and coolness. 4>ut remained upon the ground. the 4th Texas was held in partial reserve. sleeping between the pieces and the enemy. charge right down on them. declared he had as lief charge a wall of fire. Captain Armstrong. though so badly wounded as to have to retire h^is company through Lieut. The regiment was under fire for about three hours. halted.moved the little band of five hundred with the coolness of veterans. Captain Maddox led the fight. but as soon as the regiment was again ordered forward in pursuit of the enemy. General Hood came for us. E. and in the rear of an apple orchard. in his clear ringing voice.. until ^within about one hundred yards of the breastworks. when it was thought advisable for them to fall back. across the creek and fallen timbe'% and the next minuto . manoeuvred his company finely. Fortunately our forces drove these back about night." and onward . Carried into action five hundred and seven men. who whence the enemy were pouring a hot fire on the men about the gun*. S. and soon became separated from the other regiments of the brigade. and lost 148 in killed and wounded. had reached the apex of the hill. In front of us was the '' Old 3d Brigade. amoug them one Colonel and several Captains and Lieutenants. " Forward. At the ditch in front of the battery. pierced by a rninie ball. point that . seeing one of the guns aimed at his company. Orderly Ramsour. Smith. Two officers killefl and six wounded. and did splendid service. At this point Colonel Ruff. tle. Lieut. and the 18th held its psoition for the night. It was at this. and moving by the right flank about half a mile. the voice of General Hood was heard above the din of battle. as they were enand had pierced the enemy's lines about a mile. they "wavered" for a moment. in. The commander of the cavalry that charged our lines and who fell into our hands a wounded prisoner. notwithstanding his loss was very heavy. beyond question. CHICKAHOMIXY. and beyond which none had gone." Fixing bayonets as they 'moved. but a few moments before. commanded. forward.led his company with great coolness. he took his place and rushed on. After remaining in the rear. V. quick. both on the right and left. saved them by an oblique movemeut to the right in double quick." and onward they rushed over the dead and dying. and showers df grape. While Hood's Brigade was formed in line of bat. acted very gallant' The regiment took about 200 prisoners. Pardin. But the storm of iron and lead was too severe. K. and passed thc'Sd Brigade without a pause. was a considerable body of the enemy in the rear. Here Colonel Marshall fell dead from his horse. and there tirely unsupported. while our ranks were broken at every instant by flying and panic-stricken s&ldiers.* commenced discharging their pieces. down the hill. and stopped to rally were constantly coming up. march. The sight which we here beheld beggars description The ground was strewn with the dead and dying. F. and some of the men. that all did their duty unflinchingly but I desire to speak now more particularly of the conduct of the 4th Texas Regiment on that occasion. The and waved r^gimeut followed and drove the enemy about four hundred yards into the woods. he found fugitive Yankess so thick that he had to make them get out of his way and allow his men to pass. Volleys of musketry. and drive them out with the bayonet. The foregoing extracts sufficiently illustrate the part enacted by Whiting's command. he mounted one of the pieces his flag in triumph. had started with cheers to storm the fatal palisade. When he reached the battery. Co." who. ly. seeing the enemy just before them. but were only answered by the stern " Close up close up to the colors. left Major Griffis in command. We preceding brigades had. . critical juncture. and show. stragglers. canister and shell ploughed through us. seeing that his regiment had pierced the enemy's lines to a considerable distance. who had in person taken command of our regiment. and turn their fire to the left. "Forward. At this instant General Hood.31 erer foremost.

Soon their horses were running wildly over the fields. Forming on the left of the 18th. the 5th Texas next. city. while grasping in his hand a Confederate battle-flag. they made on in that direction. them on the alert. where they were joined by tho 18th GeoYgia. and it seemed as if every ball found a victim. to bite the dust. -for the poor horse than for fhe degraded rider. Their works were ours. until night puts an end to the slaughter. fSoon after the 4th Texas had passed tho 3d Brigade. Captain Townsend now led the 4th Major Key. &nd pouring a storm of grape and canister -through our advancing^ranks. cheering their men in the charge. Our Confederate batfle-flag now floated over tho guns where tho "stars and stripes. who was left. as our flag moved from the first to the second tier of defences. having been joined by a portion of the llth Mississippi.right to flank and cut off the 4th. while the hill-tops blazed and thundered like a bursting mountain. backs. which had been deserted by some regiment near where we began the charge. charged down the " look out for the cavalry. They had proceeded but a short distance. and about four hundred yards distant." as it makes its grand charge to the rear.32 The cowardly -saw our battle-flag planted upon the captured breastwork. the 4th Alabama and 11th Mississippi came on bravely to the charge. cavalry and cannoniers. the lines for miles long after many of those who started it were in eternity. In a depression in the field. Falling at the head of brave men. On the samo spot also fell Captain Bryan and Lieutenant Lambert. The Hampton Legion entered the fight on the left of the Brigade. and which will long be remembered by those who heard it. he formed sufficient opposition to hold them in check until the regiment had time to re-fgrni its line. rose from behind their One volley was poured into their -defences. and they pressed the rear of the Grand Army in its " On FROM Richmond. left him in command. The infantry. and the work was soon over. and proudly written in the history of his country. could have been asked by a soldier." had so recently hovered over the young Napoleon's head. Just in front. but they hastened to make their victory . and then moved forward. a squadron of about six hundred cavalry. many without riders. and they received them in splendid style. the crest of the hill in the and engaged .srill more complete. but onward and upward they pressed. yet we drove the enemy from his guns. foe. a shout arose from the shattered remnant of that regiment. then the 1st . so great was the slaughter. about half way from this position to the battery. and. at full speed. which had hovered doubtfully for hours over that bloody field. and would ever have been the pride of the States they rep- No pause was made summit A resent. and started up the hill at speed." which McClellan had just gone in haste to select. bleeding and mangled. his name will be forever cherished in its annals. and others frantic from bayonet cuts and minie balls. No nobler death. mortally wounded. and. The charge upon the battery w as continued. who had shewn himself a soldier and an officer in the fight. These two flags might have remained to guard the trophies won and cannon captured on this memorable hill. Gathering up the stragglers near." was sufficient to put slope upon the right. the last field officer. and victory. with five guns. in the hour of victory. had at length perched upon the Right and left it was taken up and rang along battle-flag of the 4th Texas. For the sight of the broken and flying columns oft the enemy invited them forward. was a splendid battery of fifteen guns. gave to the mind the idea of GRAND CONFUSION as they moved off in search of the new "base. But they rested only a few moments here. for rushing forward at a run. a shout which announced that the wall of death was broken. on woods. they halted. without hailing. when General Hood discovered aif attempt by the enemy on the." with the "spread eagle. The line of retreat was well deBut the boys felt more sympathy fined by fallen steeds and dead Yankees. and in defence of his natfc v. retiring with a painful wound. . frightened at the rapid approach of pointed steel. of the hill the gallant Lieutenant-Colonel Warwick fell. no brighter clestiuy. mixed and moving at their utmost speed. ' At tho here. where safety is to be won by a gallant run.

both the Division and Brigade . guns were taken by the 4th Texas and 18th Georgia. They have the honor of capturing more prisoners during the tight than any other regiment in the Brigade. who was elected by his . To decide the point of honor for our Brigade. Two regiments. upon which so many had fallen before us. it would be invidious and unjust to mention one before another." There were many regiments who claimed tho honor of capturing these guns. and am glad I don't. And here the 18th Georgia. 1 side of the ravine. I have reason to believe that the greater part of them never left the cover of the woods. was the first to break the enemy's line and enter his works. " commanders have settled the question. Marshall. in a great measure.regiment after the death of Colonel McLeod. taking a large number of prisoners. pressed over the hotly contested field. who commanded the Division. on the hither side of the ravine. in the discretion exerqised by Hood at the moment we reached the top of the hill. on the west ^the . There were but few who failed to do their duty well. And as for those officers and men who "skulked and hid in ditches and in the woods ffom danger. General Hood says: "Directing in person the 4th Texas. a brigade was skulking and hiding from danger. and our bravo men rushed headlong from the hill. arid let their deeds screen them from the world's view. with the 5th Texas on their The left. doubtlessly." we will leave them with their superiors. remark. of the 5th Texas. CONDUCT AND FATE OF OUR OFFICERS.timber which lay along their inarch. which went in with the Hampton Legion and 1st Texas. in justice to the men*who did the work. as others had done and been driven back. and with cold steel drove the enemy from their hiding places below. and fourteen pieces of artillery. The stubborn resistance maintained all day Of the other Regiments faltered from that moment. but from the broken nature of the ground and fallen . one South Carolina and one Louisiana. to Brigadier General Prior or staff. which caused great confusion in their ranks. slowly pressing him back. 33 : enemy from left to rig-lit in great fury. led by Brigadier Hood. he gave the word. that five of the guns spoken of were captured by the 4th at the time they stormed and took the first and second breastworks. and the prisoners by tho 5th Texas. which. Where. commanded by Colonel Ruff. First Texas. we have but to offer the testimony of General Whiting-. inclining from right to left. and the day was gained. on that bloody ground. Colonel Rainey. they were the first to pierce the strong line of breastworks occupied by the enemy. came to the support of the 4th. received ft shot in the' hand. The 5th behaved nobly in the fight and would." General Whiting omits the mention of the 5th Texas. and on the historian will devolve tbe task of assigning tfiVjm position in the back grouud. but. The troops on my immediate left I do not know. have gone through the enemy's lines as soon as the 4th. Fourteen pieces. and in their inarch passed over several regiments who were skulking or running from the fire. of the Division. and at short range. instead of halting and making the fight. B . and nearly a whole regiment of men were turned over by Colonel Eobertson. When the line was completed and advanced to the crest of the hill. Its brave old Colonel. and almost covering the ground with the dead from their ranks. The secret of our success is found. He says: "The 1st Texas and Hampton Legion were sent in as hundreds were leaving in disorder.s . which they did.. and never advanced from the west side of the ravine. fell early in the charge. were marching back from the field. " Brigadier General Anderson supporting on the right. I take pleasure in calling special attention to the 4th Texas Regiment. a gallant officer. We may hen 1 . of artillery were taken. and the 1st Texas was ordered to go through or over them.

1 . Lieutenant W. G. Wynne. killed. H. H. and thousands were left'lying on the field and scattered through the woods. Fourth Texa*. Giles. Porter were mortally wounded. . Loughridge. and Lieutenant Shotwell. bleeding. Davis Roberts. Thoughtful and suffering. . and Sergeants J Crobert and J. It. although hours are dark and the cannon's roar is not to be heard. Price and A. Lieutenant Nash. S. Wilkes were killed. Gould. long and 4re"ary night. which lent to the surrounding scene the darkest shade to which earth-born sufferers are heir in their brief stay in a world of. famishing. T. L. Lyons. deep murmurs rose upon single roar of the cannon is to be heard. Lieutenant Wall and Lieutenant Waterhead. it is unnecessary to add a single syllable as to their behavior in the memorable fight. J. and Sergeant Norwood. Bane's arm fractured. Captain Benton. Lambert. Lieutenant Jamison. the gloom of night. C. and no one to fill his canteen. quiet as the grave. ) Our victory was com*plet. but his gallantry would not allow him to quit the field until exhausted from the loss of blood Captain Owen. Of the field and staff. Myer. Simmons. yet every watch was disturbed. was mortally wounded. and beyond he Tmows not that he shall have another day. Armstrong. P. and J. Company B. all proved to be mortal Lieutenant T.and looked for friends. And. whether living or dead. O. weltering in their blood. Holaman was killed on the field Lieutenants Brandon. And now we must give them graves in the very fields they have pillaged. Hutcheson and P. Captain Clay. also. or bind up his broken arm or shattered leg. Lieutenant Sheridan. he longs for the coming morning. All is in the hands of valiant men. Brown were wounded. W. J L. gathering and carrying to the Field . is a long. A. J.sin and woe. Exhausted. Nothing this side the regions of blackness of darkness is half so terrible as the theatre upon which the maddened armies of empires seek revenge and settle The darkness of the night. Walsh. Brooke. severely wounded. Rogers. But he knows not that it shall dawn upon him. P. Wiltdn. A. that will never be numbered on earth. while hundreds more were left dead upon the soil their feet had polluted. and not a But low. Oh how sweet is the comfort of religion in an hour like this. Onderdonk were wounded . . L. The roar and rush of armies has ceased. E. Foster and Autry were wounded. intensified by the clouds of smoke their quarrels. Ryan. Lawson were killed. Colonel J. now settling down upon the earth. Long trains of ambulances are passing to and fro nearly all night. Clenahan and Rounsevall were also painfully wounded. . and that all were in their proper place. Butts. tend to -deepen and blacken the pall that shrouds the mind qf the wounded soldier. P. Commissary. ! . No troopers are dashing headlong. For the length of these lists will tell where each Regiment was. Wood. Lieutenant J. P. P. Clute was the only commissioned officer Fifth Texas. Burress. Reich and L. After looking over the lists of killed and wounded of the Brigade. Warwick was mortally wounded the charge began and fell soon after storming the enemy's works Major Key also received a dangerous wound. Randolph. and brothers knew not the fate of each other. which had well nigh cost him his life. Beasley. N. Sergeants Crawford. Tyler and T. and the sentinel hears the groans of his suffering comrades all night long. in command of Company B. hungry. Galloway. And of the Sergeants. Hundreds of prisoners were sent to the rear. commingling their voices in piteous discord on every hand.Sn the cold ground where he fell. Company K. Robertson and Ensign J. Smith. Many tears were shed under the long shadows of each liour of that night. and that too from eyes all unused to weeping. Friends walked . B.3* which ranged up the arm. C. Colonel John Mashall fell soon after Lieutenant-Colonel B. D. And of the Captains. . with the dies of the suffering and groans of the dying. and the wounds of Lieutenants R. only disturbed by busy trains of ambulances and the heart-rending groans of the ten thousand sufferers. E.. Night has hung its dark curtains around and over the arena so recently lit with fire-arms and the flash of the glittering sabre. A. were killed while nobly doing their duty and among the wounded were found Lieutenant Snow. and A. J. R.

Clouds of rolling dust wound their serpentine course over hills and valleys. stretched call their names upon the ground. Nurses are washing and bathing their wounds. and another. road. and our victory complete and burning stores and scattered arms and clothing in every direction. About noon the fight began under General Magmders command.35 Infirmary. they destroyed millions of dollars worth of property. while the heart's deepest fountain is broken up and gushes forth in streams of such grief as none can portray. especially. These are some of the horrors of war. 29th. morning. and the poor boys are maimed for life. The long-desired morning comes at last. And it is now that he announces to his Government that he is performing a strategic movement. Ma. General Toombs attacked the enemy near the Nine Mile Road. when the letter with the black seal reaches their anxious and trembling hands. we could see the consternation of McClellan's army. could be repaired. to which place we will now go. hut the advantage was apparently slight. i. fierce picket-firing was heard in the direction of the out-posts of the army at an early hour. For we imagine we see them. and was in full retreat over a road which General Huger had been instructed to watch. Each day for a week we must witness the re-enactment of this bloody drama.. along every road leading away from the position he had occupied. but was uninjured. the destruction of property was immense. BATTLE AT SAVAGE'S STATION. and changing his base of operations from the White House to the James River. his wife and friends. there is one. as we were unable to follow it up. Oh GodT how long shall such scenes as this afflict our unhappy land ? How long till Thou wilt put a stop to the shedding of human blood? Thus ends the battle of Gaines'g Farm.ny believed him guilty of criminal favoritism towards the enemy. General Hood received orders to advance at an early Hour on Saturday morning . Yes. gave evident signs of an unexpected retreat.. to see if there are any there we know. But we had not finished the strife when the sun went down on Friday. but night coming on we could not realize the advantage gained. . Many arms and legs are amputated. . but we will not the whole yard is filled with suffering friends. until the enemy fell back from the It was struck several times with heavy iron balls. At this place. On Sunday with his men. towards the south and east and they. . also. and sending large ' . The Railroad Merrimac. . which we do not believe and. in the orchard and field. In the general conflagration. Tlie reason why he suffered the enemy to move undisturbed along the road leading under the 'protection of his gunboats remains still a mystery to all. During the day it had become apparent that McClellan had eluded us. yet it contributed to the general confusion and dismay of the enemy. from the hill on which we captured the heavy battery of the enemy the evening before. Late in the evening the enemy was again overtaken the rear of the retreating forces warmly engaged us. together with the mountains of smoke which ascended from piles of commissary and depots of quartermaster's stores. The slaughter was dreadful. but on reaching the Grape-Vine Bridge he was compelled to halt and wait until the bridge. They are carried to the surrounding shades. and wrote the nature of his defeat upon the skies. . when ordered into the fight. and with it hundreds more are brought in. and surgeons are using the knife. General Stuart. and yonder another." an tfgly monster Amoved down early in the morning and shelled the adjacent woods and fields. which had been destroyed by the enemy. as this waa not the first time he bad failed to coftne u . which we could see for miles in different directions. with his cavalry. bodies of prisoners to the rear. marked the line of his retreat." On the 28th. On Saturday. waa doing good service in the direction of the White House each day capturing and destroying property. But upon this sacred ground we will not tread. while the counterpart is found at the home of the soldier's mother.

random shots arc as deadly. and like an opposing volcano with a hundred craters.was the victory on both sides. until he had placed his broken and routed army beyond our reach ainder" the fire of his gunboats. right horses proved the fact that place. which they were defending with artillery. when they withdrew.36 BATTLE OF FRAZIER'S FARM. looked like ghosts in human shap*. From sixteen batteries by land. which had been brought forward. And his. were making haste from the bloody field. About one hundred prisoners ana fifty wagons wer? captured during the morning*. For the outline of human forms. morning. McClellan was making his last exertions to save his army. sheltering behind a hill.. air and water were in commotion. as seen by the light of burning powder through the smoky air. P. Huger and Magruder. and each joined. which had been sent up to drive the enemy's gutis and feel But we wer* soon ordered to the timber in the rear. which by sunrise the next morning was completed we crossed over. Here two his position. In the evening the advance came up with his rear -at the bridge at White Oak S vamp.: We were now in the neighborhood of Malveru Hill. General Jackson crossed the Chickahominy \-i pursuit of the retreating foe. . with his lock in hand. during the* night. while the heavens wre vocal with unearthly sounds from the passage of masses of iron and globes of lead. Scouts from the Texas Brigade were sent over and drove in their pickets. we were moved to the left. while long lines of human forms cast their shadows upon the darkness in the background. and. which made our movements necessarily slew. M. as any other?. posted on Frazier's Farm. yet again he had to yield Jbefore tbe conquering armies of the Houth. to contribute to the' terror of the awful sc*ne. Death now held carnival over whole fields of living men. were wounded. discovering the situation of affairs. For both in sight and sound it was awfully terrible. Hill. and pressing on the enemy. while witnessing this bursting storm of human passion. overtook the enemy late in the -evenino-. At 4 P. it gleamed and flashed streams and sheets of burning tire. 4th Texas. and our men commenced repairing the bridge. pressing down on. in which Geuenus HiU and Longstroet were the principal participants the battle continuing long after dark with frightful fury. the by the way of the Charles City Road. which killed and wounded some fifteen men -another.. the infantry in great force moved up and engaged with great vigor. and until 10 o'clock at night the earth. that he was within one step of the boundary lines of the dominions of his Satanic Majesty. and that he had assembled all the furies from that far off region of his empire. July li-t. however. our own artillery. who. and. But morning revealed the fact that we had directed our Ore suffiAfter dark tke fire of ciently well to kill several pickets before they retired their artillery was a^ain turned "upon the crossing. which. and soon were thrown forward to support a battery. and let them loose upon this devoted spot in the Old Dominion. although the enemy had selected his ground and massed heavy bodies of men. Monday morning. but. when a bloody struggle ensued. and their gunboats by water. which caused about. General* "Longstreet. no one was injured. One could easily imagine. A. our men. which they kept up until about midnight. . had been. found tbe out-posts of the enemy in strong positions and numbers. the same injury. men in Company I and one in Company D. after the slaughter of the night before. The right wiring was also in motion. June 30th. after crossing the bridge. when they hit in the right BATTLE OF MALVERN HILL. and had the pleasure of knowing that our powder had not been burnt in vain by our for dead and wounded Yankees and artillery artillery the previous evening . they beclouded Add to this the light and noise of the day and lit the night with a lurid glare. Their artillery was then turned upon our men. The first notice we had of the contiguity "of the enemy in force was announced by an exploding shell in the midst of the 1st and it was followed by Texas. On Tuesday . AjTd by this powerful effort he succeeded in checking the triumphant march of our arms.

with dasperate Under fury. And onFriday.' zihd. both by day and by night. " Your conduct ranks you among the celebrated armies of history. the most valuable to his army. taking in turn guns and colors from enemy. "was discovered that the Yankees had also cleared out. down to the last day's conflict. that this army shall enter the Capital of the Fo-called Confederacy. that our Nation*! Constitution shall . But thdf have escaped. you have in every conflict beaten back your foe with enormous slaughter. the history of this great revolution. ARMY OF THR POTOMAC. had been running as for dear life. to reinforce General Jackson men were being slaughtered and thousands more were captured. always regarded as the most hazardous of military operations. we declare to our foes. None I belonged will nfl. Attacked by superior force. and prepared our rations for further pursuit. except in this one instance. When the sun cleared away the darkness of 2. 1 have personally established your lines let them come. July 4th. > $. by men of the same race and nation. For having been defeated in half a battles. that had he done his part as well as others.' You have reached this new base complete in organization and unimpaired in spirit. except a few lost in battle. and forced to the necessity of applying the torch to hundreds of thousands of dollars in scores. You have saved all your guns. which you have proved on various occasions. day after day. no doubt. the whole Yankee army would have been captured. skilfully managed and led. you have succeeded in changing your base of operations by a flank movement. or the trails by which they had made their exit.w question that each of you may always with pride say. : Your achievements for the past Soldiers of the Army of the Potomac ten days have illustrated the valor and endurance of the American soldier. At the same time strong parties were scouring the fields and woods beyond to find their position. for you cau out run any soldiers in the known 'VYorld. to turn and fight. and without hope of reinforcement. for a week. On this. every disadvantage of number. from the time General Hood left Richmond.37 more destructive to his own men than purs. on the 12th instant. having frequently. Camp ' near Harrison's Landing." PURSUIT TO WEST-OVER -AND RETURtf TO RICHMOND. and necessarily of position also. "both of. We withdrew from the field. he has mad thousands of his admirers believe it. "Your Government is strengthening you with the resources of a great ' the " ." I think he had more truthfully expressed it. and the whole of this bloody chapter will have to be repeated on some other field. McClellaii having made his escape and reached the "base" of his future he produced one of the most remarkable documents known in dozen of 1 Run till now. he speaks of it as a change "contemplated" and as having been "accomplished with success. he said to his soldiers "your conduct ranks you among the celebrated armies of history. The enemy may at any time attack you we are prepared to meet them. 1862. and making good hi^ flight over the distance of about thirty-five miles. by saying "you rank all the armies. ancient and modern times. without gaining anything except another chance to run. while thousands of And at Stauntou. from the days of Bull his operations. to the Army of the Potomac. And after his array. The whole plan had been admirably executed. rebels against the best interests of mankind. July it the night : " HEADQUARTERS. our National Birth-day. But this he never could have donev had not General Hugor failed to check him by taking possession of the ground before he arrived. Upon your march you have been assailed. and we nill convert their repulse into a final defeat. we are sanguine in the belief. . while we were inarching down to the neighborhood of Westover* McClellan's new " base '' he was at work with the following Fourth of July* speech Wednesday Morning. who are people.

tenders his warmest thanks and congratulations to the army.- . the rout of the great army that so long menaced its safety. CHILTON. A. must and shall be preserved. seeking to recover. we find that MeClellan has a different " few" idea as to what the means. and as often driving him with slaughter from the field. 75. the powerful and thoroughly equipped army of enemy was entrenched in works of vast extent and most formidable in character. whose crusade upon the South is as unholy and unjust as that ." officers fifty-one pieces of superior artillery. and broke his communication with the York. forcing the enemy trom his line of powerful fortifications on the south side of the Chickahominy." But we give you the address of " " MeClellan says "you have saved all your guns. General. . Major-General Commanding. " The General Commanding. beginning on the afternoon of the 26th June. endurance and soldierly conduct of the arms and " This address contrasts well with that of the infidel Yankee leader of Northern fanatics. A. and the General Commanding cannot adequately express his admiration of the courage. and the acquisition of thousand? ville. GENERAL LEE TO HIS SOLDIERS. and that the Union. grateful to the only Giver of all Victory for the signal success with whi^h He has blessed our arms. treasure and blood. but while we mourn the loss of our gallant dead. "The . until it reached the rear of the enemy. e GENERAL ORDERS. "By command of General LEE.38 prevail. except a few lost in battle. and deserving a nation's gratitude and praise. "R. from the effects of a series of\ disastrous the defeats. which no longer can secure internal peace and external security to each State. by whom such splendid results have been achieved. many thousand prisoners. These brilliant results have cost us many brave men. with only such intervals as were necessary to pursue and overtake the flying foe. B. thirty miles from Richmond. No. and our army swept resistlessly down the north side of the Chickahominy. battle. His strong entrenchments and obstinate resistance were overcome. within sight of our Capital. " The immediate fruits of our success are the relief of Richmond from a state of siege. H. 41 The service rendered to the coiintry. above Mechanicacontinued until the night of July 1st." When General Lee counts his guns. let us not forget that they died nobly in defence of -. profoundly " *On Thursday. to that which Southern people have word^ And of those which he says they "took in turn. "GEO. leaving his numerous dead and wounded in our hands in every conflict. June 26th. in this short but eventful period. under the protection of his gunboats. HEADQUARTERS IN THE FIELD. McCLELLAN. The victorious ai*my pursued as lapidly as the obstructions placed by the enemy in their rear would permit three times overtaking his flying columns.their country's freedom and have linked their memory with an event that will live forever in the hearts of a grateful people "Soldiers! Your country will thank you for the heroic conduct you jpve displayed conduct worthy of men engaged in a cause so just and sacred. July 7th. can scarcely be estimated. . cost what it may in time. " To-day the remains of that confident and threatening host lie upon the banks of James River. and by the decisive battle of Friday. capturing or causing the destruction of many valuable stores.'' our men know nothing. 1862. and driving him to a precipitate retreat. including officers of high rank the capture or destruction of stores to the value of millions.of and men engaged.

We We THE HOSPITALS. and at the end of forty days. visiting the hospitals throughout the city. which are from three to four miles to the extremes.39 of Northern Europe.grave. Profoundly grateful to the only Giver of all Victory. Yes. Many. the bombastic rant of self-conceit uv of the Son McClellan's fourth of July address. to march to the battle of Seven Pines. they will not go they have already got their discharge. But instead of that majestic air and pomp with which McClellan addresses his army. and tell her he was a gallant boy. They will not return with us. will tell his sister. But how sad were the hearts of those we met. And in their march they filled the earth with weeping. to do all in our power for their comfort. the command was on picket duty. SAD REFLECTIONS. They will no more attend the roll-call of their companions. it will not be heard sad thought. while McClellan declares. General Lee omnipotent " begins. will tell her that we wrapped his blanket around him. and his face to the foe. No. could easily be discovered in the cloud which immediately chased from the face the smile of pleasure that lit the countenance at our meeting. Thus we completed a tour of five hundred miles. command the men on parade. were absent from camp. which had burned there since the day that Butler's order of New Orleans was first read on dress parade^ when he swre his strong right arm should avenge a sister's wrongs. And to that loved one. afternoon of Tuesday we received orders to march. we came with the wounded to tha And on learning the command city." &c. And though friends may often look for them. and listen for their foot-fall upon the threshold. sword in hand. we will tell his mother where he fell and where we buried him. passing through several bloody engagements. and died with "forward" on his lips. compact and moral creed. while some are gone to the city to look after wounded friends. and upon their banners was emblazoned the cross. whose image he wore. had returned we visited the camp. And so our enemies boast a superior religious morality. and "took up the line towards Richmond and. And in the 8th. while others were left to sleep on the battle-field in the soldier's . on the 10th. way-worn and battle-begrimed. "This army From the 5th^ to the be remembered by the Brigade. and will lopg remember the greetings we met from both officers and men. sealed in blood upon the altar of their country but they have not gone to the flowery prairies of Texas. pitched our tents on the same ground from which we had moved on the morning of May 31st. own name. when we take up our line of march for our homes in the far West. How how befitting a great General bending before the Throne and beautiful acknowledging the supremacy of his God. But the chapter of incidents which occurred will long ." &c. By . in his ! ! shall enter their Capital. which sacked the cities and deluged the Southern States in blood. officers and men. that even in death his face was lit up with a living lustre. All through the camp they are seen stretched upon the ground. even when this cruel war is over. were right where we had started. under the shade of their " flies " and the surrounding trees. reject the institution of Abiaham and the teaching^ Then of God himself. high profession and extravagant pomposity of the people who?e great leader and representative he is. who. nor march to the music of the fife and drum nor shall wo any more meet them in the private walks of life. which is the star of hope to a sin-cursed earth. are heartily glad of another opportunity to rest. covered him with his martial cloak. we will tell his father that he fell with his battle-harness on. and buried him in a soldier's grave. is in perfect harmony with the large pretentious. Some of them were in th hospitals. But when we return. we will return this ring. After the engagement at Gaines's Farm. and demand a holier Bible and purer And in their social religion than was taught by Prophets and Apostles. both : : . we can see what we suffered during the six day's battle. They claimed that their cause was holy.

If you had two Mends wounded in the same Buffering. They suffered much on account of the inadequate arrangements. too. The attention of Mrs. and often through the rain. This they continued until the shadows of evening admonished them that the day's-work was done and. when wounded and unable to care for themselves. and. and Lieutenants Lambert and Reich. . they are found crowded together in unhealthy rooms.' and that. many were the sacred admonitions and cheerful encouragements given to look to the great Physician. hundreds of miles away from home and . They broke his ranks and led the way to victory. errands And they would not only come and bring such angels things as make the sick man glad. And how often and warmly we felt the reproach to the authorities of our State for thus neglecting the wants of men wno had left their homes to do and die for her honor and her liberty. and often comb his iTair and bathe his feverish hands and face then with their soups. Thereby we should do violence to our. which the enemy had thrown round the Confederate Capital.. Webb. and then talk with him. Ryan and Owen. felt at liberty. . they were seen gathering round the hospitals. and that they wanted for nothing that the sympathies of these and other ladies could imagine would afford comfort to either body or mind. were we to close this part of our narrative without a word of praise for the Ladies of Richmond. it required to look them lip. and are without adequate attendance and nourishing food. found them within* two miles fi<"ht. own feelings. we felt that Texas was unworthy of such sons. and be guilty of ingratitude for kindnesses gratuitously bestowed for the kind relief. Stevenson will long be remembered by the friends of Captains Porter. inquire relieve their necessities. and how high they had written the name of the Lone Star State above the honors of every other at Gaines's Farm. mends. but would see that his sheets and clothes were changed. Their names will be often repeated by others also. as will be seen by official report. and the neglect of hospital officers and nurses some of whom.' 1 THE LADIES OF RICHMOND. who have recovered and gone to their distant homes. nt whose hands we received a thousand kindnesses. crowding the road to death as if it had been the highway to festivity and mirth. no one can describe. in words of sweetness. and none so well as a soldier. with ghastly wounds arid exhausted frame. cakes and teas. on miserable beds. smooth his pillow. and also from the inefficiency of surgeons. What a shame upon our State pride when we remember how well they had done their part. but brought and delivered with their own hands. make up his bed. properly imagine the trouble and labor into their wants. not only to be cross to the sufferers. knows how Beyond the river. of his mother and home.40 There had been no arrangements to quarter the men of different States sepa And the inconvenience. who has a balm for the soul and body too. We to appreciate. would do injustice to those. Early in the morning. smiling with a thousand sympathies. we saw them gathering round the hospitals of Manchester. appease his hunger. too. like convoys of ministering on of love. and revive his drooping spirits with well-flavored wines and cordials. And through all tlio day long they were seen hovering round these scenes of suffering. unless they complied with " red tape" diplomacy . And now. you would be fortunate. during "official hours. in the dignity of their official positions. And the reader will be left to imagine. except in a few instances. with their own hands. . and consequent rately. where they will tell of the acts of benevolence bestowed by the hands of strangers. if in the city you of each other. Davis and Mrs. on leaving. but^to insult friends who were looking after the wounded. stormed and took the strongest position in that living wall of fire and bayonets. meats. Mrs. And as it was our duty to look after the welfare of the whole no one can regiment. 10 do offices of mercy for suffering strangers on their couches of straw. which they not only sent. all the formalities and technicalities of and ! 1 . over two hundred and fifty of whom had been wounded. will never be forgotten by our suffering men. For they.. each one ladened with just such things as woman knows how to prepare.

After the successful movement of the "Stonewall" to the rear of McCiellan. provided And although the building and furnishing of the same. yet. the subject of making some permanent for our sick and wounded had become so apparent. D. Gen. making if almost impossible could be gathered and hope of having a place where our sick and wounded cared for. who. During which time this did not belong to the duties of my office.41 and with brothers. we learned lasting upon their minds. and opened another campaign. in their official orders. D. which proved to be as brilliant as either of the preceding ones. nor the honor of woman. They well deserve the name they bear. The campaign. liberal hands they supplied honor from the brutal invasion of men. They gave me clothes for them. with the things as were needed. while thus engaged in the city." But it would appear after the "Stonewall" had become a mountain avalanche.. he moved up to the above named place. and. never studying the base of operations nor the line of re^at. in consequence of being scattered in almost every ward throughout the city. and this was quite respected the altars the number of recruits returning from the hospitals increased it to within traction of the number on duty at the battle of June 27th. and lady. that numbers of them had resolved to become soldiers of the Cross as well as as many as we could Tile Testaments and Tracts soldiers of their country. we feel greatly indebted for aid in procuring religious matter for the soldiers to read. And to Rev. and that their thoughts will speak in actions too. so that no systematic relief could be rendered by their friends. through which they had passed had made their impressions deep. But the not over. neither of religion. and we began to receive the sufferers into it. procure were received and read with unusual interest. who were sufficiently near each other to . and would give me a great amount of labor and annoyance. from many private interviews. were so great. from the far^ until the six day's battles around Richmond was ended. The terrors same hungry. Never the men attended so well. On the 8th of August he began an engagement with the cDmraander who dates his orders from "Headquarters in the saddle. Jackson led his brave army back in the direction cf the Valley. alway? looking at the backs of his enemy. 1 felt And in fifteen days willing to do anything in my power for their comfort. would They knew they had their fallen while wants as if they had been their defending their homes and their The Brigade remained in camp until the 8th of August. For by the time it was over.. thus is Potomac end had been a stirring one in all its details." For after losing two thousand five hundred men. if he did not turn . after they had behaved so well in the defence of our country. and at other hours of the place. And we cannot pass the Young Men's Christian Association without the the highest word of praise known to our language. From them we received first word which spoke out in action of encouragement. that the pital arrangement? The sufferings of our men officers determined to take action in the matter. William Brown. hosDuring our stay at this place. superintend after receiving the orders for its construction. either in the morning or evening had day had service. in consequence ot the unwillingness of the of such Department to furnish the materials necessary. when trying to relieve the temporal wants of our men. and the great scarcity to purchase. . we went to the camp to preach to the 4th and the 1st. or listened with so much interest. ] that they determined to erect a ward for the benefit of the 4th. Each Sabbath. long lines of troops began their march towards CEDAR MOUNTAIN. with forty-six beds. either with the 5th or in the sick camp near by. when they were sick And we hope they will not be forgotten by our men in time to and . when they had none they gave me something for them to eat.. it was* ready. assemble at we trust. come. But instead of crossing the mountain. And. that he performed the task well for one never having: "studied.

but they were not disappointed this time. . dough. no one Jackson and Longstreet had gone. Soon the skirmishers engage. and CoionekLaw's Brigade on his left. Supper was in every imaginable shape and condition. and running again. did suffer a dreadful defeat in their supper. and ever and anon you could see some prominent Yankee go down to bite the dust.) It rained that evening and night. And whether they said any bad words at such a disappointment. the 30th of in a BATTLE AT FREEMAN'S FORD. they received orders to march immediately. retreating. the "Forward" was given the line of the enemy was instantly broken. they charged it to the account of profit and The next day they had another chance to mix up their loss. many were shdt. and had their hands well bedaubed with the dough supper in such a shape that they could neither eat nor carry it along..42 Ms by back upon the "rebels. M. we did not know. (See the list . The preliminaries of the battle. and several in the division were smitten with sunstroke. It was the work of but a few minutes. of the 5th. At night. rested an hour in the . With line of battle thus formed. And pouring a dreadful tire into their confused lines. And they found they had to go. marched all night. and in a few moments the fire flashes along the main line. and then passing near Orange Court House. as old soldiers could readily see. . so that the wagons could not cross the stream. and camped near Hanover Junction. and inarched thirteen miles. had already begun. but it was not the Waterloo of history. We were to go north. a mystery. we were ordered up to relieve General Trimble in the front. The artillery had been at work for some time. Some had just drawn. as it had ever been. ready to eat. Arriving at Freeman's Ford on the 22d. . we found that the enemy had crossed in force in the immediate front of General Trimble. but as warmer times were just ahead. j whn Thoroughfare Gap. But the place of our destination was. His thigh was shattered by a shell and had to-be amputated. continued until noon and rested two hours. but to what point.in the Appendix. On arriving. the wagons came up and while the men were cooking their beef and bread. we moved forward to the Rappahannock. He died on the next day. After resting and recruiting up until the llth of August.. they had in the pah. hungry. having crossed the Rappahain the route through Salem until 10 P. Longstreet. the boys wet. On the evening of the 26th they quit camp. and driven headlong into the river. . Green corn was the only chance for food." he must hare a hard way and road to travel. Whaley. Some objected and others complained. nor yours to guese. as they were huddling together to cross. we joined Gen. but it was no use for the order had come for the wagons to go to the rear and the men to the front. M. and now the rharp-shooters were marking their objects. For August he is found near Bull Run. oa the 23d. Bufc on arriving. Pope halted to take another view on the Rappahannock. and the Yankees from the other. and moved off. and others drowned by the crushing crowd which pressed for the other %hore. and we were to join one or the other. Here Major D. The weather was oppressively warm. and halted within lour miles of . And although we had suffered no defeat in arms. .morning. others were washing their frying pans some had their beef on the fire others had only got their flour in short. our division received orders to move. it is not my business to tell. At 1 o'clock p. M. The next day we moved to Anderson Station. Here we remained several days. marched k. knew. Our But not having "studied" the science of IOBS amounted to about GOO or 700. fell mortally wounded. we took up the line. the Texas Brigade took position on General Trimble's right. and from the same field we drew rations from one side. PASSAGE OF THOROUGHFARE GAP. and how far. yet about thfee hundred of their killed and wounded were left upon the ground and in the river. We lost only ten men in the fight all of the 5th Texas. and with a long night's march ahead. but which. They we^e near Waterloo. -The next morning (28th) it was found that the enemy had taken possession . except one. in the back.

Moving forward. they rested and waited for orders. Gen. They did not move as if they were afraid to come in contact with the enemy. we were not to be checked long at this point. and were now near the ground where Jackson's cannon was heard on yesterday evening. This line as now formed was in sight of that classic ground. which came up from that direction. making the earth tremble under the charge of rushing squadrons. and the heavens with clouds of dust and mountains of smoke.'' without a fight. . They also captured more prisoners during the morning than there were men in their own party. and for us to remain here and fool away our time with a few Yankees. ADVANCE TO MANASSAS. and from the thunder of arand the roar of musketry. Law commanding) on the left of the Warrenton and Alexandria Pike. D. to rage and break over the same hills. and led his men to the other side. The whole line quickly following. under Lieut. and was ready to dispute the passage. We had every prospect of a hard time at this place a narrow defile. with high mountains and long slopes on either hand. They had driven them back about eight miles. this gallant officer and his splendid marksmen drove in the rear of the enemy so rapidly as to be frequently under the necessity of halting for the troops to come up. When THE PRESENT AND PAST. as it is better known in history. as established by Gen. gap. Jackson had passed with out molestation. The line of battle. constituted the advance guard. it being the one over which the enemy passed when attempting to flank our army last year. crossed the Pike about one mile from Groveton. Early in the day they came up with the main body of the enemy on the plains of Manassas. and on reaching the gap. and they were unwilling that another army of equal force should pass a gap where five hundred men could hold five thousand with but little exposure or danger. the morning of the 29th had scarcely dawned. But the news had gone out. running nearly north and south. Col. Jones was ordered forward. Gen. drove them before him from the slopes and ' . of the 5th Texas. Hood one his of posted brigades (Col. and facing to the east. and wrench from the hand of our enemy another palm for our country's glory. passed through and bivouacked on the field beyond on the night of the 28th. Upton.43 of the gap. only sufficiently wide to admit a line of men in double files. But disputed or undisputed. . they came up with the rear guard of the enemy before sunrise. and every one knows that he cannot live long in the same country with the "blue jackets. Jackson had renewed the attack. Pressing them vigorously. But following closely at their heels. living. For Jackson had gone ahead. they being unaware of his movements. and was now engaging them to our left. or three miles west of the Stone Bridge. who was near at hand. would leave him liable to be cut to pieces or captured by the enemy in full force. All were aware that hot times were just ahead. We killed and captured about one hundred during the evening but few casualties on our side. for the booming of Old Stonewall's cannon was distinctly heard. all occupied by the enemy. Jackson. filling the air with its hideous roar. Forming upon line of battle as established by him. The position of the two armies is nearly the same as it was twelve months ago. R. and the other (Texas) on the right. across Bull Run. And the tide of battle is soon to roll its dreadful wave over the same field. they had frequent opportunities to try their markmanship at the retreating guard. and pressing vigorously. only reversed. immediately opened upon them. and it is now to be tested whether we can whip them on either Thousands of side of the field. the Texas Brigade was thrown to the front and a party of select riflemen of this brigade. waiting for the word to tread where fallen heroes sleep. who were drawn up in line of battle to receive us. warriors stand trembling with eager anxiety upon tho same ground. no one tillery had to be told that the work of human slaughter was going on.

Neither does Yorktown nor New Orleans have claims upon our time now. and they give way. to defend their graves from the polluted tread of sacreligious hordes. are more attractive. But it was not until 9 o'clock at night the warriors were called off from the chase and ordered to rest upon their arms. and instantly a sheet of fire flashes along the line. as our advancing lines draw near the ground upon which they assayed to stand. The artillery has been planted upon the hills . But living scenes of real life are more interesting. and their country from dishonor and oppression. The order was instantly given. has again nerved itself for the combat. and the marshals of Napoleon. This is no place to tell what Cromwell did nor describe the fields where the Caesars fought. On yesterday the roar of battle and the purple stream began. Their step is steady. Bradford. The living now re-resolve to do their country honor. the artillery filled the heavens with shot and shell. the "make ready" is heard. Bailey. and takeup another position to the rear but only to be driven again and again. The roar of cannon. when the life and drum are not heard upon the soil of the South. halts. fall back. o'clock p. Pitts. human blood. who stood with them in the ranks. . A courier from Longstreet arrives with orders to Gen. until night puts an end to our progress and gives shelter to a vanquished army. Thus on and on they are driven. opened fire. another volley. To-day and to-morrow we write more than one of its pages in. Many of the heroes of July 21st are here. our officers. nor the Yankee troops from Southern soldiers and our men had to resort to the bayonet and butts of their gun-* to drive them back To-duy a broader and bloodier scene . of half a century ago. SECOND DAY'S BATTLE.44 \ All the recollections of the past crowd upon the mind. and many others. After thus pressing and driving them a mile and a half. may pass in review before the mind in times of peace. and Lieutenant Turner among their lir.* now under the command of Col. and they hear their voices amid tUe roar of fire-arms. calling upon them by all the sacred fidelity of bye-gone days. Arnold. aimed to take advantage of all they had gained by quietly moving up and taking position upon the abandoned ground. until every hill and vale had told its story. We might here stand and gaze upon it in mute silence. M. Briggs. and glistening steel flashes along the line. and whenthe thunder of artillery ceases to be heard over the grave at Mount Vernon. For now (4 is opening up before us. supposing the enemy would withdraw to some little distance to make arrangements for the morning. It was so dark that one flag could not be distinguished from another. no time nor attention for the history of the past. The chivalrous knights of antiquity. Finally. upon the lines of Jackson (on our left) from one end to the other. each a history of itself. for they had gone but a short distance when they found themselves in the midst of the cuemy. To-day we make history for the world to read. The 4th Alabama. For their blood crieth unto them from the ground. The names of Colonel 1 Lindsay.) the enemy moves forward in tremendous force. both in number* and effort. Kees. But4)efore they had time to come to order. . the enemy having advanced under covet of the woods. as it stretches away towards the sunrise. but lie holds his ground and piles them in scores as they come. bled upon this very ground. and as the infantry moved down. Jones. and Landmaiid. Preston. which now disturbs the ear. But they were iaitaJfen. The advancing line of the enemy falter*. Hood to lead his division forward. and the long black Hue of moving armies. The field presents one of the liveliest scenes in the grand drama of war vrhich the world has ever beheld. floats its colors proudly up. of the 21st of July. which then stood like a giant in his strength. ami the whole line moved down on both sides of the road into the open f\eld. Law. and avenge the death of heir fallen friends.st officers. Captain 1 . 18(5J. remembering the hard-earned honors of the past. The ''Old Third Brigade. and are resolving that their flag shall have "Manassas" inscribed upon it a second time.

but a timely thrust with the bayonet by faithful men left the assailants bleeding on the ground and notwithstanding the severe shocks received the Colonel remained calm and still kept the field. The field upon which the battle was fought last year lies to the right of the Pike. But I. not only of his own division. strength of the enemy. But as this is a common failing with the Yankees. and if you turn around to avoid a spar in the face. <md about a mile distant from the bridge. which brings us near to Jackson's . you get shot in the back. The enemy heard it. you must put up with it for one cLay. located them there. The Colonel had not only smelt powder on that iield a year ago." and now they areas peaceful as you would have them be. Work was twice struck with a clubbed gun and once brought to the ground. Southern And as people. Having taken our . position. and facing to the east. Col. nor the melody of grape and canister. came up. of A-ngust 30th finally dawned. they had to call out their names and numbers to prevent being fired into by each other. but received and sent forward three or four other brigades. . or else the trick might have been detected in time to have captured or shot them down upon the spot. except the stink of those left by Jackson. It was now discovered that this division was far in advance of Jackson's corps. THE SECOND GREAT VICTORY AT The morning AfANASSAS. but which \ve cannot see. . and took advantage of the information gained. you are not accustomed to the music of shot and shell. you mayget shot in the foot." and so passed. "Right . you may put it right in the way of another. and wait and wish for the coming morning. Col. while And you are thus putting the head out of danger. But the cavalry paid well for their visit. and Hood on Friday. Lieut. for the 5th Texas was at hand. At the same time.will advise you of the fact that you should not dodge when you hear them pass. to divert our attention.45 from the ground. may for Jackson passing on Thursday. And the deeds of this day will be read Jong after these warriors have ceased to hear the roar of battle. they sung out. and their slumber was so deep that the rising sun did not wake them up. 'The order. and at midnight orders were sent round to fall back to the line from which the charge had begun. our line of battle was first formed and to the left of Colonel Law's Brigade. "5th Texas. Many of them slept upon the ground by their newly made acquaintances. it may make you a little nervous. and watch the advance of our conquering arms to the farthest end of the field. and the deception would not have lasted long enough for their purpose. had been cut off. but the battle scar which he then received was to be avenged in the second light. don't shoot. And s the reader would love to witness the struggle from morning till night. hi consequence of a akirt of timber a little beyond Young's Bisanch the position from which we fell back To the right. But he had not gone far when he received a shot.about/' was quietly given. One of But as they their brigades. And owing to some little confusion among our own regiments. may be last iiight. and our men fell back about two hundred yards. Here the wean. which crosses the Run on the Stone Bridge. Pickets wore then posted within about sixty paces One of our men went forward to look out the position and of the enemy. and crawled back. to the line. The Warren ton and Alexandria Pike passes two or three hundred yard* to our right. by our movement in the dark. General Hood was in charge. we will take our stand on the heights where. Law's command captured one piece of artillery during its brilliant march on the 'other side of the Pike. to the smell of. we have the battlefield of ^JManasHus before us. for in trying to get your Load out of the way of one.warriors rested. about three miles off. they dashed a squadron of cavalry upon us.

But. Towards noon the enemy are seen in great force. The artillery has taken the upon all the surrounding heights. his men are but little exposed. and more vigorously served by the cannoniers. throwing shot and shell into their midst. Listen. in pursuit of the flying foe. they reach the top of the hill. driving them in great confusion. M.46 seen the position occupied by Gen. as the number of guns is increased. It is 4 o'clock. and. Picket firing and artillery duelling begins at an early hour in the morning'. until the roar of a thousand muskets is heard. and are piled in scores upon the gr&und. and a sheet 'of fire blazes along the line on the Peach Grove Farm. while aids and couriers are dashing from one position to another. P. The surge of that mighty cheer rises above the storm of battle. and the great iron balls break. were pursued by brave men. Johnston. the ground is covered with the dead. on different portions of the field. having his position in the railroad cut. with the flower of the enemy's army but in a feAv struggling minutes the work is done. Conspicuous. and form their infantry in the vallies and gorges below. charged next the Pike. The hopes of Southern Liberty are in line of battle. receiving and conveying orders to the different commands. They had been feeling far our position for a day or two and the collision of the evenino. yet it is but to rally and renew the charge. as he watched the movements of enemy. is Riley's splendid batteries. with their usual daring and enthusiasm. and growing and blackening.. They are gone for but a tew minutes. to which your attention has been called and in testimony of the manner in which our boys disposed of them. and officers are standing in little groups. you can see the "red breeched Zouaves. Another and another line moves up to their support but they only meet the same deadly fire more murderous than before. as we have since been informed by prisoners captured.we quote a few lines from Pollard's history of the battle "Hood'slBrigade formed Longstreet's left.before had r e. and shot into splinters by rifle balls. and of course. Yonder to our left. the artillery they post on every hill. There is a rail fence between them. and many of the rails cut in two. the long lines and heavy masses moving yonder and yonder. : . on both sides of the road. position . Bayonets bristle. The enemy have followed up. as he made haste from the range of Jackson's riflemen. At last. and the est like a storm. who clfecked the speed of many a Yankee. A desperate effort is made by the enemy to turn Jackson's right. In its track it met Sickles' 'Excelsior and almost annihilated it. and sent forward troops to Beauregard. Clouds of smoke are rising from the hill-tops.' the slain. having crossed that open field. These were the Zouaves and Regulars. and rend the forThe bodies of the trees are scathed and severed. Their lines waver and fall back. an. The fence was literally ehot to pieces. The preliminaries having been arranged." Tney had been selected and pitted against the Texans. giant arms of the oak are broken like the reed. crossing Young's Branch. the skirmishers are hastily drawn in. and a little to our right and rear. heavy lines of skirmishers are thrown forward. fyattle begins under Longs*eet's command. for a mile and a half. But gazing so intently upon this part of the line we have lost sight of the Look yonder on the Pike. Soon the Texas Brigade is like a giant. and occupied the ground which we abandoned for want of support and looking beyond Groveton. . But." and old United States Regulars. They charged gallantly on. And with good aim they thin the ranks of the advancing enemy. . and their lines are not more than seventy paces from each other. and you may hear the shout of victory from Jackson's little band of heroes.d the hills with the flying foe. Their lines were again driven back and not to be rallied. and taking position in the rear of Groveton. they have driven in the skirmishers. HOOD'S DIVISION IS MOVING. . giving way in great confusion.the field. The ground was piled with Brigade. the Texas Brigade is entering the skirt of timber to the right. The field begins to present to the eye a little world of commotion. and .

our men were not frightened at their red breeches. and fell within a few steps of its mouth. Hundreds of them. You have behaved gallantly you have done nobly' For you have fought like heroes. to some extent. took position upon nn eminence. "Boys. were hilled up like a potato-patch on the field. . and in one bold dash. When General Hood returned. of having came up. but passing up the hill. but. as if in defiance of the cannon. have to mourn the shame of a disgraceful defeat. and posted by him. but the "halt" part of the order with the red breeches "skedaddling" over the field. And I guess it will be some time before those Zouaves will hunt up the Texas boys again. after our own men were buried. on this occasion. moved right up to its front. after the enemy had been driven from their first position. Some five or six brigades were there received. The line of their flight was marked by the carcasses.47 vealed to them tlie part of the field we were on. h found that they had run over all together.the enemy back to the branch. them. instead . he rode back to re- ceive the orders of the Commanding General. and far over the field beyond. This is the second time we have met and whipped them. But. to "skeer" them with their scarlet trousers. not could bey. Although the officers and men of our brigade are usually strict in their obedience to orders. . coming in sight of them. with cow-tail looking tassels afresh for the combat. and moving on to the right near the Chinn House. on the very soil which their polluted feet had desecrated. at such a time as long as he has. and their bones now bleach in the sun. they were not to be found where he had ordered them to halt. to rest. while gallantly cheering his men to the charge. a courier arrives to inform General Hood that General Longstreet wished to see him immediately." After driving them sufficiently on to gain a position of shelter from the fire of the enemy. Too much cannot be said confusion eral Zouaves. and then scattered up and down Young's Branch. So the number was small that was left to gloat over a victory won from the soldiers of Texas. that it might have time ing Georgia. And they. They had looked neither to the right nor to the left. discharging his six shooter at the men that worked the guns. Ordering his command to "press. When the Genthem arrested for disobedience of orders. At the far edge of this if they are not satisfied let them look us up again. For. to see if others were doing their duty. Soon ." to the letter. And." The brigade was now far in advance of the other portions of the (army the 5th Texas leading the van. But many of their stinking carcasses lay for weeks polluting the air. THE FOURTH CAPTURES A BATTERY. and swept everything from the field before them It was/ here that Major Townse^d fell wounded. they marched right on. they And that fine battery in full view.' And General Hood might have known betfor having been with the brigade ter than to give such orders. Men who fight in this way. Regulars and Artillerists. where he could watch and direct the movements of the line over that portion of the field. and coming up to their support. nor the appearance of but they seemed to be fired their red scull-caps. that with such a temptation before not it. he might have known. which fellfroni their ranks as they were making a brave charge in the wrong direction. the brigade pressed forward to the "mark. under the fire of the enemy's guns. "drive them back to the branch. they fell back and were resting a moment in order to make another charge so soon as they could reform their lines. he said. . and vent to the guard house. and there halt under shelter of the hill" from the battery.did obey the first part of the order. ridin of the front 18th halted the command. can never be whipped. timber they lay thick over the ground.however. but with the red breeches before them. they could obey They. cleared the guns. you don't know how proud I am of you. they did trespass. But the General. instead of rejoicing in the glories of a victory.

by taking their positions too near the enemy's fire. -and go with the men even to the cannon's very mouth. noon. that. and rush them like whirlwind. they could be called advantages at all. sending forward the men as fast as they . and throw his lines into confusion. that the presence of an officer high in command nerves -the men to almost superhuman exertions in an hour like this. but if he was. under Hood's victory command. But this is not often. Our men domot need their chief officers to set them an example of bravery . Or. and . And we may here say. For not only did he command his own. And I will take occasion here to remark that it seems that our commanding officers have at last learned to be prudent. with a mutual confidence thus susThe battle had been raging all the aftertained. that some one should stand fortli upon the field.arrived.and daring.in honor of the gallant manner in which he behaved and handled. waving his hat and eulogizing' the men. were brought forward and thrown upon the field. would break and penetrate the could afford to hazard enemy's front. and not unnecessarily expose themselves. True. to dangerous perils. but had immediate command of nearly all the x -* troops on this portion of the ground. At the battle of Gaines's Farm. they were "skedaddling at Bull Bun speed. who performed the duty assigned with great satisfaction. viz the 1st." to effect a "splendid change of base. under certain circumstances. and hastening might and main towards Washington for dear life. which was almost at a close.and Texas. over the field directing the destiny of the "Lone Star" to a higher position upon the roll of honor. 18th Georgia and Hampton Legion. who fell just as the charge begun. and watching the behavior of his corps as they strove successfully -with superior forces. our Brigade was again led forward. while the fight was going on. Our lines had been held in check. He won for himself a name that will position. and our advancing line came up in supporting distance. 4th and 5th Texas. now depended upon one single. And others who had -not participated in the fight. Longstreet was in the rear. in The of first heard" the done. General Evans rode up on his grey charger. until the whole concentrated army of the enemy found itself flying in a second Bull Run defeat. bold dash. . across the same stream which they had crossed a year before in grand confusion. and as rapidly repulsed awd some of them driven from the field. But in thus presenting the noble part which this officer acted on the Plains : . He had already sent* forward the other regiments of his command into the fight. soon alter they had stormed and taken the first breastworks. ment. And for this high. Nor did they question the gallantry of their daring Lieutenant-Colonel. the General Commanding again select* Oeneral Hood. Brigade after brigade had been led rapidly forward. the highest in command. We . in more modern language. there was no fear of failure. This was a trying hour. The fate of the day. if. While our Brigade was resting at the point where General Hood had halted and rallied himself for a moit. This regiment had been held in reserve. Thoy only neod to bo told wksti and where to gp. were foolish enough to think that he was lost from his command. should lead the charge. As soon as the men had time to rest. and our advantages were but small. ' . shout was 4th . and led them on to the fight in' his usual way. indeed. that no one doubted the bravery of Colonel Marshall. though dangerous position. whose proud spirit and* noble bearing would inspire each officer arid man with perfect assurance of -victory." (?) Gen. And it was again necessary. and each kjaew the confidence which the other had. go down in history. General Hood commanded the 4th Texas in person. It was made the destiny of one of our best officers in the dreadful attempt.filled the most sanguine expectations of all upon tae field.T . But every one knows. DO* only but those also which were sent to him for dishis own Brigade and Division. in an hour of trial and. and thereby their army and their country. it was not long before he found them again. who fell mortally wounded. The time had come and the place found in which it was most needed He knew the men and they knew him . some of them. on the Plains of Manassas. The boys. Bradfnte Warwick.

which. were wounded. had an opportunity to show his value as an officer upon the field and to his gallantry may be attributed. The brave and gallant Upton. point them out as monsters to the world. we would not detract from one of the gallant officers who in command. being in command of their respective regiments. received a wound. And even the scars received will not. This officer had a heart and a courage worthy of a better cause. the regiment lost his services during the remainder of the day. The conduct of Lieutenant Perden. captured by Hood's : . This battery. as well as that of ^Colonel Law's Brigade. of the Hampton Legion. of the 5th Texas. Bassett^ Dar. although dangerous. Captain Hunter. for when the men returned from the charge. deserve the highest praisn for their coolness and bravery. (who received a wound in the arm). and over whose graves we now tread. : history of the world. His loss is deeply felt. was sufficient to make each man a giant in the fight. had volunteered under a call on that morning to support the Zouaves and regulars. but make them respected wherever they may go." The trophies won are justly distributed among the regiments as follows Hampton Legion. Billingsly. But as the conduct of our whole Brigade. Colonel Wofford. 1861. while he lay mortally wounded. two. five of which were captured by his regiment. was quite as complete as and our victorious army slept beyond the battle-field. and 1 have kept my word. for the part which he so nobly acted. Colonel Robertson. four: and the 4th Texas. in command of the 4th Texas. was worthy of special note. and so did the second battle of Manassas. And each one will be held in remembrance by a grateftfl country. After speaking of the trophies which they won upon the field. and also Lieutenant McLaurin Dugan. Lieutenant-Colonel Carter. being wounded. nor from a single soldier the praise due to his valor. But the limits of the present work win not allow that pleasure. But those who were not wounded deserve equal praise Avith those who were more unfortunate. in a great degree. who bled on this field a year ago. Lieutenant-Colonel Ruff and Major Griffis.49 - of Manassas. For the whole army. Barziza and privates who fought so gallantly. commanded by Captain Curran.he conduct of Major Townsend. of the 18th Georgia. making in aJl six guns and fourteen stands of colors. And August 30th. He did his duty on both days of the fig-ht. on the north side of the Pike. is better described by General Hood. Lieutenant-Colonel of the 5th. in their attack on the Texas Brigade. 'Division. and Lieutenant-Colonel Garey. of the 18th Georgia. while leading his company forward upon the same battery. the brilliant dash made upon the battery of six guns. and.se bravery amounted almost to recklessness at the time the charge was mad^h upon these guns. under whose eyes they fought. 1st Texas. Jackson's victory. 5th Texas. who were in command of their respective companies. For the Ar ery thought of the presence of the spirits of fallen brothers. . 1$62. he adds "As to their gallantry and unflinching courage. did their duty on this day. C. of Company K. near the ^our own Sudley Ford road.*' And so he had. who. they stand unsurpassed in the . three stands of colors 16th Georgia. And we would again call to mind t. . was also severely wounded while leading his regiment far out upon the field. J. Among whom were Captains Winkler. Lieutenant-Colonel Work. Thus the day ended. was left dead upon the field. like the mark on Cain. and five pieces of artillery. and with as much honor to our arms as on last year. he lay dead under one of his guns. after three days' bloody conflict. was not mortal. The commander of which remarked to one of our men. " I promised to drive you back or die by my guns. with the fewest exceptions. two. Cunningham. I would love to give the names of all the subordinate officers den. I content myself by giving it in his own language and this short sentence says all that good officers and brave men could ask. Colonel Law's Brigade captured one gun and three stands of colors. will be written by the historian with as much pride to our country as July 21st.

knapsacks. On the next day. three miles from Germantown. Our entire loss is supposed to amount to about six thousand. And to form an idea of the horrible day. or South Mountain. amused themselves in blowing up the splendid railroad bridge across the river. who were never absent from their post. and held his conquering reign . and on to the vicinity of Hagerstowu. and men that were never known to flinch from the fight. in killed and wounded but the loss of the enemy is astonishingly greater thirty thousand at least in killed. . MARYLAND CAMPAIGN. who had gone above for the purpose of falling upon Harper's Ferry. a distance of thirteen miles. you have but to imagine a field over which the sword has flashed. This done. camp-kettles. They. ambulances. after recording the history of these regiments. which must have cost thousands of dollars. But there was another field for operation. cartridgeboxes. 9th. consequently. and the glory of our arms upon this day. overcoats. The command was halted here for two days for we were now in supporting distance of Jackson. and for miles beyond. at the crossing of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. .. Passing through Buckeystown. also to open to the reader the CHAPTER OF OUR MISFORTUNE. and from thence to the'Leesburg Pike. 1862. bleeding. we must look back over ground which was marked by blood and fire at eVery step. M. General A. but their gooS speed enabled them to save the greater portion. August 28th. in their splendid race from Groveton to the Stone Bridge.But it becomes my painful duty. And to prevent McClellan from reinforcing the enemy at that place. for we were left in entire possession of the field. the place. we arrived at the Monocacy Here also is the river. Boonsboro. a distance of more than two miles. ordnance of every kind. and. at almost every step. Hill. begun at a distance of fifty miles from this for from August 9th to September 1st. scattered from this spot to the place where the Some aue dead and others are fight begun. we must be sad in the midst of joy. are left upon the field. Many of our officers. canteens. we came to White's Ford. guns. So we were faced about. and also from moving upon Jackson's While here the boys rear. which. and fifty thousand bayonets have bristled the hills from morning till night. commissary and quartermaster's stores. we . and you have the field over which Death rode in his chariot of fire. The roll is called. by two in width. while a perfect storm of iron-hail rained all over the ground. o* the killed and wounded on both sides. caissons. we found we had accomplished about all we could expect in that direction. Its extent from north to south is about three miles. and lasted for twenty days work went on. we moved back to Boonsboro Gap. I may say. and a part of the army was already wending its way in that direction. Yes. From thence we moved through Frederick City. and the " marks " run up. and it is found that one-half of our men are gone. the march was continued to tbo Sudley Ford. Here we remained until next evening the object being to cut off the enemy's trains and harrass his rear. On morning of the 14th. we had been sent forward to occupy this line. and small arms of every pattern. wagons. on Monday. after the killed and wounded had been cared for. tin-cups and frying-pans. For after we have scattered and driven the enemy in broken masses over the hills and beyond the stream. junction of the Frederick road. After reaching Drainsville. and passing through and beyond Leesburg about four miles. ENGAGEMENT AT BOONSBORO the GAP. completed the work of a battle. September 6th. are not to be seen. and 30th. Yet the whole line was strewed with abandoned s tively . and as many rifles poured their volleys of lead. and crossed the Potomac into Maryland. blankets. haversacks. P. Arriving between 3 and 4. wounded and prisoners. P. Of this we have the means of posiknowing.

Hood immediately inclined his command still further to the right. Gen.3d brigade. Longstreet allowed him to re tain 'as many of them as he wanted. for at every turn they found their numbers lessened. General Hood took up his position on the left of t'ie Pike.51 Hill had already begun the engagement with & found that General D. and take position on the Hagerstown Hese we remained under the shot and shell rod. afid with a space of some little distance between our left and his right. HOOD ARRESTED. as it was found that the enemy was threatening an immediate attack on the other flank. Oa his march to the right he met General Drayton coming out. his line facing west and ours north.. SHARPSBURG. Jackson's troops having arrived. We lost but very few yet had foiled the enemy in his effort. upon which Evans ordered him under arrest. Geu. who had forced the brave Drayton to quit his ground. over a rugged country. But General Hood positively refused. . bemg Hood's senior. at which time the enemy made a vigorous attack upon our left. was little or no annoyance on the march. and at almost a right angle with our . and Colonel Law of the. we were ordered to move to the extreme left. were checked. and our lines were restored upon the ground which had been lost. of two small brigades. and having through negligence or some other cause failed to supply his own brigade with 4 Hood to turn over those which Gen. and then in driving them back for some distance. as the troops on that part of the field were. Several ^attempts were made to charge our lines but they were only able to utter a feV huzzas and move up but a few paces. All our forces were to fall back in the direction of Sharpsburg. H . Mumma Church of the enemy until near sunset. Hood's command having captured a large number at Manassas. During the night. I need not say that this produced a sensation in the camp. were all the troops in this portion of tfie field. way to superior numbers. and hastily put his men in position to receive them The contest soon became general and severe. Tne overpowering numbers. .giving. Night coming on prevented iurther pursuit. was in command. ordered General . near the town of Sharpsburg. orders were received to withdraw from this position. destitute as many of them were of shoes and-blankets. GEN. with seventy-five thousand men. or Antietam But there river and we were again to act as the rear guard of the army. Soon after night. when another volley would check and cause them to waver and stagger like drunken men. Arriving on the heights beyond the Antietam river.. Yet he succeeded in checking. who were aiming to reinforce Miles at the Ferry. . . ThQ two Brigades moved forward with fixed bayonets. river to Hagerstown many of our men gave the hard marches which they had to perform. At this information. on the evening of the 16th. CoL Woffordwas in command of the Texans. heavy body of the enemy. And on Hood's application for trial he was ordered with his staff to return to Winchester to await a court-martial.. which always tells what the Texans are doing. General Evans. at Smoketown. and frequently without rations. This of course did the requisite number. But. and their position growing more critical. for Gen. about noon on the 15th. saying the enemy had succeeded in passing to his rear. This caused our ambulance train to be filled with the sick. Hood's division.line. and then came the full grown shout of success. when night put an end to the contest. we took position on the right of the road leading to Boonsboro. when they struggle for victory in the presence of mighty foes. Longstreet had allowed him to reserve. near St. but was soaa ordered to move to the right. And the well-directed fire of Hood's men soon tali^ht them that they were advancing over dangerous ground. Our train 'at this time was On our way from the Monocacy way under larger than usual. They had crossed in great force higher up the Antietam. to his (Evans') brigade. Finally the expected " forward " was heard. they were thrown to our left. to relieve Miles at Harper's Ferry. and ta follow in the rear of the command.

The next morning while making arrangements to leave. brigades. was no alternative left Gen. situated a little to . "Here. But Gen. Evans but to order him under arrest. which was in defence of his own sick men. -wrestled with the mighty. On the morning of the ]7th the firing commenced at 3 o'clock aloupr the line of General Lawton. "I Avitncssed the most terrible clash of arms. men had done all that brave men could do. blazing c*nd bursting as they flew. that has occurred during the war. if Evans wants ambulances. and consequently s'hould not have issued the first order. he received orders from Gen. At 6 A. and on the way back from Hagerstown the men of Col. consisting of not less than two entire corps of their army and according to their own statements. that we might have a chance to cook. then Jet him capture them as-\ye did. Hood arrived they rallied like men to join in the charge. had positively declared that they would stack arms on Gen. except half rations of beef and green corn. Lee and asked that Gen. and we will never ask him for them. then. Our boys were frequently heard to say.52 not make Hood's division the less indignant. Lee knew too well the value of such an officer as Hood to suffer him remain under arrest for a trifling offence. made a perfect net work in their passage through ''And here. and many. "the two little giant brigades of my command . A little world of artillery was far. which they had ascertained by the firing of a few shots from a little battery of our own. General Hood received notice from him that ho would need all the aid he could fender in order to hold the position In a few minutes another courier arrived and informed him that General Lawton was wounded. . and also of him as an officer. were soon reinforced by several 1 . M. nor had any one the authority to do so without his approval.the air. they drove them from their position and forced them to abandon their guns on our left. and were instantly moved out upon the field." says General Hood. E.? says he. and reaching a cornfield it was halted to await the approach of the enemy.show the feelings of his men for him under the circumstances. was ordered to relieve us. they were swept back by the overpowering tide. . when he refused to obey the orders of a cuior. for the -men were not willing to go into an engagement without him. ." Lawton's. both in view of that act. And Gen. and he must come forward immediately and take the command. And as they drew near to Boonsboro Gap. But* the men felt that Evans had no right to our ambulances. Law's brigade as well as our own. But so greatly outnumbered.Captain Cunningham approached Gen. General Lawton. who had opened a brisk artillery fire upon our position. but not until two-thirds of their comrades had fallen and when by .force. before he should lead them. with twro brigades. and consequently sent an order to have him restored. and the line of their shot and shell screaming. The Texas Brigade was moved several hundred yards to the left. As he rode to the front he was cheered long and loud by each i-egimrnt of the division/ True.. and an occasional shot or shell was howling in the air. for it was no time to be sending officers to the rear. The officers and men or this division ^having been without food for three days. and although they lost hundreds of their officers and men. why did he not get them before leaving Richmond ? And having neglected it. Lee to remain." turned loose upon us. Hood be immediately released and placet in command. of their appreciation of him. His meji were ready for the word. where they met Lawton's scattered army retiring before the advancing lines of an immense force. Hood felt that the men who had captured them and to Avhom they had been given ought to ride in them when sick con-' sequently he subjected himself to arrest and humiliation before he would see the men who had followed him over so many battle fields thrown out upon the road side when they were unable to follow him on foot to the next battloground. . and our own ambulances given to others. To . where the roar of the enemy's cannon was already heard. made every demonstration which the discipline of the army would allow. at night he was treated with a grand serenade by the band.

"taken by Gen. in command of the 5th. they formed and held their position bravely until ]0. as Jackson had moved the troops from his right flank without our knowledge. who fell in the thickest of the fight. which was two hundred yards in advance of our line of battle. near the centre. and they did stay until they were ordered away. when General McLaws arrived with his command.er our flank by holding theenemy in check. "They had been/ saysCol. and challenged them to renew the fight. and becoming engaged. Lawton. And they felt so proud that they had not been run entirely off the field as usual. at the angle of the two lines. night. The Hampton Legion and 18th Georgia had advanced far to the left to prevent the enemy from flanking our position. thereby leaving our left entirely exposed. During the day we waited their but advance. which now poured a dreadful fire into both flanks and centre of their well dressed line. they did not move.from their position (between the 5th and 1st Texas) and stationed on the Pike road to cov. near the St church.. and was ordered to dislodge the enemy from a wooded hill they had gained. which they did. H. it afforded the enemy an opportunity to pour a heavy fire into the right and rear of Colonel Law's brigade." Many efforts were made to drive them from the groart^ but they had been placed there with orders to stay. but still they did not come. and from which they were doing us considerable damage. and hold their ground. but fighting at right angles with our general line of battle. But as soon as the enemy commenced throwing a few shell at then* they basely fled the field and left us to our fate.1 52 our left. sure enough. And. M. that they could manufacture a splendid victory out of the tight. they were perfectly willing to make the child's bargain with us ''I'll let you alone if you'll let me alone. the 5th were the greatest sufferers at Mauassas. Maj. Wofford. Texas. beeit . Captain Turner. and lost so many officers and men. who arrived at an important moment. Two or three guns were fired as a challenge to the contest. Blanton AID. being formed. And especially was this move necessary. Games' Farm.3() A. The 4th lost most at. when the division moved to the right. pressing the enemy until he fell back to his guns. They had received a shock so severe. into the woods. was immediately thrown forward upon the field. they lost their flag. as the cartridges were nearly all expended. Church. Hood . Stafford he says they moved in a rapid and gallant manner. and uot fire another gun. But many of them had to bleed for their bravery en that 7 day. and there remained until the mourn the loss of the gallant Major Dale of the 1st night of the 18th. and by Pope at Manassas. and in a few minutes He held his position until 9 o'clock at routed the enemy and cleared the hill.. But it fell to the lot of the 1st to -suffer most. Moving back near the church. Hill . they have so published it to the world. until about 4 P. D." They knew from their facility at lying. to was despatched Gen. which they had carried through every bat. as on former occasionx. True to his trust. and now the 1st has to mourn the loss of three-fourths of the number led into battle and besides their men.. Mumma We HOOD SENDS FOR On the morning of the 17th. notwithstanding we had waited all day. tle Thus the battle raged furiously until 9 o'clock. Hood's division was withdrawn to the rear to replenish their carAt noon they returned. was on the heights. and becoming closely engaged with superior numbers. The enemy had driven some four or five hundred yards by this little band of gallant men of the campaign. But it is like those splendid victories \von by McClellan around Richmond. to close up the unoccupied space between our left and Jackson's right. which made it necessary for the division to move to the left and rear. when the brigade was relieved >y Gen. and in the report of Col. the 1st Texas was ordered up at a double quick. M. The position of the 4th was on the extreme left. that they were not willing to hazard another attempt. which. and were ordered to form in rear of the tridge boxes. he led the "bloody" 5th right up in their face.

in all ways miserable. At that . In hope's of aid. and Law's Brigade. And here. only eight hundred and fifty-four men not the . long after every prospect. While our lines rather falthe rebels made [a sudden and impulsive onset. their ammunition was exhausted. . thty held their ground. (formerly Gen. consisting of the 1st. Our right had advanced and swept across the field TI FROM B NEW YORK its front. hold on a little longer. . Men never fought better. regiments looked like companies.54 'to ask for troops to assist in holding the left of our position." As to the regiment here referred to. while his little devoted band of heroes were struggling with the jnany thousands of the enemy. in all. and. is past explanation. After breaking through and thoroughly routing two successive columns of the enemy. and brigades looked like regiments field. "&o the Editor of the Whig: I read. as one side or the other gained a * * It is beyond all wonder. hungry. over the plowed land and the -clover. "You will be reinforced soon.) consisting of the 2nd and llth Mississippi. twenty to one. went into the light with but 40 rounds of cartridges to the man. and delivered their fire in perfect order. to tell the reader that this was our whole Brigade. in which it Allow me is stated that ''Hood's Division was driven back in confusion. however. 20TH. In view of some statements a*bout the Texas Brigade retiring from the . a notice of the -charge made by the 24th North Carolina Regiment at Sharpsburg." Again and again. which was done in the most perfect order. 6th North Carolina and the far famed 4th Alabama. such as temporary advantage. including teamsters and attachees. sick. And though the air was vocal with the whistle of bullets and the scream of shells. There was one regiment that stood up before the fire of two or three of our long range batAeries.tijiK3 Hood's Division consisted of but two Brigades Hood's Brigade. and two regiments of infantry. when this fight begun. VA. which will explain itself: FREDERICKSBURG. and knew not how to give up the ground. 1863. was not to be relinquished without a desperate struggle. the line of fire swept to and fro. But there they stood. But our victorious mov&ment had lost its impulse. there they stood." space to -make a correction. January 20th. They had passed through so many battles that Yet. And in their report of the fight." They had never been beaten upon the field. During the continuance of this fight many of his division fired more than 70 rounds. but he returned a negative reply "He had no troops to spare. originally almost in a line with the front of the centre formed almost a right angle with them. these rebel troops' are can fight as they do That those ragged and filthy wretches. should prove such heroes in the fight. full regiments. Unwilling to abandon the advantage so bravely won. up the hills and down through woods and standing corn. These two Brigades aggregating 3000 men. But their coming was so tardy. a few days since. of their final success had fled. and even drove them back over the field. 18th Georgia and Hampton's Legion. to the eye of the observer. 4th and 5th Texas. how men. in one of the Richmond periodicals. They were out-numbered. and tha general average was 60 rounds per man. who were pouring in in a constant flood. . they did the work of strong. he was compelled to withdraw his Division. until they became the astonishment and admiration of their enemies. and drove our gallant tered. scouting squads gathered from the field the cartridges of the dead both friend and foe and with this supply endeavored to hold their ground until relieved by fresh troops. Whiting's. amid the storm of death.1 insert the following.. General Hood sent for aid.small as they were. numbering so far that and left." SEPT.number of one full regiment. it will detract nothing from the honor of our troops. they pay this Division the following well earned tribute of praise _ : "HERALD. fellows back over a part of the hard won field. They were frequently cheered \fith the indefinite promise. What we had won. that the last of Hood's ammunition having been expended. "General Ricketts at once assumed command.

But we had started out for Harper's Ferry. with which to haul the property away. it is true. Editor Hood's Division has never yet been beaten on any field. And if he had beaten and driven us. you can see whether our Maryland campaign was a failure or not. Philadelphia. though frequently advised by General Hood and Staff. and Baltimore and whether we would capture one or all of them. as on the Plains of Manassas. Having been left at Richmond to build and furnish a Hospital Ward for the . in killed. This is not the first time that a single man has thwarted the plans of a great army. that they were moving in sight. by adding about two thousand for the number that were slaughtered and drowned in attempting to follow us across the river. of course. should fall upon him. we have given them a place. we saw that the magnitude of further invasion was greater than our preparations. with quartermaster's and medical stores to the amount of thousands of dollars. Harper's Ferry had fallen. why did he allow us to pass quietly away. but the strong arm of law should take hold." Our loss will not exceed seven thousand men. Why We They. to prevent getting them wet. were^ ready to return. in part. with fine teams. And having won it. It is due to the memory of those who fell. . even as late as 9 o'clock. The sum total of their loss in men is twenty -nine thousand. But. stopping at the river and losing two hours. as far as we were able. and made its victory only half complete. sevefi hundred and ninety-six. and as much else as circumstances would allow us to accomplish. wounded and missing. either killed or wounded. remove him from a position in which he is able to jeopardize her future weal. who will write them with other fallen sons of the South. his men. And. forcing him to turn and fight to save his routed men ? ? had accomplished our object. for them to make their toilette on the other side. that their names be written and preserved for the pen of the hi&torian. General Hood remarked that he was "thoroughly of the opinion. Of this they could not be convinced. will show to the world the nature of McClellan's victory. and by one way or another. And in connection with this matter. while McClellan's friends set down his killed and wounded at fourteen thousand. as he publishes. we received orders to recross the Potomac. of itself. and that Texas may see that her brave men were at their post when her honor and her liberty called for a sacrifice of blood. and then halting for some time. if General McLaws had reached the field with only the loud condemnation of a country -which bad. not on the 30th of August. will be satisfactory when he renders his report. fourteen thousand muskets. The great misfortune on that day was. six and in property we captured 73 pieces of artillery. and its rich prizes were ours. march to and across the river was undisturbed.) HOSPITAL ARRANGEMENTS. entrusted him with its destiny. near Richmond. that the victory of that day would have been as thorough. expected us to move on Washington. after holding the field a whole day and night ? did he not follow our army as we did his. waiting for his men to strip and roll up their clothes. and in tremendous force. and finest quality. and whenever they do retire if ever they should no other body of men in this or any other army of equal numbers need make any attempt to repair the loss. great quantities of ammunition of every kind. that our higher officers did not discover in time. And so ends the brilliant campaign of* twelve days across the Potomac. and. quick and complete. they could not tell. as we are told he did. if he moved carelessly up. This. and thirteen thousand killed and captured by Jackson on the 14th and 15th instants. that it was on this part of the field that the enemy had staked the fortunes of the day. and we returned to await another "on to Richmond.55 No Mr." The reasons for his tardiness. all in harness made by Yankee labor. up to the 18th. g On EVACUATION OF MARYLAND. ! A VIRGINIAN. Our the evening of the 18th. (See appendix. we hope. seven hundred and ninety. and two hundred wagons.

Sunday as it was. under whose care Major Townsend and Captain Hunter were being healed. take me on 'and about 10. our Brigade had borne their part. - < goose-quill tooth-pick.wounded of our regiment. I left for Winchester. make me feel a little wild. that while we were leisurely walking over the field. We could easily see where the two armies had met. and I felt certain that if he had. we continued on to Warrenton. and on the other James Thomas. I read on one Niles Fossett. had marched hundreds of miles. the dead lay thick. You could mark the spots where the butteries had stood. by the Surgeon General. which brought me to Winchester a little bef"re sunset. Dr. myself left to take A STROLL OVER THE RENOWNED FIELD on which we had won two great victories. A. and the hands and feet and heads of others were imposed. and fought through several battles together. But the declining sun admonished us to be going. There were a thousand objects of interest yet to be seen. we had gone but me he would go my way no farther. Gordonsville and Charlottesville. I made twenty-five miles . it was not my pleasure to participate in the and marches of this brilliant campaign. and there learned that a part (four) of the ambulances that had gone with us had been captured. who had been left at private houses. The next morning a man promised to. fallen side by side before the same gun. And passing on to an eminence in the field. Fennell and sick arid trials . my attention was arrested by two boards standing at the head of one grave. where Jackson had left the enemy in swaths upon the ground. For the number of wounded was so After being great. ajid especially so when'I remembered that I had no arms of defence that was much better than a . The air was foul upon the field and for a great distance around.to go on in that direction and look after the condition of the wounded. that he. even at tha| time. arid so we had the pleasure of a ride to the field. and so I immediately determined . I had narrowly escaped a short distance. and had so many of our men killed and wounded.. We passed on and around. And on approaching it. f)n the next day we returned to Warrenton. They had. During the evening I made every effort to procure*conveyance. that the wounded should be stopped at Warreiiton. following the line over which our Brigade had fought on both days of the battle. and especially on that portion where the 5th Texas fought. died upon the same spot. and they well cared for. after telling me how much he thought of me. It was expected that the wounded especially would be sent to me there but ascertaining that orders had been issued after the battle of Manassas Plains. Hunton that good woman. and finding but few. That evening I made eighteen miles. There were yet many bodies of the fallen enemy uuburied. but on visiting the two last named. and set me afoot. From the discharge of the guns the grass had been fired and burned over the ground. where we found quite a number of each of the Texas Regiments. we immediately set out for those places. M. I heard that Geneial Longstreet had had another engagement. And we also learned. * with them five days and doing for them* as much as we could. A train of ambulances was going down to gather up a few of the wounded. and. and -the next day. but was unsuccessful. and interesting ourselves with all the broken relics of that blood-stained ground. On that portion where our gallant boys had met the Zouaves. been quartered immediately after the battle and were as pleasantly situated as circumstances would permit. It was too late then to become frightened but I mustconiess that it did. and at last came back to the Peach Grove Farm. when the Yankee news from ahead became so thick and strong. When we reached the place where the line of battle had been formed. and track them by the marks of shot upon the trees. Soon after reaching the village. But . and now sleep in the same grave. were from the same town. or else we could not reach the house of Mre. we left tlie ambulance and begun our walk. by dead horses and the graves of men. at' one time. Brave boys they belonged to the same company. that their wants extended beyond the capacity of the town. within a few hundred yards of us. that the "sinners" were on both sides. and the graves upon the ground. told .

pants and hats could be seen many marks of the bullet. Church South opened for me. the 26th instant. while one regiment after another passed in review (eighteen in all) I saw one flag. . 1 should have taken the wounded of the Hampton Legion. aud belonged. And. ' REVIEW. at the end of the sixth day. October 7th and 8th. On the 8th. But they were cheerful and lively. 1 watched it until it had gone some distance past for it was a matter of great interest to iiie to see an objVct upon which the history of the recent battles was so plajnly and truthfully written. they had buried many comrades on different fields but that same unconquerable spirit. Brave as Spartans and true as steel. somewhere near. E. The men looked worn and tired. they had possession of Paris in my rear a little village at the Gap in theBlue Ridge. I need not say how glad the men were with the prospect of attention. as I sat looking on. and. gleaming through every feature of the face and speaking in every act they performed. Going to work. wounded.57 * the enemy's stealing party a second time for. as they were looking for a place where they could have their wounds dressed. having been so pleasant in the camp and behaved so gallaartly in the fight (and in fact sometimes calling themselves 4he 3d Texas). I had it arranged as soon' as possible. made by the bullets of the enemy. and many of their feet were bare. another gallant regiment. but they were of the 18th Georgia. They had marched long and fought hard . after marching several hundred miles and passing through the fire of six days in battle. directed them to camp. when fighting was to be done. learning that the army had moved back to within six mile^ of the town. one could easily see that ho was proud of his colors. we had a hundred and ninety-four of our Brigade. who are also in our Brigade for they have ever behaved like true sons of the South. to the 5th and. had believed that a people could They never be conquered whp were determined to be free. after the parade. But it would have made but little difference if they had captured the men too. It was not long before the news reached the other hospitals and sick camps in the neighborhood. True. if there had been room. which I had passed in the day. and in their coats. and have a place to lie down. or they would not have been surprised in this . fioni the Palmetto State. . and as resolved to fight to the bitter end as when wading the swamps of Louisiana to get to Virginia.. they felt like our own boys. for there were so many coming in to be accommodated. in which there were many holes. VISIT TO THE CAMP. I met about fifteen of our men returning. I went to the surgeon of the post. by the time I reached the town-. and frightened them oft' and captured their baggage. who were in our Brigade." and they believe so yet~. for they were no account. When I got within half a mile of Winchester. I was again in the camp. They had many times performed long marches and fought hard battles. and we took them in. they are winning honors for South Carolina. This was the first direct word received I of their fight. The weather was warm and dry. It was a Lone Star fi&g. get something to eat. without rations. I expected to see them worn down and somewhat discouraged but in this I was agreeably disappointed. . and here received our men of all the Texas regiments as they came. from Maryland. manner. They made a dash at our cavalry that were stationed there. and he had the do6r of the basement of the M. After such an On arduous campaign. I learned that it had been pierced forty-seven . I went out and had the pleasure of seeing those of my old regiment that were left. Their clothes were ragged. and I believe both parties were glad to see each other.. and Generals Longstreet and Hood were reviewing the troops. stood forth as defiant as when the first blast of the bugle was heard. and the dust had settled thick over their clothes. And. about twenty of this number were not of the Texas regiments. It was with great difficulty that we were able to procure the necessary appliances . . Stopping at a private house until morning. From the manly step of the ensign. .

. " " HEADQUARTKRS FOURTH TEXAS REGIMENT. and honor to the State of Texas. and here present it to our friends and relatives at home. Seven Pines. another was passing me. that we part from the old flag with painful feelings. gallant and dauntless courage in the storm of battle. ensigns had fallen under it on the field. for I am with thee. H.. for the 4th. and brought off the battle-scars of sixtyIt was the only flag to fire balls and shot. Say to the North give up. It was an old acquaintance. And for this act of Nine respect. but never with such mingled It called to mind all the hardships and sufferfeelings of pride and sorrow. Many times had I seen it on dress-parade. '*" Our General has presented us with another "battle-flag. who carried it through the fire of Eltham's Landing. old one. LUBBOCK. CARTER. borne by them F. I need not dwell upon the services of my Regiment. to be kept in the camp. with the motto "Fear not. By the timo I turned from looking after it. Respectfully. Freeman's Ford.53 times. Gaines's Farm. More than five hupdred of our comrades in arms have fallen beneath its folds. Seven Pines. and be deposited among the archives of the State. in the battles battle-flag of the 4th Texas Regiment. the of Eltham's Landing. little baud may. but is fast recovering. besides the marks of three shells. It was understood that this was the last time it would appear upon parade for it is an object of too much pride to the regiment. children incited to renewed vigilance in the preservation of tho so liberties for which we are contending. your servant. fire : and blood. F. I knew it. Near Winchester. gaze upon its battle-stained colors. And that the reader may the better understand our appreciation of it. Malvern Hill. And it is to us an emblem of constancy under multiplied hardships. From its torn and tattered condition. it can no longer be used and it is returned to you that it may be preserved among the archives of the State. Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding. and fell wounded on the second day on the Plains of Manassas. And this silent witness bears eloquent fell thick and evidence that the men who followed it in action were where ^shot death was in the air. 1862." which was graven on the spear-head. as a testimonial of the gallantry of her sons who have fought beneath its folds. . and fceneath which so many of our brave men have fallen. which accompanied the flag when it was sent home to the Governor of Texas. and seven ensigns had fallen under it. R. Freeman's Ford. Governor of Texas. You will readily believe. we here spread before him the letter of Lieutenant-Colonel B. in future days. Mariassas Plains. ings. Va. be seen that had gone through so many battles and had so many marks of honor. B. and to the South. I had a drawing made. keep not back . It had gone through eight battles. and to it It is with great pride we can send it home without a single stain the men of the 4th can point for the record of their deeds as long as Texas exists an independent and sovereign State. Miss Loo was made the adopted daughter of the regiment. Its deeds in battle will go into the history of our country and speak for themselves. rind we hope to be able to acquit ourselves as well with that as we have done with the mind . and will soon take his place again under the new flag. that they may see the battle-flag around which the 4th rallied in so many struggles for our eountry's liberty. Gaines's Farm. Governor. to be sent home to report our conduct in the hour of our country's struggles. hare the honor to present to you. Boonsboro Gap and Sharpsfcurg. And knowing that hundreds would desire to see it. recall to and their the sufferings they have endured in their country's can*. through which we had passed. To His Excellency "Sin: I Darden. Beneath the flag I have written the name of our first ensign. Carter. and devotion unto death to our cause. October 7. which in all had occupied eleven days. On to-morrow it is to be committed to the care of Captain Darden. Let it be preserved sacredly that the remnant of our . F. . by the hand of Captain S. It was made and presented by Miss Louise Wigfall to Colonel Hood.

Malvern Hill. and cast an imperishable lustre over the humble names of those who died beneath its folds. B. Boonsboro Gap and Sharpsburg. and we >w number one hundred and seventy-six for duty. of the Regiment have the soldiers of the "Fourth Texas" acquitDaughter themselves as became Texans. CAMP NEAR FREDERICKSBUKG. let history tell. ?P? and then to McClellan's lie. it longest maintained its position. Upon its folds are now inscribed the ever-memorable names of Eltham's How our State. and is hallowed by memories that will it linger with life. In the. Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding. The First carried its old battle until at Sharpsburg. in the hospitals. where the name of its fair donor will be linked with the who fell in its ever-living memory of the gallant dead defence. our men that were made reprisoners. and it fell into the hands of th 3my. who were on parade this ng. consecrated to us recollections that can never by so ! Landing. and the torn and tattered old flag bears few traces of its original beauty. When we have passed away will stand a silent witness to heroic deeds. with a request that it be sacredly preserved among the archives of the State.59 HEADQUARTERS 4rn TEXAS REGIMENT. as the regiment was ranging its position to prevent being flanked. headquarters. Is it too much for me to assert that not one of that sixty would ever have left the field without it 1 Endeared to us as the of gift of a daughter . or . when ine ensign was shot down flag through every unobserved in the cornfield. and it has accordingly ted to the Governor of the State of Texas. as to render its further use as a regimental standard been transmitimpossible. and along the road to this place. TARTER. Freeman's Ford. MlSS LOUISE WlGFALL ? ) In February last our regiment had the honor of receiving from your hands a battle flag. . that flag was seen floating in the very front ranks of the Southern army that it was the first carried through the entrenched lines of the enemy at Games' Farm that it waved over the first battery captured from the foe on the classic plains of Manassas. and last spring we were recruited by about five hundred more. In the last named battle its colors were so torn and the staff so shattered by hostile shot. it has been baptized in the blood of our fallen comrades. our regiment has passed through hardships not often paralleled in history. mounting it upon a music wa^on. supported and defended by the feeble arms but stout hearts of but sixty members of its regiment. s The regiment numbered about one thousand men when we first entered tho ice. joic< over it exceedingly. few eventful months that have elapsed since then. 1862. when they delivered themi died but many are scattered over Richmond. November 26. very respectfully. and as men worthy of their flag ? In their names lam commissioned again to thank you for its gift. where the feeble remnant of the Texas gade struggled in the face of death for hours against overwhelming numbers. I speak from the record in battles saying that in the three greatest of the present campaign in Virginia. Manassas Plains. Your obedient servant. and running up lld 8tI 8 over drove t though the camp to the tune of "Yankee n SKff* . tion of this character a recital of some of its deeds may be pardoned. and was the last to leave the field. and will approach with reverence ?aze upon its folds. and of adopting you as the Daughter of the Regiment. (now Major-General Hood. F. But it will not be understood that the balance have been killed. Seven Pines. many I have the honor to be. ifc ' . . and that on the bloody heights of BriSharpsburg. well the 4th Texas has redeemed the promises made by our then Colonel.) on the reception of the in a communicabut flag. Games' Farm. and to assure you tnat in future days the few surviving members of our little band will eter hold n grateful remembrance its to fair donor. we learn from some of. who.

you not only did so. By order of J. and fore they could get out of the Valley. And it was here by your conduct in rallying and presenting front to the advancing columns of the enemy that you earned higher praise than in any of the brilliant charges you have made. however. taking possession of all the gaps in the mountains to prevent our troops from interrupting his newly conceived plans. if supported." ' HEADQUARTERS NEAR WINCHESTER. We had left Winchester on Wednesday morning. kept up appearances. dashing courage at the battle of Manassas Plains. your long and continued and tiresome march since leaving Richmond. No achievement so marks the true soldier as coolness under such circumstances as surrounded you on that memorable day. were in ranks again ready and willing to meet the foe. and . llth. HOOD. after the battle of Sharpsburg. October 29th. but promptly drove the enemy. After having distinguished yourselves at the battle of Games Farm. . 1862. Brigadier-General Commanding. and. guess many of them will bite the dust before they get another. or. making in all one thousand nine hundred and seventy-four. as at the battle of Sharpsburg. from his guns. Lee's eye was upon him. June 27th. to his astonishment the "rebels" were all at Culpepper Court House.capture Lee and his "rebels" beAfter making all his arrangements." McClellan. In less than three months you have marched several hundred miles under trying circumstances. Your failure to do so was attributable to others. and one hundred missing. In closing this part of the campaign. 28th. Well.* The Brigadier-General Commanding. but the shock he received at the river was so great that he turned aside from the direct road to look out an easier way than following in our rear. participated in several battles. Sept. McCLELLAN ATTEMPTS ANOTHER '"ON TO RICHMOND. He.the Brigadier-General Commanding.. twenty times your number. sixteen hundred and twenty-one wounded.- i' f . as if he intended to drive us in full chase through Winchester. was ordered to follow our army across the Potomac. as full now as when they fought at Sharps- The loss sustained by this division (of two brigades) since leaving Richmond. September 17th. In none of these have you elicited so much praise from our Commanding Generals. Md. October. and I suppose they are quite are small. GENERAL ORDERS. ready to receive him. let them make the most of it.60 Delves of several "Spread Eagle" speeches on the subject of capturino. He made an attempt. No. he made a dash for Gordonsville. B.ountry. is two hundred and fifty-three killed on the field. I present you with the General's address. but recruiting from the hospitals every day. for it is the first Texas flagand I they have got. The regiments burg.a Texas flag. And it is with peculiar pride . Called upon to retake ground lost to our arms. August 30th. and made yourselves the acknowledged heroes of three of the hardest fought battles that have occurred du7 ing the present war. or so justly entitled yourselves to the proud distinction of being the best soldiers in the army. takes much pleasure in tendering hi& thanks and congratulations to the officers and men under his command for their arduous services and gallant conduct during the recent campaign. / DIVISION. The next morning we waded one branch of the Shenandoah. and camped that night near Front Royal. acknowledges that such of his command as had not fallen in that terrible clash of arms. would have led on to one of the most signal victories known to the history of any people. has won for you the merited praise and gratitude of the army and our c. but on arriving at Warrentbn. your truly veteran conduct at the battle of Sharpsburg.

and there was great lamenta ' : -nobody has buried him. On the next morning we passed through the town and camped one mile below. and that he should not lead this great army over to the promised possession. Und camped within four miles of the old city. and guess what would be his next strategy. for the great Mecca of their hopes. arrived from Washington and informed him that he should be captain no longer. and Burnside wept. de-Gamp. sorely troubled. he opened a tremendous fire upon our lines. was doing his best. and crossed the Rapidan on the railroad . and his grave has not been seen until this day. ^ -on the 21st bridge late in the evening. L. six miles from the town. on the next day we marched sixteen miles .' We had good roads for the inarch. After making all his arrangements. But imagine his surprise when General Lee. Friday morning the wagons and artillery separated from the troops and took the road by New Washington Turnpike the troops marching by the nearer dirt road. BATTLE OF. he began to devise a strategy by which he could capture the Confederate City. Lieutenant Colonel Garey being promoted to the Colonelcy. they determined to be revenged on somebody. and thousands of their carcasses were falling on the way whose bones could not be carried along in their journeyings to the land that they were going to possess. Adjutant of the 4th Texas." We had left our camp on the ]9th. not that he had led them the wrong way. and contemplating a "change of base. On Saturday morning we m%ved up to the Fredericksburg Railroad. of the 5th Texas. and you shall not. arriving at Fredericksburg. Promised Land for so many long days and wearisome nights while their clothes were waxing old. of the 1st. whither in their pilgrimage they had been journeying as earnestly and as circuitously as Moses for the. so that he Qould not "make the crossing. for it was a "military necessity. and the roads were very znuddv over the entire march. after the promotion of General Hood. who never has won a battle yet. and wept much. As soon as Burnside was placed in supreme command. Scott. 1 . FREDERICKSBURG." and in company and conversation with General Bumside at the lone hour of midnight on the 7th of November. On the 3d of November the camp was moved to the battle-field of Cedar Run. they determined to decapitate McClellan. but the weather was very cold. Colonel Robertson. the appointment of Assistant Adjutant-General. And Lincoln killed him andhc gavo up the ghost and went to Jersey. and much ol their meat and bread was being captured by Jackson in the wilderness. Captain LitDr. The rain fell almost incessantly. and both parties i-amped that night near Culpepper Court House. who he thought still at Culpeper.61 t passed through the village at an early hour. and camped near Spottsylvania Court House. near Games' Cross Roads. feeling the strength of our army. and as they could not manage Lee. an unwelcome courier. Price. with the hope of getting away from his position by hiding behind the smoke of his He made a bold and rapid move for Hanover Junction and. This is a noble regiment. After a hard day's march we camped on the mountain. Aidtlefield. the 18th the On Hampton Legion was McCLELLAN'S REMOVAL. For he had acted "unadvisedly"' with the men in his march. detached from our brigade. He gave F. And solt was when the great Napoleon. he hastily demanded the surrender of the city. When Lincoln and his friends learned that Lee had headed McClellan off from tion and weeping throughout the camp. on artillery.*' to which Burnsido agreed. of the 5th. and we regret the removal. was appointed Quartermaster. received the appointment of Brigadier-General. answered his demand: "I do not wish to occupy the town myself. and being burnt. Here we had but little to do but to watch the enemy. but that he had let the captain of the hosts on the other side get possession of the At these sad tidings Mac was fords..

At the onset they forced A. which they kept up all day at the rate of sixty shots per minute. Their position was behind a stoiie wall and in ditches. terrible fire of a hundred guns. and revealed the barbarity of the cruel and heartless invader. sixty thousand strong. after they had maintained their position a long time. About a mile and a half below another bridge was thrown over. without shelter or some of them of clothes) lit the landscape and still fire." have a little rest. . the fog was lifted and In a few minutes the battle was their position and numbers were in view. the enemy were soon driven back under their guns and it was not until after dark that the fighting ceased. . The long-drawn roar of musketry. and by noon on the llth was completed. On the 12th. M. A. Every species of projectile known to modern warfare was hurled back and forth from guns of every pattern and calibre. they finally succeeded with two bridges. destitute of food. Toward evening the infantry. the burning houses of helpless women and children (who were driven out to wander through the dark and 6ver the frozen ground. and those noble Mississippians were relieved by General Coblx's Brigade. women and children.62 As it was evident that the enemy intended attempting a crossing as soon as be could make the necessary preparations. When night closed down upon the scene and hushed the roar of cannon. Hill back upon the second line. uniting with the bellowing surges of artillery. and now kept them at bay in the streets.They had been repuked at every point. Of the 18th Georgia we have good news on this occasion for. and were gradually falling back. is but the introduction to the miseries with which their foul houses. Here it was that General Cobb was killed and General Cook was wounded. a large force passed the rive'r and took position on the south But notwithstanding the side. General Lee and his officers examined the ground and made ready for his reception. under cover of the darkness and a dense fog. and even in their own . 'but by its aid. : Saturday Morning. And we are persuaded that the slaughter with which they are soon to be visited in Fredericksburg. and sweeping the enemy down by hundreds as they moved on to the attack or changed positions in the fight. but continued at their work as if they intended to finish the " "job before they quit. to defend them. Then ensued a struggle of terror. Thus protected. From the enemy's guns the houses were shattered and set on fire in many places. P.. with fitful gleams of fire. they opened fire with artillery at daylight on Thursday morning. the enemy commenced feeling Jackson's position and advancing in heavy force. under command of General Early. relief was sent up that they might " This is as good a place as we want . The position was such that we could offer but little resistance. stunned the ear and made the earth vibrate beneath the feet. Barksdale's Mississippi Brigade held the town. than two hundred guns were belching forth their sulphuric flames. moved up to drive our men from their position. Our gallant men had fallen back to the edge of the town. About 9 o'clock. On the right wing. Before the daylight had gone we could discover their confusion/' But we had no idea as to the extent of the demoralization and slaughter they had . On the night of the 10th of December they began to throw their pontoons across the river at the city and. . under protection of their guns on the shore. The strength of the artillery on both sides was now displayed. tions of our guns were well selected. commanding all the regions oelow. full of grandeur. after many attempts and much loss. December 13th. They had resisted the bridgebuilders with energy. streets souls will soon be familiar. were slaughtered in the streets. But their reply was and refused to go. Harmless old men. which raked every street and lane of the city. supported by Cook's command. This incessant fire of artillery was kept up upon the doomed city from dawn till dark. More joined. while the enemy occupied the houses in the outskirts of the town. while it was yet dark from the heavy fog. But Heaven is preparing a righteous retribution for them in the very which they have so wickedly baptized with innocent blood. filling the The posifields and the heavens with hideous sights and unearthly sounds.

May live to fight another day.' Their dead were left in every street. Hill met them hundreds were left. battery. And as to the influence it will have abroad. which Burnside. states that Lincoln told him that "he did not want the army of the Potomac destroyed. in his telegram to Washington." At daylight next morning "Burnside non est" was the general rumor he and his army had adopted the old maxim ** He who fights and runs away. was drawn out and marshalled over the lands below. which must have numbered one hundred and forty thousand strong. by the manner in which he used his guns and handled his . &c. force and with great violence. Many were the reasons assigned but of all that were given they fail at last to find the only reason why they did not gain a victory. and scores were*fomid in the shattered houses. On Monday the great Yankee army. among other reasons assigned for this defeat. A few more such defeats will give us peace. As many as sixty thousand were in full " with all the view from one point. in its "on to Richmond. killed and wounded. General Gregg was mortally wounded. that the only way to prevent its destruction. six hundred and Several general officers fell. was to move them out of harm's way as soon as possible. there were still hundreds not removed." And this last repulse must prove. but to Him who made the nations. Th^bbing of a tide." Our loss is about three thousand. while the centre. while the But we did not suppose they would artillery had slain them all over the field. while before the Court of Inquiry. the War Department at Washimgton sent out a Court of Inquiry to ascertain the cause of the great disaster. I have but little care for it is not to the nations that we should look for help. which he informs the court he "did with success." The "New York "World" says that their "army will now go into winter quarbecause it can go no where else. . we agreed with him and his officers in council of war. This is the fourth defeat of the" grand arrny of the Union.63 * suffered. and one thousand. The petition was granted. In consequence of the terrible defeat of their grand army. This is the reaction. says had crossed theriver. we suppose General Lee will be there waiting for them when they arrive." What a terrible retribution for their slaughtering tnose innocent ones in the city. P. and "giveth the kingdom to whomsoever he THE RESULT. (which was simply because we whipped them) assigning some that were truly childish we give the following as a sample: Burnside. by about fifteen thousand of our own. 11 But if it should go any where else. and then setting fire to the buildings to consume what they had lett. as well as the public mind of the Northern people. " Rebel Capital. The Yankees lost about eighteen thousand. . dead and dying.. and then begun "a change of base. General Stuart did valuable service throughout the whole fight and Major Pelham won for himself a name that will never perish. For a peace party is already ters. . will have a powerful effect on the minds of their soldiers. and then place them on the other side of the river and then cut the bridges." This being the case. For the defeat of their whole mrmy. And after occupying the day in carrying the wounded to the other side of the river. in killed and wounded and missing. But instead of an attack. in all the houses. en route for Richmond. They displayed their " stars and stripes On Sunday morning General Lee expected them to renew the attack in full pomp and circumstance as of Yankee glory but instead of renewing the fight. twenty -six prisoners. clothing. and destroying the furniture. forming in the North." We had not brought so easily abandon the highway to the one-fourth of our men into the fight. Will. except Hood's right wing. A flag of truce was sent in for permission to bury the dead and care for the wounded. Hundreds more were slaughtered on -the left wing. if possible more disastrous than the preceding. Many on each wing had not fired a gun. was expected. which has . they waited until dark. had all the while been but playing the spectator to the scenes below. Over the ground where A.

then. living or dead. impudent. executive. thoughts in words. robbing. and the name does not convey to the mind their true character. 'by applying it to a nation of thieves and mur. false. and this And as their history is is what we want. and it is impossible that they can. to victory.. one who desires concord. ' r *< BY WHAT NAME SHALL WE CALL THEM? . This. insolent. and suffering. and driven and lashed And a peace party. or any other language. But all have seen that this is not their sole avowed intention. It may be next spring before they will give. well known to the civilized world. may be understood. ungrateful. it will end this unholy war. that can be applied with full scope and force. and comprehends 'their every*act of lying and stealing. and their dealings with the rest of the world.64 'flown beyond all bounds.prejudice. For there can I>e no -union where there is discord that they desire the South to remain in union of . And there is no other word in all the range of human learning which will convey to the mind of every -man. Yankee. you blush to know that you have ever soiled the native dignity of the name by which your ancestors were known. assisted by every .government with them is evident. when applied to the Yankee. derers. chalk milk and . says Webster. and have a different meaning. Abolitionists. Federalist. a name for the people of New England. civil. espeThis word. those words should be properly selected that our whole meanEach of the above names are ing. All of the above names have by different ones and the same ones at different times been Words are the signs of ideas and the vehicles of thought. And thus applied. We then should adopt the vehicle which would most certainly convey our meanAnd while we would represent and" convey our ing. the whole world will understand us. patent medicines. cowardly. will. thieving. literary. we readily see. Names are also significant. says Webster. legislative. is an appellation in America given 'to the friends of the Constitution of the United States. &c. affections ami interest. propriety. and to the political party which favored the Administration of President Washington. or indiscriminately applied. Yankees. It is the only name or word in the English. profane. Avooden hams. I have but to inquire if they have been the friends of the Constitution ? or have they not declared that sacred instrument to be "a covenant with death and a league with. both in Europe and America.cd and then sold it to her shoe soles made of birch barR. but to subjugate and despoil.or -Federals? We should speak the same language with as much concert as we should act together in the strife. Unionists. will apply. in all their political. originated by bloo<! Tjy the storm of envy and fanaticism. The word has ever been used in contemptuous ridicule of their conduct towards each other. with be Then to determine which is the most. nothing more nor less. theological and diabolical history. knavish. boastful. in Africa and the Islands 'of the Sea. commercial. and the bearer ' of their burdens. so many and correct traits of character as the word Yankee. but whenever they do. The next and last. it means meddlesome. let us notice the meaning of each. swindling. from the days of Washington till the present hour. and we will understand ourselves when we call them Yarfkees. brutal and murderous. significant. '-The popular name for the citizens of New England. It extends to all their ten thousand schemes of deception and fraud. and finally to a peace as broad and as deep as the rivers ? I know when you have learned the meaning of the name. their only object and aim. unjust. -unkind. hell ?" Have they favored that line of policy pursued by the great champion of liberty. deceitful. is is desirous of abolishing any who one Abolitionist. but -they seek a union which is a moral impossibility. pompous. applied to our enemy. thing. will not apply to them. is the only one that will apply. provided the abolition of slavery is cially slavery. cannot be checked. who so successfully led the armies of the first rebellion against oppression and tyranny.'. moral. sacred. us another chance . make the South their inferior. agreement in rniiid. Unionist. rather the only applicable one. With this name we involuntarily associate the story of the clock peddler who etole the landlady's counteiAne off' of her own .'' This is what Webster says it means.

Lee the Lieutenant-Colonel. For an attempt had been ni'le to organize the regiment under Colonel Allen. He was then assigned to duty in the 4th infantry in California. and was wounded by the Indians on Devil's river. and every one seemed to be perfectly satisfied. Evans and Hardee were from the same regiment. General Hood entered upon the frontier service of Western Texas. His commanding appearance. His name was entered upon tk3 roll with the rank of First Lieutenant. sketches will be of interest to our friends at home. Magruder on the Peninsula. Generais Earl Van Dora. were called out. 1855. his object D iing. he was transferred July. and tendered his services to the Confederacy. who fell at Shiloh. Hood was born in Owingsville.in them from my journal for publication. It carries us back to days of yore. Bath county. and General R. This produced a feeling with others. transcribing As these Smith. who ordered him to report to Gen. Ho entered upon his collegiate course at West Point. and enables TW to look at the different phases of society from the time they burnt old women for witches to the days of the inauguration of the "womens' rights conventions . Very few of the men had ever seen him. readily impressed the officers and men that he was the man to govern them in the camp arid command them on A . with every other Devilism which has cursed the nation of Unionism.. 1831. Fields. This regiment furnished many valuable officers to the South. John B. with the rank of Captain of Regular Cavalry. June 29th. Beauregard and the newspapers to the contrary notwithstanding. On September 30th he was ordered to Richmond. -courteous manners and decision of character. and ordered to report to General Lee in Virginia. K. quick perception. was in command. short time before the beginning of the present war he was ordered to report for duty at West Point as Instructor of Cavalry. Spiritualism and Abolitionism. BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES OF GEN. Gen. But in a few days this feeling was gone. On the 16th of April. and graduated in 1853. and doubts were entertained whether a Colonel could bo appointed that would give satisfaction. To answer the ends of their greed for gain. Millerism. I prefer to use that word. 'Brig. And as there is no other word that will express all these and a hundred more isms. Montgomery county. manly deportment. and thereby say all that need be said on this s\ibjeet the term is Yankeeism. He was at once placed in command of all the cavalry of the Peninsula. Having several successful engagements with the enenvy. they will even then make friends for the hope of a dime. in view of all the prospects of impending dissolution. HOOD AND STAFF. where. '56. and it was thought that they would not be satisfied with any one that might be appointed. In the winter of 1855. then in camp near the city. He could see no hope of reconciliation or adjustment. Kentucky. in 1849. But when they have been insulted and kicked for their pusilanimity. they have ever been ready to seek a difficulty to hide their shame. E. Mormonism. and we will call them Yankees. he was placed in command of the 4th regiment Texas Volunteers. E. And when the two regiments raised by Jefferson Davis. to the one (2d cavalry) of which Gen. But anticipating the present difficulties. where he served twenty-two months. he was allowed at his own request to return to duty in Texas. I take pleasure. This Yankee country has given birth to Socialism. the appointment was withdrawn. and when detected. but every indication of a fierce and bloody war consequently he had determined to cast his destiny with the South. they have not failed to use all means in their power. to be in that portion of the country which he most loved and so greatly admired. however dishonest. of Texas but in consequ^ioe of a protest of some of the Captains. and receiving the rank of Colonel of Infantry. he had a spirited engagement. in July following. Albert Sidney Johnston. he was soon promoted to the rank of Major." exhibiting the style of dress worn by Puritans in beautiful contrast with the fast age that puta their women in breeches. 1861.65 wooden nutmegs. and was brought up at Mount Sterling. then Secretary of War. . he resigned his commission under the United States Government. Gen. E .

66 And his thorough acquaintance with every department of the serviceevery one of his competency for the position. for the want of which information regiments entering the service frequently go hungry. If you will but go round through this city (Winchester. to this end. who. The General is about six feet two incb. For while with him there is no effort to make you feel the dignity of his official position. "blood of others. and the discharge of duty is the way to officers or men. but also in the forms and technicalities of the clothing. And what difference.. where we were with the 1st to foe organized into a brigade under Colonel Wigfall. And to this one thing I would in a great measure attribute his promotion in rank and our success in battle. with full broad chest. And having been personally associated with him during his term of service with the Texas troops. An army half disciplined cannot be efficient for while they are in camp they are scattered all over the country while on the march they are strung from one end of the road to the other. Thus we see within the short space of ten months and seventeen days he was promoted from the rank of Lieutenant to that of a Brigadier General. you will find abundant argument for a more thorough adherence to army regulations than we have yet had. his society and friendship . are these things so to continue ? Are we to leave desolation in our rear. Colonel Hood was appointed to take his place. But as a companion his friendship cannot be cultivated to an extent that will allow a pretext for the neglect of duty by either He is a disciplinarian. taking. Our success depends upon it . or anywhere else that our army has either camped or moved. after the meeting of Congress he resigned. whether a man is robbed of his bread by a friend or foe ? Will he not perijh.es high. and a few must meet the foe and do the work of all and when the claim fight is over. 1 . of nearly everything they have. our liberty won. our country free. labors of the camp and from the dangers of battle are the evils growing out of this loose method of soldiering. and perly enforced. ordnance and transportation departments. Va. I am persuaded that he is as much admired and esteemed by the men under his command as any General in the army. For they found him able and ready to give all the necessary instruction. one-half of the army is not there. familiar and kind. and commissaries and quartermasters make many fruitless trips. Its importance is admitted by all for it is this that makes the army of well drilled soldiers so much more efficient than the raw militia. blue eyes. until our country groans to be delivered from its friends. satisfied . But as he was the Senator elect from the JState of Texas. tome under Austrian oppression not be preferable ? . the 4th and 5th Texas regiments left Richmond and arrived at Dumfries on the 12th inst. I take pleasure in saying that his rapid promotion has not filled him with that official vanity and self-importance which so often kills the pleasure and cuts the acquaintance of former friends. and gaunt hunger to feed upon the lives of helpless women and innocent children ? If so. know it is so for we have seen it with our own eyes more than a hundred times. Men straggling everywhere. and his children starve. and the result is when we have to go into the fight which is to decide the fate of an empire. On the 8th and 9th of November. 1862. whether it is taken by the one or the other? Does any one doubt whether or not such Ihings are done by our own men? I ask you to go to the people and ask them. had received the appointment of Brigadier-General. and the sooner our people.) and adjacent country. the field. stealing. the straggler comes in for a portion of the honor. . would a We . destroying. and will an equal share of the blessing of liberty which has been won by the toil and . and robbing almost every one they pass. and doing almost everything ' But absence from the all not "begging. but you enjoy the pleasure of a social companion. commissary. And on the 3d of March. And now in all candor we ask. not only in drilling them for the field. and notwithstanding his rigid adherence to discipline. light hair and beard. our army and our Congress are willing to see it prothe sooner we shall see our enemy beaten. and is gifted by nature with a voice that can be heard in the storm of battle.

ation in fact.. our men would. and this the modus operandi for success. and in a single word DISCIPLINE. for it has no found. and the men were willing to cJ*> it./tr deny.' y These are the "but will rush forward at the word and carry the field by storm. and." in both and out of the army. and add to their number some eight or ten new regiments of those now in Misssissippi and Arkansas. they should not be allowed to ''face about" and form on new ground. but pressed and shot in the back. we have been favored more than others. . will not stand and "listen the battle sliout from afar. hung trembling jipon . and do hard fighting-. See afso the history of Colonel Law's Brigade. All of which we hope will shortly be done. That we have had to perform long marches. when the fortunes of the day the command of a single regiment or brigade. we have had our share of favors in almost everything and. buc that we have had to occupy all the most dangerous places on the battle-field" is incorrect. Plains of Manassas. The records of Gaines's Farm. For on each one of these fields they had to halt. True. - >> . but they fight too slow. to prevent being flanked by troops that should have been engaged and driven from tha field by other portions of our army.on the contrary. who have been with us in all 01137 fights. is to bring forward a sufficient^ number of men to fill up the gallant regiments now the honor of the Army of the Potomac under his command. but there are nofc many of our men that have complained even on that point. All that is now necessary to make the name of Hood immortal. and brought up to the fight. and under the same commander. the whole of the enemy's line would have been hurled back in one grand rout and driven in confusion before our conquering march. after we have beaten and driven our foe in the fight. I ask them to get the history of Jackson's campaign and compare it witfr ours. and fall back from ground hardly won.. in many instances. But this is wrong. It may be possible that the President will not give up our command. and give hinv the rank of Major-General. are trying to make the of our Some men. And of all the positions on the field. we will not have to watch.67 But how are all these evils to be remedied ? Btow are the men to be pre^ vented from straggling from the camp and along the march? From robbingthe country as they move. I do r. But. and Sharps burg. . to keep from being flanked by the enemy from other portions of the field. and sometimes fall back from ground which had cost the lives of many of our men to conquer. and we have been able to discover no such discrimination. They have marched further and fought oftener than we have. we have been called to the rescue. We want more of our own nven. " until they have etfected a splendid change of base. and marches too and were in the battle at Manassas before we lef<$ Texas. seeinghow rapidly they press to the front. Men who. so that all will fare alike in the burdens of the campaign and in the battles for our country* The answer is simple. For we have seen as much of the treatment of the Government and the officers of the army towards our men as anybody else. impression that our men are used by the Government as a kind of portable breastwork for Virginia and that they are required to occupy positions of danger to screen the other portions of the army. so that that they can support themselves in the contest and hold the ground they have conquered. in two or three instances. and fill tire* earth with the fame of the soldiers of Texas. men. Other troops are brave enough. when the fight begins. thus constituting an Independent Army Division of Texans. and wait. but. instead of our falling back. without being struck with the brilliant dash and successful charges made by our men and. This was what we came for. give sufficient comment upon its importance. For when the enemy's linea are once driven from their advanced position. and this idea should not be allowed to obtain. Then our movements will not depend upon the inefficient and tardy move* ments of other officers and troops. And if any are disposed to think that we have had to march further and fight harder than other troops. none will fail to admit the importance of their being supported by men of their own metal. to be controlled and disposed of as some desire. Na one can look back over the history of past engagements.

and feel that they are badly treated We ." nor a dreadful defeat into a "change of base. would be sent out of Virginia to his own State. liberty. They tend to make the men flag from our hands.'* But the iron yoke of despotism would be riveted upon our necks. and Mississippi. I could feel much more confident of the campaign. and fear I have to call upon them too often. to lay aside all their sectional prejudices and selfish' We . And there is no one so blind. yours. and the heel call upon our of Yankee oppression grind our children in the dust. I rely upon those we have in all tight places. It is also stated. nor with a proper view to the final success of our arms.) there is a single Texan that will say for us to return.the future destiny of our young Republic. have stood upon the very ground where they were willing that none should occupy more dangerous ground. upon our army. > GENERAL LEWIS T. would no longer be under the necessity of transforming a grand "skedaddle" into a "strategic movement. and there see the importance and confidence he places in them in view of success. that an attempt has been made to remove our regiments We beyond the Mississippi to rest and recruit put upon the invalid list have no doubt but that the motive which prompted our friends. It was written four days after the battle at Sharpsburg. (in which our all life. 21. which we have won for the Lone Star Such efforts do harm. I here spread it before the reader. will be apparent to all and especially will this appear. worse than others which is dissatisfied. for they ^ ! . > Near Martinsburg. not to so. WIGFALL : . . do more. is embarked. and then Louisiana. or refuse to send us the men to fill up our thinned ranks ? think not. And we hope our friends will not. "General: I have not yet heard from you. both for ourselves and our children. and were willing to stand where the storm broke in its fury. and sacred honor.68 choice. But that is not from a broad philanthropy. " R. "HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF " VIRGINIA. General. when they read the letter of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army to General Wigfall. Sept. in honor to whose arms the lips And McClellan of the . where our men covered themselves with glory on the field. until the last man We hope that the Legislature of North Carolina will be made to feel the ^withering contempt that now rests upon Governor Brown. which embraces the whole Confederacy. I now ask. and none have made a brighter record. and it will not require the foresight of a prophet to tell '. and send them on to me. which you promised to endeavor to raise for the army. 1862. is the love which they have for the men of our State. for the course it has'recently taken. for the factious opposition which he has raised against the Government. Please make every possible exertion to get them in. With a few more such regiments as Hood now has. nor win greater laurels for their State than themselves. if. one and all." Very respectfully. which the whole country pours that he has failed to see the just indignation upon the Governor of Georgia.nations of Europe now glow with anxious praise.This course persisted in. countrymen. if the request Arkansas would soon file her and so on. You must help us in this matter. strike the honors. And all are proud to see the people and 'soldiers of that State condemning his course in unmeasured terms. as an example of daring and bravery. E LEE. As this letter will give pleasure and pride to every Texan. with regard to the new Teras regiments. in view of the importance which we sustain to the final success of our cause. And what would be the effect produced ? remove our regiments home were granted claim. if left to their own fought. They have fought grandly and nobly. need them much. both at home and in other portions of our army. They had come to fight. and we must have more of them. by persisting in their opposition in this matter. Ho wants to bo noticed.

having his horse shot at Manassas and twice at Sharpsburg. and continued until his State seceded. and was in every battle with the Brigade up to the 1st of October. captured December. view ness. In this position he has given the most entire satisfaction. A. eliciting the praise of the Generals upon different occasions yet he has passed all unscathed and unhurt. Manassas. CAPTAIN JAMES HAMILTON. (October 1st. 1862. especially at Gaines's Farm. September. 1842. and emigrated to Texas in 1835 was a member of the celebrated Mier Expedition. W. with the honor of having been under fire on fourteen different occasions some of them the bloodiest Of the campaign. G. with the rank of Fi*t Lieutenant of Company A. Is a Kentuckian. But he has passed unhurt through every fight. and Sharpsburg. West Point . for a loader. when he resigned . H. and was placed on the staff of General Taylor. 1846i In 1861 he entered the service of the Confederacy. when the regiment WftS organized. With him he continued. and in his twenty-second year. And ot his coolness and gallant y on the field. . MAJOR B. through the engagements around Richmond after which. Texas country's history. and from Frankfort... and started for that . I. He received an appointment as Major in the Quartermaster's Department in Kentucky. he was transferred to the staff of General Hood. A. burning wi the grandeur of our cause. Is a native of South Carolina. we will help us roll the tide of victory onward. who has never been incapa citated for a single moment from commanding his men by intemperance no T been absent from the post of duty twenty-four hours.) up to the present time. and a messenger has gone to bring them forward. BLANTON. while they hasten the end of o need not fear. We will hail their coming with pleasure. troops will be sent to her relief. when he was appointed Assistant Adjutant General on General Hood's staff. from the time he took coi umand of the 4th. 1861. and promise them. and. His unflinching courage and gallantry won for him the high respect and praise of the command. Was . rendering the most efficient service in every battle. . and the President has ordered the desired number of Texans.69< * n * ne living fire of patriotism. born in Tennessee. be subsisted from the Prairies of Texas. And although his coolness and gallantry enabled him to go when and wherever sent not shunning to pass through the midst and fury of the battle. and was present at the battle of Monterey. For the Western Army must. and let the whole people. and still rally ar ound our country's battle-flag and the grace of God. He took position on the staff on the 1st of May. Let Texas se^tfus the men. I am proud to le^rn that Hood has been made a Major-General. lt^>2. with the rank of Captain. and helJ avprisoner in Mexico and Perote twenty-one months. that predict for him a future as brilliant as his record is clear and honorable. and at Sharpsburg he met with the same misfortune. G. one of the best officers in the Confederacy. D. At Sharpsburg his horse was shot under him. He entered in 1858. 5th Texas Regiment and. we feel safe in saying they wL ! make a bright record in our ur toil and suffering. for. which office he filled until March. SELLERS. A. acting gallantly and with credit to himself. ai^. with Hood 1 to lead them. received the appointment of Adjutant.. . he has had no superior. tendered his services to his country. December 25th. In th^spring of 1846 he entered the service in the Mexican war. Notwithstanding his youthful appearance and delicate constitution. H. at his own request. and returning. if an attempt is made to invade the State. he has a brave heart and lion-like courage. C. ! _ . by come off conquerors in the end. was made First Lieutenant in Captain Tom Green's company of Colonel Hays' regiment of Rangers. A. Since penning the above lines. At Gaines's Farm his horse was kilted. with jather effeminate features. i n a great measure.

" and removed from Jackson. of Richmond. but the State of '." and year 18 afterwards took charge of the " Mississippian. they pres^h. and a close. of quick perception and excellent forecast. and spend a week or two at a time in the city or town nearest at hand. was elected Chairman of the Democratic State Convention at Austin. on the field Parm.these positions he discharged his duty with satisfaction and credit. before the . 1862. and fared and shared with them. But he. on arriving at Richmond.ted him a gold-headed cane. was born in Charlotte county. logical reasoner. he received the appointment of Lieutenant-Colonel. in order to comprehend the end and aim of politicians. . and his enemies felt the weight of his fine earnest solicitation of the leading members of the Democratic party of the State of Texas. to the city of Austin. In all . Js from Waco. -he would have received the promotion of Brigadier General. 1862. LIEUTENANT D. was allowed to return. he disposed of his interest in the " Mississippian. for. and being a warm personal friend of the President. And we have reliable information. (And as a testimonial of the opposition. on the 27th of June. when there is no . Colonel Marshall fell. COLONEL JOHN MARSHALL. Texas. preferred the post of duty to the place of pleasure. -Colonel Marshall was a literary man of liberal views and fine attainments. He had been in the battle of Eltham's Landing and Seven Pines. When the 4th Regiment Texas Volunteers was organized. and was to make one of the just wheeling with his regiment most brilliant charges known in history. his return will be greeted with pleasure by both officers and men. that. He was ever watchful for the well being of the Regiment. that he did not wait the full development of events.70 army but. where he conducted the "State Gazette. leave their post in camp. they found that through him they would be able to procure all the necessaries and comforts for the campaign that would be enjoyed by the most favored. . He entered the service a Lieutenant in Company E* 4th Regiment. over Governor Pease. of Gaines' pierced by aminie ball. and served in that capacity until the 16th of March.results of their policy were seen and understood by the masses. Virginia. until the missile of death sought and found the shining mark. when he was received as a Volunteer Aid to General Hood . not only by the army. Many officers. an excellent writer. in 1858. He was promoted to the . and is yet with our command and. His friends knew well the value of his services. when he fell from his horse. by a considerable majority. >and. both by day and night. -and on the 1st of May he was made Ordnance Officer of the Brigade. Commanding the 4th Texas. Virginia . as he is favorite with all. the regiment soon learned to appreciate his value . LIEUTENANT-COLONEL BRADFUTE WARWICK the son of Corban Warwick. in the He was at one time editor of the Vicksburg " Sentinel. His death will be felt and regretted. it seems. We had no braver man in our army than he was.Colonelcy on the 3d of March. But Col.Texas will mourn his fall. M. And at the . having made a reputation as a party leader and an able writer.) He continued to hold this position until he left Texas -to join the army in Virginia. in which the party appreciated him as a leader. ORDNANCE OFFICER." which was the leading organ of the Democratic party. from his town. was not long allowed an opportunity to show his devotion to his country and his gallantry on the field. Mississippi. and." at Jackson. H. had he survived this bloody scene. although the appointment was not altogether satisfactory. insomuch. Texas. possessing high business qualifications. born November . SUBLETT.prospect of an immediate advance of the enemy.

is the subject of a history either ancient or modern. was struggling to be free. and where the Savior of the World had lived and taught. and almost every rock. . Greeoe and Turafforded a wide field of pleasure and literary investigation to his well cultivated mind. trip to the East. and entered upon the study of medicine (having beea thoroughlyprepared at the University of Virginia) in his seventeenth year. however. all his desires for military life. He often wrote back to his friends the most graphic accounts of the ancient relics and living generation through which he passed. he entered the Medical College of New York. with their approbation. and thereby failed to receive a course of training at West Point. he placed his eyes upon an exalted mark and soon his foot-print is seen in the path that leads to a high circle of usefulness. spring. which they killed several of the marauders and lost one of their own men. were revived. And as a second choice began the study of medicine. for. seventy in number. But his trip through Asia and Africa were of greater interest . at so early an age yet. although'not more classic than the former. This was welcome counsel to him. But as he had declined a course which he felt would give Tineasiness and pain to those whom the Scriptures taught him to obey. where he graduated at the close of the first year. for. and not to . This profession. as it opened up before his young and aspiring mind the widest field of benevlence and usefulness. in which he would be charged with the life of others. Venice. he concluded to spend a fewmonths in a tour of Europe. travel. every town and hamlet.71 24th. he went to Paris and prosecuted his studies until the following summer. yet there was more adventure than in other countries. he felt unwUling to assume the responsibilities of a profession. their arrival at Jerusalem they were received with the wildest enthusiasm for the savages had been roaming the country and roblay the inhabitants bing travelers for years. and many other places returning to Paris. the fatigue and exposures. he returned via Constantinople to Europe. river. and he immediately determined on. long bound and trodden under foot. unwilling to spend his time in idleness and also desiring to leave no branch of his profession unattained. On his arrival in Italy he found it in commotion. he made a pedestrian tour of the Desert. from the fact that the great wealth of his family made it unnecessary that he should subject himself to the trials and labors. and he was advised to . visiting the battle-fields of Solferino. and he was fired anew with the prospect of entering upon the profession of arms. he preferred a life of more hazardous enterprise. 1839. . and not only received a diploma but quite a complimentary one. which they put to flight after a severe conflict. When the exercises of the College suspended. which he had yielded at the request of his parents. And ere. sacred or profane. On resuming his studies his health began to fail. That he did not enter upon this arduous field of labor with a view to its lucrative rewards is quite evident. and this was the first time they had been overcome key m On . even in its highest degree. for a long period. Having visited almost all the places of interest in the country where Prophets and Apostles had dwelt and traveled. where every city and village. and much preferring the life of a civilian for him. And being only nineteen. his party of seventeen men encountered a band of Arabs. After attending a course of lectures at the Medical College at Richmond. And it was his lot to be in Palestine on the eve of the great massacre of the Christians by the Druses. he reluctantly yielded his own ambition to their wishes.he was aware. Italy. On his return from Jericho. But his parents not consenting. to which this calling would necessarily lead. but not willing to live in the enjoyment of the world's blessings without being a blessing to others. Italy. His estate would have furnished him all the comforts and luxuries of life . with an ardent temperament and ambitious aspiration. was not his first choice. qualifying himself for the science of war and having qualified himself to heal. every mountain and valley.

"I wish the appointment of which was in the following ^e. We had yesterday the pleasure of meeting with Doctor Bradfute Warwick. have rarely been more pleased with a rencounter. useless." He was unable to conceal that fire. which. We trust our young Virginian may share fully the undying fame which shall attach to the deliverers of Italy. which so inflict . and without Ihe least appearance of bravado or presumption. At the end of two months he resigned his commission and took his place in the ranks as a common soldier. and he continued with him until he arrived in triumph at Capua. as our readers are aware. idle. Doctor W. They are narrated with great modesty. bis native city. And serving in his new capacity. he gave him a commission. and in the terrible charge which should disconcert the foe and contribute so largely to the relief of Richmond. after his return from this brilliant tour in the East. and gave him a place on the Medical Staff. and by his personal baldi. for his bravery and daring during the engagement. 'Italia A day worth ten thousand years of the stagnant. I will get me a rifle and fight on my own hook physic in this war I am determined. Doctor W. he joined the army of GariNot content with this. is an exceedingly intelligent young man. when they objected to his military course. fought in all his battles and left him only when he resigned at Capua. Deeds like this must not be permitted to go unpraised. and burning with love of the sacred cause of liberty. no doubt. recruiting for the Dictator's army. that he would fall on the bloody field. And we will here remark. He joined Garibaldi at Palermo. is a Captain is who. from a common soldier to a Captain. But he did not remain long on this duty. in the Sardinian service.' . but place me anywhere . as he desired." a short sketch of him. and. . for to fight or if you do not. because I think by it I can do more good." It has been our pleasure to read. But presenting himself to Garibaldi. having a knowledge of men as well as of nations. he could not feel willing to offer himself in any other capacity than that of a Surgeon in the army. It will be a proud day for him when the shout of liberated millions shall proclaim. won for himself the Cross of the Legion of Honor. During this time Lieutenant-Colonel Warwick participated in eleven regular and also rendered much valuable engagements. has been serving with Garibaldi throughout his late campaign. young gentlemen of family and fortune. Victor He literally fought his Emanuel having adopted the soldiers of Gariway up. and yet he has already been in eleven pitched battles and innumerable skirmishes. It was at Palermo that he identified his fortunes with this military chieftain. We but twenty-one. in the Richmond "Dispatch. that we give it in full : and deecls of this gallant young " AN OFFICER OF GARIBALDI. But the eye of his leader was upon him. Doctor W. when he abandoned the idea of a military career. and gave us a most interesting account of his adventures. ^ . he repaired to London.72 wounds. he was called out on the battle-field and promoted to the rank of captain. viz: Surgeon. and by the successful manner in which he performed this duty. It was too near the place for which his ambition was struggling. baldi. At one time he was sent over into Calabria as a spy. of which the "Southern Literary Messenger" speaks in the following language " What an example Doctor Bradfute "Warwick has set the young men of wealth throughout the South Scorning the delights of Parisian life. At another time he was sent to London. semiis free!' idiotic existence which the great mass of men born to wealth pursue. : . besides many skirmishes Service in other important matters connected with the success of the campaign. from a state of siege The great Dictator received him cordially. that his parents had but little idea. to the great satisfaction of the commander. like himself. exertions succeeded in enlisting three hundred recruits many of them. beautifully and correctly presents the bearing officer. he had long since believed to be extinct.

and registered his name with the States. he remained but a short time. through the whole period which elapsed from the time he embarked until he reached the American Continent. and as there had been no opportunity of testing the coolness and bravery of their young Virginia officer." On his return from Calabria he received information of the troubles in his native land. At the battle of Gaines's Farm. From this time be won upon the feelings and confidence of those who had objected to him because he was a Virginian. June 27th. was left to conjecture. passengers on board. to prevent him pursuing his way unmolested.our officers which feeling. . like the wind moves the waves of the mighty deep. determined to identify himself with the Southern cause." Confor the cause for which sequently he hastened to join the Southern Army and having they had begun to marshal their hosts was that of freedom already offered himself upon that altar. And ag was bound for a northern port he knew not the destiny that awaited him on his arrival. preparatory to that memorable charge which broke the right arm of the enemy's power. who was often heard to speak of his young Aid in the warmest terms. but was ready to advance and meet the foe. . and waving it oy^er their heads. and. and set sail on his homeward-bound voyage on the and his mind following morning. He immediately resigned and set out for America. On reaching home. cteered them on to glory and ta . Colonel Marshall fell soon after the regiment entered the field in front of the enemy's guns. state of public feeling. and carried by. he hastened to the place where the camp-fires were burning and whether Virginia ever became a member of the Southern Confederacy or not. it in hand. in consequence of his military reputation and daring spirit. many of the men had their fears as to his efficiency on the field. He had entered the army in the Old World to assist in the common cause of Liberty. although passionately fond of his family. our troops on the field. was placed on the staff of General Wise. . he could not enter the service under the folds of "Sic Semper Tyrannis. with the rank of Captain. He reached Charleston only in time to see Fort Sumter surrender to Beauregard. The sound of the bugle was moving the heart of a great But as Virginia nation. in Western Virginia. He here won great credit for himself. he picked up a which had left been some of l>attle-nag. which in its course was to sweep over first brightening and then blasting his brilliant career had not sufficiently culminated nor broken over his path. had not formally placed herself in the ranks with her Southern sisters. I believe. is common with the soldiers of every State. But at the battle of Eltham's Landing he satisfied them that he would not only stand his ground. which he regretted. But pn his arrival the storm-cloud. On reaching Paris he ascertained that the Vanderbilt was ready to sail for the United He made all his arrangements.73 an six months! That speaks far more than Captain Wanrick's modesty allows him to say.' even among western solaiers. When the Ordinance of Secession was passed and Virginia became a Southern State he returned. As we were advancing. Major Warwick was made Lieutenant-Colonel. LieutenantColonel Warwick was then in command. he. but what was to be the condition of affairs . he was the subject of alternate hopes and fears. not because they did not like Virginians. when the Texas troops were organized near Eichmond. but because of their own State pride they felt that we should have -had Texans for . and. and none behaved more gallantly than he did on that day. His eyes and heart were fixed on home was occupied and his thoughts absorbed with the new and undeveloped events about to transpire on a theatre to which he was more nearly allied. And thus. on his return. When Hood took rank as Brigadier-General. he was honored with the appointment of Major to the 4th Eegiment. When he started out on his trans-Atlantic journey he left a nation smiling with peace and rejoicing in prosperity and wealth. JBut Home and Liberty are now blended in the same scene. as he wished to participate in every contest for liberty. and the the vessel .

About the time he completed his course he left Kentucky with a company of volunteers to join the Texans in 1835 in their struggle for independence. but by his industry and economy purchased his liberty at eighteen. and begun the study of medicine as soon as he had made sufficient literary advancement to enable him to do so. and was one of its ablest In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate. He had passed the second line of the enemy's defences with his men. He was one of the members of the Convention that passed the Ordinance of Secession. ROBERTSON ' "Was born in Woodford county. and without means. He had gone to school regularly only three months prior to his 18th year. and on leaving him. and during the years 1839 and 1840. They joined in the pursuit of the enemy to the Rio Grande. the savages were made to fear and feel the force of his command. which he held until the Army of the Republic was furloughed in June. we have reason to hope that he lives beyond the land of misfortune in the regions of peace. and whether you go down or come through safely. A man of high military talent and high literary and social attainments." and led on to the field. Kentucky. And tenant-Cobnelcy of the 5th Texas Regiment on arriving at Richmond. ever speak of him in terms <5f unmeasured praise. On the 6th of July he was relieved by death of all his sufferings. and was one of the first to raise a and hasten to the contest. when a minie ball pierced his right breast and he fell mortally wounded. capable of adorning in the high circle which nature had indicated. he was again called to the field and put in command of a regiment. and Intranspired after the independence of Texas both with the Mexicans ^ dians until annexation with the United States. and he was promoted to the rank of Captain. when Colonel Archer received the appointment of Brigahis condier-General. he said. elected to the State Legislature. B.74 Tictory. The battle of San Jacinto was fought while they were en route from New Orleans to Velasco. it shall be well with you. and at the age of twelve was left an orphan. He was promoted to the Lieu-in 1848 he was and most efficient members. He then resumed his profession of medicine in Washington county." He replied. both before and after he fell. which he then saw was coining. The 4th Texas will. BRIGADIER-GENERAL J. and at that early day advocated the necessity of pieparing for a COD test with the Yankees. "Then how do you feel in view of such a result?" He replied. Dr. we asked him how he felt in view of the anticipated struggle. and for which no pains had been spared in fitting him to move. company . on the 2d of June. And knowing the state of his mind. He was an active participant in all the stirring events which. "I never prayed so fervently nor so constantly during any day of my life as I have on this day. "If we have an " engagement to-day. and ons of Virginia's bravest sons. and think of his deeds with the greatest pride. For about two hours before he received that mortal wound. His funejral was attended by the Rev. ''I will. we added. he took the rank of Colonel and as to the gallantry of . He was bound out for the period of his minority." After a few sentences more the command moved forward. I expect to go down. while recounjpg the incidents of this eventful campaign. "Put your trust in the Son of God. 1837. While his family will treasure his honors as an inheritance bequeathed. and acknowledge him worthy their ancient name. Thus ends the brilliant career of one of our most gallant officers. Minnegerode. But he was not long to enjoy this triumph in the full bright beams* with which it will radiate the brow of his command in future time. but owing to the unsettled condition of affairs with Mexico and the hostilities of the Indians. and was about to plant his flag upon a battery which they had captured.

of which he has been in command since the battle of Games' Farm . speaks more In He is now in command of thd his praise than I am able otherwise to do. Manassas and Boonsboro Gap. By gtrict economy he had managed to save a small sum of money. He soon made many warm personal and political friends. Anderson county. and with his men. But the recommendation of Gen. he has been unable since his wound at Games' Farm to be on the field. In 1S54 he entered the service of his country in a campaign of about six months on the Western frontier as Orderly Sergeant in Captain Walker's company. preceding pages have already named battle was so great that he had to Physical exhaustion after the last be hauled off the field. He was elected to represent Tyler county . By his constant and prompt attention to his duties he won the good He took feelings advocating the claims of J. he was bound out by his elder brother to a printing establishment in the city of Nashville. Being an able editor as well as a good practical printer. and possessed of considerable native intellect. was born in or near Nashville. and his name stands recorded against the old tyranny and for Southern independence. He was a zealous State -Rights Democrat. and at the time of his death was about thirty years of age. officer is P. of the 1st Texas regiment. Major Matt Dale. COL. upon his arrival in Palestine. and was an able advocate through the columns of his paper .in the State Convention. His literary attainments are good. and in May." a. A. He made a good member of that body. His father dying when he was very young. where he soon took a favorable stand for one so young. he well deserves to have rank as he has command for although Colonel Rainey is a gallant officer. Tennessee. with which. Hood. and at the age of 21 was admitted to the bar. a native of Kentucky was born February. and was distinguished for his sound practical views upon all subjects of legislation. in company with four other Companies they reached Richmond. an active part in the last Presidential canvass in the United States. LIEUT. Returning home he raised a company and repaired to Montgomery to tender his services to the young Republic. He continued this business in Nashville iintil he was about twenty-one years of age. he succeeded in making the "Advocate" a very useful and influential paper. . Freeman's Ford. He was no orator. . and confidence of the command. Colonel Work has been present in every battle. in every march of the campaign. for which he afterwards fell a martyr. November 1st. the testified. His Company was accepted. and was thereby prevented from participating in the engagement at Sharpsburg. Breckinridge for that position. and the appointment of this brare officer to the rank of Brigadier General. and from his gallantry in the field and constancy with his command. but wielded more influence in a legislative body than more ostentatious and less substantial members. 1832. who fell while gallantly charging the strong lines of the enemy at Sharpsburg. and became one of its editors. 1862. 1861. After his return from the Legislature he continued the publication of his paper until the commencement of the struggle for Southern independence. WORK. MAJOR MATT DALE. At the expiration of twelve months he was elected Lieutenant-Colonel of the 1st Texas regiment. Texas Brigade in the army of the Potomac. he purchased an interest in the ''Trinity Advocate. by a zealous prosecution of his studies and a close application to business. newspaper published in that town. in This gallant Breckinridge county. and in 1857 was elected fcy the voters of Anderson county to represent them in the State Legislature.75 xluct at Games' Farm. he very soon acquired a thorough knowledge of the art of printing. at which time he removed to Texas and located in Palestine. C. Being a young man of strictly moral and sober habits.

although divided sentiment and martial power. he soon became known through all North-Eastern Texas as an energetic. Our men were mowed down like grass. 1861. and in a few moments breathed his last. made a desperate charge." He was a kind." and known as company A. which was a part of the 1st Texas Regiment. but in the estimation of the writer. which had been heavily reinforced. and immediately after secession he engaged actively in raising one of the first three companies raised on Texas soil to defend the South. in all of which he acquitted himself in an honorable manner. and was called the "Marion Rifles. H. He was no office seeker. COL. rained missiles of death from their small arms into our advancing columns. until the 20th day of May. of Company G. One had but to know him well to know the number of his virtues. of which he was elected Second Lieutenant. In the meantime he participated in the battle of Eltham's Landing. and fortunately without injury to his person. was elected Major by a vote nearly unanimous. indeed. Here it was that he fell. Though engaged in an occupation so strictly private. R. He leaves several brothers and many warm and devoted friends to mourn and avenge his loss. and Jno. and upon his arrival in New Orleans on the 10th of July. Black was one of the leaders in getting up this company of pa- liberal minded citizen. generous and magnanimous friend. While he was thus standing the fatal bullet penetrated his body in a vital part. a noble and devoted patriot. seemingly as cool and collected as if nothing was going on. it was thought prudent to order a halt. and. positions upon him. BLACK. "like the summer dried fountain. The 1st Texas. no purer or more noble spirit ever grew up on Kentucky soil. H. yet it has been as fruitful in gallant and noble spirits as any State in the South. It is saying much. together with two brothers. and various engagements of minor importance. there stood Major Dale. intelligent and its political Harvey H. emigrated to Texas. Woodward. Upon the secession of the Southern States he was amongst the first to respond to the call of his country. When the halt was ordered. At the age of eighteen he. Captain. and seemed lost to all sense of danger. and forced overwhelming numbers of the enemy to retire in confusion before them. 1862. 3861. He continued to serve as Second Lieutenant of his Company. He took an active part in the various battles around Richmond. can ill afford to spare such a man and such an officer but he is gone. The company was organized and mustered into service on the 27th day of April. the second battle of Manassas. and canister from their batteries. 1862. in native of Kentucky. Black was a mighty disruption which was about to rend the American Union. a faithful and wise statesman. he joined heart and hand with the secession party of this State. Major Dale had been first in the charge. and he fell. and our ranks being so terribly thinned. it became necessary to reorganize the 1st Texas Regiment. and confined himself chiefly to stock raising. where he settled in Hopkins county. when his need was sorest. and did so by aiding in the organization of a company of volunteers in Palestine. No braver or better man fell 011 the field of Sharpsburg. and of the right of secession. and what few of the men that were left had laid down for protection from the perfect hail-storm of bullets that were making the air hideous with their noise. but his gallant conduct and general affability won him a host of who forced friends. the subject of this sketch. At the first intimation of the . and a heroic and gallant soldier. was mustered into the service for the war. which State. He left his home on the 23d day of June.76 ef that political doctrine. with the other regiments composing the Texas Brigade. At Sharpsburg he again went into the charge. of all who knew him. while their infantry. 1st Texas regiment. and Lieutenant Matt Dale. The enemy poured a perfect hurricane of grape We LIEUT. where he acted with great coolness and bravery. On the 20th day of May.

He galloped in front of the lines . he expressed his willingness to go into the ranks. one of our batteries opened on a schooner in the river and forced the crew to abandon her in the channel only about four hundred yards from the Maryland shore. he ably filled his position. On another occasion. After running two hundred yards the regiment halted a moment for breath. L.77 triots. and when the enemy were broken as the waves dashed from the rock." and Black spurring in front of the colors. when a ball from some Yankee skulkex . and quietly rowed back unharmed by the muskets and cannon that were fired after them. at the head of fifteen or twenty volunteers. and Black was at run through all their camps." said he. and sent the balance panic stricken to wake up their whole army. but proached him and asked if his hand pained him. After a tedious journey we arrived in Bichinond on the 28th of May. and " Follow me. when it became certain that the Texians would at last meet the foe face to face on the field. When the rifles of the 1st Texas thundered their first volley at the Californians (?). While in winter quarters near Dumfries his restless spirit would not permit him to remain idle in camp. he procured two boats and set out across the Potomac to visit the Yankees. Black and his comrades finished their observations. In the Spring Captain Black received the promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel. Black. did not waste his time. Black and his company was on picket duty on the river. On the morning of the 7th of May. They moved silently unobserved close to the Maryland shore. Here by the exertions of Hon. waved his hat. and change the spirit of their dreams. Wigfall these companies were made the nucleus of the 1st Texas regiment. when Colonel Black dismounted from his horse nnd was standing by him. By the 1st of August the regiment was fully organized. the regiment sprang after him as one man. when the writer ap" Not much. and on the 4th of May reached New Orleans. On the 28th of April. These men. pay their own way. T. He was constantly present during the fatiguing inarches to Yorktown and back to Eltham's Landing. - He immediately obtained orders to move to fill the vacancy. and soon became in all respects a good officer. though not in time to participate in the first battle. roll to which numbered 115 men. I never saw more enthusiasm than the countenance of Colonel Black expressed. A The determination not to follow but to lead his men into action marked his bearing. but his exertions in raisins the company entitled him to some position. 1st Texas !" Instantly. the words had scarcely passed his lips. and chased the foe almost to their gun. and poured into them a volley that killed and wounded several. 186]. they left Texas. While detained here the post of Captain became vacant. too impatient to await the slow process of reporting to the Governor.on his white horse and cheered his men. One night in January. consequently the company was detained about three weeks. when Capt. Here they were informed that the Confederate Government would not receive troops from west Of the Mississippi. holding up at the same time his hand. With squads of volunteers from the regiment he performed several daring feats. but indefatigably studied the duties of his position. of the State for duty. This they did at mid-day and in the face of a furious infantry and artillery fire from the Yankees on shore. During the short two months of life that remained to him after his promotion. however. General Hocid in person now gave the order for us to by " charge. determined at once to go to Virginia. and if necessary. so he was unanimously elected 3u lieutenant. The schooner's colors and several other articles of value were brought off ky the party. which had been pierced a minie ball. and caused the long once elected to Virginia. with a yell that doubtless exclaimed. struck terror to the heart of every Yankee. Capt.boats. when they perceived a company of the enemy's pickets. As lie did not profess to be a military man. his eye flashed with joy and enthusiasm. Captain Black and Lieutenants Wincherly and Waterhouse and a portion of Company immediately volunteered to board the schooner and fire her. and was immediately ordered to Manassas.

After the fall of the above named officers he was severely wounded in the abdomen. In 18fiO he organized and commanded a company on the western frontier. The decrees of Gocl openino. Black.of what promised to beloved are wise and just. On the llth of July he was promoted to the LieutenantColonelcy. *As soon as he was able to take the field again he reported for duty but. but a braver or more patriotic spirit. company On returning . and Mayor two terms. and in his thirty-second year. he fell on his first field be a most brilliant career. when he removed to Texas and settled in Gonzales. on learning that no more twelve months' men would be received. when he. in home he raised a company for twelve months. we've whipped them. After the Ordinance of Secession he raised a company and repaired to San Antonio to aid General McCulloch in taking that place. where he lias since resided. which was changed as to term of service and were mustered in for the war. H. when he procured a license and moved to the city of Austin in the fall. being the senior officer.73 He lived long enough to know in my arms. Virginia. when the enemy were captured at that place. and almost his last words were. nor quit the field. to assist in driving him and his Key is one of our bravest men. raised in Travis connty. after the fatigue and exhaustion of the battle at Boonsboro Gap. Columbia." and at the Thus. FOURTH TEXAS. . in 1850. and held various municipal offices. when he sunk " Thank God. Is from Maury county. never died for his country than LieutenantColonel H. at the early age of twenty-eight. Tennessee. W . until fainting from loss of blood he was compelled to retire. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL B. from tbe fact that he was He was elected captain of the first April. for twelve months' service in the Confederate Army and. that was mustered into the service and. to the Secretary of When the companies were organized into a regiment he took his position on the right of the 4th Texas and. Captain Key was made Major. but his duty would not allow him to leave his post. KEY. and spent l851-'52 in the Law School at the Cumberland University. Colonel Key is a native of South Carolina. but ho was not present at Gaines's Farm. field sufficient testimony as to his gallantry as an officer. He was also among the first to pitch his tents on the San Marcos. Lebanon. gallant Lieutenant-Colonel Carter. which position he held until after the battle of Gaines's Farm. where he pursued his profession with success until 1854. C. FOURTH TEXAS. in his twenty-fifth year. that we had gained the victory. he was placed by General Van Dorn in command of the first five companies and ordered to report them ar at Richmond. knowing at the same time that all was safe under the command of the . he was compelled to go to the rear. COLONEL Colonel J. after the promotion of Colonel Hood. 1861. of twenty that were called for. and his conduct on the bears Mexicans from our borders. he enrolled his command for the war. with another company. CARTER. and took his place on the left flank. He commanded his company at Eltham's Landing and Seven Pines. was appointed to the chief command in the regiment. at the call of Van Dorn. under Van Dorn. G. And he was again in command of a company at Indian ola. pierced his side. When upon the organization of the 4th Texas he was the second captain in rank. in consequence of the fall of the brave Marshall and the gallant Warwick. viz: Alderman. or one more and regretted by his comrades. and was admitted to the bar in 1842. He was the years graduated at Jackson College. . during the time of the Cortinas troubles. and was the first company. F. In 1844 he removed to Louisiana. where he begun the profession of law. then in possession of the Yankees.aud went forward with the first detachment of the twenty companies that were ordered to Virginia. City Attorney. .

but by kind attentions he recovered and reported for duty a short time before the beginning of the Maryland campaign. and with much more comfort to his men than many others who passed over the same route. his regiment found him to be everything that was necessary on those trying occasions. where he arrived on the 9th of September. Private J. his energy would not allow him to wait. Stinson. The single purpose and single aim to do the will of his people. and immediatelyorganized a Camp of Instruction. made up from Montgomery and Walker counties. the Confederate Army was retreating from South Mountain to Sharpsburg. In 1857 he was honored by the citizens of his county with a seat in the Legislature. But as he desired to enter the field he took command of a company. and was incorporated into the 5th Texas regiment. When .. as an advocate of State Sovereignty. and in 1849 emigrated to Texas continued his profession until 1851. and when Lieutenant-Colonel Upton fell. and rely upon the slow and uncertain arrangements of the Government for transportation . a youth of only eighteen summers. POWELL a native of Montgomery county. when he married. that early in spirit and gentlemanly bearing. and especially in the last two. was forced to stop by the wayside to take a little repose when . His condition was such (typhoid fever) when we left him. COLONEL now in B. and repaired to Richmond. M. D. On both fields the struggle was long and bitter. But his gallantry and endurance was only equaled by the bravery and unalterable determination of the men under his command. Dorn We might also add. He commanded the 4th at Freeman's Ford. C. and good for his country. if this war lasts long. where he was admitted to the bar. has GALLANTRY OF PRIVATE STINSON. Manassas and Sharpsburg. His course in the Legislature was marked by that straight forward integrity which is so much dreaded by political tricksters. And it is under circumstances like these that the best material is put to the severest test. and we are of opinion.79 command was leaving for McClellan's rear. C. and settling a farm in Montgomery county he retired from the practice of law for the more quiet and pleasant pursuit of the farm. He is Alabama. towards him the confidence and esteem of both. but furnishing his own teams he moved immediately. in the second battle of Manassas. being exhausted from hard marching and loss of sleep. After the death of Major Whaley he received the rank of Major. of Company G. In 1861 he was appointed A. were so marked that he had the confidence of the House. that he will hold high rank left sick at Charlottesville as the among Is Confederate officers.. that we did not believe he would ever rejoin his command. by Governor Clark. in which he proved himself a field officer of whom Texas deserves to be proud. In twelve hours after the notice was received his company was organized and he was on the wav to the place designated. Colonel Powell was placed in command of the 5th Texas. officers and men. Each one had witnessed the setting of the second sun before the enemy gave up the strife. command of the 5th Texas. No man in the Texas Brigade is more esteemed as a soldier and an officer. . When he left Texas for Virginia. The position of Colonel becomingvacant by the promotion of Colonel Robertson. 1st Texas Regiment. he became His brave won for 1861 he received notice from General Yan that he needed help to capture the Yankee forces then at Indianola. His readiness for emergencies and self-reliance have characterized him through the campaign. the Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment.

C. it is evident that they have done a great amount of good for there is nothiag better calculated to stir up all the soldier in the composition. as well as the peaceful enjoyment of his own little When away home. AN EXAMPLE WORTHY OF IMITATION. as is too often the case with Surgeons in charge of the Litter Corps. This part of our organization has. but it is to be hoped hi* meritorious conduct will be properly appreciated and rewarded yet. its soft notes on the night air the thoughts of fatiguing inarches. . Virginia. and assured him that nis conduct should not soon be forgotten. no one made a better . 1861. And tha bugle's blast at reveille reminds him. and to his guardianship has been committed the w^al of a great nation. until detailed to his present position and. leaving our young hero master of the field. of Company Q. been deemed of but But to the mind of an little advantage in the camp.soldier. however. As the safest place. by . Tais principle was well understood by the great Xapoleon. and made those under his control do the same Wofford. when the foremost one fell and th'3 balance bro"ke and fled. some half dozen or more. observing man. if it ever lay in his power. As to his efficiency and close attention to the suffering. while in ranks. DANIEL COLLINS AND THE BRASS BAND. drive the men are weary and exhausted. 1st Texas Regiment. He served in the ranks from the time he entered the service in June. He was. as there was no time to be lost. A. to the mind of many. which he appropriated to his own use and then made all poesible speed to overtake our army. I had an opportunity to witness while near Winchester.n anJ corn-stalk gun. but went as Colonel far as the regiment. by it held the armies of France chained to and led thdni through to Russian snows and over Alpine mountains} whither- soever he pleased. but finally succeeded in getting safely to his command. of the 18th Georgia Regiment. But band. so he determined to make fight and. to avoid being captoted. He did not remain a mile to the rear. He found upon his person a splendid six-shooter. but would bs remembered by him to his latest day. Each little man has his toy dru. and thus grew up from the cradle a man anl a soldier. Crombie has continued to perform the duties of Assistant Surgeon in his rearimeut. CROMBIB. consequently. then in command of the Texas Brigade. . so hard pressed by the enemy that he had to cross Antietam creek a good distance below where our army had crossed it . complimented him on the battle-field for his gallant and humane conduct on that trying occasion. very near him. and he was hard pressed the advance guard of the enemy. drawing only the pay of a private. and had command of the Litter Corps of the regiment on that bloody day. and quietly lull the soldier to rest. Dr. He perceived at a glance that it would be utterly impossible to make his escape by flight. he left the road and took to tne forest.he awoke he found that the entire army had passed. proceeded far before he discovered a squad of Yankees. bearing with him the elegant six-shooter which he had captured. who would have the mothers or' France teach their children the science of war ere they could handle the gun or could scarcely climb over the door-step. they served as guard to the Knapsacks and Wan- . as it rises and swell* in harmonious euphony from a well trained band. he at once fired upon the foe. and that ha would have his gallantry rewarded. and found that the victim of his unerring marksmanship was a Yankee captain. and. however. . Nipjleon knew that music had a powerful charm upon the his will soul. or service in the field. as he is aroused from slumber. make music for the braves was not all the service rendered by the For being organized. Young Stinson thereupon very boldly approached the lifeless body of the Yaakae. that he is a soldier . of the man than the thrilling tones of martial music. was Acting Assistant Surgeon at the battle of Sharpsburg. He had not.

much-better practical surgeons than any of the surgeons ia whose hands the knife was placed except a pomparativelj small number. The supply of medicines is yet limited. There are now scores of young men who had never begun the practice of medicine before the commencement of the war. and with but little food. if hot quite. that no one will fail to see and appreciate it. A woman is to be seen supervising the culinary department. which tb. never dressed a gun-shot wound* This was. Medicines and Hospital room ana appliances generally. to be present IMPROVED CONDITION OF THE HOSPITALS. We had many gVod physicians. In the earlier part of the campaign the sick and wounded suffered much for the want of efficient Surgeons. the older ones have been making more than equal advancement. and opens a> wide field for usefulness. The reasons are obvious and many. though practising phvsic for years. The importance of so doing is so obvious.e men wounded as they were brought in from the battle as it was our lot. the laundry and wardrobe. kots. the soldiers as it will be a source of pride to the women of the $outh as long as they live. And the last though not the least among the arrangements which will add to the comfort of all concerned. both for the comfort of the sick man and the convenience of hii friends. In the next place. And in addition to all the improvements mentioned. but the great accessions and improvements in all the other branches of the healing department are so many and great. at any one time. ourmisfortune. more their and. In the beginning of this war we were as completely wanting in the healing department as in any other. in labored with take we saying they untiring zeal for days and pleasure nights together without sleep. on two occasions. and deeds of love and mercy to the mothers of our country. and also as nurses ftc tiy} to the Field Infirmary. And although the Surgeon General did take it upon himself to attempt to give me a little lecture for quarreling a little with some of the Surgeons at the Chimborazo Hospital for the manner in which they treated some of our men. who come to look after and do offices of kindness for them. rules and regulations of the hospitals have also been systematized and to the comfort of the patients. although a great want of skill and fitness for army surgery. that we will here mention. We had been living at peace with ourselves and with all the nations so long that we had but very few Surgeons who understood Military Surgery. It is a position of honor. which. but they bail never been called |ion to' F . Nothing could have been suggested that will add moje to the comfort and cheer of these houses of suffering. as well as to the convenience of their friends. in a great measure. consequently. and many who were well qualified for civil surgery.81 could not carry into the fight. is the quartering of the soldiers of different States together. that they very much make amends for this desideratum. have' to be quartered for treatment. the nurses have acquired a skill and aptness in their duties. and keeping an eye to the cleanliness of the ward and neatness of the patients. SURGEONS. And at these scenes of Buffering. than a fault on their part. yet I will say that the condition of the hospitals does great credit to him both as a Surgeon and a State officer. lessens the annoyance and pain of the sufferers. Nurses. the regulations hare been so amended as to provide a matron for each Ward. which is hailed with as much satisfaction by. Many of them had. The number and improvements in all the various appliances for the hospitals are almost. as extensive as xhe quarters which have been The adapted fitted up. The room which has been provided is now ample for any number that will ever. And while the young men have been thus qualifying them' selves.

made its appearance in the Whig on the 5th of November 'call : "We attention to the . And with a view to supplying the deficiency. Of the qualifications. the following card. too much cannot be said. Sloan. and many of them to an unaccustomed climate.." TEXANS BAREFOOTED. Leonard. Terrell. amount of clothing ttf keep the men from suffering during the-winter. The 4th Texas. to look for help from our friends.fig nor wcro beat the peculiar forms of diseases as are developed in camp life treat men in the open field and they accustomed in their former practice to sometimes even without tents. the thanks of our men are due. where they were exposed to every change of weather. Davis battle at is attached. Thomas and the Sisters of Charity. both day and night. tentive nursing could afford. And to Dr. which we doubt not will be fully recognized. and in all candor we are compelled to honor them tor their patient endurance and incessant labors by day and by night. Smith. among whom are Drs. assured that the citizens of Richmond need no comments from us to induce a prompt response to the simple and touching arjpeal of the Texans bravest among the brave. November 4th. In consequence of the immense demands upon the Quartermaster's Deit has not been able to furnish the requisite. distinguished itself greatly in the Games' Farm.statement below. and many times under the direct fire of the enemy's uns. the Post Surgeon of Winchester. to which Mr. for he is well suited to his position and does his duty well. On yesterday evening an order was read on dress paiado to the effect that being barefooted would not excuse any man from duty. CONTRIBUTIONS. Dr. . T. The 4th Texas has a special claim upon Richmond. have also favored us with all the benefits th'at kind treatment and at. Those who were without shoes were ordered to make moccasins of raw hide. efficiency. Many have been the unpleasant sentences indulged in by those who have not considered the trying position which they occupy. of South Carolina. Bray. . Francis de Sales. The 4th will ever be indebted to Surgeon Jones for the efficient services he has rendered in the field. as we are too far from home. the prospects are good for a but our men are not all shod. intervening. and we take the liberty of tendering them through this medium for the kindness that we received at his hands for we have not seen an officer since our connection with the service who labored so incessantly. Hill. Roberts and Work. Surgeon J. at the Infirmary St. where Lieutenant-Colonel Bradfute Warwick fell while leading it into action. and witn many difficulties partment. And there are a number of others who have endeared themselves to the men of all the Texas regiments" young men. and we feel Texans will come as near fight. to provide a place and means of comfort for tho hundreds of sick and wounded who were sent to the rear during our Maryland campaign. who have ever heard the complaints of the men with sympathy. * To THE EDITOR I RICHMOND. energy and kindness of the Medical DirecV tor of our division. Crumby. OF THE WHIG: have jnst arrived from Fredericksburg. They will also remember the unceasing labor of Dr. I he 5th will always love Surgeon Breckinridge for his kindness and constant attention both in camp and in battle. . All these disadvantages have been encountered niences have been met. Estis at Dumfries. prefaced by the editor of that excellent paper. and stand in their places. Neither had they been in the habit of taking patients through a course of physic without mediall these inconrecine. Darby.

and will not republisjh it unless it be perfected by th> officers.Nicholas arid Mrs. Miss Mattie M. one hundred and nine shirts. for I would not do one of the brave irjen of our command irijus tice in these reports uncter any consideration. and the Cold is seywe to us. APOLOGY. over RatclifFs. home'with them and work for them as long as they live. but I am persuade. the boys are willing to promise to take then. a box tilled with clothing. I here take 'occasion to sa> that those afagnt without leave may not merit such a charge. and mud) care on 'my. In answer to this appeal we have received from Aliss Virginia Dibrdl. . In return for the liberality extended to our men. Chairman of the Purchasing Committee of the citizens of .-Wm.own regiment. the matter from which it can be written. if they will b K<nd enough to furms^rHiti. on 15th street. from the Ladies Soldiers' Aid Society. contributed over $0000 to the sufferers of this unfortunate city Hood's Minstrels giving over jJU'O of that amount. Mr. I made rnSfr efforts to get a more full account of the 1st and 5th. We acknowledge the kindness shown us last to our friends there for help. I have determined to omit them. Those who are disposed to contribute will please send forward their mite to the depot of the Young. between Main and Cary. which have warmed both the feet and hearts of OUF men.history all that the Brigade desires.shoes and fiye huqdred pairs of socks to complete one suit for our men. and it will be 'forwarded immediately. Garland Hanes. Wm. the claims of the young ladies. part to print them exactly as furnished to me. drop the roll for the present. soil We are THE APPENDIX IN FIRST EDITION.delinquents go unpunished rather than one innocent man suffer "wrongfully we. Paine.Men's Christian Association. who feel it is unnecessary to attempt to ex But by way of acquitting press their gratitude for these unexpactcd favors.S3 any who will meet the next siruggle.Richmond. but added many incidents of the other Texaa regiments. Aiixkaa so many mistakes have been made.) $175 05. Bell. it were better that ninety and nine . ninety-four pairs of gloves. G. (proceeds of a concert at th Buckingham Female Iristi tute. (collected from various contributors. bu* I asik tha recharging their duty good people of Richmond and surrounding ccnintry if they will' stand by arid We are too far from home to look ee them go into the tight without shoes. I promise finally to rnll^ the. hen they are in possession of all the facts. besides a number uf smaller sums and packages. Tlwre have been some complaints for inrifl&SJtoting a partiality ft r my. When 1 began to a^en a joiirnal of our campaign. or the depot of the 4th Texas regiment. cause' obtained credence that I was prep arrl^ra history of the Brigade. thirty rugs. Nelson coftnty. one hundred and forty-six pairs of drawers. so far as I am able. I regret that I have not yet been able to procure theiS^ta o f those regiments so as to make it as v complete as my own. It will require* at least one hundred pairs of . it was my object to k*ep an account -of theAtt alone. and many of he recipients have poured out their life's blood on lh<j =? of Virginia. yet there are numbers of erroii. ' . the brigade after the bat : tie of Fredericksburg. but did not succeed as Before the work was issued fx<Hhe press the "idea had from somt. one hundred pairs of shoes. Young Men's Christian Association. from the far South. therefore. and four hundred aud ten pairs sucks. and although great painsr were taken by the officers to make the reports correct.) $268 25. New Market. and we feel that.d that none ^Yill ca^mlain v. Mrs. seventy-eight pairs of socks. winter. In consequence of the many errors which were found to exist in the list of casualties and muster rolls as published in the first edition.

OCTOBER 4ra. but from the fact that the press at Richmond had not given Texas the credit due her gallant sons. VA. although tue account of one regiment is more complete than another. with a neat lithograph of all the field officers and captains of all three of the Texas regiments now in Virginia. I therefore earnestly request all who feel an interest in this work to aid me in a matter in wkich they and their children will ever' feel the greatest pride. RICHMOND. and although the deeds of some individuals are recorded. while others are not published. unless providentially prei vented. with a short biographte sketch of each . This being my object. and let the world know who had done their duty in this struggle. 1861. when this cruel war is ended. consequently I determined to publish it in a form Jhat it might be conveniently circulated and assist in making up the final account.84 It is my purpose. I was not prepared to expect complaints from Texans. A HISTORY OF CHANGES IN THE FIFTH TEXAS REGIMENT. to publish my journal in a neatly bound book. and to add many short paragraphs of individual gallantry which I cannot pubfish now. I skould not have put the work to press so early and in such an imperfect form. FROM ITS ORGANJ^ATION. 1 3 .

They are ready. C. And I am proud to say. D. There may be. Too much cannot be said in praise of that noble. 8. Reir. will bring it after awhile. D. arW . seemed unwise. we also admit. either to themselves or their counf^r i s equally true. They make no allowances for the skilNmd superior numbers of $be enemy their great resources. vice Major Bryan promoted Powell promoted Colonel. Lieut. Co. when they can see so clearly!*^ Discover a policy for the Administration and a plan of operation for the t ha t would. F. A. C. Bryan. rather tftn prejudiced against it. G. Co. Capt. in such a contest as we are now waging. They are not blind we know. tinuing our journal until the sunlight of peace returns. privations and sufferings you have been called to endure. for it is as much to their interest as ours. 1863. Clay. and brought her into port without a single defeat. But the same unyielding courage and patience in suffering. promoted Major. and then it is our purpose to present a history of the whole campaign. 3. promoted Major. MeBrider 7. They have never failed to charge the Administration with every defeat we have suffered. K. in some instances. Hill 9. 2. Capt. T. 1862. W. what they.Captain K. 5. but love you while you live. Capt. CORDING TO RANK. with the promise of conFor the present. rtea Major Powell promoted Lieutenant-Colonel. Farmer. CONCLUSION.pt. 2. as when you first left the quiet walks of civil life and entered the army of your country.'T. J. at the time. A. and are names after dead. thority. W. it is true but that somesare more eagerly exacting than is profitable. your you That there have been privations suffered by our army. clear of breakers. J. rather than eager an&Sxacting in their exposure. Colonel R. Captain J. that we will be blind to its faults. Roberdeau . Capt. that that policy be pursued which will bring this cru< war to a speedy and honorable close. that " the danger is.of some. we must We . Co. D. Co. Co. your country will not only praise. To believe otherwise would be unkind and unjust. we feel assured that our friends at home. 3862. Rogers. Williams. havdstfeered the Ship of State. . November 1. self-sacrificing devotion which has been exhibited for the cause of Southern Liberty in your past history. andAdvantageous position*. J. which you have manifested hitherto. And. which might have been avoided. many dark hours between this and that long desired and much wished for time. Bryan. Capt. vice Lieutenant-Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel. and the authorities at Richmond. for. while we have been exposed to the missiles of death from the enemy and the diseases of the camp. If then they have erred in some thinj*5v|t does not become us to speak evil or unjustly accuse them. Co. have been doing all the while. J. whenever we meet with a reverse. C. Capt. Baber. I. % Co. S. MARCH 1. as patriot soldiers. M. Co. F. M. Co. E. 1. Turner} Co. to regard these with a charitable eye . Powell Lieutenant Colonel K. W.. T. C. vice Lieutenant-Colonel ]Jpton killed at Manr""" No. Capt. NAMES OF THE PRESENT FIELD OFFICERS AND CAPTAINS OF COMPANIES. take leave of the reader. AO Major 6. J. that notwithstanding all the trials and hardships. living patriotism burns as warmly in your bosoms to-day. Ca. Rogers Adjutant. Jke N. Capt. superior arms. G. vice Colonel Robertson promoted Brigaflier-General. H. for it is the mistbrttLQe of mau 1p err. D. B. 4. It is the opinioh>. we do not deny . . John . believed to be for the best." should not ba blind. and that the policy pursued by those in auBut it becomes us. that we^^jii be too favorably and generously disposed towards the Government. Capt. T. to sn^w the causes and blame the President. Co. while we were without the means of defence or aggression. Cleveland. and doubtless are. 10. for which. August 30. Co. John Smith. that the same uncompromising.

and have you claim a place in the Cabinet for them. ' We know that it is unreasonable to expect any one to fill the high portion which he occupies. Oh what a shame When cur army is succes^ul. The President is the same man he was when he was called to the chair in Montgomery. voice. but did the soldiers win tK victory without officers? And did the soldiers and ofticers in the army p]$r the campaign and fight tba battles without the knovrl ! ruary. while you would go and fight the battles of your country. exacting. you required him to take the oath of the office to which you elected him.icy have not known. His eye is still fixed upon the Polar Star of your liberties. and notwithstanding the false alarms of the frightened or fault-finding portions of the crew. whether Israel would' prevail. what a pity the President did not have his fault-finding seers* in his Cabinet. "He makes the members of his Cabinet act as chief clerks.. Oh. by these "eager. These men think the President takes too much upon himself." but "exacting. And ao it is now. *eerns to be the pleasing T. a year ago." but they have never learned or practiced this command. The false lights that are kindling along the shore. false cries of rocks and breakers ahead. so that they could have prophesied. and be able to please every man. ] . they have uot learned to practice the sacred law of charity. I am unable to see any just cause for this* gratuitous alarm.iys.for Korah. or some matt with a commission from Jeff. prejudiced" ones. or cause him to deviate from the light of that Star which has grown: much brighter and nearer than it was last Feb: ! . or if employment of the class Of men referred to known. as when you called upon him to take an oath that he would stand in the pilot-house for the next six years. said he was the man which you desired to stand at the helm through this storm which had already broken upon the South in allits whirlwind fury. then he should resign the solemn trust. "the soldiers did it. but with their eyes open to the "faults" of the Government they begin their unholy work of fault-finding." This is true. whom you have called to these high positions. they eould have always prophesied victory. exacting prejudice?" For ray own part. prejudiced famt-finders" as we already discover to exist in our young Republic. they*say. and that "God doeth his will He in the army of Heaven and his pleasur among the children of men." Thes* wise men tell you. And if he fail to scrutinize the whole national machinery with constant vigilance. form nor period of any government has ever been free from such "eager. &c. They are not only "eager." has given us a Bible. was the cause of it. or the Philistines succeed Bat. and that Bible A-. No. will not be able to move his nerves. with their great wisdom. have never caused him to veer from the course.'* The great difficulty seems to be that the President examines too minutely all the busiuoss But this is what you claimed at his hand when of the different departments. and which he has filled as well as any other man in our nation could have done. that you should not only be " eager" and 'exacting/' but you 'should be "prejudiced" against the President and officers of State. And instead of practicing it themselves. Why do they desire you to be prejudiced against them ? What good can coma of such " eager. soldiers. He is the same man. in one unitei. "Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy people. not even the Theocracy itsdf was free from such men. Davis in his pocket." and they are so eager in their exaction. they would have you prejudiced and exacting in your demands. that they do not wait to inquire the c?use. No. before the battle was fought. and "a victory it must have been. unless it be to attract attention to their important selves. To speak evil of the authorities iu our Government. and with the same views and policy as when you. Nathan arjd Abiram thought Moses and Aaron took too much upon themselves. which "hideth a multitude of faults. And he is still heading the ship in the same direction.86 Bat At** wonctnnon * soon drawn the authorities at Richmond." There is a uod. they cannot divert his attention from its glorious light on the hills of American hope. exacting. and I arn persuaded that the. &c.

which is the pride of the nation and the admiration of the world. and. but a few ing legions of the North. themselves being the confessors. that the men whom they desire to dis affect. ." fhm God the the preserve you May living pestilence that rides fainds and shield your heads in the day o . viz: "Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty . divided we fall. defeated the whole of the enemy's grand army" at Fredericksburg. unless yoxi a hall be allowed the enjoyment ofNh^e lioerties bequeathed by your ancestors ? for an honorable death is preferabifi to an ignominious JJto And v< " while aware of the fact. l>y your recent campaign.87 Vdge and consent of the Presideut and his Cabuvjtt We *rt pi8a<lfcd tnnl And while the brave soldiers of our army would desire to cjaira no such thing. malignant and dangerous at home. and pressing upon our borders. who did the same and you know. too. that confidence in each other is the sheet anchor of our safety you " for united we stand. and stands in proud defiance of the musterthousand of whom." but we would also. we will finally conquer our peace. and drive th& aliens from our homes aijd the secret enemies from our altars. have too much sense and too much love^of liberty and home at heart. that you cherish a sovereign contempt for such merf and for the cause in which they are engaged for you are aware that there were men. We admit the force and quote the language of one of onr greafr statesmen. we ask you to look back over the history of our national career for the last twelve months.f y <ur bleeding country. It" seems to be the object of these men.' And. with vigilance for our cause and confidence in each other in our officers of the Army and of the State we shall not fail to discover every attempt they shall make. For such would be the legitimate result of their conduct. by the h/elp of Almighty God.remind of the fact. who." And while we have enemies from abroad. We are proud to know. who have pro wu rich by plundering your commerce in unjust tariffs. and thereby destroy the Ust hope ot American freedom. and persuade into the same unholy calling with themselves. aVdetermined to be free yon never c you conquered. yet we know that it is your anchaugeable determination to keep the camp-fires burning around the borders . until you have forced the hordes of Yankees. are spending their days iu ease ami their breath in slander. if it be possible. but it was in a branch of the service in which we never have had but littie power. For you. have declarecTlfc^ you intend to die on the h'?. But. their children ever afterwards. instead of taking their muskets and helping to drive the invader troru the soil of their own State. or else you-will fill the soldier's grave.<l. And although you long for the time and signal to stack your arms and return to your distant homes. we ask you now to look at the army. but how many victories crown your arms by land ? And v although some would have you believe that our Administration has been characterized by imbecility and the Departments with inefficiency. in conclusion. to be influenced by those. in the days of your revolutionary Pires.. We have lost our little fleet and some of our sea-ports. It is well trained and well armed. that the contempt of the world rested upon them and upon . to acknowledge your independence. von are doing all you can to win our liberties. you are willing to do justice to And while you claim the honor due to your all from the highest to the lowest: noble deeds. you are as willing to confer the honor due to both the officers of the army and officers of State. to sow the aeeda of discord in our country and our army. We have been defeated in several engagements it is true. But we are proud to know. let us not forget that we have enemies as subtle. Less than twenty " days ago. ^v - .

.

T. . Corn ana Cotton crops in Texas. K R . Wilkins Kendall | to 123 On feheep Raising on the Islands and Peninsuias of Texas.. J. with an introduction to the'latter. us reuirned ac|jg RATES OF POST A<. Esq.Austin. Dr. . &c. Harvesting. Quality.n. the J. . by Thos. 2W 234 . year.ISO to 190 farmer. in Expedition " ^. the e U." General Staff. by Col.U. El 1'aso and Pacific .. on the Joel TV'.. Total Force 'of graphical of. FOE 1859.. Houston. Southern Pacific Galves'on Hay Scrip. and Col.. on our alluvial and bottom lands 77 Description of all the counties of Texas.s far as furnished. Forshey 132 to 1-34 under Grant and Johnson. by vj R.. Outline Texas Geology. 7 1 to 72 Life of Stephen F. H. mi . and San Diego. A rmy List Salt Springs in 'icxas 196 Field Officers.ountiesot 1 exas 205 to 20. &c Profit. SeaW.rua. Navy Navv List: List. PAGE." 153 to 160 t < i " ' ' . times of holding Spring ate. Yield. Sam. Californiadetailed account of the country and everything connected with this great enterprise.. 123 to 129 Chinese Sugar Cane 129 Indian Reserves in Texas by A.167 to 189 General Hints and suggestions to the Ports of Refugio ami Nueces counties. ot Census of ths principal cities and towns . of Ordinance and of RegSupplemental Remarks on Mr. Texas. Preface and sundry articles from . with the causes and events that led to the Texas Revolution. Jones " cat Ian.Commaiulers Commanders of Census Table of the State of Texas. Cotton and Sugar. 143 to Dr. Remarks 125 to 126 C'immunication on Sheep Raising by-Geo.. Members of the Sentrict Attwnies. by Letter from I. J. 146 to merated us recorded In his diary at the time.Robson by 72 to 74 i H. Houston & Henderson R R. M^ INDEX AND CONTENTS. to Moil UHTTED STATES STATISTICS '.. P. W Houston and liraxoria Tap Galveston... S Himis'on and 'L\>xus 210toJO 220 to 221 221 to 222 222 222 22S 22C: 1 is lenitcntiary of Louisiana . D. K. R. Kuricso. PAGE.134 to 1ST survivor. Latimer 151 to well Agriculture in Texas .. condensed Special 17 29 3d All 18 to 29 to Narrative of ihe Cainpaigu of Anahuac..v..General Summary Governors of all the States and Territories 218 of the United States -Jl100 Treasury Report I .flee. Wheat pas149 to oceanic mail contract turags.. *. &c... Johnson 36 to 4Q ..jstics between th-: V S. ' 1 . Overland Mail Route between San Antonio. Robison 16-5 to 166 cultivation of Corn. Gulf R. ( i : '.. T Labadie Further accounts of tne 30to 36 Texas by various 131 to 159 Stage Routes.THE TEXAS ALMAMC.S.Mon Statistics of all tin. J 138 ". emof >j. lly to P.. : t ' ! COMPENDIUM OK TEXAS HISTOUY Continued from Almanac for 1856 101 to 1 IS PKOCISKSS of oui: K. :i . N.. F. Present Executive Foot Roller Gin. Government veriiiniMii..^ Protestant Episcop'aYcYiurchi'n Texas* bv L. from Gonzales to 139 to office Department San Jacinto. first outbreak of the Revolution...v Judge J.Ltws 5 6 to Calendar Tables All the laws of the last Legislature the General Laws.Narrativeof the Retreat. Waters. 64 to 71 Sea Island Cotton. in accordance 86 to 1 THE MiNT-Revemie with a law of the Htv. ul all other countries 218 ... Table f County utticevs... 11. Members of the House of Repreami Fall Terms ". 150 to Trade of Sabine Pass. ueneral Remarks..Le-isla'ure -203 to 211 and Expenditure ot the U..nna.'. staples on the Brazos bottoms lature. Disits organ! fcu i. by Prof. applicable to even..K Franking 1'rivilege -212 to -21 1 cording to the laK. Sheep Raisiug i u Texas.....S. Sterling T. a Island Cotton All the Presidents. R. .190 to 191 St. Distribution ot r.> . Judiciary Congress. by Col.2l4 to 217 J oreign Letter and Kewapaper Postage Remark son Stut. and tne Campaign and BatTable of Distances and all the places enutle of San Jacintf . 74 to 70 Account of the capture of Santa A. . Brown.. Mexico Texas. of Texas ill -Hinifitcrs and Diritorriatic Agents 05! List of Foreign Consuls in Texas.. by J. W.: I S. R McmphiH. Esq. &c. District Courts of Texas the Judges. m^ only ^.. Department. Decrow .. Kendall'Success in SluvpRaiMiig 19<5 iments . Court of 'lab is. giving of the old counties and thirteen of the practical directions for raising the great new counties. Naval Asylums: bracing all the counties as returned by _ Naval _ AcaclA 3essors and emy. J. 223 Land Claims Bounty and Donation Lands. .Counties . Introductory.. Land JJridge*.'. T''> :. showing the present condition and complete success of this interture and mode of sowing.. ^v. N. by Dr. making some thirty Letter from Col... troops ih Life "f Gen.> Li>t of all the Notaries Public in all the aphieal Departm-nt.N-. Collectors.Hiiro 195 sentatives. D. with ail the events. created by the last Legis7 to SO .-J.v. by 40to 64 Additional information of this Route. 4 Traveling Facilities in 1 to E ilipses for 1359. 1-J7 to 204 Texas and New Mexk-": Military <. .. J. by Sam. . by Judge Wm.. K. Labadie The Wheat Region of Texas Proper culSupplemental. Mather.D..month in the from Aransas Bay. l. Transportation. .191 to 192 General Railroad Law of Texas 192 to 194 and-Oabinet: U. Officers of Topographfcal Engineers. sy Railroad as projected lit. from the report to the Post146 14* 14S> 150 151 153 all the officers and Cultivation of Wheat in WiLiamson and men in the battle of San Jacinto 160 to 16-3 adjacent counties. Navv . S. Bell Complete catalogue of . 130 to 131 Central San Antonio and Me. Tinsley. (.J Biography of Gen..UIVUOADS . s. &c . Marine CoYps'. jji^^n.lro!is: Commanders lards.- ..

by an Old Texian Various acts of the Legislature and appropriations for frontier protection. and with our assurances that we shall spare no labor or expense to deserve their future encouragement and support. and the ports of delivery are Lavaca. . cur next. will meet their approval. this number of our Almanac. and placing within his reach all the documents necessary to enable him to compile our valuable statistical tables. Your obedient servant. . Mr. D. as strict accuracy is our great end and aim. . but we hope the other articles given will prevent any disappointment. We will soon have six Lights a condensed statement of the kind and position. shall be our controling maxim as long as we continue to publish the Texas Almanac. Our readers.CE. July 24th. is thus placed before all the people of Texas in the shortest possible time. The amount of duties collected in the district for the fiscal year ending June 80th 18'>8. etc.. we could make a more judicious selection. J.A. pn juratory for the Texas Almanac for 1859. and current expenses for collecting the revenue. we again submit our little Annual to the us. cannot hope that the following pages will be found free from errors. Based upon a law of the last Legislature requiring official Reports. about the same. Justice to the truth of our history and to every individual connected with it. and herewith enclosed.. Corpus Christi. of the Adjutant General's office. .v. Aransas. and other Officers. (. PATTERSON. we have been compelled to postpone. For statement. We regret much that some of the counties are not embraced in these tables. are indebted to the same gentlemen for many other acts of courtesy and kindness. for their great kindness in aiding our Assistant. and we may expect that Assessors and Collectors will hereafter be better prepared to comply with the requirements of the new law.te our next. T. however. .000.. . of statistics. etc. are not received at all. Were all our articles in hand early in the year. is a fraction less than $7. Matagorda. Copano.ion. But we hope they will excuse this omission. be given in this deficiency in the public archives. Land Donation Law New Railroad Charters. PREFACE TO THE TEXAS ALMANAC FOR 1859. Buche. M. . .PREF'. &c. San Antonio and Eagle PHBS. heads of Departments in Austin. but we assure our friends that our subsequent numbers shall always make the corrections as far as we are enabled to do so. of importations from foreign countries. RICHARDSON & Co. and by the acclimated being called to attend upon the suffering. public. which reduced our hunds nenrljone-half by sickness among them. and some perhaps serious. and but for the unfortunate epidemic of this city. which was a work of great labor. MESSRS. we should have fulfilled our promise to the letter. will for omission of few articles which they had reason to the some no other need explanation expect. and in the cheapest form that can be devised. as the material was not so readily of as had The destruction official our reach we documents by the burning within expected. Salaries as stated in the Almanac for 1858.i .. never before published. . after waiting for them. aggregate given the Texas Navy was not completed in time for this number. -wing: The District of Salurla embraces all that portion of the State comh and weM <>f Matagorda and Wbarton counties. we may name the following: Railroad Loan Law. . Returns. would be valuable Information for the seafaring portion of your patrons. many very valuable articles furnished by our friends and intended for. To such contributors we cannot sufficiently acknowledge our obligations and we can only here express the hope that the efforts we have made to properly arrange and place before the people of Texas the valuable information they have furnished us. We We . see memorandum as rendered by Oapt. Grand Temple of Honor of Western Texas ditto of Eastern Texas History of San Antonio Description of the Rio Grande Valley . evidencing the great interest they take in our enterprise. especially as We more in the than we have we may remark that the history of promised. ( IMDJANOLA. it sometimes happens that the articles promised so that. with our heartfelt thanks for their generous patronage thus far. to be xuitiie by the last day of August. giving facts and incidents of our past history. with the assurance that we feel under many obligations for their favors. Remarks on the Railroads of Texas Full list of all the men massacred in the Alamo Full list of all the men massacred at Goliad under Fannin Order of Masons in Texas i ditto of Odd Fellows . I have the pleasure to submit the foil. 1858. The port of entry in said district is at La Salle. Among other articles thus postponed for our next Almanac. and encourage them to continue their aid to the fuare under especial obligations to several of the ture numbers of the Texas Almanac. It will be seen that the chief interest in the following pages arises from the contributions of our friends in various parts of the State. and north and east of and including Nueces C"unt. dfcc. they were unavoidable under the circumstances . which will receive our earliest attention. STAPP. We DISTRICT OF SALURFA. we promised that our Almnnac should be issued early in October. we have to supply their place with others. . . but . occasions much additional trouble and delay in supplying The history of our Navy will. State Charitable Institutions Historical Sketch. by means of which the valuable information within their control. owing to the failure of the returns to reach the Departments in time but this is the first time the returns have been required to be made so early. With all our efforts to condense -the largest possible amount of matter into the smallest space. shall be corrected. or not in' time.'alteston Gentlemen: In answer to your circular inquiries for statistical inf<>rm. and the mistakes that have been or may hereafter be pointed out to With these few remarks.

872 cwt. .. RedRiycr. besides 38. Imported in the District of 8aluria.487 barrels. Rusk Leon Polk. Round Lake Shelby Burnett. Cherokee Titus . 9.370 sacks oats.Placido Bosque Trinity River Trinity Mills Flag Point Frankvule Ma-son ?ort Cotton Williamson . 43015 pounds of lead. 103 bales wool.. 4.. Calm Mossy Creek ] Harrison Strickling's Anderson...Wichita Johnson Chambers.. to the 1st July. Over Runge & Sheppard's wharf..000 bales.. Pine Creek Pine Springs Prairie Point Houston. . and sundry vehicles.. South Nolan Sour Springs Waterto wn Green Hiu Gok-omla Hainiton Palo Pinto Titus Palo Pinto. some of our friends in the East will give us the correction for our next Almanac.Reunion ( aldwell Ridge Jack Russcl's Store Palo Pinto. Colorado. (the day of its completion. 111 bales wool.Spencer Hill Colorado. 184 bales cotton. Van Zandt Orange Polk Hopkins Gonzales.. Grand Ecore. gentleman residing in Jefferson. 1..586 beef cattle...622 feet lumber.. 160.188 feet lumber.. Bell Pom i Washington Bosque .. 24 horses. 10. 148 bales hay. The following is publication of our ers to our last OFFICES. W... 8. and these are corrected below. 8. Mt. a large amount of specie on freight. McAnnalleys Bend. 8 head blooded cattle and 4 sheep.000. Southland. raw-hides.. We must refer our readAlmanac for the Post Offices previously established.. Exported..532 beef cattle.-Parker .?Burnett Evergreen Flat MoodysRoad . The total amounts of merchandise and groceries received over Sparks' wharf. 185T. a complete list of all the new Post Offices that have been created since the' Almanac for 1858.500... 1858.Polk Gillespie Johnson Jacksboro Keochiel Valley Logansport McLennan..000. Angelina do '.. Those who wish the full list may obtain it by ordering an Almanac for 1858. at 25 cents. .... Lampassas . in whose accuracy we place much confidence. A . .. over Sparks' wharf.>'ari Ann ... animals.N:ivarro Cedar Bluff Cherry Springs Colsharp.... specie.. as follows... exclusive of specie and sundry packages not measured as barrels. 1858. 5. 63 bales peltries. amounts to 18.. <fcc.. 5. . so far as jsan be ascertained. 25. For the year ending July 1st. 10. Benton. .Hedwigs Panola Tarrant Shelby Refugio Panola Sabine Henry Horsehead Ingleaidc Isleta Mason Rusk Rusk Nueces El Paso Brazos Palo Pinto . This estimate may possibly be found erroneous. Atascosa. . but we give it with the hope that. Hill COUNTIES. 4.566 Ibs and 215 bars iron. Case county.. by vessels from New York.. which a friend had promised us... nor from other bay ports. 20...... Wichit: Wolf Branch Red Rhor. 8 barrels tallow.. Dallas Gonzales . Texas Cotton Shipped by Red River to New Orleans. specie and sundry other articles. Some changes have been made in the counties of the old Post Offices.000. by the creation of new counties by the last Legislature.Science McCardy Milto Houston Kardin. Irishtown Jackson Cane Branch Cleavland Cheseland Chelsea. 8. We have been disappointed in not receiving a statement of the trade of PortLavaca. ... 42 bales moss. pepper. 47 barrels beefs... Stapp for the following statement of the Indianola trade for the year ending July 1st.228 sacks corn. Austin . Dallas. Burnet Harrison. Grimes ..600 Swanson's Landing.Perdinales Hamilton. estimates the amount of Texas Cotton shipped from the different points on Red lliver to New Orleans. 81 horses.. Mahomet Rural Shade. Palo Pinto .390 barrels of five cubic feet.. Port Caddo. 438 beef hides.. 384 barrels pecans.. Red River. : NEW POST OFFICES IN TEXAS. Wakeraville McLennan.. .Neill's < 'reek N oland's Parksville .' Concord Delphiu Ella . 150. Total.. COUNTIES' OFFICES.000. Above the Raft. and the imports given are exclusive of the portions of cargoes discharged upon lighters for the bayou landing and other bay ports. sum up 169.. Peytonville Palo Pinto...) up to the 1st inst. to Jwie SOW... Thompson ville Valletta R:inche.000 ..South Sulphur Fannin. Pensacola. 5. etc... Piedmont Springs. The merchandise received over Runge & Sheppard's wharf....000 5 or 6 Landings ou the Lake. : . 1. Double Horn.138 beef hides. These exports do not include what was recived by vessels in port from lighters from the bayou landing.. of which we have a few on hand. Tom the 1st July. 16514 bushels of corn. 261. of wheat flour.000 Monterey.fr om Sept.. 3190 pounds of sugar. Shreveport. 1858 Imported. since May 22d.930 bales cotton.Oxford Fayette Leon Mason Orange P. Gonzales.000 bricks.. . Shreveport imestone Shock's Bluff Jefferson P now Hill Henderson. .Titus. as we wish to avoid repubnehing the same matter in two successive issues.Dcnton...NEW POSTOFFICES -IN TEXAS. OFFICES.. Leon Harris .. Trade of Indianola..000. 10. \st. if erroneous. He thinks the figures a near approximation to the truth they are given for last year's crop: From Jefferson. . .We are indebted to Mr.. etc. 1857. 20878 pounds of wool. Pleasant Valley Pleasanton Amanda Anacosta Ashland Ashton Black Point Beckville Beaslev's Store Bniseel McLennan . Wallisville Travis Waller's Store Williamson..

921.TEXAS ALMANAC.088. are not included.673. having been 355. be largest class of vessels may receive as much dispatch as at our wharves.51' i. in the outer harbor. during the past year. with steam tug lightens.739. entitling them to have surveyed 800 Sections of land. " " Outstanding.911 18.500.100 Acres. consequently no accurate statement can be given of the exact condition of our land affairs.529. of November Returned and Patented. valued at $6.ailroad Act of 1854.391 bales of cotton have been shipped from this port.97* 1st. Claims originating under the Republic and State of Texas.173. The receipts of cotton during the past commercial year were 118.690 Acres. about 3..845 " " Making total amount of land Returned and Patented.680 2.s PUBUC DOMAIN.000 bales of cotton. by Spain and Mexico. amounted to This amount has been increased by Lands gran ted by Legislature of 185*7.000 2. liquidated and unliquidated. have left this port for Europe during the past year. more than for the previous year.976 74. 1857. 117. DISTRICT OF TEXAS PORT OF GALVESTON.000 and 4. the following is as near a correct synopsis as can be furnished The liabilities for land.506. 1854. the number of vessels entered of all classes. GENERAL LAND The Commissioner : OFFICE.921.. 175.506. A very large increase in the trade of Galveston must certainly result from the connection with the Railroads of the interior.057 bot>n Acres. 4.722 3. No accidents or losses have ever yet occurred in this roadstead during the heaviest storms. " " " " " " " " and not Patented. of th General Land Office is not required to make any report of the transactions of the department for the present year.460-74. and they therefore discharge and receive their cargoes. which is an increase of near two and a half millions of dollars over any previous year.508. We have no space to give the commercial details of this port. and the port charges and other expenses have been much smaller than in New Orleans. or a large portion of them. or 117. Leaving Outstanding.328 bales.722 6.911 12. Returned and not Patented.008.000 acres. - 51. over the receipts of any other year. there had ______ - 32. Area of the Titled State.000.28$ < Total According to the Commissioner's Eeport.849 7. ' - - - Scrip. under bond filed in accordance with the 2d section of the General R.529. - - 51.160 68. Commissioner to 1st November 1857.456. " 51. .000 85. Said company has filed a copy of a contract for the completion of two Sections of the road. reported by the Acres.347.460 Leaving the amount of unencumbered Public Domain.690 Since that time there have been returne 1 to the office about Patented since November 1st. and near 25 per cent. " " 51. A large portion of the trade of Galveston is now being done by a class of vessels that cannot cross our bar with full freights.480 392.58 Headrights issued by Commissioner of Claims issued by Commissioner of Claims Bounty Warrants " Donation " Land ' . The increase in the shipping has also been about in the same proportion. Vessels carrying between 3. an increase of over 80 per cent. and.560 28. now under contract to be completed within twelve months. and given the necessary bond.557. and have had surveyed and returned :o the Land Office 185 Sections.V>0 Acres. In thi. In the absence of any official statement.505. 1867.970 estimate the lands surveyed for the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. including grants confirmed by the act of 10th February. Land Scrip issued by the Commissioner General Land Office. 51.921. Nearly one-half of these shipments of cotton have been made to European ports. 101.. 280.

-'. . then evening star until the year. t' - '?. Mercury will be in a position favorable for observation on the 30th of March. 90 . 6571. commences at 2h. 4 1 28 ev. invisible at Washington. 8h. tf Taurus. a 90 apart. 2 . 8 Opposition. 7na. IV. Sun north of the Equator. Pisces. 22m. n Gemini. 15th February. 13 Epact. 21m. Autumnal Equinox. . ' 365 186 178 . 5861 years. begins 3h. Dec. 4 5 ev. # Sagittarius . Eclipse of 1859 is The most important that of the 17th of February. $ Venus. invisible in the United States. 23 21 D. 1859. August 8th. 28th of July. <5 Aspects and Nodes 120. 14m. Just before sun-rise it may be seen on the 24th of January. 16. *> 6 same Longitude. Solar Cycle. .. invisible at Washington. and 21st of November seen in the West near sun-set. and morning star the rest ot Saturn will be morning star until January 27th. Saturn. TEXAS. c Quartile. or near each other. invisible in the United States. A Trine. 5 ev. and ends at 8h.. Scorpio .' i. Eclipse of the Moon. 1m. and Northern and Middle States. to 5a. . M. in longitude 345 5' west of and latitude 65 47' South. and evening star the rest of the year.V*' Jt. 67 10 19 ' 50 7 . Aries. and morning star the rest of the year. ASTRONOMICAL CHARACTERS. Eclipse begins on the Earth. Sun south of the Equator. occurs about an hour before sunset. is visible tn the V.. II. A partial Eclipse of the Sun. visible at Washington. 3h. J Sun.ECLIPSES IN . 15. =2= Libra Virgo . This Eclipse of the Sun. Moon. SI Leo. '& f ?t* -of Dominical Letter C Golden Number. Mars will be evening star until July 20th. This Eclipse begins on the morning of the 17th.Tfcere will : be six Eclipses in the year 1859. M. Total from 3h. . Vernal Equinox. Supposed age of the world. * Sextile. \3 Capricorn . namely. 53m. 24m. VI. 129th. 17m. Jupiter will be evening star until June 24th. 13th August. (B Earthy $ Mars. T TTJ. visible at Washington. A total Eclipse of the Moon. and 16th of September. A partial A total Washington. . K S3 Cancer. AT GALVESTON.. 180. 2h. the 21st of May. 2d.. 60 . MORNING AND EVENING STARS. two of the Moon and four of the Sun I. rift Signs of the Zodiac. H. Solstice. March 20 June 21 Sept. D. ^1 Uranus 8 opposition or 180 apart. Julian Period. Venus will be the morning star until September 26th. February 2d. Summer Winter Solstice. 19. 1 Jupiter. Ascending Node $ Descending Node.j3j --W- - - . Jewish Lunar Cycle. July This Eclipse is very small. ' r '*. % Mercury. 4th March. 17 mo. A partial Eclipse of the Sun. Conjunction Q.. Washington mean time. ? Aquarius . and morning star the rest of the year. and ends in Galveston at 6h. 20m. EQUINOXES AND SOLSTICES. 3 9 H. 28th August. A partial Eclipse of the Sun. . < . III. Tropical Year.

1859. 31 Days. . JANUARY.1st Month.

28 Days. 1859.2d Month. FEBRUARY. .

. 1859. MARCH. 31 Days.3d Month.

4th Month.

APRIL,

1859.

30 Days.

5th Month.

MAY,

1859.

31 Days.

6th Month.

JUNE,

1859.

30 Days.

7th Month.

JULY,

1859.

31 Days.

8th Month.

AUGUST,

1859.

31 Days.

9th Month.

SEPTEMBER,

1859.

30 Days.

10th Month.

OCTOBER,

1859.

31 Days.

llth Month.

NOVEMBER,

1859.

30 Days.

1859. . 31 Days. DECEMBER.12th Month.

GENEKAL LAWS. first Vice-President of Texas Hayden Edwards. "We may here state that of the relation only to particular counties. McMullen. but these few pages embrace all that is of interest to all others in a volume of almost three hundred pages. or are otherwise of no general interest whatever. . Throckmorton. Brown. or that could be to a correct necessary Of course. Wm. Philip Dimmit Dr. Palo Pinto. or the counties has been created. all deceased but one. Duval. Coleman. Jones. composing them. Gen. . Dr. will be had. deed. Capt. The following old counties have had their boundSan Patricio. to wit: Montague.. Callahan. and the Act regulating proceedings in the District Courts. Hamilton. lawyers and their clients. Mason. in Mexico Capt. Jas. H. such as the acts amending the Penal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure. 165 general laws passed at the last Session. a Tennessean. Limestone. Anson Jones. 21 acts were passed in relation to Judicial Districts. Llano. Callahan. Dimmit.) The following new counties were created at the last SesCounties created. Comal. Zavalla. In the labor of condensation nothing of substance. etc. Menard. . San Saba. Eastland. Antonio Zapata. Hardeman Capt. last at Dawson's Massacre . Chambers. Michael B. sion. and one new Judicial District (the 19th) All the information that is given by these acts. the Jury Act. understanding of them.. President of the Republic of Te as . Jas. Taylor. namely. Kimball. Frio. Wichito. Hays. Dr. Blanco. one of the survivors of Fannin's Massacre. may be had by a glance at our new map. the two brothers Josiah and Matthias Wilbor- . State and county officers. aries changed. killed Ex-Governor Hiram G. Bee. E. Comanche.) Of these new counties 25 are expressly named in honor of certain individuals. Dr. and all the information that is given by these 20 acts. one of the early settlers at Nacogdoches Charles Haskell. ALL THE LAWS OF THE LAST LEGISLATURE. . Baylor. all except one of which (6th) have received changes. Kimball. (16 in all. as far as they are of interest to the general reader. Eleven acts were passed changing county boundaries. McMullen. Tim. (37 in all. Archer. who fell at the Alamo son. Hardeman. Henry Baylor. John Shackelford. either in the time of holding courts. Nicholas Dawton. at one view. with the exception of some three or four acts. J. Throckmorton. deed. . M. Clay. who was murdered while a prisoner . will often have occasion to refer to the exact language of the Legislature. Capt. and 35 others either relate to particular individuals. Navarro. Haskell. Goliad. . Runnels. Menard. to wit Hill. La Salle. one of the survivors of Fannin's Massacre Lorenzo de Zavalla. Wilborger. . Edwards. HamilCoL Robt. who fell at Dawson's Massacre in 1842 Capt. the Hardins of Liberty. . and nine more creating 37 new counties.18 TEXAS ALMANAC. Col. Walker. Branch T. by referring to our table of Judicial Districts. Dawson. has been omitted. who fell at Fannin's Massacre the brothers Bailey and Thos. Concho. Archer. Coleman. Trinity. judges. Old County Boundaries changed. Nueces. Shackelford. Buchanan. 24 have such as legalizing the acts of county officers. all the new and old counties are represented correctly according to For the convenience of reference we have numbered the several acts. Zapata.. Encinal. Knox. Eastland. M. : Upshur. one of the Texas Empressarios New . THE following synopsis embraces a full view of all the general laws passed by the last Legislature. where those acts. as they are numbered in the published volume. Hardin. Runnels. Col.

000 for the construction of a railroad of one from Columbia to some point in Wharton county. the last Monday in January. and an additional year for every additional 100 miles of road. in order to be The road-bed and entire franchise is liable the debts of the company. Companies not complying with this Act forfeit all claims to the land bonus and the State loan. to Octo- SUPREME COURT. as in other cases. 1860 over 300 miles of road. and it may continue twelve weeks in Galveston. the counties through which the road passes. Companies hereafter chartered are allowed two years to do the same for a distance of 300 miles. of the county where the principal office is. is required to do the same for the same distance in the same time. who fell We now proceed to give all MISSISSIPPI the balance of the acts of the last Legislature. and transmit them to the Secretary of State on the first tember. and its points of crossing and every company whose charter gives rivers. By the second section all railroad (30. at Tannin's Massacre and Gen. 1858. with their stock-books. Such sale does not convey the debts due by the stockholders of the sold-out company. year is made to SUPPLEMENTARY TO AN ACT TO REGULATE RAILROADS. for every additional 100 miles of road. who is also subject to the liabilities and restrictions imposed by the The party obtaining judgment may have execution directed to the sheriff charter. to pay for 160 acres. the directors of the sold-out company being constituted trustees of the creditors and stockholders. . (12.ALL THE LAWS OF THE LAST LEGISLATURE. to keep their principal office on the line of the road. Duval. for which he receives the same rate of pay as for printing the laws.. for . and may be sold to satisfy the same. . he may levy on the entire line of the road. 1859.) Wharton county is authorized to raise $50. by a tax not to exceed per cent on property. . with power to settle up its affairs Such sale of a railroad can not affect the State's lien on it. tinue till July first. AUTHORIZING WHARTON CO. J. and in case the company fail to point out other property. (44. in such office.) $20. previous to January 1st. Every comfinally. (7. 1. . ger La Salle. but must be sold as an entire thing. and advertise and sell. by the 19th of June. on which day all officers required heretofore to report annually or biennially. the treasurer and secretary. and double the State licenses. and may conit may continue ten weeks . The fiscal (21. Thos. all meetings to be held in such etc. or vice-president. and in Tyler. CHANGING THE FISCAL YEAR. of the directors must reside in the State. (35. when all property in the road and franchise vests in the purchaser.) This Act extents to preemption settlers the time from January ber 1. is required to designate the termini. AND PACIFIC RAILROAD RESERVE. 1858. the fourth Monday in April. entitled to the loan or the land bonus. . whose charter gives less than 300 miles of road. shall close their books and comof Seppile their reports. 1858. Chambers. and is allowed an additional year to do the same.) end on the 31st of August.) companies are required by the 19th of June. always open for inspection The president. the first discoverer of Texas in 1685 Capt. and a majority office. PENITENTIARY. but this company shall collect such debts to enable it to discharge its own indebtedness. Burr H. by whom they shall be given to the State printer for publication.) This Act requires this Court to commence in Austin the third Monday in October. TO LEVY A SPECIAL TAX. pany.000 appropriated to purchase material for the use of the State Factory.

INCORPORATION OF TOWNS AND CITIES. that towns shall not contain more that 1280 acres. and to grant the use of such arms to volunteer companies. the officers being a mayor. Population of all incorporated towns in the county. 4. provided. (58. may. ETC.) This Act revives the act to run the boundary between Texas and the United States. that wish to reorganize under this Act. Do.. by observing the same requirements. supplement (99) authorizes towns and cities. Number of acres cultivated in corn. 13. . who shall hold their offices till the next regular election of County and State officers. provided 25 miles more are graded ready for the ties. . and each surveyor being required to appoint a special surveyor for each unorganized county belonging to his district . children under 18 and over 6 G. the petition being signed by two witnesses. and appropriates $20. on which the loan is received. and cities . a constable. over 45 5. The number of voters 2. . Do. a majority of the voters within the proposed limits deciding the question. shall decide the question by their votes. 10. ARMS BELONGING TO THE also to military schools. . so that the grade shall always bo 25 miles in advance of the completed road. White females. . companies had to buy iron and complete 25 miles. and AMENDING THE RAILROAD LOAN LAW TO FURTHER AID COMPANIES. who shall enter upon his duties as soon as the terms of the present surveyors shall have expired each county being a separate land district. to be reincorporated and reorganized. SURVEYOR FOR EACH COUNTY. CENSUS. at which time the Chief Justice must always order a new election. 12.) Assessors and Collectors are required to report for their respective counties: 1. (61.. 8. Do. as follows 20 resident voters must apply to the County Court. By the previous law.) Free persons of color over fourteen years of age.. This Act further provides that villages or towns containing 1600 inhabitants. may become slaves by petitioning the District Court. . the Chief Justice shall order the election of a mayor. in cotton. ENABLING FREE PERSONS OF COLOR TO BECOME SLATES. under 6 7. STATE. .20 TEXAS ALMANAC. A village containing 300 A not more than one league and labor. 11. and the same per mile for the second and every subsequent section of five miles completed. (63. who shall then order an election. of which the Clerk of the Court must give four weeks' notice. R This Act loans railroad companies $6000 per mile for the first section of 25 miles of road completed. Slaves. The powers and duties of the board are defined.000 to meet the expenses. Free persons of color 9. to enlarge or contract their limits.) The Governor is authorized to receive from the General Government the arms Texas is entitled to. Amajority of free males 21 years old. in wheat. and five aldermen. in sugar. having resided in the proposed limits of the town six months.) Requires a surveyor to be elected at every general election for every organized county. 14. before they could get the loan but now they have only to complete five miles to enable them to get the loan on those five miles. (47. (45. (54) R. Do. provided five miles more be graded in each case.. and a marshal and the Act further authorizes towns or cities already incorporated. be incorporated into cities. and shall summon the said free . (60. If such majority are in favor of a corporation. White males under 18 years. Do.) : inhabitants may be incorporated as a town. in like manner. BOUNDARY WITH THE UNITED STATES. 9 aldermen. Scholastic population between 6 and 18 years old. White males over 18 and under 45 years of age 3.

for (87. or any permanent sweet water. from San Antonio to El Paso three do. in all respects. PUBLIC SCHOOLS. if he deems necessary.) This Act creates three Commissioners to investigate the fraudulent land certificates issue in the counties of Peters Colony. in the centre of which the well shall be sunk and in all cases. 3 .) for six 100 mounted volunteers months. . having children under fourous debt of the master. (88. each well to be in the centre of a fifty acre tract which is forever to be devoted to the public use. . Grayson. \ MOUNTED VOLUNTEERS. or longer. The State Engineer is required to advertise for proposals for three months. (74. (78. the person designated for the master or owner. Authorizes the G-overnor to call into service it (65. RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. to appear in open court when. and none to be within twenty miles of another.) This Act declares that Seals or Scrolls shall hereafter be unnecessary to the validity of individual contracts and conveyances of all kinds.) This Act extends the time two years for the State Engineer to make contracts improving rivers. . and deep enough to afford a constant supply of water at the rate of at least fifty gallons per minute. Stay of Execution in a Justice's Court shall not prevent defendant from taking out a writ of certiorari in ninety days after rendition of judgment. the petition shall be granted and the petitioner be decreed the property of said master. Should the land be private property. the contractor is required to procure a release of fifty acres for the State. (73. and such seals are only required in the case of eorporations. . . as if said person of color had been born a slave to said master.) STAY OF EXECUTION. 1 (91. to be sunk within five years.) This Act amended (105) authorizes the State Engineer to contract for five Artesian Wells on the route from Corpus Christi to Brownsville five do. ARTESIAN WELLS. according to the number of children taught. and award to the best bidders. 21 person of color. harbors. and the person named as the master be a person of good repute. making them slaves for life. from Carrizo to the Laredo and Carrizo road to Corpus Christi. by proceeding in the same way. FRAUDULENT CERTIFICATES. except that said slave shall not be subject to forced sale for any previShould such slave be a female. namely. from Corpus Christi to Laredo one do from Laredo to San Patricio Antonio and one do. by her petition. then the next friend of the children may. For compensation the contractor shall receive not over eight sections of land for each well sunk to the depth of from 200 to 400 feet one section for every 100 feet of additional depth. select a master for them. should there appear no fraud or collusion. etc. . Collin. Tarrant. Parker. from Corpus Christi to Rio Grande City five do. Wise. in like manner. making twenty-six wells in all.ALL THE LAWS OF THE ^AST LEGISLATURE. from Edinburgh to the junction of the Edinburgh and Brownsville road to San three do. In case the mother of such children be deceased. the same. etc. after full examination. and the witnesses. she may. teep years of age. SEALS OR SCROLLS DISPENSED WITH. . . Cooke. . procure them to be made slaves to the same owner.) This Act directs Chief Justices to pay their proper share of the public-school money to such school districts in their counties as have not received it.

(94. whose duty it is to record an abstract of the children of scholastic age in each county to apportion the money to the counties to keep a correct account of every thing to report annually to the Governor to pay to the order of the county courts their respective shares of the school fund. and designating all the hands liable to work on roads in each precinct. directed to appoint five Managers DEAJF AND DUMB ASYLUM. Superintendent. But should they find it necessary to purchase the ground. and Palo Pinto is made the county seat of Palo is changed to Buruet. $2500 appropriated to purchase this (104. and regardless of the amount paid by the parents. be at least twenty feet wide. of the children of widows whose property does not exceed the amount protected from forced sale.) in the Capitol. who are to serve without compensation. monument (108. . their acts being subject to the approval of the Governor. NAMES OF TOWNS CHANGED. the first class must be at least thirty feet wide. The county court shall appoint three persons as a Board of School Examiners. who shall direct the affairs of the institution. Any such order must be on application of at least All roads ordered to be opened must be laid eight householders of the precinct out. fourth. of orphans whose tuition has not been paid. LUNATIC ASYLUM. . All the powers and duties of the Managers.. . and Jacksboro is made ALAMO MONUMENT.) This supplementary Act makes it the duty 'of the Chief Justices to apportion the School Fund annually among the children of their respective counties. as tuition. then they are to erect the buildings with the balance of the money. and Madisonville in Madison county to Madison. appointing an overseer for each. with the approval of the Governor. and other officers are pointed out. and all causeways fifteen feet wide. County Courts are authorized to lay up any road in the county. They shall also lay off these counties into road precincts. over ten cents per day for each pupil.) Appropriates $7500 to enable the Trustees to locate this institution on the Government lots in Austin. . to expend this money in the erection of suitable buildings. or close . The Governor is (93. The town Pinto county Hamilton in Burnet Co. the county seat of Jack county. . taught can receive any of this fund. the names of the pupils third. No school is entitled to the benefits The State of this act that has not been taught at least three consecutive months. . second. if found suitable and in this case. they shall pay the tuition of those whose parents or guardians are unable to pay. First. the number of days each has attended school . Treasurer is ex-officio Superintendent of the Public Schools. . PUBLIC SCHOOLS. auNo school in which the English language is not principally thorizing him to teach. The teachers are required to report: first. The balance of the money shall be apportioned among the other children of the schools according to the time of tuition. and make by-laws for it. to alter. They shall designate the roads as first and second class . the names of the patrons of the school. . the amount paid by each patron fifth.) ROADS. The county court shall not allow.) for the Lunatic Asylum.22 TEXAS ALMANAC. unless twenty days' notice shall have been first given. and of paying patrons entitled to pro rata shares. to examine the qualification of those professing to teach and no teacher shall receive any of this fund without a certificate from such Board.) of Madison in Orange county is changed to Orange. (98. the names of those patrons unable to pay. (101. . shall grant no order to close a road or open a new one. thirty days' residence being necessary to reAll roads now established by law are public roads. and all the The second class roads must trees must be cut within six inches of the ground. and the Court quire this duty.

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE STATE. and ing the damages assessed. they may order it to be opened. coals. which the Governor shall deposit in the Capitol for public inspection. 23 out by a jury of five sworn householders. discovery. millers. illustrated with map?. their localities. with a view to speculation. (110. etc. first payAll white males between 18 and 45 years of age. for the faithful discharge of his duties. exceed the State tax. with figures showing the distance to the Court House. (117. and. (113. the products to which it is suited in the different sections its mineral resources. the consent of the owner must first be had. in relation to roads.ALL THE LAWS OF THE LAST LEGISLATURE. teachers. Said geologist shall also report to the Legislature at its regular sessions.000 are appropriated to defray expenses. and $20. The time tended two for (109. when summoned.) for taxes. all male slaves and free persons of color over 16 and under 50 years old. except preachers. shall assess the damages. to hold his office for two years and who is required to give bonds in the sum of $20.) to Is authorized to levy a special tax. is liable to a fine of one dollar for every and an overseer failing to prosecute any one for refusing to day's failure to work work. its water powers. The salary of the assistant geologists is not to exceed $1500 each. LANDS SOLD FOR TAXES. This act repeals the previous road law. If a road shall be laid out over a farm or inclosure. etc. the County Court shall appoint five freeholders. is redeeming lands sold and purchased by the State ex- years. is liable to a fine of five dollars for such neglect. He is required to make a complete geological survey of the State. and the best means for their development. . and Chief Justices. and if such consent is refused. soils. under oath. pay surveyor's . . WEBB COUNTY. GALVESTON DRY DOCK COMPANY. It is the duty of each overseer to work through his precinct at least twice a year but he can require no man to work over ten days in the year. It is the duty of Clerkg of County the Chief Justice and Clerk. And if the owner of uninclosed land shall file a written protest against opening a road across the same. Said geologist is required to transmit to the Governor specimens of rocks. and drawings. ferry-men. . and every thing relating to the geological and agricultural character of the State. are required to work on roads. Courts to put up in their respective Court-houses. also the duties of the County Court.000. not to fees for running the county boundary. and that they will not suppress or conceal information of any valuable . County Commissioners. fossils. The Governor is . overseers and the penalties for their neglect. pointing to the most noted places to which the roads lead for the neglect of which they are liable to a The act goes on to define particularly all the duties of fine of $5 in each case. the Court shall also appoint five freeholders to assess the damages. on the first day of each District and and the Court. . their situation. The salary of the State geologist is $3000. its adaptation to agriculture. and to put up index-boards at the forks of public roads. or other noted place to which such road leads. a list of the names of the overseers precincts in the county District Judges are required to give this act in charge to the Grand Juries at the opening of the court. Any one.. giving full descriptions of the State. ores. These officers are required to make oath that they will not purchase lands while in office. if in either case the Court shall deem the road of sufficient importance. or to work on more than one road.) authorized to appoint some suitable person as State Geologist. appointed by the Court. with the approval of the Governors. who. showing the quality of the soil. It is made the duty of overseers to set up posts every mile on the road in their precincts.) Twenty-five acres of land on Pelican Flats are granted to the above Company. The State geologist is authorized to appoint two assistant?. charts.

to be appointed by the Governor with the approval of the Senate. under the direction of a competent architect. holding their office for four years without comAll the higher branches are to be taught but nothing of a sectarian pensation. (118. The proceeds of these sales are to constitute a part . and the Secretary of State. etc. The State Treasurer is to be the Treasurer of the University. or 1280-acre tracts. provided. and eight men. to . The University of Texas is be hereafter located and the present act approand fifty leagues of land. who are also re- quired to report to the Legislature at every session. acres on which they have settled and improved. can not be sold for less than $2 per acre. and 160 acres more adjoining for every three slaves but this preference is not allowed to those who have settled on . But should they select the site on the Government lots. ASYLUM FOR THE Twelve thousand . in Austin. are given to this. the Administrators are required have suitable buildings erected.25 per acre located on the reserved alternate sections of the Memphis. A Board of Administrator?. the reserved lands or islands. . is repealed but certificates heretofore issued under that Act. The Trustees are required to select a suitable site on the lots belonging to the State. (119. El Pa?o. and for 160.000 for suitable buildings for two State universities. they can not purchase the ground and erect the buildings without the previous ratification of the five hundred . under the act of August 6th. as shown by the receipt. or $2 per acre. of the Common School Fund.) This act extends to preemption settlers or their assigns the time to return their field-notes to the Land Office for patent. if possible if not. (127.25. requiring the payment to the State of fifty cents per acre. character. BLIND. however. but certificates to be islands.) This important law requires the Commissioner of the General Land Office to issue land-scrip or certificates for not less than 160 acres. together with every tenth section apart of the lands reserved to the State from the donations to railroads and to the Galveston Bay and Brazos Navigation Company. at $1. tax. then to select it elsewhere but in this case.) . namely. 1856. A . UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS. heretofore set priates $100. to January 1st. to enable (116. may SALE OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. stitution shall to PRE-EMPTION SETTLERS. according to the wishes The fourth section of the applicant and the money paid. may be located there. as the case may be.) exceed $3000 each year. heretofore reserved. Are authorized to levy a special them to build court-houses.. Degrees are to be conferred by the Administrators. . are to direct and control the affairs of the institution. Legislature. the Comptroller.) dollars are appropriated for this Institution. of the Act authorizing the sale and settlement of the Mississippi and Pacific Railroad Reserve. The instruction is to be free. not to (128. may be sold at $1. preference is given to the heads of families to purchase 160 . the Governor and Chief Justice of the State. 640. 1859. who gives him a receipt for the money and by virtue of this receipt. 320. As soon as this in- be located by some future law. to be located on any public lands not held in reservation by any preThe alternate sections reserved from donations to railroads. $1. GONZALES AND BELL COUNTIES. the Commissioner gives the corresponding land certificates. The Commissioner of the General Land Office gives the applicant an order on the Treasurer. they shall have complied fully with the law. then they proceed to erect suitable buildings under the direction of the Governor. and all vious law. on certain conditions The same time is also given to settlers in the Pacific Railroad Reserve. and Pacific Railroad Charter. consisting of ten. which may be sold at one dollar per acre.24 TEXAS ALMANAC.

INCORPORATING VOLUNTEER COMPANIES. of which $18. TEXAS SUPREME COURT REPORTS. copies of which are required to be made under the direction and a full set of such weights and meaof the Governor. GALVESTON. Every person shall forfeit ten dollars for every month he shall use any weight. (148. THE PENITENTIARY. provided that no pare of this machinery shall be purchased in Massachusetts. . The Governor is This law prohibits the selling or giving of liquor to those tribes bordering on Texas. HOUSTON. it being made the duty of the County Courts to appropriate a sufficient sum of money to pay for them.) THE CHOCTAW AND CHICKASAW INDIANS. FERRY-BOATS. exempted from forced provided its value does not exceed $500. One hundred cost not to (141.) This Act appropriates for the support of the Penitentiary for the years 1848 and 1849. AND HENDERSON COMPANY. until the railroad shall be completed from the city of Galveaton. . One ferry boat at every ferry is (139. under a penalty of not less than $50. or in case he shall pay him the third of his value prefers to do so. (136. or measure not agreeing with this standard. by applying to the Chief Justice. . nor more than $100. the exceed $4. to the person by whom he is brought back. TO RECOVER RUNAWAY OR STOLEN NEGROES.ALL THE LAWS OF THE LAST LEGISLATURE. and if correct. UNIFORM: WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.) additional copies of the Reports are required to be purchased.) complying with the provisions of this Act all volunteer uniform military companies may secure all the benefits of an act of incorporation. GALVESTON AND BR1ZOS NAVIGATION (CANAL) COMPANY. who or if the owner is unknown. 25 (129. should their present location be found to be beyond the limits of the State. But should no one prove the ownership in three months. R. the sum of $104. By (146.) This Act prohibits land certificates from issuing to this Company. in such manner as not to impede navigation in the bay. (143. and for every weight or measure ten cents. and the residue shall be kept subject to the claim of the owner when found.) This Act authorizes the above Company to raise and re-locate their land certificate?. he may deliver the slave to the Sheriff of Travis county. Such person may either deliver the slave to the owner.526. Any person may then have his weights and measures tested. then the negro is to be sold at auction. (133.50 per volume. which shall be the standard of this State.000 is for the purchase of new machinery for the manufacture of cotton and wool. The fee for any steelyard or balance is fifty cents. he t-hall stamp them with the letter T. (132. and over the bay to Virginia Point. the money to be refunded to the Treasury by the owner when he proves his property. balance. and the third of his value shall be paid him from the State Treasury. R. with an appropriate seal sures is to be delivered to each of the Chief Justices of the counties.) This law gives one third of the value of the slave that has been brought back from beyond the slave territory of the United States. and the initial letter of the County. the negro being appraised for that purpose.) sale. and from Virginia Point to the city of Houston.) authorized to procure from the General Government uniform weights and measures of the standard of the United States. and the Treasury shall be reimbursed from the proceeds of sale.

000 20. named in that bill for that improvement of the Sabine river. Legislative Department Per diem. but from the proceeds of sales of goods and manufactured. Court of Claims.) This Act reduces the State ad valorem tax from 15 to 12 cents on $100 value of real and personal property.600 61. (157. Latimer & Swindells. all to be delivered to the Secretary of State in Austin by the 1st of July. etc. NEW DIGEST OF THE LAWS. in force at the time of Texas Independence.000 2. APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE YEARS 1858 AND 1859. STATE AND COUNTY TAXES.500 15. Hidalgo. (158. Lunatic Asylum.) Nine tenths of the State taxes in Starr. Deaf and Dumb Asylum.900 Supreme Court. the cost not to exceed $4 per copy.050 3.500 13. as that approwas not from the Treasury. including those of the last Legislature. Pressler's Map.250 6. The Governor is required to advertise for proposals for 5000 copies in the style of Hartley's Digest.400 12.100 5. and Cameron are relinquished to those counties to enable them to build jails.500 6. Printing Laws and Journals. Stationery. Lubbock & E.000 23. RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS.725 the Counties. under which and also the Colonization laws of Mexico. State Engineers. and to contain.) For the Executive Department. : 20. Treasury Department. The sum of $20. " " " " " Comptroller's Office. Mileage. 1859. B. including salaries of Judges 52.) The Act for River and Harbor Improvements is explained by declaring that the sum of $15. and counties are authorized to collect the same tax .000 4.925 3.000. all Penal Code.000 12. appropriated. TAXES EELINQUISHED. in addition to the laws now in force. priation articles The appropriation for the Penitentiary is not here included. $342. (159. $4.740 N. all the repealed laws of the Republic and State. was not included in the $300. " General Land Office.) This Act provides for a new revised Digest of all the general statute laws of Texas. Distributing Laws and Report?. Ufibrd. 80 50 Total appropriations. Clerks and Sheriffs of Title 2. L. which it is supposed will support that institution.000 District Attorneys. (160.000 is . as required by Part 5. but was so much in addition.500 15.. (154.400 46. and of Coahuila rights have accrued and Texas.260 11.000 2. Contingencies.000 appropriated by the Act. with marginal notes. Blind Asylum.26 TEXAS ALMANAC. Officers of Legislature.000 1. State Department. The Nineteen District and " " " " " " Courts. Attorney-General.

6th. 2d. but that of Feb. It is made the duty of sheriffs. . 1 . Free male persons from 21 to 50 years of age are required to pay a poll tax of 50 cents each. and each nine or tenpin alley. Recognizing the rank of Captain Jno. and sold. 1850. constables. until satisfactory proof is furnished. Quitman. no more lands can be had. and to forfeit the entire interest on any sum not given A tax of 20 cents on each $100 worth of goods. as soon as issued but if sold. or merchant. The sum of $38. 3d. and filed previous to Jan. is taxed $20. and the costs of the suit for its collection. These certificates may be located. via Gilmer. Requesting our delegates in Congress to have refunded the this State for frontier defense. not to exceed one hundred men. Those having money at interest are required to pay 20 cents on every $100. Every billiard. They are now authorized to receive four sections to the mile for ten miles. before entering upon a business requiring a license. SECOND CLASS DEBT. . 1858. for 27 county purposes. It is made the duty of every one. patented. is liable to a fine of $50. Authorizing the G-overnor to call out two or more companies of mounted volunteers. and to present it to the clerk of the county court. JOINT RESOLUTIONS. COMPANIES BY THE LAND BOUNTY. chandise. and four sections more per mile for every further section of five miles graded. sold or received for sale. 1848. STUART PERRY. and merin for taxation. and assessors to arrest persons violating this law.23 is (163. and Greenville. to obtain the assessor's receipt. and re- questing the passage of a law by Congress admitting him into the United States Navy with the same rank. pursuing a business that requires a license. other exhibitions for pay must pay a license of $20 per year in each county where they are opened. Requesting our delegates in Congress to procure the passage of a law Such raising a regiment of mounted volunteers for the protection of our frontiers. is imposed. and every race-track $40. and with a smaller outlay of money. Authorizing the Commissioner of Claims to employ two additional clerks. a law has since been passed. Todd in the Texas Navy.000 to defray the The following twenty-six Joint Resolutions were passed expense. The tax law of March 20th. TO FURTHER AID R. (164. or commission house. and auctioneers and pawnbrokers also $20.000 is appropriated to pay claims for services and supplies. llth. R. G-.) This supplemental Act enables railroad companies to receive the State land donations sooner than by the previous law. without having one. which were presented to the Commissioner of Claims or the Comptroller. that the proceeds of sale have been faithfully applied to the further construction of the road. 1st. from whom he receives the license upon paying a fee of $1. is in full force. wares. Any person. is repealed. Peddlers must pay a tax of $50 per annum in every county where they sell. Every broker. to Dallas. at the last Session of our Legislature. $40 restaurants are taxed $ 6 each per year. and appropriating $20. The sum (162.ALL THE LAWS OF THE LAST LEGISLATURE. when they shall have graded 20 miles.) appropriated to pay the claims of Stuart Perry. known as Second Class Debt. is liable to pay a double license. and subject to any other tax. but the goods so given in are not Theatres are subject to a tax of $100 each year. one half of which goes to the informer. money paid by 4th. Requesting the passage of a law by Congress establishing a mail-route from Marshall. the extent of the grade always being ten miles more than they can receive land for. 5th. and a person not giving in his merchandise for tax. 1st.053.) of $40.table is taxed $50 per year.

Appropriatiug $8000 for remodeling and recovering the Capitol roofs. Recognizing P. prescribe. Requesting the establishment by Congress of a weekly overland mail from some point in Texas to San Diego.000. 25th. to embrace that portion of the present Western District west of the Guadaloupe River. 8th. may be sold by the county courts of each county to which the lands belong. Authorizing the Comptroller to pay to the San Antonio and Mexican Gulf Railroad Company any money received by him for said company. That the 3d Section of the 10th Article of the Constitution of the State shall be so amended as to read as namely: SECTION 3. Appropriating $600 to pay the Secretary of the Senate and Chief Clerk of the House of Representatives for making an alphabetical index to all the special and private relief laws and acts of incorporation passed by the Consultation. 19th. with authority to select a suitable location for the Indians west of the Pecos in Texas and to collect the Indians in such place. or which may hereafter be granted for public schools to the various counties in this State. Allowing leave of absence to Hon. Accepting a present of the portrait of the late Abner S. 23d.000. llth. 18th. All public lands. Requesting the passage of a law by Congress for the payment to Texas of any balance there may be of the sum appropriated for the payment of a certain portion of the public debt of Texas. Todd. 16th. passed since. Watrous. Requesting the appointment of a U. Rowlett. by consent of a majority of the legal voters in said counties. at the date of Annexation.28 7th. Indian Agent. A. and altering the galleries of the Capitol. For the relief of D. near the junction of the larger Wichita and Eed River. Requesting the Governor to urge upon the General Government the necessity of establishing a permanent military post. that the principal of the proceeds of the sale of such time. and of the Old Land Office. 21st. to the present time. and . and asking indemnity for the losses suffered by our citizens from their depredation?. and under such general rules as the Legislature may. Requesting the establishment of a four-horse line of mail-coaches between Tyler and Waco. Frazer aiid A. which has been set apart for an Indian Reserve by a previous law of this State. Be it Resolved by the Legislature of the State of Texas. W. 25. as follows : CHAPTER follows. 22d. to the amount of $100. Corsicana. Requesting an investigation by Congress of the charges made against Judge Jno C. or to pay out said bonds at par for claims on the Treasury. and Dresden. via Athens. Tyler. 12th. . Calling the attention of Congress to the necessity of more adequate protection against the Indians. also requesting the erection of a third Judicial Federal District in Texas. Authorizing the Treasurer to exchange United States bonds and coupons at par for coin. 9th. TEXAS ALMANAC. Proposes an amendment to the Constitution. Allowing leave of absence from the State to Judges C. and the counlies on the Rio Grande down to the Eastern District. 20th. Requesting an appropriation by Congress for the erection of Post-offices and United States Court-rooms in Austin. which have heretofore. 13th. 15tb. and Brownsville. S. executed and presented by Alexander Ford. 24th. 17tb. 14th. Humphries as entitled to the rank of Commander in the Texas Navy. Terrell. deceased. 10th. W. and appropriates $5000 for that purpose. Authorizes the Governor to remove the Coshattee Indians from Polk and Tyler counties. with their consent. S. Lipscomb. Wm. or by such tribunals as may succeed to their jurisdiction. the amount not to exceed $100. from time to Provided.

or by a Convention representing the sovereignty of the State. and to our members of Congress. Whereas. 1858. in the opinion of the Governor. operating upon the Federal Government. Special Acts Passed at the Last Legislature. or so much thereof as is necessary. . The Acts of Incorporation passed in addition to Railroad Acts were fifty. In response to the Governor's Kansas Message. 26tb. and the exclusion perpetual Therefore. That the Governor is requested to transmit copies of these resolutions to the Executives of each of the slaveholding States. all which will be found in the article under the head of Railroads in Texas. . which shall be paid at the rate paid to members of the United States Congress. . that the Governor of this State is hereby authorized to order an election for seven Delegates. and advise the Governor of this State that measures have been taken for the appointment of Delegates to meet those of Texas. . of Fort Bend County. Mellville Male and Female Academy in Rusk County Town of Clinton in De Witt County Union Hill High School Houston Insurance Company Texas Beneficiary Association of San Antonio Baptist Publication Society Nash Iron. and peaceful participation in the use and enjoyment of the common property and territory of the members of the confederacy And.ALL THE LAWS OF THE LAST LEGISLATURE. of the Texas Eastern Conference. . to exclude. 3d. Number 44 of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. by force. one hundred and fifty-two special or private Acts. Isr. as follows : CHAPTER 26. whenever the Executives of a majority of the slaveholding States shall express the opinion that such Convention is necessary to preserve the equal rights of such States in the Union. . Colorado College and Supplement Town of Weatherford Town of Bonharn West Fork Mill Company ia Dallas County Amending the Act incorporating the European and American Colonization Society in Texas. owing to the state of political feeling in the Northern States of the confederacy. . And that the sum of ten thousand dollars. 2d. There were passed at the last Session of the Legislature. and has existed. German Free School Association in the City of Austin. equal. Approved. in which it is necessary for the State of Texas to act alone. Amending the Act to incorporate the Bastrop Academy Amending Acts incorporating Rusk in Cherokee County Grand and Subordinate Lodges of Free and Accepted Masons in the State of Texas Town of Gilmer Dallas Lodge. . . This determination. . February 16. . Tellico Manufacturing Company Grand and Subordinate Chapters of Royal Arch Masons in the State of Texas. . . . the citizens of the slavebolding States from a just. There exists. . Lynchburgh Steam Saw-Mill and Ship-Yard Company Preachers' Aid Society. 1858. to meet Delegates appointed by the other Southern States. be. Steel. Whereas. may become effectual. . according to the law in force in the year 1854. . Approved February 16. he is hereby requested to call a Special Session of the Legislature to provide for such State Convention. and the same is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. Be it Resolved by the Legislature of the State of Texas. . . as follows Casino Association of San Antonio Amendment to the Act incorporating Greenville Richmond Masonic Hall Association. in Convention. . 29 lands shall be retained. twelve of which grant relief to eleven railroad companies. and Copper Manufacturing Company in Cass County New Braunfels Academy Amending the Act to incorporate : . to pay the mileage and per diem of such Delegates. That should an exigency arise. City of Indianola. and invested as a permanent school fund for the counties owning the same. a violent determination on the part of a portion of the inhabitants of the Territory of Kansas. . and four grant charters to four new railroad companies. and the interest only shall be used for educational purposes.

Travel being my only business at the time. and some other prominent citizens of the place. Seventy-two signers were soon obtained. Stephen F. among the citizens and soldiers. Steel. . I found myself in New-Orleans the next month. the petition set forth the services rendered by the signers and the inhabitants of the Trinity River in quelling the Fredonian war.) where I was in company with Capt. Amending Charter to San Antonio River Navigation Company. Mining. and arrived from Louisiana in Nacogdoch. Being successful in my profession. started for Brazoria. I set out for San Felipe in January. (February. Reed. and among other things. near the present town of Liberty. . commanded by Capt. D. Fire Association of the City of San Antonio. I. Tennesse Colony Masonic Institute Philosophian Society of Chappell Hill College Guadaloupe Bridge Company. should be sent to the capital of Coahuila and Texas. and landed at Anahuac. . Having a good stock of medicines. James Morgan. call having been duly notified. at which place I found our esteemed townsman. to select a HAVING heard much A A . . Authorizing the Tellico Manufacturing Company to construct a Bridge across the Trinity River. 1831. a meeting was held at that place. and Marine Insurance Company of San Antonio San Antonio Water Company Texas Life. was sent out with authority to issue titles. Williams.30 the TEXAS ALMANAC. and many other Texians. and finally came over in the small schooner Martha. The population of that region increased daily. Amending the Act to incorporate the Eastern Texas and Red River Insurance Company. I soon had more business than I could well attend to. unanimously signed. . San Antonio Cotton and Woolen Manufacturing Company Freestone School Association Amending Charter of Clarksville and Mount Pleasant Turnpike Company Amending Charter to the Texas Iron. however. and Marine Insurance Company of Galveston Waco Union Female Institute Bosque College and Seminary Navisoto Turnpike and Toll Bridge Company Lavaca Insurance Company Corpus Christi Academy. . and to whom I may again have occasion to refer. C. he stopped with Capt. I was induced again to return to Texas. Williams and others. . Peyton. soon after arrived from New. and Copper Manufacturing. and eighty-two private relief bills. 1831. Col. I first delivered my introductory letters to Col. .. Town of Orange in Orange County. OR OPENING CAMPAIGN OF THE TEXAS REVOLUTION. There were three Acts relating to particular Counties. the commander of that post.Orleans with a large stock of goods. Toll Bridge across the Angelina River. Wm. . . of the vast prairies and surpassing beauties of Texas. and one to Towns. where I spent Christmas-day of 1830. named Madeiro. NARRATIVE OF THE ANAHUAC. with J. I was at once employed by Col.. I mounted my steed. the 2d of March. For the accomplishment of this object. to whom I delivered some letters. . Henry Austin. and Trading Company McKinney Bridge and Ferry Company Western Texas Life. . In return. Nueces Bridge and Turnpike Company. Fire. M. . and who received me with open arms. a most excellent man and good citizen. inviting me to his house.es. LABADIE. James Spillman. BY N. Fire. with whom I had formed acquaintance. Bradburn as surgeon of the Mexican garrison at that place. then consisting of some 300 men. whose name has since become so familiar to few days after I Texians. Austin advised that a petition. Having arrived at Atoscasito. Col. took up my quarters with Mrs. My object being to see something of a country of which I had heard so many glowing accounts. and that increase brought with it the necessity of organizing Anahuac into a Court District. etc. Orr. in company with Col. Piedras. . a Mexican. Sam. and prayed a commission to be sent out to put them in possession of their lands.

M. and that there are more besides us to make my words At last we good. I was not molested. Jack must come on shore. then lying We in the channel at Anahuac. We then bowed and left. Bradburn told him that the documents would be examined. This produced a feeling of alarm and indignation throughout the . and he was immediately dismissed. Logan. county place. . is a witness that what I say is true. he presented him with a rusty sword. who hospitably received them. and put in confinement on board of an American schooner. as a signal of our respect. he said: " I tell you. Bradburn at Anahuac. with hats waving in the air. had deterhimself. to the Dr. that he had come for the last time. During his confinement on board we made many efforts to get him released. At last we succeeded. 1832." and slapping his hands together. was one of the earAbout the 1st of May. Bradburn. liest for the purpose of resistance to this wrong. But Bradburn refused to give them up. Patrick had been appointed City Surveyor. give them up." were told that orders had already been issued for him to come on shore by 3 P. we made a third call the same day. This caused the owners. 1 tell you. and having been refused on two successive calls. and an answer given the next morning. Colonel. and then three hearty cheers. 31 in no- mination. and as he landing. when he received for answer that the three negroes had asked the protection of the Mexican flag. Dorsatt's house relative to the payment of such duties. and that blood will flow. Jack found their way to the neighborhood of the Hardins.M. Jack our captain. sir. afterwards hearing of these demonstrations of triumph. and finally it was resolved that we would form ourselves into a company. They soon decided to make their future home in Anahuac. declaring that Libertad was abrogated. but this coming to the knowledge of quisite municipal officers were next elected Col. but as my services could not well be dispensed with. claimed them as runaways. who declared to them all that they were free and at liberty to go and come. slaves induced some to run away from Louisiana to Texas. that day. Patrick was appointed by our company to receive Jack. About this time W. with a view to perfect themselves in the Mexican language and laws. . and swore in a style peculiar to " he and Dr. but ostensibly for self-protection against the elected Patrick C. and soon came back with all the proofs in due form. L. we dispersed. accompanied by a fife and drum. privately. who were thus deprived of their proThis promised freedom to all perty. and his next step was to send forth a proclamation. The next morning Logan presented himself at the appointed hour. Travis and Patrick C. The exaction of duties. B. acknowledging him still as our captain. . or the Comanches. Logan returned for the requisite documents. L.TEXAS REVOLUTION. and went forthwith. about half a mile. or you or I will be a dead man by tomorrow. One day Judge Williamson (Three-legged Willie) and myself went to Bradburn on the subject. contrary to the constitution of 1824. as they did all strangers. and he (Bradburn) could not. stepped on shore. Dr. It was at this time that many slaves were advised to ask their freedom of the commander at Anahuac. to entertain an ill feeling towards Bradburn. became much exasperated. under a Mexican guard. that all h-11 will not stop me and Dr. when. and that Anahuac was the county-seat. and Smith's plantation and Moss's Bluff were the two places put and was in favor of Smith's The recalled Liberiad. grounds of complaint among the colonists. Shortly after. and three of these soon presented themselves to Bradburn. or the Indian tribes generally. seat. and to that end had enlisted. except upon proof and the authority of the Governor of Louisiana. Rtd-skins. if Jack is not released by to-morrow. by whom they were received. meetings were held at Capt. he immediately had Madeiro arrested by a file of soldiers. like white people. Two lines were formed by the company. but he was soon after arrested by Bradburn for accepting the commission. and do as they pleased. and a requisition under the great seal of the Governor of Louisiana and now comes one among the first causes of the Texas revolution. and threatened to punish every one of us. therefore. when Willie became greatly excited. it A majority of throe or four votes having been given publicly proclaimed the seat of justice. through which he was conducted. a young man named Wm. saying that mined that Jack should have his liberty.

ball was to be given under the auspices of Bradburn that very night. T. arid Bradburn doubtless believed the ruse was played by Travis to make him give up the slaves. to whom he had given protection. without any explanation of the cause. being directed to Bradburn. who handed the letter to the sentinel ? It was supposed to be Travis. I could not. and finally J. and rumors were circulated that some enemies were within a few miles. and it was this that caused Bradburn's alarm. and all the masons and carpenters were forced to go down. White and Silas Smith. morning after. and a letter was found among " them. legal advice is only known by the events that followed. if found there." This attempt at a rescue of the prisoners caused Bradburn much uneasiness. of Turtle Bayou. it be safe. to conduct the prisoners to the new place of confinement. Both. I con- A A A would be the most prudent policy to go. when he answered. "Amigo. " It was signed Billow. as . marched out. he and Jack. who were thus doubly guarded. and spoken with many persons. The whole garrison was put under arms. query was. a tall man. and two large cannons placed on a platform near by. was consulted. to put it up for a prison. a large brick-kiln ally. I waved my hand to Travis. when I found it impossible to repress my feelings in view of their possible fate. day or two after. and took them to the quarters as prisoners. Q. But when the morning came. James Lindsey. However." who was desired "to have a horse in readiness at a certain hour on Thursday night. It was a that with some was about to take place. had just been emptied. While thus in confinement. and two others would be taken prisoners. and assuring him. and reported to Bradburn that they could make no discovery. that help would soon be at hand. P. as their clothes were being carried in a bundle to be washed. Community. for the purpose of trapping some few of us. being fully satisfied that 1 would all the soldiers and officers appreciated my services too much to permit me to suffer injury." Now the friend. and that soldiers cluded. One morning. Travis. I learned that Col. my heart became full under a consciousness of the perils that awaited them in the hands of the tyrant. and he determined to secure his prisoners more effectuAs he was laying the foundation for a fort near Anahuac. about which we had been in profound ignorance. In the course of a week the work was completed. The two prisoners were now to be conducted to the new prison. who had fallen under suspicion. in order to be kept safe till the whole force of the garrison was ordered As they were out. Standing upon my fence. but I said. who was the tall man covered with a cloak. it was supposed. Bradburn now discovered that he had been deceived. had acquired a sufficient knowHis ledge of law during the few months he had been studying. He called the officer of the guard. Every one inquired for the cause of the alarm. wrapped in a big cloak. The sentinel said that. had advanced towards him. and orders given them. week passed. Liberty. during one dark." and handed him a letter. The letter to 0. Wm. which letter. James Morgan had them attended by one of his slaves. Scouts in quick reported fight parties succession were sent out. after more mature reflection. that he hailed him. For a whole night the garrison was under arms. and finally the sentinel. Q. whose answers gave a clue to the whole of the excitement. had caused a line of sentry to be placed inside with the three prisoners.. the officer of the day made an examination of them. though they had been as far as the Neches. a guard of thirteen soldiers appeared at the door. made their appearance. while Travis and Jack were in their office. bidding him be of good cheer.32 TEXAS ALMANAC. the scene was all changed all was quiet. after witnessing the sad sight of our friends being marched to prison under guard. was handed to him the next day. Col. great The few mounted cavalry were spedily paraded. who. rainy night. The cavalry made a display at the head of a column. in order to give him timely warning. Logan retired to near soon a One commotion was observed in the garrison. addressed to 0. Before sundown that day. same week previous. The letter stated that a magistrate on the Sabine was organizing a company of 100 men to cross the Sabine for the purpose of taking the three negroes by The letter purported to be written by a force. B. Morgan. P. I was asked if I would go. greeting him. returned my greeting with a bow.

no confusion or disorder. joined Austin's Company. A picket-guard of seven men having been sent out. pledging ourselves that they should abide the results of a trial. Edwards was at the time acting as clerk to Messrs. had increased to seventeen in number. He was taken to Wm. These doings being reported. Our command having left Liberty. that induced me to warn him to be more circumspect. Souverm. 33 ties interested. . and surrounding the house. he assured us that he would be back in a few weeks to give us the help we so much needed. forbidding me to pass but. Soon after. Morgan was dancing with my wife. state of affairs. Next day about noon our small company entered Anahuac to demand the surrender of the prisoners. Bradburn. however. guarded by two sentinels who did not venture to molest me. and immediately sent out his famous cavalry to scour the county and give us a fight. numbering some ninety men. and I bid my wife follow me. had used imprudent language. but the officers came and begged me not to go. As I came to the . Lindsey and the others doing the same. when a soldier gave me the hint to look out a wink to the Colonel was enough he left my wife standing on the floor. having just returned from Brazoria. was.. when I found all in confusion. finding my wife was not allowed to follow. or his fate would be sealed. I reentered the room a moment after. the small schooner Martha had arrived from the Rio Grande with Col. in conformity with his promise when he left. who. had been selected for that purpose. created much excitement throughout Austin's Colony. day or two afterwards. Martin and others. P. and he at last declared that he . Q. and brought out some of the principal men to propose effectual measures of resistance. The very next night the store was surrounded by soldiers. and cleared the passage with a leap but. outside door a gun was pointed at me by a sentinel. and charging on them with their rifles while dismounted.) yet Jack declared he would not return without a person*! interview with his brother. and all was going on right merrily. who had been sent as a political On landing he soon learned the prisoner for favoring the cause of Santa Anna. The next day we escorted Jack back to his boat. saying. Judge Jack came over in a yawl-boat by way of San Luis Island but it was with much difficulty he was allowed to see his bfother and Travis in prison. and finally quiet being again restored. but that two should be on the watch. and was off. and tendered his services to us as our commander. concluded to halt on the north prong of Turtle Bayou. no harm was intended me. Immediately the soldiers were seen entering. and as he left the shore. I knocked the soldier to one side with my fist. But all our entreaties were unavailing. The Liberty boys. to be duly tried for any offense they had committed. without hardly allowing him time to put on . who was a shrewd Kentuckian by birth. (who acted in the double capacity of Second in Command and State's Attorney. Wm. they left their horses tied. Jack had been mainly instrumental in bringing these men. A day or two previous. 1832. where they saw some horses and men whom they took for Bradburn's Cavalry. hurried him a prisoner to the guard-house. I agreed to stay a while longer. under the impulse of the moment. Having reported himself to . Bradburn began to suspect Munroe Edwards as the person addressed by the letter to 0. had reached Liberty on their way to rescue the prisoners. This was in June. A his clothes. Capt. and being unseen themselves. they took the whole number (nineteen in all) prisoners and conducted them to the camp. I passed out with my wife by another door. Morgan & Eeed. always on hand on an emergency. increasing the number to 130. Word was finally brought to us that John Austin. H. were advancing through a skirt of timber to have a view of the prairie beyond. but his services were declined. and. was apprised of these doings. would see his brother at all hazards. gave a There leap from the room. Col. Several of us urged Bradburn to give the prisoners over to the civil authorities. Although he was threatened by Pacho. Some twenty ladies were present.TEXAS REVOLUTION. Permission was finally granted. Opposition only made him the more determined on his purpose. who by this time. probably from an apprehension that a refusal would occasion some trouble. Hardin's. I communicated the information to the parand all agreed to be there. and who was to provide the horse.

and a pronunciamento was agreed upon accordingly. and feeling the necessity for having some excusable pretext for having taken up arm?. and smaller children into a cart. their officers continuing to order a retreat. Jack. tween our men and their horses. D. B. or acted with the rebels. entered into an agreement to retire six miles from Anahuac and to deliver up all our prisoner?. having succeeded in securing all they wanted. having put his wife. some six miles distant. and now they discovered to their surprise. In a short time after. and found our little army encamped on the east prong of Turtle Bayou. as a punishment. At six o'clock the next morning. The four-pound balls bounded over the ground and raised the dust among us. when all left except the few who lived in Anahuac. Hall. they decided that it was expedient to declare in favor of Santa Anna. ing kindled and a guard was seen advancing.34 TEXAS ALMANAC. and rode behind him on his large American horse. Capt. every man being ready for a fight. passed that night at . Our advanced post then fell back. They put their horses in my yard. Jack. but he was soon taken prisoner with some ten or fifteen others. Johnson and others. Bradburu. our prisoners havbeen At about 9 o'clock that night. retire. By night the women had reached Taylor WhiteV. We . One of the sentinels told me the At about prisoners would be more lightly guarded. and in less than ten minutes sixty of the men were again in their saddles. This agreement was put to the vote of the whole company." and the cart soon disappeared. but advanced and fired upon the infantry from the corner of my fence. who were ordered to parade for that purpose. midnight the fires were all extinguished. Morris of Clear Creek. This meeting has since been somewhat celebrated as the Turtle Bayou meeting. C. W. but would not be given up. I then directed my wife and the other women to take shelter under the bluff close by. in exchange. Austin. the maOrders were accordingly given for our men to jority ratified this agreement. and myself. . not knowing which way to go for safety. We . It was after this portion of the company had left. But our arguments were unavailing. Austin came to me with a letter received from Bradburn. vancing with a (four) pound cannon. nearly all the company reached Anahuac again. on condition that Jack. two daughters. My wife was taken up by Wm. and that he would pillage the residence and seize the property of every man who had sided against him. should be given up the following day. in which he declared the treaty had been broken. The women became alarmed and were seen running in every direction to escape the range of the fire. dissented. that they were to have no chance to fight. were seen several other women running about with dishevelled hair. and the other American prisoners. and the women cried out to my " Next wife. the next day. by 10 o'clock. they discovered they were in still greater danger. and which had been in our possession that day. and prepared to take a The enemy's cavalry with some infantry were seen adposition for the conflict. A meeting was called I read the latter of the faithless Bradburn a cry for volunteers was at once heard. started them for my house. but while they were going there a ball cut some of the limbs of the trees over their heads. immediately set off in a smart gallop. Dorsatt. One German declared he would retreat no further. and others. who were afterwards made to mould brick and tramp the clay for making them. that the remainder of the company called a meeting. About this time some of those claiming to command. But having arrived at my house. run. while a large force was employed in carrying off a quantity of ammunition and stores and clothing belonging to Travis. gave orders to retreat. as Bradburn could not be depended on to keep his word. Martin. begging the men to consider the and we urged that the risk we would run by giving up our prisoners first exchange should be made at the same time. which was signed by Alcalde II. or you will be killed. and all retired to the fort. H. which induced them to keep on without The retreat was ordered until it was found the Mexicans had got bestopping. he came with full powers from Bradburn to treat with us. galloping off to prevent the threatened pillage. Run. all those in favor of Ritson (known as Jawbone) the proposition being required to shoulder arms. Travis. at the bridge. some eight fires were discharged.

attending on Mrs. "Here are his shoes. and some others. 35 White's who had been supplying all the company for some tea days without a charge. Finally " the musquito bar. especially to Bill Hardin. if this is all the cause of the trouble you shall have the prisoners. Hardin. As the guns of the fort commanded the river. truded a little at one end of the bed. a considerable burn to come to his assistance. you have found me. learning of the arrival of Hardin at Anahuac. the Brazorians having promptly come to his assistance. the tables. this tory company arrived. Smith at the mouth of Turtle Bayou. by Three-legged Willie. Ugartachea. in company with Johnson. do not disturb they pull cry is heard the girls." Dorsatt became enraged and was preparing for a fight to defend his is when an exclamation heard: he "Here is! here he is!" His head prohouse. and accordingly. gathering all his strength. I was defeated and compelled to capitulate. dead or He had arrived at Anahuac just at night." says one. let him come out!" They then searched all through the house. Fields and await further orders." says he. that a fight would have to take place. and. was then occupying my house for greater safety. We were at no loss to understand the cause. alive. but to no effect. so that we might be on something like an Accordingly. to whom Bradburn bad refused a trial before the Alcalde. and he was recognized by his sandy hair. Johnson. the Alcalde. one on each side. down Oh shame. Piedras was a man of gentlemanly bearing and honorable principles. corn-meal. Austin went for the cannon. but equality with Bradburn. They looked every where. William Hardin. the battle of Velasco was then fought. went with Piedras to Anahuac to receive the prisoners. with his family. During all these difficulties Texas was not without her tories." " Make room for moment him. A A A : ! A . cry is heard: "We want Bill Hardin. and he assured the men who were waiting at Liberty. Ugartachea said his orders were peremptory. to learn the cause of our having taken up arms." says another.TEXAS REVOLUTION. but as they were seen coming. It was about this time that we learned of the arrival of Colonel Piedras with all his forces from Nacogdoches. qualities that were wholly wanting in Bradburn. for I will immediately have them set at liberty. that John Austin should go to Brazoria to bring the schooner Brazoria. Dorsatt. and other provisions. that Ugartachea On the morning of this fight. in advance of his command. for the purpose of landing the cannon at Double Bayou. He came within a mile of our camp. who. stopped with Capt. declared they would have him." Whereupon H. that the result would be favorable. "boys. he at once said: "Gentlemen. it was agreed. who was foremost among us in resistance to Bradburn. belonging to him. notified Austin that he Austin expostulated with him. Some of these men were violently hostile to many of us. some twenty miles above. but Hardin not having time." said they. hid under two beds. B. On learning that our object was to rescue our fellow-citizens confined in the fortress at Anahuac. where every gun was distinctly heard. having received orders from Bradburn not to permit the schooner to pass that place. and all prepared to secure him. who commanded the fort at Velasco. Having experienced the disadvantage of being without cannon. Johnson made his escape through a back door. I may here recur to a circumstance that should not be omitted in the history of the times. there was no alternative left for Austin but to return or fighr. and that reinforcements might soon be expected from Brazoria. but give me time to get out. he having been sent for by BradPiedras had with him also. to halt at the place of Mr. he is in the house. "Well. This Mexican-American company. the next morning. At about ten o'clock at night. as we had been apprised the day before. so called. more. as could proceed no further. "get him out. number of Indian auxiliaries in his service. the result of which was. with meat." "Here is his hat. and in every corner. Meantime Piedras sends orders to his forces. Dorsatt's daughters lying on them. with three cannon at that place. a crash is heard. under the bed. number of Americans and Germans had formed a company to aid Bradburn in carrying out his tyrannical measures. and with great was . John M.

W. Meanwhile the Mexican consul chartered a vessel and sent Lieut. induced the [En order to guard against every error in the history of those early events that first colonists of Texas to resort to arms in the defense of their rights liberties. who guarded him at the time the him off to Vera Cruz. He made his way towards Liberty. Juan Cortinez. To avenge this cruel treatment. By means of these two vessels. Cortinez. as they had declared for Santa Anna. He then set the American prisoners at liberty.36 TEXAS ALMANAC. to him like a lenau (a deer) to be protected by a guard. and the fourteen other prisoners. by a pronunciamento. Travis. he arrived on him at Liberty by seven o'clock the next morning. assumes the command of the troops at Anahuac. by some by-ways. (for which Messrs. Harris were never paid. Travis being free. The next day. without saddle or bridle. Thus was Anahuac finally relieved from the presence of a Mexican garrison and the soldiers from whom the inhabitants had suffered so : much. Edwards.) we got rid of the Mexicans. he ordered Bradburn to be arrested. to complete the full measure of justice to the Colonists. Piedras returned to Nacogdoches. broke through the weather-boarding with a desperate effort. he would never forgive for the harsh and cruel treatment he then received from his hands. who ordered his cavalry to protect Dorsatt's family from further similar outrages. Travis received from him friendly treatment. as he professed to fear assassination from Travis. vailed. " that he ran Cortinez told some that so great was his fear of Travis. great excitement prepiloted to New-Orleans. but all the men were landed safe the other landed her men in Tampico. P. Col. of course felt no great friendship toward Bradburn. Montero. presence of mind. The night after Piedras left. FURTHER ACCOUNT BY COL. till he should recruit from the fatigues of his journey. and Francis we have submitted the foregoing narrative by Dr. and at last he was When there. Harris. and then he and his men were permitted to retire. and iostantly disappeared through the side of the house. shortly after this. through the newspapers. a worthy officer. and then. as all these doings were known. permitted him to evacuate and retire to San Antonio. he concluded to sail with the whole garrison to Tampico. when they went to San Antonio. Labadie to Col. Souverin. which was done. hence both hid for a good many days in the Double Bayou woods. and the night following. The command having devolved on company approached the fort for an assault. but on arriving there he found the citizens of the place in arms against his authority. Johnson. both Bradburn and Montero dreaded to see them at large. and before that time had expired they were none of them to be seen. being reported there as fast as they occurred. with the request that he would make such comments and . The schooner Machanna (one of the two) was wrecked near the bar of Soto la Marina. but the officer Lt. having been set at liberty and quiet being once more restored. JOHNSON OF THE FIRST BREAKING OUT OF HOSTILITIES. W. to suspend their opinions for a few days. After a short skirmish he capitulated. and having caught a horse on the prairie. he gave the command of the garrison to Lieut. The following fall having chartered two schooners of David and "Wm. Jack. Austin having defeated Uguartichea at Velasco. Bradburn required a guard from Cortinez. He found it necessary to ask the people of New-Orleans. Piedras ordered the tory company to be disbanded and to disperse within five days. The doings of these men were reported to Piedras." He hid himself in corn-cribs and the woods for two weeks. a distance of twenty-five miles. as he had promised he would do. promising them he would lay before them the whole proceedings in Texas.

it was determined to meet at Minchey's. take up a position. together with other?. C. Johnson and other citizens of Liberty. a respectable number of men assembled at Minchey's. Brazoria. in command. Hall 2d. and his determination to appeal to the people. Jack were to proceed to the settlements of Fort Bend. D. Johnson were to visit the settlements on Spring These arCreek. proceeded to that place and waited on Colonel Bradburn for the purpose of ascertaining what. and a plan of operations soon agreed upon. were William B. was informed of what had been done. and appropriating to his own use. Johnson) and the members of the Ayuntamiento of the municipality of Liberty. 'offense had been committed by his brother and the other prisoners. Labadie's manuscript in relation to the causes which led to open resistance in 1832. The usurpation of civil power and the arbitrary conduct of Colonel Bradburn in deposing the Alcalde (Hugh B. They joyously joined u?. San Jacinto and Trinity as high up as Liberty. Coles on the Goliad road and Washington. and there organize and concert such measures as the occasion reAs fast as the men from Austin's Colony arrived. Johnson 1st. that he could not release or get a trial for the prisoners. had the least effect upon this Jurisdiction. Robert M. Minchey's. he returned to his home in San Felipe. Esq. a few miles below Liberty. in their stead. Tho following is his reply :] I have read with much care and interest Dr. Allen. petty tyrant.. Among the most prominent citizens arrested and held in prison by Bradburn. Bradey 3d. and fully concur in hivS statement of facts and circumstances leading to the first outbreak of hostilities. rangements being completed. first constitutional Alcalde of the Jurisdiction of Austin. where it was resolved that an armed force. 37 add such further particulars as he might deem necessary to the truth of this important portion of Texas history. Jack. commandant at the post of Anahuac.TEXAS REVOLUTION. on learning that his brother Patrick C. creatures of his own arresting and imseizing. On his arrival at home he called together a few friends. etc. Williamson was to visit the settlements of Mill Creek. where all were abundantly supplied by the citizens. and necessary measures for subsisting the force. After consulting the Alcalde Hugh B. the troops were formed and took up the 4 . Benjamin Tennell and Francis W. N. Horatio Chinman. This over. The most prominent citizens of the place were consulted. without cause. Each one who had volunteered to rally the people proceeded on their routea Wherever they went they were greeted. William H. Patrick C. had been arrested and imprisojied by order of Colonel Bradburn. justice of their immediate release or a trial before the proper authorities of the No argument that Jack was master of. should march upon Anahuac. and Thomas H. determined to make an appeal to the people of Austin's Colony. nor in any way better their painful situation. and led to resistance. place.. private property prisoning. citizens before that. appoint a committee to wait on Colonel Bradburn and inform him of the object of the assemblage of the We organized by electing Francis W. Monroe Edwards. Tennell and Johnson were the first to arrive at Liberty and communicate what was being done in Austin's Colony and to solicit their cooperation. and solicit them to aid in subjecting the military tyrant to the civil authorities of the country. they were directed to quired. of San Felipe de Austin. if guilty of any offense. citizens who claimed a trial before the civil authorities of the Jurisdiction. Some two or three days after the arrival of Tennell and Johnson at Liberty. and give notice to the people of the wrongs and outrages committed by Bradburn. Buffalo Bayou. are a few of many causes which might be enumerated. and the people responded to the call. Colonel William Pettus and William H. and to obtain for them a trial In vain did he urge the necessity and before the civil authorities. if any. and made common cause. or their release. and Samuel T. and substituting. and informed them of the result of his visit to Bradburn. In this his friends agreed with him. who with great effrontery informed Jack that the prisoners would be Mortified and pained to think sent to Vera Cruz and tried by a military court. Warren D. composed of the citizens of Austin's Colony and the Jurisdiction of Liberty. Travis. Jack.

manifested such zeal and honesty that the Texians agreed to appoint commissioners to meet those of the Fort at a time and place agreed upon. Thus we moved forward. We halted and encamped on the west side of Turtle Bayou White's crossing. They were conducted. While posting the guard. The enemy being in position. This reconciled most of the men. our part were Captains John Austin. So completely were they surprised that not a gun was fired. on Turtle Bayou. who had taken part in the conference. and Francis W. For this purpose the ground was examined and found practicable. to the quarters of Colonel Bradburn. and reach the position assigned. but resulted in no loss or injury. On the third day it was determined to send a detachment to take a position opposite and within rifle-shot of the fort. composed of Alcaldes Austin and Johnson. after being driven to the wall by arfinally informed the committee that Colonel Souverin was the commander of the garrison. formed the advance. The command was faced about and marched back . was appointed. a miscreant. and entered Anahuac at or before tion of Robt. Smith shot and instantly killed Sergeant Blackman. Williamson. Sergeant Blackman with sixteen men under the direcM. The next morning we resumed our march. Williams solicited an interview. gument. and occupying a piece of woodland. . now for the first time is pointed out as the commanding officer. which was granted. H. but without success. although strongly suspected of being favorable to Bradburn. argument they were masters of. John A. A . march for Anahuac. This gentleman. an express arrived and informed us that the Mexicans had refused to comply with the terms agreed upon. Not being able to effect any thing peaceably. firing was heard in the direction of Anahuac. and there await the arrival of the commissioners and the Texian prisoners. McKinstry. Captain Martin assured the command that he had the utmost confidence in their good faith that no one wearing an epaulet would be base enough to forfeit his plighted honor. Williams. (Wm. noon. . and were marching out to attack the small party in Anahuac. Johnson. FJankers were thrown out on each side. and that present difficulties could be amicably and satisfactorily arranged through commissioners. K. By marching under the river bank. G. Thus matters remained until the following day. and was using his influence with the garrison at Anahuac to declare for Santa Anna that he had been assured by Colonel Souverin that he was disposed to accommodate the citizens.38 line of TEXAS ALMANAC. and had advanced within some two miles when they were met by the commissioners and their small party retreating in good order. Johnson. when some skirmishing took Several attempts were made to draw the place. enemy out. completely covered the detachment from the fire of the fort. After expressing his regret at the turn things had taken. they were made known to the command. and with artil1 ery to cover their lines.) The commissioners on. made our bows and returned to our camp. The command was then ordered to march to Taylor White's. We had not marched more than half the distance to Turtle Bayou when the advance came upon a party of Mexican cavalry. the detachment would be covered. The bank at that point being high. B. . as our little force was properly posted. While arrangements were being made with this view. At an early hour the next day. by the name of Haden a creature of Jno. thereafter. and made known The committee enforced their demand by every to him the object of their visit. Bradburn. Terms having been agreed upon. Hardin'?. a committee. As soon. and proceeded to the Fort. Lewis. we informed Colonels Bradburn and Souverin that we would try what virtue there was in force. where we reported the result of our misbion. They were not such as had been expected. and gave a good deal of dissatisfaction on account of the want of confidence in Mexican faith. and very soon after. he stated that he had accompanied Colonel Souverin from Matamoras that he had had frequent conversations with him and that he was devoted to the cause espoused by Santa Anna. through the guard. from fifteen to thirty remained with small party the commissioners. and Wyly Martin. and escaped under cover of night. The command was immediately put under marching order. it was deemed prudent not to attack them under such disadvantageous circumstances. M. Hugh B.

to Turtle Bayou. With the enemy in our front and rear. Colonel William Pettus and Kobert M. Francis W. on the Necb. Geo. and the command given to the next senior officer. Small parties were daily arriving. at James Martin's. . in the mean time. During the night an attempt. on a The conference with the commissioners resulted in call from Colonel Bradburn. and landed at some suitable point near Anahuac. the next morning. to strike a blow. whereupon a committee was appointed to draw up a preamble and resolutions declaratory of the wrongs and abuses committed by the chief magistrate of the nation and his minions. and. in a few days after. it was determined to to take position. but that. and a determination to defend them.TEXAS REVOLUTION. passed our encampment. we were visited by commissioners from the camp of Colonel Piedras. a meeting was called and its object stated. the small Felipe. to Captain George Orr's. agree upon any thing satisfactory and definite. Thus reinforced. and only Under this state of awaited the arrival of artillery to march upon Anahuac. Before leaving Mosses we received news. The conference was conducted with all that politeness and courtesy characteristic of the Mexican gentleman. Being notified of their approach. and resolutions were unanimously adopted by the meeting. the troops were drawn up in line and saluted them. Captain Randal Jones and James Lindsey. where ho spent the night. of the battle of Velasco. and took up a position at Dunman's. Hugh B. if need be. of from forty to sixty men. met Colonel Piedras and his commissioners near their camp. that the prisoners should at once be released and delivered over to the Alcalde of Liberty that Bradburn should be put under arrest. and. if occasion offered. that evening. force left in the field. fight them in detail by express. From Dunman's we took a position at Mosses Spring. Johnson. "Williamson were sent to San In the mean time. near t Liberty. The next morning. Colonel Piedras. and at this point. the military. With a view to prevent a junction of the two forces. where. McKinstry. and from Bevil's Settlement. Johnson. Colonel Piedraa. and also of the determination of Texas to the military. the commissioners were directed to say to Colonel Piedras that we would meet him at or near his camp on a certain day. we were marched Mosses Spring. and Captain Francis Adams. were we were further reinforced by parties from Austin's Colony. on a day named. all of which to be transported by water. In the evening of the same day. nothing more than the information that Colonel Piedras was encamped some twenty miles north of Liberty. 39 After consultation. we were joined by Captain Abner Kuykendall and his company. and to maintain their rights under the repel further aggressions by The committee having performed this duty. the commissioners of Piedras were met at Martin's. from Nacogdoches. were not long in agreeing on terms. who had marched with a parc of his forces. and called upon all Texas to join them. was made on the We . The commissioners were informed of our objects and wishes. Colonel Pitdras accompanied us. it was determined to take up a position near Martin's. where. B. they arrived at Anahuac. as commissioners. for the purpose of raising men and getting artillery and munition?. and. were to occupy such positions as would enable us to watch the movements of the enemy. he was not to move forward or backward. the preamble constitution of 1824. it is believed. he was to release and turn over the Texian Bradburn was put under arrest soon after the arrival of prisoners to the Alcalde. and others. accordingly. things.es. for the purpose of raising and forwarding men. and put an end to further negotiation. accompanied by the Alcalde. where we could more effectually prevent such a union. should proceed to Brazoria. and an agreement to* meet again. which were. Here it was determined that Captain John Austin. Thus again we were enabled to resume offensive measures. On up a stronger the day ap- Not being able to pointed. as interpreter. as in either event it would be held hostile. Thus this little band boldly proclaimed their rights. On the day appointed. we marched forward again. from Austin's colony. we marched up to Dunman's. In the evening of that day.

They brought information to the effect. Thus ended the Anahuac campaign. under Captain Peyton R. and placed themselves under the command of Colonel Neill.40 life TEXAS ALMANAC. given by him. Hardin arrived later on the same day. thrown into the Guadalupe river. which proved to be the blowing up Almonte. . were tion. company. tents and camp-baggage were burnt. but few of the horses of the small number they had could be found. not only of all the events of the Anahuac campaign. where they remained for some days anxiously waiting the arrival of reinforcements sufficient to justify the attempt to cut their way into the Alamo. A were greeted by their countrymen as they wended their way to Martin's. A f town. a more full and detailed account. D. The arrival of these two men. were not called in. heavy explosions were heard. Splaner. and another detachment in the direction of Piedras' camp. where they halted to rest and get breakfast while there. Previous to General Houston's arrival. of the Alcalde and "William Hardin by some of Bradburn's creatures. just below the Major. to watch the movements of the enemy. created great excitement and distrust. and the citizen soldiers returned to their respective homes. . at Colonel Johnson's request. General Houston arrived and assumed com- mand. the following day the 1st Regiment was organized by electing the following officers Burleson. at daylight next morning. Colonel Sherman. and have received the take pleasure in addassurance that the facts are all correctly stated. Lieutenant-Colonel Summerville camp was formed on the east bank of the Guadalupe. about ten miles distant. the Alamo arrival That night news was brought into camp by an old Mexican of the fall of on the following day this sad news was fully confirmed by the of Mrs. near Duncan's Ferry. BY N. for a subsequent number of our Almanac. shirt. that. with his agreement. . There were many families left in the rear also. and the Texian prisoners. ED. we have submitted the above account. and arrived at our camp at an early hour in the morning. The reports. Dickinson and child. About twelve o'clock at night the army commenced the retreat. JOHNSON. as there was no way of transporting them in consequence of the great haste to get off. show how groundless were the excitement and fears of the preceding day. it reached Peach Creek. Immediately on receiving that informaTwo cannon that had been procured. Houston ordered a retreat. and socks. to the letter. Colonel Piedras complied. and two negro men-servants of Travis and . was ordered out on the road to Anahuac. the haste was so great that the picket-guard that had been posted two or three miles west of the river. F. to several of those who participated in that lirst campaign. In fact.] SAN JACINTO CAMPAIGN. TEXAS ALMANAC. Toura respectfully. [We should here remark. once more admitted to enjoy the free air and light of hoaven. On : . ing that we have the promise of Colonel Johnson that he will furnish us. and under the circumstances. that 3000 of the enemy would camp on the Cibolo that night. but of other subsequent campaigns in which fullest We he participated. W. that subsequently led to the Texas revolution. About the llth or 12th of March. LABADIE. some 400 men had assembled at GonzaJes. made the following day. and it being extremely dark. with orders to report at the camp to be established on the west side of Trinity. Johnson escaped with no clothing or covering but pants.

and while the writer was cooking the last of his corn-meal. giving us the sad tidings of the fall of the Alamo. all were promptly on the ground. were the only two from that neighborhood. N. related the thrilling events of the campaign at San Antonio. while Moreland was to act as Orderly. In ten minutes we were again . we again mounted and proceeded on towards San Felipe by way of "New Kentuck. the Grass Fight. At this meeting.TEXAS REVOLUTION. Meetings were held throughout the country to devise means to meet the army of 8000. in a few days. who declared that they would all be massacred by the Indians. as he had acquired some knowledge in drill at San Antonio. the Consultation in San Felipe called for a draft to bo made in every settlement. to raise the men requisite to meet at San Antonio the invading army of Santa Anna. that had transpired but a few weeks before. James. composed of Beaumont and Liberty boys. command. when we set forward to meet the enemy. J. for the first time. the slaughter of Travis and his men. In the mean time General Sesma formed a camp on the west bank. were chosen next in Wm. we camped at noon to rest our horses. and that the only hope of safety was to fly to the Sabine without This was indeed appalling intelligence. coming to subjugate Texas. and immediately went M. and Harper. His command did not exceed 800 men. Hardin gave us a fine dinner. son of Mrs. THE LIBERTY COMPANY ORGANIZE AND JOIN THE ARMY.) a meeting was held at the house of Mrs. (March. Thomas Norman. and the recital It was finally agreed that we would inspired increased enthusiasm among all. Wm. in convention at "Washington. James.) Having given him three hearty cheers for his glorious news. He further stated that the entire country west of the Brazos was to be abandoned. After the election of officers. Hardin. this time. urged upon all the necessity of preparation for a decisive conflict." Having arrived at Roberts'.. in Liberty county. appointed at the most eligible points. whose husband had just returned from the siege and capture of San Antonio. and the The company embraced over writer. On the day appointed. when distinguished himself in resistance to Bradburn's attempt to set the slaves free. seventy. the stores. of liquors left in 41 behind. now and then a family of women and children was with them. Padillo returning from the Convention. Roberts' house. Logan. the excitement was very great and universal and finally delegates were chosen in the several departments to meet Meanwhile Committees of Vigilance and Safety. Orders were at once given to mount and reach San Felipe by a forced march. these stragglers were constantly coming up with their horses packed down with merchandise taken from the stores before setting them on fire. etc. here it made a halt for several days. On crossing the river at Green's Ferry on the 12th. and Branch. . fully equipped and prepared for the About approaching campaign. the town having been set on fire bj parties left During the next morning. where the town of Columbus is now situated. where it crossed the river and marched down to a point opposite Beason's . and there was not in that campaign a more efficient company or a more fearless and determined set of men. (February. this point troops GENERAL PREPARATION". an express rides up. increased to fifteen or sixteen hundred men. and our spirits were still more delay. 183G. meet at Liberty on the llth of March. and from him we learned. was chosen our Captain. Morland. and continued until it reached Burnham's on the Colorado. one among the leading spirits of the day. The army resumed its march towards noon. we met Mr. after having set fire to Gonzales. depressed by the cries of the women of Mr. on the 2d inst. and the retreat of General Houston.. and finally. that Texas had been declared forever FREE AND INDEPENDENT OP MEXICO. who had into an election of officers. "While the army lay at were constantly coming in until the Texas army.

During that night there came up a severe norther. and powderhim he could go. for they have undoubtedly taken the back His request was granted. while we proceeded on our march in a slow gait. cried out: "Captain Logan. his courage having oozed out after hearing the alarming accounts of the massacre of Travis. and Taken all in all. the spectacle we witnessed was agonizing and well calculated to discourage the stoutest heart. concluded we would do good service." at a brisk trot. and these we gave to those who were without any. some of our horses could not bo found. Peyton having gathered around her as many of her sex as she could. the blessings of God on our arms. and I therefore found the stock of medicines. their other children and other women were again seen with but one shoe. and imploring with upraised hands. and bring them together at San Felipe. with which I had filled my saddle-bags. . reaching the Brazos Bottom. some of our men were detailed to gather up such straggling parties as they could find. During our march from the Trinity to the Colorado. and knew not where to go expressing their preference to die on the road rather than be killed by the Mexicans or Indians. The next morning. as he could be of no use to us. while other women. and. as I had often to remain behind. waving their handkerchiefs incessantly as we left. we passed that night in San Felipe. and I will go back for the horses to Koberts'. ARRIVAL AT SAN FELIPE. Norton from New. were seen walking. but that his rifle was needed for some braver man. Houston with the army encamped. some carrying their smaller children in their arms or on their backs. horn. Belden. as we were paraded opposite Mrs. Night overtook us at the "Big Mound. etc. using our saddles for pillows. that I ever witnessed." where we camped under the six or eight tall pines there. they all presented themselves in her gallery. some of them barefoot. the day But Maxwell had taken from him his rifle. where they gave us repeated cheers. where we replenished our scanty supply of provisions. . and encouraging us to be of stout heart. till we reached the ferry opposite San Felipe. and who we supposed was also looking for the horses). Mrs. and was followed by complimentary speeches from some others. the disasters that were threatening the country. and who were willing to fight. for whom there was no room in the wagons. and diarrhoea. Towards evening Maxwell overtook us. Hence we took it on ourselves to seize upon all the spare rifles we could find in the hands of those who were retreating. and bought cooking utensils for our campaign. we there found Gen. Having arrived at Beason's Ferry on the Colorado. on our way.42 TEXAS ALMANAC. till all . . to add to our disagreeable position. The road was filled with carts and wagons loaded with women and children. following barefooted having lost the other in the mud some of the wagons were broken down. raising their hands to Heaven. Menard Maxwell. made us a big talk. colics. most painful by far. The bottoms presented an uninterrupted succession of such sights. as brave a man as ever shouldered a rifle. as they called our attention to their forlorn situation. accompanied with rain. such as cramps.York. when they started back track. before. who was on his return home. The ferry-boat being given to us till we had all crossed over. give me three men. and daylight found us all shivering with the cold and wet. and he stated that he had fallen in with Dr. telling A On DISTRESSING SPECTACLE. one Capt. and avert. I had frequent calls to relieve the common complaints among our men occasioned by exposure. As our company was the last to pass through that place. the cowardly devils.. having recovered the lost horses. with a view to joining the army. shot-pouch. the sight was the others again were bogged in the deep mud. . after having mounted. if possible. Upon this. Peyton's public house and our appearance being rather imposing. very useful At times it was with much diffiI culty I could keep up with the company. (who had been of our party. leaving only one to every wagon or cart. But the cries of the women were still more distressing. to whom we reported ourselves 20th March. and declaring they had lost their all.

having received two days' rations. though brave. attention was attracted by two young men. throwing our saddles. the painful news of Fannin's defeat was brought into camp by one Peter Carr. having seen years of service in the U.) who hastily retreated before them. 43 could relieve those attacks. who knew his duty well. the whistle of a ball from the cannon. and coming towards us in good order. Upon looking back. three or four tents being already pitched. S. the enemy mounted. Myself and some twelve others of the Liberty company accepted the invitation. our army increased by the daily arrivals. and gives the order: "Wheel to the left. Carnes. passing over our heads. and then another followed. crossed the river. I was placed second in the lead. and that Capt Bird was to follow us. Carnes was authorized to raise a mounted volunteer company to cross over. NEWS OF FANNIN'S DEFEAT. In this I know I am correct.TEXAS REVOLUTION. and Capt. while a new camp-ground was being laid off. A moment after. and about one mile from the river. who rushed past us on two white horses. but the two pursued on till I lost sight of them. and the company. Bird's men hid themselves behind trees and stumps. taking his position in the edge of the timber to cover our retreat. till I could overtake Yet not a single death occurred in our company. after which the numbers in our camp be- gan to diminish rapidly. was heard. About the same time we also observed. and then having driven our horses in. before another. Having again mounted. while we were waiting prepared for a charge. we were told we had to attack Sezma's camp of 600 men. till after a few minutes. and we knew some body must be approaching. and then had to travel in the night. etc. army but Capt. During this time it was understood that orders had been sent to Fannin to retreat. where we waited in silence for the enemy to approach suf~ . Sezma had pitched his camp on the opposite or west bank. Meantime. They dashed forward towards some Mexican cavalry. and reconnoitre the position of the enemy. causing our line to break in three or four places. no doubt. caused. and it was corroborated by others the next day. blessings were pretty liberally bestowed on our commander for our failure. and join us without delay. in another direction. into the ferry-boat. During one week while we were encamped on the Colorado. however. Order having been restored among us. as we paraded every day. whom we then joined. throwing up clouds of dust. blankets. expecting to make a dash in full gallop to take the enemy's cannon.. and I made the entry in my journal. and the report had scarcely subsided. Capt. the company. and made them swim to the other side of the river. etc. and we had an orderly at the head of our party. and their heads tied with handkerchiefs. whom Houston treated as a spy. which gave me an opportunity of making a record of the numbers on the ground. had not the experience necessary in a commander. but the rising ground before us obstructed our view. we all took our station in two files just under the second bank. EXPEDITION UNDER CARNES. till we emerged from the timber on the other side. but at this mcment Carnes rides up to the orderly. I found myself at the head of only four men. We immediately stripped our horses. from about 600 to 1600 men. Meantime Gen. putting him under guard. the same two men on white horses were seen driving before them some Mexican horses and mules they had taken from the enemy's guard. numbering sixty-four. by our unexpected appearance. we saw the cattle running as if frightened. the company having fallen back fully 600 yards to the At this time our rear. as the order to retreat was given. with guns in their hands. some throwing themselves down in the grass for the purpose of getting a close shot at them. believed his report to be true. We were about to wheel to the right. to . as our horses became almost unmanageable. where we observed the enemy's camp in great confusion. The balls struck the ground at some distance beyond us. as the artillery he had was absolutely necessary to us.. the bushes cleared away. We proceeded in good order. We all. (apparently a scouting party. the left !" Just as he spoke.

Houston sent an order to Baker to defend Subthe crossing at San Felipe." Finding the army had left. crossing at which. the sooner it was ascertained the better. but after marching till two o'clock. when Gen. and thero they crossed over. and that. did you ever hear me give orders to burn the town of San Felipe?" : MoreHis re- . lo we found it entirely deserted. At near day-break we came up with the army at the spring Gen. sequently Baker set fire to San Felipe. the other either by Willey Martin or Bird. Ascertaining Houston was determined on continuing the retreat. M. I may here remark that on one occasion. Burleson left the army for the purpose of removing his family to a place of safety. addressed Gen. In relation to the burning of San Felipe. and then took his position on the opposite bank of the river. ETC. begged our breakfast of our messmates. San Felipe. and then abandoned it. The enemy afterwards Felipe by order of Gen. at once perceived 'that Houston had commenced his retreat. I visited Gen. Ben. Col. we found we had missed the trail. we recrossed the river about dark. I then. I THE RETREAT FROM THE COLORADO. as there was a fine spring and plenty of grass six miles distant. and we did so as well as we could in the night . and that. and which miserable hole was our hiding-place for about two weeks. Col. for the first time. Houston on the subject. on giving orders to that effect. who had gone in advance with his staff. who knew every thing that was transpiring. Moreland. it was hinted to me that a retreat was contemplated. Williams for fuel. Many of us declared it was necessary to have a better leader. Williams. He declared to me that the grass being all eaten up. if we could do no better. and burnt to the ground. Houston. but the latter denied it. whom we found lying in his tent. but were not in the humor to boast of our exploits. But here we were again disappointed. which had the appearance of having once been the bed of the river. its merchants and other inhabitants finally abandoned it. Having thus failed in our purpose. We We We CAMP AT GROCE'S FERRY-SAN FELIPE BURNT. But Maj. Sherman was therefore ordered to put the army in marching order. afterwards took me one side. The awny had not marched far. and having recovered our horses with some difficulty. having thus been left to its fate by our army. when he immediately sent back Col. Groce's plantation. As Houston had decided on marching up the river some twenty miles opposite Col. as the. Hockly with an order to Sherman to put the army in motion. notwithstanding the preparations apparently for a permanent encampment. saying. after the buildings were set on fire. and he sent a message to that effect to Houston. and to Martin to defend that at Fort Bend. Moseley Baker. he said hnd. when they turned and retreated. and at night we reached the place of Mr. Smith. in company with J. just as straight as the road will lead us keep this to yourself. S. Sherman found two companies refused to come into line. timber was too far distant. and having lost most of our provisions. who knew me as well as I did him. " Houston. Our camp was pitched near a deep ravine. F. we mounted and returned towards the camp. The retreat was continued through this day. One of the companies was commanded by Capt. it was important to get a new and better range. we had nothing to do but to follow. and the horses starving. Houston had named to me. diverged and went down to the Fort Bend. and had gone out of our way some eight miles. place Martin was unable to defend.44 ficiently near to give for the enemy were TEXAS ALMANAC. N. and then camp. where he defended the crossing till he found the main army was Baker afterwards asserted. we would elect some one better fitted to command. he would only move to that place. Turning towards us. using up the fences of Mr. that he burnt San retreating. and said with a wink: " are going to San Felipe. us a hand-to-hand fight. finding the crossing at San Felipe defended by Baker. and reaching it. about two miles from San Felipe. prudent enough not to approach within a quarter of a mile. if subordinate commanders were going to disobey orders. Before leaving that morning. Here we again camped.

Burleson of the 1st Regiment appointed Doctors Davidson and Fitahue. by this time. He had. but their actual force being concealed by the timber they made all the display possible. when he was overtaken by the Mexican cavalry.TEXAS REVOLUTION. and April . had Fannin renewed the fire. and of this Captain Logan complained much. where he soon expected to achieve a glorious victory over the enemy. presenting the appearance of a vast army. 6. he would have won the The subsequent unhappy fate of the Georgia Battalion is known to all. but that he refused to do so. numerous fires were lit up for a great distance. however. had been kept on Grace's plantation. when he finally concluded to evacuate the place and cross the He had river but. had taken with them but a scanty supply of ammunition." 45 they blame "Yet me for it. accursed white flag to be again sent in. for some weeks before. and many promotions were made. from which he became feverish. (this being the second time. encamped in this filthy place. Ewing received the appointment of Surgeon-general. etc. while he was in the open prairie. and supposing himself overpowered by numbers. Fannin accepts the terms. Bomer and the writer were appointed Surgeons of the first regiment of Regulars. Early in the morning the enemy. who. and by him Dr. some three of Fannin's men. urging him to go to his relief in the Alamo. and suffering from want of water and food during the night. and when night came on. which caused serious alarm. the order had reached him. after considerable firing during the day. It was here also. asserted by some. Fannin had caused a temporary breastwork to be thrown up by means of his carts. and witnessing great suffering from want of water among all his men. where a few sick had been sent." ACCOUNTS OP FANNIN'S DEFEAT. which. in which exposed The position he strangely orders a halt. To Dr. In his despondency. The Surgeons of the Volunteer Regiments were appointed by their respective commanders. thinking it important to defend his position in Goliad. that the Medical Staff was organized. but have probably prevented this retreat of the main army. during the day. was however. in their hurry of pursuit. he would not only have saved himself and his men from their It dreadful fate. in the Brazos Swamp. barefooted. any body to show how it might have been avoided. victory. that there was not time for Fannin to effect a retreat after. without water or shelter of any kind. that had he obeyed orders and joined the main army at Beasou's. it was plain. Of this. They first appeared in a skirt of timber some mile or two in advance of him. caused their . I can only speak from the statements made by others. received a flesh-wound from a musket-ball. Here he wasted some sixteen or eighteen days. it. It was then deemed proper to organize the army on the best possible plan. ETC. it is usually quite an easy matter for disaster. came into camp and related all the particulars of their After a misfortune has happened. etc. and surrenders without firing a It was soon after ascertained that the enemy's ammunition was about gun. wagons. using stagnant water from the old bed of the river. the enemy was rapidly advancing upon him.) promising an honorable capitulation. They said that Fannin had received three expresses from Travis. and that. So after Fannin's defeat. Dr. pursuing their usual resort to stratagems and treachery. and ragged. ply was: "General. Phelps was assigned the Hospital. it is believed to be a "While matter of much doubt whether the order ever did reach him. a great deal of sickness prevailed among the men. he became disheartened. and indeed. exhausted. The statements given by these three men have been substantially confirmed by all subsequent accounts. by which means our Liberty Company was reduced from eighty to fifty in number. I hare no recollection of said Houston. enemy were but few in number. proceeded some ten miles on his retreat to the eastward. with his fine artillery. wounded. as the bearer of it only left Gonzales some seven days before the enemy's arrival at Goliad. SICKNESS IN CAMP While our army lay thus encamped RE-ORGANIZATION.

was placed under guard for our future use. In reply. Kuykendall came into camp. and Colonel Sherman was pointed out as the man best calculated to meet the emergency. By request of Dr. The news of the burning of San feeling of discontent increased. N. (who was a strong friend to the Commander.46 TEXAS ALMANAC. lying at the Ferry. Bomer. as Mr. it was right. such as it wa?. Santa Anna. About this time news came to us that two pieces of artillery had been landed at Harrisburg and would reach the camp within five days. I found in great confusion. This came to the ears of General Houston. This was on Friday. Col. to the effect that the first man who should beat for volunteers. a cart was given me for its transportation. I went with him to visit Dr. (afterwards christened the and on entering the house we found several ladies of the house and neighborhood employed in making flannel bags. The steamboat Yellow Stone. to meet the enemy became almost uncontrollable. on the other or east side of the river. who was quite a stranger to me. like so many Indians in the woods. This was about noon on Sunday. Phelps at the Hospital. and Colonel Lynch and others pointed it out to me. and found the two little pieces of ordnance. Robbins stated it to be the wish of the Commander that the company should proceed no farther to the west. where it had halted. Groce. telling him to go and hunt up General Houston. Sidney Sherman had been elected Colonel of the Second Regiment. and Dr. whose hospitality I had . and stated that he had been taken prisoner by some Mexicans while eating his dinner in bis own house. of his reaching San Felipe and Fort Bend. that put an end to the movement of beating up for a volunteer commander. (our camp was only half a mile from the Ferry. The next day we entered upon the new duties assigned us. Houston said. in my presence. and while all were saying it was time to be doing something besides lying in idleness and getting sick. The medicine-chest. advance of Santa Anna in person. was tired of hunting after him and his army.) and Booker. Ewing. J. and the desire prairie. rendered our men impatient of this delay. SANTA ANNA'S CHALLENGE TALK OF SUPERSEDING. Having arranged it as well as possible. who received him kindly.) we got news that the cannon would probably arrive The day following. (Sunday. (April 10th. It was this mainly. under Captain Ross. and as we were about returning. and tell him that he." The next day. Meantime the Felipe. Sherman of the 2nd Regiment appointed Doctors Anson Jones. as there was no doubt the camp would break up within a few days. and the next day they reached Groce's house. who at once caused notices to be written and stuck on trees with wooden pegs. Jones. Ewing.) in company with several others. Moreland.") standing before Mr. as that spoken of. of the ' ROBBINS' FERRY ARRIVAL OF THE "TWIN SISTERS. some one from the Red Lands arrived and reported that a company from that section had reached Robbins' Ferry on the Trinity. should be court-martialed and shot. Groce's house. as soon as we should again be on our march. that he was taken before Santa Anna. upon hearing this challenge it was declared to be necessary that the army should have another commander.) and Major Ben Smith. to which the Liberty Company belonged. (late President I was afterwards apprised of these appointments by Dr.HOUSTON. all came to us and desired that no such step. should be taken. that night. but that if he would come out of his hiding-place.) I crossed over again. great discontent and murmuring were manifested among all the officers and men. Old Mr. " Twin Sisters. Owing to the state of inactivity and the increase of diarrhoea in the army. One day a Mr. and that it was his order for the company to stop there. while my friend Moreland was tying them. he would give him a fight in the open This challenge was a little too much for the Texas boys. at Groce's plantation. One of these notices was pinned to a hickory tree not six feet from the tent of the Liberty Company. and then gave him his liberty.

he joined us. who had charge of the medicinecart. that was drawn by oxen. Mr. are you and your But. The next day. Houston will not take us to No. On hearing that you were retreating to Nacogdoches. and I asked Capt. and I know Most of it was completed on the 13th and 14th. so that Gen. on the 15th." Then came " General. taking the ground allotted them. still enough remained to keep the physicians employed. He replied to my inquiry that it was his opinion the army would continue straight on and cross the Trinity at Robbins' Ferry. Roberts. I believe the crossing was commenced on the 12th. and the whole army soon crossed on the Yellow Stone without difficulty. Martin. Roberts." said he. I wanted to satisfy myself on that point. men willing to retreat there ?" " Where ?" said he. I observed Capt. and they have therefore all dispersed. the Captain of which told us he had received no orders. but would protect their families. who said has disbanded. SICKNESS DOUBTS AS TO WHICH ROAD WOULD BE TAKEN. and here a heavy Texas rain poured upon us. As Gen. and by next morning there was scarcely a rail left. While the companies were six miles to Mr. Owing to the conflicting opinions as to which road the army was to take after reaching Mr. soon came to " I said see him. " said to him General. : : . and turned towards us with a nod. Owing to the measles having broken out in the army. . Moseley Baker. one yoke of which belonged to a Mrs. preparations for the inarch were at once made. "To the Red Lands. brought the army to near Mr. Mann. Having now possession of these two four-pound pieces. As many were unwilling to go on that road. several of us desired Mr. and then finishing his conversation with Capt. a halt was expected to be made at Roberts'. and to whom I had letters of introduction. but would go between the two roads. according to your orders." This he said in a loud voice. who was standing on his the road to Harrisburgh. Martin. Houston was now coming up. three miles above. I have brought but my sword my company Capt. Roberts' place. Houston. galloped to near the advance guard. the army marched river then being high and rising. never never I" said he plied. Houston came up. as it appeared to be a case of life and death. for information. which is the last I ever saw of them or my cloak. Houston heard it. McLaughlin. THE CAMP AT GROCE'S BREAKS UP AND CROSSES THE RIVER. at once recognized me and expressed his pleasure at seeing me again. and went to Maj. Gen. Sherman received authority from Gen. Having sent away all the sick who had friends.TEXAS REVOLUTION. and by him the last of the army baggage was brought over on the 14th. During our march through the rain and cold. Houston was then close by. and as we neared that point (17th April) the writer. only two yoke of oxen having been lost by being taken down with the strong current the The next . Smith. 16th. and some eight men were discharged by my advice. They are on that road. where it forked." I re" " for if Gen. Ben. with three : or four others. I deemed it prudent to give permits to those afflicted to go to their homes. you had better take your sons home (there were two of them) or else one of them will die . one of my patients suffering from the measles. (who had just . and then camped. especially the writer. I have retreated with my company.) apparently much absorbed in thought. 47 experienced when I crossed his ferry in 1831. was so much exposed that I gave him my only cloak. Baker if his company was on the road to Rob" " " bins' Ferry. the troops." I was then standing within four or five steps of Gen." and I then conducted them beyond the guard. with a part of the camp equipage. which is now encamped in good order. meet the enemy." said I. to point out to all . crossed on the 13th and on that night Col. ! . Donohoe's place. gate. they declared they would no longer bear arms. The young man's father hearing of his son's sickness. we will elect a commander who will.day. Houston to superintend the crossing. as my journal is to that effect. As Gen. he passed by us suddenly and began cursing the men for taking the fence for firewood but they paid no attention to him.

he came back bringing captive a Mexican Express carrier with a pair of deer-skin saddle-bags full of documents for Santa Anna. The driver was now left with but a single yoke of miserable small oxen but I found him laughing at the ridiculous scene of having been compelled by a woman to stop and give up the best part of his team. boys.. dressed in buck-skin and with a coon-skin cap ornamented with some half a dozen old coons' tails that were dangling on his shoulders." . she showed fight when I resisted. " Why. ETC. its enthusiasm. when he received orders through Col. presenting her pistol. Some six miles further on our march. while crossing. between the two roads." " But how. and had his name upon them. MRS. and the band of music for- A . as the music had stopped music proceeded to the right The advance-guard. thinking the still lurking in the neighborhood. that night. when Maj." The whole line was fast closing but upon hearing the shout from the men. and some time that night the Red Land Company arrived. found means to cross the Bayou with a few others. That night the army camped at the head of a bayou. a small squad only keeping up with them. by crossing at Harrisburgh they would have another difficult Bayou Accordingly the balance of the (Syms') to cross. He had come from Mexico by way of San Antonio. to discontinue crossing the men. when the smoke at the town told us too plainly to be misAfter taken. These saddle-bags had belonged to Travis. By request of its commander. said he. ordering them to halt till the getting itself in wagons. Mann about her oxen. Deaf Smith. That night Col.. Rusk. could you give them up ?" Why. " said I. said he. but we found those By dusk that supplies quite as acceptable to us as they could have been to Cos. He took one of the cannon and placed it upon the bank of the Bayou to protect his men. when I learned that. when Roberts raised his hand. Here I first discovered my medicine-cart was missing. she said she would be d d if the General should have her oxen any longer. wheeled also to the right and then loud and joyous shouts followed in succession. then a quarter of a mile ahead. seeing the music take the right. etc. declaring they should go no further that way. with orders then to follow on as a rear guard and join the army that night. Gen." shout was then raised: "To the right. that the enemy had been there before us. but as the army had changed its course. cavalry joined the main army next morning and crossed Buffalo Bayou below the raouih of Syms'. owing to some difficulty with Mrs. He had succeeded in crossing Capt. medicine-cart. Houston to go as far as the ferry on the Trinity. Sher- man was ordered to cross the cavalry over the Bayou at that place. enemy was . Mann driving off her yoke of oxen. . distanced all the rest.48 TEXAS ALMANAC. We arrived opposite Harrisburgh about noon. on the march to Lynchburg. as it was ascertained that. cried out: " That right hand road will carry you to Harrisburg just as straight as a compass. it had been left behind. MARCH CONTINUED TO HARRISBURGH. MANN AND HER OXEN. intended for the division under General Cos. Houston then ordered him to go with all possible speed to the Red Land Company with directions that they should join the army.M. at'Eray's Bayou.. a flat-boat was found loaded with corn-meal. could come up. the next morning his company was allowed to rest till 11 A. cannons. and about 8 o'clock. etc. by swimming his horses and sending over his baggage on a raft which had been constructed for the purpose. our spy. Riding back. to the right. I observed " Three-legged Willie" galloping up to Gen. The next day. she said she had loaned her oxen to Gen. the up. as it had now changed its course to Harrisburgh. I reached the spot just in time to see Mrs. and set fire to its buildings. and then I thought it most prudent to surrender. though he excused himself for having made the surrender by declaring that she was a man after all. camping a little below.. Houston. and elevating his voice. Karnes' company. Wells galloped by me. " How did this happen ?" said I. and that it was no easy matter to find another to match her.

as he lay down by my side. the particulars of Santa Anna being in advance of us. warning. Perry. was the third fire kindled. Bayou. The ground was wet. consisthorse having been ing of some 40 men. Houston came by me. swallowed them quickly. and I went a little ahead of the guard to learn something of the enemy but the guard having overtaken me. when the word was given " To arms. I surrendered my share to others. remember the Alamo." said he. 19-rii. both being filled with bandages that we had made as chance threw a few rags in our way. . were shot down. and each one drinks his small share of the hot boiling coffee the best way he could but when the eggs were found to contain chickens. I waited for the staff. and having had my answer. without supper. As Gen. taken by some one without my consent. My SPEECHES TO THE ARMY. a cold norther having chilled the night air. Rifle in hand." as if it had just occurred to him that it was a waste of words to talk to men who had been so long impatient for the very conflict that was now about to take place. Some of us may be killed and must be killed the Alabut. rather than would take place that very night and within a mile or two. Houston made us an animated speech. the guard only standing around a small fire. and we preferred to walk. who finding them well cooked. Davidson to take my saddle-bags with his own. however. we passed a comfortless and sleepless night. leaving some fifty fires . also remaining to guard the camp." all with an enthusiastic and eager desire to meet the enemy. but brought me back to you. he rode up to Col. his pistols were returned to him the day before the fight. I got Dr. Rusk then made a most eloquent speech inspiring prisoners that I know. and by 6 o'clock we are again on our march towards Lynchburg. and in the midst of his speech he stopped suddenly. Somerville remarked " After such a speech. ! We had : THE MARCH AND EVENTS OF THE Having crossed. wing's blanket. Phelps having been left to attend to some ten or twelve who were sick with the diarrhrea the Red Land company. saying. two others. orders were given to halt for breakfast. the army had all crossed over. As we knew not what moment an attack might be made. whose horses could not lose the chance of a fight which we then expected who were all mounted except myself and be found. I was one of the first to cross. By and by the sleepers arose. I then lay down alongside of a log." But the Colonel declared he had not. which were at once put into the pot of coffee to boil. Having passed a small bayou. our advance reported that the enemy had taken the NewWashington road. saying: "How came " you to disobey orders ?" "General. THE MARCH AND SKIRMISH OP THE 20m dawns. and Daybreak finally immediately large numbers started off for wood to kindle fires. I perceived all was silent. A pot of brackish water with a handful of half-pounded : The surgeons' mess coffee thrown in was ready to boil. calling also upon the men to remember the Alamo and Goliad.TEXAS REVOLUTION. to your armsl" The eggs were taken out. Slowly crawling out. At this moment. awaiting the return of the spies. soldiers. when Dr. and three cows that happened to be nearby. Gen. and as I was cold and shivering. without cloak or blanket. "I have done. but d d few will be taken Col. when each seized his rifle and hastened to his post. Booker came up with a dozen eggs. . I was truly grateful for a E share of Dr. he inquired why I was on foot. towards the conclusion of which he said " The army will cross and we will meet the enemy. Our guns were stacked. 49 day. I believe you have been in communication with the enemy. Orders were then given to halt. would take no excuse. and with our rifles under our heads to be ready at a moment's . Having marched till 11 o'clock. Dr. the spies were seen coming in a gallop. the Alamt> mo I" Maj. and we now Before crossing the felt certain that a decisive conflict was bound to take place." Houston said: "Consider yourself arrested and give me your pistols. all : .

whereupon some jumped into the water. As he could not manage the boat. This was the 20th of April. and having made it into dough. and marched . did not send the aid. and requested aid to be sent him. as the enemy was coming upon them. stop that firing. smoke was discovered in the distance. by which time the Mexican party he was in pursuit of met the main army under Santa Anna. he declared he would run through the first man that would fire. from the direction. and seeing a boy at a distance driving a cart. it won't do for you to try that game on us. Santa Anna. who then found he was an American taken by the enemy at Harrisburg. and once ordered to defend that point. remarking: " Can that be the prairie on fire ?" I replied that the heavy dew and light rain of the night would not permit the prairie to burn so early in the morning. . G Some of us said. and still another. he fires his as he spoke. while another lay flat in the bottom. I secured a small tin pan full. bang goes another. our cannon being placed in the edge of the timber. The General then gave it up. had discovered a small party of Mexicans in the direction of NewWashington whereupon Sherman was ordered to go in pursuit of them. c?ying: "Stop that firing. Houston. or the faggots prepared for them. The men were afterwards compelled to abandon the cart. sending the boy to Sherman. . I threw it on the hot embers. but which bad been taken from the stores in New.just in advance of the enemy. Houston. and soon a. the boat being. right before his face. when the guard. now raised tired across the bayou.Washington on fire. and suggested that. Having opened a barrel of flour. companies had scarcely taken their ground. rifle . from the rising ground before us. having reached the ferry. coming up with a view to cross over at Lynchbnrg. and that he thought he was getting them where they could not escape him. he office. * I afterwards learned from others that "Washington Secress. " General. some two or three of our men swam in and brought the boat up to our camp loaded with supplies that we very much needed. One man close by myself said. and holding his drawn sword. man then drew his men out of the point of timber. By this time." and with the most perfect indifference. if he would drive the cart to Lynchburg. Houston.50 TEXAS ALMANAC. when it was discovered that he was a printer in the Telegraph his Mexican companions having plunged into the water. till he reached the miin army. The pitched our camp on the bank of the Bayou. Euth's place. at Harrisburgh was left alone. some half-dozen balls were shot across. intended to cross their army at the ferry.Washington and sent up for the enemy. and then one after another discharged his gun for the purpose of loading afresh. As they did not heed the request." told to show himself. which they did. when the enemy was seen. as far as Mr. advance guard of the enemy was in sight. that the piece left for myself was it was bread scarcely as large as a common biscuit. apparently preparing their camping-ground. The General pointed it out to me. He pursued them with some 175 of his best mounted men. d d n you. it must be New. and in ten minutes but I had to divide with so many. his stentorian voice. on the Bay. while scouting with some others. afterwards said he had no expectation of meeting any other force than the few men with Sherman. After reloading and repriming. making a perfect roar of musketry. and Shercross. Col. till over 400 were Gen. and thereby prevent further retreating. At the same time a sail is also seen coming up the Bayou. when they hailed the men in the boat to come ashore. as he wished to attack them from a point of timber through which he expected them to By this means Sherman hoped to bring on a general engagement before the enemy could pass. "Our guns have been loaded over two weeks stop the firing. with a message that the enemy was coming in force. and a guard was therefore at At about 10 o'clock we entered the timber." and we will not meet the enemy with them wet. The spies reported that only the just kindled. who had all along been silent. however. Col. he exclaimed: "Don't shoot. but putting his head He was then up." and then. and to whom Santa Anna had promised his liberty. hid themselves till the boat came abreast. he sent four men to take the cart. don't shoot! I am an American. at the same time.* Upon examining our rifles we found they required fresh priming. raising himself up to his full height. He supposed Houston had gone to the Trinity with the main army. and that the advance now coming had been sent to prepare the way for crossing at Lynchburg. one of the best spies in the army. . and soon we all became convinced that the enemy had set fire to the buildings of that place. the march was continued. I say. Sherman then called a halt. Sherman immediately sent the boy to Gen.

made a hasty retreat and disappeared. and the thrilling notes of the bugle. Our small pieces returned the fire. Finding the enemy taking shelter in another island of timber. that he would plant his standard on the banks of the These men. 51 SOME TORIES DISCOVERED. after all." said MoreMoreland. some men on the hills beyond Lynchburg. Another came within four inches of my head. Logan's company being of the number. and we were messmates. Nearly all the men lay flat on the grass. their ammunition-box broken in pieces. " "It is not time yet. Great was the disappointment among our men. and just at this time. Neil. saying to him: " Get all the axes in camp. which was there nearly waist high. proclaiming it the Mexican boundary. and bring the flat-boat down to-night. After he had left. and had come to pilot Santa Anna across to the Sabine. that not a tree should be cut down. a grape-shot struck Col. where he was going to fulfill his boast. and found it a three or four-ounce feet. with about half of his mounted men. Houston then ordered Col. saw two of their mules. rolled a few I picked it up. "We . was heard. till we could see every shot count. Moreland and Capt. taken the Texan for the Mexican army. they are too far. Ewing calls to me. Houston showed himself restless and uneasy. informing Gen. whom we took to be a reinforcement coming from the East. casting his eyes towards the cannon and toward the advancing enemy. striking our trail. Sherman came .TEXAS REVOLUTION. Houston that the enemy were close by and directly after." As I went along. harnessed to their cannon. Neill commanded the cannon. but not knowing the way." The express started. they advanced towards us in one order. but that they would give battle at once. (Capt. "We soon after discovered THE FIRST About 1 o'clock. W.) to take pos- . shot down. as I afterwards heard. finding they had misSabine. as they lay in the grass. and thinking the guns were too much elevated. while the shot fell in the Bayou and on 'the opposite bank. nor a whisper. SKIRMISHING-. and profiting from our first blunder. now and then cutting the limbs of the trees." I was on intimate terms with Moreland. and other execution done. I returned. and some men were sent over in a canoe. We copper ball. over. walking backward and forward. Cross over. saying: are to have no fight. Col. as it came nearer. he did not reach Harrisburgh till the next day. falling almost perpendicularly. riding up in advance of the mounted men. over sixty of us stood before our two pieces of artillery and as the music became louder and more piercing. when. in being thus cheated of the expected fight. It was found out that they were some of the Texas tories. who was handing a letter to an express. but fortunately the shot passed over us. sible. the enemy advanced his twelve-pound brass piece to an island of oaks. to hide our force as much as posIn the stillness of that moment. their muzzles were lowered. passing through the prairie about a mile. As the dragoons approached. not a word. to ascertain the particulars. . which fell among us. and now all were eager to attack the enemy on his own ground. "are you ready?'' " land. I met Col." said Houston. Sherman. Hockley. nothing save the still more^penetrating sounds of the instruments. as he had to head Green's Bayou to get there. as I hear our army is to cross " I will go at once to headquarters. Gen. Finding the distance too great for my rifle. to cut trees to enable the army to cross but the men declared. Soon after. Dr." said I. then in their saddles. . the writer stood three fourths of an hour trying to get a shot at them. I observed to him they should be lowered more but before they were sufficiently lowered. the enemy's cavalry was observed in motion. J. and regain the main body. the word was given by Houston. the purpose was well understood. and go as quick as Almighty God will let you. with trumpets sounding. striking the ground. with whom he had been reconnoitering. "Clear the guns and fire!" but no execution is done except to cause the cavalry to wheel to the right. nearly half-way between the two armies. filling my shoe with dirt. N. G. about 400 yards from the road towards the marsh." "It can not be. and began to throw grape-shot at us. and.

The attack is made. young resting his head upon a largo knot the best we could. Sherman sent Major Wells to ly pouring in grape-shot. and constantly directing his orderly bugler to sound. After reaching a large oak. and supported by their cavalry amounting to about 100 men. then receding. he had never had so tall a fall before. here is a wounded man go to him. and we moved forward pretty briskly about 300 yards. remarking. In the mean time Santa Anna. The consequence was. with only about 70 mounted men. Col. the Texians were compelled to retreat. General Houston called to me. as it was some distance from their main body. T. he ran towards me as if for life. when they forced the enemy back the second time. in which he joined. leaving their cavalry in the prairie. and a halt was The combatants were advancing. as nothing could be effected in such a thicket with their horses. as his mare fell under him. Sherman immediately charged them. to see if I could pick some of them off. were compelled to fall back and dismount. at least one half on the their long rifles. and the fire ceased. as the oaks were cut from ten feet high to the ground. that he must get out of the scrape the best way he Of course. while he was contending with their cavalry. With my rifle in one hand I took hold of the rope with the other. being composed mostly of riflemen mounted for the purpose. but it required all our strength to move the carriage over the hog-bed prairie. and wounding some more. The order was then given immediately to countermarch. a large body of the enemy. I was then standing within fifty or eighty yards. Meantime the Twin Sisters were ordered I stood by with Moreland and seven others to be in readiness to afford assistance. but before the movement could be effected. the guns showed that the engagement had commenced. about 100 yards distant. saying: "Doctor.52 TEXAS ALMANAC. in their turn. the enemy (about 400) fired upon them. A moment after. though he had been told there were none there. Col. The Texians. killing several horses one being a fine stallion. Sherman asked Gen. forcing them to defend themselves as best they could. to reload The enemy. and while moving as lively as we could. and picking up his rifle. among them were Cols. Houston orders one cannon only to advance. Gen. ridden by E. and rapid movements. Wells soon returned with the mortifying intelligence that Willard's orders had been countermanded. having taken my stand. had to make a hasty retreat. : . On entering the timber. as before. S. was of the opinion he could beat off their cavalry and run theft cannon into our camp before they could get a reinforcement. Sherman. saying. ground. until they were again in their saddles." Leaving my place to another. and they. been exchanging shots with that of the enemy during the day. The smoke and then the reports of to work one of them. dered out several hundred infantry to cut off the retreat of the Texians. S. I ordered his attendant to stop. Branch. perceiving their condition. men wounded and several horses killed. they dashed down upon them. About 4 o'clock in the evening Col. who had been watching the " Give no quarter /" orfight. Houston's permission to call for mounted volunteers to take their cannon. Willard's command of regulars which had been promised him by Houston to engage their infantry. To make a proper return for this. session of an island of timber. and the effects of the shots are visible to this day. Our cannon had their artillery. who was wounded in the hip. Houston reluctantly consented but before The enemy then withdrew . belonging to N. and another a mare. Sherman found concealed in a thicket. DARING ATTACK BY SHERMAN AND LAMAR. several hundred infantry. I followed and found it was Woodlief. I saw Branch fall. and we helped him down from his saddle upon the grass. could get his men ready for the attack (about 70 having volunteered. Moss. and their artillery which was constant"While in this situation. with sudden evolutions ordered. our little cannon were brought to bear on that cluster of oaks. and drove them back under the guns of their main body. contended some time with their cavalry. Again we are ordered to advance. bring up Col. .Lamar and Handy) the enemy withdrew their cannon. causing a hearty laugh. Their loss was three could.

as we had eaten nothing during the day. or never. Zavalla's house. Col. to what we now estimated at less than 800. not a man. Trask and Woodlief were sent across the bayou to Gen. and a most profound silence prevailed throughout our camp till morning. were compelled to reThe fact is. had not arrived and had it arrived. up to noon. After probing the was either a grape-shot or a scopette Dr. An immediate and hand-to-hand fight was the desire of all the men." The flat-boat that had been ordered with the axes ibr making a floating bridge to cross the army. yet all were confident. such as scopettes carry. The bridge at Yince^ ought to be burnt down. and were now only being driven back. I said no more. passed by me remarking: "A hot time is preparing for us the enemy is increasing. Erastus. as had been agreed. and we plainly saw the soldiers walking by the side of the pack-mules. : . and to-morrow they will have 6000. as every man believed himself equal to four of the enemy. told them broken by a ball. and all were of the " Let us attack the same mind. he mounted his horse. I know where I can get an axe/' Finding me on foot. The guards of the night were doubled. Over one-half the men paraded. I will find another." As Col. treat. though some presented an expression of despondency. And now there was a general murmur. who was standing near me holding his horse. and judged the mules to number about 200. Jones declared it was a common to examine for themselves. ! : 5 . would have put it and the axes to the use intended. Lynch had a small spy-glass. Deaf Smith. yesterday. he said: "Never mind. Night came on. Yet many became clamorous. remarked "They have traveled over our track. I told Dr. nothing could be decided: yet the desire of the men only increased the more.TEXAS REVOLUTION." At about ten that morning. as a retreat was the fui. the company promised them had never been ordered out at all. he spoke loud and quick: "Boys. until finally. they had 500. RE-INFO RCEMENTS TO THE ENEMY. saving: "Where is your horse? The General thinks it a good plan. there is Now is the time !" Every man was eager no other word to-day but fight. for most agreed that it was a re-inforcement to the enemy. and no re-inforcement. tight for it. having diminished from 1600 on the Colorado. we walked at least a quarter of a mile into the prairie. All were seen exchanging opinions as to what was best to do. and slapping his hands together." As this long string of mules disappeared. and diminishing orir own. finding us rather hungry." At about 2 He said: "I first o'clock. but all feared another disappointment. The morning of the ever memorable 21st of April dawned and exhibited many cheerful and animated faces. I bullet-hole. and be : . THE 21sT AND ITS GLORIOUS RESULTS. but. with packsaddles on. save what little each happened to have in his pocket or wallet. Ve must fight. and they had therefore no alternative but to retire. The brave men who were making this attack upon the enemy on his owa ground. he returned. as the commander still showed no disposition whatever to lead the men out. finding they were unsupported. and murmurs were heard to the effect that: "The delays of our commander are continually adding strength to the enemy. though others insisted that these mules had strayed from the enemy's camp. Thus ended the skirmishing of the 20th. Breakfast was hardly over (with those who had any. and two minutes after he rides up to me." Upon this. expecting orders. for some had little or nothing to eat) when our spies reported a large number of mules in sight. and I asked him how he had succeeded. but it would not burn into the bayou. and I then cut away a few timbers and made it fall fired it. You must go with me and help cut down the bridge. the common expression being enemy and give them h 11 at once. and hence they were liable to be entirely cut off and sacrificed. to-day. To-day. The number of our men in camp was quite small. Houston declared it was only a sham. Wharton visited every mess in camp. I will see the General. Ewing it 53 wound with my ounce ball. but as he did not belong to He and my regiment. Houston said to Wharton "Fight. they have 1500. commonly known as Deaf Smith. Trask was brought in with his thigh bone finger.ther3t from their thoughts.

when we found ourselves young man by my side rebaggage. saying: ral Teran made him Colonel. We shook hands and parted. Don't stop go ahead moment after. life and animation were now depicted on every countenance.54 TEXAS ALMANAC. I ex. Sherman's regiment commenced the action on the left. direct route through an island of timber. with the writer. It was here that one or two women were killed by some one aiming at their heads. COLONEL BERTRAND. Almonte. in the midst of the enemy's peated some four or five times.ged." within twenty yards of some of the enemy's cavalry. Jtwas here that Houston called a halt. in order to attack the enemy's right. I had hardly reached my position. the artillery under HockThe latter took a 3cy. and run some twenty yards to fire. from which they were running for life. which they had thrown up during that day and the day previous. The enemy was driven through one piece of timber when they came to a boggy bayou. probably mistak- ' A We A A ing them for men. riding in full gallop on the rear and coming towards the left. we found many had thrown themselves into the bayou. In a few mobecame genments. Sherman on the left. Many of the companies had been standing for over four Jours. ^in Capt. and the writer with four others find themselves give them hell. and on his knees he begged for his life. expecting orders to march each moment. and the Tvnter chose his former regiment under Col. At this moment Drs. and fight with our arms as circumstances might direct. Mexican soldier ceived a ball in the hip. as the joyful intelligence was given." This was said by one Sanchez. Upon which Rusk shouts to the top of his voice: "If we stop we are cut to pieces.* when a rifle discharge from the 2d Regimeut (the left wing) was heard. and drove the enemy's right into the timber before Houston got up with his division. I observed Gen. Dr. Millard's Regiment of Regulars. having only their heads above water. composed of some thirty Mexicans fighting on our I *The Texian army was formed in the following order: The right wing and centre was composed of Burleson's Regiment. accompanied by Dr. a Mexican. Davidson preferred the right. however. He side. we decided that it was best to follow the line. and a general engagement ensued. Davidson and Fitzhue. but was surprised to hear a voice behind me Gene"Oh! I know him: he is Col: Bertrand. The music struck up a lively air as we bid good-by to our camp. the left wing of the army under Sherman. and two or three others taken prisoners. It was past three o'clock when all the arrangements were finally concluded. and their patience was well-nigh exhausted. 'amid showers of bullets. it was Rusk and Mott. No place having been assigned to us. Rusk. Wharton again went among the men to prepare them. Fitzhue the centre. Seguin's Company. Dr. Booker. were then formed into parallel lines and ordered to advance. commanded "by Col. we saw our snots tell on them rereload. telling them the order had been. followed by a discharge from the rest the cannon roared. oed my left hand to raise him up. We found the enemy somewhat unprepared for us at that hour. at that instant received four balls through him." This was enough. . he was on the ground. Hew damned. pursued a fresh trail into the marsh. when the action eral. consulted as to what post we should take. Having pursued the enemy into the woods. of San Antonio de Bexar. Mott. and this was effectively. As they wheeled to retreat. given at last that it was now decided. thinking the while. which caused him to fall against me. and opened on their left. standing not ten yards from where we stood. and came upon Col. Bertrand. HOUSTON ORDERS A HALT. who had Supposing myself alone. the cavalry under Lamar. in order to come upon the enemy's left and in front of their breastworks. as no orders had been received from the Surgeon-General. Our men having marched half the distance in single file. while the former marched a considerable distance around. On a sudden a halt is made in obedience to an order.

! : . not now. and died from want of proper treatment. I walked up to him. at once. "Doctor. "Where is Dr. "Well. mostly of the Trinity. (almost in sight of each other. The inhabitants. OTHER EVENTS OF THE DAY. "I have Sad two horses shot under me. wards the enemy's camp.) of children. but am not badly hurt. . I can stand it well enough till then. Fitzhue to our camp. the fate that awaited us but there was scarce a man in the army who felt the least doubt as to the resultAll were confident of success. a fit occasion for rejoicing. But the men.shot dead by four men coming up just behind us." he replied. shouted with expressions of exultation over the glorious victory. and speaks to Houston in a low voice. taken that day. I observed Gen. the debris of broken wheels and sledges. and determine. but He will when I get back to the camp. GENERAL REJOICING. "Oh poor fellow. when bang goes a gun." said I. seeing he could not restore or"Gentlemen gentlemen gentlemen (a moder. when he could no longer put off the action. : . I cried out to them These words were hardly spoken. drinks copiously. Wharton comes up to us. it is enough. Then while I was within ten feet of him. Gen. on horse-back. and many poured out their most heartfelt thanks to God for a victory won almost against the will of their commander. and the whole country pre- sented one vast scene of wide-spread desolation. and have received a ball in my ankle. and numberless graves. who were taken sick from exposure and want of proper food. but damn your manners. turning toward me said: "Let us go. where I found a crowd of prisoners well guarded. Turner's company. pointing in various directions. cries at the top of his voice mentary stillness ensues) gentlemen I applaud your bravery.TEX1. two men were seen hid in the grass. "I am glad to see you are you hurt?" "Not at all. as loud as he could raise his voice and halloing were too long and loud and Houston.S REVOLUTION." the forehead of poor Bertrand. As we were returning to! . as if showing what he thought should be done." He then turns his horse towards the baggage-depot. as if thunder-struck. . when Col. you have commanded long enough damn you. Wharton. In all directions were seen carcases of oxen. Houston then orders the drum to stop. MottV" said I. "Oh no. to whom he gave some orders." he rejoined. the ball entering er. w. indeed. don't shoot I have taken him prisonguns. out taking a gourd of water hanging at the pommel of his saddle. and my hand and clothes are spattered with his brains. and men. to be allowed to meet the enemy. Houston on a bay poney. It was. he is shot." then faces his horse about.hile Houston rode to Col." "Do you wish to have it dressed ?" said I. A gallop soon brought Rusk up to them but as they were rising and in the act of taking off their coats." all loaded and prepared to pour destruction upon the dispirited prisoners. had all abandoned their homes. 55 had scarcely done speaking when I observed three others coming up with levelled "Don't shoot. men." Wharton makes no reply. he cries "Parade. Rusk. and I returned with Dr. women." said he. Rusk at a distance." Having reached the spot where i left my wounded comrade. who. and it was difficult to hear anything distinctly. with his leg over the pommel of the saddle. finally yielded to the incessant demands by both officers and men. : ! ! ! ! : . It is needless to attempt any description of the unbounded rejoicings and expres sions of heart-felt gratitude to the God of battles for our success. go aboiit your business. and the "Twin Sisters. It had now become quite dark. parade !" But the shouts out. and being buried alongside of the roads they were traveling to escape from the enemy. paying no attention to the order. and these sights had served to nerve our arms against an enemy from whom no mercy could be expected. they furnished unmistakable evidence of the great suffering and distress of the country. when Houston turning and looking him full in the face. says "Col. Seeing Col. they were both . . and orders the drum to beat a retreat. and towards them were the pointed twelve-pound brass cannon. and then rides off. as he falls dead at my feet.

and both were buried with the honors of war% The wounded were taken across the bayou to Gen.. (the 20th and 21st. when we expressing regret that they could not cross the bayou to participate all knew very well they were lying hid. rejoicing was not. whether for or against us. when others would call on me for relief from their great sufferings. and I floor.) was the small of bread I had made from the flour on the flat-boat. and I felt reluctant to attend upon the wounded. freer from pains than I had been since setting out on THE TWENTY-SECOND. but no sooner had I returned to camp than my pains began to cause me to suffer. and asked him. THE WOUNDED. The few bandages we had provided were divided between Dr. The stooping assume to dress the wounded as they lay upon the position I was compelled to Scarcely could was caused my pains to be still more acute. said to Dr. as the Hospital Surgeon. from which I waked three hours after. and Dr. It was now two o'clock in the morning of the 22d. six o'clock A. and Texas was favored with a smaller proportion of this clasp than soon observed usually falls to the lot of other nations. Ewing several times advised me to leave the army. making (19) nineteen in all badly wounded. Zavalla's house.56 TEXAS ALMANAC. as we heard of the death of some of our friends. which I was determined not to do as long as I could walk. that I could proceed no further. Lieut. which I had to run oft' piece with. There are cowards and tories in every revolution. in order to take advantage of it. thirteen of whom were lying on the floor. unmingled with sorrow. who present. awaiting the result. Phelps that I was too much exhausted to proceed any further. Lamb was shot dead on the ground. I was never two hours at a time free from suffering. all congratulating us on the victory. Davidson and myself. however. and ftlio of the number of wounded notice . when I learned many dispatches had been sent to all parts of Texas announcing the victory. He then brought me a bowl of tea and some hard biscuit. The excitement of the 21st had predominated over my pains. AND At ITS EVENTS. NUMBER OF OFFICERS AND WOUNDED OF THE ENEMY. and from the time we crossed Mill Creek to the 21st. when I declared to Dr. after which I lay down on the same floor with them and soon fell into a most refreshing sleep. I dress the wounds of one. Thus I continued until seven had passed through my hands. so that I got upon my knees again and finished dressing the wounded. Ewing summoned me to cross over with the two ast of the wounded. and Our young Brigham was mortally wounded. and at ten o'clock that night. All I had eaten for the past two days. and gave me renewed strength. fourteen of whom belonged to Billingsly's company. I many strange faces. until very little was taken of them. especially as I knew there were surgeons enough who were well. and in it. I was assisted by only one attendant with a candle. suffering from wounds of various kinds. M. and with them we went to work. which tasted to me better than anything I had eaten for years. of the 22d. Dr. if the other surgeons were not to do duty. He said they had all left and gone over to the camp. Colonel Hockley requested me to make out a correct regis ter of the number of aoldien and omcers captured. I crossed over to the camp. brought from the battle-field. I had beed afflicted with rheumatic pains in consequence of Iving on the wet and cold ground. Phelps. Prisoners were being brought in to the guard-house every hour. to attend upon three times as many.

and conducting a prisoner. (I think it was the third day after the battle. Go to them. pointing: " Tell Gen. Sherman from Cincinnati. of the fate that would have awaited us had we been taken prisoners. Dr. The fact was. as I was wanted. (pointing towards the bayou. points you out as the only surgeon willing to perform your duty. Mr. He politely returned my salute. I want you to take care of the wounded p/isoners. and I said to " This is Gen. but have never yet received the first cent of the promised compensation. For three days the prisoners were suffering for surgical aid. Dr. and stated in a loud I wanted. It was difficult for the sentinels to keep the crowd " Why. Sylvester. I observed that many turned pale. this was the place where all the prisoners were kept. appeared much surprised. Houston sent for me a second time. Dr. Colonel Hockley.) where Gen. while others hesitated and feared. unless my pay was secured to me. and continued : : He A : . I observed that all the Mexican officers arose at once." " I replied. ''every one finally. who refused to come in " Dr. without including Cos. if I would attend upon these prisoners. Houston. I told him in Spanish. The number of officers. was about admitting the prisoner. With pencil and paper I entered the lines. Yes. and so I arose. a prisoner. I soon found difficulty in making out my list. Having arrived at the spot. prisoners but I declined. I found Houston lying on his back. At once I folded up my instruments. was forty-nine. voice what Anson Jones." plied: Houston. don't let them suffer. and on his left was the prisoner. . replied that he wanted to see Gen. Labadie. Santa Anna. who had come out with Col. and these labors I was no longer willing to perform. and turn" Gen. that Gen. 57 been brought in a prisoner. through the rascality of Bradburn. At last I assured them all that their lives were safe so long as to await his fate. Not understanding me fully. Houston. One would say he had seen Cos in San Antonio last fall. after all. what does this man want ?" whereupon Mr. Jones. Bomer. Evving then called on me to know if I would attend upon the wounded The same application was made by Dr. requesting the officers to fall into line. Labadie. and having made them understand my object." etc. according to grade. A. and met Col. Houston: do you want any thing of him?" He rehim. as usual. He " " Is he in camp?" said he. Hockloy calling me to come quickly. begging many jeers. to which I agreed. being well apprised. pleted the list. who had just prisoners. and " Dr." I told him Ihad attended on the garrison at Anahuac eleven months.TEXAS REVOLUTION. and my little wounded lieutenant whispered to me "Est El he is the President. owing to the eagerness among our men to see General Cos. for which I had never received one cent. and followed Presiderife" after them. Sylvester called to me: : desired rne to interpret for his prisoner. Santa Anna stands before him. Sylvester." As they left. SANTA ANNA BROUGHT IN PRISONER. and others. but had often done the duties of others. Finally. The sentinel. a young printer. having heard the words interpreted. sitting on a chest. rode up with his rifle on his left I was then engaged in dressing the arm of a shoulder. he became impatient down a he laid and covered his head and so under blanket. Hockley. and four or five others. doubtless. lieutenant near the west line of the square in which the prisoners were confined. who made just fifty. Houston lies. take this man to yonder oak-tree. in the presence of Col." said he. in what condition do you sur* ing on his left side. and addressing the man. away. day and night. and I faithfully discharged that duty. to all of whom I gave the same answer. Another: he is but a damned scrub of a thing. ) Mr." said he. and the number of wounded prisoners was 280 privates. ranking from a lieutenant to a general. Whilst I was laboriously occupied in dressing the wounds of the prisoners. they would remain quiet. I had not only performed my duties in my own regiment. he said u " render yourself?" Whilst I was iu prisoner of war. Houston then promised he would pay me $300. they With the aid of two or three officers I soon comreadily obeyed my directions. and that I had resolved never to attend on that nation again.

the remark caused him to blush. whether it would not be better to issue his order on official stamped paper. till they pressed against Santa Anna and myself. permitted to enter' the square. gether when Gen. will make a treaty with him. I never was My duties now calling me away." "No. and I am willing to treat with him as to the boundaries of the two countries. he will do it. soldier's coarse white linen pants. at once recognized. Mexia was un grande stulto." In reply Gen. as he spoke both languages well. I learn. I will for his life. : : ' : SANTA ANNA'S DRESS. to bring the marquee. then another. Santa Anna's countenance brightened "Tell Gen. when men were dispatched Meanto the battle-ground. belonging to him. Anna. which he had not before done. Houston directed Col. As Santa Anna had proposed Capt. Millard. Hockley to order the guard to disperse the crowd. P. if Cos had escaped. he will not do it. Rusk." said he. Heard." tell Gen. Capt. and flatters Houston in rather extravagant terms. Dr. Col." Then turning towards Dr. to treat for peace. order him to deliver up himself and army as prisoners of war. The reason why Santa Anna was not He had on . he began to extend his look upon the crowd. and the cry was heard calling to parade. His fine linen bosom shirt. he said: "You look like a Mexican. that place being used as the hospital." said Gen. chests. "I am not. Col. Santa Well. time." "No. saying : : . Allen." of the ^lamo. "When told he was a prisoner. Col. Allen." (nodding his head up and down as he repeats the words. be responsible up. to whom I sur" " rendered myself. is. and others. that so long as he shall remain in the boundaries I shall allot him. was the disguise of his a glazed leather cap. afterwards Mayor of Galveston. and he said very I am an American. dead. but Filisola is not whipped. coarse cotton socks. he is not At this time we had no certain knowledge of the fate of Fannin himself. that but few withdrew until the music began to play. he said Mexican. he then asked He is answered by Alsafter another. and have seen enough of this country to know that the two people can not live under the same laws. a striped jacket. Mexia. he should issue the order." On hearing this. Almonte was soon brought in." abruptly: "No. among whom I observed Col. and I had to request them to stand back. he will do it. I was in Tampico with Gen.) "You have whipped me. It was" suggested. Houston that I am tired of blood and war. is coming and is near by. He will not surrender as a prisoner of war. etc." said Santa Anna. Santa Anna pays many compliments to Almonte. He then inquired. Rusk said: "Filosola." "Ho!" said he. Hockley came leading in young Zavalla. Phelps. You must whip him first." He bowed his head. it about Fannin at Goliad?" Fannin. and sharp-pointed shoes were all that did not correspond with a common soldier's dress. and finally after Castrion. to serve as interNearly all the officers were preter in my place.." By this time the crowd had increased. dress." said he. Houston said " Tell him. But the eagerness of all was so great to see Santa Anna. "el vive he is living. " he will not do it. " Castrion lies dead on the field. bending us forward. finding things wear a rather favorable aspect. the camino royal the public highway I met two of your soldiers. I can not treat with him but the Cabinet that is in Galveston.58 TEXAS ALMANAC." said Allen. a prisoner of war. He remarked: "It would be better. Phelps." Houston then requested Hackley to have the paper procured. a great fool." " " Hugh !" said Santa Anna. "I will order him to " return. About this time Col." "No. (volunteer roundabout. Houston. By and by a remark was made as to the manner he had treated the defenders '' " It Rusk said '' But how is the fortune of war. I returned to my wounded. bespattered with mud. But if I give him orders to leave the limits of Texas. lay some claim to royal blood." As Dr." says Rusk." " You look like a Turning to Maj. paused.) country made. I am your prisoner. and we will have to give him battle. nearly all of whom had been crossed over to Zavalla's." It was then agreed. as we were sitting toon the chest. At last. and said no bury more.

: . Bayou. by Castrillio. keeping his eyes on the deer. Colonel Castrillio. riding up to him. at a proper distance from the deer. mount my horse and fly. This was done by the captain of his cavalry. then on its way to join him. said one. . when his way would have been open to meet Filisola's army. that he had made good his escape. . proceeded alone with the prisoner to the camp. that Santa Anna had made his escape. and. he certainly had very little knowledge of the country. with two others. and. "I dismounted. and that he was riding this horse. Santa Anna was certainly not a backwoods-man. Up to this time it was supposed hence there was the less suspicion of the Cavalry. when. prisoner's square. (where all the Mexican officers were guarded prisoners. Manifesting fatigue. However this may be. naturally enough. after looking about. they finally discovered a man lying in the grass. some few deer were seen at a distance. when. the one who had walked on foot now resuming his saddle. but they saw plainly he was a Mexican officer. stated to me some ' : . by * I may not spell this name right." said the move. as usual when about to As their heads were turned from him. he observes their heads and tails up. don't shoot.Washington.TEXAS REVOLUTION. saying " Get up. As none of them understood Spanish. when we made the unexpected attack on their camp. and. he start. He returns. creeps cautiously towards them. he appeared unwilling to rise." "Whereupon. that he was. and as to who he really was. Mr. but spell it nearly -as I heard it pronounced. remounts his horse. " Boys. 59 MANNER OF SANTA ANNA'S CAPTURE. getting down from his horse. get up. it being his home. as before stated. ties his horse. went to Yince's. One of them then said. who was the first to bear the tidings of the defeat to Filisola's camp. when he was made to dismount. which accounts for his appearance when found. till they got within half a mile of the camp. and. he tells them that something had and." The man then slowly arose. which the latter induced to was counter-march at once. One of them gave him his horse to allow him to rest. Santa Anna doubtless also got in the mud.) that he had captured a large black stallion belonging to Mr.'' levelling his gun at the same time. and he would see what it was come to the spot. the other two It was thus that he was brought to the returning to scout through the prairie. turning " " Then riding caustop here till I get a shot at those bucks. attempts were probably made to ford the Bayou in other places." '\Boys. and suddenly they leaped off. therefore. Sylvester related. The horse during the night was probably permitted by his rider to take his own course. they ordered him to get up. and his own inevitable defeat. one of them gave him a kick. he exclaimed: "The battle is lost. and seeing our rapid advance. Santa Anna's saddle was found on the battle-field that on Yince's horse was not Santa Anna's.' In an instant he was off. HOW SANTA ANNA ATTEMPTED \ TO ESCAPE. on account of the suddenness of the attack. Santa Anna not having his horse ready. beckoning to his companions to come up. (the rider riot knowing which way to go. on the 21st. they soon frightened off the deer. He said that Santa Anna was then standing by him. which is a proof of the correctness of Castrillio's statement. where I was employed with the wounded. others and. No one but myself had probably known how he had escaped. at Liberty. when the army was crossing Vince's Bayou. for he might easily have headed the Bayou. I'll make him "Don't shoot. tiously through the skirt of the timber. and in so doing the horse became bogged. All at once. they could not talk to him. scouting near Yince's out from the road. as the above statement by Castrillio was made to me alone. Vince. in a distance of two miles. he dismounts. though entirely unknown to them. knew something else had caused their alarm. But the bridge having been cut down by Deaf Smith. while the other two rode by his side. and in extricating himself.) and he. and was on its way towards New. I said to him My General. starting off.* time after." It was supposed." said Castrillio.

and it was fortunate. As I entered the little room where he lay." "Must I die ?" " It is said he. and that without salt. Phelps was surgeon. " As the cannon fired. was fast diminishing . that too often speak despondency to the physician. doing all that could be done to allay his He was shot through the abdomen. and brought up the colonists. They had expected to have to fight their way through the enemy. to Zavalla's Point. for we had nothing fit to give Beef-tea and hard biscuit. while seated on the bank.60 TEXAS ALMANAC. who was attending on Dr. bales for protection. said I. as he said: Alasf Doctor. I copper ball in his leg that caused his suffering. nothing. on the bosom of a father. I believe. You have done " " said he. having been wounded on the 20th. hospital ARRIVAL OF MORGAN'S STEAMER. It sired my presence. was but a few days before. and died that night. This steamer returned immediately. etc. and I readily assented. Next I saw Mr. brought up by Colonel Morgan. but can't say whether it is lead or copper. Anson Jones. he remarked. Trask lying on the floor with his thigh broken. . except four or five who had been attended by their regular surgeon. ACCIDENT IN THE CAMP. assisted by Prior Bryant. were so much lacerated that mortification was now taking place. where Colonel Morgan witnessed the sad sight of his town in smouldering ruins. he said : felt thigh painful. and his bowels sufferings. Dr. I encouraged them all I could. God alone can help you. I saw young Mott reclining his head on Rusk's It reminded me of an affectionate son lying shoulder. stomach. on our arrival opposite Harrisburgh. mostly strangers. have made a good fight Washington. though we had very little doubt it was sent by the Government from Galveston with supplies and reinforcements. Jones was by him." what could I say ? Dr. we were all anxious to know what it was. and the sides of the boat were therefore piled up with cotton The men were completely armed cap-d-pie. and what have you to dread ?" The scene was too painful I turned away. that his sufferWhen I stated to him my firm belief that he had a ings were hourly increasing. Those whose friends had come for them were greatly cheered at the prospect of being at home in a few days. The wounded having been removed also to cross over. . your lot now to part from us but trust in God. whilst awaiting our chance to cross the Bayou. appeared in sight. dePoor Mott. I never can forget him. The boat that brought us these supplies." "My friend. but all in vain. of which Dr. and would. this being the third first He was begging constantly for drink. DISTRESSING DEATH OF DR." Passing from one to another. MOTT. Extending my hand " to him I felt his tremulous grasp. for we can not.. duties required I stated to Col. Hockas there was nothing of the my me . The steamer arrived at the landing with some thirty resolute-looking men. was all we had for them. and the number in the my them. "0 God!" said he. he cast on me one of those looks of deep distress. Colonel James Morgan being the commander. As I shook hands with him. Mott was rarely ever out of sight of the one in whom he reposed all his hopes. salves. Mott. but they had heard of our victory at Newdoubtless. Although there were some twenty-three of our men lying wounded on the floor of the hospital. but nothing could remain on his day. nothing your duty. Those who had friends in Texas were daily being called upon by them. He scarcely spoke after. ! YOUNG TRASK AND OTHERS. I am a gone case. Nothing. "do stop my vomiting. together with more provisions. and there I found destitution on all sides. Colonel Rusk appeared equally attached to him. t: your time is come. yet for three days none of them had their wounds dressed a second time. 3ey the necessity of providing bandages.. on the 23d? and when the smoke was seen at a distance.

as usual also. as you see. but paid no regard to me. and that had been killed. But instead of getting any share of this. and. tearing off the flesh. etc. and stopped the further In my further examination of the plunder. in our army. When you opened on us on the 20th. Can you have him buried ? He was opposed to Santa Anna exposing himself as he did. for making salves. Lamar was the highest bidder for Santa Anna's saddle. The drones got the best of the food in camp. scattering every direction. Cols. Houston claimed it for him. The blancould touch. as Castrion was then forewarning him of our probable defeat. and swore the money should be counted no more." said he. I desired him to give me a statement of the facts connected with that event. Rusk. Logan to receive my share of the prize-money. when a slug-shot struck my hip. field.. but Lamar insisted on his right to his purchase.TEXAS REVOLUTION. did very ." said I. his breast and both arms pierced with ''Poor Castrion. contending also that he had done as much as Houston to secure the victory. kind on hand. and at the last. 61 While I was searching a pile of plunder taken from the battletaking some sheets for bandages. Forbes and Burleson brought an account of f 15 against me. the tears coming into his eyes. which served my purpose. and by so many. Among others. Gen. which had happened but a few weeks before. I found a good supply of explosion. though not dangerously wounded. Phelps being about to leave for his place on the Brazos. little tory. Santa Anna was near me. I believe." man. but I know not what became of the proceeds. as usual.. enHe fell. It was richly mounted with silver. and about which our information was vague and uncertain. I understood that $3000 were voted to the navy. I dashed it over the burning combustibles. on account of the offensive atmosphere in the vicinity of the battlefield.. asking the names of the Mexican officers that had been taken prisoners. but I know not whether any in the navy ever got a dollar of it. close by. were sold at auction. kets. Twelve thousand dollars in specie were captured from the enemy. Patrick's. his bid. thus adding to labors. although young. accidentally touched the trigger of one of them. Col. THE SPOILS. "his body has been identified on the battle-field. I was told that that it naturally stuck to their fingers. I therefore authorized Capt. they seized on all the money they I got nothing. requested me to take charge of some eight or nine of the wounded. saddles. for sheets I had used for the woundtd. Handy. he pointed out to me a Mexican officer wounded on the 20th. some three miles above. falling on some cartthe fragments in ridges. and filling it with water. caused over twenty cartridge-boxes to explode. Castrion . by going in advance of his main army but Santa Anna would not listen to him. occasioned by the dead. my Dr. appropriated to URISSA'S One day ACCOUNT OF THE ALAMO MASSACRE. till but $7000 were left. etc. tering his left arm. Cooper had been attending. and the burning wad. on whom Dr. Learning that this officer was present at the storming of the Alamo. Some friends of Gen. while he sat taking an inventory of the articles. As the camp. had now moved up to Dr. His cursing. for the time. good. those who did the least towards securing the victhemselves the largest share of the spoils. He first made some inquiries of the details of the battle of the 21st. "he was a good balls. . Houston cursed them in his peculiar way for their rascally conduct. taken from the enemy. bees-wax and tallow. Thus it was the money had been counted so often. as he was writing. and it had been decided that it should be distributed among the captors. being $300. under command of Gen. causing it to discharge a ball which grazed the chin of Col. I was in the act of putting my foot in the stirrup. the number of killed. And as regards the slaughter of the Alamo. horses. wounded. some young men occupied in examining the Mexican pistols. whilst the hard workers fared the worst. "No. Castrion was the best general. "Is General Castrion alive?" said he. I seized a bucket on the bank of the Bayou. etc.

"they : David Crockett. Phelps having left. and compel them to scale the walls. "I resign myself into your hands. to have my leg cut off. as I believed there was a copper ball lodged in it. cost what it may. If our soldiers are driven back. Rusk gave me orders. Santa Anna directed me to write out his orders. Even a cat that was soon " after seen running through the fort. as the soldiers exclaimed It is not a cat. "Doctor. and my heart was too full to speak. past midnight. and holding it up. knew was. but as we heard soon after that three of Trask's friends had come to take him away. and Dr." and almost instantly he fell. Santa Anna was holding in his hand the leg of a chicken which he was eating. Much blood has been shed. to the effect Urissa. By day -break our soldiers had made a breach. ho said. Next day. and saw Santa Anna walking to and fro As I bowed. Returning across the bayou at once. he said: 'What are the lives of soldiers more than of so many chickens ? I tell you. Castrion turned aside with tears in his eyes. to prepare for the duties now assigned me. The President stopped abruptly. the next line in their rear must force those before them forward. and most of the surgeons had dispersed. taking with me as many of the wounded as the boat would carry. and stooped forward as he walked. It was then inevitable that the fort could hold out but little longer. and to report myself to Col. you cannot give me relief. You advised me. leaving his prisoner. I observed Castrion coming out of one of the quartels. I urged on them the necessity of speedy amputation. as the rest of us. and calling on the captain of the Mexican artillery. But I have never since had any doubt but that Urissa's account gave the fate of Crockett truly.62 was opposed TEXAS ALMANAC." said he. Santa Anna replied. when Santa Castrion were planning an assault. that I had heard of David Crockett passing through Nacogdoches in the month of February. shoot that man." Raising his head. with some fifteen others. and poor Trask again desired me not to abandon him. and if soon must die. who was as little still present at his conversation. Phelps thought there was no necessity for it. One night. I wrote a note to the surgeon in . the Alamo must fall. The camp had now been removed to Harrisburgh. and with his graceful bow. was shot. Dr. pierced with a volley of balls. proved by." and waving his hand to a file of to disobey my orders? soldiers." "What was that old man's name?" said I. and Urissa could have had no motive to misrepresent the facts. and my orders must be obeyed at all hazards. breakfast in the fort the next morning. to putting the men to death. I was just in time to see Trask placed on board the steamer in charge of his friends. My name is After eating. All I knew DEATH OF YOUNG TRASK. Santa Anna declared that none should survive. and I understood the garrison had all been killed. and Anna and . when Castrion. declaring that he would take hie His orders were dispatched. I was now left alone to attend to the wounded. we knew very little ot believe. the battle is over: it was but a small affair. to follow the prisoners to Galveston. " What right have I want no prisoners. I mounted my horse to go for amputating instruments. but an American. yet I am daily wasting away. he said to me. I soon after heard the opening fire." said he. the other day. "I called him Coket" At that time. said: "My General. Morgan.' I was then acting as Santa Anna's secretary. and I retired. you taken him prisoner. Phelps. advanced some four or five paces towards us. "Soldiers.' As I was surveying the dreadful scene before us. leading a venerable-looking old man by the hand he was tall. and the case of instruments was also gone." I again advised him to have his leg amputated. So there was not a man left. his face was red. that all the companies should be brought out early. in writing. but Dr. and Castrion was persuading the commander to spare the lives of the men. This statement was made some four or five days after the battle of the 21st. I have spared the life of this venerable old man. At about eight o'clock I went into the fort. and ranked as Colonel. to join the army. him that all the grape they fired were four-ounce copper baDs. but pointing to the dead: 'These are the chickens. I mentioned this state of things to General Rusk.

while employed as surgeon to the garrison. and when they left. and until further orders. in New. was a few pieces of bacon. My loss. with all the other families. and used afterwards as a government horse. on recovering. My wife and two children had. In obedience to the orders given me by General JRusk. G-alveston. similarly situated. Colonel Morgan. caused much sickness. Colonel Morgan sent up some little bread and flour. as I was permitted to do. My pay and discharge. . (a son. and there all the stores had been broken up for the army but after a while. and dysentery. CONCLUDING EVENTS. being wet and muddy. and I have been a citizen under five flags. the milk of the few cows left. and I give you this memorial of facts and occurrences. within my o\vn knowledge. I set out. the government has passed through three transitions. as well as some grown persons. measles. having heard of his son's wound. and. amounting to about $300. carrying away many children. jointly with Charles Wilcox. arrived in Galveston a few days only after his death. wrote me a kind letter. I merely mention them to illustrate the condition of the country. by those who said they had orders from President Burnet. In conclusion. I found my hearing had departed I was deaf. to be distributed to those who had none. etc. for supplies we furnished the troops to enable them to leave the country. 63 Trask was as brave a man as we had. to repair to Galveston with the prisoners. whereby I lost $1100. desiring me to remain at home till my strength was recruited. and I pray God it may not be worse. This privation. and the ground where they encamped. fled for safety towards the the Neches but reached at found that river had Sabine. On reaching my house. for food. iu order to enable the future historian to furnish a true and impartial history of the country. with only occasional partial relief.TEXAS REVOLUTION. My horse. the loss of my child. but was sadly neglected. two weeks being allowed me for that purpose. My two children did not escape. in order to relieve my pressing wants. . and whom I have perhaps not yet named. JUDGE BURNET. No compensation has ever been made me for any of these losses. These things are now among the reminiscences of the past. and had only been able to find a few pieces of rusty bacon left. I found my wife had returned with others. I was deprived of all consciousness. a consultation finally decided it was too late to perform the operation of amputating. I ask the privilege of placing on record the names of some of those who aided in those early struggles. as hundreds of others were. By my opposition to Bradburn. to see my family. The news of our victory was received among them with many demonstrations of rejoicing and thankfulness to God for our deliverance. caused by exposure in that campaign. proceeding by way of Ariahuac. His father. I sold for $24. After some three weeks of suffering. not to delay the amputation. my pains again returned worse than ever. young man. Two other horses were taken from my place while I was absent. Some three hundred families were there collected together. worth $150. he refused to sign my claim for services. has continued ever since. and hooping-cough. hearing of my sickness. This was the last of my campaign. After his death.) the burning of one of my houses. and for one week. During my residence of over twenty-six years. to take them. Beaumont. in order to contribute my mite towards that mass of materials which it is your purpose to place on record.York. amounted to over $3000. Thus was lost a noble and brave the copper ball was found in his right knee. they rode to the East.. spread among them all. My premises had been pillaged by the passers-by. in Texas. But of these private losses I make no complaint. Deprived of all wholesome food. The nearest place where food could be had was Galveston. was taken while I was on duty. and my cattle had been All that could be found to subsist upon. but they would show no authority. they having 'overflowed its banks. and killed. from living witnesses. and they were unable to proceed further. doubtless.

with an almost minimum yield per acre. Grayson. zeal. and arresting a resort to arms. Parker. It has thus Colliri. according to the census of that year.000 bushels. B. who participated in the privations and sufferings of our is. and inscribed with the names of those who participated in it ? Many of them have already paid the last tribute to nature. and by his cool intrepidity and presence of mind. He has labored long and faithfully for the public.000. Wm. and some not now recollected. For a considerable time his influence was exerted to moderate the impetuous and apparently premature spirit of resistance. which gave tone and dignity to the due administration of justice. its culture for this purpose was introduced into the prairies of Red River county by the first settlers. whose participation in our troubles dated from their very commencement. chiefly devoted to the public service. W. but the whole country owes a debt of gratitude. have never been. LATIMER. Wm. grown the past season more than 2. . wheat was cultivated in inconsiderable quantities. that in 1850. Should not Texas. namely. that might have been seriously injurious to our cause. But there is one act of justice. To show the rapid increase in its production. Wise. to whom not only Liberty county. the records of that county.64 TEXAS ALMANAC. he more than once succeeded in allaying disputes. can not well be forgotten. WHEAT. there has been been grown in quantities nearly sufficient for home consumption in some of the Red River counties tor twenty years past. until finally the leaven of revolution not only spread through Liberty and Brazoria. Geo. those most conspicuous for their patriotism. The fair fame of that county is in no small measure owing to his counsels. were Dr. Indeed. while others have let no opportunity pass to make private gain even at the public expense. When action was called for. Cook. with a large surplus in her treasury. which can be. and I dare say. I can say that the citizens of Liberty owe him a debt of gratitude. Scates. and moderation. will long attest his services in giving unpaid instruction to the many new judges. and the neglect of which is by no means creditable to our people. as early as 1833. it is only necessary to state. and that. Ellis. memory of the past ? THE WHEAT REGION AND WHEAT CULTURE IN TEXAS. M. and should be performed. that some suitable monument should be erected on the ground that drank the blood of our martyred citizens. Hardin. while it is safely estimated that in that portion of Northern Texas comprising the 16th Judicial District alone. As an acquaintance of Judge Burnet for over twenty-six years. Is it not due to the honor and reputation of our State. he was among the most active and the most decided. having little or nothing to show for the labors of a long and wellspent life. Tarrant. and. only 41. and its culture has grown into an importance to the agricultural interests of the State little dreamed often years ago. Griffin. and their number is rapidly diminishing from year to year. Johnson. too. within a very few years. Denton. commemorative of the event that secured the liberties of Texas. BY J. But I can not omit to mentlbn one. without remuneration. can not be. I mean. Morris. and not owing a dollar of debt. Patrick. at his own expense. has become one of the staple products of Texas. his firmness. but extended throughout the country. and at most^ to furnish breadstuffs to those districts of country inaccessible to market. W. R. and Dallas. Among James Lindsey. adequately rewarded. indeed. DAVID G. His valuable assistance in the organization of that jurisdiction into the Third Municipality. and when the time for united action came. A CONCLUDING SUGGESTION. if preserved as they should be. do something for the Certain it that those revolution.729 bushels were grown in the State. Ten years ago. BURNET. Judge Burnet is now living in retirement. more as an experiment than otherwise. he was found ever ready. with others heretofore mentioned.

as the capacities of soil for its culture are tested in other districts." usually from resting upon strata of limestone. and elevated locality. was at Shreveport on Red River.. varies in color in different localities. country embracing those counties may soon be ranked in the wheat region. humidity. Kdufman. lies between the 32 d and 34th parallels. Young. or dryne&sof the atmosphere. assumes top. nor the grain so fall and heavy. Clay. A certain degree of temperature is necessary to ripen wheat. and varies with the climate. as it cereals. producing the best grain. are wheat. It has been grown quite successfully the past season in McLennan. Hill. however. Williamson. and is confined to the prairie country. In higher latitudes its growth is only limited by a temtemperature is very great it in in sufficient to lower ripen latitudes. The district. believed to be best adapted to its growth. Grayson. or Houston on Buffalo Bayou. Navarro. and the temperature required . wheat will only be grown for home consumption. inducing the be- . The mulatto or copper colored prairies are more kindly arid easily cultivated. Experimental crops have been grown about Belknap and further west. etc. each at an average distance of more than two hundred and fifty miles. The wheat region proper of Texas that region peculiarly adapted by climate. and contiguous west of the and the country extending Colorado. and at most. It may be said that the whole of Northern and interior Texas. flourishes alike in high and low latitudes. etc. the Wheat grows luxuriantly on the sandy timberedv lands yield is equally as good. including 2 or 2 degrees of latitude. and in places. Its strength and capacity to withstand drouth is believed to be in proportion to its blackness. and two degrees under that produces a failure of the crop. and the new counties of Montague. and the It is the prairie land that is peculiarly crop not so certain as on the prairies. and where drouths do not prevail. The climate of Texas is happily adapted to the growth and maturing of the The climatic range of wheat is greater than that of any other staple. so far as jet developed. Denton. adapted to wheat in Northern Texas. THE WHEAT REGION". called in the country 3 to 10 feet below the surface. extends from 31| and 32 degrees of north latitude to Red River. Ihe ripening period varies from May. dryries*. That the area of the wheat-growing region as given above will be greatly enlarged. Bell. Johnson. a bright copper complexion. but it yields easily to drouth. Wichita. can not be doubted. the heads are not so large. Palo Pinto. in the Southern climates iu the United States. with the most flattering results. Parker. Southeru latitudes require a higher temperature than Northern climates. The high and equable temperature prelast of April vailing through the wheat region of Texas during the ripening period and first of May renders the maturing of the grain bure and rapid. Ellis. perature temperate climates. Tarrant. as other crops must be more profitable. etc.growing regions. to July in New-York. temperature. however. 65 It was the remoteness and inaccessibility to market. In England the mean temperature required in the ripening months is 59. comprising the present organized counties of Fanuin. and reaching from the 96th to the 99th degrees of longitude. the yield not so great. Hunt. " white rock. and affording the surest crop. where the soil and temperature are conIts flexibility in respect to genial. Jack. and large districts of Eastern and Western Texas. Wise. the absence of humidity in the atmosphere. and Travis. depends much on the locality. whose nearest water communication with market. in the same latitudes. making the largest yield. Collin. and perhaps August in the extreme Northern districts in which it is grown. and becomes a cosmopolitan in cultivation. the quality not so good. by an undue humidity of atmosphere. The crop ripens on them from ten days to two weeks earlier than on the black prairies. and the strength and capacity of its soil to withstand drouth. Dimmett. The soil in this -district is chiefly a rich black prairie loam.THE WHEAT REGION. though we by no means assert that the larger portion of the country named will ever produce it as a staple. but occa-ionally though rarely cropping out at the The soil. Dallas. Cook. that forced the culture of wheai on the people of Northern Texas.

and answering every purpose of roiling the ground. and discover kinds peculiarly adapted to the character of soil and vicissitudes of climate. and ing. and plough or harrow in.. His mode of cultivation produces good results. and the same time to six weeks in the year The balance of the year may be devoted to other pursuits. wheat ciop scarcely interfering with other field labors. which is necessary where it can not be grazed. The mass ETC. The only preparation is to fell the corn stalks. puts the grain in with a drill. as yet. If attacked by the killing frosts that sometimes occur in the latter part " of March and early part of April. setting the roots. that the rich Mosquite valleys (bright copper loam) on the Upper Brazos and ics tributaries. growers manifesting but little interest in procuring and testing new varieties. affording the finest pasturage Its value in this regard can not well be over-estimated. spring. This farmer usually sows after oats. its culture only requiring from one month to six weeks' labor in the year. or to the varieties of seed best adapted to the soil and It is put carelessly in the ground. winter. few break up the ground before planton the ground. though it is more subject to the rust than fall wheat. and a majority of growers put the seed in the ground from the 1st to the 10th of that month. and sometimes even later. is October. deposits With the drill. we may A required until harvest. one hand and a horse. requiring 3 pecks of seed per acre. and when proper attention shall be be- until and the varieties best adapted to the country shall be introlook for largely increased yields. which at the same lime opens the furrow. however. and thinks it best to break the ground well as soon as the oat crop is harvested. keeping them sleek and fat through the most rigorous winter. it ripens. and produces a good crop. PASTURAGE. etc. ITS YALUE FOR The wheat grows luxuriantly through the for stock. Very It is usually sown after the corn is few prepare the ground before sowing. and left climate. than the black prairie lands of the Upper Trinity. take but little pains and incur as Little or no attention is given to the little expense in its cultivation as possible. and those who have seen the growing crops in that region confidently count on a yield of 40 or 45 bushels per acre in the rich valleys of that delightful region. one bushel of seed per acre is commonly used. until the rising of grass on the prairies. Intelligent farmers concur in saying that it will pay well to . Taking these facts into consideration. The usual sowing month. When the fall wheat fails from any cause. without previous preparation. gathered. CULTURE TIME AND MODE OF SOWING. without any expense." the crop is destroyed. is harvested and put away. nothing more stowed on duced. When sown broadcast. the yield of the crop has certainly been remarkable. are even better adapted to the growth of wheat and other small grains. Pasturage is a great benefit in more than one respect. its culture. settling the earth. are sowed. proper mode of cultivation. pursues this course. An enterprising farmer of the writer's acquaintance. After the seed is in the ground. The culture of wheat requires one hand to twenty-five acres. in the We thus have as good beef and as fat stock horses in February as in May. the in harvesting. Grazing retards its top growth and keeps it back until this critical period has past. 8 acres per day the seed arid covers it up. It can not be doubted that experiments with different varieties of seed would elicit valuable results. of wheat-growers in Texas. an early spring wheat may be sown in February or March. after the stalk is in the boot. One hundred acres will support one hundred head of stock from December to the 15th of MarA. sow the seed broadcast. Grazing also causes the roots to grow and take a firm set in the earth. Tne jtramping of the ground by stock is a great benefit to the crop. lief with some. "Wheat is sown from the 1st of September to the 1st of November.66 TEXAS ALMANAC. and is absolutely necessary to the safety of the crop. only from one month two or three weeks in planting. The common red May is wheat is chiefly used.

as new wheat. will . The wheat-bird and rust also injured the crop to some extent. After the wheat is threshed. and easily removed from place to place. with 2 horses and 8 or 10 hands. by Kilburn & Brotherton an Illinois patent 8-horse power. and set in The usual harvesting season extends from the is per time when the grain is in operation without trouble. When the seed is put in the ground properly. com- . The prothe transition from the " dough" to a hard state. with a positive advantage to the wheat crop. but is well developed. Their inventions have been submitted to experienced wheat-growers in Illinois and other Northern States. it was found that the heads were not well filled. They thresh and clean from 150 to 300 bushels per day. farmer who cultivates wheat. and deposits it in the thresher at a great saving of labor. when the appearance of the crops before reaping indicates 25 or 30 bushels. and put away in the granary. and making as good flour. and that amount was confidently counted on. neither binds or shocks his grain. The former requires two horses and a man and boy. reSome farmers omit the binding. It reuse. This saves the labor of several hands at a pressing season.) escapes the killing frost in the spring. and are believed by them to be valuable improvements. at any time. It is not usually more than ordinarily large. his own reaper and thresher. is used. even on the smallest scale. in places. thresh the wheat from the swath after it has lain on the ground some 24 hours. have YIELD. to be equally as good as the usual method. and quiring some 8 hands to bind the straw. may TIME AND MODE OF HARVESTING. grow wheat the world for 67 grazing alone. unmolested by the weavil or other insects. it will keep sound and fresh for years. This was caused by the continued and extraordinarily heavy rains that deluged the country through the winter and early part of March. There is a machine manufactured in Dallas county. which is said to thresh and clean from 500 to 600 bushels per day. "Wilson of the same county. and two men. An intelligent farmer who uses it. it forms an important item in the value of the crop. but when we consider that the best pasturage in thus be obtained through the winter for stock. When the grain is thus put away. The Messrs. after thoroughly drying. of which there are various kinds in The Kentucky Harvester is mostly used. and is believed by those who pursue it. but when submitted to the thresher. rakes the grain from the swath. 25 or 30 bushels may be relied on as a moderate average yield per acre. and cuts from 15 to 20 acres per day. one of which particularly. The wheat crop of Northern Texas for the past season has fallen materially short of the estimated yield. it is left to dry thorougly in the sun. and of what the appearance of the growing crops indicated. is not deluged with rain in the winter. (which is very unusual. after due preparation. It is cut almost wholly by reaping-machines. ETC. from which it did not recover in time to fully develop and mature the grain. have invented and patented valuable improvements to harvesters. the attacks of rust and ravages of wheat-birds. The average yield this season is believed not to have been more than 15 or 20 bushels per acre. 1st to the last of May. and is generally preferred. and is said to cut 15 acres per day. and will have them ready for the next harvest. They are portable. of which there is a variety of patents. They are preparing to manufacture their improved machines.THE WHEAT REGION. in its use. Manny's and McCormick's reapers are also used by pome. The endless chain-thresher. leaving the wheat in a stunted and sickly condition. quires two or four horses. The demand for them the past season was greater than the supply In a few years every all were readily sold that were brought to the country. The stalks stood thick on the ground. The quality of the grain is always excellent. and the heads looked large and well developed. and other small grains. Farmers are generally supplying themselves with harvesters. QUALITY. ETC.

sound. 60 But taking 20 bushels as the average yield. of April. always goes over the standard weight 60 pounds per much of it reaches 70. Lamar. 1 1 1 00 50 00 60 $8 10 Yield.000. ready for market from the 15th May to 1st June depending.. Red River. 50 and $6. 15 bushels per acre. Cook.50 per bushel for the former. and flavor. which fell on the 5th latter. have combined to reduce the wheat to 50 cents per bushel. order in which they are named. towards the last price of flour in past. and wheat and flour were at the maximum $1. is even a marked difference in the wheat grown north of the 32d degree. before the Northern wheat has ripened. etc.. traordinary weight of 74 Ibs. to wit: Dallas. pact. or in ihe Northern markeis if necessary. Threshing. There liveliness. Johnson. Hill. would have produced 2. Collin.TEXAS ALMANAC. where the wheac does not ripen until July.) Grayson. have no reliable data from which to form an approximate estimate of the Had the crop turned out as its appearance yield in Northern Texas. Grayson. and has. and that south of that parallel. 1 in. Palo Pinto. per acre. of 11 90 QUANTITY PRODUCED. Wise. $3 00 of the season. the aggregate heavy yield and consequent large surplus for which there is no accessible~market. and some crops attain the ex- It produces flour which. by a severe frost. and the wheat north of the line will turn out more flour and a better quality than that south of it. When will give Texas a great advantage over all other wheat-growing regions. binding. one bushel. over cost of production. for sweetness. it was estimated that the counties of Dallas. Collin. Ellis. Cost of sowing and ploughing Reaping. upon the season. Tarrant. the exit was grown. The tended region in which Seed wheat.000 bushels. Northern Texas has ranged for several years and $4 to $6 per hundred for the Last year the crop was cut short. as follows. perhaps. at 50c. These prices will not more than meet the expenses of production. which is six weeks in advance This of Northern or Western flour. This will render wheat-growing in Texas a sure and remunerative business. promised. Jack. and flour $2. facilities of transportation to market shall be afforded when railroad connection wiih the Gulf is opened. and thus monopolize the trade for several weeks. of which the following is believed to be a fair estimate: Rent of land. 7 50 Excess of co4 of producing. largely increased quantities cultivated the past season. and command the highest prices. A WHEN READY FOB MARKET. Navarro. not exceeded The larger wheat-growing counties are. in a measure. so soon as our prairies are brought into communication flour New may be manufactured with the Gulf. tbe past year. perhaps. Fannin. We . but the yield has fallen materially short of that. is decidedly superior to that brought from the North. (about equal. fresh in all flour the Southern markets. and heavy.800. fronr The wheat and $1 to $1.000. Denton. per bushel. Parker. It bushel rarely falls undei* 65. per bushel. Kaufman.50 price of both to unusually low figures and $3 per hundred. and $1 as the average a very moderate and safe average we should have as the price $20 00 product of an acre. in the 2. wheat-growers in Northyn Texas can have new. etc. bushel of each kind may be manufactured in the same mill. Young. Or excess.

flour. haps equal capacity. for home consumption. Ellis. Transportation by railroad.500. on one million. orShreveport.000 bushels will bread the counties first named and furnish seed for the next crop. is looked to with great solicitude. Millers estimate that a bushel of wheat. of which there is There #re several excellent steam power flouringonly a moderate supply. thousand bushels of wheat. about 8000 pounds of flour per day. DISEASES RUST This is AND CASUALTIES INCIDENT TO THE enemy CROP. as elsewhere.000 bushels. 35 10 8 7 Ibs. or fungus. The latter mills. it will evidently be to the interest of the government to furnish the posts on the Northern frontier with A A Should a surplus still remain. At present prices. in another year it is believed it will be within accessible distance of the wheat country. it is sanguinely hoped it will. The flouring mills three miles north of Dallas (steam) have two run of stones now in use. Of course. or nearly so. Parker. The water mills. in dayThere are other steam mills in the country of perlight. manufactured into flour by mills in the country. with any chance of competing with Northern flour. It is estimated that 5 or 600. The experience of the past year proves that until railroad connection with markets on the Gulf is established.. at an average cost of $1 per hundred for each hundred miles. five hundred . Red River. or can be kept safely in the granaries. besides a number of others propelled by water and horse-power.) of $45. leaving a surplus of nearly or quite 1. as the only means of furnishing a reliable and certain market for the surplus grain. equivalent to 40 barrels. with the two run of stones.000 for each hundred The extension of the Houston and Texas Central Railway to miles transported. a parasitical growth. Lamar. is hauling in ox-wagons. perhaps. Galveston. and more still for the government troops on the frontier. but do an excellent business when there is a sufficiency of water. Kaufman. and many of the counties within that range have produced enough. of to the Southern counties within hauling distance. would be about 50 cents per hundred for each hundred miles. portion of this may be disposed but as it will not bear transportation more than 150 miles. 60 pounds. and will furnish a market for some. yields on an average of is The wheat Superfine flour. it is believed. 60 The yield of good wheat. are inoperative a large portion of the year. for subsistence will go to fill contracts which will require a large amount of flour. This would be a saving in transportation of one hundred per cent or more or. Fine Bran. capable of propelling six run of stones. a heavy emigration will doubtless be attracted by large surplus will still remain. with an engine of fifty-horse power. (90. MANUFACTURE OF FLOUR. etc. the wheat region. 250 and 300 miles distant. The only means of transportation to market. Texas it can be used profitably in fattening TRANSPORTATION TO MARKET. during dry seasons. wheat and flour would not bear transportation at these rates to the markets of Houston. of the wheat crop in Northern Texas. hogs. 25 cents per bushel. however. or. flour. is believed to be materially over this estimate. The proprietors claim that they can manufacture. Navarro. that appears in the form of a red dust or is the dreaded 6 .000. the culture of wheat in large quantities can not be relied on as profitable. Shorts. the cheapness of breadstuff's. 69 Fannin. as remunerative.. Tarrant. " " " Ibs.000 pounds.THE WHEAT REGION. make equally as good flour as the steam mille. or even If that road should progress in the direction it is now pointing.

and It became a retreated and took position on an acre. is taken from the Dallas Herald. and in a great measure suspends vitalThe consequence is. but while shot-guns were firing.70 powder upon the blades its TEXA9 ALMANAC. The crop was every where cut presenting soon afterwards a scorched. when these birds threatened the crop with their depreda- tions : is a small bird. with these motley weapons he stationed the little army over the field. inserts its bill with great dexterity into growing grain. about the size of a snow-bird or sparrow. Many supposed the crop was irretrievably lost. ringing bells. it is apt to result in a total failure. and then swooped down on the other. there resolved to do or die. and visiting the wheat region just before the grain ripens. Others contend that they remain in the country. somewhat resembling the former. gallant stand was made by the farmer to save this. when the wheat was in the dough. Finding that his efforts were likely to prove unavailing. that the wheat-birds could not come in numbers sufficient to destroy the extensive and numerous fields of wheat now grown. crisped appearance. and afterwards upon the straw. damp. but his little force could do nothing against He he the invader. beating tin pans. Nothing can drive them from a wheat field. and destroyed the wheat crop almost without exception. and so on. wintering elsewhere. and sticks. rejects the balance. the birds would swarm defiantly around them. whips. and produced heads that matured nearly a half crop. It usually makes first. bells ringing. he sought by gun and shot. It is doubtless a species of the Rice bird.) so Its first appearance in this region was in 1849. more than a sufficiency for the wants of the country. between the humming and snow-bird in size." and follows wet. though they appear in greater or less numbers every season. and defend it the more effectually. arrests the growth. and matured. or save any portion of it from their ravages when in sufficient numbers. and the injury is then in proportion to the advanced maturity of the crop. . The growth of April. severe frost fell in Northern Texas on the 5th of LATE FROSTS are dreaded. fatal to the rice fields. the grain shrinks and ripens before it is fully developed ity. he thought to com- promise with the enemy by giving up a part of the field. No sooner had they finished the second section of the crop. and numbers of them are unquestionably to be found iti the country at all seasons. as though it had been submitted to fire.' hand-to-hand fight. A was in the boot. and its ravages. when the wheat down and killed. into requisition. when the wheat was in the milk. soon made a clean sweep' of the relinquished spoils. as a fact. and concentrating his The rapacious gluttons force on the remainder. No damage results until it attacks the straw. than they insolently demanded the balance. which was not then large. his grounds. but suckers put forth from the root. and in defiance of all his ' A * efforts. bringing his whole force. The rust stops the circulation of nutrition from the root. pans sounding. these little devourers appeared in myriads. big and little. of May. During the spring of that year. and every other available noise-maker. 1857. In 1849 they appeared for the first time in countless myriads. They have not seriously injured the crop since 1849. The following account of this little destroyer. light in their midst. After a desperate struggle. It lights upon the stalk. They are believed to be migratory. however. warm weather. and give the other to the birds. It is related of a farmer of this county. extracts the juice with its tongue. a. till the whole head is destroyed. that when the birds attacked his wheat in 1849. would save of the legions finally thought enough for seed. " the appearance when the grass is in dough. and bludgeons waving around the heads of the little urchins. our farmer concluded to relinquish the half of that.nd actually destroyed the last of his acre of wheat before his eyes. to frighten "It them from For this purpose. The ravages of the WHEAT-BIRD are sometimes formidable. This is a small bird. If the crop is attacked early enough. (frangillia oryzivora of ornithologists. 1858." It is believed. and destroyed nearly the entire crop. but usually produces only a partial failure or short crop.

Ellis. Colonel Waterg Tinsley. [In contemplation of this immense production. Dallas. Grayson. very few years more. leaving one third. may safely be set down at 5.000 bushels as the product of the crop of one county. might prove serious. though some counties can not produce so much. besides producing the other small grains required by the country. but usually it will come forth from the roots in the An attack from the legions of these devourers that periodically infest spring. embracing an area of 10. and caa produce more. Its resources There is nowhere to be found so in this regard can not well be over-estimated. to guard against danger from the contingency of late heavy frosts. following articles upon the production of the leading staples of this State. Jack. and Johnson. to supply the Northern markets before their own wheat can be matured. the counties before named. cultivate the rich bottom lands of the Brazos. 71 the crop should be retarded as long as possible in the spring. of 60. which will doubtless it realization from year to year.) It is an under-estimate to put down two thirds of this. Take Dallarge a body of rich. have been kindly furnished by planters in different parts. and may sound fabulous to those who have not seen and examined its boundless fields of fertile lands extending from Red River to the Brazos at Waco. are brought into cultivation.000 acres. favored with so genial a climate. for example: it contains 900 square miles. Wise. and Mr. and we have 5.000 bushels.000. CAPACITY OF NORTHERN TEXAS FOR PRODUCTION.120.800 square miles. Parker. is astonishing. INTRODUCTORY. Tarrant. Grayson. and whose lands proba- THE bly require modes of cultivation somewhat different. for the production of wheat. Denton.THE WHEAT REGION.000 bushels each. for the other small grains and produce. which are materially different from the prairie uplands of the West. leaving out the unorganized counties of Archer. Clay. Throckmorton. in point of soil. Collin. by grazing. and from Kaufman county to Belknap. as good tillable land. or an aggregate for the twelve counties. that the wheat lands of Williamson county and other counties lower down. presume. for wheat-culture. now lying in idleness. and perhaps other counties have a larger proportion of tillable land than Dallas. and Montague.000 acres. for instance. Young.000. 256. GRASSHOPPERS sometimes prey upon the wheat in the fall and winter. It is only meant that the counties named are capable of producing this grand result when its waste fertile lands. Collin. Cook.000. The capacity of Northern Texas. (the other counties the same. in the early spring. we are forced to the conclusion that approach can not be many years before this great staple will be forced to seek a foreign market. las county. large districts of country. We .] A AGRICULTURAL. productive land. or 384. require That different cultivation from the lands in Dallas and other Northern counties. Take two thirds of this. also. Put the average yield per acre at 20 bushels. The average capacity of the counties comprising the Sixteenth Judicial District. and we shall see trains of freight cars coming to Galveston heavily loaded with flour and wheat for shipment to Northern ports. EDS. or 576.000 acres. destroying it in places to the very ground. This will somewhat explain the slight differences in the modes of cultivation they recommend. 128.

while the uses and demands for this staple seem to be rapidly extending and embracing the world's entire population. 4th. has an immense area. Our seasons are much longer than any other State enjoys. other things being equal. tude and longitude. in its whole extent. It has heretofore been neglected. embracing within and a present settled limits. But above all. 5th. lead to the passage of a law for the encouragement of Agricultural Science. Experiments already made. will. Latimer. 3d. E. it follows that the intrinsic value of cotton lands. from the size and after a The same limb I carried to Georgia. of a Texas. OF ROUND-TOP. which those soils are adapted. The nature of our soil is such. I well remember. cotton-grower. should be borne in mind. as a But there is not in this attention as yet. more by two. and it must become more and more important to the cottonin proportion to grower to devise every means to increase the amount of the yield here propose to show the decided advantage to the the increased demand. from large portions of the best cotton less. 6th.) being. than the regions. Agriculture. a friend to week's detention at my home in Middle Georgia. but yet sufficient to account for any discrepancy by Mr. partridge-egg to full grown. are able to make than our long seasons will afford us time to save. caused by elevation. Even our ordinary cottons are rarely injured by the frost. while we. I was induced by . upon which cotton can be successfully grown. if this law is properly carried out. lies be contiguous to the coast. may it in the accounts given not be very great. tries. BY DR. and generally commands a better price. eight degrees of latitude. in its cultivation. 2d. (from 93Of course. must require very on the different great diversity in the directions for cultivating the same products soils. with the usual diversities of soil and climate.72 difference TEXAS ALMANAC.) as to injure machinery. is extremely limited and circumscribed. (from 26 to 34. that on the 10th day of June I gathered from a large ^county. by We : about one cent per pound. we can make it with less labor. (as is often the case elsewhere. and facilities greater or equal to other counour cottons must have a decided advantage from this fact. have abundantly proved that the portion of the earth's surface. in most of the States mentioned. in another part of this workits Our State. a limb of cotton which had upon it eight bolls of cotton. Having a much longer season.) and seven to 101. as large as half degrees of longitude. and the various products has received but little to science. we will ever be able to save more to the hand than the other and less favored cotton districts. The establishment. of the soil and climate of Texas. Our Legislature must lay the foundation for future improvement. This fact being admitted. KOBSON. and very frequently. law. Its maturity being earlier. by some appropriate legislation. nor are they so mixed with sand. such extent of latihalf a dozen of the other larger States of the Union. and the freighting of it to market. Mather and Mr. over all the other cotton-growing States of the Union 1st. so wide a field for the scientific agriculturist. by ADVANTAGES OP TEXAS COTTON LANDS. while ascending from the sea-board to the mountain districts. I. Now. by far. A large portion of our State which is particularly adapted to its growth. other things being equal. protracting the labor through the hot summer months. that the staple possesses more strength and fineness. in the year field in Walker 1852. must continue to increase. in Texas. of a State Geological Bureau. in a few years. it requires from four to ^six workings. but we trust it will not be much longer. one ploughing and hoeing. Union. will cost can ever be.

we must conclude. the soil is as important in Texas. A common bull-tongue plough will answer to open the furrow for the seed. . and our beautiful prairies. in solution. R. This is done in December. be sure and cover with the same plough six or eight days. the millions of acres which are now only furnishing food for the deer and their roaming companions. That its general depth is by far. make a finish. by which time the ground usually becomes well pulverized and in good condition for planting. and pays as well as elsewhere. R. I. BY DR. I left the same plant in Texas. which should now be commenced. to clean the cotton of grass which was only from ankle to half-knee high. and thinning the cotton nearly to a stand. The average yield of cotton. and always in time to prevent the grass and weeds from getting a start. still he should not be deterred from thoroughly ploughing and preparing it before putting in his seed. R. from preparing his ground till past the usual time for planting. with trim hoes. while your hands.AGRICULTURAL. by very intelligent and accomplished planters. or February. CULTIVATION OF COTTON ON OUR WESTERN UPLANDS. may be put down safely at about 1200 pounds of seed cotton per acre. The mode of State is . Even though the farmer should be delayed by extremes of seasons or other causes. one or two furrows on each side with the bar of the plough next to the cotton. . I. Yet these lands in Georgia are eagerly sought. happy homes for countless thousands. but also. save the cotton. but the diamond-wing plough is used on the more sandy soil. GREAT FACILITY OF RAISING CORN IN TEXAS. the only work remaining will be the finishing ploughing. or uplands. you may imagine. ere many years shall pass away. run a board or block over the bed. though for some years in succession. If the middle ground between the rows is covered with grass and weeds. who become wealthy and prosperous by their cultivation. yet another decided and overwhelming advantage we command. a month earlier. which should be done according to the season. hence can never wash like abrupt and hilly lands ever cultivated cotton. not only the surface soil. BY DR. visit 73 What was cotton growing region of South-western Georgia. near as high as my head. your hands following. turning the earth away from it. will furnish off. run round each row with a turning-plough. R. at the time of planting. at the same time. This last ploughing may be done with the solid sweep. to see the hurry and bustle of man and beast. which are not ploughed up or covered by these furrows. for all who have level surface. which is used upon the black stiff land. if they expect a fair yield and when this is done. with hoes. (I mean our They have a greater uniformity and more table. west of the Brazos. Should his neighbors eay to him that they have com- A thorough preparation of . then run additional furrows for that purpose. must know the importance of having the surface clean of every thing. the extremely hard rains which are common in our southern climate. Hence. greater than can be found in any other cotton State. This being done. January. a large part of the active chemicals required in the growth and development of plants. if the ground is dry. then with the turning-plough. 2000 pounds have been made. as follows cultivation for cotton usually pursued in the western part of the The land is first thrown up in good beds with a two-horse : Casey plough. If the beds previously thrown up are covered with weeds or and after grass. nearly take the great my surprise. and are doing a vast deal in the way of beautifying and increasing the already The durability of our soil is great facilities of the great State in which they live. It is thus permitted to lie till about the 10th of March. or lay the crop by. now uncultivated. and when. will bless the world by a more useful product. So soon as the cotton has formed the fourth leaf. I think. and at high prices.) can not be denied. but if wet. .

74

TEXAS ALMANAC.

pleted their planting, he should not on that account be annoyed, or try to hurry through his work without doing it well. The great maxim should be, always keep the plough going till the soil is thoroughly and deeply mellowed, and the labor is In putting in the seed, the farmer should be sure to certain to be well rewarded. put in enough, for it is better to have to take out ten stalks, than to be compelled No farmer, who cultivates properly in Texas, whether his land be to replant one. a rich bottom alluvial, or the black prairie, need ever fear that his cribs will be empty, or that his mules or horses will suffer for want of feed when preparing his ground for anoflher crop. If only our farmers and planters would give proper attention to their corn crop and plant a due proportion of their land in this great
staple, so necessary to the comfort and luxury of life, instead of having to import this necessary article of food for man and nearly all domestic animals, we should

have a surplus of millions of bushels to export annually. which corn is produced in Texas, as compared with other
tirely

The great ease with
States,

overlooked by many.

part as much as elsewhere. usually nearly laid by before the great staple of cotton requires much of our labor. And yet, notwithstanding these great advantages, our farmers scarcely plant more than about one third as much ground to the hand in corn as they do in most of the older and less favored States, and that which they do plant is often greatly neglected. "What has been the result for the past two or three years? Why, great It is true, some parts of our suffering and a tremendous depletion of our pockets. State have experienced severe droughts, but yet actual experiments have proved I feel that deep ploughing and early planting would have secured a sufficiency. confident that if the planters of Texas (and I confine myself now more especially to that portion of Texas west of the Trinity, embracing the black prairie lands) would equally divide their crops between corn and cotton, planting an equal number of acres of each, no such scarcity would ever occur again. And when we see
that,

seems to be enThe amount of labor required is scarcely the fourth Another fact of importance is, that this crop can be

acre

with one good ploughing and one hoeing, from fifty to sixty bushels per in good seasons, how and why is it that we have empty cribs ? Just think of the labor you may have done, and that thousands of others are now doing in old Georgia and the Carolinas, to produce this crop, and see the yield from that labor. After preparing their land, they must plough it thoroughly at least three times, and oftener four, with two good hoeings, and then, if the season is propitious, from ten to fifteen bushels per acre may be gathered. Yet with this yield, their studied economy and foresight have given them millions of wealth, and placed upon their gullied hills the most costly mansions, filled their land with public schools and railroads and in short, abundance and luxury are If all these are added to a people and a country so little their daily companions. favored by nature, what may we not expect in this Italy of the South, if we use the means G od has given us ?

may be made

;

REMAKKS ON THE CULTIVATION OF WHEAT IN WILLIAMSON AND
ADJOINING COUNTIES.
FUENISHED BY SAM. MATHER, OF WILLIAMSON. Our wheat lands in Texas are nearly all prairie. The stiff prairie- is generally the best, it being of a black or chocolate color, and varying from twelve to twenty inches in the depth of soil it should be broke up in the first place about four inches deep, cutting the grass-roots about midway, which causes them to rot sooner than when the roots are turned up from the bottom. They usually extend about seven inches deep. The prairie-plough, commonly used, is of wrought iron, manufactured in the country, and costs about $20 when stocked. The teams used for breaking up, consist of from four to six yoke of oxen, worth $35 to $50 per yoke when broke. The ploughs used are sometimes, though not generally, on the improved principle of rollers, running without a man to hold them the driver, at
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the end of the furrows, only having to throw the plough out with the lever for

AGRICULTURAL.

75

There are usually no that purpose, and then set it again for the next furrow. One roots, stumps, etc., to prevent the plough from pursuing its even course. team usually ploughs from one and a quarter to two acres per day. Labor on our farms is worth about $18 per month. Those ploughs cut furrows from twelve to twenty inches wide. The breaking up should be done soon after the grass is up in the spring, or early in the summer, so that the grass may have time to rot before sowing the wheat in the fall or spring. The winter wheat should be sowed the latter part of September, or early in October, though good crops are often made when sowed as late as December. After being sowed on the sod, the seed is generally harrowed in with a heavy iron-toothed harrow, which is the best way, though it is sometimes ploughed in, which may be done, provided the grass roots are sufficiently rotted. Spring wheat is usually sowed from the 1st of February to the 1st of March, ad this is also sowed on the sod and harrowed in, in like manner. It is best to 0t> over the ground with a heavy wooden roller, after the harrow, in It will also order to make the surface smooth, though this is not always done. improve the crop to go over it a second time with a light harrow, after the frosts, and after the wheat has come up and been pastured on. This is done in March or early in April, and then this second harrowing should be followed by another
roller.

The reason is as follows At this time the roots of the wheat have extended so deep that the harrow does not injure them, but kills all the weeds that have taken root, and loosens and levels the ground that had been trod by the stock, so that the wheat then grows up more even and more thrifty, and is much better protected against a late frost. On ground entirely new, there is very little difference between a winter and a spring crop, as the ground not having had time to become rotted and mellow in
:

the yield is not as good as afterwards. But generally after the first plantthe winter crop yields more than that sown in the spring, as the root has had more time to extend, and there are more stalks to the grain, and the ground being better covered, the crop is better protected against a late frost and the sun. It also ripens or matures about a month earlier than spring wheat, the latter being usually not ready for harvesting till about the middle of June, while the former is commonly ready by the middle of May. As regards the amount of the yield, we state generally that twenty bushels to the acre is just about a fair average crop in Texas, taking the various kinds and qualities of soil into consideration, and taking all seasons, good and bad, into the account. often hear farmers state that they make over forty bushels to the acre in good seasons, and from thirty to forty bushels are doubtless very often made. Our wheat has usually been cut with cradles, but patent reapers are now coming into general use. These reapers or harvesters are obtained of I. G. Williams, in G-alveston, and from New-Orleans, and sometimes they are ordered direct from the North. Their cost is about $175 in Galveston. They cut about ten acres per day with two horses and a certain number of hands to bind it. The country is now pretty well supplied with threshing-machines of various Those kinds, most of them, by horse-power, but many also by water and steam. who have not these machines already, can generally find one within a convenient distance, which they can have the use of for their crop, at charges fixed by the custom of the place. Some four or five years ago, the threshing was all done by horses or by hand, but these machines are now in almost universal use. The prices of these machines are various, according to the particular kind, and the amount of the work they will do is also various. These machines thresh from one hundred and twenty-five to eight hundred bushels per day, according to the number of horses, a single-horse machine turning out about one hundred and twentyfive bushels. The wheat is usually perfectly dry and ready for grinding the mothe
fall,

ing,

We

ment

it is

threshed.

76

TEXAS ALMANAC.

After the first crop has been gathered from the wild prairie land, the ground should immediately be*ploughed again for the next crop, and in this instance, it should be ploughed deep, say about eight inches, the plough being the common turningplough, which is generally used. This is all the ploughing usual, but a few of the best farmers subsoil the land, loosening the ground to the depth of fourteen or fifteen inches, and this extra labor is always well paid for in the superior crop. The advantages of the ploughing of the ground immediately after the first crop has been gathered, are these : all the grass seed and all the scattering wheat on the ground are thus turned in, and soon after sprout and come up, and by the time (say September or October) the ground is leveled for the winter crop, the weeds, wheat, etc., that have come up, are all turned under and effectually killed, and instead of injuring the next crop, they serve to enrich the ground and improve the
crop.

LETTER FROM
Editors of the Texas
:

I.

T.

TINSLEY, OF BRAZORIA CO.
Co.,

COLUMBIA, Brazoria

Texas, July 28, 1858.

Almanac :

GENTLEMEN In compliance with your request, I have set down for the purpose of giving you a few general ideas upon the cultivation of the three staple products of this portion of Texas, namely, Corn, Sugar, and Cotton. In commencing, I will lay down two general rules, which should be always observed in the preparation of the soil for the cultivation of each of the before-mentioned products. First. The land should be well drained. Second. The land should be first ploughed up deep, and ploughed up well. Good draining consists in having the necessary ditches so arranged and made in regard to width, depth, length, and locality, as to prevent water from lieing on the surface after a rain, and also to make sub-soil drainage. On stiff, black soils the main ditches should be from three to five feet deep, and six the feet wide at the surface, with a slope of one and a half feet at the bottom ditches leading into the main ditch, 'commonly called cross-ditches, should be made for every seventy yards, to carry off the water freely into the main ditch. Cross-ditches, on common localities of level stiff soils, should be about four feet wide at the top, running with a slope of one half foot to the bottom. All this kind of soil requires a greater amount of ditching than any other we have in this part of the country. The light peach-land does not require so much drainage ; but this, like all other, should be sufficiently drained, which sufficiency should be determined upon by formation and locality. Cane-land requires a greater amount of ditching than peach-land. Ditching in this kind of land should be proportionately broad, and from three to four feet deep. The three soils mentioned above, namely, stiff black, peach, and cane-soils, are the principal soils in this portion of the country, and should be ploughed as early in the year as possible, say in the month of January, and should be ploughed up deep and ploughed up well. The ploughing should be from four to six inches deep, and with a plough adapted to one span of mules. This sized plough can be more profitably used than any other. The size of plough should depend somewhat on the kind of land to be ploughed. In stiff land the plough should cut less than in light, laud, and adapted to the strength of the team. Land should be broken up in ridges,
;

both

in a great measure, upon the kind of soil. Light or sandy soil should be planted from the 15th of February to the 1st of March. The black or stiff soil should not be planted until the middle or last of March, depending, in a great measure, upon the forwardness of the spring. This

for corn, cotton, and sugar. The time of planting should depend,

AGRICULTURAL.

77

kind of soil, being destitute of sand, requires the warmth of the sun before it should be planted. The production from this kind of soil grows off better, and is less liable to disease when planted late, than when it is planted early. In preparing land for planting, the planter should be governed, in a great measure, by the kind of land to be to the location, always observing the difference beplanted, and particularly as tween natural and artificial drainage. CORN should be planted on the highest land, and particularly where it has the best natural drainage and when planted on this kind of location, it is better to
;

plant it in the water-furrow, for the reason that it gives a better opportunity to dirt It the corn throughout the season, and avoids a too high ridge when it is laid by. The planter should be will always stand a drought better when it is so planted. particular in this kind of planting, and observe the same rules only on soils that are

naturally well drained. The first cultivation after planting should be with a good iron tooth-harrow, so as This kind of implement is better than any other for to pulverize the ground well. the cultivation of young corn it pulverizes and leaves the land in a better condiThe kind of cultivation tion, and destroys more effectually all other vegetation. after this, depends upon the season. SUGAR. The ground should be clear of trash, and well ridged up and pulverized with the harrow, before planted. It should be planted in rows, about six feet apart. The opening-furrow, for planting, should be deep and well opened the seed should be well stripped of fodder, and planted double. Great care should be taken by the planter in covering, so as not to raise the seed with the covering-plough. After the seed is covered, it is best to run a light harrow on the ridge, followed by a heavy roller. If the season should be wet, after the seed is planted, and before it comes up, the harrow should be run over to break up the crust. heavy iron harrow can be used with great advantage in the middle of the rows, for the purWhen the cane is pose of pulverizing the ground, and keeping down vegetation.
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;

A

about coming up, the dirt should be thrown from the cane by running a furrow on each side but great care should be taken not to run too near, so as to loosen the it then should be scooped out and kept clear of grass dirt around the plant-cane with the hoe. In about six weeks, the dirt should be thrown back to the cane with the plough. After the cane has rooted sufficiently, the dirt should be reguCane should be cultivated and kept cleaji, until larly applied, until it is laid by. it is sufficiently large to shade the land, so as to prevent other vegetation. COTTON. In this latitude, cotton should be planted on a well-thrown-up ridge. "When planted on light or sandy land, it should be done from the 15th of February to the 1st of March on stiff, heavy land, it should be planted a month later, according to the forwardness of the spring. For planting, the furrow should be opened on the top of the ridge the seed should be well sown in the furrow, and covered over with a light harrow, after which a good heavy roller should be run over to press the ground well to the seed. After the cotton comes up, it should be scooped out with the hoes, and the middles well pulverized with the harrow. The scoops and harrows should be used entirely for the cultivation until laid by. I. T, TlNSLEY.
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LETTER FROM COL. WATERS, OF FORT BEND
W. Richardson, Galvesion: DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 8th
inst,

CO.
13, 1858.

ARCOLA, July

propounding inquiries in regard to the It was culture of our leading staples of agriculture, came to hand a few days ago. a matter of regret, at the time, that business prevented me from replying at once, as the subject of your inquiries is one in which I have for years past felt the deepest interest. Though I am too proud of our State to believe that her superior agricultural advantages has escaped the notice of planters, yet I believe that precise and correct general information, as to the mode of oultivation of our staples, and the

78

TEXAS ALMANAC.

yield per acre of our lands, will not fail to be read with interest by the friends of Texas abroad. I will state with pleasure, and as briefly as possible, the conclusions which a long experience has led me to adopt as to the mode of cultivation of each of our leading staples.

PREPARATION FOR CORN.
The usual method of preparing corn land is, to lay off the rows four feet wide and flush the intervening ground. This leaves on each side of each bed, an underThis preparation should be made in Janufurrow, in which the corn is planted. ary always by the first of February. The earliest planting in favorable seasons, generally commences about the 15th of February. Planters in this vicinity finish commonly by the first of March.

PREPARATION FOR COTTON.
The preparation for a cotton crop begins about the 1st of January. The following is the usual method pursued in this county first, lay off your ground from six to eight feet, and with a large two-horse turning-plough, throw up a bed as high as can be conveniently made, leaving on each side of each bed, as deep a furrow as possible, which will take off the water after heavy rains. Let it remain in this condition until the 10th of March, about which time planting commonly com:

mences.

PREPARATION FOR CANE.
For cane, the course I pursue, is first, to lay off my ground in rows from six to eight feet, and then with a large two-horse turning-plough, run two furrows together as deep as possible, and clean them out well with hoes, in order to deepen and widen them. Keep your planting up with the ploughs, which is done any time between the first of December and the first of March.

CORN.
planted in drills from sixteen to twenty inches apart, and covered commonly with a light turning-plough. After it has come to a stand, allow it to remain until four to six inches high then with light turning-ploughs run round it, always keeping the bar of the plough next to the corn, so as to throw the dirt from it. Then follow with the hoes, and chop out the young grass and weeds. Thin it to a stand, adding a little dirt at the same time. Corn should be worked once in fifteen days, adding dirt each time, so that by the time it is laid by there may be formed around it a wide and elevated bed. With us, corn is in roasting-ear by the 15th of June, and is ready for harvesting from the 20th of August to the 1st of September. Our average yield per acre is about fifty bushels on bottom-lands, and thirty bushels on uplands. Seventy-five bushels per acre throughout an entire crop is not uncommon, in favorable seasons, on our good botCorn, in this vicinity,
is
;

tom

lands.

COTTON.
early planting is commenced,) open the beds that have been prepared in January, with a scooter, or narrow shovelplough. The furrows should be from four to six inches deep. Then cast the seed into them very thick, and cover with a board attached to the heel of the plough, or with a harrow, as the planter may prefer. Afterwards run a roller over the beds, BO as to settle the dirt around the seed and the roller also compacts the earth, causing it to retain the moisture better, and increases the planter's chances of securing a stand. After the cotton has come to a stand, the bed should be carefully scraped down on each side of it with the hoe, and all the young grass and weeds removed. Three or four days after scraping, run around it with ploughs, keeping always the bar of the plough next to the plant, so as to throw the dirt from it leave six inches of earth undisturbed between the furrow and the young
;

About the 10th of March, (by which time

;

cotton.
It is allowed to

remain

after this,

about two weeks,

when

the ploughs are again

AGRICULTURAL.

79
;

put into it, and the dirt replaced which has been previously thrown from it four furrows generally answer the purpose at this stage in three or four days, chop through the cotton, leaving it in bunches about one foot apart, and from four to six stalks in a bunch there will be remaining after chopping it out, nearly double the quantity of cotton required when it is thinned finally to a stand this is done to guard against any disaster that may occur to it from too much rain, the worm, It is not disturbed again for two weeks, when the ploughs or any other cause. are again started dirt is thrown to the cotton, and the middles broken thoroughly; after the ploughs, the hoes follow immediately and thin the cotton to a stand this is done by chopping down alternately one of the bunches left allow but one stalk in a place to remain. After the crop is thinned to a stand, the plants should not be nearer each other than two feet from this time the cotton should be worked once every two weeks, until the cultivation is disposed of, which is generally about the middle of July. Early cotton is in blossom about the 20th of May. Cotton commences to open generally by the 1st of August, though there is much of it open and ready to pick before that time. The usual time of picking cotton among planters generally, is about the 10th of August on bottom lands, and earlier on uplands. Eight bales per hand, weighing five hundred pounds each, is about the average on well-managed plantations. Our bottom lands will* average two thousand pounds, or more, to the acre; uplands yield from twelve to fourteen hundred pounds to the acre. Ten bales may be made and gathered by each hand and sometimes more is raised, but seldom gathered, by a single hand. The season for gathering cotton is from three to four weeks longer in Texas than in Alabama, and I think the same may be said of most of the other cotton States.
;

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CANE.
Cane is planted by first laying a single stalk in the furrow heretofore described, and then another stalk is laid so as to lap half the length of the first, and so on
throughout. Care should be used in laying the stalks of cane, so that all the butts may point in one direction. Hands follow immediately after the cane-droppers, with sharp knives, and cut each stalk into three pieces this cutting is necessary, to prevent the shoots from the butts of the cane, where there is more vigor and vitality, from exhausting the shoots from the upper and less vigorous portion of the stalk. Follow immediately after the cane is cut and replaced, and cover it from four to six inches deep, with large turning- ploughs four furrows are necessary to do this completely and effectually. After the cane is planted, let it remain until spring opens, which will be known from seeing an occasional shoot making its appearance. As soon as you are convinced that the crop has commenced to sprout, scrape a portion of the earth from above the cane, leaving it two or three inches below the surface. The object for doing this, is to bring out as nearly together as possible, all the shoots at the same time the weakly, as well as the strong and vigorous. By aiding it in this way, additional time is gained for growAfter heavy rains, or from any other cause, the suring and maturing the crop. face becomes hard, it will be necessary to loosen the dirt around the cane, as the young shoots find great difficulty in making their way through the crusted earth, As soon as sufficient young cane has made its appearance to mark distinctly the rows, the process of cultivation is as follows: Kun around the young cane as in young corn, throwing the dirt from it; follow as soon as possible with the hoes, and loosen the dirt in the same manner as when coming up. In about ten days, plough again, and throw the dirt back into the furrow made by running around it the first time but be careful not to throw the dirt among the young cane plough the middle of the rows this time thoroughly, and leave in the centro of each a deep, wide, and straight furrow this course of cultivation is pursued until your stand is perfected. With the hoes, add each time you go over it, a very little dirt. The stand should be complete by the 20th of May; and whether so or not, it will be necessary to commence dirting the cane, both with the plough and
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80
hoe.

TEXAS ALMANAC.

Shoots coming after this time will not mature, and should, therefore, be prevented from coming, as they encumber the land. Cane requires a higher cultivation than corn or cotton; in fact, to do it justice, it should be worked once in ten days, and very thoroughly each time. Ploughing cane should cease by the 20th of June, as it has, by that time, generally attained a sufficient size to shade the ground completely, and thus smother the grass, etc. It should, however, be gone over occasionally, to cut out the tie vine, which is troublesome on our plantations. Rolling commences about the 15th of October,

and continues until Christmas, generally. The average yield per acre is about sixteen hundred pounds; ten thousand pounds of sugar and eighty gallons of molasses to each thousand pounds, is usually made to each hand, with fair management Should what I have here written meet with your approval, you can make what use of it you may think proper. What I have said, is based on my own experience and observation alone, and should not be relied upon too implicitly, but received with a grain of allowance by the new beginner, and by planters coming from other States, and commencing for the first time, in Texas. J. D. WATERS. Very truly yours, etc.,
;
1

.

GENERAL HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS TO THE FARMER, APPLICABLE TO .THE SEVERAL MONTHS OF THE YEAR,
BY WM.
J
J.

JONES.

A N U A E T.

WITH the close of the old year and the beginning of the new, the planter should withdraw a portion of his force (the most effective) from the picking of the old crop, if any cotton be left, to prepare for the pitching of the new. Upon the timely commencement of this department of the plantation economy may, in a great degree, depend the success of the forthcoming harvest. The small and weaker or less skillful force may be left to gather the cotton remaining unstripped from the last year's planting. The first thing to be looked to, even on our most productive soils, should be the breaking down and scattering the limbs of the cotton plant, and the corn-stalks to be ploughed in and restored to the land, as furnishing the best and most convenient vegetable manure, either to keep up the genial qualities of good lands, or to improve the productive powers of the lighter soils. Upon the thinner lands should be scattered all the waste cotton-seed, usually left to rot round the ginIt is desirable house, engendering sickness and creating most unsavory odors. also to haul out the stable and cow-manure, usually allowed to remain in the stalls and pens to prevent disease among stock. The time now consumed in this employment will be most profitably spent both by the increased fertility of the soil and in the greater neatness and comfort of the planting establishment. The beast, not less than the man, will profit by cleanliness and comfort, and will guarantee good health and a larger measure of usefulness. All the tools and implements used on the plantation should now be collected in some suitable place, examined minutely, and put in complete order for use, so that no time need be lost or work delayed in the thorough preparation of the ground for the coming crop. These suggestions are hardly necessary for the thoughtful and diligent, but may not be amiss for those who have other matters to withdraw their attention, and should not by them be regarded as merely expletive. The work of cleaning up ought to be carefully looked to and fully completed by the close of the month. The old. crop should be turned off, the ginning rapidly progressing, if not finished, and every thing intended for the market dispatched to its destination, when an accurate estimate may be made of the expenses and yield

HINTS TO THE FARMERS.

81

If the profits should not of the plantation, and an exact balance-sheet made out be equal to the expectations of the owner, he would find it greatly to his advanhis calendar or of the old plantation diary year, which every methodtage to review ical cultivator should keep, and endeavor to ascertain the source of his deficiencies, and correct himself in his future management. It is only in this way that we can hope to be fully successful in the great and noble science of agriculture for it is more decidedly experimental than any other, and can only be improved by the most diligent and timely correction of past errors and misapplied labors. "We do not design here to inculcate parsimony, but to enforce economy. Nothing that may be of use should be thrown away. Then the planter can afford to provide the most substantial establishments for his negroes, extend their bill of fare, and render them in all things comfortable and happy. are constrained to say, that as a general thing, the negro household in the Slave States is the most bountifully provided for, and their situation may well be the envy of the poorer and suffering millions upon the continent
;

We

FEBRUARY.
"With the opening of this month, or if possible before the close of the past, the ploughs (being in complete trim for double teams) should be started to bed up the ground for the first planting of corn. The land must be ploughed deep (if subsoiled in the lighter qualities, all the better,) and bedded in rows from three to four ]f the feet apart, depending for distance upon the relative strength of the soil. season promise to be forward, half the crop of corn may be planted between the middle and last of the month, the work of preparing for the seeding of the balance Whilst if the strength of force and team will to be in preparation at the same time. permit, the ground for oats, if intended to be sown, should be well prepared and the crop in the ground by the middle or last of the month, (the earlier the better,) if there is sufficient moisture in the soil to sprout the seed. The corn in our flat lands succeeds best when planted in the drill, as it is more effectually drained by this method, and should be sowed without stint of seed, as
birds

and worms

stand from the

first

will destroy a great deal, and it is all-important to procure a The corn-planter, found at the agricultural wareplanting.

house in Galveston, is most admirably adapted for this purpose, as the seed is dropped from it with perfect regularity and great celerity, and the ground well rolled and packed to prevent the feathered depredator from committing his ravages. Our best lands, when properly prepared and well planted in the way indicated, may be relied on in good seasons for eighty bushels to the acre, and lighter qualities for half this yield. If early corn is desired, the seed should not be imbedded over

two

inches. Every inch beyond this depth will retard the growth of the plant several days. If the half of the corn crop be planted by the close of this month, the oats sowed, and any other small grain intended to be raised seeded, the most important work of preparing the ground intended for cotton may now be commenced, if not before entered upon. With the brief space allowed us, we must confine our observations exclusively to the cotton and corn-planters, as being the most important and ex-

tended

interests.

MARCH.
**

Come, gentle Spring, ethereal mildness, come, And from the bosom of yon dropping cloud, "While music wakes around, veiled in a shower Of shadowing roses, on our plains descend."

With the commencement of this month, every effort should be concentrated to hasten the preparation of all the ground designed to be occupied by the cotton plant and if the season be favorable, by the close of the same, all the early plant" ing should be finished. Between the first and the ides of March," the second and last seeding of corn may be made, so that by the time the late field of cotton was planted, the hands would be ready to give the early corn a working over, and reduce it in part to a stand.
;

and made clean and thinned out. a thousand days of metropolitan joys. if necessary. that he will have slips to set for early use. and open to human vision a foretaste of the brightness of eternal glory. plough out and chop over his early corn. is the lark. unfolding by degrees. we can not say more. as the flood-tide of beauty and hapbusiness. and especially conplanting. It may be. is a manifest advantage in securing two separate plantings. all hands begin the toils of the day by early dawn Let "Cheered by the simple song and soaring This. as the cultivation of each will thereby be greatly facilitated. the view. This month. MAY. and no opportunity should be lost to make a large and early The potato is nutritious and healthy." that of precious toil. venient for little children. and the ground should be This crop is a most sufficiently moist. luxuriance to the sighing gales. or toss the shining hoe. and towards the close of the month. if possible. and lounge upon the " distance turreted hills. as well as the time when the groves of fruit and forest trees. Although much is to be done in this month. It is delightful at this season to visit our beautiful country. if he has bedded his sweet potatoes early. put his last cotton in the ground. except that we sometimes feel. Work may be delayed and time dissipated with less material injury at any other season than the lapsed labors of the opening spring. The planter must now. Let none refuse to lend a helping hand to drive the sharpened plough. and to " the golden harvest" look upon the ripening corn and gently-waving fields of The late corn and all the cotton must now be watched with a skillful eye. It is now . At one moment the clouds may be draped in the deepest mourning. which must be regulated by the weather and the visible condition of the crop. give his early corn a second working. so extremely variable in this climate. and musical with the joyous songs of animated existence. and." is with us the most enchanting of all the seasons. although like Niobe. It is now that the flowers of the orchard drop their leaves. important one to the planter. so wonderfully formed to display the powers of nature.82 There TEXAS ALMANAC. that we could submit to be dissolved to mingle with the sweetness and freshness of gay nature. be more aptly met. lending enchantment to. and the fruits of the earth begin to exhibit in their embryo form the brilliant " in social sweetness on the type of ripening perfection. 'Tis now opening of the season of cheerfulness." APRIL. amid the beauties of April. of both cotton corn." while all nature is arrayed in her richest attire. month is the most important and valuable to the planter or farmer of all others in and the year. and repose side by side self-same bough. black and white. thin out his first planting of cotton. and scatter them with a lavish hand on our verdant fields. addicted to showering " pearly drops. and silks and tassels It is better worth than begin to display their rich drapery to the admiring gaze. led on by the sleek horses or cattle. in our climate too. as the season may require. Till the In fall whole leafy forest stands displayed. the sun. when with all the suddenness and surprise of magic power. the clouds collect their richest treasures. dazzling the eye with its reflected brightness. to feast upon the wealth of Ceres. if not sooner required. piness. will rend asunder the deepening shadows. It is impossible to point out at this period any precise process of cultivation." In this month the early corn is ploughed for the last time. and is by far the best esculent in the South. and flowering shrubs " Put forth their buds. surveying in the valleys below every charm for the vision. and the seaThe work of this sons. It would almost seem a profanation of this holiday of existence to devote any part of it to thoughts of But it is equally the time for labor.

" . to lay up for hard weather a good supply of grass for his cows and to feed his work-oxen. This is the harvest month for the farmers of our State. Of our field grasses. and no time should be lost in securing this crop as rapidly as it opens. inviting the grasp of the practised Texas is not behind any State m^the Union. lasting rains. and if the seasons have been propitious. JULY. and can be stacked without shelter in the open air. save the musquit. and if the rains are should be set and watered for several days. Towards the close of this month the planter may begin to estimate what may be the result of his labors. there is a manifest indifference in regard to this crop. in the morning. Although our stock may live through the winter upon the growing herbage. planted upon our prairies. which we are sorry to observe. To it belongs the sainted day of our National existence and it is the season of great public joy and festivity with every patriotic citizen. it is obviously the interest of every stockraiser. Among the earliest planted cotton fields. and Northern States. before the sun is too hot. It is good and cheap food. and the reaping of his hay. the joyous reaper's notes are not unfrequently mingled with the song of triumph over the foes of freedom. This month should be especially dear to every American heart. to produce the cereals that supply the food of the world. In this month our grasses are fully ripe. It is but rare that the cotton matures so early. and its bearded heads. . it is the close of the field harvest. " Now is the winter of our discontent made glorious summer. during the coming month his early harvest. The early sweet potatoes should now be ploughed and worked over and rebedded. The stock seem to give it the preference. and its small yield at this season. and some few presenting their whitened locks to be plucked and made the adornment and comforter of mankind. the orchard or crab-grass is greatly superior to any other. and its fattening qualities are unrivalled. We can with truth. It is more liable than any other to be materially injured by heavy winds and . JUNE. Exuberant Nature's better blessings pour O'er every land the naked nations clothe. intended to serve the stock during the pinching days of the coming winter. and all the weeds and grasses eradicated. AUGUST. Towards the close of this month the cotton should be worked over for the last and perfectly cleansed of all grass and weeds. and especially those who desire the luxury of milk in the winter. are the now brought into full wheat is now waving requisition.) a very fair picking may be had by the close of this month. and every farmer who would provide for his stock their winter stores. begin his preparations for the gathering in light. But having green grass upon our prairies the year round. (which mature the staple in advance of the timbered lands. Every preparation should soon be made for the pulling of fodder and the mowing of the grasses. month the planter's attention is profoundly engaged and all hands are now called to duty. Western. and in the evening as the shadows lengthen. for its abounding capabilities reaper. Although with us." With the beginning of this in the gathering of his cotton. 83 In this month the setting of potato-slips must be looked to. may our rich soil. And be the exhaustless granary of a world. In the early cotton.HINTS TO THE FARMERS. and the cradle and scythe oats have already been garnered. time. numerous bolls may now be found. The exclaim : " So with superior boon. yet in the Middle. This is the . must look to the securing of his fodder. is scarcely worthy of notice. which we have yet seen tried and if the cow-pea is sowed at the last ploughing of the corn and cut with the grass. it makes hay greatly superior to any we import here from the North.

The rutat-baga is decidedly superior to any other kind. The heaviest gatherings are usually made during this month. fields. when stored in the merchant's warehouse . expenses and to lay up a store for the education and starting in life of his young family. She has exhibited her hostility in every form. " that cotton is king. This season. deprives it of the gases. all combined in decoration of the plant. may be secured from hazard by this timely precaution. which render it valuable as a manure. every living soul. success seems to have attended the enterprise. which afford food for cotton or corn. trying season to health and patience. are avoided by him. the weather. snow. and consequently the season for gathering is much shorter. one of our very best fertilizers. This crop is not sufficiently appreciated in the When we look into our cotton we can not shut out from our eyes the fact We A South. all clothed with verdure gently fallen the pure and unsullied snow-flake. having scarcely. OCTOBER. with favorable weather. So far. This cotton matures more rapidly than the green or rough seed. upon which has sight. and if success crowns his labors. except their cedars. a dread silence reigns throughout her vast domain. and they rapidly . the family.84 TEXAS ALMANAC. are now in the very middle of the picking season and in no month. The true economy of the planter is to commence the ginning and baling of his cotton as rapidly as possible. His feelings tincture the breathing atmosphere of life around him. in the most favored regions. as well as the housed stock of cows and oxen. How flattering then to our planting interest to know that they hold in their hands the sceptre of civilization and the purse of peace Let them not be forgetful of their high mission. and properties. The two past years have been most disastrous to this branch of our population. and in this month a full picking may be expected. wind. surmounted by the rich red blooms. as pleases him best. can the hands do more successful work. among which repose the forms with their blue and yellow rays. There is a decided saving in this manageor he may sell. many of the dangers to which it is subjected under his own sheds. SEPTEMBER. and care and anxiety are seen to be the indwellers of the planter's household. should be kept. is sure to be the recipient of a bounty unsurpassed by any other agriFrom this crop alone the planter is expected to obtain his annual cultural class. and emblematic of the seasons of the year. and thousands of dollars now lost to the State. saved enough to pay the expenses of rearing a very short crop. through the entire winter. "We have omitted to mention the numerous experiments now being made to grow the Sea-Island or black-seed cotton on our coast lands. usually closing by the first of October. Nothing can excel the beauty of the cotton-field during the first fall month. This is the month when the gin should be running. now promises to make amends for the deficiencies of the two previous years. the first sowing of turnips should be made in this month. white and black. This is a most useful crop for second sowing of turnips may now be made. however. England has essayed in every clime to break the galling chains of this dependence upon us for this staple. as he will find no difficulty in insuring." so oft proclaimed. this valuable seed loses largely of those The exposure to sun. which will give our Northern friends any adequate conception of this interesting in mid-winter. Amid these pendent pure white drops are seen the deep green leaves. When it is carried to market. at moderate rates. If the season is favorable. and the late planting of sweet potatoes worked over for the last time. and the cottonIf exposed to seed. but when cotton speaks. with a border of cream-color. ment. if possible.under cover. "We know of no scenic resemblance especially if the weather be dry and cool.

At early dawn ity) the We DECEMBER. and so palatable for the table. the planter should carefully review all the work of the year. 85 if not heaped in a dry situation. Winter comes. and securely packed in darkened cribs to check their propagation. the corn. and the teamsters. would gladly have enlarged upon the duties of the A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year planter. as our mothers have often told us. all hia rising train. now time for the planter to ride or walk over his place. the vines may be cut from the sweet potato with great advantage to the root. and we hope in another number to give a more lengthened essay upon this.' " See.HINTS TO THE FARMERS. as milkers. that the stalls and mangers are all kept clean. He should carefully examine his potato-heaps. and numerous other duties which our limits will not allow us even to advert to. and are full of saccharine matter and With us they grow most luxuriantly. As the season draws to a close. they afford a most excellent manure for thin or stiff soila regret to see so little attention paid to the saving of hay and provender for stock in the winter. with to rule the varied year. examine every with a critical eye. If not saved for hay. soon to become valuable article of commerce. without its guilt. and there is no forage in the haystarch. start upon the road to carry off the crop to market. To gaze for one moment upon the happy faces of those in the front ranks. so useful for the cows. to contest the prize of " victory. a new leaf should be turned over. when the various rewards for skill and diligence are to be distributed among the negroes. now generally thrown away. should be glad to have public attention fully awakened to the true value of the cotton-seed. The qualities of our cows. if any. He should see that every thing is put in complete order. and know that every thing has been done to secure this crop front decay. image of war. particularly the houses for wintering his stock. and would stay the torrent of his unholy crusade against the South. for when the cold season comes. that his negro-houses are made close and comfortable. and the modest but comfortable garments for the season. gathered before the weevil become too numerous. evaporate We NOVEMBER. evincing a genuine national taste. will keep the owner of the plantation diligently employed till the season for another crop has It is locality set in. in merry gangs. would well repay the mistaken zealot in the cause of abolition for the many anxious hours he has spent for the sufferings of the negro. if the weather be dry. he should provide dry pens for them. an improved system of plantation economy adopted for the coming year. and storms. and bring back the winter's store for the house and cabins. and clouds. of his management. would be materially enhanced by winter-feeding. ready to pluck the gaudiest premiums." The season now approaches. towards the end of this month. They are easily cured. (the frosty nights now opening the cotton-bolls with great rapidclear-sounding horn calls to work the dusky gang. These. and if possible. line to be excelled by well-cured sweet potato-vines. but space is not to all our planters! 7 .vine. We allowed us. The weaker and smaller gang. The last seeding of turnips may now be made. the sphere of the planter's duties is less varied. and will make a hay quite equal to the pea. Vapors. and the pumpkins secured. If he has hogs. and note well the errors. but becomes more concentrated. are left to manage the field operations." With the end of the last month and the entering upon this. he should be ready to kill his pork and make it into bacon. while the sturdy arm of vigorous age takes charge of the gin and press. Sullen and sad. By the opening of this month. and see that they are amply fed. and resolve that with the beginning of the next year.

1850. Salary. 5. 4. James Monroe. 15. Virginia.* John Tyler. and it will expire on the 3d of March. 10. Franklin Pierce. 1857 . Andrew Jackson. of Kentucky. March 4. since the establishment of the government of the United States under the Constitution.President.1841. March 4. Tennessee. March 4. Massachusetts. 7. Virginia.86 TEXAS ALMANAC. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Virginia. Millard Fillinore. 1817. George "Washington. March 4. New-Hampshire. 1861.York. JAMES BUCHANAN. 14. Vice. . $25. 1853.000 THE CABINET. Ohio. 1829. April 80. 1801. 6.March 5. Term Began. 12. 4. March 4. 11. March 4. 3. March March New.* 18.York. ! 1. Martin Van Buren. Pennsylvania. Massachusetts. 1841. 9. March 4. Louisiana. Tennessee. President. The 18th Presidential term of four years. Virginia. Zachary Taylor. 2. John Quincy Adams. 1849. April 4. BREOKENRIDGE. John Adams. 1809. James Polk. 1857. JOHN of Pennsylvania. 1797. PRESIDENTS OP THE UNITED STATES FROM THE ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION.000 8. 1887. 8. James Madison. Knox James Buchanan. Thomas Jefferson. 1825. Virginia. C. 4. 1845. March 4. July 9. began on the 4th of March. New. UNITED STATES STATISTICS. March 4. William Henry Harrison. 1789.

Sherman. in which body he has only a casting vote. Austin. atives. Benjamin McCulloch. Matthew H. M. unless it is otherwise provided by law. "Western District. Carolina. 3d New-Jersey and Pennsylvania. in separate districts composed of contiguous territory. Eastern District. Wm. for each State within the Circuit. " Marshal. Merrick. and Virginia. The Dunlop. 7th Ohio.York. Justice "Wayne. California Circuit. but the District Courts have the power of Circuit Courts. Justice Catron. 6th Mr. including those bound to service for a term of years. one third being elected biennially. Cterk. Justice Clifford. Tyler. for the among the Senators by the Senate. 8th Kentucky. Justice Nelson. If after the apportionment new States are admitted. John C. . Galveston. and by the District by a Justice of the Supreme Court. Samuel D. and this quotient gives the apportionment of Representatives to each State. The States of Florida. Justice McLean. one additional member each for its fraction. the They are chosen by the Legislatures of the several regular number is now 62. Mr. Judge.UNITED STATES STATISTICS* 87 of which a Circuit Court is held twice every year. 5th Alabama. 1st Circuit. Galveston. Morsell. . as follows. Mr. Marshal. and the There is a local Circuit Court held in the District Judges act as Circuit Judges. a President pro tempore is chosen from votes of the Senators. . do.Attorney. Indiana. Hubbard. Young. Judze of the State or District in which the Court sits. N. the States according to population. Judge Chief Justice of that Court sits also as District Judge of that District. Justice Campbell. which is given in case of an equal division of the In his absence. 2d Vermont. The Representatives are apportioned among the different After each decennial enumeration. This aggregate is divided by 233. and R. elected by the people. and Michigan. William C. R. and "Wisconsin have not yet been attached to any Circuit. Matthew Hopkins. and is divided by the above-named ratio. by adding to the whole number of free persons in all the States. and Missouri. and excluding Indians not taxed. Louisiana. by three judges specially appointed for that purpose James S. of San Francisco. CONGRESS. Thomas H. is the ratio of apportionment among the sevThe representative population of each State is then ascertained in the eral States. The House of Representatives is composed of members from the several States. Presiding Judge* New-Hampshire. same manner.. aggregate representative population of the United States is ascertained by the Secretary of the Interior. Clerk. Mr. Mr. 4th Delaware. James Love. Mr. Mr. Justice Grier. The Senate is composed of two members from each State and. and New. Mr. term of six years. of course. Carolina. Iowa. S. for the term of two years. McAllister. The Congress of the United States consists of a Senate and House of Representand must assemble at least once every year. and the quotient. Texas.. and Georgia. States. Galveston. The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate. Duval. : .. Galveston. . three fifths of all other persons. Chief Justice Taney. Associate do. Justice Daniel 9th Mississippi and Arkansas. rejecting fractions. L. Attorney. Huntsville. if any. Judge. DISTRICT COURTS OF TEXAS. The loss by fractions is compensated for by assigning to as many States having the largest fractions as may be necessary to make the whole number of Representatives 233. and Kentucky. B. "Watrous. assigned to the Circuit. Maryland. Mr. Illinois. on the first Monday of December. Maine. Mass. Hay. Tennessee. Connecticut. James District of Columbia.

at the rate aforesaid and .. . 1 863 . James A. 1863. New-Jersey. Trusten Polk.. 1857. Illinois. who have a right to speak. and to the Executive of each State a certificate of the number apportioned to such State. but not to vote. in addition to the number of 233 but such excess continues only until the next apportionment under the succeeding census. Green. C. Members dying before the commencement of the first session receive no pay or mileage dying afterwards. CONGRESS. List corrected to September 1st Elections will take place in the following States previous to the next session of Congress Maine. (in SMALL CAPS. the Secretary sends a certificate thereof to the House of Representatives. subsent session. Henry M.. Jefferson Davis. . Democrats. The figures before each Senator's name denote the year when his term expires. Rice. seven Delegates. . MARYLAND. provides.) 5. Pennsylvania. MICHIGAN. - 1859." much of the Act of August 16.) 20. Charles E. New-Mexico. MISSOURI. of Kentucky.000 for each Congress. to be computed at the rate of $250 per month. and of the President of the Senate. an additional representative being temThere are. he shall receive his mileage. Ohio. 1858. .83 TEXAS ALMANAC.. their representatives receive what was then due them. Kansas. limited And further. repealing so daring said session compensation at the same rate. besides. BRECKBNRIDGE. MONDAY : IN 1857. . and during the sesAnd on the first day of the second or any sion compensation at the same rate. 1859. Vermont. That. !1868 . each Senator. Albert G. James S. Washington. or as soon thereafter as he may be in attendance and apply. Americans. Deductions from the monthly pay of each member are made for each day's absence. DEC.] MASSACHUSETTS. MISSISSIPPI. MINNESOTA. .. 1861. and Delegate shall receive his mileage. James Shields. JOHN Total. //awry Wilson. 7. Charles Sumner. 1865. Minnesota. Oregon. 1861.. and Nebraska. unless the cause of absence be his sickness or that of some member of his family. 1861. Representative. 1861. pro tempore. conflicting with the above resolution. (1859. Michigan.Zachariah Chandler. [Republicans.. President ex-officio. approved December 23. Stewart. Pearce. as now provided by law. "When the apportionment is completed. 11859. Joint Resolution. as now allowed by law. is $12. The present number of Representatives is 234. and all his compensation from the beginning of his term. Indiana.. "On the first day of the first session of each Congress. 11861. lS63. SECOND SESSION OPENS FIRST DEC. (in Roman. 64.) 89. one each from porarily assigned to California. FIRST SESSION OPENED MONDAY. Brown. XXXV. 1856. Representatives are assigned to such State upon the above basis.. (in Italics. ANTHONY KENNEDY. SENATE 64 MEMBERS. The pay of the Speaker. Utah. and all compensation which has accrued during the adjournment. and Florida.

NEW-YORK.XXXV. CONGRESS. 89 .

TEXAS ALMANAC.90 12. . John Thompson.

Col. Lieut. Chief Engineer. Nathaniel C. Chief of Ordnance. Craig.Gen. Col. Mansfield.-CoL J. " Lieut-Col. Morris. *Thomas S. Gouverueur Morris. Harvey Brown. Totten. H. Graham. Mounted Riflemen. fCol. Ordnance Department. L. May. Craig.. P.ARMY Jos. JLieut-Col. TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS. Ripley. P.. AND OF REGIMENTS. Y. II. Col. Col. Topographical Engineers. JLieut-Col. Robert Anderson. Crittenden. FIELD OFFICERS OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS. F. Alfred Mordecai. commissioned May 28. Lamed. J. Major Giles Porter. Miles. Payne. \ Major De Lieut. Jeaup. Col. Col. " William W. " Col. " Sidney Burbank. ^ Lieut. Second Dragoons. Chief Topographical Engineer. J. \ Benjamin Huger. Russy. J. Lieut. Benj. Lieut-Col James W. Col. Albert S.-Col.-CoL Marshall S. Brevet-Major John F. J. Heut. 1849. Col LIST. First Artillery. AND ORDNANCE. Simonson. May 8. July 20. Col. J. Major " Wm. April 18. Cooke. Henry K. Justin Dimick. Col. July 7. John Major John " L. Rene" E. E. Col. Major Stephen Long. Abert. Dec. " Richard Delafield. A. Lee. First Dragoons. Third Artillery. James Kearney. 2. S. f Thomas Lawson. Henry Brewerton.. . Major Francis Taylor. Lieut. and Quarter-Master- General. Major John Symington. Blake. Joseph G. Major Charles A. Martin Burke. Joseph Plympton. F. Col.Col. Joseph G. " Lieut. Merchant. Bonneville. Matthew M. Col. Lee. Abercrombie. Wm.-Col. K. S. Beall. 1818. E. \ Major " Col. Howe. " Hannibal Day. Loring. Bell. H. and Inspector. Geo. Hawkins. Graham. Col. 1854. Ruff. Major S. Heintzelman. James D. 1851. Francis S. " John Sedgwick. and Commissary.. John B. G. Francis Lee. Major George Nauman. Brig. John " " " JLieut-Col. Third Infantry.-CoL Benjamin L. J.Gen. 41 L. Johnston. 1818. and Surgeon. Col. 30. Nov. Charles F. Totten. Gardner. Hartman Bache. H. Robert E. Lieut -Col. First Infantry. Second Infantry. and Paymaster. Belton. T. John Erving. First Cavalry. Lieut-Col. Johnston. Fauntleroy. Major W. Benjamin L. Second Artillery. Major G. Emory. Campbell Graham. Second Cavalry. Henry K. Major Edgar S.Gen.. " " William Gates. 7. W. Alexander H. *George Gibson. Chas. Col.Gen. John Monroe. B. Geo. Thomas. T. Abert. Smith.-Col. " Enoch Steen. Judge Advocate. Bowman. Col. Hardee. 1838. Fourth Artillery. Sylvanus Thayer. Sumner. 1838. July 10. Scott. Macrae. 1846. Col. tLieut-Gol. Philip St. 1853. E. Dixon S. Major Electus Backus. March 2. " William H.Gen. J. fCol.

-Col. Col. " Joseph R. Lieut. Lieut-Colonel by brevet. Major-General by brevet $ Colonel by brevet. 1847. " Theophilus H. u Robert C. Canby. Silas Casey. S. Col. Clarke. 15. H. Pitcairn Morrison. Thompson Morris. Robert S. Lieut-Col. Col. Smith. Smith. Waite. Seventh Infantry. f Col. Fifth Infantry. TEXAS ALMANAC. George Wright. As furnished in Post the Army Register. Col. " Seth Eastman. * Major " W. from March by t Brigadier-General by brevet. f Col. R. 1858. Garnett. Col. j: Newman S. " Albemarle Cady. Ninth Infantry.-Col. Rains. by brevet.Walker. Lieut-Col George Andrews.T. Holmes. Steptoe. JLieut-Col. Carlos A. Major E. " Sixth Infantry. Lieut. joint resolution of Feb. Tenth Infantry. Grustavus Loomi?. 29. E. published January 1. Gwynne. John Garland. Lieut-Col. Buchanan. Charles F. Major Thomas L. Washington Seawell. Isaac Lynde. . Lieut -Col. J. DISTKIBUTION OF TROOPS IN TEXAS AND NEW-MEXICO. Alexander. Henry Wilson. Major Gabriel J. Edmund B.92 Fourth Infantry. Alexander. JLieut. Eighth Infantry.-Col. Major William Hoffman. Major Thomas P. William Whistler. 1 Lieut-Gen. 1855.

40. Governor. Portsmouth. H. Cal. at Santa Fe. The country west of the Rocky Mountains. McKean.York. and privates. general staff-officers. N. except Head Quarthat portion included within the limits of the Department of Florida ters at Troy. 3 side-wheel steamers. E. there were 76 captains and 106 commanders. A. Coast of Africa. T. total commissioned officers. A. G. company officers. (Fort Bliss. N. M. T. Cal.) Mediterranean. Charles Stewart. . The Territory of New-Mexico Head Quarters The Territory of Utah. B. Stringham. Dornin. The country east of the Mississippi river. first class. 54. The Head-Quarters of the Army are in the City of New. 2. A. Norfolk. John Pope Silas L.701. Lavallette. Mare Island. . According to the returns in the Navy Register of 1858. Kearney. Pacific Ocean. Louis.YARDS. MILITIA FORCE OF THE UNITED STATES. San Antonio. Boston. Cunningham. Florida. 6 second. Mclntosh.427. howHead Quarters ever. New-Mexico. Stribling.704. Md. is. 642. NAVAL ASYLUM. 1 sidewheel tender 3 store. portion of it. musicians. 10. lying west of the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers Head Quarters at Fort Brooke. that The State of Florida. and east' of the Rocky Mountains.NAYY LIST. and 5 permanent store and receiving ships. was general-officers. aggregate. Texas. except that portion of it. 1 schooner . . John Rudd. Philadelphia. Tampa Bay. Pensacola. The country west of the Mississippi river. 10 frigates. 3 brigs . The State of Texas. . and 2 third class 2 screwtenders. 8 screw-steamers. etc. Squadron. George Superintendent. N. DEPARTMENT OF THE WEST. J.vessels. Coast of Brazil. 2583.454. Josiah TatnaU. 1 second. Sackett's Harbor. Home John Long. MILITARY GEOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENTS. 10 ships of the line. NAVAL ACADEMY. Blake. temporarily attached to the Department of New-Mexico. DEPARTMENT OF NEW-MEXICO. DEPARTMENT OF UTAH.Y. William "Washington. Philadelphia.376. W. East-Indies. C. artificers.724. New-York. except that portion included within the limits of the Departments of Texas and New-Mexico Head Quarters at St. Mo. Hollins. C. COMMANDERS OF NAVY. NAVY LIST COMMANDERS OF SQUADRONS. Annapolis. The total militia force of the at the office of the Adjutant-General. in Texas. Conover. F. DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS. (FLAG OFFICERS. T. French Forrest. S. field-officers.. non-commissioned officers. United States. first class .162. lying west of the 111 th degree of west longitude Head Quarters in the field. except that portion included within the limits of the Departments of New-Mexico and Utah Head Quarters at San Francisco. except DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA. K.) at DEPARTMENT OP THE BAST. according to the latest returns made and published in the Army Register of 1858. R. and 2 third class. 2. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC. 21 sloops of war.

The total amount of deposits of precious metals at the Mint and branches.109. Russell. $17. Value.694 00 Value.822. North-Carolina. . . $63. . From Customs. July 1857. and is subject to the laws and regulations of the Navy.783 $5.829. Tyler. and Foreign Intercourse. .486. is $588. The amount of gold coinage has been $402. Balance in Treasury.632. 19 first lieutenants.822.150. corps.848.579.531.397 00 360. $27.384.856 Public Debt.453. W. . New-Orleans.913 85 105. $88.896 19. .823 11.121 Civil List. San Francisco.571 86 59.Office.274 Department of Interior. Total receipts. English.Commandant. Total.Colonel Harris. 5. . Thomas S. 8.223 1.905 3. Philadelphia.114 . THE MARINE CORPS.299 192.94 TEXAS ALMANAC.713 15 The entire coinage Pieces.875. EXPENDITURES.712 83 603. Archibald Henderson. The head-quarters of the Corps are at "Washington.261. The Marine Corps lias the organization of a brigade.722 1. according to the Navy Register of 1858. Edelin.919. Adjutant William W. and 20 second lieutenants.240 $583.051. RECEIPTS.901.708 12 REVENUE AND EXPENDITURES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.8*72. $1.722 Expenditures. 1. 12.731.512 1.543 71.845 1. The entire deposits of gold of domestic production have been From Virginia.536. Paymaster. Georgia.744. Total. except when detached for service with the army by the order of the President of the United States. Henry B. John Lieutenant. Miscellaneous .839 70. Assistant Quartermaster. 1856. $68. July . A.052 80.752. T.415 00 4.841 00 42. Daniel J. 525.358.000. $70. $391.730.732.099. " of War. Maddox.090 Assay. William Dulany.325 Total expenditures.710. consisted also of 13 captains.880. Ward Marston. Other sources.302.553. The total deposits in the Mint for the first half of 1851 were $26. 1857.489 is : 18 43 10 42 54 California. .190.726. James Majors. Colonel. since their foundation.669.061 6. The marine THE MINT.433.581 00 $378.423.745 63 From New-Mexico. Sutherland.486 927. From Lands. coinage of the same half year amounted to $26.293. Miscellaneous sources. of which the coinage from California gold was $383. GENERAL STAFF. Tennessee. 19. South-Carolina.000. Balance in Treasury. Quartermaster. FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30.774 of Navy. $48.141 8.943.922 5. : The Alabama.532. Dahlonepra. Charlotte.792. and Inspector.

ENVOYS EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY. .MINISTERS AND DIPLOMATIC AGENTS. 95 IN MINISTERS AND DIPLOMATIC AGENTS OF THE UNITED STATES FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

96 LIST OF Julius Kauffman. A. Arthur T. and so marked on the eavelope. J. W. Kauffman. F. Hesse-Cassel. Spain. Indianola. u H. W. Julius Frederick. H. Galveston. Uruguay. Kuhn. sent in the mail not exceeding 3000 miles. not exceeding three ounces in weight. Galveston. Galveston. one cent additional is charged on each letter. For all letters or packages (ship letters) conveyed by any vessel not . Steil. 1 cent. Stokes. treble the above rates. charge of 2 cents is added 4 cents.. H. St. etc. Jockush. Nassau. when the letters are not transmitted through the mail. Galveston. Wagner. Cyr. unsealed circular.) each 1 cent. Netherlands. prepayment optional. Great Britain. A. Switzerland. Erdozain. Bremen. to any part of the United States. 10 Upon all letters passing through or in the mail. there is an additional charge of not exceeding one or two cents. D. Russia. except upon letters and packages addressed to officers of the government on official This is not. H. H. Hamburgh. J. France. X. Galveston. Saxony. New-Braunfels. employed in conveying the mail. Henry Runge. and every additional weight of half an ounce or of less than half an ounce is charged with an additional single postage. RATES OP POSTAGE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES. If the postage on any newspaper or periodical is paid quarterly or yearly in ad. . or other article of printed matter. T. For a double letter there shall be charged double the above rates for a treble letter. For drop letters. Klaener. " Sent over 3000 miles. FOREIGN CONSULS IN TEXAS. F. J. or paper of any kind in which information shall be asked for. Lynn. Cyr. Galveston. Hanover. Jockush. H. Prussia. D. Every letter or parcel not exceeding half an ounce (avoirdupois) in weight is a single letter. J. 3 cents. C. Ed. terfere with the franking privilege. Mecklenburgh-Schwerin. Iridianola.. but are delivered at the post-office where deposited and the ordinary rates of United States postage are added when the letter is transmitted through the mails. F. M. Mexico. Galveston. Lubec. Each newspaper. . to inbusiness. Galveston. F. or communicated in writing. H. Galveston. . Galveston. Schultz. St. Kauffman. (not to be mailed. Runge. or by marks or signs. TEXAS ALMANAC. except such as are to or from a foreign country. Wolff. When advertised. Galveston. 2 u To this . D. Galveston. Galveston. " 1 For every additional ounce or fraction of an ounce. Mbnreau. Galveston. Galveston. . For a letter delivered by a carrier. j Crozart. Galveston. For every single letter in manuscript. however. F. the postnge must be prepaid. Galveston. Brownsville. periodical.

or other matter transmissible in the United States mail. and the Clerk of the House of Representatives. when sent in single packages. except the name and address of the person to whom the same is sent or if any thing If these conditions are not complied with. one copy thereof. weighing at least eight ounces. magazines. between which the United States mail is regularly transported. The publishers of weekly newspapers may send to each actual subscriber within the county where their papers are printed and published. is prohibited but letters. or with one open at the ends or sides. Contractors may carry etc. and public documents not exceeding three pounds in weight. not weighing over four pounds. . letter any printed matter. Newspapers and periodicals not weighing over one and a half ounce. office for . . ex-Presidents. has been in the postthe whole of the succeeding quarter. 1 cent " For all distances over 3000 miles. one copy of each publication and may also send to each actual subscriber. published monthly or oftener. Letters addressed to different persons cannot be inclosed in the same envelope or package. are likewise charged but above rates. . President. to any other city. bound or unbound. the Secretary of the Senate. When postage shall be charged. unless addressed to foreign countries. and shall pay. shall be deemed mailable matter. and Mrs. free of postage. inclosed in their publications. A penalty of $5000 is imposed on any person taking letters through or over any part of the United States for the purpose of being sent out of the United States without the payment of postage. town. * fore tJie commencement of each Congress until the first Monday in December after the expiration of their term of office. No printed matter shall be sent at the above rates. circulated in the State where published.) from one city. All printed matter chargeable by weight shall be weighed when dry. or other place. pamphlets. free of postage. as regulated by former law?. For all distances under 3000 miles. notwithstanding the postage calculated on each separate article of such package would exceed that amount.. . postage. or packages of letters. * The tha Members from Congress and Delegates from Territories. the post-master shall sell it. (newspapers. dates from the 4th of March day next) succeeding the termination of the preceding Congress. Harrison. and prepaid by affixing postagestamps thereto. during their official terms.. (that Is. 1. else is inclosed in such printed paper. or upon the cover or wrapper. received during any quarter. Mrs. 2 Prepayment required on all transient matter. at the office where the same is either mailed or delivered. free ot above .. The establishment of private expresses for the conveyance of any letters. shall be charged only half a cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce. The publishers of newspapers and periodicals may send to each other from their respective offices of publication. or place in the United States. so that the character of the matter may be seen without removing the wrapper or if any written or printed communication is put on the same after its publication. ex-Vice-Presidents. and periodicals excepted.. half of the Small newspapers and periodicals. to one address. from thirty days be- commencement of each Congress for this purpose. under a penalty of ten dollars. unless either without any wrapper. may be carried by carriers in stamped envelopes. may send and receive free letters or packages not exceeding two ounces in weight. and credit the amount of the sales as directed by the Post-office Department. bills and receipts for the same. town. Polk have the franking privilege. Books. then half the rates are charged. The 2. PRIVILEGE OF FRANKING. newspapers out of the mails for sale or distribution among subscribers. packets.RATES OP POSTAGE. per ounce. and pamphlets not containing more than sixteen octavo pages each. 97 vance. the Vice-President.

prepayment optional or from California. the entire postage is 24 Five cents are to be added. Brazil. it is unpaid. Exchange newspapers.) Turks Island. free. Antigua. RATES OF FOREIGN LETTER AND NEWSPAPER POSTAGE BETWEEN ANY POINTS IN THE UNITED STATES AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES. Tobago. Lucia. South-America. All publications entered for copyright. St. 6. 1846. Beubice. handbills. . not in British possession. Newspapers 2 cents each. Tortola. under the Act of August 10. 20 " . Juan. etc. (Nicaragua. letters are rated by weight. Kitts. see Rates of Postage. Havana. pass free. The postage on letters and newspapers must be prepaid. Panama. St. Honduras. Oregon. and to the British West-Indies. the Attorney* 4. 10 cents. Public Documents are those printed by the order of either House of Congress. and such matter will be treated as wholly unpaid. and publications or books procured or purchased by Congress. Thomas. The Governors of States may send free the laws. Auditors. magazines. Jamaica. . and Adjutant-General. and St. are to be deposited in the library of Congress and in the Smithsonian Insti7. Postmaster-General. Great Britain and Ireland* Between. Nevis. and Uruguay. Between any office in the United States (Califor* nia. or either House. records. . namely. being United States postage only* On tellers to the West-India Islands (not British) except Cuba. (Cuba. GeneraHn-Chief. through the mails. . being British and United States postage. when to cents the single letter. or Washington Territory. as. or circulars. not weighing over one half-ounce. letters written by themselves. pass free. documents. Carthagena. and Solicitor of the Treasury Treasurer Commissioners of the different Offices and Bureaus Chiefs of Bureaus in the War and Navy Departments. The Chief Clerks in the Departments may send free public official letters and . If distance from mailing office does exceed 2500 mile. Bahamas. Deputy postmasters may send free all such letters and packages as relate exclusively to the business of their respective offices and those whose compensation did not exceed $200 for the year ending the 30th of June. and Washington Territory excepted) and any office in Great Britain and Ireland. and which. . tution. for the use of the members. Demerara. and Trinidad. Vincent.) Mexico. or to places in the Gulf of Mexico.TEXAS ALMANAC.. Curagoa. and the Superintendent of the Coast Survey and his Assistant may send and receive free all letters and packages upon official business. . to be prepaid. to be prepaid. iu the United States. On letters to Cbagres. Register. . and documents of the Legislature to the Governors of other. and other places where the rates are not fixed by postal treaty. .". Postage to Mexico. United States. ink. but not their private letters or papers. Venezuela. may also send . the letter is paid . For other free matter. St. 1846. and receive free all written communications on their own private business. the United States and Great Britain and Ireland. Newspapers 2 cents each. namely. Dominica. Where the postage-mark is in red when in black ink. Montserrat. by either the United States or British line. Payment of any thing less than the entire postage goes for nothing. 8. Essequibo. between editors. but not transient newspapers. Oregon. and the West-Indies. Comptrollers. 3. and Assistant Postmasters-General. 5. or on the Atlantic coast of South-America. to . Barbadoes. from any Point in the. If distance from mailing office does not exceed 2600 miles. Grenada. States. The Secretaries of the Departments and Assistant Secretaries General. St.

" U the British postage being prepaid* The single postage to any part of the Argentine Republic from any point in the United States is. Nova-Scotia. On letters sent to Bogota and Buenaventura. from and to any Point in the United States. 9863 native. the Sandwich Islands. those received. 44 4174 207 645 607 69 70 1 North-Carolina. and foreign postage. prepayment required* On newspapers sent. from New. the postage is 18 cents. . If distance from mailing office does not " " does. 9722. and St. Rhode Island. 4 cents each. To Postage to Breton. Jago. . . and 241 naturalized seamen. On . Cape and Prince Edward's Island. Coquimbo. Nat. Thomas and the other Danish Islands. 64 Louisiana. to Guayaquil and Quito. in Chili. 8 cents each received. 10 cents. and 286 naturalized seamen. 1 Maine. 1 cents. letters sent not over 3000 miles by post routes. 1857. for the year ending June 30. (to be prepaid. Native. received. $167. be prepaid. the rate to be collected is 2 cents. prepaid. " 10 places.) On. Total. On newspapers sent. Arica. On letters received from these On 22 cents. S packet to KingsTo St. The largest number registered in one year was in 1852. 1 857 : States. hospital money collected. (to be prepaid. Florida. is 5 cents. in New-Granada. 466 29 103 6 237 3 New-Hampshire. .) The postage on letters to the following places. in Bolivia to Copiapo. 44 exceed 2500 miles. 45 cents- Huasco. in Ecuador to Cobiga and La Paez. The postage on newspapers and periodicals to these places is at the regular United States rates. 10 Newspapers sent. New* Brunswick. 10. Georgia. to and from the line. 34 exceed 2500 miles.. U. 6 cents each received. . Newspapers sent. S. and other places . The postage on a single letter thus sent. that is. Callao. States. (to be prepaid.006. to be collected in the United States. being U S. The postage on letters to Lima. Massachusetts.York. via Halifax. 99 cents. and from Canada. and British) is 6 cents. S.RATE9 OF POSTAGE. namely. postage only. to by the English steamers. In 1849 there were 9843 native. to be On newspapers received. Nat. being the United States postage to San Francisco. 4 7889 220 Maryland. the postage (U. Seamen admitted. 16Prepayment is optional in either country but all is to be prepaid or none. " On letters received. New. letters sent. discharged. Official returns of American seamen registered in the several ports of entry of the United States during the year ending 30th September. 1302 34 1 Virginia. MARINE HOSPITAL. Newfoundland. expenditures.York and Boston. by ton.) 34 cents* On letters sent. Editors may exchange free of expense. .934. to be prepaid. Payta. 10 cents. " Sent over 3000 miles. Valparaiso. in Peru is.325. A AMERICAN SEAMEN.. . Native. 4 cents each. the single rate is 18 cents under 2500 mileS) and 28 cents over 2500 miles. . mail is made up for the British Provinces. to be paid in the United States. is. . 4 cents each. 19 38 Pennsylvania. 6 cents each . $343.

and the expiration of their respective terms . the number of Senators and Representatives in the State Legislature.100 TEXAS ALMANAC. GOVERNORS OF THE SEVERAL STATES AND TERRITORIES. With their salaries. with their respect- ive terms. . terms of office. State.

mines. Santa Anna and Lorenzo de Zavalla. several contracts were made with Europeans for introducing their countrymen into Western Texas. to settle three hundred families on the reserved ten litoral leagues on the Gulf coast. and Guerero few were attempted. virtuous and patriotic Executive she ever had. more ancient and populous. and in September.] Our annual abridgment commences at that period when the jealousy of the Cis-Atlantic Spanish race. bad a clear popular majority. and chief was arrayed against chief. [Continued from the TEXAS AXKANAG. and the State was tranquil. but Pedraza. formerly La Bahia. a genuine republican. and after a severe conflict. What known character paper. beat him by two States in the electoral college. militant in a sense of abomination. always. we must occasionally recur to the general history of MexSoon after the expiration of the official term of ico. as each one's vanity prompted him to believe himself qualified to rule the incipient republic. the nominee of the so-called republican party. by the colonization law. not from a principle of universal philanthropy. Before his installation. paid and the little that was collected. was appropriated. beautiful country languishing for want of cultivation. the Legislature was driven to the most trifling resources of finance. They leased out the cock-pit locations throughout the State. as San Antonio de Bexar. Governor. or their ignorance and bigotry. Guadalupe Victoria. were rather pastoral than agricultural. These adventurous pioneers had been invited into the wilderness. At and from the time of its organization. Pedraza were candidates for the vacant dignity Guerero. if not the only. 10. the active energy. 1827. Mexico plunged into the furious vortex of party politics. the first Constitutional President. the State of Coahuila and Texas was poor. a more minute notice is not suitable to our necessary brevity. not much . required in such arduous and protracted adventures. he was declared Presidentelect. had availed in Texas. pronounced aeainst him. not at all mitigated by its union with the Aztec aborigines of Mexico. Some in large part. and Victor Blanco. and in 1828 another. and a broad. to the priests and their frequent labor-destroying festivals. The descendants of the conquerors of Mexico. to protect their citizens from the savages who roamed over its vast wasteness. stamp . began to manifest itself towards the Anglo-American colonists of Texas. bad restricted them within narrow suburban limits. missions without neophytes. navigating working by steam none of which premature projects went into operation. to the public revenue. 1828.EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS. then. The consequences were a few insulated towns. an<i contributed but few mites in the way of office fees. as the paramount power. nor from any peculiar regard for their of hardihood and thrifty enterprise.. something more. points Austin had obtained an enlargement of his contract by one hundred families. The people followed such leader as their new ideas of uncbastened libei ty. and decidedly the most. only to the building: up of a few small towns and missionary stations. for more than a century and a half. Treating of Texas. In 1829. They proved themselves worthy Emigrants flowed into lexas at various officers. . representing the aristocracy and the church. thus subjecting to excise a favorite popular amusement. con trained them to select. for 1858. under the guidance of an ambiVicente Guerero and Gomez tious priesthood. The foreign colonists were exempt from taxation for a series of years. but because of the utter incapacity of the governments. but as they resulted in total or partial failures.1 COMPENDIUM OF THE EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS. The destructive ravages of the Indians. &c. and always. in its papal form. insomuch that about the years 1827-8. Jose Maria Viesca was announced as Governor elect of the State. Jn July. they triumphed. and prevented the establishment of any considerable rural settlements. Lieut. and the ingenuity for devising ways and means. Cpahnila. Nacogdoches and Goliad. National or State. had made frequent endeavors to form a civilized population But their efforts. Europeans are not well adapted to the settlement of a new The descendants of the Pilgrims and of the Cavaliers have more of country the hardiness. exclusive franchises were granted to individuals for boring artesian wells in arid and for the Eio iron and coal for Grande districts.

from the abstract idea of freedom. but he exhibited more zeal than knowledge in the exercise of his new imperial functions. in its normal state. whether the compulsion be of rigid circumstance?. This prohibition. made on the colonists were vivid and intensely exciting but they soon subsided. practically. But such was not the class of persons intended to be colonized and cherished by peculiar and preferments in Texas. was deposed by Gen Bustamente. This abstract idea is about the sum of the difference between the actual slave and the poor. One great obstacle to the political cohesion of the two races. Among a sensitive people. the . the Spanish government. deeply imbued with the love of kindred. who effected a landing near Tampico. proceeding. The from injury to insult. but peonage affords no such protection. Guerero. more injurious to Texas than any other portion of the State. The Constitution of Coahuila and Texas promulgated on the llth of March. In June. This was the first direct and positive announcement of the mischievous jealousy. His under men Bavadas. or of an ofttimes more indulgent master.500 feeble armament was soon compelled to surrender to the native forces under Gen. intact. to contend with any extraordinary emergency. soon after his investiture with plenary powers. which he scarcely comprehends and generally abuses but his moral and material condition is generally inferior to that of a well-cared for African slave. The compulsory doing of menial services is slavery. unthe often obnoxious as is case. after them. and. . There were but few slaves to be emancipated. of slavery to consist only in the abuse of slaves. a plain enunciation of the inability of the government. who forthwith assumed the reins of government. and then it becomes grossly iniquitous and abhorrent. Guerero was considered a sound republican. by the special interposition of the Empresario Austin. a mongrel breed of negroes. and the nature of her soil and climate made African labor essential to her proper agricultural developement. to labor on public works. Guerero. We bold the moral guilt. The peon may derive some fanciful consolation in his compulsory labors and stinted fare. . the favorite of the church and especially inimical to the colonization system. in iras formally inducted into office. dearest rights and interests exposed to the caprices of an ever-changing. despatched an army of Gen. He was a centralist of the most rigid order. the masses of the people. 1830. he issued a decree prohibiting any farther immigrations to Texas from the United States of the North. laboring free man in all countries. the vain hope of regaining its dominion over Mexico. That there are many intelligent and refined gentlemen in Mexico. On the 6th April. was invested with dictatorial powers. was. It would have puzzled a more astute man than Bustamente to contrive a more odious measure. 1829. when the remoteness of the danger gives hope of an easy avoidance. and prohibiting the further introduction of slaves. She was destined to be either an agricultural country. also contained a clause abolishing slavery within the State. the President. which the principal chiefs in Mexico have almost The impressions it invariably cherished towards their Northern neighbors. and although its first inspirations were assuaged by a belief in its impracticaand our bility. such an inhibition was well adapted to excite a profound disgust.102 TEXAS ALMANAC. a penal colony. as other apprehensions of evil do. 4. 1827. he issued a decree abolishing slavery. Santa Anna. The old system of peonage^ which embodies many of the evils and few of the benefits which slavery. materially modified in behalf of the colonists. to render the country we were redeeming from barbarism. Texas had no agency in forming that Constitution. directed regulations to be made for the introduction of convicts into Texas professedly. decree. was fully retained. or to relapse into her primitive wilderness condition. in the United States. even independent of the laws enacted for that purpose. In contemplation of the possibility of another and more formidable invasion. the Vice President. is a fact we delight to record. Indians and Spaniards of the baser sort we speak of the lower orders. confers upon both master and servant. But against such abuse self-interest is a pretty sure protection. principled government. and some highly respectable families of Castilian descent in Texas. . who was now fast climbing to the idol pedestal he subsequently occupied among his countrymen. privileges . The coloniste from the North were somewhat homogeneous in blood and color the Mexicans. In July. consisted in the insuperable aversion of the one to a social amalgamation with the other. It was the canaille. still the conviction remained that we were regarded with distrust. 1829.

Bradburn's next aggression was abolishing the Ayuntamiento of Liberty. Branch T. But whether it originated with themselves. He was a worthy man. They served only as provocatives to further and more serious dissatisfaction. when the violation of them could afford a selfish gratification or answer a political purpose. The amiable Madero was incarcerated at Anahuac. Jose Maria Letona. and were quite indifferent to personal immunities. Francisco de Madero was appointed Commissioner to put the colonists on the Trinity and adjacent tracts. He laid off the town of Liberty. or was authorized by the Commandant-General. 1830. but eventually released without a formal trial. was stationed with one hundred and fifty men at Anahuac. with three hundred and fifty troops. throughout. both now deceased. and established the town of Anahuac. Bean. Mexican military officers are never strict constructionists of their own powers. 103 Gen. caused the Commissioner to be arrested. Col. a prudential abstinence from the disturbances which soon ensued these innovaIt is hardly conceivable that the government expected with these few tions. amounting to prohibition. Bean was appointed General Indian Agent. comprised the regular military force in Texas. inaccessible to vessels drawing over six feet water. other. a lawyer. CoL Juan Davis Bradburn. the one is but a less fortunate felon than the convicts. more under his own supervision. Ugartechea. and Geo. and therefore more important consequences of the decree of April. and demand the abrogation of the order. and Dr. where he put up a stout logcabin fortress and Col. the opening of Customhouses and the exaction of exorbitant duties. were the establishment of divers military posts in Texas. In 1830. McKinstry. he induced only a profound personal dislike. where he occupied the old stone house en the public square. He visited Texas in 1831. on the Neches. excepting Galveaton. without the sanction of any known law. a gentleman of great firmness and integrity. The real and immediate. were appointed a committee to wait on Col. and making Anahuac. are apt to cluster. An indignation meeting was promptly held at Brazoria. was appointed Commandant-in-Chief of the Eastern Military District. the gubernatorial term of Viesca having expired. and acquired many friends in the settlements by his urbanity and uprightness. . on the Trinity. of "vagrants and disorderly persons/' to subdue to silence and submission the growing discontent that was fast pervading the colonists. on articles of the first necessity to the pioneers of a new country . was sent to Nacogdoches. but observed. Bradburn was the first of this military trio to exemplify the influence of a little authority conferred on a weak mind. These several commands. . but for some years an officer in the Mexican service. 1830. and erected a stockade fort within its precincts. like misfortunes. Col. Bradburn. then at Tampicp. Col. It is probable. the only place of entry and collection of custom dues. at the mouth of the river Trinity. the senior officer.EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS. but Mexicans have very imperfect notions of States' rights. at Port Teran. in possession of their lands. Lieutenant Governor. including some small detachments. a joint order shutting up all the maritime ports of Texas. with one hundred and twenty-five men. composed. B. was quartered at Velasco. Piedras. and a trifling guard under Ellis P. and setting up one at Anahuac. on the ground that he was conferring titles to land on persons who had come into the country in violation of the decree of 6th April. therefore. This was a severe mandate to the citizens of the Brazos. Bradburn and Ugartechea issued Follies. These were palpable infringements of State sovereignty. He became unsocial and arrogant towards the citizens. Seeking to inspire a high official respect. and one at Goliad. the injurious order was based on the sole authority of the two subalterns. Bradburn. who imported and exported more than all the Gulf coast beside. and established an Ayuntamiento under his commission from the State. Gen. it was an arbitrary military edict. Archer. The latter was a respectable citizen of San Antonio James Bowie had married his daughter. Five times in seven. The committee were not to be cajoled they demanded an instant revocation. Mier y Teran. and was exceedingly partial and oppressive. an avowed and strenuous centralist. one presidial company at San Antonio. troops. an American by birth. and it was granted. according to the authorized preference in making levies. in 1831. and Juan Martin de Verameada. Teran. They may have been intended as nuclei^ around which to collect a more formidable array. M. Bradburn equivocated and required time to consult bis superior. was elected Governor.

104

TEXAS ALMANAC.

He was a jovial, good hearted Irishman. He baptised and retolic Church. married suchJ'amilies as assented to the duplicate ceremonies and such as would not, hejkindly let alone. No coercion was used, except the withholding iis official certificate, which was indispensable to obtaining any extra concession of land. The prescribed headrights were granted irrespective of, or rather without inquiry into, his priestly ministrations. We know of one gentleman with a family who declined his supererogatory services, on the ground of a precedent administration but, by doing so, he failed to obtain an augmentation of some five or ten leagues to which he was entitled by the usage in those early times, for a costly improvement then in process of completion. Still pursuing his scheme of insult and annoyance, Bradburn declared that the negroes were entitled to their freedom, and that he would protect them. Some few took refuge with him. Three runaways from Louisiana presented themselves, and he received them into the fort. After a while a formal demand was made for them, under the great seal of the State of Louisiana. This aninion of an affected universal philanthropy and fraternization, alleged that the fugitives had enlisted, and it was not possible to withdraw them from the protection of the Mexican flag. His impertinent interference in a matter of so much sensitiveness, instantly vibrated on the public pulse, and gave increased animation to the discontent of the citizens. The course of error is downward, and accelerates its own velocity as it descends. With an audacity, equalled only fry the folly that prompted it, Bradburn sent a file of soldiers and arrested W. B. Travis, afterward the chief of the holocaust of the Alamo, and Patrick C. Jack, an estimable lawyer, and confined them in a house contiguous to his quarters, for having too freely expressed their indignation at the atrocities he was committing. Travis was also suspected of having practised a sevtre hoax on the petty tyrant, which could only annoy one conscious of malversation in office. These arrests, which were soon followed by others, raised the popular excitement to a point of intensity that rendered an explosion inevitable. The citizens of Liberty assembled hastily, and determined to procure the release of
;
;

In this year, 1831, there occurred one of the most remarkable battles known in the thrilling chronicles of Indian warfare. Eesin P. and James Bowie, brothers, with nine companions, including two servant boys, were attacked on the waters of the San Saba by one hundred and sixty-four savages, a portion of them being Caddoes, who are familiar with the rifle. The little party took position in a small copse of timber, and after a hard and unintermitted conflict, from the rising to the going down of the sun, the Indians retreated, having sustained a loss of eighty-two warriors, killed and wounded. for a more graphic description, see Bowie's account in Yoakum, vol. 1, p. 282. In the spring of 1831 Padre Michael Muldoon was sent to Texas to initiate the generally heretical colonists into the Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Apos-

Ibe prisoners, and to arrest the progress of military usurpations at all hazards. H. Jack, a disThey sent agents to raise the people in other sections. tinguished lawyer of Brazoria, and elder brother of Patrick, visited Bradburn, and demanded that the prisoners be transferred to the civil authority, which, alone, was competent to ascertain and punish their offences, if any had been committed. The Colonel persisted in holding them amenable to martial law, and said they should be sent to Vera Cruz. Such egregious abuse was not to be tolerated. The men of Liberty marched some miles towards Anahuac and awaited reinforcements. They were soon joined by a party from the Brazos, and resolved to proceed to Anahuac. They elected Frank W. Johnson first, and W. D. C. Hall second Commander, the whole force being about sixty men. They soon multiplied to two hundred and fifty or three hundred. While on the march, a small party of seven descried a squad of Bradburn's cavalry dismounted, and charging upon them suddenly, captured them, (nineteen in all,) without resistance. Early in June, 1832, the party entered Anahuac, and sent a deputation to Bradburn to inform him of their purpose Shortly previous to this, a Colonel Souverano* appeared at Anahuac charged, it was said, with being to the hostile existing administration. The deputation effected nothing, and retired with some audible threats. The next day some skirmishing took place, but without damage to either party. A proposition was received from the fort, at the instance, it was supposed, of Col. Souverano, who professed a warm desire to have the difficulties accommodated. Another meeting was had, and it

Wm

*We are not certain

that our orthography

is

correct.

EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS.

105

was agreed that the Texians should release their nineteen prisoners forthwith, and Bradburn should liberate hie, now amounting to seventeen, the ensuing morning. The Texians, with some doubts and consequent reluctance, complied
;

pronounced against Bustamente, and meeting which was held on 13fch of June, 1832, joyously welcomed the news, his adhesion resolved, among other matters, to sustain the distinguished chief in to the Constitution and resistance to the manifold abuses of the administration. This was the first public demonstration in favor of a revolution in the republic, and was emphatically conservative in its purposes. The meeting comprised about one hundred citizens from several districts. At this juncture Col. Piedras was on his march from Nacogdoches, with a part, of his command and a band of Cherokee Indians, to relieve Bradburn. He approached to about twenty miles of the Texian camp. The Texians had just received some additions from Bevil's settlement on the Neches and other quarCol. Piedras sent an officer t ters, and only waited the arrival of the cannon. the camp to ascertain the cause of their hostile attitude, and presently commissioners were appointed to confer with him. Piedras approved himself a gentleman, and being made sensible of the misconduct of his junior, Bradburn, it was agreed that the Texian prisoners should be released without delay, which was done as soon as circumstances would permit. He placed the mortified Bradburta in arrest. The chagrined hero repaired to New Orleans, where we gladly leave him. John Austin proceeded to Velasco with all despatch. Ugartechea very naturally refused the cannon, and avowed his determination to sustain Bradburn, The reports of a civil war in Mexico were now generally credited, and Ugartechea was regarded as a decided adherent of the Bustamente regime. The Brazorians resolved to reduce him first, and then return to Anahuac. Accordingly, on the 26th of June, 1832, they approached Velasco with one hundred and twelve voltook John Austin command. in unteers, Capt. possession of a small They schooner, having a field-piece and some ammunition on board, and manned her with forty men. During the action she plied her gun with great vivacity and effect. Capt. Austin demanded the surrender of the fort, which, of course, waa refused. Ugartechea was a brave man and knew his duty. He had one hundred and twenty-five men and a piece of ordnance in a fort of heavy logs. The assault con>menced at day-dawn, and was maintained with vigor for eleven hours. The Texian rifles cleared the parapet almost as fast as an enemy's head appeared above it. Finding his gunners dropping lifeless from his nearly silent The Texians admired his gallantry gun, he mounted to the fatal point himself. and spared him. A general panic had seized his troops, and presently a white was ensued. The assailants had seven killed and a flag displayed, capitulation and twenty-seven wounded. Among the killed was Capt Aylett C. Buckner, a gallant and much esteemed citizen from Kentucky. The Mexicans had thirty-fire killed and fifteen wounded. The rifle is apt to kill when it hits, and was apt to hit in the hands of a Texian in those days of pioneer habits. The colonists were enabled, by this time, to comprehend the nature of theeivil strife in Mexico. Our intercourse with the outer world being unfrequent and Public tardy, our intelligence was often far in the rear of current events. meetings were held in various places, and the new plan of Vera Cruz was enthusiastically adopted, and pledges made to sustain Santa Anna and the Constitution. Col. Jose Antonio Mexia had been despatched from Tampico with four small vessels and about four hundred men, to reduce Matamoros, the garrison there still holding out for Bnstamente, and then to regulate the disordered affairs of Texas. The garrison yielded without a contest of arms, and he prosecuted his voyage to the Brazos. Mexia soon became convinced of the rectitude and fealty of Texas, and returned to Tampico, having previously addressed a

with their part of the compact but Bradburn, in violation of the first principle of military honor, refused to redeem his plighted faith. The indignation in the camp was wrought to the highest pitch. An immediate assault was proposed, but the more prudent suggested that at least one cannon was requisite to storm John Austin set out for Velasco, the nearest a position defended by several. that was in the custody of point where a piece of artillery could be had, and Previous to his departure, a meeting of the troops was sumCol. Ugartechea. been received that another had moned. Imperfect but reliable intelligence revolution was in progress in Mexico that Santa Anna was in arms, and had and in favor of the Constitution of 1824. Ihe

106

TEXAS ALMANAC.

letter to Col. Piedras, soliciting

him to declare for liberty and the Constitution. Piedras was a staunch, and probably a conscientious centralist, and being without the reach of Mexia, whose invitation he declined, was left to abide the consequences of his choice. Texas now breathed one enthusiastic feeling of admiration for Santa Anna as the undoubted hero and main support of the federation. They did not dream that the versatile chief would, in a few months, subvert and utterly destroy the Constitution he was now so strenuously endeavoring to restore and uphold. As early as January, 1832, the political volcano Lad begun to emit its portentous flames. The garrison at Vera Cruz, secretly incited by Santa Anna, raised the standard of revolt pronounced against Bustamente, and in favor of the ConSanta stitution, which his undisguised ambition was fast reducing to a nullity. Anna soon espoused, and headed the insurrection. Gen. Calderon, with his troops, was sent to quell it, but effected nothing. A portion of the army, in despite of its potent subsidiary, the church, hailed the conqueror of Baradas with acclamation. The wealthy mining State of Zacatecas, always foremost in resisting usurpation, declared for the Constitution. Santa Anna was soon at the head of a considerable force, and marched for the metropolis, which, in Mexico as in France, is the uaual focus of revolution and the seat of power. Bustamente made a vigorous resistance but the defection spread as the probabilities of its success increased and finding his power on the wane, he resigned and fled into His most devoted and efficient exile, the common recourse of defeated chiefs. General, Teran, had been irretrievably defeated, near Tampico, by Gen. Montezuma and the inflexible centralist, like Cato of Utica, fell on his own sword. The civil war continued to rage with internecine virulence and various success for some months, until propositions, emanating from Bustamente. resulted in a compromise, and restored a ravaged and distracted country to temporary quietude. Deputies from the respective belligerents convened at Zavaleta, and on 23d of December adjusted a plan of reconciliation, the place, as usual, giving title to the events. The plan of Zavaleta defined the principles on which the government should be administered. It was agreed that Pedraza should be recalled and reinstated in office, and the dilapidated constitution restored and maintained in all its proper attributes. During this miserable contest, the State of Coahuila and Texas was divided, vacillating and indecisive. Generally in favor of the liberal party, they were afraid of exciting the vengeance of the military and the mysterious anathemas of the ecclesiastical powers, the major part of their constituents being the servile dupes of an artful and vindictive priesthood. The colonists had, with an entire unanimity, arranged under the banner of the Constitution. They had been denounced to the authorities in Mexico, as designing a separation, which they did not contemplate, and would not have sanctioned at that period, disastrous and discouraging as it was. A few hot-heads probably did so, as is now the fact in this more happy but disquieted and imperilled Union. The peace party in Texas was largely in the ascendant, and the avowal of a project of secession would have received a prompt and decisive rebuke. The citizens of Nacogdoches and its vicinity, finding that Col. Piedras was resolved to maintain his loyalty to Bustamente, the political embodiment of the army and the church, determined to expel him. Piedras, personally, was much The citizens esteemed, but the cause he abetted was exceedingly hateful. assembled from the several near settlements, and elected S. W. Bullock, of San the little entered to the command On the 2d of Augustine, August, 1832, they village with about three hundred volunteers. The families had left to avoid the approaching tumults. Hostilities soon began. A squadron of one hundred cavalry advanced toward the lines of volunteers, discharged their scopetts and retreated. Don Encarnacion Chirino, the Alcalde of Nacogdoches, was killed in the ranks of the colonists, with whom he warmly sympathized. The Texians poured a sharp fire into the retiring troop, and proceeded to occupy the buildings on the square nearest to them. The contest was continued with energy for some time, and the rifles were again triumphant. Col. Piedras, finding his position untenable, evacuated it in the night and retreated westward. James Bowie was detached with twenty men to incercept and retard his retreat. As the Mexicans were entering the water of the Angelina, they gave them a volley of rifle balls and retired. The next morning, Col. Piedras knowing that his officers and men were disaffected and leaned to the liberal party, and believing a successful re;
; ;

EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS.

107

treat impracticable, resigned the command to Major Medina, who declared for Santa Anna and the Constitution, and surrendered to his co -patriots without further opposition. Col. Piedras, and all such as chose to leave, were sent to Tampico. The force of the Mexicans was about four hundred men. Their loss was forty-one killed and about as many wounded. The volunteers had three When the Texians entered Nacogdoches on the 2d of killed and five wounded. there was, close at hand, a troop of sixty Cherokeee, under the August, 1832, ' the of well mounted and f-ully equipped, awaiting, with the Bowl,' leading characteristic instinct of Indians, the issue of the first trial at arms. Had the colonists been repulsed, they would, beyond all reasonable doubt, have joined It might have afforded them a grateful opportunity to exhibit in the pursuit. the bleeding scalps of our citizens, as acceptable trophies, and demand for guerdon, titles to the large territory they had long coveted and pretended to claim, but had occupied only by a constrained sufferance.* In the autumn of 1832, after the surrender of Col. Piedras, Texas enjoyed a transient repose. The State authorities had fully adopted the plan of Vera Cruz, restoring the Constitution of 1824, and Texas rejoiced in the constructive approval of her resistance to its overthrow. Halcyon days seemed to spread their enchantments before her. All was tranquil within immigration on the But increase and hope beguiled the distant future of any dread of change. human calculations of coming events are generally fallacious. In the compound organization of the State Legislature, Coahuila had ten delegates and Texas two a disparity which subjected the latter to an uncontrollable domination. In That the lawthe executive department the colonists had no representative. makers of Coahuila should contemplate the growing prosperity of her co-partner with a jealousy not unmixed with envy, was natural. That they should wish to impede a progress they could not imitate, was, perhaps, equally consistent. The first essay for that purpose, was made pending the late disturbances, by repealing on the 28th of April, 1832, the State Colonization Law of 1825, and the substitution of one founded on the odious decree of exclusion of the 6th of April, 1830. By the new law, empresario contracts were not to be made with any other than Mexicans and foreigners not interdicted ly that law. This was bringing home to the business and bosoms of the colonists an abominable measure, which they had regarded as impotent and impracticable, so long as it wore only the authority of a decree by the remote usurper, Bustamente. That their own State government should recognize and enforcejjit, was a harsh admonition, which made them feel they were a small minority writhing in the clutches of an unprincipled and reckless majority. They turned their thoughts to devices for relief. The turbid current of events precluded any immediate action, they intending only a peaceful and constitutional remedy. In March, 1S33, they elected delegates to meet in convention to petition the federal government for a dissolution of the union with Coahuila, and the institution of a separate State government for Texas. The Convention met at San Felipe, on the 1st of April, ensuing. Win. H. Wharton was elected President. Committees were appointed, one to frame a Constitution for the projected State, and another to draw up a memorial to the general Congress, setting forth the reasons and the necessities which constrained the people of Texas to ask a dissolution of the unequal and onerous association. Gen. Sam Houston was appointed Chairman of the first, and David G. Burnet of the other. The latter prepared and reported an appropriate document, which was unanimously received. republican constitution was also reported by the
; ;

A

former, and after some wrangling, was fully adopted. Three Commissioners, Stephen F. Austin, Wm. H. Wharton and James B. Miller, were chosen to present the doings of the Convention to the Supreme Government. Austin alone proceeded on the mission.

Soon on his
strife

pired, he was succeeded by Santa Anna, in March, 1833, Gomez Farias Being elected Vice-President, both celebrated as the victorious champions of the downtrodden Constitution. Santa Anna had achieved an exalted reputation as a warHe now began to develop his real character rior, a statesman, and a patriot.

again

*Mr. Yoakum striva^ to avoid this conclusion. He was a new comer in Texas, and, according to the testimony of living and eye wtnesses, was led into error in several instances. Vol. I, p. 299.

108

TEXAS ALMANAC.

'

an ambitious, intriguing, unscrupulous aspirant for unlimited power. He has since experienced many vicissitudes ; enough to disgust an ordinary man with all On the political life ; but his unholy lust of dominion is not yet extinguished. 1st of June, succeeding his election, his creature, Gen. Duran, got up a grito in favor of the Church and the Army, kindred terms in Mexico, signifying a strong, central and despotic government. In the same breath, Santa Anna was proclaimed DICTATOR. The wily President, to beguile the friends of the Constitution, who had so recently raised him to power, and to smooth the abruptness of his preconcerted treachery, put himself at the head of his forces and marched against the rr alcontents, appointing Gen. Arista, a known centralist, second in command. Before reaching the scene of the revolt, Arista pronounced in favor of Duran, arrested the President- General, and re-echoed the proclamation of Dictascheme tor. Santa Anna yielded wi;h an assured complacency to the arrest. of more audacious and transparent iniquity was never contrived. Lorenzo de the then of of Governor the State had appointZavala, Mexico, protested against ment of Arista, and when his defection was known in the Capital, he and Farias made so bold an effort in opposition to the new revolution, that Santa Anna, perceiving the prematurity of his project, affected to escape from his durance and returned to the city. The more fully to disguise his complicity in the ill-concerted plan, he raised another army, and with Gen. Mexia for his Lieutenant, pursued the insurgents, who speedily surrendered at Guanahuato. Arista received a full pardon, and Duran, of no value to either party, was banished. Santa Anna soon retired to his hacienda, there to effect by secret inThe govtrigue, what he had failed to accomplish by political strategy in arms. ernment devolved on the Vice- President, Farias. He was comparatively an honest man, and decidedly inimical to the Army and the priesthood, as active participants in the administration of political affairs. He commenced his executive career by reducing the Army, and Congress concurring with him, laws were enacted restraining the power of the Clergy. To relieve, in some measure, the for converting financial embarrassments, the Congress were engaged in a project a portion of the immense revenues of the Church to public uses, when wellknown sounds of revolution, borne from several quarters, came rattling through the streets of the Capital, and exciting the furious bigotry of the igncrant and vulgar to arms. Santa Anna had now publicly declared his disapproval of Farias and his policy, and Gen. Bravo had pronounced against the doomed Vice President in the South.

A

It

tion

was at the commencement of these turmoils, while the Lion of the revoluwas growling in his den, that Austin presented himself as Commissioner

them referred to a committee. But, unhappily, as is the manner of some of our own About legislative committees, a tedious incubation resulted in fruitless abortion. the middle of August, 1833, that monster epidemic, the Asiatic Cholera, spread its About ten thousand souls were swept away in a pall of death over the metropolis.
few weeks. The sessions of Congress became irregular, and none but the most urgent matters were considered. Austin became impatient, and an impacient diplomat is generally unfortunate. His appeals to the Executive became more frequent and earnest, and rather more frank and emphatic than was agreeable to the new fangled Eepublican Chief. Austin had intimated that Texas would proceed to a separate organization without waiting the authority of Congress. Farias was offended, and felt that the national dignity was comprcmitted. He was soon reconciled, for new dangers and difficulties surrounded him tumult and confusion were rampant in the city, Austin prepared to leave, but before doing so, wrote an imprudent letter to the authorities at San Antonio, recommending that Texas should directly form a State government under the contingent prevision in the law annexing her to Coahuila, which guaranteed to her a separate organization, as soon as she was in a condition to receive it. He left soon after, on the 10th of December, 1833. That letter was immediately transmitted to the Executive. Farias was a true republican of the Mexican class ; but that class have ever mingled with the rudiments of free government, some mischievous ideas of licentiousness among the ignorant and vicious with more of the practical principles of despotism, among the hisrher circles, in which they had been born and nurtured. The indignant Chief, although involved in the meshes
;

from Texas to the federal government. His papers were submitted to Congress, and after long delay and much importunity, he had the gratification of seeing

EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS.

109

of rank and open treason by his own countrymen, was keen to discern the first scent of insubordination in Anglo- Texas. He despatched a courier, and Austin was arrested at Saltillo, and forcibly conducted back to Mexico. He was thrust, into a dark cell of the ancient prison of the Inquisition, where he was detained for three long months in solitude, and where many a poor victim to religious intolerance had suffered before him. Notwithstanding he had failed in the main purpose of his mission, he had succe' ded in obtaining a repeal of that clause in the law of the 6th of April, 1830, which forbid the future immigration of North Americans to Texas. That invidious decree was still rankling in the hosoms of the colonists. Its removal would have been hailed with general eatisfaction a few months before, but now the remedy was applied too late. Other and more disturbing ailments had supervened. At this very juncture, strong sympioms were exhibited in the metropolis of Mexico, of the universal paralysis incident to despotism or a violent dissolution of the body politic, a sequence which Texas, at
least,

would

affect.

Vicario,) where it was first located, to Monclova. The selfishness and its concomitant passions, were excited to great virulence in the deserted city and its dependencies. At the legislative session in 1834, the Saltillian delegates flew off and returned to their constituents, who proceeded to the election of another set of State functionaries. There was now presented the anomalous fact of two distinct Legislatures, and two antagonistic Executives ; the one party to hold at Saltillo, the other at Monclova, and each assuming to administer the political affairs of the entire State. This disruption of all legitimate government by the factions of Coahuila, was alone sufficient to release Texas from the unhappy association, which she was then striving by constitutional means to have dissolved. After some ridiculous displays of patriotic indignation and bloodless demonstrations of war by either party, the factions were reduced to reconciliation by the umpirage of Santa Anna. All things being restored to the status ante tiellwm, the government was to remain at Monclova, and a new to be elected. Legislature The larger political theatre in Mexico was exhibiting its periodical dramas, with unusual vivacity. Farias had exercised some severity toward the Army and the Clergy, both of which powerful factions had become restive under his. administration. With the ill-disguised connivance of Santa Anna they were rapidly perfecting their long meditated schemes for the subversion of the Constitution. In his selfish ambition, they recognized the surest means of gratifying their own. Believing the propitious time for action to have arrived, the retired President repaired to the Capital and resumed his executive functions. Farias was seized, imprisoned, and finally banished ; but the Congress was still intact and preserved something of its integrity. Santa Anna, like the abler Cromwell, denounced their obstinacy and threatened them with military intervention. The intimidated law-makers abruptly adjourned, proclaiming to a heedless constituency the tyranny that compelled it. Still wearing the mask, Santa Anna, also addressed an insidious proclamation to the people, reprehending the lawless acts of Farias and his coadjutors, the Congress he had so imperiously dispersed. The people, still confiding in his wisdom and patriotism, suffered him, without any material disturbance, to strengthen his position and mature his plans. Mexicans are too ignorant, too indolent and imbecile, and emphatically, too subservient to an artful, intolerant and vicious priesthood, ever to sustain in harmonious operation, so complex a system of government as a federal republic. If the people of these United States can scarcely do it, it were idle to expect

In March, 1833, the State government had been removed from

Saltillo,

(Leona

Mexico

to

the 25th of May, 1834, Santa Anna procured a pronunciamento to be got up at Ciaenahuata. the requirements of which were the repeal of the laws adverse to the Church ; th'e recall of all banished Centralists ; the dispersed Congress to be dissolved, and another convened ; and that the President should be supported in effectuating the in recent his Thus his suggested proclamation. vaulting policy ambition was nourished by those whose liberties were to become its first victims. The transition from a federal to a consolidated government was in rapid progress. But there was a remnant of sound republicanism diffused through the country, and its votaries began to awaken to a sense of its danger. Even in Coahuila,. some symptoms of opposition were manifested. In the absence of the Governor and Vice-Governor, the Councilor, F. Vidaurri y Villasenor, became, by express^

On

approximate

its realization.

110

TEXAS ALMANAC.

authorization, the acting Executive. During his service, the Legislature rentured to express their dissent to the anticipated change in the federal government ; but finding the nation generally in favor of Santa Anna, and his yet undefined plans, they relinquished their opposition and united in the common adulation. During all this period our Commissioner was detained in rigorous confinement. Santa Anna released him from his dark cell in the Inquisition, but still held him in durance. Several ineffectual attempts were mad to find a tribunal having jurisdiction of the anomalous case his arrest presented. All disclaimed its cognizance, importing a condition of national jurisprudence a little more anomalous than the unprovided-for case. On the 5th of October, 1834, the President convoked a meeting of his select dignitaries, 'Lorenzo de Zavala, Austin's uniform friend, and Austin himself, to discuss the several topics he had submitted to the late government. The result of the meeting was unfavorable as- to its subject Santa Anna matter, but it divulged a project somewhat startling to Texas. declared his intention to despatch a corps of infantry, cavalry and artillery, 4000 to San for the of the custom's Antonio, strong, professedly protection revenues, and to overawe the wild Indians of the interior. He resolved that the separation of Texas from Coahuila, was premature and inconvenient, and that he would meditate on the repeal of the eleventh article of the law of the 6th of April, 1830, decreed by Farias, and possibly give it his sanction, thus combining the legislative with the executive functions. He still solemnly and publicly declared his adherence to the federal representative system. Austin seemed at this time to repose great confidence in the Dictator's sincerity. The delicacy of his situation may have contributed to this error.

In the Spring of 1834, Juan N. Almonte was sent to Texas to scrutinize its physical and statistical condition, and report to the government. Kennedy gives, in abstract, the result of his investigations. His statistics are in some instances incorrect and under-estimated, but it is probable they caused some surprise to his superiors, by the magnitude of the improvements reported in a country which they regarded as "a waste, howling wilderness." He states the entire population of Texas at 36,300 of whom 21,000 are civilized and 15,000 Indians 10,500 hostile and 4,500 peaceable. The number of civilized inhabitants was not less than 25,000 5,000 Mexicans, and the residue Americans, and these rapidly increasing. Almonte was well received in Texas, and no suspicions of a secret and sinister purpose attached to his visit, until he appeared again, in arms, in 1836. In pursuance of the decision of the arbiter. Santa Anna, an extra election was held in the State on the 9th of February, 1835, when Augustin Viesca was chosen Governor, and Eamon Musquiz, Vice-Governor. A new Legislature was also elected. Among the many causes of discontent on the part of Texas, the prodigal squandering of her public domain by the dominant authority of Coahuila, was prominent. The Legislature lately inaugurated, magnified the grievance and illustrated their own cupidity, by authorizing, on the 14th of March, the sale of four hundred leagues of land, on the pretext of protecting the frontier of Texas from hostile Indians. A sale was nominally made, but we never heard of any beneficial results to the frontier, nor understood the ultimatum of the investiture of titles in the purchasers, if any was made.* As the gambler, after fleecing his victim, plies him with flattering words and illusive hopes of better success, so the State authorities professed to feel an unusual interest in the welfare of Texas. Some former offensive enactments were repealed, and new arrangements made for her gratification. The judicial proceedings among the Colonists had been loose, uncertain and various, accord;

;

;

There appears about this period, and a little anterior to it, a remarkable ellipsis in the published laws of the State. The last decree bearing the signature of acting Governor, Villasenor, is dated 3d, 1834. Decree, No. 291, without date, is subscribed by J. A. Tijerina, President (of the Administrative Council, we presume). Next in order, No. 292, March, 12th, 1835, is subscribed by Jose M. Cantu, who appears as Governor ad interim, but soon retires behind the curtain ; and Decree, No. 295, introduces one Borrego, whose signature indicates his being Governor pro tern. He figures onward to Decree, No. 299, of April, 14th, 1835, when the Governor elect, Augustin Viesca, appears in his official But he seems again to have dodged the responsibility of a legislative "Exposition," an vestments. elaborate document, protesting against the frequent violations of the Constitution, and addressed to " another extra legislative the Congress of the Republic ; and also of an Introductory proposition," " Both diminishing the civic militia. act, suggesting to the federal Congress the repeal of the Decree these State papers are dated ApriI22d, 1834, and signed by J. M. Mier, President, and two others. The inexplicable confusion seems to terminate at this page in the volume of decrees, and Governor Viesca to in his proper character.
July

EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS.
ing to local circumstances.

Ill

In some parts every one was left to do what seemed an occasional visit from that notable perIn Austin's Colony there was a tolerable organization The trial by jury had been practised, but owing to the small number and sparsity of the population, the old patriarchal number was omitted, and seven substituted, the concurrence of five to make a verdict in civil cases unanimity being required in criminal prosecutions. In April, 1834, a law was passed reorganizing the administration of justice within the Department. Texas was formed into one Supreme Judicial Circuit. The trial by jury was authorized on the common law numeral, the joint opinion of eight to make a verdict. Thomas J. Chambers, of Austin's Colony, was present at the passage of the law, and is supposed to have had some instrumentality in it.* The Circuit was divided into three Districts, Bexar, the Brazos, and Nacogdoches. Santa Anna was now in the full exercise of dictatorial powers, but still professing fidelity to the Constitution. In conformity to the plan of Cuernahuata, he summoned a new Congress. The centralists being decidedly in the ascendant, it was composed of his own partizans, with few exceptions. It met on the st of January, 1835. One of its first acts was to reduce the civic militia of the several States to one in every five hundred, and to disarm the remainder, as Mr. which, Kennedy well says, "amounted to the annihilation of that constitutional force." It soon became manifest that the Federal Constitution was to be overthrown and a stringent central government was to be established in its stead. The publication of Col. Almonte's report of bis visit to Texas had revealed the fact that the government designed the acquisition of the lands on the United States of the North, to colonize them with their retired bordering military, as was indicated in the decree of 6th April, 1830. They rescinded the four hundred league sale of land made by the authority of the State, on the ground of incompetency, alleging that the State was chargeable with a proportion of the national debt. The federalists began with zeal, but too late, to oppose the progress of centralism. Several States expressed their dissatisfaction. Zacatecas refused to disband her militia, and proceeded to organize an army, under the command of its worthy Governor, Don Francisco Garcia, a civilian of fair abilities, but an inexperienced general. Santa Anna marched against him, and in May, 1835, a severe battle ensued, in which the Zacatecanos suffered a terrible defeat and heavy loss. The victor took possession of the Capital, and the power of the State was crushed. The report of these disastrous events elicited an universal feeling of indignation in Texas. The most persistent and conscientious advocates of peace now joined heart and hand in preparing to resist the encroachments of a despotism assuming the two-fold terrors of the sword and the mitre. Soon after the escape of Santa Anna from bis simulated arrest, Governor Zavala was dismissed into honorable exile, by being appointed Ambassador to the Court of France. Learning, in Paris, the deposition of Farias, and the dissolution of the Federal Congress, of which he was a member at the time of bis diplomatic appointment, he resigned in disgust, and repaired to New York, where he had married a lady, Miss Emily White, in the year 1830 From thence he proceeded to Texas, the only portion of Mexico over which the banner of the Constitution was floating, in the summer of 1835. In April, 1835, another legislative emeute occurred at Monclova. The deputies of Saltillo again withdrew and pronounced in favor of the new policy initiated at Mexico. Gen. Martin Prefecto de Cos, the Commandant of the Eastern Military District, and brother-in-law of Santa Anna, openly countenanced the defection of the recreant deputies, and moved his troops from Matamoros towards the State Capital. On the 8th April, the Legislature had formally protested against the limitation of an act of indemnity for political offencesv recently passed by the General Congress, which was restricted to natives ex-

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*Thonas J. Chambers was appointed Superior Judge, and David G. Bui-net, without his knowledge, was appointed District Judge, for the District of the Brazos. The Superior Court was never organized, never "verified-" because (as Mr. Yoakum alleges) "<cA wan the confusion incident to the approaching revolution, that the law became useless." But Mr. Yoakum's book is often in conflict with truth. The District Judge held his regular sessions at San Felip6, for three or four consecutive terms, and disposed of many cases without let or molestation. The Superior Judge has received thirty leagues of land for his judicial services. The District Judge nas received literally Truth nothing no land, and not money enough (a few perquisites) to defray his traveling expenses
!

belongs to history, falsehood to fiction.

" just and commendable as it was. an t. appealed to the militia. M. where they would probably have suffered a political martyrdom. The Ayuntamiento of Liberty. in beneficial operation at Galveston. in animated terms. He was a Mexican. This financial act was apparently a gratuitous favor to Texas. The most affecting feature was. T. This enraged the citizens both here and there. clusively. while the spirit that dictated it proved to be nugatory and evanescent. with some twenty soldiers. in which they were regarded as corrupt participants. This "Exposition. they granted a charter for a Commercial and Agricultural Bank. to aid him in sustaining the rights of the State and the integrity of the Federal Constitution. Coss. On the 28th April. and found their way to Texas through many severe trials. The Governor. and had become exceedingly obnoxious to Santa Anna. with a capital of one million dollars and a term of twenty years. when his fortitude failed. He finally captured a small schooner engaged in the trade to New Orleans. He raised a small party and easily captured them. nor very much increase the-excitement in Texas.000. and the invasion of the civil attributes of the State by the army under Gen. owing to the profuse speculations in the public lands. an ultra peace man. and on the 30th. produced no result. Cos." He again set out for San Antonio. They happily effected their escape at different times and places on the route. B. they authorized the Governor to exact a forced loan of $20. He assumed some pompous airs and gave offence to many. and specially to the Texians. the schooner San Felipe. This also availed nothing. the Legislature promulgated another "Exposition. Milam and Dr. Travis. had been stationed at Anahuac as a revenue guard. These events did not assuage. and the offending colonists were left under the ban of the now assuming a military and tyrannical aspect. while the Mexican authorities regarded it as an unmistakeable overt act of rebellion. never to meet again in its connection with Texas. at Vera Cruz. than of a political remedy. Capt. reduce the garrison and install Don Ramon Musquiz." protesting. The bank is now. who had recently arrived among us. "A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways. Zavala. under the influence of Judge Williams. On the 22d April. A small vessel. Thompson. But when popular excitement runs high. as Governor. or the sympathy that begets it. savoring more of personal resentment post. to inquire into the facts. from whence they proceeded to San Antonio and reported their disaster to Col. it was understood. and remove the archives. the always odious interference of the military in civil matters. warmly denounced the whole transaction. the Vice-Governor elect. B. The Legislature. to be established in the Department of Brazos. was speedily . W. The party was captured by Cos' dragoons. Cameron. who ought to be comprehended in that act of mercy. personal resentments easily flow into and become tributaries to the principal current. despatched the armed schooner Correo Mexicano. had not Providence interposed in their behalf. 1835. Tenorio. against the encroachments upon the Constitution by the authorities at Mexico. on hearing of these events. Gen. They applauded it with all the vehemence of an inflamed partyism. we believe. legally established among them. They alleged that there were many foreign born citizens. designing to forego any further opposition to the dread influence of Santa Anna. Ugartecbea. Commander. had signified his assent to such a scheme. in great trepidation. He proceeded a few leagues. The Governor and Legislature were held in bad repute. He made two ineffectual efforts to seize and carry off* Gov. rather than a bad one. and held her as a good prize.hold of San Juan de Ulloa. meaning the colonists. B. Thompson was a weak man. It failed for want of patronage. The Governor selected San Antonio de Bexar for his temporary seat. whose feelings were still goaded by the recollection of the wrongs and indignities he had suffered there. empowered the Executive to choose a provisional location. resolved to rout the Collector and his aids. and he returned. They were disarmed and sent to San Felipe. and soon commenced his official transit.112 TEXAS ALMANAC. then in charge of that The act was an imprudent one. The war party acquired increment from the fact of the military associations connected with the little enterprise. resident at San Antonio. government. bewildered by the exigencies that encompassed him. and then hastily adjourned on the 21st of May. accompanied by Col. A project was suggested to march to San Antonio. and speedily despatched under a guard for the strong. But the call fell upon ears dull of hearing.

but little respect in Texas. (Bastrop. 1835. a meeting of delegates. nor abandon its fealty to the constitution of 1824. Tenorio. and may be regarded as the first popular organization Warm for political action. comprising a fair proportion of the talents and respectability of the colonists. simply question and were resolute to maintain them." moved a call of a general consultation.) raised a Committee of Safety. The worthy Colonel was doubtless sinHis superior. Dr. and his pledges were lightly esteemed. while their opponents omitted no means to inflame the exacerbation which the known military preparations were diffusing Reliable intelligence was received that Santa Anna had through all classes deposed the Governor of the State. under express orders from the central government. Hard put in command. 113 fitted out at New Orleans. originally. to be placed at the disposition of the supreme government. declared they had no reasons to distrust the government that its intentions were paternal. predominant. Correo was soon overhauled. would not subscribe to the ultra designs of the revoSuch was the sintionistf. (then Mina. exhorting them to quietness. prisoner. One undivided feeling of indignation spread wherever an American colonist had reared his little log cabin. was designed. and invested Gen. and sent in quest of the The little steamer Laura joined him at Galveston. and the number of the proscribed enlarged. pro tern. and that the conquerors of Zacatecas. He seems to have on 10th of March. who. The war party received many accessionsthe idea of absolute secession was restricted to a small though active minority. Col. Cos had the unwise discourtesy to denounce it as hypocritical. the keenest blade on the field of San Jacin. Baker. Columbia and Mina. exhorting him to exert his influence in allaying the apprehensions of the people. but the idea was not. Wharton. were circulated far and wide. Capt. then at Saltillo. . some Indian massacres had been perpetrated near the newly established town of Gonzales. the Col. The demand was repugnant to every American sentiment of right and of humanity. he was not insensible to the importance of conciliating he well knew. tried. Cos with its civil jurisdiction that a considerable military force was under orders for Texas. but Gen. of the Brazos. and enthusiastic addresses were made. portraying in vivid colors the consequences of the military usurpations. and resistance unto the death became the prevailing sentiment. who had always manifested a frank and friendly feeling towards the American colonists. for protection against Indians. was of the out with an intelligent community. cere feeling. known and avowed. Capt. and the proposed introduction of troops designed only for revenue service and the protection of the frontier from the Comanches and other hostile Indians. fully informed of the disquiets in Texas. The motion was lost. John A. Primary meetings were held in nearly all the municipalities. Gen. captured and taken to New Orleans. but as pact. sensitive and puissant population of Texas. the of his confidence Austin. Still the peace party.) was held at San Felipe. to procure the arrest of Lorenzo de Z ivala. In a short time the impracticable order was repeated ia m'ore decisive terms. and on the 15th of May. and written appeals. Travis. Thompson was calaboosed on a charge of piracy for six months. acquitted and disch rged.to. but soon merged into more general purposes. who declined the ungracious agency. and a general sentiment prevailed in favor of resisting the military encroachments and the sequent annihilation of the Constitution. and charge rebellion upon all. addressed a mild and conciliatory letter to the political chief of the Brazos. and on the 24th of July presented the mandate to Wily Martin. acquired The peace party. Johnson. Its " general temper was peaceful. political chief. would soon be among us and regulate all disorders. who knew their rights. but he was a subaltern and under orders. Personal proscription is a common recourse of tyrants. . and the alleged pirate. of Anahuac celebrity. Cos. Miller. On the 17th of July. He . A little previous to these occurrences..s of discord. had acquired cere. accorded with him. James B. of many. still wrote to his constituents.EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS. Compliance with these imperious demands of a pragmatic military power. Ugartechea. While Santa Anna was secretly sapping the foundations of the federal comthe small. Cos. It was soon followed by others throughout Texas. now patent to the dullest apprehension. had been deputed by Ugartechea. Williams and Williamson were demanded as f'ornento. representing the jurisdicdictions of Austin. firm as any in this purpose. Travis was especially aimed at and required. It 1835. the citizens of Bustrop.

and marched This event. most dreads. The authorities at Gonzales bad. He repeated the good dispositions professed by the President. He had endured a protracted imprisonment of more than two years. asserted the portentous dogma. but he was still averse to any extreme measures. Austin gave it the weight of his influence. since the expulsion of Piedras. and abstained from its utterance. also. Austin returned to his home. and testify their willingness to adhere to Mexico on any tolerable terms. was not to be tolerated. believing an armed resistance the only means of escaping the yoke now being fashioned for our necks. Barrett and Gritton. and entered promptly and zealously upon its duties. His arrival was greeted with unfeigned gratification. but he was acting in pursuance of orders. Ugartechea ordered it to be surrendered to him. 341. Early in September." Ignorance of men. Colonel. Capt. W. held meetings and adopted resolutions presented by Judge Burnet. under Capt. and they were peremptory. Gen. which had been. It served only to confirm and intensify the suspicion that an absolute despotism was in progress in Central Mexico. should the captain persist in his demand. in their remoteness from the scene of disturbance. that " the constitution by which all Mexicans may be governed. Castonado. Committees of safety and vigilance were now established in almost every municipality. After some maneuvering and slight skirmishing. p. Had he known the American character. They despatched messengers for aid in the expected strife. no matter on what principles it may be formed. with five hundred troops.es and the Red Lands. planted himself at the ford of the river The Guadalupe. the enemy sounded . The suggestion of a general consultation had been widely circulated and approved. Nacogdocb. so often preferred against the colonists. to renew the demand. intended for intimidation. municipal a small field-piece tor protection against Indians. " Reports of a large military force being in preparation for Texas were confirmed. Efforts were made to procure a revocation of the edicts of arrest. supercilious man. Wallace. and J. by authority of the late meeting at San Felipe. with only eighteen men. and assure him of the adhesion of Texas to the general government and its institutions. The idea of submitting to a conjoint military and ecclesiastical domination. and offensive operations were resolved upon. The mission was relinquished as hopeless. exhibited any active interest in the pending disquiets. He was appointed Chairman of the Committee of Safety for the jurisdiction of Austin. and it was ascertained that Cos was actually en route for San Antonio. vol. Cos was a vain. the colonists must obey. 1. who had hitherto refrained from any active participation in the rough politics of the times. and error in acts. LieutenantColonel. in 1831. been furnished with layed. the defences of which post were undergoing repairs and extension. Sam Houston. About the middle of September Cos landed at Copano. and adopted with eclat. it then being quite on the Col. 1835. had not. Col. being refused. more reluctant than any other section to an embroilment. to take the disputed gun vi et armis. Resolutions in favor of the constitution were submitted by Gen. perhaps. but avowed his diminution of confidence in his sinA climbing tyrant is usually profuse in words of kindness to those he cerity. Meetings were had. They organized by electing John H. and kept the enemy at bay. Liberty. reached a directly for his destination An opportunity to gratify it was not long degeneral war feeling in Texas. Cos at Matamoros. which they alleged had been given and not merely loaned. are generally connate in the science of government. Albert Martin. His pacific views had undergone a material change. he sent a detachment of about two hundred cavalry. to wait on Gen. Santa Anna. But those citizens were now aroused to a sen^e of the common danger. Moore. These resolutions bear witness to the great injustice of the charge of ingratitude. whose notions of public polity did not expand beyond the crude and incongruous rudiments of the Mexican theory. The citizens resolved not to yield so valuable an auxiliary. preventing them from crossing.114 TEXAS ALMANAC.) They proceeded to San Antonio to confer with Ugartechea. (Yoakum. and if not complied with. he would have felt the ignominy involved in his arbitrary postulate. and the demand frontier. His dispositions were friendly. were appointed. little band soon increased to one hundred 'and sixty-eight. which was speedidly furnished. explain to him the recent disturbances. Cos having signified his intention not to grant them an interview. Two commissioners. and committees appointed. E.

a little below the town. "a nobler volunteer could not have joined their ranks. brave man recognized his friends. The people assembled in Nacogdoches and San Augustine. spoils of this gallant little exploit. killed and three wounded the Texians one wounded. had sought shelter in a musquit. in the vicinity of one of their garrisons. ever could be. headed by Capt. thicket. and Texas. to accept the new form thus thrust upon her. While bewildered in the way. They had a few men killed. and after an irksome and lonely wandering through mountain passes and tangled chapparals. About forty of them. As Mr. and received a general approval. political or moral. had. This first revolutionary pass at arms occurred on 2d of October. to convene at San Felipe on the 15th October ensuing. Happily. received the sobriquet of TORIES. The few who still abstained from participating in the general resolve to resist the manifold evils of a military subjection. as on the wings of electricity. a common consent to elect delegates to a General Consultation was obtained and carried out. the army its pedWe do not doubt that a well balanced Central estal. 1835.EARLY HISTORY' OF TEXAS. the entrepot of the enemy in all his communications with the Gulf. in all directions. being an integrant of that body. and advanced toward them. Government might be made more conducive to the happiness and prosperity of Mexico. With what ecstacy the way-worn. the rest of the soldiers escaping in the melee. was abolished in form. Military stores estimated at $10. They elected Gen. and returned to Gonzales. The Texians suffered no loss. B. even at that early period. . on the 9th of October. and the Government was transformed into a Central Consolidated Republic. The State Legislatures were suppressed and Department Councils substituted. The Committee at San Felipe. Milam. missed their course on the day previous. K. will not be questioned by any who can comprehend the genius and appreciate the inherent popular rights pertaining to all representative governments.000 two brass cannon and three hundred stand of arms. they were few and powerless. Some measures were taken to conciliate the emigrant Indians. lines. Kickapoos and Caddoes. Sam. A scheme was now suggested. and the war spirit ranged high in almost every bosom. so long contemned and abrogated in fact. By a decree of the Supreme Government of 3d October. The call was received with enthusiasm throughout the West and the East. they met with Col. clearly established the fact of their incompetency to manage so complex a machine. now forty-eight in all. They reached the San Antonio A portion of them had river. 1835. That Texas was under no obligation. disorganized and priest-ridden people. addressed stirring appeals to the several jurisdictions. reinforcements were synonymous and. assaulted and broke into the quarters of Col. G. and to solicit material aid from the United States. 115 a parley. The tocsin soon spread its vibrating rays to New Orleans. Sandoval. marched with alacrity into the town. the Lexington of our little revolution. was at perfect liberty to choose her own future organism The military spirit did not diminish after its first essay at Gonzales. Before that period arrived. the Church its pillars. the reader's imagination will suggest. summoning them to arms. soon after Castonado had retired to his his fired six he the pounder. than the Federal system with all its complications. whose very soil seemed to groan under its pressure. The news of a battle flew. Seven members from each Municipality were chosen. constituted the . to take San Antonio and drive the whole military array out of Texas. The enemy fled to San Antonio. and the wrongs of Texas elicited a warm and effective sympathy there that told bravely upon our struggle. Houston to command the Eastern troops. and said he would select a convenient Moore suspected that further orders and position. sallied forth. the Cherokees. Collinsworth. who had escaped from the guard escorting Governor Viesca at Monterey. The antecedents of that constantly distracted. Shawnees. and were regarded as recreant to their high lineage. Castonado declared his unwillingness to fight the Americans." The party. The social compact was forcibly dissolved. and await further orders. captured him and about twentyThe enemy bad one five others. the elements composing the body politic were disintegrated. Yoakum well remarks. active and advisory. the Federal Constitution. subject of contention. The respective commanders met in the prairie. which appeared by common consent to take the precedence. By means of the several Committees. The planters of Caney and Matagorda determined to take Goliad. intelligence was received from Mexico corroborating and realizing our most alarming apprehensions.

Austin directed Col. and was looking for reinforcements. to proceed with ninety rneu to make recognizances about the old Missions. being on the other and retreat through an open prairie. The assemblage of volunteers at Gonzales increased rapidly. Austin became impatient of delay. He despatched a fla'g of truce to the enemy. and fordable. our late distinguished Senator. Frank W. was a level plain. had from the beginning. R Royall was chosen its Chairman. both eventually victims in the strife. they established a General Council. and select an eligible and more proximate position for the army. It is a trite saying. They descended to the river bottom. The prairie in front. They put forth addresses. running into the bend. The East now sent forth some "volunteers and gallant men. 1835. more prone to mischief and self-destruction than capable of doing good to themselves or others. and on the 20th of October. but of slight effect. . R. sparse and few. forming an obtuse To cross it triangle. occupied by the enemy. been foremast in every military operation. . Passing the Missions of San Juan and San Jose. Johnson and others. who repaired to the camps to parThe ticipate in the conquest of San Antonio. and was elected Commauder-in Chief of all the forces of Texas. The rifles soon swept away the gunners. From their natural covert. to consist of one member from each Municipal Committee of Safety. should act on the subject. having made a demonstration with five hundred troops. and about one hundred yards wide. the rifles coolly. of all arms. air their brass six pounder. While the large aggregation of human beings without some form of organism. deand fatally sent forth their deadly missiles. apt mendable purpose. insomuch that Col. was constrained to return to his quarters and relinquish his comSoon after the institution of the general Council. escorted by a corps of cavalry. now in ruins. is become a wild and frantic mob. They then pushed for- ward The " Immaculate Conception. they reached that of La Purissima Conception. "whenever there is a will there is a way. Cos was busily occupied in strengthening his fortifications. Many of the deleTbose that gates to the Consultation had repaired to the camps at Gonzales. was worse than forlorn. but Cos. -and halted the charging column. Colonel Austin proceeded to Gonzales. interspersed with timber. in the fullness of his military hauteur.* about one and a half mile from San Antonio. clothed with more ample powers. revealed the startling fact that they were surrounded on three sides by the enemy. in face of the town. They encamped for the night and reposed in peace. The morning of the 28th." an antique dogma of the papal doctrine. a simple form of government was adopted. with trailed arms. Municipality of Liberty also contributed its quota of brave men. acknowledged political authority. and opened a general fire. not forming a quorum. including two field pieces. James Bowie and Capt. The cannon had been fired five times without liberately was illumined by their rapid and random discharges. W. barricading the streets and preparing for the assault. an irregular depression of six to ten feet along the margin of the stream. Col. He had about one thousand men. such as Thomas J. Rusk. idle. Texas felt the necessity of some definite.116 Any to TEXAS ALMANAC. within about eighty yard?. Occasional skirmishes took place. J. adjourned to the 1st of November. advanced to the Salado. and sounded a charge. lately made a cardiua . and under the auspices of the Committee at San Felipe. A desperate fight in their position presented a better and more genial hope of relief. to expunge the blot which the affair with Castonado bad flung upon his own military reputation and on his nation's escutcheon. they declared the land offices closed until their successors. sensible of the need of something like a political adminisThe Council were not tration. the river making a sharp bend. Gen. had assembled according to appointment. and peaceful interchanges became impracticable the tsjg ord must do its work. but halted at ^. a tributary of the San Antonio. refmed to recognize General Austin. Ugartechea. and modestly recommending the elect Consultation to rescind the enormous four hundred league sale of land. The enemy's infantry advanced imposingly. made some financial operations. the little Malakoff of Texas. the riflemen could fire and re-load without being fully exposed. and took a strong position about -five miles from the town. The western settlements. Fannin. Austin's force was about eix hundred. On the 27th of October. church. fully acquiesced in this courtesy arrangement. On the llth of October. at several points.bout two hundred yards from the bluff." The people. recruits occasionally arriving.

now become a by. such as locating. Gen.word and a reproach among nations. Branch T. military and financial. Their bustling. and promote. It is difficult by legislation. anything like reliance could be placed.he victors. and an. to proceed to the United States. Thirteen were chosen. At the same time. defining the plan and powers of the government about to be inaugurated. and until further provision should be made by authority. Bowie had dispatched a messenger to Gen. ment expressing them may be nouncing their intention to adhere to the republican principles of the Federal Constitution of 1824. leaving the gun with its munitions. The Texians lost one brave man. in little obscure and scattered cemeteries 6 feet by 4. of land. to circumscribe the out. coveting the gun. resolved to take it. Iniquitous frauds have been resorted to in gratification of this inordinate passion. The resolution had scarcely assumed an active form. some of whom were recent emigrants. on whom. Austin. F. 8 .000. the interests. presenting another instance of killed. some of whom are already mingling with the dust they coveted. Without doubt. H. on the 3d November. The next act of the Consultation was to create a general Council to assist the Executive. the Texians precisely ninety-two men. by men otherwise seemingly patriotic. a formulary. when the enemy hastily retreated. On the 13th November. Archer and Wm. Mexico. as events turned But. composed. are no wall hushed. while the docuflung to the winds. contained from seven to eight millions of inhabitants Texas. Austin.EARLY HISTORY OF TEXAS. One of the earliest acts of the convention was to put forth a declaration in behalf of their constituents. S. On the 12th November. Branch T. Austin having resigned. a commisson of three persons was created. Wharton. were precluded from making their selections of headrights. 1 17 and three times cleared of men. : The climate was congenial to either party. were already desirous of a perpetual severance from Mexico. effect. The Consultation met at San Felipe in full assemblage. Col. Archer was elected President of the meeting. This was eminently proas the in volunteers the per..000 men. lieutenant governor. at this time. &c. The two territories were in juxtaposition. for repose and recreation. Sam Houston was elected Commander-in. but did not arrive at the scene of conflict until the enemy had retreated. if sought for. should be suspended during hostilities. the Consultation proceeded to the organization of a provisional government. . It is easy to maintain specific principles. surveying. and summer and winter equally favorable to military operations. . . and soliciting the aid they were so abundantly able to render and we so imperatively required. and the charge as often repulsed when the Texians. toJ. and consisting of one member from each municipality represented. Others daily arrived in camp. now fairly at issue with her powerful neighbor. as their domestic necessities or other causes required. W. comprising 22 articles. It required no retirement. including officers. like the flux and re-flux of our own waters obeying the capricious winds. ac this time. The enemy's loss was about sixty killed and forty wounded. The history of the world does not present an instance at all analogous to it. The 14th article prescribed that all operations touching the vacant domain. was adopted. Simultaneously. The Mexicans numbered about four hundred. it was almost nugatory. were designated to the delicate and important duty of presenting our novel and trying condition to our kindred of the North. Gen. the great disparity in military prowess of the two contending races. But.Chief. and proceeded to business Dr. but generally expert riflemen. about 26. chicane of land speculators their ingenious avidity will find means to circumvent the most stringent enactments. into winter quarters but battle was at all times feasible. by all practicable means. and the number was swelled to 1. and J. The entire Texian force. and many outsiders. Sixteen lifeless bodies were strewed around the useless cannon. Henry Smith was elected governor. enumerating their grievances. some leading members. Eobinson.) Thus ended the battle of Conception. (Robert Andrews. The acquisition of land has ever constituted a too prominent feature in the Anglo-American settlement of Texas. of Texas. was about 600 raw volunteers. The army marched with all practicable haste. they came and went. and the transportation of all material equipments. with nothing to impede the march of armies. enough to infuse a spirit of discord into any executive system. and delivered a pertinent and characteristic address on being inducted to the chair. army. insatiable desires and cunning contrivances to add league to league. as soon as the forces of the enemy were discovered.

. 1856 received since. capable of turning out 12. 9 had been convicted of murder and 10 of . On the 14th November. 100 total. to a final separation from Mexico. or follow their aberrations. 456.664 90 a result that has far exceeded their expectations. as long as adherence was sanctyranny. and will therefore conclude our compendium for the present. According to the Clerk's statement there were 356 prisoners in confinement on the 31st December. Texas adhered. We have no fancy for either alternative. 232 white females. Its solemnity was enunciated in six distinct repetitions! enough to invite suspicion of its integrity. another year. 1835. 1857.'' The priests who came among us were more intent on their emoluments than on the cure of souls or any moral reformation. We utterly repudiate the plea of religious intolerance. If the facts we have rehearsed are not sufficient for such justification. That position led. and of abominable Mexico revolutionized. null and void for want of fundamental authority of no moral or political obligation. and only calculated to embarrass any future transactions with those obtruding savages. as an excuse for our It was well known before we entered the country. no violent dissolution of a political compact.. 5 died and 11 discharged by order o? the Executive making in all 119. under whose guar. and no inquisitorial agency was introduced among us. of abuse. 12 manitentiary during the past year. . and requiring 15 bales of cotton for daily consumption. So far as evangelical ministrations were concerned. forms in all its Its practical observance was never persistently required. McHatton. that cau be justified. . no withdrawal from a people eminently incapable of self-government. . if not a subtle and sinister measure. on the 31st December.) state that the net profits of the manufacturing business of the institution for the last nine months were $43. January IStth. disingenuous. 17 pardoned. Bulletin slaughter. We now confidentially ask. During this time. of usurpation. or mingled with so much of romance with perversion or suppression of truth. 86 have been discharged by expiration of sentence. in regard to which we have many valuable and original documents furnished by living witnesses. We The lessees (Messrs. O. where it was not superceded by rank infidelity. There are at present in operation in the cotton factory 5632 spindles. 89." professedly intended to conciliate the emigrant Indians of Eastern Texas. 200 looms. Pike & Co. We have now approached that culminating point in the politics of Texas which All the narratives of that initiates the most interesting portion of her history. awaiting the trumpet of the resurrection to penetrate their free and undisputed locations. It never met. period which have issued from the press are either so deficient of facts. . 337 prisoners. to meet again on 1st March ensuing. that a brief summary must partake of their paucity. with the necessary carding and other machinery. .antees the colonists had migrated to the country.] 18 TEXAS ALMANAC. by facts of neglect. and leaving in the prison. White mrles. 4 Of the prisoners received into the Pencolored males. It was an ill-advised. colored females. will bring us into the midst of the most exciting events of our revolution. The next important act of the delegates was the promulgation of a certain " Solemn Decree. and a wide field of querulous controversy. the Consultation having finished its labors. or run into a distinct and voluminous work. adjoarned. by an insuperable necessity. quiescent. The organic Convention which pronounced the Independence of Texas supplanted it. we know of no radical change of government. Catholic was the established religion that it pervaded all classes of the people and ceremonies. have received the report of the Board of Control of this institution. N. if the Anglo Americans of Texas were not justified in assuming the position attained at this period in our brief narrative. we were left as "-sheep scattered on the mountains. that the Eoman secession. LOUISIANA STATE PENITENTIARY. tioned by a hope of restoration. to the Constitution of 1824. Its further continuance.000 yards of cotton goods per day.

SAM HOUSTON. in removing the barrier to this progress. But the first result of the battle of San Jacinto was to drive back forever the Mexican standard. under all circumstances. he is almost without a rival.. and the annexation of Texas. there had been a constant succession of efforts. as compared with its poor and destitute colony. Houston possesses some extraordinary traits of character. of this sketch has stood before the world as the most prominent man in Texas. and for a degree of self-possession and unshaken confidence. or in the power and resources of a great nation. in his own resources. however fallacious and unjust it often is. The history of the world furnishes scarcely a parallel. yet the victors knew not how to profit by their success. for the ascendancy he secured and so long maintained in Texas. if any. But the victory of San Jacinto was one of no ordinary character. and one of its small provinces with but a handful of men. and where is the power that can stop it ? For thirty years previous to the victory of San Jacinto. and transiting to this Union absolute dominion over near one-half of the Mexican Empire. still he seems to wield his usual influence in the party with which he has connected himself and even many of his former friends in the Democratic party still adhere to him. and regardless of the dictation of Democratic Conventions. In personal address and the power of obtaining an influence among the masses. California. Indeed. when the political prejudices of the present day shall have disappeared. For quickness of insight into human character. with a further acquisition of territory by the Mexican war. The distinguished subject SAM HOUSTON. we are chiefly indebted to that diplomacy for such a barrier. But it must certainly be admitted that Gen. except in transient and predatory incursions. for it was not till the De Onis treaty was ratified that the Louisiana purchase was curtailed of its jast proportions. than by his generalship. or whether we look to the importance and magnitude of the Those results have but in part been realized. and still that . 119 GEN. . he has few. That result is gradually being brought about. compelling it to retire beyond the Rio Grande and since th. &c. superiors. in connection with the name of the Commander-in-Chief. He is still a prominent actor on the stage and though his more recent political course has driven from him many of those who were formerly among his warmest supporters. followed as a necessary consequence and passing events indicate that the train of sequences will not cease short of the entire revolution of Mexico and the Central American States. in no small measure. embracing Texas. progress is onward. and tact in devising the means necessary to accomplish ends. Xor had American diplomacy been any more successful than American arms. among the leading and most prominent patriots of the revolution. Arizona. and. . for the man having the official authority to control the operations of an army.t proud day it has never returned. notwithstanding his abandonment of their party. of the popular verdict in regard to all military achievements. It is to these remarkable traits of character that he is indebted. But we leave this for the future historian to decide. all the attending circumstances being taken into consideration. always receives tbe applause or censure attending success or failure. the controlling influence he has so long exercised over the people of Texag. whether we look to the vast disparity on the field. by daring pioneers or fillibusters. This is the criterion. This event was in itself sufficient to fix the eyes of the world upon the Commander-in Chief. although many brilliant victories were achieved. . contending that the victory was won rather in spite of him. placing all that vast region under the dominion of Anglo-Americans. Indeed. ever since the opening of that campaign which closed with the defeat and capture of Santa Anna.GEN. Such was the direct result of that victory. then on its way to be planted on that barrier. in spite of the numerous enemies he made at the very outset. . to open the way to this progress. and their temporary triumphs always resulted in final defeat and disaster. That victory first opened results. the gate to American progress towards the South and where will it stop ? Wao can pretend to answer this question ? That progress has already spread over an empire of territory stretching across this Continent from the Gulf to the Pacific shore. . We have deemed it proper thus to allude to a victory which established a aew and important era in the history of this country. although there has been and still is much difference of opinion as to the part borne by him many who were present and held high position on that day. It decided a contest between an Empire numbering eight millions of inhabitants. and narrowed down to the banks of the Sabine.

Virginia.120 TEXAS ALMANAC. while He was a man he was on a tour of inspection among the Alleghany Mountains of powerful frame. to Pennsylvania. that he never could be got into a school house. . Many years afterwards. which elevated her. Houston's early life. by law. and our readers must. and in regard to which but and there is. But the warm and devoted attachments. The State made little or no provision. for the education of its citizens. and the bitter enemities on the other. he says: : ' opinions. her son returned from his distant exile. as regards his public career in Texas. nor can we learn that he ever accomplished much. leaving our readers to form their own conclusions and . Hie ancestors. who are said to have emigrated thence to the north of Ireland. Virginia. on whose side they fought. which has never become very famous for her district schools. to weep by hjier bedside when she came to die. months in all. He bad borne his part in the Revolution. and now they were to seek for other reliances. and we suppose them to be generally correct but we omit the writer's comments and inferences. He was known only for one passion. Moore's Brigades. after he did enter. written evidently by a warm friend and admirer. to escape the troubles during the time of John Knox. and each neighborhood was obliged to take care of its rising population. If he worked very well. were the only seasons he was allowed to improve even the dubious advantages of such a school. She was gifted with intellectual and moral qualities. Her beneficence was universal. he was sometimes permitted to run home from the fields. These qualities his he and had to leave him. The latter post he held till his death. once occupied by that instituThis school seems. Prom Ireland they are said to have emigrated. in a still more striking manner. little comparatively is known to the great mags of our readers therefore. indeed. and a ' Field school was kept in the ruined old edifice. is drawn entirely from an anonymous biography. during bis life-time. till he was eight years old. and yet she was nerved with a stern fortitude. His biographer speaks of his parents and early education as follows " His father was a man of moderate fortune . for his biography to be written with that strict impartiality and justice that truth demands. She was distinguished by a full. from which there are few that can claim to be entirely exempt. to be in time to retain his place in But it is doubtful if be ever went to such a school more tban six spelling. Her life shone with purity and benevolence. will probably render it impossible. . and was successively the Inspector of General Bowyers and Gen. and an impressive and dignified countenance. rather tall. had still less to boast of fortv years ago. 1793. Long before this period. concerning Gen. make what allowance they think proper for what they may deem the coloring of partiality. '' We have learned from all quarters. and matronly form. Gen. Sam Houston was born on the 2d of March. Washington College had been removed to Lexington. a fine carriage. in Rockbridge county. and will probably task the future historian for an adequate explanation. that have always followed him from the commencement of his career down to the present day. till the death of his father. above most of her sex. Houston. Late in the fall and the winter. which took place in 1807.) to have been of doubtful utility. therefore. the less room for the influence of those biases. The rest of the year he was kept to hard work. substantially as we find them stated. in a literary way. is one among the most prominent features of our history. They had been maintained in comfortable circumstances." Of Mrs. son inheriied. from all accounts. Houston is said to have learned to read and write. on the one hand. It is for this reason that we have determined to confine the present sketch to that portion of his life passed before his arrival in Texas. which never gave way in the midst of the wild scenes that chequered the history of the frontier settler. both on his father's and mother's side. and her name was called with gratitude by the poor and the suffering. and to have gained some imperfect ideas of cyphering. We have condensed by confining ourselves to the facts and incidents of his life. inform ourselves about this matter. which took place when he was thirteen years old. chiefly through the exertions of the father. (and we have taken some pains to tion. at a place known as Timber Ridge Church. are traced to the Highlands of Scotland. they were the only legacy " His mother was an extraordinary woman. at the time of the siege of Derry. he seems to have possessed the means only of a comfortable subsistence. and this was for a military life. fine bearing and indomitable courage. The following sketch. This event changed at once the fortunes of the family.

that he then continued with the Indians during three or four years. Those of our readers who live in a crowded population. abandon once more the habitations of civilized men. lie was kindly received by his mother. priety. this manner he had incurred a debt which he was bound in honor to pay. immediately Alleghany Mountains. as the event proved. Houston was left with the heavy burden of a numerous family. his biographer says. says our author. for awhile. gave themselves no great uneasiness about him." But this he did not like any better than the school. it was found he had crossed the Tennessee River. however." and he then dwells on the influence which his Indian associations. and. in Washington City. after he had refused to go to school." It seems that Houston could not agree with his older brothers. He had. and on the formation of his tastes. he had no other resource left but to abandon his " dusky companions. and a taste was formed for forest life. he persevered. He was also paid what was considered an exorbitant price. "he seemed to be living much more to his liking. who." They tried to persuade him " he to return home. thinking this a freak from which he would soon recover when he got tired of the Indians. "that his early life among the Indians was." It now appears that young Houston was employed on the farm to assist in . it was no easy matter for him to get a school. As may naturally be supposed. and Sam did not make his appearance. But as the idea of abandoning anything on which he had once fixed his purpose was no part of his character. and find a new home on the fertile banks of the Tennessee River. sent to school occasionally. SAM HOUSTON. 121 providing the means of subsistence. a necessary portion of that wonderful training that fitted him for his strange destiny. which made him." After much search. fifty years ago. and in a short time he bad more scholars to turn away than he bad at first to begin with. But week after week passed away.GEN. had upon his future life." Our author says he procured much of young Sam's Indian history from " a strange source. It seems. in 1846. " he turned on his and declared solemnly that he would never recite another lesson of any heel. w e think it very probable that he kept his word. purchased many little articles of taste or utility to use among the Indians. " They halted eight miles from the Tennessee River." and teach the children of pale-faces. and prepared to cross the fortune." says the writer. as a striking evidence of the mutual attachment formed years before. At last his clothes were worn out. but he declined preferred measuring deer tracks to tape. His biograyh3fcis resumed as follows: " This wild life among the Indians lasted till his eighteenth year. other kind while he lived and from what we have been able to learn of his history. but having got possession of Pope'e translation of the Iliad." We copy as follows " His family. " compelled him to go into a merchant's store and stand behind the counter. and " he suddenly disappeared. his brothers treated him with due proBut the of first act showed him to drove the woods again. the enterprise moved very slowly. during his visits once or twice a year to his family. and being refused." There he was initiated into the profound mysteries of the red man's character. that he asked for the privilege of learning the original language. To meet this engagement." The writer then speaks of being present at an affectionate interview between Gen Houston and forty Indians from Texas. he became so interested in its heroic recitals. took up her journey through those unpeopled regions and yet few of them can have any adequate conception of the hardships such a heroine had to encounter. " Certain it is. and wandering along the bank* of the streams by the side of some Indian maiden. however. to be refitted in his dress. much . may be struck with the heroism of a Virginia woman who. Formerly. at this time. and was among the Indians. He was. and on the first start. She had six sons and three daughters. surrounded by all that embellishes civilized life. from his " account. But she was not a woman to succumb to misout and she sold her homestead.' which he says was " the moulding period of his life. with whom. and he returned to be refitted. which was then the boundary between white men and the Cherokee Indians. many years after." but does not explain what that source was. sheltered by the deep woods. " Mrs. chasing the deer througn the forest with a fleetness little short of their own engaging in all those gay sports of the happy Indian boys. : . conversing in that universal language which finds its sure way to the heart. In. tyranny they where he passed entire months with his Indian mates.

in Alabama. Houston was started on a litter. but he was soon after promoted to a Sergeant. neglected and exposed. who probably thought that one who had been graduated at an Indian university.' With this threat from an interior officer. Houston (the sword with which he said Try again. He also wore his hair behind. Major Montgomery was the first to scale the breastwork. he then closed his school. and was then promoted to an Ensign. or the Horse-Shoe." He wasmarched to Fort Hampton. bo master bad hinted a cove $6 per annum. Jackson finding that Houston had been badly wounded. in which oar Indian professor was dressed. This bend was called To-ho pe-ka. raised the price to $8 one-third to be paid in corn. numbered over 2000 men. and here the Indians were very strongly fortified. ia said to have been the second to mount the works. a part of the time. or the Horse-Shoe. on the right of the 31st Regiment. After being driven from point to point.TEXAS ALMANAC."' Having earned money enough to pay his debts." It was about this time that the second war with England broke out. with the other woundHere be remained. in a snug quene. where they coalG only be appioached by a narrow entrance. as he was rallying his men to the charge. for Fort Williams. by General Johnson. relation. some sixty or seventy miles distant. A pretty full account is given of the investment of this strong fortress. tearing the flesh us the arrow came out. Euclid being put into his hands. and by Col. " came to the very sensible conclusion that he would never try to be a scholar. but he was shot in the thigh by a barbed arrow. suspended between life and death. He was taken care of. the Lieutsuant is now said to have succeeded. 7 ' The war with the Creek Indians had been continued for some time. The Regiment descended the Coosa. and is said to have been very much in love with it. General Jackson's army. probably from an idea that it added somewhat to the adornment of his person. This was in 1813. where he remained encamped for some time. The officer made two unsuccessful attempts and failed.wound he was totally disabled. For a long time he was not expected to recover. of the attack. ed. through which it was almost certain death to make a charge and when Gen. are not healed to this day. says the writer. Cheatham. not an." It was here that Houston received two rifle balls in his right shoulder. and Houston seized the first opportunity to enlist in the ranks. which was with difficulty ex" He called tracted Our author says upon his Lieutenant to extract the arrow. By this. as they resisted till nearly all were slaughtered. or the Hickory Ground. that a large party of Indians had secreted themselves in a strong part of the breastworks. at 33 J cents per bushel cloth. and then Houston could wait no longer. after he had tried in vain to do it himself. ' . the other regular officers of the regiment having all been removed to Fort Jackson. and was soon in the hottest of the conflict.So says his biographer. bristling with rifles and arrows. he carried it about for a few days. and one-third in domestic cotton mill. but was killed on the instant. I " will smite you to the earth. and "became the best drill in the regiment. and went back to his old master to study. father of the Postmaster General of that name. determined to risk all on the hazard of a single battle. The wounds Houston then received. The victory was finally complete. The line of march was then taken up for Fort Williams. but this strong hold was afterwards taken by being set on fire. calling his men to follow. with the single exception. . and then. now encamped at Fort Williams. regardless of his wounds and the peremptory orders of the Commander. ought to hold his lore at a clearer rate. delivered at the one-third in cash. ' . . and "calling on his platoon to follow him. and contained about 100 acre?. the storming of the breastworks. Gen. a thousand of their choicest warriors finally took their stand in a bend of the Tallapoosa river.' was still keeping command raised over his head) and if you fail this time. Ensign Houston. and marched for To ho-peka. where some events took place deserving a more minute . We quote as follows: " On the following day. officer volunteered. of variegated colors. Jackson called for men to make this charge. says the writer. he dashed down the precipitous descent towards the to charge through covered ravine/' There was then no mode of attack except the port holes. positively forbid him to return to the charge. for a long time. and the final defeat and destruction of the Creek nation. but he again returned to the head of his men. Houston. " Returned to Knoxville assisted in drilling and organizing the Eastern Battalion of the 39th Regiment of Infantry and from thence marched to the Ten Islands. and had to retire from the action. BO named from its shape.

and attached to the 1st Regiment Infantry. Dougherty. following. he was removed to Maryville. He sat quietly. Returning to Tennessee. and he resigned his Lieutenantcy and Sub-Indian agency and went to Nashville to study law. most probably. He is said to have discharged the duty with marked ability. he speaks of her with great kindness. all ciety with the deepest excitement. and let the storm of popular fury rage on. which was then a province of Spain. Owing to circumstances. In the meantime. for having prevented some negroes from being smuggled into the Western States from Florida. From that day he has. which filled soVarious reports flew through the State. He sold the last property he had to pay his debts. of them unfounded. and he was returned by an almost unanimous vote. even among his confidential friends. we copy as follows "In January. In April following he sailed for New York. Having conducted a delegation of Indians to Washington that winter. notwithstanding he was jeered by the members of the bar on account of his rawness and recent advancement to the profession. where he arrived in the latter part of May. he was elected Governor by a majority of over 12. to his mother's house in Blount county. but entitled to 7 reward for his services. nor allow his friends to do it for him. warmly approved by his constituents. Houston's unfortunate marriage. and entered upon his legal studies in the office of Hon. who commanded the Brigade from East Tennessee. As usual on such occasions. the ball having shattered the bone and lodged near the shoulder joint. : species of crime man ever committed. that they were doing her a kindness. and was admitted with eclat" He commenced his profession in Lebanon. Jackson was of opinion that he was not only free from censure. those who were most busy in the afiair were the very ones who knew least about the merits of the case. He was now in his 25th year. with the rank of ColIn October of the same year he was elected District Attorney for the Daonel. he was elected to Congress without " His course was opposition. about which far more has been conjectured than known by the world. on his accession to office. only made it seem the more terrible. James Trimble. and from thence by Gen. going down that river in the first steamboat he had ever seen. that Houston considered himself slighted by the Government. he was elected Major General by the field officers of the division comprising two-thirds of the State. the friends of the lady loaded the name of Houston with odium." . he married a young lady of respectable family. SAM HOUSTON. he was detailed as a sub-Indian agent among the Cherokees to carry out the treaty just ratified with that nation. The result was. and of gentle character. In 1821. In 1823. he was detailed on duty at the AdjuIn November tant's office. maintained unbroken silence. The very ignorance of the community about the affair. where his health was improved. It is asserted that Gen. the union seems to have been as unhappy as it was short. and whenever he speaks of the lady. at New Orleans.000.GEN. which divided the people of the State into two hostile parties.' After languishing for some time at his mother's." says our author. In regard to Gen. and had the least right to interfere. 1829. He defended himself before the President and Secretary of War. He is said to have been almost universally successful in his prosecutions. Houston did not offer a single denial of a single calumny would neither vindicate himself before the public. 1817. by increasing the mystery which hung over it. by arguing that he was only endeavoring to secure respect for the laws. he found that attempts had been made there to injure him with the Government. vidson District. He finally recovered sufficiently and rejoined his regiment at Knoxville. and after recovering some strength he proceeded to Washington City. "prescribed 18 months study in one third of the time he was recommended to apply for license. through the Cherokee Nation. and thence to Knoxville for medical assistance. In less than three months a separation took place. nearly two months after the battle of the Horse Shoe. and so-great was his popularity that." In 1827. and inflamed popular feeling to the last point of excitement. He was charged with every . ''His teacher. On the reduction of the army he was retained as a Lieutenant. he was soon compelled to have a surgical operation performed on his arm. He proceeded to New Orleans by way of the Mississippi. and was soon after appointed Adjutant General of the State. and stationed at Nashville from January 1st. Having reported himself for duty. he was without opposition in the Legislature. and by them at 123 last brought back to the Ten Islands. " Thinking. where he arrived just after the burning of the Capitol by the British. where he was when peace was proclaimed. and some of them begotten by the sheerest malignity.

and his children by that marriage. and exile himself from civilized society." among them. He then crossed over "for the purpose." says our author. and who charged Houston with attempting to obtain a fraudulent contract for Indian rations. ever to contribute to their crimes or their misfortunes by introducing or trafficking in those damnable poisons. but the agents are said to have swindled the poor Indians out of most of the monej'." In 1832 he visited Washington City. he arrived at the Falls of the Arkansas. Daring his residence with these Indians.124 TEXAS ALMANAC. but the member avoided giving him any opportunity. Our biographer offers no explanation of the cause of this remarkable popular excitement. Jackson. or he would doubtless have -. his antagonist. was admitted to the he all says privileges and immunities of the Cherokee nation on the 21st of October. Notwithstanding Houston attempted no defence. Gen. cious wigwam. The author from whom we now chiefly copy gives us no account of bis marriage with the Chief's daughter. a large plantation and Yoakum The men thus removed are spoken of as highly respectable." but our author adds that his friends gathered round him. and after a long journey by steamboat and land. who was then President of the United States. with some five Houston spent near three years with the old Chief. this Chief had removed with his tribe to Arkansas. *We have always understood that the name of this Indian Chief was Bowles. was at a time when he was far from being practically a temperate man himself. they united all their efforts against him. whatever might be his own occasional indulgences during his visits to Fort Gibson and other white settlements. he no sooner gave the answer him.^They introduced whiskey. and in revenge for their disgrace by Houston's representations. and as having powerful friends in Congress. "of perpetrating some foul deed in the dark. which missed fire. who adopted him as his son. at the same time. The old Chief with all his family came two miles to meet him at the boat. The Cherokees were to receive a large sum of money for the lands they had occupied lower down on the Arkansas. But. ' He had eleven years before formed an attachment for the Chief of the Cherokees in the Hi-Wassee country. they threatened him with personal violence . our author mentions "a certain politician" who had been elected as a friend of Jackson. . and knew that he was unarmed. when he saw Houston in Pennsylvania Avenue. and with it all its attendant evils. The Chief's name was Oolooteka. and by informing against the agents he caused the removal of no less than five of them. He adds: "This." "After his determination to leave the country was known. too. which was soon after his arrival. he had too much humanity and love for the red men. Houston himself had a trading house among them. who was killed. The popular indignation and excitement was so great that Houston determined to resign his office. and the agents and their friends were able to bring the powerful opposition in Congress to Jackson to aid them in their measures against Houston. in various ways. even intimating that the President and Secretary of War were implicated in the fraud. Houston now directed his course to his adopted fathers wigwam. or the "fire water. one was that some of the Indians had died of starvation through the rascality of the contractors in neglecting to Most conspicuous among Houston's enemies in Consupply them with rations gress. He resigned his office and quietly left the city of Nashville. snapping his pistol. and cattle. &c. and asking if his name was than Houston knocked him down with his cane. until one evening. and he was received with warm embraces. crowding the journals of the country with statements representing Houston's character as infamous." himself armed while Houston had only a hickory cane.. 1829. Houston recognized of Ohio. is said to have been a warm friend to Houston. taking leave of his friends. Since then. he made himself acquainted with the wrongs they suffered from the various Indian agents sent by the Government among them. but his biographer says he never trafficked in those destructive drinks.* He is said to have had a spahundred head of ten or twelve servants. Houston threatened to chastise this man for the charges made on the floor of Congress. yet "he was denounced by the journals of the day. and pretends not to know whether Houston was in fault or not. Among other charges that had been made by Houston in behalf of his adopted father's tribe. and maintained an unbroken silence. and "the streets of Nashville would have flowed with blood if his enemies had touched a hair of his head. &c. and made great efforts to have those wrongs redressed..

appears to be but conjecture. and Gen. Jackson's last official act. under four processes. It will be seen by the following interesting communications from Mr. from nearly all parts of the State. 1st. adjourned on the 13th of the same month. him most cordially. This protracted trial. it is said to have been his intention to become a herdsman in the prairie solitudes. for the purpose of framing a State Constitution. SAM HOUSTON. we will here bring this sketch to a close. Jackson. of an attempt to procure a fraudulent contract. The consequence has been. This trial lasted nearly thirty days. a resolution was offered to exclude Houston forever from the lobby in the House. and passed through the wilderness. he set out with a few friends. based upon the fact that Houston. to the neglect of important public business. that it is perh aps results have been most encouraging. Houston's career in Texas.GEN. from the seaboard to the mountains. but the committee finally reported that they had seen no evidence of the truth of this charge. which would naturally require some corresponding difference in the breed and the management of sheep. It. to Port Towson. Jackson. and after twenty days' trial Houston was fined $500 and costs.is supposed that this interview was the chief object of Houston's journey. and. Kendall and Mr. Decrow. are attributable entirely to the difference there is in the climate. the soil and 'grass ot the coast and mountain districts. 1832. in a criminal process. This. trial at last terminated in a "party vote of instructions to the Speaker to reprimand the prisoner at the bar of the House." but our author says it was everywhere regarded as a triumph for Houston. at which place he had previously consented to be a candidate. 1S33. was to remit this fine. Houston was elected a delegate from NacogdoHe attendches.000. Houston was next tried on the charge made against him. the member had to keep his bed for several days. Houston's subsequent acts. that the people are engaging in the raising of sheep very generally. San Felipe and on to San Antonio. Houston spoke in his own defence. and that every where the It seems to be admitted. but the sentence wasnot enforced. and after recovering. with a view to carry out some secret instructions given him by Gen. Lastly. Next. we have information of the most reliable character. way of Tennessee. he had Houston arrested by the Sergeant-at-Arms. Meantime a convention being called to meet at San Felipe. where many of his former friends are said to have greeted subsided. in the sum of $20. however. and his biographer says the current feeling was finally turned in favor of HousThe ton. that the demand for sheep to breed from has . We may here remark that. Prom thence he proceeded to Nacogdoches. Houston He returned by set out again on his return to his home in the Cherokee Nation. at which latter place he had an interview with a delegation from the Comanches. As this was the commencement of Gen. says SHEEP RAISING. the member from Ohio indicted Houston and held him to bail. as we believe very many of our readers are more correctly informed of Gen.IN TEXAS. This subject is now becoming one of very general interest all over our State. been a dead 125 Our account man. by which the emigration of the Choctaws. ed this convention which met the 1st day of April. We presume the few points of difference in the experience of these gentlemen. Chickasaws and Creeks might be facilitated. as it was pointed close at his breast. from which place he made a report to the Government. the most profitable business in which investments can be made by our farmers. than the author of the work before us. but this also failed. who probably desired to effect a treaty of peace with the powerful Comanches. that sheep are not only profitably raised in the hilly and mountainous jaarts of Texas. These excited scenes having finally came to a close. owing mainly to the fact of his devoted attachment to Gen. became unpopular. the excitement against him having greatly Having once more arrived among his Cherokee friends. and the House of Representatives resolved itself into a judicial tribunal to try Houston for assaulting one of its members for words uttered in debate. having completed its labors. but one. but also on the islands and lowlands along the coast. having returned by way of Nacogdoches. for the assault.. On Dec. proceeded on to Nachitoches.

[TO THE COMPILERS OF THE TEXAS ALMANAC. At this time a few of my younger lambs. It was in this year that he imported the Bakewell breed from England. than stall-fed animals ordinarily are at the North.) he has had uninterrupted success with his sheep. Three times during the past winter and spring my folds were visited by straggling wolves. He found it necessary to shelter his fat sheep from the sun in the hottest weather. For many He found that the hog-wallow prairie and the rank. and in the amount of wool sheared I doubt whether a greater degree of good fortune ever attended the efforts of any one engaged in the business. We believe Mr. that the coarse wooled Mexican sheep were raised by the Mexicans. Thos F. I should have been able to count over 4000 at the end of May of the present year. The Mexican sheep had not sufficient constitution and died in severe weather. We learn from him that he first engaged in sheep raising on the Brazos. " 9000 1858. from a very early period but they never attempted any improvement in the breed. and any range can be cleared of these pests of the sheep-fold.'' has been the common request for three months past. there is now scarcely a doubt but that Texas is destined to become the greatest wool producing State in the Union. whether it should prove wet or dry. or since the 1st of May. His chief difficulty. . . in 1840. A few years more. 1858. but they were very prolific. intending to smear the noses of all my sheep but I was disappointed in receiving a sufficient quantity of that article. and a cross of Merinos and South Downs from Ohio. 1856.. The experience of all flockmasters goes to prove that by smearing the noses of sheep in spring time. though he has given but little attention to them. and some of the older ewes. years he was unsuccessful.126 TEXAS ALMANAC. and both from extreme old age rather than from any disease. was passed without any loss worth mentioning two ewes only died.upon the hill-sides and in the prairie vallies. 1857. and since Spring set in the greater number have been too fat for the shambles. June and July it certainly can do no barm. who killed fourteen or fifteen old sheep and lambs in all. as the following will show: 2800 pounds. I sheared. Meanwhile.] In preparing a second article upon sheep raising. are In but indifferent condition: the cause is a common one throughout the Union more especially when the early Spring and Summer months have been wet. and a considerable increase in the price. McKinney has moved to his present beautiful place on Onion Creek. I sent to San Antonio for tar at shearing time. in tfiis portion of Texas. and we believe wool will constitute one of the leading exports of our State. was from his sheep becoming too fat and dying off from the effects of the summer heat. From this it will be seen that I have more than doubled the number of my sheep in two years. These he crossed with the Mexican stock. . although running without shelter. I will give a short statement of the increase in the number of my sheep. although very wet. 1856. comparatively. In May. did not suit sheep. Since Mr. being too fat. all told had I not sold or killed any bucks or wethers. the increase in the amount of wool has more than trebled. were in better condition for the butcher. A single wolf came each time. As an evidence of my success for the two past years. .. They did not breed well. He found the Bakewell breed did not suit our climate. In fact. McKinney was one of the first to attempt to improve the quality of the wool by the introduction of sheep from foreign countries. sul try and showery the grub in the head.. and it was some satisfaction to see the hide of each banging upon the fence the morning alter their second visits. Merinos from Vermont. ' k ' . whenever I have wanted mutton for my table. (about eight years ago. I had some 1850 sheep and lambs. at this time. . near Austin. coarse sedge grass. Another year. I intend using tar freely during the months of May. " Try and find one poor enough to kill. At any time during the months of December... and with no other food than what they could pick or crop. It may be proper here to remark. January. . The winter of '57-8. . I lind that I have but little to add to the experience I gave you last year my success has continued most flattering since September. common in that part of the State. and may be productive of much good. nine out of ten of my wethers. in Fort Bend county. and subject to diseases. caused a scarcity in the supply. the fly which creates the grub is prevented from laying or depositing its eggs in the nostrils. at the few settlements formed by them. * " " 5100 1857. February and March.. Strychnine is potent. by its judicious use. In May. . 1856.

during the winter.. or twenty-five cents for each sheep per annum. require no shelter over head at all that they are better off without it that any sheep. at all times. of which I fortunately have an abundance. as to raise wool as cheaply as we can produce it in Texas. say forty yards long by twenty wide. How can the Northern and Western wool growers compete with us on lands which they value at from $20 to $60 per acre. as ordinarily prevails among sheep in Ohio.isure. . Some have gone to Arkansas and Missouri. I would state that good grazing lands can still be purchased at from $1 00 to $2 00 per acre. which will of itself be some protection from the northers. never attended the efforts of any one engaged in the same business ? I cannot reasonably hope for a continuance of such unparalleled good luck or fortune yet I can see no reason why so great a degree of mortality should visit my flocks in future. and 127 this after selling and killing nearly 400 wethers. or perhaps fifty yards by fifteen would be better.) quite a number of gentlemen have started off this spring and summer in search of flocks. : . the front I shall make of open rails. Now. with a gate or entrance in the centre. And if we are to go on and escape the diseases I have enumerated. Here in the mountains of Comal and Blanco counties. Any one can see at a glance that the rear wall will break the force of the fiercest norther. higher than Am . and where physicians are compelled to resort to other callings than their regular profession to gain a livelihood. and besides. and on this point I will offer a few remarks. than under a close covered shed. the interior can always be easily swept or kept clean. 1 shall put up a stone wall some five feet high. or fence of posts and rails. I intend building pens the ensuing winter something on this plan: on the southerly slope of a ridge facing my fields. and without purchasing a single animal. to be generated and spread Nor do I believe that that worst of all epidemics among' sheep the liver rot can ever cause much loss to our flocks in this high and dry region. We might as well look for a visitation of the yellow fever in a region where even the lightest bilious attacks are almost unknown. of wool upon his back. or half or three-quarter Merinos. does not exceed $225. and if I find that the winter rains make it muddy. and also filled in with clay. and under the lee of this wall the sheep will huddle every cold night which comes. per annum on their investments. others to Mexico 1 am confident that those regions will be completely swept of all the surplus sheep they have to spare. nor can I point to any causes in the mountains to give it a foothold. I shall flag the enclosure with flat stones. will allow the wash to run off easily.SHEEP RAISING IN TEXAS. filling in with clay the winps will be of the snme height. As our southerly winds are always warm. three quarter and full bloods. already somewhat weakened by the crest of the hill above. I am of opinion that Merinos. For all my half. running east and west. Attracted by the heavy profits made in this region during the two last years. will keep healthier in an openencl. Prom my own experience. Not a case have 1 seen in two years. cultivation. salting and caring for a flock of 1000 head. the rail fence. Built upon a gentle slope. ever paid before. In proof. and at prices at least 25 per cent. we have undoubtedly the best region for sheep in the wide world. almost the world I have reference to the foot rot and the scab. and where it costs eight or ten times as much to feed a single animal a year ? As well might they attempt to raise sugar and cotton with the hope of gaining the profits made in Louisiana and Mississippi. A well-coated Merino cares nothing for snow. and that the cost of watching. I shall make oblong enclosures. his first thought will naturally be as to the best plan of protecting or sheltering his flock during tke storms and northers of winter. while the quantity of wool has more than trebled in two years. (for it may safely be set down that those engaged in the sheep business have cleared from 60 to 80 per cent. On the back part. Pennsylvania or Vermont. will be ample protection on that side. by breeding from no other than pure Merino bucks from the best flocks of Prance and Vermont. whether the new beginner brings in Missouri or Mexican sheep. with a c< at of from five to ten Ibs. over. and care should be taken that it finds its way to fields below intended for . or the coldest wind that blows. I believe it to be impossible for two great scourges of flocks. below the crest. it may safely be set down that. When it is taken into consideration that the quality of my wool has been materially improved. its value has I not right in saying that so great a degree of success has fully quadrupled. and others will doubtless soon leave.

but says nothing of the positive fact. while the front. . they must start out in the morning to crop their daily food. and would recommend it to all beginners in sheep-raising. 1 have always let my sheep run undisturbed until there was a quantity of lambs. (say prices with half-merino) they fatten well. hot or cold. Hence I prefer that my wellwooled sheep should be penned in the open air. but after a few years it failed. and endeavor to point out my own errors as well as those of others. Bakewell. 1842. and want of uniformity. On the other hand. Nor does rain or sleet affect this breed to any great degree. is open. ALMANAC : . . And he will tell you of a fleece weighing twenty pounds. I will give you my experience in sheep-raising in Texas. and then let them go. and so says your humble servant. I sheared sixteen pounds from oue ram. and medium wool. Bain or shine. and I frequently kill those that weigh eighty. were healthy. and in April. Too rank a cross from one extreme to the other. is but three pounds. I believe that Mexican sheep. First. I first commenced with raising cattle the range at that time was good. and. with my whole crop. should I live. For my little attention he gave me one-third of the increase. Grimes put into my little flock nineteen ewes and seven wethers. when I gather them. .128 TEXAS ALMANAC. and if over heated during the night. when I bought another finer and large. June 2lst. is not good it forms iu the offsj ring a more slender constitution. I had abundant evidence of this last winter. The building is well shingled. often have twins. But 1 have a dislike to foreign yarns like the following If you go in London market you will see mutton which the butcher says weighs fifty pounds to the quarter. I sent to New York and bought two South Down rams. He was very large. which caused me to move them to the mainland and I conceived a plan (as an experiment) to raise sheep. and many of those in the rear are uncomfortably warm. Having noticed a call in the "News" of June 15 to the contributors to your Almanac. sleet or wet weather. so it may be said I commenced with twelve this was in January. GEO. WILKINS KENDALL. and I have not yet seen the error of 'that course. as there are no wolves on this peninsula. . and into this I intend driving all my thin-wooled. I sent to Corpus Christi and purchased thirteen Mexican ewes (pare) that would shear one and a half pounds of wool. January. My locality is the terminus of the peninsula forming Matagorda Bay. and grow large. : fleece of the whole island. mark and alter. which weigh only eight or ten pounds to the same. My wethers overage sixty pounds the carcass. after paying freight. of the butchers. in fact better than any other. I then bought in New Orleans a ram of common Kentucky stock. So says Youatt. tbat the average EDS. 1858. 1843. Respectfully your friend and serv't. a lack of symmetry. I found my sheep doing well. To show the increase of sheep with the above named attention. After the expiration of two years. raise them well the wool is of a medium quality. . for forty cents per pound. I never huve had a shepherd. Another year. being overstocked. and in Jan. Persons just commencing can put up a much cheaper shelter than the above one which will answer for a' year or two but iu the long run I believe that a similar shed will be found the most economical. or rather hair one of them was lost before lambing. I have a shed 160 feet long by 16 wide the rear and wings. &c. I kept him for two years. by-the-by. . Stow them closely under sheds. 1849 he took his part away. and increased fast. or any sheep scantily wooled. which I would recommend as the best sheep for our pra ries and climate they are good breeders. my second wool. . and sold it in New York. : . nor can they huddle so closely under shelter as to overheat themselves during the night. So Jean say. This does not prove that my wool sold for $6 40 per fleece it amounted to $1 06*. I will give you a third chapter of my experience. I will merely state I have never bought but one ewe since the above named twelve it was a I commenced in fine one. the former against the north built of stone and seven feet high. poor and disabled sheep during the coming winter my other flocks must "rough it" out of doors. colds and inflammations must naturally follow. being good nurses. require more protection against snow. PORT CAVALLO. But he says nothing to you of those sheep in the same flock. should it be acceptable. My first object was carcass. Capt. is very comfortable. facing the south. 1842. selling.

last of all. then from the neck to meet with a ball of twine at hand. Esq with which I beg leave. The old and exploded notion of sheep and wool degenerating by being brought from a northern latitude to a more southern. It is a saving in shearing. of Vermont. We first fill this pen and leave the fiock quiet the men then take a sheep each and proceed to the water. in preference. I off to swim the small pond and take the prairie. has the appearance of having been with Noah before the mast. (as healthy) the most gentle. let him take 100 or 1000 Mexican sheep. of Tennessee. I consider it better to let the lambs come about the middle of February or later. if their lambs are taken from that flock. to which I have attached two or more canvass hose. and between this and the pond. Brown. by G. I have 13 fine. to disagree. pure blood Merino rams in my old I have had four years. and furnish my Mexican sheep with rams from my old flock. that the fleece might not become burdensome during hot weather. Mr. all of which hold their quantity and quality of wool. I pass it around tightly. W. : CHINESE SUGAR CANE. and if large. rivulets or falls of water. . I have a small pen that will hold 160. and from Mark Cockrill. or sell and buy again. and now they have increased to over the former number. float him under the hose. the healthiest. in the following manner a table. . THOS. My pen is sufficiently large to hold all my sheep. cross the same. . . their progeny vigorous and thrifty. hills. as he says) is the hardiest. free from fresh marsh and flat and muddy land. I never have separated my rams from the ewes. transportation.) One of mine. This year I sheared 1032. DECROW. notwithstanding 1 sheared quite small lambs. Washing is a necessary operation.' (I admit. . After . named the Parson. as near as may be I then fold in each side half way. . Respectfully yours. he said. I fold again 1 then roll from the tail end half way. ' : . He says. (as easy) nurse their young better. where he is finished and shoved Now this work being done. now . which price. In the spring of 1854 my sheep numbered over 1200. say one pound each. These fleeces I put in bales for market. well washed. at $2 per head. Such is my experience. even at half flock. but it is expensive. and. and will not justify it. . of my own breeding. (I admit. (a mistake) and the longest lived. draw close and tie. "The Merino brought to the flock in proper time. mountains and rocks. They will cost him $6 or $8 per head and if he goes into the business largely. I have just finished reading an article in your last year's almanac. In this flat country we have not the benefit of springs. with good water and short grass and weeds the latter furnishes a great portion of their food. he concludes by saying he "has set a man up in sheep-raising. D. for I have never lost one. Campbell.SHEEP RAISING IN TEXAS. . giving his experience in sheep-raising in Texas. I lost over seven hundred. if bred to somewhat improved sheep. and there soak and wash. as stated above. This is all the addition have ever had to my flock. aside from the increase. they will do that flock so long as they may live. Jay of the Agricultural Bureau of the Patent Office. "Prom my own Now I have 600 Mexican ewes. So I have substituted a wind-mill in a fresh pond to pump water into a hogshead or reservoir. provided the man has a pocJcetfull of rocks. . averaging a fraction over four pounds per fleece. Kendall. and keep in good condition. the wool. 1 fold the fleece. I have had for some years rams from the farm of Mr. and intend to exchange or sell. keep them in a clean portion of the prairie for at least six days then comI lay each fleece on mence shearing. from the State Pair in New York. the inside down putting it in its natural size and shape. a ram to every 30 or 40 ewes. and appearance of wool. I 129 109 in number. keep the rams two years and change with a neighbor. was introduced to the the result of his experience and investigations of for the giving purpose Society in regard to the culture in the United States of the Chinese Sugar Cane Sugar. The belief that nothing will do for sheep but The only requisite is a dry soil. in some particulars. could sometimes be made from the dried stalks. experience I should recommend pure Merinos. and put with finer rams if the flock is small. purchased a few days ago." I admit he has set the man up. I have disproved to my satisfaction. that the ewes may have green grass and a flow of milk and the lambs will be large enough at washing and shearing to stand the bustle necessary thereto. It contains saccharine matter as far North as the milky state can be had in Massachusetts it has shown 23 per cent. . : . At the National Agricultural Society. let us now see what he will realize. . with plenty of room. or squeeze. In the hurricane of September of the same year. Adjoining. is also a mistake. But let us take one with a half pocket of rocks say. (as gentle) the easiest managed.

and has spared neither trouble or expense in the furtherance of the peace policy a policy which is now beginning to show its good effects.000 for the use of the . eminently fits him for the position he occupies. Ross. The Comanches have a good crop this year. or similar to that of the Americans. Tahwacanoes and Tonkahuas. and a worthy man. The United States Government has been very liberal in its appropriations for the benefit of the reclaimed savage. are very onerous and responsible. This agency is furnished with all necessary buildings. since their settlement in 1853 and are very honest. Neighbors is the Supervising Agent of the Government for all the Texas Indians. but because of their total estrangement heretofore from the manners and customs of the white man. 8. M. These Brazos Reserve Indians have made extraordinary progress in civilization. should be ascribed the success of the Indian feeding policy in Texas. On this Reserve there are six hundred acres of land in successful cultivation in wheat and corn. S. Texas has wisely granted jurisdiction to the United States over ten miles This is to prevent the sale or traffic in intoxicating adjoining each Reserve. in a very pretty inesquit valley. It does justice to the Indian is due to the cause of humanity. and contains four hundred souls all Comanches. eight leagues of land were located on the Brazos River. there is no ways about it. C. R. Neighbors. more than any other. . and reflects great credit upon the originators thereof. of the strictest sort. The Comanche Reserve is about sixty miles distant from the Brazos Agency. They have a school. Under the supervision of Maj.728 acres of land. at a salary of $2000 per annum. The State of Texas. on both Reliquors. or 55. His memory is the rock of ages. known as the Southern band of that tribe. but they are enumerated as Caddoes chiefly. Their Reserve extends over four leagues of land. Wacoes. The Major is too well known throughout the country for any attempt to be made here eulogistic of his public set vices. Maj. The Indian is liberal in extending his confidence. below the junction of the Clear Fork and Main Brazos. To him. and not unfrequently hazardous. Anadahkoes. he is inclined to the opinion that good results will come of On this Reservation there are several good houses built expressly for the it. Ellis Combes. His course towards the Indians must be scrupulously correct and straightforward. There are other Indians than those tribes named. and. Mr. trustworthy and industrious. and worthy Col.130 TEXAS ALMANAC. but it must be " " two carefully cherished. reports fifty sckolars in regular attendance and judging from the interest taken in this educational enterprise by the Old Indians. in charge of the Brazos Agency. and has been a valuable auxiliary in the reclamation of these Indians from savage life. R. under the charge of Mr. Capt. These buildings are situated near the centre of the Reserve. an old Texian. forty-five miles above its confluence with the Main Brazos. for their . and is located on the Clear Fork of the Brazos River. Neighbors disburses annually about $80. Leeper is their will. is the Special Agent of the United States Government. Government. Agent. The mode of culture is the same. His salary is $1500 per annum. He is known by the name of Ketemesie. Texas Indians. Their head chief is a good man. to be reserved to the United States for the use and benefit of the Texas Indians exclusively. Ross' long experience on the frontier and superior knowledge of the Indian character. set apart twelve leagues of land. The civil authority has jurisdiction in all criminal cases. while the Comanches have been outside of all intercourse of a friendly nature. S. . serves as well havt the Indians police regulations. P. is supplied with competent and trustfarmers and artizans. The Comanches have not made the same progress as the Brazos Reserve Indians not that they are any more indolent or lazy. S. Said twelve leagues. and contains about eleven hundred souls. . and frequently among the white settlers. most probably. the approach to which affords a most lovely and sightly landscape. transaction of all and any business connected with the Indians. Maj. Capt. by Act of the Legislature. The duties appertaining to the office of Supervising Agent. and about fifteen miles below Fort Belknap. The Indians on the Brazos Reserve have always lived near. THE INDIAN RESERVES OF TEXAS. upon which the Texas Indians were to be settled by the U. This Reservation is called the Brazos Agency. make sufficient to bread themselves. consisting of Caddoes. there cannot be one jot or tittle of deviation at all from the line of policy marked out. like the Brazos Agency. at a salary of $1500 per annum.

. from Nacogdoches to Waco. via Anderson. Barnard. Alto Springs and Marlin. among these people. is the authorized Government Indian Trader for both Reserves. Also. Austin. La Grange and Bastrop. The and ttfe Indians now look to the products of their farms and stock-raising for support. to Tyler. via Mellrose. from Crockett. Brenham. S. Mr. via Palestine and Kickapoo. Henderson and Rusk. The usual price (average) is about ten cents per mile. via Alto and Douglas also. . Tyler. Leona. From this list it will be seen that nearly every portion of the State is accessible. connecting with the great Northern Line to San Antonio. as a general thing. La. There is less theft or disturbance. to Waco. than there is among the same population of Americans. hunting support. Charles E. via Mt. go to Liberty. to Marshall. to Washington. through to Brenham from Nacogdoches. and enjoys their entire confidence. From Houston.THE INDIAN RESERVES OF TEXAS. will compare favorably with any in the State and have also kept from fifty to one hundred men on ranging service during'the season. From Marshall. from Shreveport. and have been great protection to the frontier. via Marshall. to Austin. B. also. doing well with them. all or . From Nacogdoches four-horse coaches. Milam and Sabine Town. Dangerfield and Mount Pleasant. Travelers leaving Galveston can. and travel is both day and night. Livingston. Round Top. The trading with the Indians is not so profitable now as it was some years past. via Smitbfield. Piedmont Springs. when the Indians depended upon their for means of trade in skins and peltries is entirely stopped. From Marshall. via Crockett. Also. from Nacogdoches four-horse coaches. to Clarksville. two-horse hacks. San Augustine. Also. striking then the great Northern mail. via Jefferson. Fairfield and Corsicana. B. and thence to Shreveport. via London. They have generally good stocks of hogs. J. from Nacogdoches. From Huntsviile two-horse hacks. The same point can be arrived at by steamboat to Houston thence by Central and Houston Railroad to Cypress. and thence. cattle and horses. that Indians can be civilized and success. Washington and . At La* Grange connections made to Gonzales. Esq. Corsicana and Dresden. before TRAVELING FACILITIES IN TEXAS BY CONVEYANCE. of any kind.. which reclaimed. own government. Barnard to say that his services have been invaluable to the Indian Agents in carrying out the views of the Federal Government. Moscow and Sumpter. ^mRusk. Huntsviile. to Alexandria. The connections are believed to be close and. U. four-horse coaches. whom Their immediate agents are constituted magistrates. Henderson and Camden. the service is as good as can be found elsewhere. by steamboat. beyond a doubt. via Railroad. and are A. to Hempstead thence to Waco. to Waxahachie. *See Route from San Antonio. He is well known to all the Indians in Texas. in Louisiana. Enterprise. Independence. striking at this latter point the great Northern mail from San Antonio to Clarksville. From Hempstead. From Palestine to Dallas. Boonville. via Cbappell Hill. to Crockett. Centreville. to Brenham. Also. Bayet's Ferry. Montgomery. Huntsviile and Cincinnati. 131 any offenders are brought for trial. MAIL For the accommodation of our traveling community. Owenville. we have been at some trouble to get up a list of coach and hack service throughout the State.* From Henderson. via Rock Island. . to Tyler. The Brazos Reserve Indians have tended their own crops. thence by four-horse coaches. has been trading with the Indians on the frontier for a period of fifteen years or more. Palestine^Fairfield and Springfield. It is nothing but justice to Mr. via Rosehill. to Crockett. via Madisonville. connecting with the line . Athens. Suffice it that the Feeding or Peace Policy in Texas is a It has demonstrated. At Crockett four-horse coaches go to Nacogdoches. by four-horse coaches. Wheelock. From Hempstead.

via Lockhart. and next the pebbles make their appearance. connecting at the latter point with a line to the mouth of Red River. however. in the Mexican Gulf. At Victoria. connecting at Saluria with Stage to Aransas. by Helena and Pano Maria. These are the ascertained routes. " reprisals from the sea. to Austin.] The Water-Shed of Texas is of such form that all her streams converge towa rds a common centre. to Matagorda. would pass through the following points: Commencing on the Alabama river. TE RTIARY BEDS. by a gradual elevation. the margin of the Gulf has a curve. to Clarksville thence. and near the coast but few pebbles." This implies. San Marcos. sand. Tennessee. however. . at Indianola. From Gonzales. to the Water-Shed. McKinney. a short distance from Fort Stoddard. while the entire alluvion of the Mississippi Delta is sinking. Hineston to Chaneyville. to Victoria. At Richmond connections made to Wharton. Their margin is mark ed. Bonham and Paris. . " contributions to the land. to Sabine City. G. in many places. which are expected to be run with Coaches and Hacks. Galveston. and all the Drift or Boulder and Pebble Beds not found in the valleys of streams. Waco. via New Braunfels. occupy the gentler slope s. by steamboat. is like the Texas coast. via Hallettsville to Gonzales. via steamer. Still further interior. and by the recession of the waters. to which the marg inal outcrops of these formations are approximately parallel. three times per week. to Cold Springs. from this harmony of surface slope." or. via Seguin. the main strea ' ms lying nearly as radii to these curves. But these Diluvial Beds are very irregularly distributed. where other formations prevail. and are generally thin. to Steep . if not the two intermediate. generally by the first hills. Th e entire seaboard of Texas is composed of what Geologists call SHINGLE. Pleiocene and Recent. or Harrisburg. The curve of outcrop of the Tertiary beds next the Gulf. Waxahachie. on Pearl Shingle Di LUVIUM. to Nacogdocbes. connecting with Stage to Gonzales also. on a right line to Monticello. Galveston. and. by Railroad to Richmond thence to Columbus. or drift-beds. Mellford. Next beneath the Diluvial beds (of clay. is gaining " "at the Beach. . emerging at least. known to Geologists. Austin. [By Professor C.. via Woodville and From OUTLINE OF TEXAS GEOLOGY. nearer to the Gulf. to conform. the&e beds overlie all others. via Velasco. known as Star bids at the Postoffice Department. From Houston. Mio cene. in general. There are. Lancaster. From From . Huntsville. to San Antonio. Belton. Also. The dip of her Geological form ations is inferred. at thirty to sixty miles from the coast. Interior. From San Antonio. thence. Jonesville. through Arkansas to Memphis.132 TEXAS ALMANAC. Eocene. Georgetown. Ex animations have not been sufficiently extended to mark the subdivisions of this formation into its four well marked periods or ages namely. The Gulf coast beyon d the Delta. From Victoria to Goliad thence. Burrs' Ferry. At Columbus connections made to La Grange also. by Stage. the gravel beds and heavy angular sands. FOHSHEY. In these there are no rocks. It would r that our coast is all in the process of emergence. Dallas. by steamer to Indianola." made by th e waves at the sea-shore. and thence by boat to Corpus Christi. From Gonzales. So. in Texas. Bluff. Swartwout. the Diluvial. other contracts. as Tertiary. as examined by the write r. or decidedly rolling lands. . and thence. gravel and pebb lea) lie the beds. La. Livingston. but probably the first and last of these will be found . and they contain the first rocks we find in traveling interior from the Gulf coast. From Galveston. Chambers' Creek. to San Antonio. Superintendent of the Texas Military Institute. appea Next to the Shingle. and our arrangements are. in a large portion of the country. Woodville. are entirely wanting. via Port Lavaca. that all such will be added to this list speedily. via Yorktown and Sutherland's Springs to San Antonio. forming all the celebrated Red Lands.

seem to be protrusions through the Cretaceous beds. and in part described by the writer. the Cretaceous beds extend uninterrupted all over habitable Texas. with boundless prodigality. Leona. in iron and Ochreous ores. on the Mississippi.) is also found. no information enables us to trace the formations. gradually nearing the coast down to Corpus Christi. Gonzales. Louisiana. For instance. They are certainly older than the former. This invaluable mineral nature seems to have strewn. disintegrating shells and limestones of the Cretaceous beds. Caldwell. Bastrop. in the older periods of the Tertiary. and of genera entirely new. imperfectly formed sand-stone. Mississippi. The vast area of fertile country north and west of this line derives its exceeding productiveness from the rich marls and clays. in unlimited abundance. The Tertiary beds are generally distinguished by the great abundance and variety of their marine and gigantic sauroid fossils. and between San Antonio and the Gulf seems to be less than fifty miles in width. The width of the Tertiary belt will appear from the partial indication we shall give of the cretaceous margin. limestone and Cretaceous marbles. Lowe's Ferry. Grand Gulf and Vicksburg. The Tertiary belt has a varying width in Mississippi and Louisiana of one hundred and twenty to one hundred and sixty miles. on latitude 31. Some Geologists classify these as Tertiary. appear in great numbers. stretching north and south. and down through Live Oak county. with an abrupt 9 . a few miles above Smithfield. too. some exhibiting granite. In addition to these. they pass beneath the Tertiary beds about Tyler. especially in Paleontology. each of several species. where the pebbles and ochres of the Drift beds will be found lying on a soft. of which we have been treating. Cervine and Sepine. of very rich rewards for scientific enquiry. south-west. have been discovered. or imperfectly formed aluminous coal. The belt seems to grow narrower as it is pursued westward. Beyond this point. in Texas very near at its North-eastern corner. as far as examined. on the Trinity. where the Artesian borings penet-ated Tertiary beds very near to the surface. on the Sabine. Those mountains. and Columbus. But if we except the range of mountains under the name of Guadalupe.OUTLINE OF TEXAS GEOLOGY. Red River. near the Pecos River. The elevated mounds and conical hills that abound at the sources of the Colorado and the Brazes. some carboniferous rocks from the coal regions. They abound in calcareous sand rocks. a good and easily wrought building material. in the form of sand stone. Fayette county. San Felipe.River. there is no district of country in northern or western Texas which is not properly embraced under the title Cretaceous. &c. their Gypsums. in Gypsum and marls. 133 . to the Rio Grande. the writer has not personally examined. Ochres. seem to be an up-heaval that brings to view the beds of the Carboniferous and Transition Rocks. Mouth of the Rigeletde Bon Dieu. Prairie De Cote. There is promise. CRETACEOUS BEDS. The surface of that rock marks the boundary between the Drift and Tertiary. lological. But. Palestine. below Columbia on the Ouachita. and near Alexandria. but would trace the base of the hills next the Gulf. on the Colorado River. over almost every Geological field. Thence. They appear Equine. but contain many minerals and fossils in common with the older Tertiary beds and the distinction between the two formations is chiefly Paleon. and others as Secondary. and others the lower Silurian rocks of the Transition They appear Period. All these abound in various portions of the Texas Tertiary Belt. The first evidence of its presence will be found in the creek and river beds and banks. and in the beds of streams still further south-east. and their marls. Mineral Springs. The Lignites. on the Brazos. and springs and living streams of water over a large portion of their extent. (almost worthless. the foot-prints in the calcareous sand-stone about Rutersville. often calcareous the lime sometimes prevailing is to be found over nearly every portion of the Tertiary field. Harrisonburg. No metals but iron need to be expected in these beds. from about the boundary indicated. This width would be much increased if we carry its Gulf side limit down to where it is last visible in the beds of streams to Rodney and Natchez. of primary and secondary rocks. and trending south-westwardly.

Houston and Col. After remaining in Goliad about a week. he raised the flag of independence the first. Houston then proclaiming himself strongly in favor of the expedition to take Matamoras. Major Bonham. However this may be. With great deference to those. proceeded with us to Goliad. we confidently look for results which shall prove invaluable to science. after a march of six or seven days. and others. . but returned to the Alamo. Having arrived at the Cibolo. EXPEDITION UNDER JOHNSON AND GRANT. EDITORS TEXAS ALMANAC : In compliance with your request. 1 do not remember the commanders of the other companies. in order to be nearer to Fannin on his arrival at Copano. or arrived at different conclusions. submitted to the readers of the Texas Almanac. Fannin. with some five or six others. When we set out from San Antonio. Gen. Cook was elected to command the Grays. The expedition soon set out for Goliad. and we joined it. the expedition was fully organized. as well as sources of wealth and happiness to our industrial population. to change the fact that he found Fannin would be chosen to command the expedition. Francis W.000 feet. who were then proposing an expedition to take Matamoros. . James M. in his place. we heard. and Gen. Having reached Goliad. Hockley. we learned that a Convention had been called to meet at San Felipe. Crockett. had not yet arrived. To the Geological Survey recently ordered by the wisdom and liberality of our Legislature. was elected Major and. that vast and forestless expanse may afford fuel for a future possible population. if not upon her surface. Love. from their explorations. . for 1859. The Texians who had aided in taking San Antonio. Houston succeeded in detaching a large portion of the men who had joined us. Some of the evidences here brought to light. to which place he was to proceed by a steamer from Matagorda Bay. (if any. while Dr. Conrad. Col. I believe. and Capt. there is but little ground for hope that Texas will ever be able to add coal fields to her many other resources for wealth and power. of South Carolina. who had been connected with a threatre in New Orleans. and another by Capt. at that remote region. But beyond these partial promises. and in three or four days after our arrival. Llewelyn. had all left for their homes. G. Johnson was elected to command. under Colonels Johnson and Grant. and we elected two delegates to represent us one of them a Mr. that in the bosom of the earth. I arrived in San Antonio the second day after* the capitulation of Cos. Grant was elected Lieutenant-Colonel. or lying undisturbed beyond the line of up-heaval. Wm. of the New Orleans Greys. we proceeded to the Mission of Refugio. 1835 and I do this the more willingly because I have seen many erroneous statements in regard to that expedition. having come through from Nacogdocbes.) who may have carried their observations upon our Geology farther. and in a day or two after. we there found Capt. Houston and But after reaching that place his half a dozen companions followed us there. that was ever unfurled in Texas. There was not then probably a dozen in our expedition in favor of that measure. furnish a vague promise. The whole number of men was about four hundred. Morris. we expected to join Col. he made a strong speech against the proposed expedition to Matamoras and his of some of us then attributed opinion in regard to that measure. most of the New go. the western half being entirely wanting. Capt. Phillip Dimmit in command of a company. Keil in command of the Alamo with some sixty men. so that we found but sixty-four left who were willing to With this small number we proceeded to San Patricio. Three or four days after our arrival at Goliad. Another company was commanded by Capt. which set out from San Antonio in December. came there. all of us Georgians. leaving Col. who.134 TEXAS ALMANAC. It was arranged to join him at Copano. in company with Hugh and John H. cleavage of 3. as he had received some appointment from Travis. I believe Travis. these outlines 'are. Kobt. I proceed to give you the facts in relation to the expedition. with diffidence. Pearson. and we found there United States volunteers numbering some four hundred and sixty. . Gen. had arrived in Matagorda Bay with about one thousand men.

&c. and finally found the encampment in a small open space surrounded on all sides by this chapparel. which we 'reached by going in single file by a narrow pathway through a dense thicket of chapparel. sixty-seven in all. As Grant and myself approached to join our party. and guarded by a Sentinel. Grant. . and that he could bring with him a small Mexican company of mounted men. getting all the horses we could. we fell in with some half a dozen Mexicans guarding three or four hundred head of horses that had been. We ascertained that Roderiguez. when suddenly there came out from each of those motts several hundred Mexican who closed in. and we passed in. going north of the road to Matainoras. then returned to Sau though he surrendered only after much resistance. Langanheim. Grant. Scurlock and be at Copano as soon as possible. Toler. and. As there were not probably half a dozen of us who Colonels lived to return. namely Johnson and Grant. Love. in high spirits. On the second day out a Mexican fell in with us. Our guide bad informed us that there was a party of some fifty Mexicans a little ahead of us. Colonels Johnson and Grant agreed to release the prisoners from close confinement apon parole. and we made the men guarding the horses (whom we took prisoners) guide us to the Camp of Roderigues. Cass. We pursued them to the Rio Grande. and Captains Pearson and Llewelyn having only a part of their companies. Roderigues pledging his honor that they would not leave but they all soon left regardless of their parole. Having reached the Sal Colorado. We received information from Fannin that he would Jones. My horse was quickly killed with a We . we found them moving off. quickly dagroons. We had reached the Agua Dulce. and making for the tents. Patricio with our prisoners. 135 Orleans Grays having left. Placido and myself might then have made our escape. fired his scopet at me. was encamped near by with a small force. Johnson. on seeing us. but Grant persuaded him to start his party forthwith for Goliad.. Col. and several hundred horses. while the other proceeded westward in search of horses. For this purpose. and had probably slaughtered Johnson and Placido wished to return with us. and we decided to sell our own lives as dearly as possible. : . and. penter. John H. or to the South of us that he had been to San Patricio. we divided our men into two parties. I took Roderiguez myself. Francis. a German. Miller. we made an early start from that place. then preparing to set out. and sometimes buying them at a dollar a head. sent out there to be recruited for the service of Urrea's division of the invading army. we took them all prisoners without This was just at day break. one of which remained in San Patricio under Col. surrounding both. We had been absent from San Patricio some ten or twelve days. the rest of the company following. of Tennessee. the horses and our party. The Sentinel. at once saw that most of our party had already been killed. and give Fannin information of Urrea's arrival. within some twenty miles of San Patrico. we returned on our way back to San Patricio. nephew of CarGov. We . for there were at least one thousand dragoons under the immediate command of Urrea himself. of South Carolina. but missed me. their Captain. We then at once understood that Urrea had come In on the main road some distance below. We jumped over the brush at once. and we. of Philadelphia. as we were well mounted and some distance in advance but our first impulse being to relieve our party. Grant. We suspected him for a spy. Major Robert Morris. about sixty miles from San Patricio. one morning. and our suspicions were confirmed in the morning when we found he had left during the night. of New Orleans.EXPEDITION UNDER JOHNSON AND GRANT. but had been unavoidably detained in Matawished and he us to collect together as many horses as possible to gorda Bay enable him to mount his men. made an early start. with several hundred horses. as they were attempting to cross pel-mel. Placido Buenevidas and myself being about half a mile a head to lead the horses. visiting the different ranches. The tents were enclosed around by brush thrown up. Hoyt. Stephen Miller. and We were passing between two large motts. and I then shot him. pretending that he wished to join us. and in order to scout the country. I went out with this party. some of them were drowned. Our party started out on another expedition immediately. therefore. we returned without reflecting upon the impossibility of doing any good against so large a number. Dr. as 1 was in the lead. Hart. and driving their horses before them. firing another gun. James M. Dr. where we overtook them. Daniel J. under Col. a Creole of Louisiana. of South Carolina. but when we came in sight of them. 1 will give the names of all I remember. the dragoons opened their line. Having taken a considerable number of their horses.

He dismounted. atfG a : . Just at that moment the horses took a stampede. being five or six iays on the road and on our arrival we were imprisoned and kept several days without food or drink. and broke the lines of dragoons. I did so. run surrounded larger larger. Johnson's command. during which time I knew nothing of the fate of Col. but was spared through the interposition of a priest and a Mexican lady. better. . that the Mexican forces under him were very large. who was fatally wounded. several lances. but the number of those overtaking us became and and after had we six or seven us. or have prejudiced our cause. Fernandez. He was well known to them. and. . but I knocked it one side and shot trim. the few inhabitants of the town. with whom I had been on intimate terms. by which means they would be known and saved. They had a bitter grudge against him. that he required me to state what was not true. . and crying out to us to surrender and our lives would be saved. and wounding our horses in several places. I was then taken out to be shot. who proposed to me that I should be released on condition that 1 would go with a flag of truce to Col. at the same time. Urrea s interpreter. Pannin. that saved my life. commanding at Matamoros. After having been kept in San Patricfo some seven or eight days. It happened that on that night Johnson and Toler were engaged in writing to a very late hour. lance. seeing no further chance of escape. the citizens should have lights burning in their houses. Fannin. James M. Urrea then said that I would have to be executed according to Santa Anna's orders. fell I saw some ten or a dozen officers go up and run their swords through his body. and were thus enabled to make their escape. but without seeing any object to be accomplished by it. And only regretted that I had not shared the fate of all the rest of my party. I was then marched. assigning as my reason. I was taken out of my place of confinement to be sent to Matamoros. As we were flying a dragooa rushed upon me with his lance set. we were informed that orders had been received from Santa Anna for our execution but Gen.ind there confined in a small hut for seven or eight days. where I saw most of our men lying dead. and continued to fly. I saw Grant fall. followed in the wake of the horses. Johnson's command. till they had notice of the attack. delayed the defend myself. As I reached the ground a Mexican lanced me in the arm. Morris' horse. and some of them occasionally coming up with But we knew us. but not badly. It was probably my indifference and recklessness of life. I was then lashed upon a horse and taken to the ground where the fight first commenced. brought They had been confined in another out. I conld do no more. was one poor fellow named Carpenter. Soon after our arrival. determined to make them pay dearly for our lives. for the same purpose. as I then learned. we dismounted. when 1 was surprised to see some five or six of the men belonging to Col. the Mexicans following. named Alvarez. as Morris had just "been killed. When it was discovered that he was alive. and thus ended his existence. and. . while all the balance were to be slaughtered. bis escopette. but not quite dead.nd nate circumstance. Miller and Daniel J. we both having come from the same section of the State of Georgia. I refused to accede to this proposition. the dragoons shooting after us. except Johnson himself. but Grant immediately shot him dead. under the circumstances. Toler. who made their escape by a fortuAn understrnding had been had between the Mexicans a. John H. but Grant told me to mount Maj. and their light therefore saved them and T Jhe other two who were with them. they when. were the only men of Johnson's command that had not been killed.186 TEXAS ALMANAC. from Tennessee. and by which I was dragged to the ground. and scarcely stopping. while poor Carpenter was asking to have his life spared. and such as would overpower him but I certainly would not have been the bearer of any proposition that would have been dishonorable to onr army. The reason for making me this proposition was doubtless the fact of their having found letters about me from Col. holding mypistol almost against his breast. if he would surrender. he and his men should be sent safely back to the United States. to Matamoros. After Grant. pierced with moment after I found myself fast in a lasso that had beea thrown over me. with the other prisoners. when I seized his lance to Just as he shot the Mexican. Among others whom I recognized. On the second day of my confinement. Love. i fled with Grant. miles. he struck him on the head with I was then taken to San Patrick. to whom these orders had been sent. Mexico. and Grant and myself finding ourselves then the only survivors of our party. that on the night when the attack upon the town was to be made. I was approached by Gen. place entirely unknown to me. having lived a long time in. one of the dragoons was ordered to finish him. and propose to him that.

that we finally arrived among our friends in Texas. I observed the guard with their cloaks. having been advised that our friends had horses prepared for our flight. Near 12 o'clock. except Placido Buenevidas. but fortunately we were un perceived by them. bat often lost our course. A large church had been commenced. We were kept in close confinement from. Having again mounted our horses. Clark L. A guard of twelve men alternated in watching over us. The other prisoners who were with us were finally released. for the purpose of going through a mock trial. After groping about the remainder of that night. and then we proceeded up the Rio Grande to find a favorable point for crossing. and sentenced to be shot on the 6th cf April. and the next night succeeded in procuring horses and weapons. of Louisiana. that time till the latter part of December following. that the priests exerted their powerful influence in our behalf but the money was promised merely ior a respite of nine days. provided we could once escape from our confinement. Before we had reached the opposite bank. Grant. and glided unperceived to the wall of the quartelle or enclosure. I have omitted many events and details of suffering that would probably be interesting to many. I have thus given yon all the leading events of our disastrous expedition tinder Col. and it was not till after much exposure. were barefooted and nearly destitute of all clothing. &c. and women who cad been influenced by our American friends residing in Mata'moros. determined that we would use every exertion to get out. it was finally decided that McNeely. subjected to every privation and half starved. t . It may be proper to remark that Mr. early one morning. and made good our landing on the opposite bank. or the first of January. but which would extend this communication too much for your use. we were all taken out. while we were apparently asleep. who was then in command of a compauy at that place. and it was not till some time had passed. but Col. After exhausting our ingenuity in devising means to reach the top of the wall. R. We were then formally condemned.EXPEDITION UNDER JOHNSON AND GRANT. but was left unfinished for the want of funds. tnd only succeeded in making our escape by the darkness of the night. seeing a canoe on the opposite bank. when he was able. during a fall of sleet. or blankets on their bayonets over their heads. On the appointed day for our execution. or die in the attempt. when the river was near an overflowrailed to the opposite bank for somebody to bring the ferry-boat over for us. we secreted ourselves daring the fellowing day. we discovered a large number of Mexicans riding up in pursuit of us. R. I sprang from his shoulders so as to reach the top. to climb up by my side. and with it we both crossed. We then immediately jumped down the other side. some four or five months after our escape. I swam over for it. swimming our horses. of which I was the only survivor. execution. The sentence was read to us. During the year we had often asked for the privilege of sleeping in the prison yard. It was not till the latter part of December that McNeely and myself finally prevailed on the officers to grant us this privilege' for one night The time was propitious. trying to protect themselves from the rain! We seized the opportunity. The messenger returned. traveling in the night and laying concealed in the daytime. We were all taken out and questioned separately. We arrived at the Guadalupe. when we were always under a strong guard. We had been in Matamoras from about the 1st of March. crossing a little below Mier. which was not quite so high and having done so. should place himself against the wall close to a back house. the latter part of December. Owen. without being able to find our friends. who was a tall man. where. and only taken out of our close and filthy prison occaWe sionally to sweep the streets. and death was preferable *o snch a condition of wretchedness. . Finally myself and McNeely. by getting hold of my feet. but we were respited by the interposition of the priests. that he finally came over for n^. till we reached a. which was enclosed by a wall fourteen feet high. we pursued our way over the trackless prairie as well as we could. by the influence of their friends. during which time a messenger was to be dispatched to the City of Mexico. to try and obtain a reprieve. saving (much to our astonishment) obtained a commutation of the sentence from death to perpetual confinement. but were discovered by the sentinel on the wall. taking near two days with each of us. . and several narrow escapes. who carried the first news of onr slaughter to Pannin. who gave the alarm. It was by the promise of the money requisite to complete it. weak and greatly emaciated from the painful manner of our confinement and want of food. suspected a decoy by the enemy. McNeely is now a member of the Legislature of Louisiana. opposite Victoria. as it was dark and rainy. 1836. BROWN Yours..

in October of that yca. all efforts to secure which have. about thirty-five thousand 'miles. By the good Providence of God no essential injury was sustained. and some twelve church edifices. but did not long remain in it. Missionary Bishop of Arkansas. Charles Gillette. with six passengers inside. and commenced efforts for the erection of the present church Mr. but perhaps here. up to this time. The Episcopal Church cannot be claimed as in any sense a pioneer church. and to her standards. induced that body to elect and send out the Rt. of this Diocese L. he w. Mr. It was repaired and reopened in about six months. the institution known as Ci St. Eaton. having been sent out as a Missionary from the P." He is^at present Rector of a flourishing parish at Austin. Rev. established a school. and the immense labor involved in the charge of so extensive a field. 1849. PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN TEXAS. and as preserver of the public weal. arrived at Galveston. 1855. April 4th. B. It can be made to accommodate 1500 people. In February. and in the collection of funds for. arrived at Matagorda. width 66. The school above mentioned remains in abeyance. 1857. falling ueavily down an inclined plane.138 TEXAS ALMANAC.s devotedly attached to the church of his choice. A single extract from one of his reports will " We had a tedious and wearisome cot be out ot place journey. also a Missionary. arrived at Galveston. Episcopal Church in the United States. Vermont. There arc at present twenty-three organized parishes in union with the Convention. greatly beloved and lamented. also sent out as a Missionary. The organization memory in Texas. W. . The Presbyterian Minister leaving about that time.''' ( ) Owing to the infirmities of advancing age. and three churches built. In 1840. In the year 1838. On the 14th of January. in the 70th year of his age. made a partial visitation of the churches and missionary stations. edifice. Whatever the merits of Bishop Freeman. Paul's College. and to exercise supervision over the Missions of this Church in the Republic of Texas. at the close of the eleventh of which he said he had traveled in going and coming. 1841. this devoted and faithful Minister. and in the State. The great want of this church has been the oversight of a resident Bishop. and it was first opened for Divine service. failed. awaiting the dawn of better times. Bishop Polk. took charge of the congregation at Houston. after which he confined his labors to the former place. as Rector of. Freeman. At the last Convention there were reported but twelve clergymen in the Diocese. while on a visit to his native State. two only of which supported their Ministers without aid from the Missionary fund. November 1. he again visited the churches in Texas. Caleb and greatly injured. At that time there were six clergymen of this church in Texas. Ives unquestionably belongs the credit of having established the first Episcopal parish in Texas. Two other clergymen were tempoiarily in the Republic. and his representations to the General Convention. He served her faithfully. The first Church was opened in June." This venerable man made thirteen visitations to Texas. To the Rev. Rev. which was first opened for worship on Easter Day. he resigned the care of Texas in 1857. and preached God's word plainly and pungently. Mr. and lifter some time speat in examination of various localities. the following September. No one was hurt but myself. Eaton is still at his post. as elsewhere. 1847. 1858. J. He soon organized a parish there. 1842. Eaton. employed a part of the time. now of Louisiana. S. she may yet act an important part as the conservator of sound and wholesome doctrines. Rev. He died in 1849. and one of some peril. on the 29th of April. For a few months he divided his time between Galvestoa and Houston. It was blown from its foundation. He soon gathered a strong congregation. lie continued his labors there till he had gathered a congregation. 1843. as about midnight the stage was upset. and built a church. The extreme length of the building is 154 feet. In 1844. G. He died at Little Rock. at the call of the Convention. the organization of which had been commenced by Mr. He was a man of great simplicity of character. The corner stone of the present church edifice was laid on Thanksgiving day. which he accepted. and was called to the Rectorship. six organized parishes. H. Forever green be ' : : 1 ! his was effected on the 1st of January. Gillette was courteously invited to occupy their place of worship. Gillette has remained in the Diocese.

Maj. July 24th. on the llth of September last. which Mr. now deceased. when he received from Mrs. Mr. Birch. as regards the inter-oceanic communication across this continent. and went entirely throughto San Diego. and everything of gen eral interest. C. and made his report to the Department. until he learned by an advertisement in the San Antonio papers. noting the distances. Birch. making all the necessary arrangements at every station. and especially embarrassed him. Major Woods expended large sums of money in stocking the whole route with the several hundred mules necessary. AND SAN DIEGO. from California. by coach. and that said Kelton had appointed Abner Barrows his sole agent. Kelton. for a time. the character of the road. Simeon Hart of El Paso. Woods his Agent and General Superintendent. He had appointed Maj. was the contract entered into with the Government of the United States. and supplying all the mail stations with corn and hav for the teams. Birch was a citizen of Swansea. If any proof could be sufficient to satisfy the world of the superior advantages of this route for a railroad to the Pacific. being then on his way to New York. and he then proceeded at once to Washington City. and the latter proceeded immediately to the discharge of his duties. Maj. to take the first mail from San Antonio on July 9th. in meeting the drafts for the heavy outlays. in consequence of the death of Mr. and from it we have gathered the foregoing statements. C. was able to make all the necessary advances to sustain the line and prevent a single failure of the mail. One of the most important events. much of which was infested with hostile Indians. of Charleston. as administratrix of the estate. having employed Capt. including all delays by accidents and otherwise that is. CALIFORNIA. face of the country. to Otes H. The Pimos villages was the point fixed upon. but for his sudden death. and the line would have been compelled to stop. Woods as Superintendent. and continued actively in the discharge of his laborious duties. until the new proprietor could make the necessary arrangements to supply bis place. and sent forward tlie necessary outfits from New York. Maj. and this unfortunate event greatly disconcerted his arrangements. and keeping an accurate journal of each day's travel. SkiDman as a. Without scarcely any previous expenditures in opening a road through a vast and almost unexplored region. > 139 OVERLAND MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN SAN ANTONIO. he continued in the discharge of his duties by the advice of Mr. Birch was to have provided for. mail coaches are at this moment carrying the mails and passengers a distance of 1475 miles. and by his assistance.conductor. and with provisions for the large number of employees required for a mail route nearly fifteen hundred miles in length. This contract was consummated in June. had sold out all the stock on this entire route. We look upon the successful establishment of this line.. as an event of far more than ordinary . together with all the interest of Mr. Julyjllth. it should be such proof as this. It is certainly a remarkable fact that not a single failure has yet taken place under this important mail contract. from which the two mail trains from San Antonio and San Diego should exchange mails. as he went. in furnishing mail coaches. TEXAS. but he unfortunately was one of the several hundreds who lost their lives by the disaster of the steamship Central America. by James E. was just about 40 miles. Birch. Birch a revocation of his authority. Woods at Oynce abandoned it. However. and arrived at the latter place San from first and and the started the second Antonio. while on his return. 18th. bad Maj. and besides. Woods first heard of the death of Mr. Mass. and turn back. Woods left New York for San Antonio June 24th.-MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN SAN ANTONIO AND SAN DIEGO. as he bad received no revocation of his authority.. he was just 38 days from San Antonio to San Diego. where ne had been to make arrangements to carry out his contract. a semi-monthly mail between San Antonio and San Diego. as the most suitable intermediate station for the mails from San Antonio and San Diego. Maj. S. that the widow of Mr. Birch two days after his arrival in San Diego. Birch. with actually greater speed than we have on a majority of the short lines within the limits of our own State. At this moment the line was subject to a large amount of indebtedness contracted on the credit of Maj. before he left New York. mail. and through an unsettled country. Woods himself accompanied this second mail. 1857. His average day's travel on this first through trip by coaches. he surmounted all there difficulties. J. This report has but just been published. Woods got back to San Antonio Jan. for the transportation of .

to Tazotal. military post?. from one ocean to the other. the immediate ocean termini of which will be Galveston and San Diego. shows that nearly the whole route from San Antonio to San Diego is a fine stock raising country. In the whole distance of 460 miles from Tucson to San Diego. the continual passage of government and freighting trains. we therefore subjoin the following extract from Maj. We. as also of the Santa Fe and San Antonio mail coaches. " When camping. after a drive of about ten miles. . " An emigrant passing over our route will meet or be overtaken by a mail paity four times every month. and transmit messages. water. stage offices. especially to the people of Texas.miss his way when once on our road either going to or returning from California. realized. only a portion of this has ever bad any labor bestowed on it beyond that of passing trains. a distance of 651 miles. and wood. also. that Texas would afford the natural seaport terminus to the Pacific Railroad.140 TEXAS ALMANAC. by a government train of several hundred wagons. than can now be had by the present circuitous routes. from San Antonio to San Diepo. There can not be a doubt that this is very soon destined to be the great overland interoceanic thoroughfare of the nation. from others in California. assume that the establishment of this line must lead to the speedy and rapid settlement of the country throughout the entire distance. but I am informed that the War Department contemplate placing two forts in this portion of Arizona.. Wattr is sufficiently abundant. on this continent. &c. giving us. and. who. wood. the road was opened in the year 1849. therefore. over our own territory. in these respects to overland emigration. I have received many expressions of satisfaction from emigrants I met on the road. To this I answer that it is as plain a road as any stage route over which a mail is carried in coaches for your department. . When but a small amount of labor was requisite at first to make a road suited to staging. the road can almost be measured by the ashes of our camp fires. en route to El Paso since that time. to find safe valleys in which to feed his stock for a few weeks. as he would if traveling in a country where guide posts marked every cross-road. with directions where. REPORT TO THE POSTOFFICE 'DEPARTMENT. it may be well to bear in mind that the present route passes through the whole length of Arizona. while much of it is an excellent agricultural country. though more scarce. and which was then thought to be visionary. can generally be had within short distances from the direct route. ranches. and which is corroborated by all other accounts we have seen. We will only remark that the suggestion we made a few years ago. capable of producing most of the necessaries of life. through the sickly regions of foreign nations. in Texas. . importance. An emigrant would find it as impossible to. in a small way. hotels. camping places. whicli is now admitted to be the richest country in silver and copper mines. we unharness in the middle of the road. but a quicker and cheaper passage to and from California. with very few exceptions. The immense amount of travel will soon make a railroad a measure of necessity. or any desired intelligence from friends before or behind him. we have not at present any military posts. Wood's report but before doing so. before the labors of the El Paso and Fort Yuma wagon road expedition commenced. From San Antonio to El Paso. immediately on the completion of the Port Yuma and El Paso wagon road. nearly the whole of our route is over an elevated. " Prom Fort Hudson. grass. had beaten down an excellent road. But as our purpose is now to confine ourselves to facts from which our readers can draw their own inferences. and from one end of our route to the other. and must soon be admitted as a State of the Union: . within a very few years. the advantages of the mail. is now daily becoming more and more apparent. . affording not only a safer. But it is not our business to speculate upon what must soon take place. a distance of 1200 miles. on the trip. The account given us by Major Woods. with but a small scope of barren or dessert lands. last season. on the Gila. dry country. while from our mail conductors he can always obtain the reliable information as to road. " An examination of my table of distances will show four military posts between San Antonio and Birchville from Birchville to La Alessiila we have a settled country all the way from La Messilla to Tucson. one hundred and fifteen miles is the longest distance at present between any of our mail stations. " The question is frequently asked as to whether we have a well defined road all the way from San Antonio to San Diego. a continuous succession of farms. letters.

running across Arizona. and around which we pass by valley roads well adapted to speed. Bartlett. it would not be likely to be so well grassed. The mountains south of the Gila. Lassator. I wish to call particular attention to the distinction between ranges of mountains like the Alleghanies and Sierra Nevada. 3y my journal of August 25. do not interfere with our road. but no cold weather had come as yet we naturally. no way impeding staging. it is won.MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN SAN ANTONIO AND SAN DIEGO. standing in a bold relief against the sky. rather than over. . through the whole length of which our line passes. Through the country over which we pass. and grass. on some future trip. These mountains are mostly what the Mexicans term Mesas . diligently using the means which had been subscribed in the county for a road over the mountains. as it would be sure to have large rivers troublesome to cross. " There are a number of formidable looking ranges of mountains upon all the maps. it will be noticed that the speed we made from Cook's spring. capable of sustaining a large population. and in constructing tanks. As to grass. which look to be barriers almost impassable without a great expenditure of time and money. they come up close to the river in many places. through the Sierra Madre mountains to and beyond the Mimbres river. where I have put down each day's advance. if the appropriation will admit of such an expenditure. there was a large working party of Indians. they generally proved to be isolated buttes. although they appeared formidable at a distance. I trust. under Mr. on approaching. I was very forcibly struck by the fact of not meeting a regular chain of mountains all the way from San Antonio. yet. This is a great deal in its favor as a stage road.concluded that the rain of the valley was snow on the tops of the mountains In the day time we found it so pleasant that bathing was our constant practice. 141 "That portion of our route situated between El Paso and the Pimos villages has never had even a government train to open it. I am informed that all or most of these valleys north of the Gila have a rich soil. Col. will tend to show the excellent condition of our roads. flat on their tops. Abundance of rain had fallen throughout the Gila valley this season. north and south. These passes in the mountains seemed to be formed by nature on purpose for a road. where we were. were covered at their summits with a cap of snow. The speed our coaches are making through these mountain ranges is the best evidence of their easy and expeditious passage. '' At present we have no good road directly over the coast range. A consultation of the items of my own journey. finding new watering places. some hundreds of feet higher than it is now. It was among some of the valleys to which I refer. Having formed my ideas of mountains and mountain roads from a pretty extensive experience among the Sierra Nevada of California. but the enterprise of the peoof San Diego will secure us one at an early day. though the nights were cool and damp from heavy dews. who must have been superior to the present Indians of the country. until I reached the coast range of California. Leach's labors will be of great service in straightening it. with our road winding around them by easy grades through the valleys r or else passing over some low span or saddle. glistening in the pleasant sun of the valley. Our road we found to be through. looking northward from our station at the Maricopa Wells. of mountains from Lassator's ranch to Vallecito on the dessert. " Wood. sometimes drawn by six. It appears as if the plain had formerly been level with the tops of the hills. I could plainly see that the high mountains to the north of the Gila. "On the 15th of November. Over our route we have enough of these for all purposes of staging or emigration. enlarging others. though there is enough water for emigration and staging. found evidences of a race of men long since extinct. Esq. to be able to explore them. as they are situated within what is likely to become a portion of the new Territory of Arizona. This same appearance of Mesas is found along the Pecos. are the emigrant's necessities in crossing our continent. yet there is but one river not usually fordable. but leave an ample passage way for our road around the bases. and the system of isolated buttes scattered over portions of our line. high hills. Water. When I came over the ple mountains on my way east. eighty miles from San Diego. and its immediate neighborhood. never by less than four mules. and need an immense labor cutting down timber to open a road. . these mountains. I refer to the Colorado of the West. that John E. for we used a coach all the way from San Antonio to San Diego. If it were a heavy timbered country. was 21 miles in five hours through the other mountain passes we made much the same rate of speed..

" The section of the country along the Gila river is commonly pronounced by emigrants the worst portion of the whole southern <-oad across our continent but even along this river. however. (See schedule of distances. Supposing Captain Pope should demonstrate the feasibility of boring these artesian wells. we secure enough for all purposes of cooking from the great abundance of roots generally found just cropping out of the ground these make an excellent fire. We found wood scarce all the way from the Rio Grande to the Maricopas from thence to Fort Yuma along the Gila abundant then it is scarce over the desert at the watering places. "At Forts Lancaster and Davis. becoming green again. t. It will be a matter of absolute necessity to enlarge them before *he overland emigration of this spring reaches the desert. will be . a sort of underground forest it burns with as hot a fire as hickory wood. very easily accomplished. on to the Pecos. From San Antonio our road is extremely well watered until we reach the head of the San Pedro or Devil's river. . as a practical mode of procuring water for us. or in canons. do not suffer in consequence. over which our road runs.wood is used along the Rio Grande valley. as far as possible destroyed the buildings. There is a peculiarity of the grass of this section which adapts it most ahmirably to our purpose. thence another of thirty miles. . maybe considered as very limited. enough can be found in spots not remote from the wells once among the San Diego mountains. who stole their cattle. Cotton. and murdered or carried into captivity the J . the country through which our road runs is unequalled as a grazing country. . though it is not superabundantly supplied with grazing lands. We have no scarcity of water in Arizona for our present purposes. we have a Jornada of forty-four miles. a distance of 218 miles going west thence. no one need let his animals suffer for the want of food. there is wood enough. instead of our having to wait wholly for new grass to spring up. When the rains come. a distance of one hundred and fifty miles. have heard farmers pronounce the gramma and mezquit grass nearly equal to clover. Along the Rio Grande universally the fuel is the root of the mezquit tree. Travellers must take some care in examining to the right and left of the road. even then private individuals cannot afford to make them.) Our watering places on the desert west of Fort Yuma are by no means far apart. "An examination of my table of distances will show no want of water along the route all my measurements are to and from well known watering places. being the fuel used in some places. We should be compelled. " I am of opinion that the chances of procuring water by boring artesian wells on the elevated table lands. neither can they wait for government to do so. and the mules. At any rate. From San Antonio to San Felipe creek. " Many of the finest ranches or grazing farms in the State of Sonora. an examination will show this on plucking it. as good as it it had been growing many weeks. when appearing dried up and dead. . We haul water for ourselves in kegs. it contains life and nutriment. To those who . for a distance of twenty miles. until in a few days the country is covered with an excellent crop of grass. The improvement of those now used. which it does in numerous places along our road. there is an abundance of wooded country post oaks and mezquit flats are quite numerous. we find the old dried grass renewing its life. . Wood is generally scarce derfully provided all the way to our Maricopa station. were once located in what is now called Arizona the buildings are at present deserted the inhabitants have fled from the Apaches. it will not do. but the supply is limited at all times. . and makes superior charcoal. inhabitants. and for want of time cannot wander off among the mountain gulches to look for it. . in the opinion of practiced men acquainted with the subject. between permanent roads. oak wood is hauled from a distance of seven miles to supply the military posts. . In the rainy season there are plenty of places in this distance where the water stands in natural tanks in the rocks. This stretch of forty-four miles is the longest we have on the road between permanent water stations it forms however no great obstacle to staging. there is plenty of wood. . to ado^t the old Mexican method of building tanks wherever the natural formation of the country admits of it. in staging across the continent at a rate of speed necessitating the erection of stations.142 TEXAS ALMANAC. As for grass. as well as the digging of others. on our route. Along Devil's river. having to go about twelve to sixteen hours without it. Over these portions of our road where we find no wood at the springs or watering holes. . .

chickens. and onions of very superior flavor are all raised in great abundance by the Spanish population. On nearly all the hills found along the Gila river. while they are not situated at the watering places. " In the mountains near Carissa. from Tezotal to Fort Yuma. so much so that the Pimos manufacture from them a species of syrup. 1 brought ray mules into our Maricopa station in a much better condition than when I left Fort Yuma with them. containing mezquit trees full of beans. but these are limited in number. beans. are scattered in places. They commence falling in August we found a great many under the trees in November. As a fair illustration of the grazing in Arizona. peas. " The Indians make a kind of flour from these beans by roasting and then pounding them. or along the road. to explore for himself the country over which he intends to pass. I am assured by men familiar with this section of country that good hay can be cut on the mountain sides. and the grain has to be hauled from either end to the military posts between these two points along the Rio Grande the whole country is capable of cultivation. after the emigration had passed down the river.ross the desert. . spots of gramma and quinta or bunch grass. Young willows also grow along the river banks. My practice was this: while one of my two teams of mules was working in the coaches for a couple of hours at a walk. green and dried pumpkins. have just been passing over the finest grazing lands in the world. a coupie of miles above El Paso. " In crossing the Colorado desert of ninety-five mites from Fort Yuma. the Gila naturally seems a desert. . " Sometimes emigrants. " On my return trip from San Diego. there is in the season an abundant supply of excellent food for animals in the mezquit beans which are found on our road along the Gila. who are going to California. good grazing commences again. that any emigrant who may be en route to California can now leave stock in Arizona to recruit. pasture their cattle on the bottom lands of the Colorado river for a few weeks before attempting to <. Mezquit beans can also be procured sufficiently near the road to be sold to travellers at reasonable rates. 143 the rich gramma grass as be wetild on clover. corn. though I found no lack of grain along the road. while he takes passage for San Diego. I would state that an overheated horse or mule will actually founder on hind to eat. In seasons of rain.MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN SAN ANTONIO AND SAN DIEGO. beans. One advantage of our road is. places along the bottoms. . Wheat. We keep a mulada at Fort Yuma for our changes. they contain a large portion of saccharine matter. By crossing the river and making a little exploration. in order to reach as soon as possible the excellent grazing on the coast range. flour. giving the other set of mules their chance for loitering be. there is but little for animals to eat. flour from wheat grown in the Santa Cruz valley. which are good food A weed much liked by them. These beans fall from the tree as soon as ripe animals will leave their corn to eat them. under charge of a Mexican herder. bringing them in at night for safety. others again put on at once. eggs. Esq. to the northward. and hauled on to the line of our road at a fair price. . to CaIn some few places arroyos make up rissa. as 1 have proved. which we send out every day to feed in the river bottom. who is the contractor for supplying with flour all the forts in that section of the country. At Tucson we found no difficulty in purchasing corn and barley for our mutes. pumpkins. an abundance of grain is raised all the way from San Antonio to Fort Clarke from there to Birchville there are no settlements. or at Vallecito. " In many places along the Rio Grande our road lies through corn-fields miles in length. spots of good grazing can be found on the north side of the Gila. Lastly. either ahead or behind the coaches. Mules are also fond of the fallen leaves of the mezquit tree. I would have the other team under charge of an experienced man. and very nutritious. beans.. corn. " The country we stage over is a grazing andminerat conntry^ rather than an agricultural one. or whatever they could find. of the Indians. it is owned and managed by Simeon Hart. and ground at Tucson by the Mexicans also beans and onions. and wheat. is found in many for animals. "Flour of an excellent quality is made at a mill on the Rio Grande. where a range of a few hundred yards would suffice for their teams anywhere along the road. a few miles south of the present desert. eating their fill of grass. At the end of two hours we would change teams. " At Maricopa station we bought. At Port Yuma everything has M .

and spending nearly three months returning. The mail coach came into El Paso from Tucson. or on the Colorado desert. Only once in a great inany years. called pinoche. " In the valley of the Kio Grande I had an application from an old mountain man. the heat was very great.! over the road in the hottest months of the year. u A letter per this mail from our train going west. when the whole distance shall have been settled. which looks so formidable. and towns built at convenient distances. In returning to San Antonio. but no one suffering from . with good roads connecting them. the heat became comparatively moderated. without any detention in either case to the mail. pounded parched corn. who regularly cross the desert. I suffered much less with that instrument indicating a hundred and over. with nights particularly pleaIn going down the Gila. frequently complain of the blinding influence of the sun reflected in their eyes from the bright sands I never heard any of them complain of unpleasant effects from the heat. of California. a Mexican port of the Gulf . save twenty-two miles of sand in the Colorado desert. The same conductor reports a snow squall on the previous trip. as marked by the thermometer. in El Paso. It was very warm in San Antonio in July. and having a full moon. the sea. never -present themselves to me as any serious inconvenience. In my experience of the beat on the Gila. all of which comes on pack animals from Sonora no doubt a large trade will spring up from this when Colorado City becomes of consequence.144 to be imported. The heat does not oppress animals any more than it does men. Our present road would be called a superior one in any State lor thirteen hundred miles of its length. where we were descending toward the level of sant. has the ice been thick enough to put up a few tons in an ice house. but none of our party ever suffered anything more than the natural annoyances incidental to wet feet and damp blankets. and sugar. The air was pure and clear. " Arizona ought to be supplied through Guyamas. I experienced the winter weather over the same country. Leaving San Antonio in August. . and gave no feeling of oppression in breathing. and we have a number of men employed who have traversed this desert for several years past. It fell on them the same day we had a norther at El Paso. There is a considerable importation there of flour. passed Then. <baving been delayed once by snow. but the river was barely skimmed over once very early in the morning. and a fair road the remainder of the distance. as above the snow melted as it fell. who wanted a situation as guide. This man had trapped beaver in all the streams principal falling into the Gila and Colorado rivers. pinola. He said the trappers pronounced our present route across Arizona a good one at all seasons of the year. " I had a good opportunity of knowing the nature of the climate we have to contend with. so much so that. . from Cook's Wells to Alamo Mucho. than I have suffered in the Atlantic States with the thermometer at eighty-five or ninety. "leaving San Diego October 23. and going directly through. the heat produced a copious perspiration. in the Mimbres. TEXAS ALMANAC. it would be impossible for a stage line to cross it in schedule time. I make here some few extracts from my journal about the cold I experienced on our route: ''December 5. Our mail carriers. . but when we had once commenced ascending to the table lands of Texas. the 5th. . with an occasional strong north wind during the time. " Ours is emphaticall}' a stage road. I experienced the northers a number of times. and the conductor reported a norther. Nearly everything is now brought from San Francisco by way of the Gulf of California and steamer up the Colorado river. "December 9. so that by making a longer morning drive than common he reached the shelter of the trees at the Mimbres none of his mules were chilled by being exposed without blankets. we travelled by night and lay by during the middle of the day. Ice formed in a pond 100 feet across in the rear of the house. the recollection of the hot days along the Gila. until some remote day. At El Paso have had a week of cold weather. reports the weather cold enough in the night to freeze water in the canteens. accompanied by snow. If it were a rich agricultural country all the way from San Antonio to San Diego. ice also made in the acequias. through Arizona and Texas. and without' the snow lying on the ground at all it melted as it fell both times. jerked beef. " In my plans for returning across the continent. after unharnessing. for comfort.

for some distance ahead of the mules. which approaches the sea in San Our Diego county. we cross the extreme southern Not a mile distant.boundary on the west. our contractor was cutting hay to send over to our station on the desert. (of which we have a considerable number. "I never had whole is a case of sickness little among either men or passengers during valley of the Eio Grande. October. which in the valley below turns to rain. " The War Department uses the facilities offered Ly our line for a regular semimonthly correspondence with seven military posts. who keeps a meteorological journal. as had fallen during the present winter. " January 6. The snow had entirely disappeared. though a good road can be made with a moderate amount of money. Pecos. a brlliancy unknown in this section of the country cloudy days or nights are an exception. " The exploring party I sent over the mountain on the 15th of September were rained on all one night. " At El Paso. but showers occasionally fall in these valleys during the summer when it is the rainy season in Sonora. We camped to-night on the Llano Estacado. and broken gulches running eastward to the Devil's river. emigrants usually give their stock a run of the excellent grazing valleys in these mountains. parched with a drought. and westward to the . my excepting a Climatic. about half way across it there was not a particle of snow on the ground. The snow which fell on the 3d had so far disappeared from the ground as to allow the animals to graze sufficiently. but not one drop of rain fell upon us. " Persons interested in mining pursuits are now looking with great interest towards the silver and copper mines of Arizona. which we there descend by a mule path for several miles on our way to Vallecito. During the day it was bright and warm. said they had not as much snow in that part of Texas during the whole of the past six years taken together. . but I waited in order to accompany a detachment of mounted infantry going on a scout as far as Fort Hudson. is the climatic boundary between California and Arizona. Such the purity and clearness of the atmosphere that the stars shine at night with trip. 145 cold by sleeping on the ground. very plainly. it had melted and run into a natural stone tank. The coast range of mountains. while among the mountains snow falls occasionally The snow remains during the winter. It can be seen. nearly due west. until I came near to Fort Yuma. he deemed them the best suited to his purposes of shortening and improving the road. I consulted Col. We found one advantage from the snow.) to find the road. months. should continue on the road through the winter months in fact. ' . giving us abundance of water for ourselves and stock it will last some weeks. After crossing the desert. forming a pleasant contrast to the night. on the ground but a day or two. ''January 7. December 9. "The Llano Estacado is here very narrow. An expense of a few hundred dollars in building up the 'sides of the tank would make it capable of holding several millions of gallons of water. . . I saw the canons portion of it immediately south of us. he asdent sured me had no intention of going into winter quarters. but regularly . While the coast along the Pacific was. annoyance from an over indulgence in fruit in the The salubrious air must be conducive to health. from San Diego. In California there is no rain from March until " October 24. but. stock is kept at Lassators.MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN SAN ANTONIO AND SAN DIEGO. Leach. We saw clouds to the westward. The surgeon of Fort Lancaster. Oar mail not only carries the correspondence which takes the money to the mining parties. superintenof the El Paso and Fort Yuma wagon road as to his movements. before proceeding further on their journey. forty-eight miles. in September and October. on the contrary. compelling rancheros to send their cattle into the mountains. and the stars at night actually give light enough to enable us on our night drives. Lassators is twelve miles from the top of the coast range. " By reference to my journal it will be noticed that rain fell on us at intervals all the way from the opening of the Rio Grande valley. in a beautiful valley among the mountains in San Diego they have a charming climate the year round. " It is hardly possible for me to do more than sketch a few of the changes which our road has produced in the country through which we pass. we received advices of the northern wagon road expedition having returned for the winter.

Deadman's Hole to Van Horn's Well's Van Horn's Wells to Eagle Springs Eagle Springs to first camp on Bio Grande first camp on Bio Grande to Birchville .83 19. From Bancbero creek to Sabinal creek. starting from San Antonio. From Turkey creek to Elm creek. taking our Arizona our stations afford stopping places. . From Elm creek to Las Moras river.04 . . From Leon Hole to Hackberry pond. . Barree Springs to Deadman's Hole. . From Sabinal creek to Camanche creek. . .. From Arroyo Escondido to Escondido Spring. 16. From San Antonio to Leon river. way between Texas and Table of distances.26 8. " The newly appointed consul for Guyamas takes our stage as far as Tucson.. From Pecos Spring to Leaving of Pecos.. . .. .32. .80 From Birchville to San Eleazario From San Eleazario to Socorro From Socorro to Isletta From Isletta to El Paso 545 310 14.29 6 ' . or second crossing of San . ~-. . another from starting point. Prom Leon to Castroville. . ^ . . . . ".. and our agents information to all who prefer their own mode of conveyance such travelers are numerous. Fort Clarke. -.39 75. . .34 .. \ . half . . . * . . From Nueces to Turkey creek. From From From From From From From Fort Davis to Point of Bocks. From Camanche Spring to Leon Hole. . Medina " river. Point of Bocks to Barree Springs. From Dharris to Banchero creek. .. . . California.7 886 12. . 96.'" .22 2. Painted Caves to California Spring.. while passengers are. 15 23 7..' : .. .88 11 .35 From From From From Fort Hudson to Head of river San Pedro or Devil's Head to Howard.. " . . Piedra Pinto to Maverick creek." to and from one watering-place <k .49 From El Paso to Cottonwood From Cottonwood to Fort Fillmore From Fort Fillmore to La Mesilla 22 22 50 .. 6. . . V .61 10.13 ' From From From From From From From From Fort Clarke to Piedra Pinto. From Hackberry pond to Limpia creek. From Castroville to Dharris " Saco " river. . . . .54 15. California Spring to Willow Spring. . From Leaving of Pecos to Arroyo Escondido. 846 6 08 9. . .. . .. From Pecos Crossing to Pecos Spring. From Escondido Spring to Camanche Spring. First Crossing to Painted Caves. " Our line is already forming the basis of a new State. river. .73 2 123.94 5 .74 31 42 35 24. all the while. . . 8 42 ' . of ''v'' . . i .. rich in minerals. 13. .14 47. . Maverick creek to San Felipe.'. ."' - 1027 : . . .. 4. Pedro or Devil's river. . .. .53 18 25 28 8. From Limpia creek to Fort Davis.58 19 40 8. line to brings report of their success.... Texas. Willow Spring to Fort Hudson. From Camanche creek to Bio Frio. .146 TEXAS ALMANAC. San Felipe to first crossing of San Pedro or Devil's river. ( . From Bio Frio to Head of Leona " Uvalde" From Uvalde to Nueces. Live Oak creek to Fort Lancaster. .'. Springs.32 18 86 157. Howard Springs to Live Oak creek. .26 16.38 3. .''. .58 32. . . .94 From Fort Lancaster to Pecos.5S 10 . . . . . .' .. .

f San Pedro to ... 26 18 6 20 13 20 305 From Tucson to Pico Chico mountain From Pico Chico to first camp on Gila From first camp on Gila to Maricopa Wells From From From From From From From From From From From From From From . .94 '. . < ' . . 65 18 17 10 34 18 23 9 Cienega Cienega to Cienega creek Cienega creek to Mission San Xavier Mission to Tucson . . 147 La .i... .. .'. ..76 . . t 6 85 29 99 Maricopa Wells to Tezotal.^ 2d crossing of Gila to Peterman's station .' . . .. . San Antonio to Fort Clarke Fort Clarke to Fort Hudson Fort Hudson to Fort Lancaster Fort Lancaster to Fort Davis Fort Davis to Birchville Birchville to El Paso .. . 40 10 8 15 28 32 Peterman's station to Antelope Peak Antelope Peak to Little Corral .. From From From From From From From From From From From From From From From Mesilla to Cook's Spring Cook's Spring to Eio Mimbres Eio Mimbres to Ojo La Vaca Ojo La Vaca to Ojo de Ynez Ojo de Ynez to Peloncilla Peloncilla to Eio Saur or San Domingo Eio Saur to Apache Springs Apache Springs to Dos Cabesas Springs Dos Cabesas Springs to Dragon Springs Dragon Springs to mouth of Quercos canon Mouth of Quercos canon to San Pedro crossing .' . across Jornada . Recapitulation. . v San Antonio to San Diego 1. : . 18 18 7 7 . >#'. . ....MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN SAN ANTONIO AND SAN DIEGO. . .. '". . .\& '" .. Ten-mile camp to Murderer's Grave Murderer's Grave to Oatman's Flat.. .'' ' i: Tucson to Maricopa Maricopa to Fort Yuma Fort Yuma to Carissa Carissa to San Diego . -. .475.24 95.. . .12 From Carissa creek to Vallecito From Vallecito to Lassator's ranch From Lassators ranch to Julian's ration From Julian's ranch to Williams' ranch From Williams' ranch to Ames' ranch From Ames' ranch to Mission San Diego From Mission to San Diego . 13 21. . .. 2094 32. .. Little Corral to Fort Yum a '}. . i^ v . 14 16 5 .'. |0 24 190 to Pilot Knob Pilot Knob to Cook's Wells Cook's Wells to Alamo Mucho Alamo Mucho to Indian Wells Indian Wells to Carissa creek Fort Yuma . Tezotal to Ten-mile camp . ... 1st crossing of Gila Oatman's Flat to 2d crossing of Gila . ... ':'' . El Paso to La La Mesilla Mesilla to Tucson ' .'. .. ..'. .

. and have never but once made an attack upon the train 2. . 13. 19. 31. . 44 12 50 55 . 25 miles. . and they are harmless. . . 24 25. 4. . 3. A few notes and distances from San Antonio Paso is to San Diego.. 3. . From El 23.. though with.. the distance is fifty miles/ to El The distance from San Antonio on Mesilla Valley to Tucson the distance 4s 305 miles. they have seldom made occasionally any hostile demonstrations. and usually crossed with but little trouble. yet the mail party which here consists of eight men. 2. The road passes by a number of the military and met Indians are posts. On this portion of the route the mail is carried by two men. near Ojo de Ynez From camp to 9 miles east of Kiver Saur From camp to 9 miles west of Dos Cabesas Spring . " " u " 35 46 40 40 44 53 28 44 46 33 19 42 51 . . " " " .. On this portion of the route. . 12.. . .) is 99 miles. 1 2 3 4 5. .. who raise corn and other grain in considerable quantities. 8 miles east of the spring From camp to 10 miles west of From camp to Lympia creek From camp to Fort Davis From Fort Davis to 7 miles west of Deadman's Hole From camp to 8 miles west of Eagle Springs From camp to 10 miles south of Birchvllle From camp to Socorro From Socorro to Franklin. From camp to 11 miles west of Turkey creek From camp to near San Felipe creek From camp to 10 miles east of Fort Hudson From camp to 10 miles west of San Pedro From camp to 6 miles east of Live Oak creek From camp to 6 miles above Pecos spring From camp to Escondido creek. both fordable. with good grass and water. Very few Indians are seen. . From the route this . my own journey across the continent* August 1. 18. 17. 8. Grass and water are considered sufficiently abundant. (Pimos Villages. 6 7. . The Maricopa Wells are at the further end of a beauti ful and fertile valley. . and indeed. 4 5.40 69 . . 16 16. occupied by the Pimos Indians. .. 20. 26. ... El Paso . . This portion of is remarkably fine traveling.476 miles. 21. Sept.. 6. . 7. From El Paso to Mesilla Valley in the Gadsden Purchase. . 6 miles west of Mesilla From Picacho Tillage to 9 miles east of Cook's Spring From camp to mouth of Burro Mount canon.58 52 . From San Antonio to Castroville From Castroville to 9 miles east of Uvalde . The Apache Indians are met with occasionally on this route. 43 50 40 53 38 of Tucson . . . 14. . 10. 8 9. .. . The streams section are the Mimbres and San Pedro. . . . . 36 49 1. 27 28. . From camp to ford of San Pedro river From camp to Mission San Xavier From Mission San Xavier to 30 miles west From camp to 1-mile camp on Gila From camp to Tezotal From Tezotal to second crossing of Gila From second crossing to Antelope Peak From Antelope Peak to Fort Yuma From Fort Yuma to Alamo Mucho From Alamo Mucho to Carissa creek From Carissa creek to Lassator's From Lassator's to San Diego . .. 652 miles. " . " " " . 40 42 53 . .148 Itinerary of TEXAS ALMANAC. " " " " . . In El Paso. 49 40 17 .. has never been attacked in making some thirty-two trips over the route.. Paso to Fort Fillmore From Fort Fillmore to Picacho Village. 22.. From Tucson to Maricopa W*ells. 11. Making the trip personally from San Antonio to San Diego in thirty-eight days. 29 30.

the trips were made successfully from the first and up to the 9th of August. respectively. Respecting the accommodations. as he could give. to whom Mrs. notwithstanding the great distance. and Mr. thus arranged. This arrangement of the tsam is found to work exceedingly well. Birch. is about as large as the Ohio at Wheeling. The average speed made over the fine natural roads of the West. obtained the contract. for semi monthly trips in four-horse coaches. its whole extent. but hardly ever a trip is made without one or more. whilst there are watering places others that may be reached by a slight deflection. and they not The mail train between these points consists of three men. California. at 6 o'clock in the morning. they are as good as circumstances will admit. 1857." Between the two are on three the there direct points route. per year. by whom it haa been carried out with great energy and success. in the Fall of 1857. From Carissa creek to San Diego is 85 miles. we presume. the present proprietors. over and above what is furnished by the Superintendent's Report. Prom Maricopa Wells down the river Gila to Fort Yuma is 190 miles. one driver can command the whole. of California. of San Diego. 7.000. on the 9th and 24th of every month. can be made an excellent road. and at present not open to wagons its whole extent. This is by a new route. Giddings. Though thirty days are allowed within which to make the the average time being about trip. and is a finely beaten level track. the stages being so arranged that passengers can recline in them comfortably. not a single failure had occurred on the route a thing unexampled on any mail route of any considerable length. but which. square-bodied coaches. new. it is seldom the mail is out twenty-five days . These mines are now little known and but slightly valued. H. and the following is his answer. Kelton. with just enough gravel for the most part to make it pleasant travelling. is six miles per hour.MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN SAN ANTONIO AND SAN DIEGO. This portion of the road ia traveled who Californians on considerably by carry mining operations in the Gadsden Purchase. Few Indians on the route. to James E. v We had In the month of June. ' Tiais section embraces the . The mail leaves San Antonio and San Diego. the contract passed into the hands of Mr. And. the service was commenced the schedule time allowed for running through being fixed at thirty days. sufficient to cross a six-horse stage. The price of a through passage is two hundred dollars all expenses being borne by the proprietors of the line. 149 throughout the entire distance from San Antonio to San Diego. though not abundant. 5. Geo. and 10 . being one year. by a little work in the mountain passes. whilst a six mule team would require two drivers. 1868. James E Birch being lost on the ill-fated Central America. R. and three abreast in the lead. On the 9th of August following. in fine. and their remoteness from mining 6. on the above route. of San Antonio. " From Fort Yuma to Carissa Creek is 95 miles. is yet sufficient for the maintainance of trains and herds. Yuma is situated on the west bank of the Great Colorado of the West. together with fine quantities of gold on the streams north of the Gila. It is the opinion of all who have seen that region that it possesses the finest silver mines in the world. Fort dangerous. Messrs Giddings and Doyle. and just the There is a splendid large opposite junction of the Gila with that stream. from or through Mr. because of the proximity of the Indians. Doyle. The number of passengers on this line varies.> Desert. as. Its perfect accuracy may be relied upon. and mostly over a terra incognita. twenty-three. Mr. The mail party here consists of two men. drawn by five mules two at the wheel?. Birch had first given it. Great Colorado great bugbear known as the ( [ SUPPLEMENTAL. the road is weli defined. The river ferry-boat on the Colorado here. E. at a compensation of $149. ] applied to a friend in San Antonio for such additional information in regard to this important Mail Route. On this portion of the route the grass. facilities. the Postoffice Department awarded the contract. Texas.

R. will hold out the necessary inducements in the way of shipping facilities from Sabine Pass. country.063. H. Mr. Scholastic of acres in corn. San Antonio. . I have no doubt that a vast amount of trade that has heretofore gone to New Orleans. . at Hamilton. fifty The officers of the Company are Mr. next season. in this section of the country. San Augustine. hereafter.635 cot. Smith. 1. Rogers. Woods.. Agent. and a trip across our Continent could hardly fail to prove beneficial to the health of the traveler. Mr. B. in good condition. are believed to be better than any route known to the : . . dry. E. and if the water continues low until November. it will go wherever it will command the best price. . and eminently healthy one. C. for the season ending June 1st. whites. S. and 1 bundle Otter skins. will give increased shipping facilities on the river. . through this channel to New Orleans or Galveston.176 bales cotton Deputy 6. The following is a list of the exports from Sabine EDS. NOW AUGUSTA. 11 mules 4 531 beef cattle 325 bbls. . G. Newton. .150 TEXAS ALMANAC. and ready for the Fall and Winter trade. Qualified voters. to-wit: 15. . we have no doubt. are pushing the work forward. . and build up a home trade. The steamer Uncle Ben made five successful trips. The counties of Orange. two of which were as high up as Belzora. pro tern. . without doubt. and a considerable portion of Louisiana. and. and I have no doubt that sixty or seventy thousand bales of cotton will find its way to market. The people.000 feet lumber 1. in view of the improvement going on to open the Sabine river. The San Antonio and San Diego Mail Route is. Mr. which ig as . are situated near. . in carrying out their contract. TEXAS. T. Custom-House Collector. . Panola. whilst its chances of becoming the route for the great Pacific Railroad. 1.860. .. Doyle.120. 3. Of course.800 pounds of tobacco 125 pounds dressed deer skins 2 horses 9 bear skins 25 bundles deer skins 4 bales deer skins 45 sacks of rice 3 casks 135 barrels Sour Lake Water. I was furnished a statement by the Assessor and Collector of the county. . Fort Clark. to-wit Population. 4. follows. carrying out near one thousand bales each trip. and make a very large quantity of cotton and other produce. Also. Agent. take their sleep whilst traveling.850 pounds leather 7 barrels beans 115. a distance of near eight hundred miles. Agent.543 hides. at Sabine Pass. . jr. Giddings. complete their contracts by that time. . Agent. which. are much pleased with the probability of being able. and four hundred mules. FUTURE PROSPECTS STATISTICS OF SHELBY. sixty-five men. The provisions are the best that the nature of so long a trip will allow. 1 have no doubt. 18 bales wool 3 bales peltries 2 casks of horns. save from leaning timber. and without the least The steamer Uncle Ben is now laid up difficulty. in Smith county. the Pearl Plant and other boats have done considerable in the Sabine trade. coaches. The character of the country is that of a high. . Hall. Ac. and border on the Sabine River. &c. : Number slaves. San Antonio. Sabine.235 total. Shelby. will. 1858.215. The Company employ. Mr. The contractors for improving the navigation of the Sabine. will be turned to Galveston. Bramhall. . 13.500 shingles 210. In fact. 1 box deer skins 30 barrels potatoes lime 4. THE TRADE OF SABINE : PASS. to turn their entire trade to New Orleans and Galveston through this channel. at an early day. . . when done. with least expense of If the merchants and those interested in the prosperity getting it to market of Galveston. of tallow A considerable portion of the cotton made in Shelby county was shipped down the Sabine this season. That it will be extensively used for travel and emigration. this season. TEXAS ALMANAC Pass. the most practicable overland route to our Pacific possessions. San Diego. SHELBYVILLE. I find a great disposition with the planting community to patronize their own sea-ports. . 1. possesses a national importance. Agent. . Superintendent. Hurd. El Paso Mr. 763. The county of Shelby has improved rapidly in the last twelve months. in this view. E. J. M. Jasper. July 1858. Rusk. Her owners design never taking her out of the Sabine trade.625 population.600 stares 1. as taken from the books of N.

acquainted with Sea Island Cotton. The quantity planted by him. was made by Mr. points. My cotton continued to grow. and with a good crop. MESSRS. wheat.022. at my place. relieved by a few very light showers. in which he picked two hundred and fifty pounds per acre of ginned cotton. formerly owned by Mr. and also owing to the fact that most of the individuals who made the experiments were accustomed to pick two to three hundred pounds of short staple cotton a day. so far as I can learn but. The yield.) who. W. 1 have resided in the some and one of the consider it healthiest in the counties county twenty years. but under very unfavorable circumstances. between the waters of Lavaca Bay and the West arm of Matagorda Bay. above her own consumption.146 total acres. planted an experimental " "patch. (now of Lamar. every year but one. State. Beck. all of which is a great improvement above that of last year. rye. . per hand. wheat. . and if no disaster befalls it. In 1856 I came into possession of the tract of land upon Matagorda Island. mostly. and that he considered that produced by him at Cox's Point. I look on Shelby county as one of the finest farming counties in the State. at present prices. The earth was parched with a drought. Mr. J. it again grew off. however. until 5th of September. been informed that he was a native of South Carolina. SEA ISLAND COTTON. Mr. situated on the main land. how1857. at Cox's Point. W. and his consequent inability to command means sufficient to enable him to enter into the culture of cotton on such a scale as would compensate him for giving to it his en: tire attention. and continued. in this State. .TRADE OF SABINE PASS . TRUiT. then known as The Toncoway Wells. The county can furnish a large quantity for emigration. corn will not sell for more than thirty or forty cents per bushel this Fall. I have. according to quality ana quantity. 882 miscellaneous. on the Texas Coast I have to reply The first experiment that I have heard of. is represented to me as time to at from various time. as much land as he was able to obtain force to cultivate near about thirty acres each year. that I communicate to you any information in my profession. oats. and good timber and range. The corn crop here was never better Prom every indication. per acre. for some time. The sotton crop. The culture was finally abandoned by Mr.359. and bore heavily. and I predict the day is not far distant when the land of Shelby will command as fair a price as that of most of the counties in our State. are beginning to come into market. be in easy circumstances. although it has. one or two crops were cultivated by a Mr. cotton. been overlooked and passed round. per acre.) I planted a few seeds of Sea Island Cotton as an experiment. About the same period. Byrne. is very promising. W. M. J. Byrne. the culture was almost. rice and tobacco. A. all of which were successful. per day. with a great abundance of pure spring water. Byrne informs me that the staple increased each year IE length and fineness." He was encouraged by this experiment to plant the three following years. in relation to the culture of Sea Island Cotton. barley. Good lands are now selling from one to five dollars per acre. was three hundred pounds of clean cotton. "at a place upon Matagorda Island. The productions are corn. 24. Yours. I am not informed of the not continued. The planters are generally out of debt. The following Spring. Byrne. equal to any he had seen in Carolina. After the rains set in. 3. about the year 1841. B. on and Experiments werelafterwardsmade. 7. nor the reason why the culture was " " a Sea Island Bag yield. the yield will be very heavy. SEA ISLAND COTTON. respectfully. 151 ton. sugar cane. & D RICHARDSON Gentlemen: In compliance with your request. but now her fine lands. and upon which he had successfully cultivated the variety of cotton known as Sea Island. as I am informed. as well as all kinds of vegetables. in consequence of large investments made in lands. also. has now left this region of country. owing to the supposed difficulty of ginning. which had set in the autumn preceding. (1857. or entirely abandoned. near the coast. when the best pickers could not gather more than fifty to sixty pounds of long staple. and bore a ever. they will. In fact.

Charleston Philadelphia. one hundred and fifty bags. Morris and Judge Jones have each. All the Camples I have seen are very arfine. and proved profitatable to the planters. what is after the rains. long and silky. land. It is an unusual thing. Bee. and others. and that the cotton produced has sold for. Prom such as I have. here and in Carolina. as I understand. manac-] . written by us. The plant attains to a height. Bee has planted twenty acres. on the main . slender. H. or a subsequent issue of the Texas Almanac. upon which you can obtain the opinions of ticle. from thirty to forty cents per pound. Morris and by Judge Wm. Hon. as I am informed. have experimental patches. All our dews are from the sea. SEAWELL. and others. and near the town of with The experiments made near Galvestoa flattering results. On the main land. eminently successful. On the mainland. J. P. the plant generally is larger and more robust. with like results. and enclosing samples of Texas Sea Island Cotton. remarkably strong.) which makes the Sea Island crop of our coast. and. but no doubt a very fine staple may be profitably grown near the sea. short jointed. be received in time. that the plant is doing remarkably well information have I have seen an estimate. and that on this coast. J. Such information as may be thus gathered. will be from two hundred and fifty to three hundred and fifty pounds of ginned cotton. either in this. The Grande. (which is boiling heavily. And. I from all of these is. Willett has a small quantity planted. sharp bolls. of a glittering green color. eatisfied me that the culture of Sea Island Cotton on my land. we shall state their substance. near Brownsville. if reeeived in time for your Almanac. I have no very reliable data upon which to estimate the quantity of land upon the coast islands and adjacent snores. but bearing equally as well as upon the islands." TEXAS ALMANAC. you are familiar with they were. Samples of the same have been sent to New York. and branches well. bay. did the cotton cast any forms or young bolls.152 heavy " top crop. J Oa the Rio R. with the view of ascertaining its quality and value. . of the average yearly value of one hundred and fifty dollars per acre. if I am not mistaken. varying with soil and seasons. and promises a large yield. On the Colorado'river I also hear of some in cultivation. per acre. I have since learned that remarkable. this is only the case for a few hours in the evening. P. The yield. and full of small. nor The experiment would prove very an experiment was also made last year by Hon. Mrs. for fine Sea Island Cotton to be grown upon the main land. and other persons. experimental patches. in this respect. merchants. a superior You have a sample of mine. I should not omit to mention that the Sea Inland Cotton has been planted by several persons in Gonzales county for several years past. on our coast islands. from a consideration of the fact that the accretions of the Gulf shore are much more rapid than on the Atlantic. H. last year and this. Jameson fifteen acres. Mr. to try it again this year. long. extending from Galveston Bay to the Bio Grande. from the sea while in Carolina. another year. the winds blow almost incessantly during the cotton-growing season. appears to me a reasonable one. On Matagorda Island I have planted twenty-eight acres. . I am not able to give you the names of the planters in Gonzales or on the Colorado. in my judgment. Glascow and Liverpool. Corpus Christi. with more satisfactory results. profitable. The limbs are long. for this year. Jones. A number of others on Galveston Island and the adjacent mainland. it may be set down at one hundred and sixty thousand acres. neither during the drought. bordering the shore bays. and saline plants are found in abundance upon the main land. I account for the difference observed. by Mrs. STIRLING T. of from four to six feet. The subject will be much more Editors Texas AJfully treated. from thirty to forty acres planted. who are much better qualified to determine its quality and value tban I am. [Should answers to letters. The success of last year's experiments has encouraged all persons by whom they were made. Seed for the main land may require frequent renewal. shall be communicated to you. near to Corpus Christi. particularly adapted to Sea Island Cotton. New Orleans. adjacent to Corpus Christi Bay.

James H. Stephen Austin was sent to Colchester Academy. to pursue his academical studied. He had been informed by some adventurous travelers. He then returned to the West. from the county of Washington. but being too late for the Almanac or The historical 1868. it was published in DeBow's Review. where industry was subduing the wilderness. in Connecticut. at which place Stephen F. He began life as a merchani. and to engage in working the richer mines of that country. : the territory of Texas. there were no families nearer than St. surrounded by savage enemies. It will be seen that he was trained in a school admirably suited to qualify him for the difficult part which it afterwards became his duty to perform. he removed bis family and a number of laborers to the Mine-a-Burton in the year 1799. for February last. The Osage Indians were hostile. now embraced within the limits of the State of Missouri. on the 31 day of November. and was regularly re-elected until the year 1819. in the practice of law. and some incidents of his colonizatioa labors. of the richness of those mines and having succeeded in procuring the necessary passports from the Spanish Minister at Washington. AUSTIN. and subsequently purchased the lead mines. portions of our previous numbers have given our readers many of the most important acts of Austin's life for the history of Texas and the biography of Austin are so interwoven and identified. at Lexington. Bell. which was forty miles distant. at the age of twenty. wbfoh was called Austinville. 1793. and where civilization was beginning to diffuse its refinements. where he devoted himself for two years to his studies. at the same time. and assisted Austin in his first enterprise of colonization. The result was that he determined to remove his family to Upper Louisiana. all the vicissitudes of a frontier life. It was in the midst of a thriving community of hardy and enterprising men. and was regularly bred to the business of merchandise. he resolved to visit that section and to see for himself. the father of the subject. in relation to this great man must be interesting to our readers " It is well known that the idea of planting a colony of North Americans iA . including what was calied the Mine-a-Burton. . He remained in that institution. and was distinguished amongst his fellow students.STEPHEN F. Moses Austin was a native of Durham. received a liberal education. which we have not seen in any other published work. which has since become so celebrated for its mines of lead. given by Judge Bell. who afterwards resided in New Orleans. last year. which was then in high repute. that it is impossible to give the one without giving much of the other. in the city of Philadelphia. ef this sketch. in Wythe county. on New River. in that State Here he engaged extensively in mining. and in the manufacture of lead. Genevieve. Austin received its earliest permanent impressions. " In the year 1804. a biography of Gen. and became a student of Transylvania University. . This was at that time a perilous adventure. It was amidst such scenes as are always presented by a new settlement in the wilderness. and of an enterprising character. . for his intelligence and gentlemanly deportment. In pursuance of his determination. " In the year 1797. He introduced artisans from England. find many particulars of Gen. in his new home. and Austin experienced. in the State of ConnecHe came of a highly respectable family. Thence he removed to an Academy at New London. Kentucky. and we therefore proceed to copy such portions. Hawkins. Parties of miners had been in the habit of going there in the summer to dig ore. Austin's early life. Genevieve. by Hon. known as Chissel's mines. and established the first manufactory of shot and sheet lead that was established :in the United States. as everything. He afterwards removed to the city of Richmond in Virginia. Austin was elected to the Territorial Legislature of Missouri. when he ceased to reside in the Territicut. which they transported on horseback to St. originated with Moses Austin. He was a man of uncommon sagacity. where he remained until 1808. At our request. that the inind of Stephen F. Austin was prepared for the Texas Almanac. He procured a concession from the Spanish Government of a league of land. 163 LIFE OF STEPHEN F. It was at Transylvania that he formed au intimate acquaintance with Joseph H. that his character was formed. for one year. Austin was born. In fact. however. A little village grew up around him on New River. Stephen F. " In the year 1813. AUSTIN. There were no families residing near the mines. being then in the eleventh year of his age. We. the enterprising disposition of Moses Austin led him to ex plore that portion of Upper Louisiana.

and had His house had become the centre of the thriving acquired an ample fortune and enterprising community which had formed itself around him. shared the honor of triumphing over the genius and valor of Xavier Mina. the father and son came 4 . and then proposed to his son the idea of forming a colony in Texas. Monroe was President of the United States when it was made and the it is sometimes called the treaty of De Onis. to the determination to take the necessary preliminary steps for that purpose. and was filled. In the years 1817 and 1818. 1819. suddenly gave place to the disagreeable realities which always wait on a great reverse of fortune. at that time.154 tory. and'told him that he had determined to surrender the whole of his property to his creditors. Louis. in the year 1817. In conbeit it. Don Antonio Martinez. because Don Luis de Onis was Spanish Minister at Washington. This treaty is sometimes called the Monroe treaty. from 1800 to 1817. and especially North Americans. He was a large stockholder in the Bank of St. and as circumstances might require. Moses Austin left Missouri and proceeded to It was then Little Rock. he retained a firm mind and a resolute heart. destroved the revolutionary force. While he was a member of the Territorial Legislature. to permit foreigners. . intending to make that ritory of Arkansas. and proceededwith as little delay as possible. where he was met by his son Stephen. After proper and mature deliberation. to of this and the secured territorial sequence Spain by treaty. As a preparatory measure to the enterprise of colonization. He was the same who. in the event that Moses Austin succeeded in his application for permission to plant a colony there. The authority of Governer Martinez was limited. who was a member of the same body. rights came necessary for Moses Austin to apply to the Government of Spain. thought advisable to abandon the farming enterprise at Long Prairie. in the State of New Leon. for permission to colonize in Texas. He was now in his 55th year. . Arredondo had given orders to Governor Martinez not. Benton always respected him as a man of character and talents. 1819. Don Joaquin de Arredondo. to visit the Spanish authorities at San Antonio de Bexar. He was subject to the orders of the Commandant General of the Eastern Internal Provinces. This latter was an office of very extensive authority. he reached Bexar in the month of November. Benton. Mr. in the TerHere he commenced a small farm. to enter Texas. and proceeded to a place known as Long Prairie. he became acquainted with Thomas H. Stephen Austin remained in the Territory of Arkansas during the greater part of the years 1819 and 1820. Moses Austin was one of the principle sufferers. Stephen go co-operate subsequently arrange. Stephen Austin left Missouri in the month of April. with whom the treaty was negotiated. fle carried this determination into effect. He had made very valuable improvements on his property. and had before him the cheering prospect of spending the evening of bis life in graceful and prosperous ease. composed partly ot and Americans. in the summer of 1813. in Arkansas. was about this time established by the treaty of the 22d of February. TEXAS ALMANAC. on Red River. Instead of bowing before the stroke. and if they were successful in the preliminaries. because Mr. He dispensed a liberal hospitality. to lay his business before the Governor of the Province. to devote all their energies to its final accomplishment. at Monterey. After a very fatiguing and hazardous journey through a wilderness country. or to the Spanish authorities. who. between the Government of Spain and that of the United States. "The title of Spain to the territory of Texas. The visions of social ease and of a green and quiet age which he had begun to enjoy. and extended only to the customary local administration of the Province. by the way of Nachitoches. and commanded by Toledo. and they maintained a friendly and political correspondence during Austin's life. The Governor . and were finally involved in complete ruin. the affairs of that institution fell into embarrassment. point the rendezvous of the settlers who were to be introduced into Texas. In the meantime he received the appointment of Circuit Judge in that Territory " In the autumn of the year 1820. Moses Austin proceeded. ''During these years. He saw that the demands of creditors would sweep away the accumulations of twenty-five years of labor. He sent for his sou Stephen. and that as his should to New with Orleans and they might father. Moses Austin had conducted an extensive and profitable business in mining and in the manufacture of sho and sheet lead. when misfortune suddenly game upon him. at the disastrous battle of Medina. He accordingly resolved to make the application in person. by a man of ability and reputation.

further to his Excellency. and took leave of him. After yielding his first opposition to Austin's propositions. As he crossed the plaza. and possessed much influence with all the authorities of the tion " Moses Austin Province. and Martinez was cautious not to expose himself to the charge of disobedience to his superior. you may count on my assistance in every way that duty and you circumstances will permit. to the favorable consideration of the Commandant General. and even refused to look at papers which established the fact that Mr. Austin determined to leave San Antonio without waiting to hear the result of his application to the authorities at Monterey. Martinez ordered him to leave the Province. and granted his request in the most obliging manner. and informed him of his interview with the Governor. Austin was not only disappointed. to make the effort. and shared. "if live to return. with the Commandant General. not only that his proposals on the subject of colonization would not be considered. It seems that he formed a very favorable judgment of Austin as a man of integrity and of honorable purposes. The Governor's manner was very ungracious. "Mr. and was surprised and disappointed to find. and that he could not travel without danger to his life. Austin should leave the Province without delay. He repaired immediately to the Governor's house. but incensed by the manner of his reception and dismissal. their recognition of each other was instant. in removing the objections of Governor Martinez to the project of Austin. and a man of high character and integrity. and he peremptorily repeated the order that Mr. Bastrop had succeeded. whose intenHe represented tions. Baron de Bastrop was a native of Prussia. Governor Martinez promised to give him the earliest possible information of the fate of his application. using the French language. but that he was not received with that courtesy which is expected from a man in high station to a petitioner. When they had formerly met. that the Baron never forgot any one. made his application in person to Governor Martinez. as a personal favor to himself. He was also initiated into all the mysteries of the Government house.- AUSTIN. to revoke the order for Austin's immediate departure. spent a night at a country tavern in one of the Southern States. and had thus acquired some knowledge of each other. The Baron retired. Governor Martinez entered very heartily into all his plans. he accidentally met a gentleman with whom he had." . in early youth. He was a man of education and talents. and to return to Missouri to arrange some pressing matters of business. At the end of a week. a promise to recommend Austin's propositions for the settlement of three hundred families within the limits of Texas. The Governor listened with respect to the Baron's representations. and he pledged himself. Indeed. under the banners of the great Frederick. and with which the Governor was also acquainted. and in procuring from him and the Ayuntamiento of Bexar. This gentleman was the Baron de Bastrop. in the most earnest manner. and of its consequences. Arredondo. the government of the Eastern Provinces of New Spain. His attempt was unsuccessful. To much parry this blow Mr. explained to him the object of his visit to San Antonio. and the Provincial Deputacion of the Eastern Internal Provinces. and had seen service. He was now a Spanish subject.STEPHEN F. both being men of enterprise and of much experience. He begged the Governor. was on terms of personal friendship with Governor Martinez. that Austin's health was broken by recent exposure. saying. that he was suffering from fever. and was much respected by the inhabitants of Bexar. Austin had formerly been a Spanish subject. very well satisfied with the result of his first interview with the Governor in behalf of his friend Austin. resolved to leave Bexar within the hour. 155 and the Commandant General were not personally on the most friendly terms. Austin endeavored to engage the Governor in a conversamore general. when they unexpectedly encountered in the Plaza. which latter was a body who held their sessions at Monterey. and resided in San Antonio. and informed bis Excellency that Austin was his friend. in coming into the Province. Now. ot which he had acquired a knowledge in Missouri. many years before. by the aid of other influential citizens whom he had enlisted in the cause. " Bastrop invited Austin to his house. they had conversed freely. He retired from the Government house. that it was not an easy matter for any one to forget the Baron. and he was himself of so distinguished a The figure. where the latter. The generous temper of the Baron at once inclined him to serve Austin if it were possible for him to do so. and evinced a sincere interest in their future success. it was said by those who knew him. in a few words. were open and undisguised.

While on his death bed. who was then in New Orleans and of a James Brown then at school in Kentucky. she might at least enjoy at the hands of an affectionate and dutiful son. " The Commissioner sent by Governor Martinez to meet Moses Austin at Nachitoohes. Stephen Austin deemed it best that he should hasten to Nachitoches to meet the Commissioner. "Moses Austin was now (in the Spring of 1821) industriously engaged in making his preparations to return to Texas. Austin. of what had transpired. and to conduct him into the province of Texas. who still lives at San Antonio. and that he did not wish to be delayed a single day. since so well known in Texas as Mrs. Mrs. was Don Erasmo Seguin. and was exposed to great suffering before he reached a hospitable roof on the Sabine. in his dying moments.TEXAS ALMANAC. and that he should carry forward the enterprise of colonization. in the fifty-seventh year of his age. Moses Austin had left that place a few days before. . He was now in the 28th year of his age. and not easily subdued by discouragement. if she could not forget the pleasant years spent in the old hall at Mine-a-Burton. and with the expectation of meeting him. .He died in his daughter's arms. by letters. he had the pleasure of hearing officially from Governor Martinez. But it was written in the book of God's Providence. a new home. The family of Moses Austin consisted at the time of his death. above named of his son Stephen. which was more satisfactory than he had anticipated. " Oa his return from San Antonio to Nachitoches. Bryan. was of firm texture. however. where. having attained to a venerable age. by the way of Bed Biver. He gave notice. he pursued his journey to Missouri. to those whom he expected to accompany him. where he devoted himself. His time in New Orleans was spent principally in the library of his friend Hawkins. the particulars of the trip to San Antonio. who had already engaged to go to Texas with his father. He fell sick about the first of June. that the brave old man should be spared the trials and sufferings incident to the further prosecution of such an enterprise as he had conceived. to inform him of the confirmation of his grant by the authorities at Monterey. In anticipation of his father's return from San Antonio. to the study of law. and younger son. but he met it with the fortitude of mind. on the 10th day of June. those comforts and observances with which it was once the pride of a tender husband to surround her. In the month of June he heard from a friend in Nachitoches. provided his application succeeded and from these persons he learned. under a milder sun. Stephen Austin had gone about the 1st of February from New Orleans to Nachitoches. inasmuch as it left him the prospect of beginning his new settlement in Texas. This was a heavy blow to him. who was who was afterwards well known in Texas. with means sufficient to provide the stores and mechanical and agricultural implements necessary to such an enter prise. for Nachitoches. who survived him about three years of his daughter Mrs. for Missouri. . Accordingly he left New Orleans again on the 18th of June. the contingencies upon which the further prosecution of the enterprise depended. that his propositions had been favorably received at Monterey. James Bryan. as also from his fathers letters. Stephen Austin. Louis. of the arrival there of the Commissioner whom Governor Martinez had sent to meet Moses Austin. where he rested for a few days. had bequeathed to him. Stephen Austin returned from Nachitoches to New Orleans to await his father's movements. that he would be in Xachitoches by the latter part of May. James F. though extremely sensitive. Austin was robbed and deserted by his companions. His weak condition obliged him to rest again in Nachitoches. 1821. He resolved to accept the trust which his father. in proceeding on his way to the Brazos and Colorado. and the father and son did not meet. saw several persons in Nachitoches. and after informing his son Stephen. and the plans that had been formed for the future. with the greatest assiduity. Shortly after his return home. Perry. of his wife. About the same time he procured a settlement of his affairs with tne Bank of St. and to make for his dear and aged mother. . On reaching Nachitoches he received intelligence of his'father's death. Here he recovered in some measure his strength. He was accompanied by Don Juan Martin de Veramendi. and that he was at liberty to commence his settlement in Texas immediately. fearing that his father might be unexpectedly delayed. . He felt that the hopes of his family would centre on himself. at the house of his daughter. Moses Austin declared it to be his earnest desire that his son Stephen should endeavor to have himself recognized by the Spanish authorities in Texas as his representative. by letters. which.

with all necessary provisions. The party. and put into possession of their lands. Veramendi and Austin were eating breakfast. Austin now returned. By their joint efforts. they crossed the Sabine on the 10th. On the morning of the 12fch of August. and had the gratification to hear them express the opinion that the Spanish authorities would interpose no objection to the assumption by him of the character of successor to lis father in the enterprise of colonization. if of the State of Coahuila and Texas. where they were directed to build cabins. He had already made publications in the newspapers. kindly by them. He immediately made his arrangements to proceed with them to San Antonio. to New Orleans. to plant corn. however. and to erect necessary defences against the attacks of hostile Indians. Governor Martinez had given him instructions as to the quantity of land which should be promised to each settler. Stephen Austin came to the same conclusion. in an equitable manner. which the latter so much needed. They had directions to enter Matagorda bay. Austin pushed on to meet the passengers of the Lively but when he reached the mouth of the Colorado river. no traces were to be seen of the schooner or of any of those who sailed on her. they fitted out a small schooner. and inviting colonists to join "him. and announced the stirring news of the declaration of Mexican independence. where he expected to meet those who passed <>ver on the schooner. and to asceud the Colorado river. With this small company. and proceeded by the way of Nacogdoches and along the old San Antonio road towards Bexar. left Nachitoches about the 5th of July and after considerable delays in getting fairly equipped for their journey. Moses Austin had formed the opinion that the country near the Gulf coast. 1821. AUSTIN. "On his arrival in San Antonio. From this river three of the Mexicans who belonged to Don Erasmo Seguin's escort. and now entered heartily into Austin's views Unin regard to the settlement which the latter was about to form in Texas. In these publications the terms on which colonists would be received. however. called "The Lively. Stephen F. James Brown Austin. ammunition. as the proper representative of his deceased father and he accordingly made arrangements for the immediate exploration of the country. fully set forth. until they found a suitable place. and many persons were already approachIng the frontier of Texas with the intention to offer themselves as colonists. Austin was welcomed by Governor Martinez. . who was afterwards Lieutenant-Governor . these three men returned. to . accompanied by several others. arms. . left them and pushed on to San Antonio. and watered by the Brazos and Colorado.Seguin . After a minute and careful examination." She sailed from New Orleans about the 20th of November. that he would divide with him. and the selection of a suitable section for his colony. as speedily as was possible. the amount of land that would be granted to them.STEPHEN F. until he despaired of seeing her. Austin remained near the mouth of the Colorado for about three months. he had the happiness to meet his brother. fortunately. The party reached the Guadalupe on the 10th of August. Hawkins was a generous and sanguine man. By means of agents. As he passed through Nachitoches. was the best suited to his purpose. Hawkins began. 157 Hawkins would assist him in setting his enterprise fairly on foot. and began his operations for the introduction of families into the Province of Texas. he collected a party of ten men to. and farming utensils. occasionally searching the neighboring shores of the bay and gulf for the long expected schooner. who had come to join him. having on board eighteen men. accompany him. when he took his course up the Colorado. while Seguin.Reaching the La Bahia crossing. Austin caused all such persons to be informed how they should enter the Province of Texas. and conduct themselves until they could be formally received PS settlers. Austin left New Orleans the next day after the Lively sailed he proceeded by land to the bay of Matagorda. consisting of Don Erasmo Seguin and Don Juan Veramendi and their escort. SteAustin waited on was received phen them. and Veramendi were both gentlemen of character and experience. Joseph Hawkins. Austin had formerly agreed with his early friend. to inform his family of his approach. and Austin and fourteen followers. whatever lands he might subsequently acquire in Texas. about this time. and all other necessary particuwere lars. to feel the pressure of peaid efficient and that to to Austin was not able render cuniary embarrassment. setting forth the outlines of the enterprise on which he had entered. and determined to plant his colony on those rivers. The fame of Austin's enterprise had thus gone forth throughout the Southwestern States. . Together they proceeded with about twenty men.

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TEXAS ALMANAC.

San Antonio, which place they reached about the 15th of March, 1822. Another vessel was soon after fitted out by Hawkins with supplies and emigrants for the new colony but, the navigation of the Gulf coast was then little understood, and this second vessel was obliged to land her cargo on the beach, where it was plundered by the Carancahua Indians. These first attempts to introduce emigrants and supplies by the way of the Gulf were comparatively fruitless." It was on the 21st of February, 1821, that the Independence of Mexico was declared by Iturbide and confirmed by the Mexican Cortez, and Governor Martinez was in doubt whether the new Government would sanction his acts in relation to Austin's colony, and he therefore now advised Austin to proceed at once to Mexico and procure the recognition of his rights and privileges of a colonist. He therefore set out with two or three companions, in March, 1822, on horseback, to perform the perilous journey, of some 1200 miles, to the capitol of Mexico,
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which place he reached, after a variety of adventures, about the last of April. He found the Government distracted with factions, the result of which was that Iturbide was proclaimed Emperor on the 18th of May. Austin now took the earliest opportunity to procure such measures as the necessities of his colony required, but before the colonization law, that had long been under discussion in Congress, could be finally acted upon, Iturbide dissolved " in its that body (Oct. 31) by violence, substituting the "Junta Instituyente This body finally passed a colonization law and promulgated it on the place. ith of January, 1823, and it received the sanction of the Emperor on the 18th of February following, and then Austin, thinking that he had at last accomplished the objects of the journey, was making preparations to return on the 23d of February, but before he set out, he discovered indications of another revolution on foot, and fearing that it would result in annulling the acts just passed, and thereby defeat all his hopes, he determined to await the threatening changes, which finally resulted in the overthrow of Iturbide, Santa Anna being the leader of the liberating army, as it was called. This event took place on the 19th of March, 1823, on which day Iturbide tendered his resignation, but instead of accepting it. Congress decreed that he had obtained the crown by violence. The Supreme Executive power was vested in three men, Victoria, Bravo and Negrete, and Austin once more endeavored to get the authority previously given him, ratOn the 14th of April, the Executive Power passed ified by the new Government. a decree confirming Austin's powers, which decree having received the sanction of Congresp, was a full confirmation of the authority originally given to Moses Austin and thus, after a year's detention in Mexico, Austin finally accomplished bis purpose, and set out on his return borne on the 18th of April, but was delayed on his way at Monterey, in getting the necessary instructions from the Commandant General of the Eastern Internal Provinces, and did not arrive in
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his colony

till

the Governor of Texas. On the 16th of July, he appointed the Baron de Bastrop to act as Commissioner on the part of the to take the necessary measures, in conjunction with Austin, to put Government, the settlers in possession of their lands, and to deliver to them their titles. On the 26th of July, the Governor, by an official act, gave the name of San Felipe de Austin to the town which was to be laid off as the capital of the new colony. The Governor said that, in giving this name to the contemplated capital, he wished to testify his respect for Colonel Austin, by uniting his name with the name of his own patron saint, San Felipe. The event proved that the saint was for the town was commonly likely to carry away the honors from the Colonel called San Felipe. Austin even complained jocularly, that he was near losing his rightful name of Stephen, in consequence of the Governor's compliment; for many persons supposed that the town had been called after the Colonel, and therefore concluded that his name was Philip, (Felipe,) and he frequently re;

"

July

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Don Luciana Garcia was now

ceived letters thus addressed. Before the Baron de Bastrop and Austin entered upon the business of designating the lands for the colonists, the latter published an address to the settlers, of in whioh he informed them as briefly as was possible, of the state of affairs what had been done, and of what remained to be done. Austin proceeded as expeditiously as was consistent with his multiplied duties, to establish regulations for the civil and military government of the colony, and for the administration of justice. In November, 1822, Governor Trespalacios, (who was for a short time Governor of Texas,) had divided the settlement
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STEPHEN

F.

AUSTIN.

159

formed by Austin's colonists into two Alcalde Districts, known as the jurisdictions of the Colorado and Brazos. These two Alcalde Districts were continued by Austin, and others were created, in each of which Alcaldes were elected by the votes of the settlers. These Alcaldes had jurisdiction in civil cases where the matter in controversy did not exceed two hundred dollars in value and in all cases when the matter in controversy was of the value of twenty-five dollars, an appeal was allowed from the decision of the Alcalde to Colonel Austin himHe also formed another court for the self, as the Superior Judge of the colony. trial of more important causes, which tribunal was composed of all the Alcaldes and held its sessions of the colony, three times a year at San Felipe. This was the simple machinery by which justice was administered in the colony until the 1st of February, 1828 at which time a constitutional Alcalde was elected, the Ayantamiento "established, and the former provisional government under Austin
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entirely superseded." copy the following extract in regard to the Fredonian war: " It has been said " Texas and the Texians,'' by Foote, in his book entitled that Col. Austin was greatly perplexed and hesitated long whether he should join the Fredonian movement or make war against it. Something of the kind is also intimated by Yoakum. Such was not the fact. Colonel Austin did not hesitate for one moment as to the course he would pursue. The evidence in the possession of the writer is abundant and perfectly conclusive, that he determined at the earliest moment, when it became necessary for him to adopt sny resolution in reference to his own conduct in the matter, that he would do his duty as a Mexican citizen, at whatever cost. He wrote several private letters to persons who were connected with the revolutionary movement, telling them in the plainest terms, that they were rushing upon certain destruction that their course was one of consummate folly He told them that the Mexican Government had not refused them redress of the grievances of which they complained, and that the delay on the part of the Mexican Government to investigate the conduct of the officials, and do justice to the settlers, was owing entirely to the fact that the Government was in its infancv and not fully organized, and that other and more important matters had occupied and engrossed its attention. He told them that justice would be done them, if they sought it in a proper manner; and he constantly said that he would put every thing to hazard, if it became necessary to do so, to uphold the constituted authorities of the Mexican nation. This Fredonian disturbance has been little understood and whenever the details of it are made known, it will be seen that the movement can lay no just claim to be considered as an honorable and praiseworthy effort in the cause of freedom and right; and that Austin's course in reference to it was th& only one that a man of sense and honor could pursue." Gen. Austin, whose constitution had been impaired and his health enfeebled by exposure and severe labor of body and mind, was taken sick in Columbia, Brazoria county, and there died, December 25th, 1836, in the 45th year of his age. We conclude with the following extract, in the truth of which every old Tex-

We

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ian will concur " It can hardly be doubted that the period concerning which the foregoing narrative is most particular from the time he entered Texas until 1828, and the two or three years next succeeding, were the happiest of Austin's checkered life. Cares, disappointments, and perplexities, were, it is true, a part of his daily experience. Sometimes the voice "of detraction and obloquy was heard. Sometimes curses were heaped upon him by men whom he had served with conscientious fidelity. But these are things which come to most men who act a principal part in what is transpiring around them, and in Austin's case, these things were more than counterbalanced. The great body of his colonists loved him and he knew it. They had tried him and had found him to be true to them and to their interests. Though a younger man in years than many of bis followers, he was old in experience, and was thorougly versed in the management of affairs the most delicate and important. For these reasons he was respected by all. Every log-cabin in the land was open to him. Every child of every colonist knew him and was permitted to play upon his knee. In those days the tables of the colonists gavje no evidences of luxurious living; but the frugal and industrious house wives of the colony were always sure to have something nice to set before the Coloael. If there was a silver spoon or a piece of China (mementoes of other 4ays) in any of the cabins, it wag brought to light for the Colonel's use. If the
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supply of coffee was getting very short, which was often the case, a little was always put away, that the Colonel might have his cup when he came. These were little things, but they went to the heart, and healed many a burning, and made him feel that he was not laboring in vain. And when he looked around him. he had reason to be gratified at the changes which had taken place through his instrumentality. When he entered the Province of Texas, in the summer of 1821. there was but one settlement from the Sabine to San Antonio. This was Nacogdoches; and Austin says in his journal, that there were but three unmarried men. and one family in that place when he passed through it. The sound of the axe had never been heard in the virgin forests of the Br&zos and Colorado. The tall savage roamed the woods and built his camp-fire by the crystal stream, without dreaming that the white man was coming to plant corn in his hunting grounds How changed was the scene The settlers came following their young and adventurous leader to where the tall cane-brakes attested the land's fertility. They brought with them the rifle, the axe, the plough, and the seed corn. Soon the smokft ascended from a hundred chimneys. And where before the monarch oaks waved their proud branches, like so many sceptres, over the subject forest, were now to be seen fields of luxuriant corn, yielding ample returns to the industry of man. The wild beasts of the woods had been driven from their lairs, and the wilder men, who strove with bow and spear to drive out the pale faces, had been subdued. When rebellion against the constituted authorities which the settlers had sworn to respect, raised its banner in a neighboring part of the State Austin called on his colonists to do their duty in maintaining the laws and he was promptly told that three hundred good rifles would follow him to battle. He might well be proud of his position and of his achievments. He might well And feel that he had acquired an indisputable title to the respect of mankind. that respect his memory will certainly receive. Circumstances inseparable from the settlement and growth of a new country, and from changes of Government, have had the effect to distract the minds of men from inquiry into his character and services. But history will one day adorn her page with a delineation of his high and spotless character, and with the story of his long, arduous, and sucHis fame will grow, as the State which he foundcessful services to his country. And when the Capital which ed.is destined to grow in prosperity and influence. bears his name shall have become a proud city, and when all the hills that rise around it, and the noble plains that are spread out before it, shall wear the splendid and blooming aspect which the plastic hand of art and industry creates, then the name of the pioneer who opened the way for civilization and for social refinements to enter where all before was wild, and rude, and desolate, will have been placed on the bright roll that bears to future ages, the names of the worthies
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of the past."

LIST OF

ALL THE MEN IN THE TEXAS ARMY AT THE BATTLE OP SAN JACINTO.
the actions of the 10th

Return of killed and wounded, in

and 1\st

April) 1836-.

Major GEN. SAM HOUSTON, wounded severely. First Regiment Texian Volunteers. Company A George Waters, private, slightly wounded on the 21st. Company B. James Ownby, private, badly wounded on the 21st William 8. Walker, private, badly wounded on the 21st. Company C.Capt. Jesse Billingsly, slightly wounded on the 21st; Lemuel Blakely, private, killed on the 21st Logan Vandeveer, private, badly wounded on the 21st; Wajhington Anderson, private, slightly wounded on the 21st; Oalvin Page, private, slightly wounded on the 21st Martin Walker, private, badly wounded on the 21st. Company D. Captain Mosely Baker, slightly wonnded on the 21st C. 1>; Anderson, private, slightly wounded on the 21st Allen Ingram, private, slightly wounded on the 21st.
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TEXAS ARMY AT THE BATTLE OF SAN JACIKTO, &C.
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161

Company F. Leroy Wilkinson, private, slightly wounded on the 21st James Nelson, private, wounded on the 21st Mitchel Putnam, private, wounded on the
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21st.

Company H. A. E. Stephens, private, wounded on the 21st J. Tom, private, killed on the 21st J. Cooper, private, badly wounded on the 21st B. R. Brigham, private, killed on the 21st. Total killed, 3, wounded, 15.
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Second Regiment Texian Volunteers Second Lieutenant, Lamb, killed on the 21st G. W. Robinsen, William Winters, private, severely private, severely wounded on the 21st wounded on the 21st First Sergeant, Albert Gallatin, slightly wounded on the 21st E (Jr. Rector, private, slightly wounded on the 21st. Company E. Washington Lewis, private, severely wounded on the 21st. Company F. Alphonso Steel, wounded on the 21st. Company K. First Lieutenant, J. C. Hale, killed on the 21st. Company J. Captain Smith, slightly wounded on the 21st First Sergeant. Thomas P. Fowl, killed on the 21st W. F. James, private, severely wounded on the 21st. Total killed, 3 severely wounded, 5 slightly, 3 total, 11. Dr. William Motley, wounded severely on the 21st died since; A. R. Stevens, wounded severely on the 21st died since Lieut. Col. J. C. Neil, of the Artillery, wounded on the 20th William A. Park, of the Artillery, wounded slightly on the 21st Devereau J. Wojdlief, of the Cavalry, wounded severely on the 20th Olwyn J. Trask, private, Cavalry, wounded severely on the 20th.

Company
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A

List of Officers, Non- Commissioned Officers and Privates, engaged in the Battle of San Jacinto, on the 21st of April, 1836.

Major-General SAM HOUSTON, Commander-in Chief of the Texian forces. Staff". Adjutant General, John A. Wharton; Inspector General, George W. Hockley Commissary General, John Forbes Asst. Inspector General. William G. Cooke Aids-de-Camp, A Horton, Wm. H. Patton, James Collinsworth Volunteer Aids, James H. Perry, R. Eden Handy, R. M. Coleman Secretary of War, Hon. Thomas J. Rusk Wm. Motley, M. D. Medical Staff. Alexander Ewing, Surgeon First Regiment Artillery, acting Surgeon General Davidson, Surgeon Fir^t Regiment Volunteers Fitzhuch, Asst. Surgeon Birst Regiment Volunteers; A. Jones, Surgeon Second Regiment Volunteers Booker, Surgeon Second Regiment Volunteers Labadie, Surgeon. Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. Neil, wounded the 20th; Capt. J. Artillery Corp*. N. Moreland First Lieutenant, W. Stillwell. A Park, wounded on Privates. T O Harris, John M Wade, Hugh M Swift, the 21st; Thomas Green, Clark M Harmon, T J Robinson, M Baxter, Thomas Plaster, Second Sergeant, Willis Collins, Benj M'Culloch, Richardson Scurry, First Sergeant: Joseph White, Thomas N B Green, John Ferrill, Joseph Floyd, Alfred Benton, D T Dunham, T C Edwards, S B Bardwell, assisted by the following regulars from the companies of Capts. Teal and Turner: Campbell, Millerman, Gainer, Cumberland, of Teals' Company Benson, Clayton, Merwin, Legg, of Turners Company. Cavalry Cbrps. Mirabeau B Lamar, Commander Henry Carnes, Captain J R Cook, First Lieutenant; H Smith, Harness, Second Lieutenant; B Secretts, F Secretts, A Allsbury, Captain Lem Gustine, M. D. Sweeney, Benj F Smith, Thomas Robbins, S C Tunnage, D Reaves, E R RainJ D J P J G J Isaac N Nash, Davis, Nixon, Deaderick, water, Neil, Elliott, J C Pierce, Hill, P Allsbury, D McKay, Benton, Jacob Duncan, J King, Thomas Blaokwell, Goodwin, J Coker, Elisha Clapp. H Henderson, George J F Wilson John C Brown, Thompson, Williamson, Robbins, Johnson, J Young, James Douthatt, John Carpenter, William Taylor, Anthony Foster, Z Y Beanford, Spenser Townsend, James Shaw, William D Redd, Clopper, P H Robinson. Bell, J
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REGULARS.
Henry Millard, Commanding Capt. John M Allen, acting Major. COMPANY A. Andrew Brisooe, Captain Martin K Snell, First Lieutenant Robert McClosky, Second Lieutenant Lyman F Rounds, First Sergeant David
Lieut. Col.
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Nelson. Second Sergeant:

Daniel

O

Driscoll, Third Sergeant; Charles A.

162
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TEXAS ALMANAC.
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Ford, Fourth Sergeant Richardson, First Corporal Harry C Craig, Second Corporal Bear, Third Corporal Flores, Musician. Privates. Bruff, Bebee, Benton, H P Brewster, Cassady, Dutcher, Darr], 7 Elliott, Flyn, Farlej Grieves, Warner, Henderson. Lang, Larbartare, Limski, Mason, Montgomery, Marsh, Morton, O'Neil, Pierce, Patton, Eheinhart, Kainer, Richardson, Smith, 1st, Smith, 2d, Sullivan, Saunders, Swain, Tindall, 1st. Taylor, Van Winkle, Wilkinson, Webb.
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VOLUNTEERS.
COMPANY
B.

Sum Millen, First Lieutenant Turner, Captain ; mers, Second Lieutenant Charles Stewart, First Sergeant; Swearinger, Second Sergeant; Robert Moore, Thomas Wilson, and Snyder, Corporals/ Privates. Bernard, Browning, Bissett, Belden, Colton, Harper, Hogan, Harvey, Johnson, Keeland, Nirlas, Paschal, Phillips, Smith, 1st, Smith, 2d, Callahan, Christie, Clarkson, Dalrymple, Eldridge, Edson, Lndus, Lind, Minuett, Mordorff, Massie, Moore, 2d, Scheston, Sigman, Tyler, Woods, Wardryski. COMPANY B. A R Romans, Captain Nicholas Dawson, Second Lieutenant ; James Wbarton, A Mitchell, S L Wheeler, Sergeants A Taylor, J D Egbert, Chas A Clarke, P Moore, Corporals. Privates. Angell, G Brown, Joseph Barstow, J B Bradley, B Coles, J S Conn, J T Dixon, William Dunbar, H Roman, J Jett, Stev Jett, A S Jordan, & G Newman, Lamar, Edward Lewis, M'Farlane, A M'Stea, H Miller, Richardson, D Tindale, J Vinater, C W Waldron, F F Williams, Jamea S Walker, James Ownby. Wilder, COMPANY I. S Fisher, Captain; R Carter, Second Lieutenant; Jones, Sergeant. SarPrivates. George Strode, Jos Sovereign, Leek, N Rudders, J geant, R J L Reel, Rufus Wright, Jos McAlister, B F Starkley, Day, John MorR S Arnot, gan, Banks, Jac Maybee, Brigham, P Burt Tewister, Slack, Graves, B F Fry, E G Mayrie, M'Neil, J'M Shreve, Pace, Ch Stibbins, H Bond, Geo Fennell, Gill, R Crittenden, Adam Mosier, J 8 Patterson, Jos Douane, G Mason, Thomas Pratt, E Knoland, A H Miles, Jno Llewelyn, James Joslyn, Jo Gillespie, A J Harris, D James
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STAFF OF THE COMMAND.
Nicholas Lynch, Adjutant Carper, Major Pinkey Caldwell, Quartermaster.
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John Smith, Sergeant

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FIRST REGIMENT TEXIAN VOLUNTEERS.
Alex Sommerville, Lieutenant-Colonel Burleson, Colonel Tinsley, Adjutant Cleveland, Seargant-Major.
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William Wood, Captain S B Raymond, Second Lieutenant ; J C Allison, First Sergeant Jas A Sylvester, Second Sergeant O T Brown, Third Sergeant Nathaniel Peck, Fourth Sergeant. H Berryhill, Uriah Blue, Seym Bottsford. Privates. Irwin Aimstrong, Luke W Bust, James Gumbo, Elijah V Dale, Abner C Davis, Jacob Eiler, Simon P Ford, Garner, G A Giddings, Jas Greenwood, C Hays, T A Griffin, Haskin, Robert Howell, Lockridge, J D Loderback, Edward Miles, Benj. Manasseh R E J John Joseph Sevey, Rhodes, Rial, Ralph Osborne, Pinchback, Sevey, Edward Taylor, John Viven, George Waters, James Welsh, Ezra Westgate, Walker Winn. COMPANY C. Jesse Billingsly, Captain Micah Andrews, First Lieutenant ; H James A Craft, Second Lieutenant Russel B Craft, First Sergeant Magill, Second Sergeant; Campbell Taylor, Third Sergeant. Privates. L S Cunningham, John Herron, Preston Conly, Jackson Berry, Jefferson Barton, Demry Pace, John Crisswell, Sam M'Clelland. Bunton, Lemuel Blakely, George Self, Thomas Davy, Jacob Standerford, Wayne Barton, Sampson Connell, Calvin Gage, Martin Walker, Gern E Brown, Log Vanderveer, Wash Anderson, Standerford, William Simmons, George Green, Geo P Erath, T M Dennis, James R Pace, John Hobson, Lewis Goodwin, Jos Garwood, Willis Avery, Jesse Halderman, Charles Willams', Aaron Burleson, R M Cravens, Walker Wilson, Prior Holden, Thomas A Mays, A M H Smith, James Curtis, M Rain, Robert Hood, Dugald M'Lean, Thomas A Graves.

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TEXAS ARMY AT THE BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO, &C.

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Mosely Baker, Captain J P Borden, First Lieutenant John Jeseph Baker, First Sergeant E C Pettus, Second Sergeant; M A Bryan, Third Sergeant; James Bell, First Corporal; James J L Second Friel, Corporal Hill, Third Corporal. Privates. O D Anderson, J B Alexander, John Beachom, T H Bell, S R Bostick, P P Borden, J Carter, Samuel Davis, G Davis, J R Foster, A Greenlaw, Fowler, Hugh Frazier, William Isbell, R Kleburg, Mat Kuykendal), Robert Moore, Jos McCrabb, Louis Rorder, V Swearengen, Jos Vermilion, I E WatR Williams, Ellison York, Patrick Usher, J S Menifee, sins, A Wolsey, Paul Scarborough, John Flick, J H Money, Weppler, John Marshall, William Bernbeck, Millett, Philip Stroth, Andreas Voyel, Nicholas Peck, Hawkins, Jobn Duncan, Geo Sutherland, Thomas Gay, Joseph Miller, G Gardner, R Mock, S H Isbel, James .Tarlton, Allen Ingraham; McHenry Winburn, Jackson, D D D Baker, officers belonging to the regular service. COMPANY K. R J Calder, Captain; J Sharper, First Lieutenant; A BingD.
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Pettus, Second Lieutenant
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ham,

First Sergeant.

Privates,-^ Brighara, J Conner,
stone, Granville Mills, Elias Baker,
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Dibble, Fowler, Fields, W C Hogg, J Hall, E B Halstead, J W Hassel, W Lambert, B Mims, W Muir P D M'Neil, C Malone, J Plunkett, W P Reese, C K Reese J A Spicer, H Stonfer, J Threndgil. W P Scott, R Crawford, S B Mitchell, B F Fitch, W W Grant, J S Edgar, J Smith, T D Owen, W Hale, A G Butts, D Dedrick, C ForrisW K Denham. COMPANY F. Wm J E Heard, Captain; William Eastland, First Lieutenant;

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Cooke,

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Cooke, S Conner,

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J John-

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B C Frank-

J Green,

Eli Mercer, First Sergeant ; Wilson Lightfoot, Second Sergeant ; Alfred Kelso, First Corporal; Elijah Mercer, Second Corporal. Privates. Robert M'Laughlin, Leroy Wilkinson, Lightfoot, Daniel Miller, Jesse Robinson, Josiah Hagans, John M'Crab. Maxwell Steel, John Bigley, Hugh

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M'Kenzie, Jos Elinger, John Halliet, J Robinson, D Dunham, William Passe, Lester, Phillilla Brading, Christian Winner, James Nelson, John Tumlinson, F Brockfield, Charles Henry, James Byrd, Nathaniel Reid, Andrew P B O'Connor, Thos Ryons, John Lewis, Jos Highland, Leander Bea?on, Sennatt, ST Foley, Allen Jones, Thomas Adams. Mitchell Putnam, T Hardimau, Chas Waters. Thompson, COMPANY H. Hill, Captain, (sick,) commanded by R Stephenson; H First R Stevens, Second SerSwisher, Lieutenant; C Raney, First Sergeant;

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TZ Whitesides, J S Stump, J M Swisher, Moses Davis, John Lyford, John Tom, Nicholas Crunk, Lewis Clemins, Cannon, James Hawkins, J K Dallas, M B Gray, James Gray, B Doolittle, Farmer, R Bowen, A Lesassiem, John Graham, James M Hill J Ingraham, John Gafford, N Mitchell, David Korneky, Geo Petty, James Everett, Prosper Hope, J Powell, Matthew Dunn, J D Jennings, John C Hunt, Jacob Groce, F B Gentry, J G Wilkinson, A Dillard, F K Henderson, Uriah Saunders, John Craddick, J Lawrence, A Caruthers, Daniel McKay.

geant; Privates.

Wm H Miller, Fourth Sergeant.

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SECOND REGIMENT TEXAS VOLUNTEERS.
Sidney Sherman, Colonel; Joseph L Bennett, Lieu ten ant- Colonel; Lysender Wells,-Major; Edward B Wood, Adjutant; Bennett McNelly, Sergeant Major. FIRST COMPANY. Hayden Arnold, Captain; R Smith, First Lieutenant: Isaac Edwards, Second Lieutenant. P Kincaunon, Daniel Doubt, John Privates. Sam Ltiper, Peter Holmes, F Williams, J Moss, E E Hamilton, David Rusk, McHorse, H Malena G Whitaker, John Yancy, S Yarbrough, Thos G Box, Alexin, John Harvey, Nelson Box, G R Mercer, T Saddler, James Mitchell, James E Nabors, Box, Sam Phillips, John B Trenay, Levy Perch, Crawf Grigsby, John McCoy. Dickins Parker, Je.'se Walling, J E Hallmask, Thos Carpenter, John Box. D Brooks, S F Spanks, Howard Bailey, H Brewer, Stephen McLin. SECOND COMPANY. William Ware, Captain; Job S Collard, First Lieutenant: Geo A Lamb, Second Lieutenant: Albert Gallitin, First Sergeant; C Winters, Second Sergeant.

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TEXAS ALMANAC.

Privates. 3. Kobinson., Winters, J Winters, C Edenburg, Lewis Cox, G G Lawrence, Cartwright, John Sadler, James Wilson, James Deritt, Matthew Moss, Jesse Thomson. THIRD COMPANY. William M Logan, Captain; Franklin Harden, First Lieutenant; B J Harper, Second Lieutenant; E F Branch, First Sergeant. Privates. John Biddle, J M Maxwell, M Charencan, E Bulliner, P Bulliner, J M Smith, David Choat, David Cole, Q Dykes, Sleighstou, Patrick Carnel, David M'Fadden, Thomas Orr, Luke Bryant, Kibbe, E M Tanner, H E Williams, Michael Poveto, Lefruy Gedrie, Joseph Farewell, C Thompson, Cornelius Devois, M J Brakey, Thomas Belnop, Duflee, Joseph Ellender, William A Symth, James Call. Smith, Robertson, FOTJBTH COMPANY. H Patton, Captain, (before entered as aid to General H.): David Murphy, -First Lieutenant; Peter Harper, Second Lieutenant: John. First Pendleton Smith, Breedlove, Eector, Second Sergeant: A Sergeant; Third Sergeant; G L Bledsoe, First Corporal. Privates. James Bradley, J C Boyd, Robert Carr, A J Beard, Alexander Bailey, J J Childs, St Clair Patton, Claiborn Eector. Phineas Eipley, Thomas

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McCormack, James Have, Charles Hick, A D Kenyon, G Lewis, H Jack, Dr Baylor, Thomas F James Harris, William Brennan,

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geant; E G Coffman, First Corporal. Privates. William Boyle, Benj Bencroft, George Barker, William Bennett, John Clarke, J B Coliant, J Campbell, Cooper, T Davis, Oscar Farish, Thomas Penticost, S Hopkins, Jack Lowrie, Placido M'Curdy, David Oden, G Peeoles, Samuel Sharpe, Isaac Jacques, John Chevis, 1st, John Chevis, 2d, Thon Cox, Cyrus Cepton, Ambrose Mayer, Moses Allison, Isaacs Maiden, F Wilkinson-

Thos H M'Intire, Captain; John P Gill, First Lieutenant; Bazil G Gians, Second Lieutenant; Eobert D Tyler, First Sergeant; John Wilkinson, Second Ser-

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James Galsaspy, Captain; Finch, First Lieutenant; Lieutenant; E T Choderick, First Sergeant.
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Second.

John Sayres, F B Lasiter, Gohoen, T H Webb, John Peterson, J Montgomery, T F Johnson, Hez Harris, F Frrill, Samuel Wyley, William Scolling, J EiohFertilan, A Montgomery, A Lolison, E M'Millan, S Daling, J L James Willis Walker, Alphonzo Steel, Ben] Johnson, F Ellis, ardfon, Obanion, M Woodward, Peterson, J C White, Eobert Henry, Elijah Votan, G Crosby,

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S Lewis, Second Lieut Bryant, Captain; John C Hale, First Lieutenant; Privates - William Earle, Irven, Sim Eoberts, Joseph P Parks, C EockWhite, Cobble, John F Gilbert, D Eoberts, M'Kenzie, well, E B Russel, L B Scates, J E Johnson, William Pate, B Lindsay, James Clarke, Eobert Love.

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William Kimbo, Captain James Eowe, First Lieutenant; John Harman, First Sergeant; William Fisher, Second Sergeant; Henry Eeed, Third Sergeant. Privates. Brown, William Bateman, J A'Chaffin.H Corsine, Joel Crane, R T Crane, Joshua Clelens, H Davis, S Holeman, Hill, G D Hancock', E O D G M'Gowan, J Proctor, Love, Legrand, M'Gary, Thomas Maxwell, B Watson, Lewis Wilworth. R Stevenson. G Jones, Benjamin Thomas, Brown, B Green, J Kent, Caddell, R Hotchkiss, Thomas Hughes. A Buffington,
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Manuel.

Juan N Seguin, Captain; Manuel Flores, First Sergeant; Antonio Menchaeen., Second Sergeant; Nep Flcres, First Corporal; Ambro Bodridge, Second Corporal Private*. Antonio Cruz, Jose Maria Mocha, Eudnado Samirer, Lucin Ennques, Maticio Curvis, Antonio Cueves, Simon Ancola, Manuel Tarin, Pedro Heuern, Thos Maldonart, Cecario Cormana, Jacintv Pena, N Navarro, A Varoinaa, Manuel Avoca.

NAMES OMITTED IX THE FOREGOING

LIST.

165
LIST.

NAMES OMITTED

IN

THE FOREGOING

The above list is copied literally from a small pamphlet, kindly furnished us, and which was printed in the New Orleans Bulletin Office, in 1836, a few weeks after the battle. This list has always been supposed to be full and correct, as it was official, but the following letter from Dr. Wm. P. Smith carries satisfactory evidence that many names of those on detached service were omitted, and we hope we may yet be able to supply this omission by the assistance of others. Dr. Smith was identified with the war from its commencement, and was, as we learn, the first Surgeon General of the Army, under the appointment of Stephen F. Austin, in 1835, and on the eve of the first battle of Texian revolution, he delivered an address to the troops, &c. We also subjoin another letter, giving the names of those composing the Spy Company, some of which are not in the official list. We have followed, literally, the orthography of the names as we find them printed, though we feel quite certain the spelling is incorrect in several instances.

FAYETTEVILLE, FAYETTE Co., TEXAS, July 20tb, 1858. MESSRS. RICHARDSON & Co. In your notice of your Almanac, for 1859, 1 see you contemplate publishing the names of those who were in the battle of San Jacinto. In Gen. Houston's published account of that battle, he does not say one word about those who were really connected with the army, yet on detached service by his own order. This is certainly not doing them justice. For- instance, Major McNutt was appointed to the command of the guard over the sick, the baggage, &c., at the upper encampment. I, as one of the Surgeons of the Army, was left at Donaho's, in charge of some sixty sick with the measles, being the sick of both Regiments. So soon as I got them in a condition so that some could go to the settlements, to regain their health, Capt. Hill, of Washington Co., and myself, took those who were able to join the Army, and dashed on as rapidly as possible, to join the main Army before the battle. When we arrived on the 20th of April, 1836, at the upper encampment, the end was knocked out of the ferry-boat, and" while some workmen were repairing it, Cos's division came on, fired on the workmen, and wounded one. Then, as Cos's division was between us and the main Army, we could not arrive there until the battle was over, and then we hastened to the scene as quick as possible. I was there in time to aid in attending to the sick and wounded. I was acting under a commission, as Regimental Surgeon, with the appointment of David G. Burnet, President ad I was regularly discharged interim, and Thomas J. Rusk, Secretary of War. I by M. B. Lamar, then Secretary of War, some two months after the battle. have obtained my 640 acre San Jacinto donation, and I think that myself, with others similarly situated, who were at our post doing detached service by order of the Commander-in-Cbief, are entitled to some public consideration. Would it not be well, in your forth coming issue, to make some honorable mention of those on detached service ? Yours, &c.,

WM.

P.

TEXAS SPY COMPANY.
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SMITH.

EDS. TEXAS ALMANAC Enclosed I send you a list of the names of the spies belonging to the Army under Gen. Sam Houston, in 1836, as far as I recollect. The names of some will be found in the list of those who were directly engaged in the battle, while others were in its immediate vicinity acting in their capacity as spies. Their duty, at all times, was conceded to be of the most hazardous kind, often meeting the enemies' scouts performing the same services for them. The results are unknown, except to those immediately concerned, and for ever
will be.

Names.

Secrets, R. O.

Erasmus (Deaf) Smith, Capt. Karnes, Washington W. McMannus, Pierce. Koker.

Secrets, Fielding P. C.

ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE OF SANTA ANNA.
[The statements in the following letter appear to present some discrepancies with the more generally received account of the capture of Santa Anna, or that given by Dr. Labadie in his narrative, in another part of this work. We,

however. After traveling about two miles. If you think them of sufficient interest. He said he thought I was mistaken that there must be more. From the bridge we started down the Bayou. and how many and when I told him I did not had would shot. Santa Anna then stopped. and make him trot for some two or three miles. No. 1 asked him. for when we started towards him. a party was detailed and sent out under command of Gen. I then took him up behind me. and went in different directions. 1858. he sat down on a I was It proved to be Santa Anna. he would desert first.166 TEXAS ALMANAC. I said. in 1836. he had He said knew where thought they gone to tbe Brazos. requesting me to give you the particulars of the capture of Santa Anna. I asked him if be knew of any other Mexicans that had made their escape from the battle. I asked him if he and Santa Anna Cos were. you can put them in snch shape as you think best. but that the Americans would like the younger ones for servants. high place.] ROUND TOP. He refused to do it. yours. when he dismounted and asked me bow far it was to camp. he said he belonged to the cavalry. but would kill him. and asked me what I thought would be done with the prisoners. . but he could not walk any farther. and appealing to me. I told him we would take him to the American Camp. TEXAS ALMANAC Gentlemen : 1 have received a letter from my friend. be. said if we wanted to kill him. no doubt. When we started with him. how many we killed. and Santa Anna rode his horse some two miles up to the road. no. The young man then wanted to He then said he would try and walk. This brought us to camp. and particularly to search for Santa Anna and Cos. He said he thought there were some up the ravine in a thicket. have to go slow and so we started for camp. ROBISON. when the Mexicans immediately He asked to be taken to Gen. He said the Americans were a brave and generous people. I told him eight or nine miles. It was as follows On the morning of the 22d. Vermilion. The party I was with consisted of six. and the man got behind him. and was comhis horse. said I asked him Mexican Army. R Dr J. we entered into a general conversation. some five or six miles further. believing that it will serve to elicit other testimony of living witnesses. and carried him to camp. &c. Yes. After he He asked me if Gen. and was compelled to obey his officers. EDS. He was very willing to go. if he would come to Texas any more. Robison's account. another whose name I do not recollect." if he was not sorry he bad come to fight the Americans. : : . JOEL W. He said that would be very kind. Aiigust 5th. if he was back in Mexico. I asked if he was an officer. When we reached the Bayou. and was then announced his name taken to him me that you want these facts for the information of your writes to Robson Dr Almanac readers. and the man then leveled his gun at him. be taken. and myself. Robson. Houston commanded in person at the battle. He said no. 1 told him I did not know. Sylvester. got up behind. some five or six hundred yards from us. I am. give Mr. BurThis party proceeded in the direction of the bridge on Vince's Bayou. I said some six or seven hundred. the Americans are great soldiers. Thompson. leson Our object was to pick up any Mexicans we could find who had fled from the battle the evening before. Houston. He. and was not accustomed to being on foot that he was run very close by our cavalry the day before.. Their names are as follows Miles. . and that two hundred Americans could whip the whole " Yes. but complained of being very tired. Very respectfully. we divided into squads of five or six persons in each. He said he could not walk so far. we saw a man standing on the bank of a ravine. saw us first. and would prick him in the back with bis spear. He asked me how many were in our army at the battle. and waited till we came up the only one of the party that spoke the Mexican language. they prisoners we think they would be shot that I had never known Americans to kill prisoners of war. but he belonged to the army. and I 'told him so. by which any errors may hereafter be corrected. to do so. The man that went up the ravine finding no Mexicans. the day after the battle. then came up and told Santa Anna to dismount. he said. so far as I know. one of our party dispelled to leave mounted and went up the ravine to look for the Mexicans spoken of by Santa Anna. all privates.

John Anderson. . the latter being very plenty in portions of the county. . and are. that of corn is about thirty bushels wheat. &c. Robert. DAMROK. which produces quite a remarkable feature in the landscape. and is the county seat. in the west part. W. $281. This county was organized in 1850. There is one sulphur spring which is resorted to sometimes for health.615. divided into four rooms below. BELL. but the people seem to be much devoted to the cause of education. money at interest. : . perfectly round.282 land. Guilders. the hills occasionally rising some five hundred feet. TOWNS. being taken from Milam county The first settlers in this territory. There are a great county. John Earley. There are about 1700 sheep in this county. John Dunlap. but one is in progress. County tax. sandy. and which is used chiefly for There are four grist and two saw mills driven by water one grist and i'encing. is estimated at one hundred per The wool is worth twenty-five cents per pound it is considered that cent. I believe. Post Oak. when they returned to their locations.014 86 .006.550 acres.125. assessed at $585. $2. the most of them. Messrs. There are.506 head of cattle assessed at $115. were Michael Reed and his two sons. Baptists. There are no private common schools. Chapman. there is no courthouse at present. 225. There are 3. waxey land.828 head of horses assessed a* $164.882 76 value of property lying out of the but assessed the in county. Goldsbey Guilders. on Little River. and Mr. in the bottoms. $9. [Furnished by M. Cotton Wood and Cedar. 1859 it is a stone house. still residing in this county. The average yield of cotton is about one thousand pounds per acre in the seed. B. making ien mills in this county. which is to be finished by the first of November. Chinese. They are all yet living. 778 negroes. It was commenced 1851 its population is about three hundred. 114 town Total. and bis son.124. The amount of profits. Geo. and scarcely ever fail to bear apples do well when grafted in the red haw. 0. Beef is worth two and a half cents. State tax. About one-third of this county. and a stairway to go up in the centre to the Court-room. John Fulcher. since 1850. Missionary Baptists. now forming Bell county. the soil vaThe timber rying from black. . Some of those springs are of sufficient size to afford good mills within a few paces of the head. valued at $434. $1. Griffin and Taylor. the average value of which is three dollars and a half per head. one hundred and ninetjr first settlers. . : . William and Jefferson Reed. except Goldsbey Guilders and Moses Griffin. though cattle and horses do well. Live Oak. assessed at $47. fifty by sixty feet. twelve The value bushels. There are 532 poll tax payers. and the Christians Schools are conducted under the provisions of the Public School Law. and one grist mill run by horse-power. were among the earliest settlers. and pork is generally worth five cents per pound. Taylor. two saw mills driven by steam. &c Belton is the only town in this county. Calvanists. 167 DESCRIPTION OP COUNTIES. These hardy pioneers settled in this country. and resembles tar in appearance.121.095. distant. of improved land varies from five to ten dollars per acre unimproved from one to five dollars per acre. $38. and pay large annual profits. to a grey. may be safely set down at ten fold. which has valuable properties for healing old sores. per annum. The oM seems to be impregnated with bitumen. owing to the Mexican War and the hostility of the Indians. on sheep. There is but very little vacant or public land in this . coming to a sharp point at top like regular cones. Moses Griffin. There are 20. county. ] many springs in this county. $1. miscellaneous property.715. Assessor and Collector. the water being limestone generally. . and what there is is not worth anything. CHURCHES.268. consists of Burr Oak.393. . Eim. were compelled to abandon their homes until about the year 1844. about the year 1834 but. The whole increase of this county. and they tell of the Indians murdering a great many of the Houston is the nearest market. Peach trees do very well here. The lota.DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. About one-half of this county is prairie. above We have the following religious denominations in this county Presbyterians Methodists. Sugar Cane 150 gallons of syrup per acre. is very hilly and undulating. . There has been some land to this county cultivated about fourteen years it produces as well as it did at first The depth of the soil ranges from three to ten feet. sheep raising is more profitable than any other business. 1 should have mentioned that there is one Oil Spring in this county.

The Daily Stage Line. is situated on Noland's creek. the average yield of wheat ordinarily being twenty bushels. it deseivedly stands high. ADDITIONAL.) 3. seven miles below Belton. . The people are generally opposed to banking. BKOWN. section. has the highest claims to the favorable consideration of new comers. sheep and hogs. 3. BROWN. upland prairies and highlands. The Three Forks of Little River. till it now numbers.168 miles. passes through Belton. transportation TEXAS ALMANAC. four from the Lampasas.] ized This county was created at the Summer Session of 1856. perhaps. Assessor and Collector A. [ Furnished by JOHN H. a stone Court-House under way. better watered than any in the State. The western half of the county. District Clerk. All of North Noland. Building stone'abound throughout the county. is an undulating. It is well supplied is drained by Delaware.801. Ramsay. these streams afford an abundance of the finest water power Belton. embracing the Elm Creeks and Little River. [ Furnished by JOHN . Cowhouse. with a limited supply of timber. Cedar. however. The western half is broken. Mukewater. with occasional small valleys and fertile spots the whole. The county was named in honor of ex-Governor Bell. rye. aside from Pecan Bayou. Bell county is. Good schools exist throughout the county. In no portion of the State have I found a sounder southern sentiment among all classes. Sheriff'. within the county limits. . the late election. by the stage road. from Austin to Red River. 22. These officers were elected at . with a number of stone buildings. Pecan Bayou runs centrally through the entire length of the county. A few families settled on Little River. mesquite grass abounding throughout its the best kind. Damron. Chief Justice. Blanket. and of the best kind As a grain and cotton county. about half being Tennesseans the remainder from the other Southern States. Since that time its population has steadily increased. and various other creeks of pure spring water. is by wagons price of hauling about two dollars per hundred. M. The eastern portion of the county is broken and rocky. . viz: the Salado. W. affording exceedingly fertile valleys from one to three miles in width. affording excellent grazing. sorgho and barley. abundant.50 per hundred. : . (June. which affords fertile valleys. corn thirty. The following are the county officers A. . pass through it. in 1835 but their number never increased till about 1845-6. We challenge all our sister counties to show twelve larger men than Bell can boast. and the Leon. and several other creeks. with an Post Oak is also excess of cedar and the usual timber of our bottom lands. This town is distant from Austin sixty miles Waco forty Hempstead one hundred and twenty Houston one hundred and seventy. 1850. drained by Jim Ned. These streams also receive the limpid streams. I regard Bell as the best average county with which I am aclimits. fertile and beautiful The centre. Stone is Brick are not used. K. and nine from the Salado. Gold and silver is the currency. but not fully organIt is bounded on the South by the Colorado river. susceptible of profitable culture. till the Spring of 1858. the Lampasas. delivered here at $4. Bell is unsurpassed in this or any other State and upon the whole. the only town in the county. The population is of quainted. Good pine lumber can be chiefly used for building here. 1858. . cattle. John C Caddel. Oats. II. W. The eastern half of the county is a continuous body of rich. Clear and Indian creeks.Leon. and cotton one bale per For horses. 779 slaves: 3 free negroes total. one mile from the. is very fertile. one of whom goes to three hundred and thirty pounds. flourish finely. and is situated very near the geographical centre of the State. Richard. It is a pleasant village. into valleys. uniting and forming Little River. with a few from Illinois and other Northern States. a church and several mills in the neighborhood for grinding and sawing. undulating land. acre. the county seat. by the census just completed. Clerk County Court: Joseph Cater. drained by Brown's and Pompey creeks. Noland. ] This county (Bell) was created by an act passed Jan.022 whites. The people look forward for railroads with great anxiety. millet. BROWN. For health. All freight is hauled to and from the Central Railroad at Hempstead. The Southeastern portion.

at an average value of eight dollars and fifty cents per head 1. Old River. it has still grown rapidly since its first settlement. cotton. on the coast of Texas. &c. COMAL. season. The largest body of pine and other timber. The uplands are well adapted to grazing. in this county. ] The chief products of this county are corn. out of 103. Henry S. . seven to eight cents mutton. without a single free colored in the county.284 acres. abundantly. . 14. The towns are Anahnac and Wallisville. The larger. The average value of beef. Its contiguity to Galveston. of the county. . and is susceptible of sustaining an immense population. Six hundred and seventy-six and one-half acres were planted with cotton eight thousand four hundred and seventy-one and one-half acres in corn . not including 6103 town lots. FRANK. and two insane persons. Brown. is peaches. s . and in the winter county. three years ago. The upper portion of the county is well adapted to sheep raising. upon the whole. The stock range is as good as any on the coast and in every part of the county there is a fine. is three to four cents per pound pork. and north of latitude thirty-one degrees. remarkably well watered. rye. at all seasons. A steam packet. The entire belt of country west of the Brazos. Improved lands are worth. Brownwood is the county seat. Sugar Cane. is in this The streams furnish. . During the last year. through this county. per acre potatoes. Trinity River.094 head of horses. but New Braunfels. . the other streams and the Bay. The county is finely timbered. and Cedar Bayou. and hold out strong inducements to those in search of a good country and desirable homes. . CHAMBERS.DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. sugar. and. adjoins [ . in the Union. 169 is unsurpassed for grass. . soft and cool. seventy-five bushels corn. carrying the U. The labor is principally done by whites yet there are one hundred and seventy-nine slaves. as yet. with timber. . The health is good a fine sea-breeze prevails during the summer. is boated from this county.116 acres under cultivation. Cuban Tobacco. as to position. Furnished by JUDGE WM. CHAMBERS. back Held by Indian depredations. wheat. beautifully located in the centre of the county. the finest fish. Average crop of wheat. The county was named in honor of Capt. as has been proved by their being under cultivation since the first settlement in 1846. consumed in Galveston. . near its junction with the Guadalupe. and empties in the Bay within the limits of the county. is unquestionably without a It will be seen. principal west de of the Comal river. There are three deaf and dumb. eighteen to twenty bushels . Mail. afford the best facilities of getting all kinds of produce to a ready market. Lands of the first quality are still remarkably cheap in Brown. and three hundred and ninety and one-half acres miscellaneous. including rye and barley. throughout the year. runs the Trinity daily. and both Sweet and Irish Potatoes. created at the last Session of the Legislature. . portion of firewood. the trials have been made with apples. There are. and has a . and its daily connection therewith. The principal fruit. one of which will be the county seat. Turtle Bayou. Population of the county about twelve hundred. that Brown county is rival for healthfulness. nominal. is beautifully located on the town and the county seat. navigable stream. [Furnished by SAMUEL H.892 head of cattle. water.631. at thirty-three dollars per head sheep and hogs are raised to the best advantage. S. various. Double Bayou. and on the west bank of Pecan Bayou. there were 12. The lands of the valleys are of strong soil. barley. The disposition of the people is to own slaves as soon as able. and well adapted to the growth of Sea Island Cotton. The Trinity River runs through it. The well water is abundant. and with success. Galveston county on the South. is one of the most inviting and promising counties near the thirty-second parallel of latitude. and sail crafts. five hundred and two acres in wheat seventy-five and one-half acres in sugar. Much of the land is of a fine quality. The total white population of the county is 3. . who died in 1834. ] This county. fifteen to eighteen bushels barley and rye with satisfactory results. are all navigable streams. too. Corn and Oats potatoes and other vegetables flourish finely fruits do well. the whole number in the country. . about twenty dollars per acre unimproved. on an average. thousands of wild fowl resort to the Bay.

rich. Buson. the land in the bottoms being high. draws its pro rata portion of the State School Fund. John C. were Boss AlleyClark. generally. Robinson. The trade B. is Lavaca distance from the county seat. COLORADO. James Cummings. Pettus. there are only four The ''New flouring and three saw mills. furnished last year. although some New Orleans Bank paper find. and it was some half mile above. Levi Bostick. The same writer says there are two flouring mills. while the prairies and uplands generally afford fine stock ranges. It has a large and elegant courthouse nearly completed. E. settled here in 1822. which is found in abundance within tne vicinity of the town. and the deficit is made up by hauling from Bastrop. C. and Coinal Creek. B.] This County was organized in 1836. Dewees. one hundred and fifty miles. connected with it. e abundant over the county. which runa along the east side of the town. 'E. living. or. The principal market. Among its early settlers. the country is proverbially healthy. and is taken up by the merchants at par. F. six saw mills. and the only transit. Hunt. San Bernard and Navidad rivers. while on the Southern and Western boundary of the county. extends over ten acres that fossils of animal and vegetable petrifactions are abundant that the skeleton of a mammoth has been dug up in New Braunfels. and rapidly improving. It has. population of about eighteen hundred souls. and is now a town of considerable size. and one sash and blind manufactory. Clark. limestone. saya the cavern. New Braunfels. is the Cibolo river. and two cottoa gins in the county. The Mexican army crossed the Colorado at this place. The people of the coanty are. Specie constitutes the principal medium for money of the county. is by ox or mule wagons. at an average cost of about one dollar and fifty cente per hundred pounds. those mentioned. Cumming's and Harvy's creeks. and a College TS in contemplation. and easily corn petcultivated. Comal is watered by the Guadalupe. DUNLEVY. Ross.ake. There are several caves on Mission Hill. its charter grants the privilege of taxing through the incorporated city of New Braunfels. Alley are still Wm. B. to be located in Columbus. for goods. but as explorations have never been made. J. its way in. and others too numerous to mention. with several good schools. near New Braunfels. . John Crier. A good deal of cypress lumber is turned out by saw-mills here. The buildings are of stone. but too late. but. but not so much as to injure it. John Hadden. The Colorado. Assessor and Collector. W. nothing definite can be said about them. at present. Benj. [Furnished by A. producing an average of a bale of cotton and 35 bushels Water acre. J. are the principal streams in and bordering the county Eagle Lake. and A. and Abram Alley. the county seat. several shingle machines. with four large and commodious apartments. Another description of Comal county. all having fully complied with the School Laws of the State. The county is settling up rapidly. within a few miles of New Braunfels. that the Texian army were entrenched. with philosophical apparatus sufficient for the elucidation of any subject that may be treated There are three other free schools in the county. Columbus. Most of W. the principal of this county formerly went to Lavaca. in this county. enough for all of the wants of the people.170 TEXAS ALMANAC. quite flourishing villages. Braunfels Academy " is located here. linson. with their numerous tributaries. and for any deficit in paying necessary expenses. built from the beautiful white limestone. for the county. B. on the eastern bank of the Frellsburg and Prairie Point are river. to any great extent. in this direction. Comal. Every part of the county is fully supplied with water. B. has turned it to Galveston and Bichmond. The water is slightly impregnated with. There are no prevailing diseases. but the building of the B. & . was laid out in 1835 or 1836. both for family uses and for stock purposes. Dewees. and J. and is a flourishing school of about two hundred and seventy-five scholars. in favor of the present constitutional restriction on banks Springs a. Tom Wm. nine grist mills. but not sufficient to answer the demand for building purposes. The Comal river. There are ten or twelve churches of different denominations in the county. . a library of about two thousand volumes. at least. affords water-power sufficient for a large number of manufactories of the first class but.

Sheep are very successfully raised in this county. . and fine lands Our county has not been settled long enough to ascertain the growth and increase of productions. The average value of cattle. 100 miles. but we have had no material loss by them. and Louisiana and Commercial and Agricultural Bank notes money generally quite plenty. tory is settling beyond us. M.DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. advancing so rapidly under the especial patronage of the General Government in New and Old Mexico. The PaThe terricific Railroad will most benefit our county on the parallel of 32. our means of transportation.000 head of hogs. 63 Improved lands are worth $5 per acre unimproved. is the general character of the soil. 483 in sugar cane. . Experiments in sheep raising have proved very successful. We have one saw mill. .) If the river goes dry again. and north of the head waters of Leon river. has been put in operation. water. Stock water is plentiful. yet surely it is. and therefore affords a "market for our products. The Indians have been a little troublesome. The lands west of us. and at all points the people are damming it for purposes of migration. with some singular and prominent mountain peaks It was organized in 1857. The as far as the Clear Pork of the Brazos. wagons cost. in our valley. . The counties of Erath. susceptible of good settlements. 40 bushels wheat. Good lumber is worth from $25 to $40 per thousand ft. West of the Colorado. Oar stock range is first class the winter range is most excellent. $1. Borne of the land in the county has been in cultivation since 1822. slightly commingled with sand. appear to entertain an especial fondness. $1 per bushel. . Immigration more than consumes the products of the counHouston is our market ty. far behind our neighboring country. elm. . : COMANCHE. and are entirely clear of all disease. Average yield per acre of corn. Stone is used for building purposes. There are a great number of small German farms in the county. We have two flouring mills. (which is. Wheat flourishes finely and produces well. $75 sheep. and will show our appreciatiom of your project by giving you all the assistance in our power. The proportion of prairie and timbered land is about one of prairie to three of timber. for making flour. W. as it did in '62. C. could such be had: The currency is gold and silver. and produce much better dark loam. Our timber consists of post oak. White population. . . Our i?ikabitants are in favor of slavery intensely so. country plenty of timber. and our best markets. . . Sheep and horses are the most profitable stock. is $6 50 per head horses. There are 94 farms in the county. We hope to be more prompt for you hereafter. the only means we have of procuring water. 171 very good. ash. and some other varieties. 20 bushels. 818 slaves. to the head of the Concho us are of Is north lands very fine. . sycamore. EL PASO.] In this county. river. as you must know. We would prefer paying for cypress and pine lumber. FBOST and Son. . but previously under the jurisdiction of Coryell county.000 head of borsps 400 head of sheep. at our expense. There are 12.I We have reason to think that our county is progressing. embrace the best section of our N. [Furnished by T. We have three steam saw mills in the county. . $1 for carrying 100 Ibs. Eastland and Comanche. 1. Prnit of all kinds. Our wheat crop this year (1857) has been better than for the last five years it is estimated at about 18. stock.000 bushels. whetf . pine. and the water is very wholesome and palatable it is impregnated with no miaeral substance. Beef is worth 2 cents per pound pork. We have a faint and indistinct glimmer of a Pacific Railroad. Buchanan. Lands have been cultivated three years. 5 cents per pound corn 50 cents per bushel wheat. for which all Government disbursing agents. &c. . and produces as well now as at first. cotton-wood. and corn never looked so well as at present. Our fences are of rails. 1. The Rio Grande has gone nearly dry. . there is a great scarcity of water as a general thing. The country is undulating. A steam mill. adapted to the climate. silver. $3. Our county is remarkably healthy. Cora is the only town in the county was located in 1857 its prospects are favorable. 8 acres in corn. Palo Pinto. Oar currency consists of gold.072 in wheat. flourish.000 head of cattle in the county. and particularly the military. there are planted in cotton.. propelled by steam. Springs are abundant. [Furnished by the P. 3. and abundant for stock purposes. though slowly. 34 acres. however.

Hillyer. was the Rev. (board.. A. In 1846. . the inhabitants were again driven out by the Mexicans. The records of its establishment are lost. and A. two. . : saddlers. three carpenters. BUSINESS OF GONZALES FOR 1857. and four hundred or five hundred inhabitants. GONZALBS COLLEGE. house painters. Male College built in 1855. : . then Governor of Coahuila and Texas. eleven groceries and provisions. (of Galveston. one gunsmiths. in the county. yet we sometimes hare a little. April 17th. a Court House. Peas. thirty-five by sixty feet. and two stories high. Anna E. which was granted. a Male College was erected. cabinet manufacturers. J. Guess. At the present time the town contains 3. The town was incorporated February 5th.000 inhabitants.. The first gun fired for Texian liberty was on the 28th of September. in 1841. Methodist Church. the Americans bring rain whenever they travel. thirty or forty houses.