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Sixth I. | aipstifM Jt| gainst Atlanta Capt. H. JOHNSTON. to. <M* . Kentucky Volunteer Infantry.\fo 70f730 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. N.

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18G4. PRINTER. SIXTH KENTUCKY VOLUNTEKR INFANTRY. CO. H. THOMPSON. R. P. i/k JOHNSTON". . CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA BY Capt.FOUR JIONTHS AND THE IN LIBBY. FOR THE AUTHOR. CINCINNATI: PRINTED AT THE METHODIST BOOK CONCERN.

PUBLIC 707730 ASTOR. in the year 1864. according to Act of Congress. . JOHNSTON. BY I. N. LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS R 1915 L Entered. In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of Ohio.

with as truth. simply because I have a story to will which many take pleasure in hearing b> . tell. may demand Without any crime I have been an inmate of the foulest of Southern prisons. incident. I then. The labors will.s —the record of which during that of the war an itself. and which yet forth the condemnation one to of the civilized worjd. perhaps. public. the a better reason. "the solicitations of friends" print . and a com- panion of the brave treatment has called men whose forth will condition rind the sympathy of call the nation. I MIGHT plead. I was one of the party that of the planned and executed escapes will most remarkable known be en- history a. give interest to these pages which the charm of style can never impart to a tale wanting in stirring write. my apology for appearing in is but as mine an unpracticed pen.PEEFACE. and perils of which I was a partaker I am well assured.

to be critical ? I. have sat whom I around the camp-fire. in and which. and the dangers of the battle. perhaps. N." 4 PREFACE. When I began these pages I had no inten- tion of carrying the reader beyond my escape from Libby. not. be indulgent. My friends. to I have. . been induced add an account of Sherman's great campaign against Atlanta. possess more for those that will all will who were with me in memorable march. however. shared the weariness of the march. Johnston. will like "my story none the less for being plainly told. as they read these pages. will think of other matters than brill- iant sentences and round periods. I claim no leadership in the en- terprise of which I write — the time has not honor is yet the come to gi^e honor to whom due . in prison. and while this will. I doubt after years will employ a more Those with skillful pen than mine. and the partners of flight. and my my companions in Libby. may I express the hope that others will have their sympathies too still much aroused for our brave boys. I am sure. it have less interest for the general reader. reason of my silence in this respect will ap- pear in the course of my narrative.

— Am taken prisoner — Trip dents on the way — Star-Spangled Banner Kind treatment — Arrival at Richmond CHAPTER Riohmond escape to Richmond sung in — Inci33 Dixie IV. SHILOH AXD STONE RIVER. Character of the age book — Entering the service — My own experiences — Object of my — Elected Captain — The Gth KenPage 9 II.— O OINTEITS. — The prison — Treatment of Prisoners — Plans of 46 — Sad Failures — Prospect of success . and left on tho 21 — Disasters of day and final CHAPTER The battle CHIC KAM AUG A. tucky—Its deeds CHAPTER My field first battle. CHAPTER I. and how first I felt — Wounded triumph III. ENTERING THE SERVICE. FAILURES.

My home renewed — Great alarm— safe— The work —Success —Last night in Libhy—Words on leaving. RETURN TO THE FRONT. THE ESCAPE. CELLAR LIFE. Maj. M'Donald's adventure —Nature of the task — In the tunnel — My own disappearance — Given Page 65 up as escaped —Fislar's story CHAPTER VI. 81 and company Still CHAPTER The to VII. CHAPTER A new plan adopted V. last night— Farewell Libby — Sufferings and dan— The North Star our guide— The faithful negro —A false friend —Almost retaken — The contrast 95 gers CHAPTER In the swamp treatment ington VIII. THE TUNNEL.— O CONTENTS. — How I spent my furlough —Join my regi— Changes — Forward movement— Tunnel Hill — Rocky Face — Resaca 127 ment . UNDER THE FLAG AGAIN. — Meeting our pickets —Warm welcome —Kind — Interview with General Butler—Arrival at Wash113 CHAPTER Return home IX.

Howard. Polk Before Kenesaw — The unreturning brave — Georgia scenery — Marietta ours 107 Across the Chattahoochc CHAPTER Intrenching all XIII. Confidence in our leader— Tunnel Hill and Rocky Faco strategy Mountain — Pursuit of of the enemy —Johnston's — In command my regiment— Battle near Dallas— Night on tho battle-field — Reflections CHAPTER XI. and Thomas in — The attack and repulse — The Sixth Kentucky in front again — In the trenches — Guarding train — Forward march. Page 142 MARCHING AND FIGHTING. 7 CHAPTER X. ON TO ATLANTA. night — Gallant exploit of tho First and —Atlanta in view— In the trenches before tho city — Tho Sixth Kentucky ordered Tennessee — Turning over my command — A parting word 180 Third Brigades to . Pine Mountain and death of Gen. BEFORE ATLANTA. 155 Reminder to council CHAPTER XII.— CONTENTS. SHERMAN STILL FLANKING. the reader— Sherman.

FOUR MONTHS

IN LIBBY.

CHAPTER

I.

ENTERING THE SERVICE.
Character of the age

— Entering the tucky — Its deeds.
book

service

— My own experiences — Object of my — Elected captain — The Cth Kenman
;

I

am

a soldier, a plain, blunt
to say will

hence,

what I have

have the directness of
in

a soldier's tale.

The age

which we
years

live is a

heroic
at

one

;

boys who
guiding

four
the

ago

were
heall

school
;

or

plow are

now
for

roes

we
and

have

battle-fields

enough
page
of

time,

names

on

the

history
of

eclipsing

those of

the great
will

captains

the

past
die.

—names that the world

not willingly let
is

Reason as we may, J there

a charm about
9

10

FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY.

the story of a great war that few are able to
resist
;

grave scholars go into
;

ecstasies

over

the tale of Troy
is

and the youth, whose reading
old

confined to
avidity

the

family

Bible,
tell

devours
of the

with

those portions which

exploits of

Samson

or the triumphs of David;

and

it

is

the fearful conflicts winch they de-

scribe that give

such interest

to the Paradise

Lost and Bunyan's
blood

Holy War.
stirred

What

boy's

has

not been

by the story of
a Marion, and the has not wept

Bunker
fall

Hill, the exploits of

of

Yorktown?

What youth

as he read the story of Warren's death, or the

sadder

story

of the

execution
liberty
?

of

Hale, the
in genera-

proud young martyr of
tions to

and

come the youth of

this land, with burn-

ing cheek and tearful eye, will read

how

Ells-

worth

fell,

just as he had torn
;

down

the em-

blem of treason
Dahlgren
tives

and how the gallant young

died, almost in sight of the sad cap-

whom

he desired

to

deliver.

Who

has

not been thrilled with horror at the cruelties

ENTBBDW5 THE SERVICE.
inflicted

11

by the minions of the British King
arms
for

upon
the

the colonists taken in

a cause
living
cruel-

most noble, and

consigned
?

to

the

grave of the prison-ship
ties

and yet these

have been repeated, with even

increased

malignity, at Belle Isle and Libby Prison.
I

have

experienced nearly

all

the fortunes

of a soldier, and can therefore speak from

my

own personal

observation.

I have

felt

that ar-

dent love of country which has taken so

many

from the peaceful pursuits of
field.

life

to the tented

I

know something

of the stern joy of
;

battle,

the rapture of victory

I

am

familiar

with the long, weary march, want of food, and
thirst,

which amounts to agony
lifeless

;

nay, I have
the
battle-

been stretched almost
field,

on

know something of the long, weary hours
recovery
all,

of slow

from painful wounds,

and,

harder than

long months of sad, weary,

and almost hopeless captivity, and the joy, too v
of escape

from what almost seemed a living
though young, wanting the largo

tomb.

And

for any is liter- ary. experience of some. apology. and if. I shall make no . 12 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY.defects the work I propose not one of . but a record of facts and will. I feel well as- sured. I can minister to their pleasure. will not be told in vain.. I write mainly for my companions in arms. He who unselfishly bares his breast to the storm of battle. Moreover. unadorned story. whom I have suffered. and a link to my little book long be bind together hearts that danger has only endeared. my task will not be will a useless one. Nor am to I without hope that I shall be able interest for the soldier in awaken an the minds of those who never have passed through scenes such as I describe. and in fighting over again our battles. in whatever other respects it may fail. common and triumphs. have the merit of truth. who . art or imagination. rehearsing our dangers. toils. sides my comrades by whose with I have fought. privations. and the culture of others yet my plain. then. it at least.

I shall it. and yet at the same time I truth. . we have honored the : men who achieved our independence we ought never to forget those who struck for native land. certainly . I to proceed cultivate free still further their acquaintance by a and unreserved statement of what- . and magnanimity are in a foe and wherever these found. and the very threatened by armed traitors. even in an enemy. I trust. If a man's acts of the nation are regarded as the expo- nents of his patriotism. stands 13 danger. mine. will not be questioned. between peaceful that others homes and -who suffers may be safe. not be slow to acknowledge as Having now. deserves well of his country and never have any soldiers established a better claim on the gratitude of their country than the soldiers of the Union. home and when all that the heart holds dear life was imperiled. established a good understanding shall between myself and readers. I feel assured.ENTERING THE SERVICE. feel at perfect liberty to honor kindness. As a nation.

and that department I am not able to is declare positively that the pen mightier than the sword. soldierly bearing and a of Federal And had I rested my it claims to their favor upon authorship. however. and wound was not a deformity who was dearest to me. my fellow-soldiers. I My have not found to even an unsightly be an impediment. I fear would have proved but a broken reed. did of being my have only literary achievements epistles to in heretofore been sundry the fairer portion of creation. I The only college with which is I have had any acquaintance ioned log school-house. in the eyes of her . to be of interest prior to my am Like thousands of a farmer's son. may seem in Libby. as I rather incline to the opinion that few things have more influence with that portion of suit humanity than blue. military career. I as little the old-fash- and a few years ago as I dreamed of being an author a soldier.14 ever life FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY.

a contest like the man should have reasons for his especially when that course involves personal danger and sacrifices the greatest a man quire. but when trials the clouds arc darkest and perils and beset her round. no necessity as it has already been done by far abler Still. if You will be disappointed. can make — sacrifices which. but they are not those of the mere poli- they are the reasons of the man and the patriot selfish love. for it. life if need re- must not stop short of itself. My tician . not in the days of peace and prosperity. present. indeed. who loves his country with an un- and loves that country most. by any burdens . freer Government than ours the world never saw. that we knew not we had a Government. 15 reader. kind you expect from me a history of the causes of the war. I am not sufficiently skilled in the political history of the country for such an unthere is dertaking.ENTERING TIIE SERVICE. own reasons are those of thousands of others. and. every course. in hands than mine. A milder.

16
that
it

FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBT.
imposed upon us
;

it

was only by the
that

constant flow of blessings

we enjoyed
Our

we

were conscious of

its

existence.
;

history,
full

though short, was glorious
the
brightest

our future

of

promise, and the

hopes of the

toiling

and oppressed millions of Europe were
in our success. in the theory of govits

bound up

Though not an adept

ernment, I could not be blipd to

practical

workings

;

though no

politician,

I could not be
it

insensible of the manifold blessings which

se-

cured.

I

remembered the wisdom of those men
to our institutions at
;

who gave shape
bered
the
;

I

remem-

price

which

independence was
it

purchased
out blood

I remembered that
that
all

was not with-

those

blessings

were

gained;

and now that
lin,

that the

wisdom of a Frank-

Hancock, and Adams had devised
which a Washington had fought,
bled,

all

that

for

for

which

Warren had
in

was

in jeopardy, I felt that

such a cause, and for such
to
die.

a

country,

it

would be sweet even

ENTERING THE BERvTCE.

17

No
field;

love of war and bloodshed led
the

mc

to the

charter
blood,

of
the

our

independence

was
civil

Bealed

with

very blessings of

and

religious

liberty which

we enjoy

I felt to

be purchased by noble lives freely given; and
to preserve

them

for

generations yet to come
sacrifice.
!

I

felt

to be

worth as great a

God God
filled
all

grant that the effort

may

not be in vain

grant that the fierce struggle which has
our land with weeping

may

be followed by

the blessings of a lasting peace!

Under the

influence of the sentiments just

expressed, no sooner was the flag of
try
insulted,
to

my

coun-

and an attempt made by bold,
pull

bad men
devised

down

the

fairest

fabric ever

by human wisdom and cemented by
I determined
to do

patriot blood, than

my

ut-

most

to

uphold the starry banner; and seeking

no position save that of one of
fenders, I volunteered
for

my

country's de-

three years.

Nearly

one hundred young men, mostly from
locality

my own
them-

— Henry

count v, Ky.
2

— enrolled

18
selves
at

FOUR MONTHS IX LIBBY.
the

same time, and became

soldiers
to

of the Union.

We

all

had much around us
;

render
call

life

pleasant,

and home dear

but

the

of our country in her hour of need sounded

in
call

our ears, and
in

we could not permit her
the

to

vain.

After

organization

of our

regiment
fantry

—the Sixth Kentucky Volunteer —the young men from my part of
me
II,
till

Inthe

county selected

as their captain, and I have

had the honor of commanding Company
the Sixth

of
the

Kentucky Volunteer Infantry,
I have been with that

present time.
in

company

several of the bloodiest battles of the war,
in

and

a

number of severe skirmishes
its
fire,

;

and

having seen
the enemy's

members time and again under
I take pleasure in saying that

a better and braver band of

men never

shoul-

dered muskets or faced a foe upon the battleplain.

Indeed, the Sixth Kentucky has a recit

ord of which

may

well be proud;

its

steady

endurance in resisting an attack, and
valor

its fiery

when hurling

its

ranks on the

foe,

has

ENTERING THE SERVICE.
covered
it

19
Shiloh,

with well-deserved renown.

Stone River, and Mission Ridge have witnessed
its

prowess

;

its

ranks have been thinned

in

many

a fierce and bloody assault, and of those
follow
its

who yet
who
fill

flag to victory,
it

and of those
they

a soldier's grave,

shall be said,

were heroes, every one.

And
tears
to

yet
the

it

checks

our exultation, brings
sadness
to

eyes and

the

heart

to think of the sad ravages that in

war has made
men.

the

ranks

of

those

noble

Where

are they
field,

now?
fill

Some have met
unmarked graves

death on the
far,

and
;

far

from
to

home

others

escaped death on the

field

perish by slow, wasting disease in
hospital.

camp and
limbs

Some,
disfigured

with with

mutilated

and

features

ghastly wounds, have

sought the rest, quiet, and sympathy of home;
while
others
in

rebel

prisons
all

drag
the

out

a

wretched existence, feeling
heart-sickness of hope

pain

and

deferred.

On

earth

many

of them

will

meet no more; yet, when the

to their and drop a tear memory. and rememon ber with pride that they themselves were many tucky. meet in the years which are to come. have ceased. they when will the sounds of strife speak in low tones of the cherished dead. a well-fought field with the Sixth Ken- / .20 survivors FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBT.

My to past life came up in review. and how first I felt left field final field Appearance of the country. 21 CHAPTER II. Mr it first battle ! What a strange sensation I was when I knew that must soon engage thick in the deadly strife! The thoughts came and ones fast — thoughts I had of home. and loved crowded upon me with a vividness and distinctness never known before. and the anxiety know the result of the fall next few hours was first painful. . wounded. or should I escape? Should I share the joy of victory. SHILOH AND STONE RIVER.— SIIILOII AND STONE RIVER. or experience the sadness of defeat? bo a prisoner in the hands of the foe. or. friends. Should I on my field. — "Wounded and on tho triumph — Return home — Disasters of clay and In the again — Battle of Stone River — Wounded again My first battle.

22 lie FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. he is. but excited. I can imagine a young to soldier gradually becoming accustomed at first warfare by engaging at till in slight skirmishes long range. confident and came heroes. is as every one doubtless when about of to enter the first time the field carnage and blood. in then in closer encounters. were force would themselves upon my for attention. such . in art which thousands went out it in tyros the of war. It is difficult. but one of the in of the great conflicts war.. was the bloody field of Shiloh. ever after and bold — . perhaps impossible. to describe little a battle one pair of eyes can see but of a conflict ranging over miles of territory but there is something common sees to all battles which every brave man and hears. Fearful I was not. helpless among the slain and dying? fill make myself a name. but my first battle was none of those. or questions that a nameless grave. prepared for a general engagement-. a measure.

in grim silence awaiting the coming light to renew the contest. and a shout of triumph the victors went up from who had changed threatened disaster into glorious suca . after a stubborn re- were routed. the clash and clang of steel. the hurrah of of the charging the line. the shout of the officers. in the battle the first but came up the following night. and found Gen. comrades falling. the whistling of minie balls. the cries ghastly of the forms •lead. and the till raged with great fury ternoon. the middle of the af- when the enemy. Early in battle the morning we were engaged. the clouds of smoke pierced by the quick flashes these every true soldier is of flame familiar. the rattle of musketry. Grant.S1IIL01I AND STONE RTVBB. the roar of the artillery. the blaze which accompanies the explosion. who had been hard pressed the preceding day. — with all Our regiment was not day. piteous wounded. 23 as the shrieking of the shells. riderless steeds dashing hither and thither. sistance.

already weakened by having sent a field. was one killed and fifteen or sixteen several of them mortally. ate forces. for about twelve or one o'clock a minie left striking me on me the cheek. Sunday. by Gen. The loss in my company wounded. Wallace's division. begad on of April. laid for a inch behind and below the time unconscious on the the field amid the dead and awhile I dying. brigade to assist in another portion of the .24 FOUR MONTHS IX LIBBY. however.the 6th Early in the morning the Confederin greatly-superior numbers. and their respective camps fell into the hands of the enemy. as most readers are aware. This battle. I heard it as if in a dream. In that shout of joy I took no part —nay. Grant with great fury. Reviving to after slowly made my way leaden and iron the rear amid a shower of hail. Johnston and Beauregard. S. the ions of divis- Sherman. and Prentiss were driven back. They were stubbornly resisted. passing through and coming out an ear. under Generals A. . at- tacked Gen. ball. M'Clernand.

fresh new troops infused vigor into those wearied with the des- perate struggle of the preceding day. and though Beauregard claimed on the 6th. a heavy burden was removed from many minds. however. but lflst. the lost ground was the foe. ing a heavy loss on fell when night and many a much ground had been was anxious heart concerning the morrow. recovered. and roads southward thronged with a fleeing Johnston. each time the foe. complete victory capital and the rebel was wild with joy on the reception of his bulletin. 25 differinflict- These brave fellows nobly repulsed four ent attacks made upon them. he . the arrival Nor were they of disap- pointed. first was hilled upon the on the a day. the lost camps retaken. for those who had hitherto contemplated noth- ing more than a stubborn resistance now felt confident of victory. the rebel field commander-in-chief. Buell came up. and ere the fore sun had set the enemy had scattered betheir all resistless advance. During the night.SHILOII AND STONE RIVER.

I was finally re- stored. As pany . thence to Crab Orchard and Stanford. As soon be for T as I was sufficiently recovered to to removed. careful nursing.26 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. soon as I was able I rejoined my com- was with it during Buell's march through . to retire was compelled the next day in dis- order and seek safety within his fortifications at Corinth. sent home Kentucky faint I reached there and w eary. was in hearing but our of battle of Perryville. From Perryville we marched with through Danville. came very near terminating my life. which. was not destined to be my and. together with wounds. regiment was not engaged. Laurel . last. My first battle. however. Tennessee and Kentucky to Louisville its bore the privations well . harassed him as far as London. was seized with typhoid fever. I was treatment. and tion interposi- of a kind Providence. skirmishing Bragg's rear-guard. the by skillful treatment.

against Johnston and Beauregard at it . Lack. as I have already stated.S1IIL0H AND STONE RIVER. wounded — this time in three places but none of to my wounds the were field. in and . was my fate or fortune to be . and at five found that four or it. and I life. another piece struck pistol my which hung by my side. Here. where the 1st of December. severe enough make me leave Both my arms were bruised by frag- ments of bombshells. received a pretty severe wound but the my side. under Rosecrans. tearing the stock to I atoms and bending the iron nearly double. and in looking them . was knocked down by the violence of the blow. have I no doubt pistol saved my had my blanket over my its shoulders close I during the engagement. balls had had I passed pierced through several bullets at also my coat. again. we arrived My battle. my second was against Bragg Stone River. 2% count}* — turned first marched to Glasgow. was under Grant and Buell. about thence to Nashville. 1862.

and continued till the first evening of the 2d of January. pierced by the bullets of the foe. and devoutly thankful that I had esfierce caped the dangers of another struggle. which they have proudly borne through the din and smoke of in battle. as lent monitors to teach me thankfulness to Him of' whose danger. realize felt to how near to death I had been. and that feeling I have often partaken but I shall ever feel grateful to a kind Providence I whenever look at if my bullet-pierced blanket and coat . December. preserved as relics of that eventful day. FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. . and I fall before the war closes. but the attack of the enemy on our center was repelled with .28 seemed . hand protected me in the hour The of battle of Stone River began on the 81st 1862. they shall be si- these will afford. Soldiers look with pride at the flag. and we lost about thirty pieces of artillery. I wish no more fitting if and honorable shroud than I survive. On the day our left wing was driven back.

but without any very decisive result. line the enemy's was broken. Gen. with his hat on the point of his sword.SIIILOII AND STONE RIVER. led the rah. . both sides were using at last the their line with terrible effect. but it the middle of the afternoon. our it being restored to the position had occupied on the morning of the previous day. the spirit of our forces remaining unbroken. . to of the enemy began to give way. however. being cross-fire subjected to a terrible canister of double-shotted from two batteries. Davis was ordered charge across the stream its from which the battle takes name. On about the third day attempts were made by the enemy was not till along our whole line. our whole line advanced and the day was Avon. the divisions of Beatty and Negley came up rapidly. a way with a hur- charge perfectly irresistible was made. and the day closed with the contest undecided. that the crisis of the battle artillery came . The next day line the battle was re- newed. the Colo- nel of the 78th Pennsylvania. 20 fearful slaughter.

fall. The country between Murfreesboro and Nashville is a beautiful one. I did not regard to look them much. of wounds fall he becomes the sight and death. but the rude hand of . he thinks not the march. and I was soon again ready for the duties of It is my position.30 i FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. may On however. the soldier goes into battle with an alacrity and cheerfulness that inured to is astonishing. a few days but as I had been much more wounded before. that he. sad thoughts often come. and yet the reverse seems to be the case . on either and he has a sigh for them. they were soon forgotten. after having been under fire a few times. man would adapts himself to circumstances one think that such constant exposure to danger and to death would beget great seriousness in every mind. truly wonderful with what facility . having learned upon them as the life. necessary accompaniments of a soldier's indeed. like them. and though his comrades side. for se- My verely wounds gave me some inconvenience .

mounds by the roadside tell that those dear to are tell some hearts buried there. beaufruit trees are ruined. . and no fuel so ready to his hand as fence-rails. and he will confess that no pen can de . is of much of its a necessity to the soldier. and the country which lately bloomed like a garden Little becomes as desolate as a barren desert. and cause the wish and prayer for the return of peace. .SHILOB AND STONE RIVER.' broken wagons of fire of the waste of war traces and solitary chimney-stacks bring up images of homes once pleasant. fowls and domestic animals arc killed. shrubbery and choice is every green thing taken from the gardens. diers are Sol- sometimes thought to exaggerate the . and wher- ever the. war has despoiled Fire is it 31 loveliness. scenes through which they pass but let any its one who has seen Tennessee in the days of prosperity travel from Nashville to Chattanooga now. dead horses. army marches the fences rapidly dis- appear thousands upon thousands of fertile acres are thus left without tiful any protection.

. and with greater far than sickness or • a disaster wounds —the suf- ferings of a long and painful captivity. and in this feeling I confess I shared. FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. much less exaggerate. such for captivity as the dwellers in that all synonym that is foul and loathsome —Libby Prison alone have known.— . the scenes everyto where presented moralizing. But a truce to After the retreat life of the foe the monotony of camp a desire for began to be oppressive active operations. became general. the eye. no matter by what dangers attended. 6Z scribe. The it desired change came at length.

retake foiled in their pur- pose the —which it was Chattanooga disaster — and at army saved from the the fight which one time during seemed inevitable. Chickamauga. 18G3. the enemy were to . 33 CHAPTER III. Thomas and associates. but. CHICKAMAUGA. one of the most The stoutly battle of contested of the war. may be said to have commenced on Friday. by the perhis brave courage of Gen. . as sistent is well known. Bragg. "We were out- numbered.. the "18th of September. but is true. The battle dents on the way — Am taken prisoner— Trip to Richmond— Inci—Star-Spangled Banner sung in Dixie —Kind treatment —Arrival at Richmond. claimed a glorious victory if battles are to be judged 3 by their results. but the heaviest fighting took place on Saturday and Sunday. CHICKAMAUGA.

like legions of Longstreet. won richly-deserved honor. themselves. like madly dashed to back. threatened disaster and there Garfield. who live. against which the hitherto fierce fall invincible billows. for the stout men under as Thomas stood unshaken on Mission Ridge the wave-washed rock.. there gained immortal renown. and others. There his fell Lytle. . was at stake lost remaining in our hands. the key of Georgia. poet-hero . brave men. was not wrested from our grasp the valor of the troops. and strong was his sword. firm and undismayed amid carnage and . we many much of the material of war but Chattanooga. those broken billows. too. the gal- lant and the good. the prize which True. the sweet was lyre. was a fruitless one. in foam and spray. was never more nobly illustrated. and . 34 his victory FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. There the modest yet brave qualities of a great gen- Thomas displayed the eral. Men will fell upon that field whose names never still perish.

I was overtaken and captured. and. he was a Georgian. unable to keep up with the I main body. 35 But for to my own dt. moreover. as brave foe. Late on the evening of Saturday our brigade was or- dered to retreat. and kept me there night.CIIICKAMAUGA. . up . We had to pass over the ground it that had been fought over during the day. Soon another lieutenant came . by ill. in was taken that charge by two lieutenants. my appearance. and drunk he took away my sword-belt and to haversack.ys. men ever treat a conquered They saw. My captors conducted to me about a mile and a half all the rear. story. that I was quite their and this doubtless excited sympathy. I had been unwell several but the excitement of the conflict aroused and sustained me. they treated me with marked kindness. take care Being of cautioned by the watch. and did regret I as not learn their names or command. and saved for the time being. I slipped it others my down my back unobserved by it my Georgia friend.

having my blanket moreover. lost and I suffered severely. and a3 sin- hungry cerity To us to prove a their they marched all sweet-potato patch. prisoners and guards. This noble fellow also shared his scanty covering with me. and they would gladly give as destitute us food. I was exhausted from hunger. and I trust he may to ever find a friend as kind as he proved of me.. after which felt greatly refreshed. however. . By morning large. I was for- tunate enough. Bragg for the time at a distance. saw Gen. The night was intensely cold for the season. having eaten nothing for two days. the number prisoners was quite the said most of them us nearly starved. to meet with a pris- oner of the 9th Indiana. the their dead seemed to to be I in proportion of three first our one. was thickly strewed with the dead and wounded of both armies. 3b FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. who generously gave me I a cup of coffee and a cracker. men guarding were very kind. but they were as ourselves. and hands.

which time was the all another rear this squad prisoners marched and added our number. I had heard that Rosccrans had been heavily rein- . We were then to lot marched a white Chickamauga River house. till After an hour's march the we were during of to halted about two in there to afternoon. and often since have made a across worse the meal. they taken by a his Texas who distributed them to own men. tain. This was Sunday. "pitched in. where we found another of prisoners collected. and as the sound of the fierce conflict ears there came to our was the greatest anxiety on the part as of our guard well as ourselves. During time the battle was raging furiously. and we prisoners were ordered into rank and marched in the direction of Ringgold. in About ten o'clock the morning the battle commenced again. in 37 army phrase. and every man was were relieved of his havcap- ersack. our names were taken. the 20th." "We then made fires and roasted the potatoes.CHICKAMAUGA.

38 forced. On our way we met one of Longstreet's brigades hurfine. from their successes in Virginia but they found their equals. the very flower of the Confederate army. at Mission Ridge in the gallant men of the West. was sanguine of success. fifty. better drilled and equipped than any Southern troops I had seen. In order we marched. "We reached Ringgold about nine o'clock at night. now numwere or- bering about one hundred and dered to fall in according to rank. stopping a few min- utes to rest at the end of every hour. either at Shiloh or Stone River. they were . FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. rying to the front. confident. stimulated by the promise that we should draw ra- tions as soon as we reached Ringgold. too. and believing it to be true. but failed to draw the promised rations. at least. and were told if we would march four miles further we should come to the . At two o'clock the captured officers. they were soldierly- looking men. non-comto missioned this officers and privates follow.

we were glad drag our weary limbs four miles further. were marching on. and in that distance the wade Chickamauga three fire. times. we reached camp. in the hope of finding food. and weary. a from a fence to 'When within a short distance of the camp we were ordered to take rails make selves fires to dry our clothes and make ourfor comfortable avail the night. and had passed through one day's fight. Again we were doomed . about two thousand in number. wincing some- what under the burden of our heavier rails. We liberty were thus eager to ourselves of the granted. Many of us had been nearly worn out marching pre- vious to the battle. and soon a column of men.CHICKAMAUGA. who were guarding a railroad to find the and be sure much-desired rations there. wet. About two o'clock in the morning. station. dispirited. and rest. that nevertheless. so to hungry were we. each with from three to five rails on his shoulder. which grew every step. 39 camp of a brigade of Longstrect's men.

and strove to forget the pangs of hunger and the bitterness of captivity in sleep. We remained there till two P. stretched ourselves near them. and obliged to leave nearly our un- cooked rations lying on the ground. and long-expected but we saw the and welcome our fires meal lighted prepared. On the morning of the 21st~we were marched Hill. M. ishing To fambut orders men this was a severe and with trial.40 to FOUR MONTH'S IN LIEBY. were imperative. in which interval the long-desired rations of corn meal and bacon were issued. to Tunnel a distance of five miles. Men were detailed to bake the bread and cut in imagination up the bacon. we found nothing there to our hunger. We asked for time to bake our bread and divide the meat.. scarcely were divided. so relieve we kindled our fires. where we found a . and were assured that we should have the opportunity we desired. sad hearts we train marched to the depot. before and the_ into meat we were again ordered all ranks. disappointment.

where we remained morning. Pity for our con- dwelt in the hearts of some. street's Here we met a brigade of Long- men. M. We found an immense crowd awaiting the arrival of the Yankees. many The same day we moved forward which place we reached at five. We were marched to a dirty hill-side a short dis- tance from the city. of cars awaiting our arrival. but they to restrain were forced pathy. and were stared at and criticised in a manner dition far from agreeable. grati- their feelings to the fullest extent. to Atlanta. and surrounded by a strong guard. its. as the nights were and we without tents or blankets. any expression of symto jeer. who treated us with great kindof them dividing their rations with ness. we felt keenly. us.CIIICKAMAUGA. and to show their fied mean exultation. Our camp inclosed a spring little in its lim- but had very wood for fuel. the ab- sence of this cold. and . 41 "We got on board till and reached Kingston. P. while those who came and laugh.

as our guards fared just as we We camp remained at our dirty and disagreeable till the afternoon of the next day. that plied with food they were nearly destitute themselves. the which we had been permitted to cook and eat for four days. both male and female. of us having lost our overcoats. during which time we had subsisted on raw corn and elderberries. charge of that the reason before. which was doubtless did.42 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. true. and thus many left without any thing to protect us in our dis- mal quarters beneath the open sk. from the reports they had heard. gratified their curiosity by calling to see us. to when we we were removed were searched. Some time after nightfall we received a small ration first of bread and beef. doubtless expecting. the barracks.y. to see a race of beings far differ- . where Many citizens. we were not supwas. which we gathered at the different points at which we had stopped on our way The officers in from the us said battle-field.

though far down the enemies of South. doorways thronged. ent 43 from themselves. a prisoner and that flag. and soon even the streets crowded with citizens. we were not interrupted. returning from than captives on their way to a gloomy . than among ever before. which we sung as we passed through the city. as if delighted . to hear for fell once more the songs of the Union and my own part the Star-Spangled Banner more sweetly upon my ear. Many scowled upon us as we went singing by. who hear came those rushing from every direction to unusual strains. . joined erect in and chorus.CIIICKAMAUGA. while some smiled approvingly. they seemed glorious more fields. to The next morning wo Richmond. were ordered Previous to take the cars for for starting the depot we had selected several stirring National songs. Strange to say. as the boys heads the swelling with and like hearts victors high beating. This win- demonstration attracted great attention dows were thrown up.

Leav- ing Augusta. Leaving Atlanta. heart. . and were marched till to a church-yard. we could at but conclude that many the of them. who perished were no less heroes and martyrs than those who laid down their lives on the field of honor —not one of them has died in vain. were this lovers of Union Nor was ins: the the only occasion. and showed that us such kindness not during our stay. many have flame. that through we discovered among strong symptoms of a Union sentiment the people sacred . in which we camped next citi- morning. we reached Augusta about twelve o'clock at night. be exchanged by many of them an untimely grave those — nay.44 prison. zens . We were well treated by the many of them visited us. still. for for to FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. there not untimely. secretly cherished the the and will yet welcome army of the Union as their deliverers. into we crossed the Savannah River South Carolina. while passSouth. passed through Raleigh.

about seven o'clock in the evening. . and 29th of September. and Petersburg. and were marched to our Libby home. 45 on the Weldon.CIIICKAMAUGA. we reached the depot at Richmond.

46 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. FAILURES. Many of the cities and towns through which we passed presented a pleasing appearance . trip During our from Chickamauga to Rich- mond the weather was clear and beautiful. we were all hungry nearly the time. were too old for serv- and the farming operations bore marks of skill. and lost many of us. but the nights were cold. having for. in addi- our blankets. most part. tion to the want of our usual covering. had a desolate look few men were to be seen. for the . save such as ice. CHAPTER IV. Richmond ment — The prison— Treatment of prisoners — Employ—Plans of escape— Sad failures— Prospect of success. neither care nor The officer who had the prisoners in charge . suffered much. but the country.

Nearly gave up what they had. as those of us who escaped had not time to call for our money and lines. watches before leaving for the Federal . which was found to be clear gain. 47 was kind and gentlemanly. under the as- surance that they should be returned when we were exchanged.FAILURES. and whatever was then found in our possession all would be confiscated. but the officers had quarters Before being to assigned them in Libby Prison. some secreted a portion. a place which has become infamous on accruel count of the treatment to which the}r were subjected. at the same time we were given to understand that we should be searched. and when we were turned over to the authorities at Richmond we parted to regret. as was possible under the circumstances that we suffered for food was no mult of his. from him with a feeling akin All the private soldiers were sent to Belle Isle. and rendered our situation as agreeable . shown to our apartments we were requested give up our money and valuables.

and hundreds who yet survive dreams. having been used in peaceful days as a warehouse. now world-famous building presents none of the outward characteristics of a prison. when memory its brings back the scenes enacted within fearful walls. may far be seen. or shudder in their faithful will shrink in their waking moments. Its are from being agreeable the streets the are sentinels pacing constantly is unpleasant reminders that your stay not a matter of . and ventilation imperfect. have a stranger or sadder history than this. one hundred and forty feet and one hundred . It is divided into nine rooms the ceilings are low. There a spirit many a heart has been wrung.48 This FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. out many a noble soul has there breathed its last sigh. through which the windings Isle of James River and the tents of Belle immediate surroundings . deep. with a front of near feet. century old though they be. the windows are barred. but none of the castles and dungeons of Europe. many broken. The building is of brick.

mathematics received much attention. the languages. ample opportunities were now afforded to be- come a proficient scholar. and to innumerable the hours to do it methods were soon devised pass less wearily. and were it so. life To men accustomed an active this mode of existence soon be- came exceedingly irksome. and was marvelous to see the wonders achieved by that single vice. choice 49 it . instrument. spoons. morals 4 and religion . make A penknife was made the duty of a complete set of tools. The higher branches of learning had their professor. In this building were crowded about one thousand of or officers of nearly every grade. pipes. few would choose long as a boarding-house. ancient and modern. and carving most all chess-men.FAILURES. If a man's early education had been neglected. Bone-work of strange deelaborate. were taught . were fashioned by aid alone. manner of articles. not one till whom was permitted to go out exchanged to released by death. useful its and ornamental.

in some instances." and betting high .50 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBT. the minds of many grown-up. had had their teachers and pupils. Games . gray-headed were not always children. or pleas- ant for bathing. Indeed. few colleges in the land could boast of a faculty so large in num- ber or varied in accomplishments. But truth must be of those told. and none. with their books. and the win- ner of countless sums would often borrow a tea- spoon full of salt or a pinch of pepper. vocal music. while the were cared for namental or- branches. such as dancing. when wan- dered from the page before them to the green fields. but w ere T bets involving neither loss or gain. and sword exercise. or to orchards. ran Others were deeply en- gaged in the mysteries of " poker " and " seventhey up. certainly. with fruit most inviting in one direction but now the mind wandered —home. to streams abounding in fish. and. pupils. in Bible classes. could compare in the number of pupils. . their minds.

— FAILURES. and the hero of Monte Cristo were to seriously theirs considered. and plans superior of them others concocted. by the energy of despair. from the wary and deliberate ers. nor were the sports of children jack-straws and device. some characterized by skill and cunning. a was made which "embraced the escape of confined in Libby. in this enterprise all the The leader was a man of cool purpose . : One rival of these was as follows of the After the arplot all Chickamauga prisoners. every to all serious was employed hasten the slow hours along. mumble-peg and silly. The of Jack Sheppard. manner of the play- and the interest displayed by lookers-on. —wanting. were as intricate and important as a military campaign. there was one that all took the precedence and absorbed that others exploits was planning an escape. Baron Trenck. of 51 judging chess were played. and the release of prisoners in and about Richmond. which. But amid these various occupations.

as good fare. while it is that to Union on prisoners have loath- been compelled subsist a diet . a truly-generous and chivalrous contrast. I doubt not. and great daring and success. It is people would blush at to the not saying too much assert that many of the rebel prisoners. effort would have attended the that had it not been we had traitors in our midst who put alert only a the rebel authorities on the few days before the attempt was to have been made. from the poorer portions ' of Georgia. South Carolina. it is true. much of as they ever enjoyed at home. pect abundant and delicious fare to but when in the rations served out rebel prisoners our hands are compared with the stinted and disgusting allowance of Union prisoners in rebel hands. .52 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. Prisoners. and as it. and much better than the army rations which they were accustomed equally true to before the capture . have no right to ex. at least. have. and Mississippi.

is a rebellion. professing to be thus? the answer far is is simply. food and clothing That vast quantities of to its sent our prisoners has object.. as as the South concerned. rendered it out of the question to remedy this to any great extent but all candid men will decide that no army could be kept. would not justify the denial prisoners that of the Union army the •were provisions the United States their ever ready in to furnish own men while less prisoners an enemy's of the hands. 53 quantity True. Lee's. it some in quality. is been thus diverted from suscep- tible of the clearest proof. upon as a Libby ration . a scarcely sufficient support may in be urged that the scarcity of provisions Rich- mond. much to the appropriation stores sent those sufferers by benevolent associations and sympathizing friends. and it if such a miracle that were to possible. FAILURES. to and in life. how act can a people. . that the war. in the physical condition of Gen. civilized. and elscAvhero. If it be asked.

it came less from the mill — . that as long as we did not violate the rules of the house. however. materials. for but really often than this often took two ra- tions of beef to make a single tolerable meal. means of pipes possessed into each room and had it any very nutritious properties.54 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. and during the Christmas holidays we had to burn our tables table table in attempting to make pala- dishes out of very scanty and unpalathing. beef. and frequently we would from one to get any beef for eight days at such times we would receive sweet or Irish potatoes. the James Kiver was near . fail to . and we had plenty of water it was brought by . they . the prison the justice to say. we I must do the officers of might have fattened. ration nominally consisted of about The Libby ten ounces of corn bread — of and it meal just as rice . One we did not lack. at hand. Of wood for cook- ing purposes we had a very small allowance. and I state the case very mildly when I say the food was at all times insufficient.

might have been even worse. no time was lost in devising another. of the 12th Kenauthor of the plan. laughter and song in certain hours were not prohibited. and a third person. Our first plan of escape being thwarted. when complete history is . tucky Cavalry. was finally crowned with success. as he was recaptured.FAILURES. permitted us to enjoy ourselves in any suited our taste. him by with this brief as he had a very prominent part in the work from the beginning. and bad it as our condition was. however. which. is As this. and deserves far more credit than I have language to express. Capt. of the 30th Indiana. Gallagher. of the 2d Ohio. whose name it would not be prudent to mention. 55 way that Prayer meetings and debut- ing societies were tolerated. after many delays and interruptions of a very dis- couraging character. Captain Hamilton. one of the most wonderful its escapes on record. was the which he confided to Maj. I greatly regret to pass allusion. Fitzsimmons.

the work was begun. It description of the building is nec- not far from one hundred ten. while ours may be said to have only begun when we air. and to have equaled it in ingenuity and risk. three departments by heavy brick The divisions were oc- cupied as follows: The two upper east rooms . a solemn pledge was taken to reveal them to none others. will not be forgotten. lines was fraught with great After Capt. Hamilton's plans had been in- trusted to and adopted by the gentlemen above named. John Mor- gan's escape from the Ohio Penitentiary has been thought to have suggested our plan. His difficulties. however. In order to a perfect understanding of is it.56 written lie FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBT. a more minute essary. three and sto- forty feet ries by one hundred and high. and at an early date in December. 1863. ended when he emerged from the tunnel by which he escaped. and divided into walls. reached the free and every step till we reached the Union danger.

and the lower west di- vided into several apartments which were occupied by the rebel officers in command. FAILURES. . the officers two west upper rooms by the Streight's of Col.middle room a cook is and dining-room. middle cellar was cut up into to were consigned those of our number who were guilty of infractions of the rules of prison dungeons dark and horrible beyond description. the two middle upper at rooms by those captured Chickamauga. 57 by the Potomac officers. The portion of it in front was used as a work- shop. . such as meal. Milroy's command of the east division the lower room was used as for a hospital. The rear and darker part of the cells. and straw latter article —the which was of vast benefit in effecting our escape. turnips. soldiers who were quarters confined in other and as . and the west cellar was used for cook- ing the rations of private buildings.— . and Gen. the lower. fodder. is There also a cellar under each of these divisions the east cellar was used for commissary stores.

As which the plan was to dig out. this fireplace skillfully the work began.58 for FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. and through this ap- erture a descent to the east cellar was effected. consequently their progress was slow. dining-room was around which In three large cooking stoves were arranged. from our tunnel. and in their hands fect success. screening the operators from observation. which was accom- plished as follows. Near the north end of the a fireplace. was a per- The only tools used were pocket- knives. This part of the work was intrusted to Captains Hamilton and Gallagher. and fifteen nights elapsed before the place was reached where the tunnel was to begin. it became neces- sary to find a to begin way into the east cellar. some negro captives who were kept to do the drudgery of the prison. stoves The the mentioned above aided greatly in prosecution of the work. The bricks were taken out. who were both it house-builders. Immediately in front of them the prisoners had a dancing party .

cellar the opening was made and on one occasion fast. ward he was recaptured and taken back to a confinement more intol- erable than before. a thorough examdecide was made in order to upon a our at- route which would be most favorable for escape . The plan was dig down and pass under the . The ination cellar being reached. 59 nearly every night. way to and the mirth of the dancers drowned any slight noise that might be made skill by the working party. one of the party stuck and was released only by great efforts on the part of his associates. and the light of their tallow candles made the stoves throw a dark shadow over the entrance to the newly-opened the cellar. and afterto reach the free air. necessary in order to Considerable was after reach the . Poor fellow ! though fortunate enough to escape detection in this instance.FAILURES. and it was determined to make an tempt in the rear of a cook-room which was in the south-east to corner of the cellar.

effort A second was made of the . . of case- knives were the only available tools this. The attempt was it made hut was soon discovered that the building rested upon ponderous oak timbers. tended to strike a small sewer which started from the south-east corner. ingly-hopeless task pocket-knives and saws made out . . . after and when they se- much hard labor. then change' the direction and work parallel -with the Trail to a large sewer that thence accord- passes down Canal-street. still were met by an unforeseen and rious difficulty. a tunnel was started in the in- rear cook-room mentioned above. below which to they could not penetrate. they began the seemof cutting through these. more Water began to flow into the tunnel a depth below the level of the canal had been reached. and sadly they were compelled to abandon the undertaking. and from make our ingly escape. was effected. foundation. Determined succeed. and passing through the outer wall to the large sewer in front.60 FOUR MONTHS IN" LIBBY.

and the work of removing the plank was continued for sev- . A portion of the stone floor of the cook-room was taken up. the tunnel or aperture would be sufficiently large. far more the preceding. it was determit ined to remove the plank with which lined. but as the route to seemed preferable any other. This partially caved and fear of discovery caused this route to be abandoned. The old knives and saws were called for. but for was not large enough a man to pass through. for prisoners. to The plan was escape by the sewer leading it from the kitchen. was than made. With a determination difficulty to succeed. and this was out of the way.FAILURES. which no could weaken or disappointment overdifficult come. 61 Some sixteen or eighteen feet brought the tun- nel under a brick furnace. which could be easily removed this and through the working party descended every night. and the place supplied by a neatly-fitting . board. another attempt. in which were built several large kettles used in making soup in.

a rope-ladder. which had been prepared for the occasion. into which this led. and as soon as was the dark to complete the work it. two men were down in the cellar to cover up all traces of it the work during the day. When was the last brick was removed. placed across the front of . — to go into large sewer. that all who knew the work was going on made preparation to escape on the night of the 26th of January. days with flattering success. After working left on the night of the 25th. till it was con- cluded that another hour's work would enable us to enter the large sewer in ijont. So strong was the conviction that the work would be completed in a little time. which had to be placed carefully in their original position every night. to passed down and made fast a bar of iron. from the beginning to the completion of the work. and thus escape.62 eral FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. explore and have every thing ready by eight or nine o'clock. at which time the bricks would be removed from the hole leading into the cellar.

that alas ! was ready. indeed. anxiety. his . and loss of sleep. As a consequence. the fireplace. bad news proved. tion It and bad news. Maj. they were worn-out by excessive labor. that being the thirty-ninth night of unremitting toil. . assurance all waiting for from one of the at men below last . 63 long Now came the moments of all breathless silence and agonizing suspense. Nearly all the work above mentioned was performed by Captains Hamilton and Gallagher." whisper " bad it news. and impossible to be removed by the tools which had heretofore been used over. Fitzsimmons. two inches thick. more- the water was rapidly all finding its way band into the tunnel. and the labor expended had been in vain. The ! feelings of that little who can describe —from hopes almost as bright as reality they were suddenly plunged into the depths of despair.FAILURES. . first He came was. and another natural officer. was found that the remaining porto be of the plank removed was oak. but.

however. and declared that another attempt must be made as soon as they it. . still They were. unconquered in spirit. and it came at last.64 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. were sufficiently recruited to ! enter upon Noble fellows hard had they toiled for liberty.

THE TUNNEL.— THE TUNNEL. M'Donald and Capt. Lucas. . proposed to the originators of the plan of escape. there were others not inactive. up as escaped — Fislar's the While party last named were resting. Capt. Clark. Capt. M'Donald's adventure —Nature of the task — In the tunnel — My own disappearance— Given story. Lieut. A new plan adopted Maj. and myself. Maj. Clark went down and commenced operations. of the Fifth Kentucky. of the Seventy-Third Illinois. G5 CHAPTER V. on the following night Maj. of the Sev- enth Indiana Battery. Fislar. and push they were sufficiently recruited This meeting with their ap- to unite with us. of the One Hundredth Ohio. that we would commence on the work till at some other point. M'Donald. proval.

near the corner of the building. and then old breaking them out with an course. as it seemed to us. but hav- ing nothing but a small penknife. our progress was. of necessity. and myself went down to Fislar work . lated to arrest the attention of the guards it but happened. This was accompanied by great noise and while they were thus engaged our boys thumped away with a will. of made considerable noise. 66 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. which they effected in one day and night. In spite of all . Lieut. This was done by picking the cement from be- tween the bricks with a penknife. This. The night after the breach was made. The plan was cellar to begin a new tunnel in the north-east thing to be on the east side. to render the escape of the Yankees impossible. clone The first was to make a hole through the brick wall. ax. and was calcu. that just at that time the authorities of the all prison determined to place iron grates in the windows. and made their way through the wall without exciting the least suspicion.. very slow. providentially.

and to replace the in the cavity made in the wall. 67 however. to avoid disofficials covery. .THE TUNNEL. till its comin the One of our number remained all every day to remove signs of the prebricks vious night's work. as some of the prison ers or labor- came into the cellar every day. and thus the work was to continued from night pletion. either bring- ing in stores. about two and felt that we were in that much nearer freedom. and at night were re- lieved by two others. difficulties. and then nicely covered with straw. extending in this the ground the loose dirt was closely packed. we made an excavation of feet. We remained the cellar all the next day. or taking out forage or commissary I have been asked a thousand times how we contrived to hide such a quantity of earth as the digging of a tunnel of that size would dislodge. and deep opening. in this we to made a wide . cellar night. There was a large pile of straw stored in the cellar for hospital use.

as the work of removing the loose dirt increased with every foot we advanced. I have to often dirt been asked how we out of the tunnel. As the work progressed from night to night. As the whole process was somein all what novel. each other. he had loosened earth enough to he gave a signal to the one at the mouth of the tunnel by jerking the rope. the till number of laborers was increased. to draw the empty spittoon from the entrance to the place where he was at work fill . and our hopes increased with the length of our tunnel. I of the readers. managed get the which was too narrow to permit a man to turn round in it. through which ropes were passed one of these ropes was used by the one engaged in digging. the working party numbered This was the more necessary. one tempted before. and when it. fourteen. probability never at- will describe it for the benefit Our holes dirt-car was a wooden spittoon. with through each end opposite . and he drew the loaded .G8 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY.

After penetrating some distance . dark. place —a like place and damp. then and ex- when he came out nearly fill hausted another would enter and toon. or his candle was extinguished by the foul air out. and more a grave than any place can be short of a man's last narrow home. and four persons were necessary in to keep the work moving. a third would draw it the spit- to the mouth of the tunnel. one would go dig awhile. thus it was kept traveling backward and wagon-loads of forward till earth were re- moved. As the work approached completion the diffi- culty of breathing in the tunnel was greatly increased. a fourth would then empty the contents .THE TUNNEL. he would then make would take his his way and another narrow. many minutes would dig as till the his miner. box out. however. lon£ as strength would allow. 69 it and the miner recovered by pulling the rope attached to the end of the box nearest him . the task became very painful it was impossible to breathe the air of the tunnel for together . .

into a. and and This when it was take it. was the constant anxiety the attempt we were making should be discovered. box provided full. however. it to the straw pile carefully labor. the fact that all preat vious attempts had failed was calculated times to fill our minds with fears lest some un- foreseen obstacle should occur to prevent the success of our enterprise. Under any other circumstances the work would . have been deemed impossible impossibilities to but there are no liberty men with as the result of their labors. large for the purpose. must be remembered. only extremely so and especially re- when the imperfect tools and means of moving the earth are taken but in addition to lest this into the account. was not difficult in itself. the hard fare and confinement of our prison. conceal it as before stated. Before the work was . and the possibility of escape at last roused us up to exertions almost superhuman.70 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. too. Moreover. the monotony of which had become un- endurable. On the other hand.

that though all of them regained the liberty for which they so patiently toiled. completed. proved successful. which. too. in the end. and it. one of the one. those 71 in the who had been engaged previous attempt had recovered from their exhaustion. left how it was possible for a man to down in the cellar every day without being . is But what to be most regretted is. and were able to take part in this. the if rest con- would escape.— THE TUNNEL. we can only conjecture but the disappointto his ment must have been most sad heart great — to have gained the free air. and almost in sight of the flag of the Union — to be recap- tured and borne back to a captivity less more hope- than before. I have also been asked frequently since my bo escape. Such a thing seems strange but this offi- the entire work was a marvelous one. "What he has since suffered . fidently believed them was recaptured all of others. who. discovered. was a necessary part of and though the . escape were in the power of man.

yet fifty-one days one or another of our company was down there without being discovered. or three. however. or other persons the cellar employed about the for prison. Some of the officers succeeded . would change their places so as to be counted twice. the case might be. as them from right to left . the clerk was deceived. for the day in the of which there was a large quantity and but for which our undertaking must have been discovered nearly as soon as begun. an in end. as two of our number were sometimes on duty at once in the : cellar. the number being all right.72 cers. To account for the absence of those persons required some ingenuity. duty of the one traces of the left The all there was to remove night. . there. two. FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. visited every day. and the clerk counted one. was suddenly brought had to This. This was managed as follows the officers were drawn up in four ranks. work of the previous light as soon as it became enough to do so he would then conceal himself straw.

and failed to answer to their this names. feeling in unwell. 73 obtaining citizens' and passed the guards without suspicion and escaped. air of perfect innoquite his stated that. did not hear the order for roll- . would bear watching. particularly. Turner the reasons for their absence on the previous day. The consequence was they were both called down to to render to Maj. The next day they were reported by some one as being present —perhaps the office the clerk. for some time was thought that they had escaped by a similar to trick that of the others.TIIE TUNNEL. who knew tljat the Major. had asleep. clothes. About the time the change was Lieut. with an cence. it caused quite a stir. all After this we were east rooms. one or two also escaped by disguising themselves in the Confederate uniform. lie had wrapped himself up fallen blanket. made Major in M'Donald and M'Kee were on duty and the cellar. The Lieutenant. collected into the two and re- quired to answer to our names.

and. is That I may be understood nec- essary to state that some time previous some of the officers of Col. in much trouble to the authorities by being in our room at roll-call. failed to get back in time.74 call. Streight. "I happened and to be in Col. FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. the fact picious he was regarded as a sus- character. indeed! How it did get in there. The door had not hour before been nailed up half an some . Streight's room. and in consequence had a question. severer ordeal to pass. The Major was not is. Said he. had nailed up the door between the rooms occu- pied by the Chickamauga officers. and those captured with Col." "In you Col. tunate. sir ?" better. and was immediately sent back so for- quarters. order to prevent a similar occurrence." was put quite roll-call laconically. and was overlooked. The "Major. lie His excuse was deemed to his valid. Streight's room. yes- your reason for non-attendance at terday. Streight's command had of the given prison.

75 quick-witted fellow sawed the door completely in two below the lock. with great seeming candor. and out other The occupants of the room took good care that the saw should be concealed on their traces of the side. The Major. . extracted the so nails. placed conceal in some benches near the door the crack.THE TUNNEL. and thus free intercourse was kept be- tween both rooms without being suspected. not wishing and being compelled be found there. to call the roll?" This would have been a poser to to the Major. to disclose the by which he entered. in many —not so means who readily replied. and the next offi- question was. " cer How did happen that the of the day and the clerk did not see you there when they came in to see if that room was cleared before commencinii. explained the trick which accounted for his pres- ence in the forbidden room it . he had climbed up on the plate or girder that passed through the room. that. at as to to and we were thus able pleasure. being to the wrong room.

is true. and there being no one willing me. dangerous to them. and would have melted. " I laid there close to the timber for ten hours. The day to after this occurred cellar. which would have rendered to me." said he. but as they were ignorant of the true he reaffirmed his state of the case. and story so positively. before I would discover myself. " and when the search for me began. it was my quite turn stand guard in the At an early hour the roll was called. and somewhat it suspected. ingenious though it his was . it There were several. and of no benefit fact of The my absence made it neces- ." course between the two rooms to be cut His questioners seemed rather to doubt excuse. who would willingly have answered for me.76 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. and cause all interoff. drop by drop. he was dismissed to his quarters with a reprimand and an admonition. but they were so well known. and subject the in that officers room to censure. to run the risk of answering for my absence was discovered.

either by some traitor. and loathsome place was most revolting to ings .. was suggested that I might with safety go up to till my quarters after lights were out. dark. and the hope of gaining my liberty shortly. At night. finally concluded that I had made my escape. THE TUNNEL. and go down again I did so when the working party first came up. not acquainted . and it upon consultation should remain was thought best that I in the cellar till down the tunnel was completed. three o'clock in the afternoon. or very careless prisoner. Bary for the calling of the succession. they informed me of what had taken place. but the night I was seen. and sleep four o'clock in the morning. and diligent search was in made and for it me was every room in the building . To remain in this cold. After agreeing to stay down. when the working party came down. induced it me to stay. my feel- but the fear of being handcuffed and put in the dungeon if I returned to my room. till confined in one room. all 77 several times in roll the officers were kept in rank.

thought very wrong I me to do so out they even said that of ought come my hiding-place and give cent. who stated at roll-call the next morning. 78 •with FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY.— . thought rooms. myself up. though innothe de- were suffering on those it my account. . and the place my in concealment. our secret. to that I was hiding it some of in the and . as they. Great excitement prevailed through the prison those of the of our own men who knew nothing of plan of escape. which that was really the the roll The result was and called several times.to bed the night before case. it to have made escape that was more than likely I had done the same. that I was in he had seen the house. On I contrary. and their as were known cently. clared who knew where I was was impossible after for that the that strict could search others re- be in building. another careful search for me was instituted. the that had been made me. as me go was .

contended that I must be this the prison to All ing was related me by down the at worknight. companion — which He was true but that I had been missing from time. scabbard. and a out piece of oil-cloth. doubt but that I that had of I escaped. This 79 Lieut. moreover. This story was taken up and so stoutly confirmed the all who knew where I was. party I when they resolved came to and then make my appear- . that point was yielded by most of the though in op- posite view. and that they had rebel finally furnished me a with a uniform a tin —that I had made belt wooden of a sword. He was my messmate and sleeping. Fislar. a few still still.THE TUNNEL. my usual place for some and he had no said. two my cousins were among our guards —that had been courting their favor for some time. and that they had eventually passed me by out as a rebel officer. was corroborated to by fit who improvised a story said that he the case.

my room unless it again. and never desire do be as the bearer of freedom to those still. I This never to reso- I kept faithfully. saw so. who are pining there .80 ance lution at FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. my have quarters no more.

. sympathy was manifested by felt my who that this danger was in- curred not less for their advantage than my own.CELLAR LIFE. it. AVith the former I had . who nightly brought of their me down a portion own scanty fare. and other vermin. as consisted of rebels. as well as could be little I had plenty of company it — of however. 81 CHAPTER VI. agreeable. My home renewed leaving. Every thing moved on expected. rats. I was fed by my companions. CELLAR LIFE. and knowing this. and company — Groat alarm — last Still safe — Success — The night in Libby — The work —"Words on The cellar was now my home. Had I been discovered by the authorities of the prison it would have gone hard with me the greatest associates.

The night and it of the seventh of February came. they startled sion that me by making the impres- my two-legged enemies were near. by drawing the straw over me The so rats thickly that I could scarcely breathe. was thought that our tunnel was long to enough reach the inside of a tobacco-shed on the opposite side of the street. and pulled the hole in after me. save when making more noise than usual. which shall be nameless. to obtain some of the . the remaining nuisance. under which it passed. and from which there was neither respite nor escape. gave me no annoyance. where the boxes sent from the North to the prisoners were stored. was one which all prisoners will ever re- member with loathing. at least. communication their no whatever. whenever they made appearance I leaped quickly into a hole I had prepared in the straw.had ob- tained permission to go to a building across the street.82 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. or nearly so. Yfe made our calculation in the : fol- lowing manner Captain Gallagher.

fully expecting to begin going out at nine o'clock as to —nay. Capt. with the exception of a few feet upward to the light. Randall. in we had our rations already prepared our haversacks. as accurately as possible.CELLAR LIFE. and we fondly hoped that were ended. When that were thus expectant. but whom all we invited to become the companions of our all flight. So confident were we that the in work could be completed that an hour or two. tunnel it On measuring our labors the was found to be fifty-three feet long. perishable street he articles. and came to the conclusion that fifty-two or fifty-three feet would bring us to the shed. open up the way to light and . of the Second Ohio. 83 crossing the and while measured the distance. by stepping it both ways. we even went so far to communicate the success of our plan many who had or the secret not been partakers in the labor of the undertaking. was appointed to liberty. thinking the long-wished-for hour hud come.

There are times when minutes seem lengthened into hours — this to was one of them. " All lost !" We gathered round him. who so faithfully. Will he succeed? At in length he emerged to from the tunnel. was on the outside of the and within a few feet of the sentinel noise. answer the ques- "What success?" in an excited tone and is manner he replied. who was on guard. with the news that the way was open. tion. first. . too. and that our friends should and we stood anxiously awaiting the return of Capt. making considerable noise shed. and the unspoken question on every was. was agreed that the mining party. well as feel the throbbings of our lip own.84 It FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBT. Randell. he heard the and called . and. but a large stone which lay on the surface fell into the tunnel. The susif pense began it seemed as each we could as hear beatings of other's hearts. the hole. be the painful . and when he : became somewhat " I have calmer he spoke as follows made an opening. had labored should go out follow.

our bright hopes so suddenly crushed. at the very cuffs. Great to excitement prevailed. would be proof that I had much to do with the attempt to escape. to the dungeon and hand- In a few moments the cellar was nearly cleared. most of the party returning to their . the shed I could see both the guards walking toward the spot. our feelings . I have no doubt they have discovered the tunnel. and would subject me. yet no one was able suggest how to act in this sudden and unexpected emergency. least. the light 85 attention of the other sentinel to it. incident an occasion. however. and was supposed . as seemed evitable. and every one in expectation that the guard would soon be upon us.CELLAR LIFE. and perhaps will soon be in here to arrest us." Imagine. the from the hospital shone upon the side of . Amid to such felt in all the excitement. there was much sympathy behalf. have made my cape be discovered now. my to I had been missing to for some esin- time. if you can.

as was intended. being outside of the shed instead of inside. as it was not at the right place to render our escape at all likely. and within a few guard. and. determined. After all was quiet the Major determined and make to go up could. least to rificing if they could not aid me. quarters in the different rooms above. M'Donald and Capt. Hamilton remained with me. from which he very distinctly. stairs what discoveries he He the soon returned. self-sac- share the same fate. could see the sentinels from all appearances.86 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. had not discovered the I advised him to go into the tunnel and examine the breach. but Maj. men ! their conduct proved that disin- terested friendship and high. and stop it up if possible. and I proposed go in and enlarge . If the hole it feet of the could not be stopped. at Noble. saying he had been up to upper east room. he concluded that they hole. chivalrous feeling have not yet departed. of in the course exposed us to certain discovery to morning.

on the guards who were stationed near the place where our tunnel ended. and earth pressed in beneath . There was no token. When the Major returned he reported favor- ably. for if I should I would rather be caught in the attempt than wait to be found in the cellar or my quarters. saying that the breach might bo repaired. 87 and. was put on the outside of them. too. and thus excite suspicion. These were forced into the aperture. and he returned greatly elated all with the hope that that in one or two danger was past. by some of our number east room. great as was the risk. An old pair of pantaloons were procured and stuffed full of earth . however. escape at hazards . some dirt. try to all make my fail. and more nights our labors would be crowned with success. All the next day a close in the watch was kept. that any discovery had . so that the cloth could not be seen.CELLAR LIFE. it. After a few minutes' consultation it was till agreed that I should remain in the cellar the next night.

The chisel. fit Near the terminus for a large it was rather a close man. the end. The tunnel was about two and a half deep Lieut. and when I fast. declared that it was done in a workmanlike manner. this time inside of the shed. and between two and three o'clock in the morning an opening was made to the free air. it was arched above and who is a practical miner. FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. principal tool used in this work was a in which was found among some rubbish . compact sand . within about ten feet of entire when it was strewn along the length. Davy.88 been made. Fitzsimmons to pull me out of a very tight place. at the very point we desired. feet wide by two feet . at a distance of fifty-seven feet from the point of starting. . and the next night the mining operations were resumed. was passing through I stuck call and had to on Maj. thus reducing very considerably the size of the passage. the route the loose earth was till disposed of as I have before stated. all We found a very hard.

as I had been confined so long in the cellar. upon was through then arose. emerging from the tunnel. first it though to go out post of honor. however. closed fixed by a gate this . a handle for which was a piece of stove-wood. through the center of which there was a passage into the lot. the surface was reached there was of the night remaining to effect our escape two of our number. as the first would follow. 89 made from AVhen too little . the rest. fifth run more risk than those who It should was finally agreed that I should be the to pass out. out and explored the to and planned the course be taken after in . the cellar. Fislar should be my . and that Lieut.CELLAR LIFE. might be esteemed the was also the post of danger. and had incurred more risk than Others thought that. and the route passage. The first? question who I shall go out to Some thought that was entitled that honor. The shed the canal which our labors terminated fronted between them was a brick building. passed lot.

A piece of plank was found. brought those connected with Business often . never was my anxiety so great as for the setting of that day's sun. however. to bury to cover it it just below the surface. our plan might yet be frustrated. and more than once during its long. end of the tunnel. having successfully accomplished his task. so near our lips. The ninth of February was a long day. over which he placed being careful. and with dry earth. flight. how the aperture through the surface should be till concealed the next night. He soon returned. for should any one go into the shed during the day. leaving to me in the cellar cover up all traces of their work cheered by the thought that with night would come liberty. now would be rudely dashed away. and Capt. dreary hours I feared that the cup of happiness. and all retired to their quarters. Then arose the question.— 90 partner in FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. it Ham- ilton dispatched with to the outer it. as was most probable. and long to be remembered.

Night came length. But the danger had not yet passed for. one of the negroes stepped over feet. and in his search after them he passed over and around me. how- ever. tion being raised . a haversack of In one of the barrels they found full of provisions. and give rise to a strict search. my at almost touching them. thought would certainly awaken suspicion. the prison into the cellar. and never was sunlight hailed more . drawn from my place of concealment but I was too large game for him. in carrying out the barrels.how came . Soon after a rebel ser- geant came in. after some empty barrels that were stowed in the back part of the cellar. but on day it was much often er than One party brought a dog in with them. and every moment I expected to be . took the food and ate it it. left there the by one This I our party preceding night. without the questhere.CELLAR LIFE. and hissed him after the rats. constantly needed visited . the negroes. with some negroes. as ticles it 91 contained arthat usual. and I escaped.

light-hearted band could not be found. to to leave look over the sad hours spent in its walls. The path to freedom if is now open. for brought an end to our fears and captivity. At times shouts of uproarious laughter would be heard. of a prison that I forever. the threshold. of prison life To them the routine intolerably to became oppressive. and every device was employed the long. that suffered body of prisoners. books were eagerly devoured read till newspapers were they would scarcely hold together. and a casual observer would have thought that a more careless. but. pass away Books and fragments of . trust soon as it I delay a moment on were. and that of my fellow-laborers.92 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. it gladly than darkness. alas! much of the . whose time and thoughts were not thus occupied. was so taken up with our than the great project. long hours. kind reader. Much we of my own less time. its and the methods taken by less inmates to make the hours seem weary. but par- don me.

go through the forms of fashionable vitations to parties. an extra tin cup or plate. He was well-off Libby who had two pewter spoons. and in- and to dine. rich who a possessed a lionaire if. were frequent but the rich viands and sparkling wines. ercised Many were and anxiously ex- upon the questions. or were the extra spoons. CELLAR LIFE. existed only in the imagination of the guests. . what shall we eat ? what shall we drink? wherewithal shall we be clothed? hut them their solicitude never led to a satisfactory conclusion. Wealth is only a relative term at in last. and to those who knew the thoughts of those so outwardly gay. there -was something in that laughter sadder for than tears. he had a pound or two of tobacco. Others would life. ham and box of crackers —a in mil- in addition to these. The is silver ware our wealthiest carefully mansions as never looked after as forks.. 03 laughter rang above a sad heart. like those of the banquet recorded in the Arabian Nights.

best some of them had God. in the justice of the which they were suffering. —from thence was not There were. man or mess claimed . and the history of the hearts which have been crushed during it would be a sad one . which a plates. .9-i FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBT. stout hearts winch would not yield couragement yielded to —men despair. faith in cause for of all. as much skill and craft would be employed to re- cover them as a corps of detectives would dis- play when a bank has been robbed. many left us my stay for the hospital far to the grave. or a palace plundered. Many pined away with melancholy. and when they disappeared. who never for a moment in they had faith their Government. howto dis- ever. as they sometimes would. and.

Clark. a shade of sadness on many a brow. for we were about to go forth two by two. The to gers It came . last night — Farewell Libby — Sufferings and dan— The north star our guide — The faithful negro —A falso friend — Almost retaken — The contrast. Maj. Capt. Maj. 95 CHAPTER VII. Hamilton. 79th Illinois Vol. at last — the last night. M' Donald. Capt. to separate to meet again —when ? Perhaps never ! The party consisted of Col. CAr-T. Infantry. Infantry. Capt.THE ESCAPE. Gallagher. . the night of release and the working party was assemThere was bled in the cellar for the last time. 100th Ohio Vol. Infantry. 12th Kentucky Cavalry. 77th Pennsylvania Infantry. FlTZBIMMONS. 2d Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Rose. TELE ESCAPE. LuCAS. 30th Indiana Infantry. 5th Kentucky Vol.

and all had to pass between two . Sterling. 10th Indiana Infantry. 30th Indiana Infantry. Davy. before the second after the first couple should start. It was agreed that ten minutes should elapse two passed out. 79th Illinois Infantry. notwithstanding that the night was and beautiful. Infantry. Fislar and myself were the third couple. 2d Ohio Vol. Lieut. Simpson. Lieut. Lieut. and soon we were out of sight of the hated place. Johnston. Capt. Lieut. I N. Foster. Lieut. and you may be sure we did not linger. Mitchell. and passed the tunnel we faced to across the lot to the passage through the brick building. 6th Ky. Fislar. 77th Pennsylvania Infantry. Lieut. 1th Indiana Battery. into the street in doing so sentinels. Lieut. 29th Indiana Infantry. * fr One hundred and nine persons from eight o'clock at night thus escaped to three in the mornclear ing. Kandell. Capt. Infantry. . Vol. After emerging from the right. and we passed within forty feet of the We were not observed.96 FOUR MONTHS IX LIBBY. already described.

and soon came round a to the rebel camps. taking the north star for only when tly my guide. AVe did not stop to undeceive them. and bewildered for first hour. We then changed our course and traveled north- east. suf- to After traveling three earn}) or four miles we saw another 7 ahead. of the camps. stretched great portion We the were excited.THE ESCAPE. however. 97 of these. and met with no further trouble till the city limits were passed. As my comrade and myself were through the at the gate city. and rade to follow through. who were standing of a house which stood back from . changing my course we came near any avoid them. not knowing whether of safety or danger. we were in the path All at once I told became perfectly composed. only about one half succeeded in reaching the Federal lines. of course. gas lights . my com- me and I would conduct him safe I then started due north. and . passing two ladies. the street. which of the city. observed us to the other that one of them remarked like we looked Yankees.

was our intention to strike the . we struck the railroad on the Richmond side. too. causing quite a rustling in get- among the dry ting and we succeeded rapidly. we found out our mistake —the camps were cautiously. . however. . We tinel. and passed over four It lines of the rebel defenses. As we approached. to our surprise. thinking that the camps possibly did not connect. the wind. these we passed After continuing our course north for some time. advanced and when we reached a small ravine we could hear the sen- on his beat. was blowing briskly. on the other side. leaves. connected by a chain of sentinels. We moved on and soon came near the cavalry pickets without difficulty. and this chain must be passed before escape became even probable. we determined to attempt to pass between them. of course. however. which we. and were be- at one time only a few small bushes tween us and the guard.y« FOUR MONTHS IN LTBBT. we changed to north-east. by safely. We saw his fire. avoided. Chickahominy above the railroad bridge but.

The front of them the timber had been felled. through mud and stiff water. too. and day began to dawn we distance to the short find a hiding-place. THE ESCAPE. no doubt. The weather was excessively cold. expecting that with the coming of light there would be a keen search made rebel fortifications were near.. 99 road about a left We road a then as traveled down the mile. and our pantaloons were frozen to our knees. and among day this timber was our hiding-place the first — all the safer. up fire We did not dare to make a so near the rebel camp. we had walked during the night over bad roads. for being within a few hundred yards of the rebel guns. and soon two working parties 7730 . we the rather unpleasant discovery that there was a picket-guard not more than one hundred and fifty yards from the place where wc had taken refuge. in all for us. for fear of discovery but our suffering was greatly lessened by the thought that wc were free. As made soon as it was light enough to sec.

was a long all one. again toward the north We had scarcely got fairly started before our ears were saluted by the tramp of horses and the clank of sabers . should come. formed triangle — the wood- choppers on each side. the guards in front. our we should be retaken and subjected to a captivity far before. who kindly lends her mantle to escaped prisoners. worse than we had experienced About sundown the working party withdrew. T lay very close to the ground kind and merciful Night. and soon after nightfall we resumed star.100 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. till continued our course we reached the . These two a parties. the picket-guard. half frozen though till we w ere. fortifications. lest. first This. in proved suit of "VYe be a scouting' party. perhaps . full of anxiety and fears. we immediately behind left the road It and lay to down some brushwood. so that we were to obliged. after toils. pur- us but we let them pass unchallenged. our journey. came out from the cut and began with to cord-wood. the day of our escape.

we came very near perishing from That day I thought our feet certainly . able to keep During the night circulation we were by lie the blood in active exercise. till clothes indeed. whose shade we found most wel- come. over and kept our course several then changed our course north-east. The night had been very in our and having crossed several swamps journey. but being still comof pelled to during the day for fear discovery. as. and our frozen. was the case. would freeze the wits to and as necessity I fell will often set work. cold. . "We camped for the day by the side of a swamp. upon an expedient which doubtless saved us from such a disaster. night.THE ESCAPE. Chiekahominy River short distance 101 the . and traveled till nearly daylight. as it afforded us concealment and shelter from the bleak wind. near the foot of which was a thick cedar bush. under a large pine-tree. we found a log across for passed miles. our feet were wet. going up stream a it. C< Id. day and we reached the Union lines.

. A celebrated travwhich eler says that he was invariably well treated by women in the various countries through he traveled. fear that it much as we regard the sex. of them- woolen one. the night of the eleventh we traveled and crossed the railroad about half-past . close together. and rolled our feet and found great relief. About noon some cows shel- came around us tered one. we got up and drove them away . and breathed more freely when she disappeared. woman came.a 102 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. we lay down up in it. and as the spot was a they seemed inclined to remain. we would be a dangerous experiment for to trust an escaped prisoner even the gentlest and fairest in rebeldom. Fearing that some one would soon be in search of them. Before leaving the prison I had taken the precaution to put on two shirts — one off. taken off tins I pulled and having our shoes and socks. and very soon a for them. evidently looking "We lay very close to the ground as long as she was in sight. On east.

eight o'clock. come close upon us before we could sec them we therefore sought another place. into a hiding-place it near light one of these that our As soon as was we saw . that we could sleep . could . It feet up the flannel shirt. any one in pursuit of us. the other Sometimes in our night marches we would become so that tired and sleepy the we would throw ourselves till down on ground and sleep a short time. however. and just before day went roads.THE ESCAPE. the awakened by and walk excessive cold. but still and then never both at once we were in slich danger that one would watch while rested. to get a little sleep. from which we could see to a considerable distance in every direction. and in wrapped our before. was so little. place of rest was not well chosen or that scouts. all leading into the main road from the Chickahominy. and two or throe other roads. We then pulled off our shoes and socks. and then rise . 103 main road we also crossed the from Richmond to Williamsburg. as and endeavored cold.

Union and that we need not but we had suffered so much that we did not feel inclined to trust strangers. our chilled blood began to move faster in its channels. and be if we would go with him our wants should supplied. condition. whether black or white. on the fourth night we came . We shape were careful to shun every thing in the of a man. but after traveling through swamps and thickets. home. the people who lived there were fear .104 briskly till FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. to a path along which a negro -man was passing we stopped him and asked a number of questions. We if then told him our and asked him eat. assured us that friends lived there. from his answers. and might be trusted. ever. He said folks. or he would do so cheerfully but point- ing to a house in the distance. he could give us something to He said that he was not near . I asked if how- him to go to the house and see This he did any rebel soldiers were there. that he was a friend. . and were convinced. to which he said he was going.

and gave could enter- tainers that we — our heart-felt thanks. We added first this to their store. which we certainly needed. as I was still fearful so. we if rested awhile. telling us to come on. 105 and soon returned. who had stood guard for us. it and a cheery cup of hot coffee. fire. us. in. such as they had. After the meal was that being friends. readily. . the thing of which they seemed most in need. We hapvery pened to have a little coffee with us. fully satisfied the people were and our black friend outside faithful. found a good and some friendly faces. and soon we had the for good meal we had taken months before which made ended. would soon he prepared for usJ if I then asked him he would stand guard while we went retaken. and supper. that the way was clear. and the inmates set about pre- paring supper for us with all speed. When we were ready to the faithful negro sentinel. of being He agreed to do We then entered the house. to our kind ever men all did. start. seem a feast.THE ESCAPE.

and began still. About sundown we saw before us a negro chopping wood. and conducted us he advised about four miles on our journey.106 offered to FOUR MONTHS IX LIBBY. from being perfectly be- numbed with We . He directions which we found forget to be valuable. be our guide. and our adventure of the previous night had given us confidence in those having black skins. for the day . we were out of danger we kept a vigi- lant watch. as usual. and stopped. as should meet with fewer swamps. we and conseadded other quently make better progress. but met with no interruption. had not traveled any to think that in the daytime before. us to cross to the north side of the road. heart which beat that black man's We then traveled on till daylight. and we gradually became bolder. and kindness of we never shall the in the warm breast. and directly in our line as he was of march. but our clothes were so wet and frozen that we were obliged to travel on to keep cold. .

intending to roads. during in the past few days. to understand. and other Judge of our surprise. He gave us however. the movements of scouting parmatters of interest. seated at the foot of a tree! late to man It with was too change our course. however. that At es- length I told him we were. to find a white him.THE ESCAPE. but that in we were Confederate if scouts disguise. 107 we -walked directly toward him. about the the position of the pickets. ^Ye told him that was not the case. He protested that . as he evidently saw us far . and asked him he had. and we had caped from Libby Prison. which he replied to satisfactorily. He answered us other and we asked several questions. seen any vicinity. a small passed a few miles back. -when we camo within a few paces of him. Yankees and that He said that he had not. soldiers insisted that we were Federal ourselves. inquire rebel tics. illy. that he recognized us as Union soldiers. so it we went up to him and inquired how town we had civ- was to Barnesville.

and even expressed the wish that we might make our as soon as escape. to see us. I told him that I expected. and did his . He and dere- clared that he had no such intention. The truth was. peated the wish that we journey. as we soon discovered. picket-post the nearest friends and inform his rebel what course we had taken. there was a picket~" k st not more than half a mile from the place Hiere we stood. pickets might have a safe if I then asked him near. it now. He talked freely with among other things. had heard of the escape it of the Libby prisoners. citizen. that he would go to we were gone. This he well knew. that he was a and had taken no part whatever in the war. saying.— 108 he was glad FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. and that he had not seen a Confederate soldier for three weeks — in fact. as he had the living him. which was some miles distant. that they seldom came in that direction. but did not credit but must believe witnesses before us. he knew of any He replied there were none nearer than Burnt Ordinary.

THE ESCAPE. saw our .to and if any thing happened us he would doubtless send out a detachment that would destroy every thing that he had. way of finding such things . whom he had doubtless heard. and see even that went with distance to we did not take the wrong path. I happening to back. peaceable he and his assured us property would be respected. however. and did all I could to impress with a salutary fear. utmost to betray us into their hands. however. Butler. 109 He ad- vised us to follow a certain path. If. who had a out. he conducted himcitizen. telling him that if he formed on of us. resist the conviction that he was him in- treacherous. I could not. shook hands with us. We when had not gone over look a hundred yards. that no He harm should come to us through him. there was a certain Gen. and wished us again a safe journey. self as a quiet. by doing which he said we should avoid a swamp that it was difficult and us dangerous a short to cross.

It aware of our coming. and how we might be intercepted. We are gone up that scoun- I feel certain. flashed on my mind. whom we had recently had gone to the nearest pickets. proposed that we should east. and I the whole to . and the placing his officer was now men on to the cross. wary and watchful. was even as I had suspected —the in- professed friend. traveling so at a pace quite unnecessary matter one friendly. change our course from south to which we did imlate. formed the rebels who we were. road near where we were expected and we were now within fifteen or twenty paces of them —they. has gone to report us to !" the nearest picket-guard So well assured did I that I feel of his treachery. we stopped and listened. " drel. . mediately —and then almost too We had not pursued our new course more than half a mile when we heard voices of in men talking a low yet earnest tone it . from parted.110 friend for FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBT. turned my com- rade and said.

to order save a we had Orders take refuge to in large it. dry leaves beneath our feet betrayed and we were sternly ordered to come out of the brush. rustling of the us.. and were given surround side we could hear other. THE ESCAPE. repeated fierce. by the bushes and our only chance but was the to change our course. however. was a moment of fearful Ill suspense . and the order was tones. and Lieut. length. life. we started. but in that a direction opposite which we were thus rudely invited — in other words. Fislar pursuers. we were screened from view. we broke shout away and ran for With a our enemies joined in so closely that the pursuit. men on every giving calling to carh to and direction how prevent . and pressed us to I was obliged throw away lost my till. On came at our nearer to and nearer. overcoat. quick volley at which was accompanied this by a of musketry. swamp. We in hesitated. On we came out a to double-quick. ourselves. in his cap.

escape —and all . to lose the almost in our grasp. violation The one. would to a fate have given us back worse than death all the other. of our own race. had almost reached the and suffering .. by the base- ness of one prize of our fellow-beings. of the man who had betrayed us into the fidelity of the power of our enemies. While our able thus lying concealed in the swamp agree- reflections were not of the most "We toil character. in of promises the most solemn. reward of much to we had and even begun think . almost perjury. did in his power to restore us to freedom and home. with the African slave who true. . this when liberty was almost in our grasp for we were then but three miles from the Federal lines. was too painful a thought to be calmly endured. of another and despised race. and talk of home the loved ones there and now. the duplicity ized white We contrasted civil- —nay. 112 our FOUR MONTHS IX LIBBY. had proved so kind and and felt that under the dark skin beat the nobler heart.

UNDER THE FLAG AGAIN. after efforts many difficulties. left. In tbc our pickets to the fugitives ler — Kind treatment — Warm welcome — Aid — Interview with Gen. But- — Arrival Thus at Washington.UNDER THE FLAG AGAIN. and more than once we were ready In one of our attempts I stepped to despair. 113 CHATTER Bwamp — Meeting VIII. as all who have any acquaintance with well the swamps of the Chickahominy know. The rememl >rancc of the prison we had and the fear of one even worse if retaken. from a log and went down into 8 mud waist- . our were at last successful. encircled by our enemies. We attempted able to cross four or five times before to we were do so. which was a most perilous under- taking. urged ns on. our only in hope of escape lay crossing the swamp in front of us. and.

which was eagerly stretched out he drew him. human at breast or and. FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. in prosperity or . brown eyes. was just able to reach to my hand. and. He is a noble specimen of a man. beat in panion. for friend and com- home abroad. well-proportioned. active. and light complex- ion—is six feet high.— . physically has dark hair. and daring. I forget that kind. and he will ever seem dear as a brother to me. to crown has as noble a heart as ever . 114 deep . and I roused every energy and threw myself toward him . generous —a not man the to trials country and friends does through which we passed only served to develop his noble nature. my true friend Fislar a horrible at hand. and has an agreeable face abilities. brave. is — is possessed of fine natural twenty-three years of age. ready for any emergency all. every motion I still made only but served to carry me down was fate. and me exhausted from the mire. and saved to me from He came he the end of the log. Never friend can truer live. lower .

Now we of were over the stream. to that dismal A stream. made another attempt place where a We found a in number of dead trees stood the swamp. dark.. a large portion . which afforded us the means of crossing. now . 115 there is no one that I have ever to him. rescued we sat down awhile to rest and when somewhat refreshed to cross. narrow. adversity. for we found near the spot a slab that had been washed down from a saw-mill. known that I would prefer thus After I was . and occasionally slipping into mud knee-deep. UNDER THE FLAG AGAIN. deep. lay before us. we reached the middle of the swamp and in looking both before and behind us. it really seemed as if we were the first human beings and and •who had ever penetrated solitary place. from which the branches had fallen and by jumping from one to the other of these. and we were that soon safely on the other side. . and checked further progress but the kind Providence which had aided us on so many occasions did not desert us now.

and near midnight we saw the picket-fires near Burnt Ordinary. and having every reason to believe that . and the fires we saw were those of our own pickets. new efforts. as to be those of we had been us. which was true but that evening. at and late so we plodded on cheerfully. the Union cavalry had driven them away. but supposed them the rebels. before to and fears we stopped for a time gather strength for sunrise to be pursuit. which would have been deemed impassable had we not been urged on by hopes behind. but we felt every step brought us nearer to friends safety. before we reached there. hoping before beyond the reach of successful Again we began our march. that told by the man rebels who had betrayed picket-guard at the had a that place. and night struck the high ground on the other side.. 116 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBT. still swamp had that to be traversed. Being exhausted by our journey through a swamp. Our narrow escape had rendered us very cautious .

and then struck out for Williamsburg. Butler's command. as we afterward learned. When we his got up to him he told us that he and comrades had been sent out on that ad- vanced post in order to meet and aid prisoners who were Prison . Inquiring of the sentinel who he that was. tried to play Confederate ourselves. As we had Ave were not certain but that this might be one of them trying to play Yankee. We had not gone we were halted. and where we were. then." We told him we were. 117 we passed around them at what we thought a safe distance. " I guess you are some of them. After ques- tioning him very closely. added he. and we felt what words never can express — a joy . the fires in sight were those of the enemy.UNDER THE FLAG AG ATX. about twelve far before miles distant. and he ex- pressed great pleasure at meeting with us. which was under Gen. said to have escaped from Libby and. and being fully satisfied that he was " all right." we advanced. he informed us he belonged to the Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry.

with the luxurious addition of a cup of hot coffee. he soon had a good supper. and soon we were to the well mounted. serve-post. We were conducted to Capt. where we were warmly every one proffering aid in one way or another. the officer in command. felt which can never be after privations save by those who. ! 118 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. seeing our need of food and rest. After giving him a brief account of our we informed him that it was reported through . After warming ourselves at the camp-fire.. who gave us was now a hearty welcome and though it after midnight. You can have mine side. and congratulations on our good fortune poured in on all sides. trials. proposed to send us on to the camp his and asked men if any of them would " fur- nish us with horses. Akerly's quarters. and anxieties last. . like ours. feel that they are safe at The sentinel then conducted us to the regreeted. you can have mine!" was heard on every all seeming eager to help us . prepared for us. and on our way main body.

and he was about leavLieut. asked be furnished with to a horse and in saber. Fislar. that had just learned from us ing. all The Caphe put in his possession . and to be permitted accompany him still search of our companions. on hearing this. . rainier reported to the Captain for orders. which we now had learned was not the case and we feared that some of our friends who had escaped might. Just then Lieut. saying that the detachment tain was ready to move. the country that the Federal pickets were 11 'J vanced as for as Barnsville. venture in there and be recaptured. His request was granted. sprang when my comrade. to up. — that they were now preparing to and he would have them keep a sharp lookout for our friends. .UNDER THE FLAG AGAIN. who were we had subnar- jected to the dangers which so rowly escaped. and he was soon in the saddle and away. This act was characteristic of the man. told us that he The Captain a in was about sending company in that direction just before we got start.

it men would have deemed madness highest degree. cold. like a pack of hounds in had just crossed a swamp which most to attempt. The next morning. were struggling still through forests and swamps to freedom. I moved forward with the column. hungry. . and pistol. and half clad. under eagerly similar circumstances. his former com- panions. in his great desire for the safety of those. sword. the would have embraced for opportunity offered and needed rest.120 and when FOUR MONTHS DT LIBBY. must be regarded as noble and chivalrous the in Most men. it is remembered that he had been on the march near thirty hours. which was composed of picked men from sylvania three companies of the Eleventh Penn- Cavalry. but with a most unselfish devotion he forgot past dangers and present weariness. My position was in front with the Captain — every man with eager eyes on the look-out for the late inmates of Libby. who. having been furnished with horse. had just been hunted by the rebels full cry.

they were imme- diately recognized as escaped prisoners. and he partakers of joy such as mine Spurring swinging hastened my horse in advance of the rest. in we laughed. Fitzsimmons working soon to and Capt.! UNDER THE FLAG AGAIN. what emotions filled my heart when I saw and knew the well-known forms and faces of Maj. I and to meet my old companions — seldom is so as much joy pressed into a few brief moments was ours when we met. Gallagher. dismount and the wearied ones ride and together we rode in search of others whom we doubted not were . of the old party — companions in suffering. we shouted aloud wanner. and my hat and cheering as I went. gladder greetings changed till our joy. and will never be ex- we meet in the land Avhere there are no partings. 121 We fore had not advanced more than two miles he- we saw two men emerge from a regard ns thicket and anxiously. Our men came up and welwarmly comed the ha ml fugitives —not a man in the let who was not willing to . hut 0. we wept.

at the risk of life itself. whom we could trusted would be as fortunate as ourselves. and to whom we would have borne we but have found them. and speculated concerning the fate of others. During the day we had several skirmishes with horses the rebel scouts. captivity — each in one of them in in- I have known hours my when day I have almost lost faith in man. and captured a few the and accouterments. stored. but that my faith humanity was resuffering. hunted. was skeptical most that earth yet abounds in warm. when another . unselfish hearts. along gers in As we rode we talked of our past trials. and during the day eleven more were added to our number creasing our joy. and the dan- we had passed since the night we parted the cellar of Libby Prison. till by men whom they sufficient to had never met convince the that hour. To see those poor. FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. to and returned same evening Williamsburg. all wearied ones treated with the tenderness and affection of brothers. aid.122 near.

energetic. . that they are the most daring. comrades was as left undone they are as kind and tender they arc brave and true. one ! God the bless them. With regard to the officers and men of the Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry. I can say. and enterprising men that I have met with since I have been in the service — the bravest fail of the brave left . every The sutler of regiment is worthy of special mention. have since into their hands nothing that could min- ister the comfort of myself and .our lines When we reached we were nearly all destitute of shoes articles of and socks. with truth. 128 detachment was sent out on a mission similar to that in which we had been engaged. and the work which they in will be undone.UNDER T1IE FLAG AGAIN. Whatever we needed he readily fur- . and I need not say they bore with them our warmest wishes for their success. and some even of other clothing. But this is not their highest praise — to since I left so my mother's care I have never I fell felt much like a braby as I .

new was loudly and warmly of greeted the adventures stirring. POUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. and they really seemed could treat to to see which us Our six party had now arrival increased twenty- — every . were with the First New best. Wistar head. and refused to receive any thing at our hands in return. York Mounted to strive Rifles. the heart-felt gratitude -which spring up in every one of our breasts at the recollection of the kindness shown by George M' Alpine. and their mar- velous escape We to to were all furnished with transportation Yorktown.quarters. and introduced .! — 124 nished. During our stay at Williamsburg most of us remained with the Eleventh Pennsylvania a few. Fortress From thence we went by boat Monroe. will am sure. however. many of them to were strange and tell May they the live their wondering grandchildren sufferings in story of their Libby. and were conducted by to Gen. but he I can not refuse.

from which our various we started to homos . go in over the the our treat- ment while our perils hands of the to rebels. and on the way the Union lines at- and were made tention bestowed full to feel the contrast by the upon us. Every heart seemed had a of sympathy. and every tongue hind word. to 125 greatest Gen. how glad was our welcome! Many had . and 0. Butler. story We of had. words were powexpress the gratitude to we felt for such constant kindness. tlic pleasure that into our and only regretted fallen some of our number had the again hands of the to enemy. dinner to be The General ordered our entire his prepared for to party. of course. every wish desire grati- seemed fied to be anticipated. the earnest longing for home. and authorized us draw upon quarter- master for any thing we needed. UNDER THE FLAG AGATX.. every — save this one. Even was soon to granted. by furnishing us transportation place Washington. at who expressed escape. erless For ourselves.

. as dead. and we were unutterably glad flag be under the old and at home once more.126 FOUR MONTHS IN LIBBY. mourned us and our return was it like the grave giving as its up those had once claimed to own .

— How I spent my furlough — Join my regi— Changes —Forward movement— Tunnel Hill — Rocky Face — Resaca. in this. should end. 127 CHAPTER RETURN TO Return home IX.RETURN TO THE FRONT. TIIE FRONT. it was thought best that I should add a short sketch of Sherman's cele- brated campaign. which resulted in the capture of Atlanta. and being in actual command of the remnant of that noble band of men . but in the judgit ment of improper whose opinions would be to disregard. The part taken by my regiment one of the most arduous and successful of the enterprises war. and will be of no less interest to my al- brave companions in arms than the scenes ready described. ment "With the preceding chapter that it was intended my story others. is worthy of remem- brance.

. in a useless and a wicked but martyrs. over never come to weep to their which loved ones their deeds and generous self-devotion country in her hour of peril shall never be forgotten . . portunity to my position gave me ample op- know how uncomplainingly they bore the fatigue and privations of the march how firmly they held . as they read these pages. rather. 123 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. known whose deeds of daring in that memorable march should never be forgotten. that many who entered three the service with me quiet. in remembering that those whom they earth no shall see on more were not victims struggle. then. the thread of my narrative. danger how gallantly they charged the and how nobly they It is fell. and sorrowing friends will take a mel- ancholy pleasure. will never read these lines. the post of honor andfoe. for they are sleeping in nameless graves. will in this regiment years ago. as the Sixth Kentucky. in cause for which it is glorious to die. a sad thought. To resume.

a friend whose sympathies were not bounded by the Ohio River. and the not less necessary pay. before leaving for our homes we pre- sented him with a very handsome testimonial in the shape of a beautiful cane. we found Mr. 129 ex- On reaching "Washington our their party was tremely anxious to visit homes before again entering active service. at the in There was such a pressure of business War Office that we found great difficulty having our wishes gratified in the particulars above named. however. agent from Indiana to attend soldiers to the interests of the of that State. in At length. with gold head 9 . Our recent escape. his and the dangers liveliest we had passed. confine Nor did we our gratitude to empty expressions alone . and in order to do this furloughs and back pay were necessary.. RETURN TO THE FRONT. enlisted regard and being familiar with the forms of business. but one aid all who was ever ready to who wore the uniform of our common country. Montfort. he soon procured for us the desired furloughs.

that our parting was not without emotion. that his mind may be con- soled by the reflection that his unselfish exer- tions on our behalf are gratefully cherished. passed sweetly and swiftly away of .. the Itev. J. too. and soon for- got the perils of the past in the joys of the present. Johnston. in endeared had we become by association Libby. Home so was now in immediate prospect. and the perils attending our escape. J.130 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. . and we feel greatly and trust that when declining years shall render necessary the staff to support his feeble steps. The days of passed rapidly my . for in the first weeks my home life I gave myself up to the de- . I made my way Carrollton. Ky. 'I need not say. the residence of brother. and appropriate inscription his debtors still. and the cup to of our joy was full. to us all glad But soon there came meetings —the my embracings and welcomes of loved ones. short furlough of thirty days another of fifteen days was granted. and they. yet.

and joined regiment between Knoxville and Chattanooga. and well-known voices that I heard not —faces all that I shall sec and voices that I shall hear on earth the no more. on the railroad leading from . had gone to their rest. Fourth Army Corps. and for the changed that dream only honeymoon. of the Third Division. litious 131 reveries of Love's young dream. all Furloughs. amid the of the field and diseases of the camp. and all leaving the rest friends — my nearer friend now than — my wife behind. one of the loveliest days of Spring. like earth. I had been spared amid of captivity. but there were faces that I missed. whose keeping my heart had long been. in by giving my hand to Miss Annie Nash. however. Ilazen's Brigade. a few days before the lanta began. I hurried to the front. was encamped near Cleveland. campaign against At- My comrades gave me a hearty welcome. dangers and sufferings perils but they. On the third of May.— a RETURN TO THE FRONT. things else on have an end .

Hazen. whose courage had been proved on under the eye of brave many and a well-fought field. as festival. on way some high instead of the of danger and of death. M. vigilant leaders. for . one wagon onlv being allowei. bly twelve o'clock. to each regiment. u 0. Thus prepared. at which time moved the on. which was to transport officers' jige and ten at davs'" forage for the team. the troops put in light march- ing order. moved with that elasticity and precision of step characteristic of to that command. the assem- was sounded.132 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. with banners frayed and torn . at head. Early in the day a were received forward surplus move. baggage camps were broken up all sent to the rear. was a grand sight behold an army of veterans. it On Atlanta to upon every lip. with distinguished and gallant on so leader. with the !"' watchword. full of glee to and cheerfulness.. to Chattanooga orders Knoxville. which was soon succeeded by the First Brigade if the forward. In a few moits its ments the S d I Brigade.

. the signal to and were A. its our only tent the arch of blue. road leading to Tunnel Hill. blankets. but with more caution than on the previous day our advance-guard had come up with the en- emy's pickets. under the cheering inspira- notes of the sounding bugle and the success.. and slight skirmishing continued nearly the whole day. the boys sprang up at dawn. with stars above. We camped on the that night dirt near the Catoosa Springs. RETURN TO THE FRONT. an open wrapped up in our. At six. took their soon ready for the day's march. in 133 many a deadly struggle. advance rang from the bugles.. advanced our pickets. and in The day was warm and the march when night overtook us we camped field. and the whole command moved forward. tion of past marching on to dangers greater and fields more glorious than those al- ready won. and established our lines within a short dis- tance of the outposts of the enemy. long. glorious On the morning of the fourth coffee. M.

M. with damage to either side. but finding that the right they were being flanked on by a part of the First Division of the Fourth Army re- Corps tired — in the Ninth Indiana. mit them to wait long. having been on picket the night before. our baggage having been further reduced and the surplus sent back to Ringgold. in Our advance-guard soon came skirmishers. We did not per- and as our advance fire moved upon them they opened a heavy with artillery and musketry . 134 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. our line moved forward. . I think confusion —they line great from hill. P. Hill. contact with the enemy's far as who were driven back as Tunnel when. their of works on the top of the We gained the hill about one o'clock. remained in We the firing camp till the morning of seventh. being reenforced. the Sixth Kentucky in the rear. on the morn- ing of the seventh. At five o'clock. during which time but some picket little was kept up. they formed in line of battle and awaited our approach..

A. Our advance was re- . but war is stern in work to we had only see the to look before their us order the enemy and intrenchments upon summit of Rocky Face. About nine. our line was formed for a forward movement. later — the few val- Sixth Kentucky in the front In a moments the Tunnel Hill. M. RETURN TO THE FRONT. the next morning all was calm and beauthis and many of us desired that quiet. its were stationed at the foot of Tunnel while the Fourth Army Corps camped on all summit — and the rest was the sweeter for the toils and dangers of the day. Second Brigade had descended and were rapidly crossing the ley toward Rocky Face. which commenced half an hour line. at against.. On tiful. some of the who could be seen across w in the base of Rocky Face Mountain. ami during the evening a brisk was kept up along our lines the enemy.. and Our the road leading to Buzzard Roost. would continue through the day . ets pickHill. which so well became the Sabbath.

At eight o'clock.. firing. and soon the quiet of the Sabbath was battle. and passing up the first mountain-side drove the enemy into the . sharp reports from the of the rebel sharp-shooters. range of little The evening passed with but and when night came our boys gathered camp-fires as around the cheerful as if till our the march were but a pleasure excursion. broken by the sounds of We steadily drove the foe across the valley. their fire called forth corresponding activity on the part of our men. but day began to dawn the sleepers were rifles aroused by quick. and necessary to prepare them of the morrow. tattoo reminded toils them of rest needed after the of the day. A. and camped for the night at the foot of Rocky Face. CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. the Sixth Kentucky ad- vanced as skirmishers . M. who fired on them with great effect. rifle the enemy occupying the hights above in our camp. for the conflict Pickets were posted on the mountain-side to watch the move- ments of the enemy while the army as soon as slept .136 gisted.

when retired slowly and good order to the foot of the mountain. as was a strong position by nature. we encamped for the We lost several men during the day. held till ad- vanced position it late in in the evening. fortified and so well line in addition that a single would be amply sufficient to keep an army its in check.RETURN TO THE FRONT. which made the move- ment of troops very disagreeable. dur- ing which time constant cannonading and active skirmishing was going on. with his flanking columns. line of their it 137 . was hard at work . and matters now appearance. In the mean time Sherman. a began to assume fell an exciting heavy rain that day. near the base of Tunnel Here we mained till the afternoon of the eleventh. works upon its summit to which line attempt to would have it been madness storm. Our brigade. however. and next morning were so annoyed by sharpshooters that we were compelled to move our valley. re- camp to a more secure place across the Hill. where night. and on the night .

and the about enemy were reported to be awaiting us three miles from where we stood. . and the night was spent in throwing up breast-works. number of among them a rebel colonel. M. in which driving the in front of enemy Resaca. and eleven our advance-guard came up with the rebel skirmishers. the Sixth Kentucky held During pris- the front rank in the line of battle. the day our brigade captured a oners. On the morning of the 15th skirmish- ing commenced. engagement and resulted line of ensued. and pursuit of the retreating foe began the next morning. A. "We marched six miles south of Dalton. within close rifle range of the enemy's intrench- ments. Early morning our line of battle was formed.138 of the CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. when lasted a till general night. twelfth the enemy were compelled to evacuate Rocky Face and Dalton. Our column at moved forward at nine. who fell back slowly till half-past one. and next went into camp for the night. into his main works As usual. and continued during the day..

the was led by Colonel of the Fifth officer. may be. "Who was in fault may never be known .RETTJKN TO TnE FRONT. and should never have been made by a single brigade. little with but effect." but wherever the fault not with the Second Brigade. on either side In the afternoon a charge was made on the rebel works repelled. Kentucky —a brave officers man and a good in Both men and . at 139 times there was considerable artillery firing. it That night was one of great and unusual excitement. by the Second Brigade. and our men stood to their arms — and. which was on our part. however. yet nearly all felt " that some one had blundered. . At one time the im- pression was that he was advancing upon our camp. Hazen did not favor the movement. and thought to be meditating mischief. it with heavy loss This charge was considered a blunder. It was understood that Gen. the enemy evidently was in motion. acted nobly the affair yet it was a bloody and fruitless attempt to break the rebel lines without assailing their flanks.

The town of Resaca is situated on the south side of the Oostanaula River. they could daylight. not a stronger. and seeking. Morn- ing came. but. We the learned then. that all advantages which we gained might have been secured without the loss of the brave men of the Second Brigade . and the commotion of the previous night proved to be caused by the enemy abanif doning his strong position. by admirably-constructed .140 to tell CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. is surrounded by strong natural defenses. he would most certainly have done so had no assault been made. alas ! too late. were somewhat nervous with regard to a night attack. and had been ren- dered almost impregnable. in some were but fearful . We pursued as soon as we learned of the enemy's flight. the fight truth. but were unable to come up with him. and went into camp six miles south of Resaca. for if compelled to abandon his position after repulsing our attack. at least a safer one further south. perhaps entirely so to any army but ours.

till it was only necessary for us to advance in order to insure his retreat." that the army of Johnston was compelled to retire from position to position. 141 a but Sherman is such great fellow for the flanks. lie may be a good general. as the Georgians say. or.RETURN TO fortifications. and unquestionably held it some strong positions. . " for coming at them endways. but is now quite evi- dent that a better general was in his rear. T1IE FRONT.

and the temporary checks we had met with only served to ture. make us more vigilant for the fuin We . when we gained the works which he time after time abandoned. we could not but wonder at the policy which . his failing to consequence of make good his promises by a suc- cessful stand.142 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. indeed. CHAPTER X. And. ON TO ATLANTA! — Tunnel Hill and Rocky Face enemy — Johnston's strategy — In command of my regiment — Battle near Dallas — Night on the — Reflections. which was justified by almost daily suc- cesses while that of the rebels in their chief in was daily becoming weaker. battle-field — Loss of an Confidence in our leader Mountain — Pursuit of the officer With some this slight reverses our march up to time was that of a victorious army. had the utmost confidence our leader.

up. fallen deemed are already . " On ! Atlanta Tunnel Hill and Rocky Face Mountimpregnable. !" boys ! Atlanta shall be ours With such feelings as those just expressed. to We ain. Sherman soldiers think themselves able to execute whatever he commands. began our march with the cry. cheer up. Gen. the men all in . on the morning of the 17th our army moved on in its conquering march.ox to atlaxta! led to the 143 abandonment of works and positions felt which we we could have held against any army that could have been brought against us. the same power is possessed in a high degree by . In our southward march we were able to un- derstand how it was that the first Napoleon was able to lead an army across the hitherto impassable Alps — his it was by infusing into every soldier his own inflexible purpose. ours 1 Rcsaca has are into to our hands and there no difficulties be surmounted greater Cheer soon than those we have already overcome.

but failing proper range. We passed through Calhoun A. —moved forward again five or six and went into camp for the night. . where they had a strong line of works. and reached Kingston at ten. and working zealously as went shrieking over We expected hot work in the morning. and halted there for a few hours miles. eleven. and confident of victory whenenat ever the enemy would hazard a general gagement. M.144 fine CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. drove the enemy steadily as far as Adairsville. we entered Adairs- without opposition. spirits. throw up intrenchnight. and we soon made the discovery the night. the ments to protect to during the rebels began shell us furiously while thus to get the engaged. laughing gleethe missiles they did us no harm fully — our boys their heads. but when all we awoke was quiet. At seven o'clock the next morning we re- sumed our march. that the enemy had departed during Our ville lines were advanced. — skirmishing We We began us to began about three in the afternoon.

The Sixth Kentucky was line. apparently in force.. hotly pursued. artillery opened upon their line of which was drawn up. night brought an end to our operations. thrown forward into the advance they erected temporary works 10 where and spent the . having during the Cassville. which had constant skirmishing with their rear-guard. day driven them past them to and compelled take refuge within it a strong line of in- works. and many of them preferred fight- ing to marching. and our battle. About one o'clock the enemy made a stand. in an open field. where to was reported that they tended make a fimil stand. Our own lines being com- pleted. by our advance.on to Atlanta! A. M. where we rested an hour or two 145 —the enemy still retreating. received with great to satisfaction by our enemy's who began think that the strategy was to tire them to death by running after them. however. This intelligence was boys. we advanced upon them and took some and drove them till prisoners.

Johnston. whose drum- mer-boys could not say. expecting a battle with the light. but no battle . especially Our boys enjoyed as the rest greatly they had begun to a regard a the campaign as race rather jests at than the conflict. on picket. . coming Day came. like the Scotch baga retreat. for. after the reports we had the heard. Mr. as our boys termed chief. in ac- cordance with the wish of Gen. many was were greatly disappointed because there to be no fighting that day ? We remained here two days as rations to rest and replenish our haversacks. and a general. and many were the expense of our fleet-footed foe. for a further had been brought up advance. famous for which he had already become — and will you believe it. piper. rebel had again executed a night movement.— 146 night CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. somewhat to our astonishment. when asked to play "that he had never learned to play that" Up to this time my company expressed had been act- ing as Provost Guard at head-quarters. reader.

. -Gen. Gen. gratified most certainly was the by an is official paper. from which : following an extract " Capt. he was through and dead at Shiloh. 147 but in consequence of some changes regiment. . the with as my this company. officers recently from Libby Prison/' still and other words signed. I was sent back to in it. army shot till captured at left Chickamauga for tion. has always performed duty efficiently in all has been the battles of the . in and it would be affectation me to say that I amis not gratified by the approval of this noble gen- tleman and good soldier. . Ilazen. Johnston . and was by order of my brigade commander." "W. more complimentary. B. under whose eye I had been so long. He was. and placed command. Ilazen. were Brig. ON TO ATLANTA! Ilazen in . with one excep- the most active officer in preparing for. I could not but esteem it as a great honor and of if I had any ambition to gain the praise it the good and the brave. effecting the escape of a large and number of These.

each composed of two regiments — each of which. and we were glad to go into camp. about five of the in miles south Etowah River. resumed our march southward. Hazen had consolidated his brigade into four battalions. In obedience to orders. the marching heavy. in which my own command was concerned. a most beautiful country. giving a I not attempt the task full history of the operations of the of the army during but content the remainder campaign. Previous to the commencement of the cam- paign Gen. myself with those matters which came under my own eye. when on the march and in battle.-Col. about nine o'clock at night. on the 23d of May and we broke up our camp before Cassville.148 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. officer of the The Twenty- Third Kentucky and the Sixth Kentucky were together. Foy. was commanded by the senior two regiments. and commanded by Lieut. The day was very warm. in Being now shall command of the of regiment. Next morning .

and . picket. a pleasant one. and the column. The in sounds came from Hooker's Corps. fighting denoting that there the was day. at which time the assembly was sounded. on account of the bad six roads.ON TO ATLANTA ! 149 the Allatoona we moved forward and readied Mountains to at midday. then ascended the mountains top. We rested long enough make our coffee. by the dread sounds of distant battle. ahead. the rain of the previous night varied had and cooled the air. moved slowly forward when till about o'clock in the evening. Our march during though slow. Heavy rains fell dur- the Sixth Kentucky went on till and was not relieved eleven o'clock the next day. the sound of cannon was heard. the little scenery was romantic. and met our eyes that was suggestive of the ravages of war. which was the advance of the flanking movement. diverted from the terrible But our thoughts were soon quiet beauty of the woods and the majestic grandeur of the mountains. and camped on the ing the night. was.

filled evi- —the ambulance and wagon to with wounded. We were wet and weary when we halt.150 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. on their way ever the rear. its from the cool and tried valor of veterans. and a heavy . meeting on our march sad dences of the fight trains. yet the fallen in the evening's thought. this army corps. we were prepared to hear of a desperate strug- gle and fearful carnage. so . valor of his men enabled him to hold the to Our column had orders through rain push forward. It to was even Dallas. from which. on we pressed till near midnight. I doubt not. and. Hooker suffered greatly but the steady field. came re- cries of pain and agony that could not be pressed. and mud. passed through many a mind ere slumber came —may I not to-morrow night be like many of those . on its way was met battle en- by the enemy sued. in force. received orders to and we lay down in our wet clothing and slept the remainder of the night upon the battle-field. and anon. amid the dead and the dying who had conflict.

we . thoughtless. and increased in after line daylight. and while thus engaged suffered considerably from the enemy's sharp-shooters. At four in the morning we rose. for picket all firing was kept up night.ON TO ATLANTA ! 151 around me who sleep that sleep which knows no waking? Soldiers are generally gay and . At one o'clock I as- signed them the task of silencing them. and the lightest heart feels sad in the solemn night on the battle-field thickly bestrewn with the dead. and established our own lines in close rifle range of them. and in- during the night. the whole regiment advanced. expecting a hard day's work. even in the midst of danger but they have also their serious moments. by dint of hard labor. driving the enemy's skirmishers within their works. while the resl of the regiment was building breast-works. At seven o'clock we were Sixth Kentucky in front of battle —the F Companies D and were thrown forward as skirmishers. Selecting a number of the best shots in my command. which was soon accomplished.

and was taken to the rear. myself. occupying the trenched ourselves securely. and . and while preparing some to a man belonging the battery was wounded. and relieved. when the Twenty-Third Corps came up. and dispatched a messenger to Gen. while on the skirmish left. the extreme we were threatened by rebel cavalry. which was greatly needed coffee. Lieut. me — it was. notifying him of my condition. line. On his way back the messenger was wounded by a rebel sharp-shooter. During the evenand. ing. did near sundown.152 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. to rest. against which I sent a few men under the charge of a lieutenant. . Schojoin command would soon me on the and that I must hold till till my advanced posiwhich I tion he made his appearance. but the message he was bearing was brought to field's left. that Gen. William Furr. Hazen. my weary flankers were Early on the morning of the 27th the regi- ment was relieved from duty on the and moved back a short distance front line.

wound which in a few days proved officer. thinned battle by the . Fun- received a fatal. lie was a brave man and good was much regretted. in When many they a down or. and while thus engaged Lieut. sad episodes in a and make an impression deep and very dangers pass lasting — the they and toils through with which bind them together a power only understood by those who have of suffering. fierce conflict. nightly camp-fire. immediate prospect of a battle a and I have seen the regiment express as much joy when loud guns announced the approach of a school-boys would at an un. as expected vacation will ful and yet those same men be as at other times tender look . been partakers of this fellowship The in soldier often seems gay and light-hearted . v 153 were placing the wounded man in a litter. and tear- as women. the lines. talk of comrades gone or wrap in his overcoat or blanket the remains of . and his loss Such inci- dents are the frequent and soldier's life.on to Atlanta! two others.

has borne with them the fatigues of perils of the fight. march or the and make grave in a land of strangers. the tears and every look and tone proclaims that under the soldier's garb a true human heart is beating still. bosom heaves. the fall.154 one the his v>~ho CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. .

MARCHING AND FIGHTING. Howard. The former. I must remind the reader that I did not set out with the intention of giving a history of the grand part campaign task in which I took a humhlc —a of such magnitude and respons- ihility must be reserved for the future historian of one of the greatest and most complicated Indeed. by the and the accounts given by various writers who . the thoughtful reader. Reminder council front the reader — Sherman. 155 CHAPTER XI. a thousand miles from the scene of strife. may have a better concep- tion of a great battle than many of those enaid of maps. gaged in it. MARCHING AND FIGHTING. and Thomas — The attack and repulse — The Sixth Kentucky in again — In the trenches — Guarding train — Forward to in march. struggles that the world has witnessed.

while all are aware that a pordisaster. may have been the salvation of the the celebrated charge For instance. Moreover. get a good general idea of it as a whole while he sees who takes part in portion it. may .. may be most glo- but glorious it certainly does not seem to that portion of the x army which has its suffered most severely. yet was most disastrous is charging column. tion of an army may meet with great and yet the general result rious . not having as many hundreds . 156 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. only is that of the that in is which he engaged — and generally is but a small part. made by Marshal Mac- donald against the Austrian center at although it Wagram of the to the turned the it day in favor French army. he prone suffer- to judge of the result by the success. which said to have lost in the proportion of ten out of every eleven men who composed it. of the regiment or brigade with is which he connected. beheld the different parts of the great struggle. or ing. of nebattle cessity. although suffering rest.

not from any one account. and the must be gathered. and the enterprise. write chiefly from what came in under my the own notice than those — those in who were other scenes which I took part will do truth same . but . and even a division. as a whole. was a splendid success. in it 157 as its ranks when the task was achieved had thousands when the word to charge was given. and while not writing a history. This view of affairs with is absolutely necessary in regard to it some matters is the present chapter which necessary to mention. I to am preparing materials full be used by others in framing a and perfect account of this truly-wonderful I march. in some of the battles of campaign. but the part played in to by the brig- which I was attached. at times suffers terribly. a brigade. this Thus.MARCHING AND FIGHTING. and more par- ticularly by my own regiment . and yet the battle was not lost. taken separately. as I am ade not attempting a general view of the camit paign.

One of the group. had the look of one born to his command. or more glorious success. About seven o'clock. If. let I no one think that I rein it . yet he as his was evidently a good soldier. lost empty sleeve showed that he had . the accounts in the aggregate. all CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. gard the whole army as involved for sel- dom has an expedition of like proportions met fewer reverses. it I speak of a success. quiet face. on the officers morning of the were assembled 27th of May. do not think if was one achieved by the whole army. Another had a calm. with a look that showed great goodness of heart. mention a disaster. engaged in deep and earnest conversation.158 from then. though his garb indicated no great rank. their and manners indicated that matters of grave import were occupying their attention. face lighted up with unmistakable tokens seemed of genius as he spoke. a group of in front of the Sixth Kentucky. and his words most convincing. could not hear their Although we looks words.

with other general offi- fought cers. and many other wellThese. the man without . under that exterior. were planning the operations of the day to and having decided upon the course sued. made upon Our brigade was immediately left. fields. and each one re- turned to his respective command. fear and with- out reproach stoutly at and Thomas. who stood up so Chiekamauga. an invincible They were the order I have described them — Sherman. as a general advance would soon be the rebel works. MABCHING AND FIGHTING. of the one of the . yet the lines of determination face upon rugged quiet in showed there was. moved about two lines a mile to the and formed in of battle — the Sixth Kentucky form- ing the extreme left of the rear line. greatest military geniuses age Howard. will. At ten .. arm in defense plain. I was informed by a member of Gen. an 159 flag. the be pur- interview ended. How- ard's staff that we might look for hot work. of his country's A his third was a unpretending-looking person- age .

eral far be- But instead of a genit engagement. It was soon whispered enemy's right we were searching About three for the flank. as we passed scene over the broken country which was the of operations. my me orders were to support the regiment before in the front line of battle. which must have intimated to the enemy what that. o'clock we reached what was col- thought to be the desired point. enemy fired that which was upon by our advance in and driven back. like seemed more a brigade drill . in When we of the came up we found a established at picket-post point. we were about. making four lines of first and formed battle. every movement was preceded and indicated by Willich's brigade bugles. With the at we should engage the enemy once.1G0 o'clock belief CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. the advance that was sounded. and no enemy was now . for. Our lines advanced slowly. as was expected. and we had not gone fore skirmishing began. here the umn halted till Johnson's Division moved up our rear.

and in a were ready line moment more All the order "double-quick" rang out. 1G1 all The in " attention " was sounded. moved to forward. the front line On we on pressed we side came of to an open the field. while the second line moved front forward. nor could I ets see.MARCHING AND FIGHTING. with orders to support the front line —which orders had not been countermanded. line which soon brought battle tri it into the of — the left. view. Sixth Kentucky being on the ex- me and in the second line of battle. and the apprised thing that me of the change was passing over of rebel in till the skirmish line amid a perfect storm bullets. this The field. of our brigade of the 11 was to cross while part Twenty-Third K< n- . on account of the dense thick- through which we were moving. of battle. that the first change had been made. tlic front line changed direction the right. I had not been informed that the front line had been changed. the opposite which right rebels were strongly posted. and finding myself and command of battle.

and bleeding. Taking a position there. the rebels were pressed back to their works. the battle was renewed. field to the and a fierce upon the in flanks spirit — shat- tered. but the failure idea of the dreadful was most signal. and an attempt was made on the part of the enemy to dislodge them. and the right wing of the Sixth Ken- tucky was formed diagonally across left it. and. torn. in some in- stances.162 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. under a murderous fire. Some . to within fifteen or twenty paces of the intrenchments . but exposed as they were in an deadly volleys of a protected fire open foe. and the to rear wing of the Sixth was formed front to meet a flanking column of the enemy that to was moving our rear. our troops following. was already pouring into raged furiously along The battle now our line. they back to the shelter woods. tucky. yet fell unconof the quered. This movement on suc- the part of the cessful left enemy would have been at that had I not moment formed my he wing so as to return the flanking fire us.

that in a it lias space of time nearly as brief as taken to fif- pen these few lines. it is victory to the enemy. and was not supported by the its vision formed in rear. fight Our division went into the di- alone. The was and it enemy due to also lost heavily. to mass three divisions against one I am of at the opinion that had the attack been made once the day would have been ours. for they were soon again on to retreat.. whatever advantage they to gained that day. true. the was our not sufficient check advance of the vic- army. our division lost nearly teen hundred men. carnage 163 may be formed from the fact. . After reaching the point of attack the fight was put off two hours and when it began the enemy had time of ours. it proved but a barren were repulsed. and our army on the march tory. We and many of our brave men sealed their de- votion to their country with their blood. Great as was our loss. their and their success greatly-superior numbers . MARCHING AND FIGHTING.

that the were at the place he had men- tioned Still —that we uncertain. and had not come to our relief at —a mere hand- . and Lieut. and as told them go back. our brigade had gone the to the rear. who were Acting still when Lieut. at our a repulse I was the extreme firing. were relieved beyond a doubt. where reliev- I have some men will placed.164 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. came up and told me that the brigade had been relieved. ing of its knew noththat withdrawal. and on our way we passed which was lying all down. " "Where are the troops to if relieved relieve us? I don't see them. He all said there brig- was no mistake about ade colors it. and replied he must certainly be mistaken. and was now assembling I at the place where the charge began. Clark. but I will go down to the left. Adjutant." officer. relief. who a brave young to went with me. I asked. after ing them is go back. with few men Clark. to But I must return After left my own command.

being ordered to the front. and being compelled to . formed and ready Gen. ! march head. however. and though we had been engaged two days before the in the front. till range of the enemy's this At point we remained the Gth of June.. during which time nothing took place of interest. ful 1G5 field. of us had is remained that on the and the to a wonder man. We were but moved down Pumpkin Vine Creek to were not suffered remain there long. MARCHING AND FIGHTING. Our position. it to with Hazen at but 0. we took our place and began building works within lines. was very unpleasant on account of the heavy rains which fell. of which its our regiment did full share. how changed as to In a few hours not larger to was so cut down a be than regiment. save the usual picket duty. and to the right of where the battle had taken place. we were not captured When we it reached the to its brigade we the found rear. rifle in skirmish duty nearly battle.

three ready to march. with the Twenty-Third Kentucky. in our trenches to shelter ourselves from the rebel sharp-shooters. and halted .166 lay close CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. to guard a train down till army. Gen. and on the next day were detailed. reached camp we found the it army two. When we P. who were always on the alert. We were absent the morning of the 10th. but was delayed till M. to to the Carterville. We then moved forward for the night. about miles. the previous night in order having marched all to get the supplies through as soon as possible. it flank move- necessary for them to By sunrise the next morning we ad- vanced again over roads rendered very bad by the recent rains. On the night of the 5th of June the rebels their evacuated works in front of us. Sherman having executed another ment which rendered retreat.

Tine Mountain.— . SHERMAN STILL FLANKING. At noon on camp the 14th our to division struck miles. save the arrival of the cars at all Big Shanty with rations. we were withdrawn till at night. we advanced one and formed in line of battle in front of the enemy and no demonstration having been made against us. SHERMAN STILL FLANKING. and death of Gen. and marched the left three . Polk Before ' Kenesaw — The nnrcturning brave —Georgia scenery — Marietta ours Across the Chattahoochee. and went into camp the 14th. 1G7 CHAPTER XII. and better to it made ex- feel know that we were not pected to march and fight upon empty stomachs. during which time nothing of interest took place. On At an the morning of the eleventh early hour all was quiet mile.

battle. He was one of the Bishops of the Episcopal Church before the war. These officer particulars were obtained from a rebel hands a few days after. the it.168 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. In company with some other commanders he had taken a position on the mountain to observe our move- ments. who fell into our On the 17th I ascended the mountain. and visited the fine While there I had a . and possessed great influence in the South. drew them back versation and while engaged in con- with his companions. and was esteemed an able officer. arm. In the army he had attained the rank of Lieutenant-General. and passed through his of course he was killed instantly. Some took place in front of 'Pine Mountain. enemy having evacuated spot where he fell. they withdrew for a time. Polk was killed on the evening of the 14th. but curiosity . when one of our batteries opened upon them . a shell struck left him on the chest . on which the rebel Gen. formed our line of till and remained there skirmishing the next day.

and that. to as- cend them with pleasant company and in delightful weather. and the struggle they lives that had cost us. Viewed mere scenery. and gaze from the summit at is the lovely landscape below. 109 Lost and Kenesaw Mountains. Others might have looked at them with the eye of a tourist. standing out so boldly in the sunlight. but I thought of Tunnel Hill and Rocky Face. it when I looked at their steep sides their batteries were belching shot and to really to seemed madness think of attempting make them our own. but we soldiers think of the sheets of flame and the storm of bullets through which we must press our way before those summits. and then thought of the must be sacrificed before those embattlld bights which frowned before me could be ours. . and from which shell.SHERMAN view of STILL PLANKING. full of delight. can be gained. but I looked at them with reference to the diffi- culties which they as presented to our advance. they present a grand and imposing spectacle. all Mount- ains are beautiful. sublime.

having come up with the enemy's pickets in front of their strong fortifications the Sixth Kentucky in the front line as usual. the About two o'clock enemy opened a battery which enfiladed our line of works. till We own advanced slowly night. but soon were compelled to form in line of battle. where . 170 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. did not prevent constant skir- mishing and cannonading. and were relieved only still take a position further to the front. and advancing our lines within close range of the enemy's in throw- rifle pits.— . and spent most of the night ing up works to protect ourselves. notwithstanding the drenching rain to which we were exposed. rendering our position rather a warm one. the 17th On night we advanced over two lines of rebel works which were evacuated the previous . our position being quite an exposed one in an open field. We remained to here till sundown. Next morning tinued this. and COnthe without intermission during day however. driving the skirmishers into their works. the rain began to fall.

and formed the till front line. in an open field. within of the rebel sharp-shooters. and we also cap- tured a number of prisoners. I do not rememfall ber ever having known as much rain to .. and troops were in motion. having been on picket . The enemy were driven works at the that day to their foot of Kenesaw Mountain. and cannonading kept up all night. M. P. a number of deserters came into our lines during the day. In the morning the Sixth Kenin tucky was relieved from picket. working at the intrenchments two o'clock. in a single day as on the preceding one we had been two days relieved. we had to build another line of 171 works during close range the night.SHERMAN STILL FLANKING. in the front line without being to and were obliged to cut green corn and weeds keep us out of the mud and water of the trenches. who soon releft turned and reported that the enemy had during the night . Early next morning our skirmishers were thrown forward. when we lay down for a few moments' rest.

into the front line of All however. lines more were every day . was done into cheertheir and the rebels were driven pits. make a our front the line was to . Here the we fortified ourselves and remained till second of July. and it was dangerous his for a man on either side to show head above the works. when demonstration in was ordered . rifle ordered this. wearied as we were with labor on the breastworks. On the 23d of June Companies it H to and K were on picket. Our regiment was on picket every other day. and our line of battle established within six hundred yards of their works. During or less.172 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. as was every regiment in our brigade —our lines being weak- ened to enable Gen. duty the twenty-four hours previous and then. all that time we had our fighting. picket within seventy-five yards of the enemy's. when Kenesaw Mountain was evacuated. Sherman to feel the en- emy's flanks. fully. . were battle.

put to it a severe test by this doubt. The bravery men was . when our lines were with- drawn of the to their original position. Nicrhoff. to the pits. had four killed and eight wounded Company K had two wounded forty-three in . STILL FLANKING. the Ninety-Third Ohio lost killed and wounded. to orders the In obedience Capt. Owen was in command I of the picket.. We held the position which we had gained at such a sacrifice till dark. however. ill-ad- movement but was. Company . supported by the Ninety- Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Our boys had scarcely got from behind their works when them rifle .SHERMAN advance at five. the enemy opened a galling fire upon they advanced the line. but before they to moved his was ordered send another officer to assistance. P. beyond that vised. —among II killed was Capt. and sent Capt. but with the loss of fifteen that men out of the the thirty-five were engaged NierhofF. . 173 M. as every man knew we were in full range of the rebels' main line of works. advance was made.

several days after the battle. my regiment was placed in the front line. Across this narrow space two rebels. thickly strewn with the swollen. in each case with severe loss to the charging r column and the intervening space w as now. disfigured. and putrefying bodies of the gallant dead upon the very spot where they fell —blue jackets and in gray all intermingled. by our men. Several fierce contests took place while we were in front of Kenesaw Mountain — one of the left. our brigade to relieve some troops on our left.174 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. so close to the enemy that each party did picket line duty from the main of their respective works. presenting the saddest spectacle I had witnessed amid all the dreadful scenes of . bloodiest of which took place on our the till sad and sickening traces of which remained the enemy retreated. all silent and peaceful their last sleep. the charges had been made other —one by the . which were not more than one hundred yards apart. On the night that the enemy evacuated was ordered and their stronghold.

and the suburbs adorned with dwellings eminently suggestive of comfort within. SHERMAN STILL FLANKING. the war. 175 terrible The carnage must have been gray uniforms far but the outnumbered the blue on that sad field of the slain. The reason said to why they were left unburicd is have been the refusal of the rebel officer command- ing that part of the line to receive a flag of truce — such a wretch deserves neither a tear. This is said to be one of the most beautiful of South- ern cities. sol- dier's grave nor a # soldier's the 3d of July the . the town being well built. and they certainly are outwardly beautiful.. On army moved after in pursuit of the retreating foe miles went into and marching ten railroad first camp near the south of Marietta. for All was quiet for the time two weeks. The Georgia Military and commanding Institute occupies a beautiful . which was occupied immediately as a depot for supplies. and for the use of our sick and wounded. The evacuation of Kenesaw threw Marietta into our hands.

Churches and school-houses are more abundant than in most portions of the South through convinced there which I have passed. of variety all and and Lost Mountains being r in full view. the foe before us in force and strongly fortified. "We held our position till next morning. and I are also not a few am Union men. On the morning of the 4th of July our brigleft. are a much superior class of people to any in our we had as yet met with State. and the enemy w-is again forced to leave his strong- .176 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. and the inhabitants situation south of the town. Altoona. march through the The scenery great in the vicinity possesses valleys the charm mountains —lovely — sublime Kenesaw. Line of battle was formed. when it was ascertained that Sherman had again succeeded in his favorite flank movement. the Sixth in the front line fighting all day. ade moved a mile to the the enemy being near at hand. with . Before the w ar this was quite a manufacturing point.

During the day we had some came up with ing. The pursuit then —my fight- regiment in the advance. and captured some prisoners. but planting their batteries. We remained the 10th. their rear-guard. <ve Here stopped five days . into lines of his strong eight works miles for the defense of Atlanta —only began distant. nor did the rebels permit us to do all the shoot- ing with the big guns. too. were busy. and reached the river in time to prevent the rebels from de- stroying the bridge over which they crossed little near Yining's Station.-. with the river between us. 177 and fall back. and the most furious cannon- ade that I had yet heard was kept up both day and night. we were ordered to fair back and pitch there till our camp. After a fighting.«» SHERMAN holds STILL FLANKING. they fired with great precision — at one time obtaining such a frood range on the camp 12 . our batteries were located at the best points. this time over Chattahoothe first chee River. The sharp-shooters. our pickets on the north bank and the rebel pickets on the south.

. and a and went into camp. when the Third Division of the Fourth ordered to Army south Corps was of the to move down as far the as side Chattahoochee Yining's Station. and gray jackets and blue jackets would in the greatest meet and mingle in harmony. seven miles. and to the which we right. moving forward. and up marched to effect a crossing.4 178 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. upon soon erected a strong line of works. Kentucky as to wound several ot my men. of the Sixth. At some points on the river some of our boys and the "rebs" would get up an armistice. which delayed us several hours. till behind which we lay the 17th. to The next day we were ordered reached the river cross but when we we found the bridge was not completed. We . and went into camp. and fire an hour or two would be pouring a deadly into each other's ranks. upon an elevated point. marched about a mile half. We got over at length. Our next move was the river. to the left. Next morn- ing we changed our position.

and succeeded ers . also in capturing some prison- and having finished our work. and hold the crossing the pontoons were laid and the army across. the same night . 179 of till who was then in front the Fourteenth Corps.SIIERMAN STILL FLANKING. dislodge the enemy. returned to our camp. This we accomplished without the loss of a man.

CHAPTER XIII.180 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. and formed in force in in line of battle.j our brigade moved forward over a rough road. BEFORE ATLANTA. M. and we were obliged to ad- . threw up intrenchments but the position as- signed to the Sixth Kentucky did not suit the commanding officer. Intrenching Third Brigades city night— Gallant exploit of the —Atlanta in view— In the trenches all First and hefore the — The Sixth Kentucky ordered to Tennessee parting word. A. the rebels being our front. — Turning over my command — A Early on the morning of the 18th march- ing orders were received. and at eight o'clock. "We went to work and . who the retired before them. a On reaching with Cross Roads we effected junction Hooker's Corps. our advance constantly engaged with the pickets of the enemy.

On moved the to morning of the 19th our . that the line has been cated.brigade Peach Tree Creek. which occupied us most of the night. the selection of the position. to after a hard find. marching and toil after some hours of in throwing up lo- works. day's far from agreeable. in support of . fighting. is and had the wish often expressed that Gen. and the balance of the night spent in work that might have been avoided by a tion also little care in the selec- of the fails position. that a improperly new one must be chosen.BEFORE ATLANTA. indeed. 181 vance and erect another line of works. the remarks of the soldiers are not very com- plimentary to the skill and military sagacity of the officer whose blunder has cost them so much labor and loss of necessary sleep. which it soldiers is become restive and. of This often is a kind work under . as is sometimes the case. as his eye never fails to see the proper place at the first glance. When the second line to please.

After dark we passed over in the front line. Hazen. While the First and Third Brigades were engaged in converting the rebel works just gained defenses. which was attended. with but little loss. our brig- by their valor into Federal ade. under Gen. and nearly an entire regiment in the trenches. after and relieved the troops a hard and exciting day's work. highest credit on the reflects the it noble men by whom was accomplished. and Third Brigades. This they did fire. while they cross at- tenrpted to the stream. in regarded as one of the most and brilliant achievements of the campaign. however. of the . several line officers. high military circles.— 182 the First CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. is This. handsomely the in the face of a to heavy forcing enemy abandon a strong line of works possessing them so hastily as to capture a lieutenant-colonel. On the this next day our division was relieved from portion of the line by Newton's Division. was employed in con- structing two bridges for the artillery and wag- ons to cross upon.

BEFORE ATLANTA. to and had we been able carry his order out. soon after which we came up with the enemy strongly trenched. stop for nothing till move on. man having part rendered such a movement on their a necessity. . however. Slier- when we found enemy had decamped. — there being troops any 21st the which re- lieved us of fears of a night attack. in- Our column halted. battle. This. was done under a sharp and before our works were completed several men of my now greatly-reduced regiment position till fell. rest time in a long enjoyed the luxury of a quiet night's in our front. on the north side of Peach first Tree Creek. We occupied this the the next day. formed line of and began throwing up defenses in front. and moved some left. Gen. and we had reached Atlanta. and. built a bridge and crossed. for the while. Wood ordered us to advance at once. adding that we must throw out a strong line of skirmishers. Fourth miles to 183 ten Army the Corps. fire. On we advanced to Peach Tree Creek.

and upon At- lanta itself. and established our picket > in close rifle range of the enemy. but this was no novelty . and hurling their deadly volleys upon the lines of the foe. the Sixth Kentucky was permitted to . however —the so.184 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. our batteries in position. be- hind which they thought themselves more secure from the encroaching Yankees. enemy was unwilling and had only left that we should do one line of works to occupy another stronger one. and did so till we came upon the enemy strongly line intrenched.sun went down the line of our brigade was strongly intrenched. There was one way. and before the. ere nightfall possessors of difficulty in the we should have been the Gate City. during line a which time the rebels gave rific my most to ter- shelling. line This position I held till our battle advanced. Now. I was or- dered to move the Sixth forward as skirmishers. for the first time since the campaign began. the brave boys of the Sixth they swerved not for a moment.

BEFORE ATLANTA. and that an advanced one. we were not in at. es- the open field. and yet. with change in our position. Tenn. enemy's lines both musketry and artillery. to Our boys dug themselves from in the ground protect balls the shells and minie which the enemy distributed profusely. Ros- at Decherd. waiting anxiously for the fall of the city which had been the object of so much labor and suffering. on the 21st of August. rest for 185 pits a season. while those of the rebels were in the timber on the opposite side. During the time we were lanta.. Our were in an open field. for. having been transthe ferred from Fourth Army in Corps to the Twentieth. but which seemed to be in our grasp but little at last. the death . to regiment to Gen. and . I received report the orders seau. Here we remained. as the fox-hunters say. the into pickets from each side at being close advanced range. for over three weeks. front of Atthe we were almost constantly under fire.

we were engaged in picket duty. field. B. making demonstrations against enemy and toward the close of our stay. 1864. and C to being to return to the rear preparatory service. in the front. from Shiloh to the Gate City of the sunny South. I requested that the remaining . skir- in building and strengthening our defenses. mishing. Though enjoying comparative rest when conwe were by trasted with our toils on the march. I made application for Companies A. no means idle . within range of In obedience to General Orders of the War Department. drilled when our works were completed.186 CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. but. the and . they will have to serve the 23d of De- cember. pecially after first we had driven them from forts their line of and occupied them our- selves. too. we twice a day in an open rebel sharp-shooters. for want of being mustered till at the proper time. as the regi- mustered out of ment will have served three years on the 1st of October —and that.

Tenn. to report at Decherd. but. it of duty . however. This. where they were partly organized. scarcely a man regiment was silent. 187 seven companies should be sent to Kminencc. To my own company. as al- ready stated. was not granted. Ky. and his gang. On who the 23d of August Ave reached Chattanooga. and referred to the imperishable record they had made. in line. for he knew which practically. I regard. we were transferred tieth to the Twen- Army Corps. to watch after the notorious rebel Jessee.. not being with in in the campaign which it had played so distin- guished a part. arose all Cheers in the along the line.BEFORE ATLANTA. to and I turned over the command certainly did not an officer owe his place in the regi- ment to his faithful discharge little. The regiment was drawn up to officers and I returned thanks and men for the faithful discharge of their duty in the campaign against Atlanta. and never shall I forget this warm expression of their confidence and in particular. of the dangers through it had passed. .

and have loss left name which those who mourn their with pride. lanta may cherish During the campaign against Atthe alone regiment out lost. as the record of the doings of the noble Sixth Kentucky. we reach home is The day but 0. nearly three years ago. parents will weep over will return Many sons. service —none have borne themselves more nobly and I cherish the thought that my little book may be useful in to the historian of the war Georgia and Tennessee. again. to them I owe the posiI occupied through the most remarkable . husbands. who will return no more died in a but they a holy cause. and when mustered out the ranks will be thin. and wives over . Kot many regiments have seen harder than ours .188 feel CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA. . tion campaign of the war remain. in hilled and wounded. how few of those who me. if life and with them I till shall be spared. the numbers few. for our return not far disstarted with ! tant . forty fifty-eight of one hundred and who were engaged. deeply indebted.

and John Hall. I am . and "W". the killed of my company December expire were Sergeant II. ac- gentleman. or the cruel imprisonif ment I have endured. ere that day dawns. that bright-winged.-Col. Lindsey.BEFORE ATLANTA. in my country's cause have been made I regret not the wounds I have received. dover eyed peace. and peace. The feeble efforts I have made freely . will however. and my company. James Downs. But if this may not be. Harand per was badly wounded at Chickamauga among G. Orderly-Sergeant H. w ith the will return. time. Lieut. W. soldier brave and true. I regret 189 my inability to give a full list of the losses sustained by the regiment . be not obtained. a few names. Adjutant Middleton died in the hospital complished Christian —an . feel olive twig just plucked off. that of On the 24th of my . 1862. will and I trust. on the 30th of December. I shall not that I am discharged from further duty. Cotton at the battle of Stone River. an honorwilling to pass able peace. which now occur was killed I mention.

190

CAMPAIGN AGAINST ATLANTA.

through yet greater perils that
triumph.

my

country

may

That triumph

will

come

at last, I can

not douht;

the justice of our

cause
of

and the
this.

spirit of our soldiers assures

me

We

have met with defeat and disaster on some occasions,
it is

true

;

yet our cause has ever been

advancing.

"We have had

many

cases of indi-

vidual suffering, and yet those

who have

suf-

fered most

have never despaired.

Amid

the

privation and starvation of Libby Prison I never

found any who taken in this
doubted
Silas

regretted the part they had

struggle, or

who

for

a

moment

the

glorious
praises
at

result.

As Paul and
in

sang
of

midnight
jail,

the
did

re-

cesses

the
all

Philippian

so

they

nobly bear

they suffered, sustained by the

firm conviction that the cause in which they had
periled
last.
all

was a just one, and would prevail

at

And

now, reader, we must part;
in

and

if

I

have awakened

your breast a stronger sympafield,

thy for the soldier in the

and the captive

BEFORE ATLANTA.
in

101
vain.

prison,

we have not met

in

Should

peace speedily come, you

may
into

conclude that I
the

have
but
if

turned
the

the

sword

plowshare;

war must go on, you may safely con-

clude that I

am

a soldier for the Union

still.

.

.

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y y x
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y

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.

THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY REFERENCE DEPARTMENT This book is under no circumstances to be taken from the Building m .

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