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1 Physics 161 Fall 2013 Unit 2: Be able to identify and manipulate displacement, velocity, speed, and acceleration; Be able

to derive and use equations that relate them to each other and to time. Why? Solving F = ma requires nding the equations of motion that describe an objects behavior. Tasks Preparation options: (a) Tipler Ch. 2 and/or (b) MIT OpenCourseWare: Chapters 4 and 5 Preparation problems. These are from Tipler but are reproduced here in full. You do not need to turn these in. But in order to perform well on the Readiness Assessment Tests you will need to complete and understand them. 1. Ch 2 Prob. 10. Identical twin brothers standing on a horizontal bridge each throw a rock straight down into the water below. They throw rocks at exactly the same time, but one hits the water before the other. How can this be? Explain what they did dierently. Ignore any eects due to air resistance. 2. Ch. 2 Prob. 14. The diagram in the gure tracks the location of an object moving in a straight line along the x axis. Assume that the object is at the origin at t = 0. Of the ve times shown, which time (or times) represents when the object is (a) farthest from the origin, (b) at rest for an instant, (c) in the midst of being at rest for a while, and (d) moving away from the origin? 3. Ch. 2 Prob. 110. The acceleration of a certain rocket is given by ax = bt, where b is a positive constant. (a) Find the position function x(t) if x = x0 and vx = v0 x at t = 0. (b) Find the position and velocity at t = 5.0 s if x0 = 0, v0 x = 0 and b = 3.0 m/s3 . (c) Compute the average velocity of the rocket between t = 4.5 s and 5.5 s at t = 5.0 s if x0 = 0, v0 x = 0 and b = 3.0 m/s3 . Compare this average velocity with the instantaneous velocity at t = 5.0 s. 4. Ch. 2 Prob. 114. The position of a body oscillating on a spring is given by x = Asint, where A and (lower case Greek omega) are constants, A = 5.0 cm, and = 0.175 s1 . (a) Plot x as a function of t for 0 t 36 s. (b) Measure

the slope of your graph at t = 0 to nd the velocity at this time. (c) Calculate the average velocity for a series of intervals, beginning at t = 0 and ending at t = 6.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.50, and 0.25 s. (d) Compute
dx dt

to nd the velocity at time

t = 0. (e) Compare your results in Parts (c) and (d) and explain why your Part (c) results approach your Part (d) result. Readiness Assessment Tests: Fri 30 August 2013 Challenge Problems: Fri 30 Aug and Mon 2 Sep 2013 Problem set (problems due Wed 4 Sep 2013 in Physics 161 box) 1. Ch. 2 Prob. 98. Starting at one station, a subway train accelerates from rest at a constant rate of 1.00 m/s2 for half the distance to the next station, then slows down at the same rate for the second half of the journey. The total distance between stations is 900 m. (a) Sketch a graph of the velocity vx as a function of time over the full journey. (b) Sketch a graph of the position as a function of time over the full journey. Place appropriate numerical values on both axes. 2. Ch. 2 Prob. 102. A physics professor, equipped with a rocket backpack, steps out of a helicopter at an altitude of 575 m with zero initial velocity. (Neglect air resistance.) For 8.0 s, she falls freely. At that time, she res her rockets and slows her rate of descent at 15 m/s2 until her rate of descent reaches 5.0 m/s. At

3 this point, she adjusts her rocket engine controls to maintain that rate of descent until she reaches the ground. (a) On a single graph, sketch her acceleration and velocity as functions of time. (Take upward to be positive.) (b) What is her speed at the end of the rst 8.0 s? (c) What is the duration of her slowing-down period? (d) How far does she travel while slowing down? (e) How much time is required for the entire trip from the helicopter to the ground? (f) What is her average velocity for the entire trip? 3. Ch. 2. Prob. 116. Suppose the acceleration of a particle is a function of x, where ax (x) = (2.0 s2 )x. (a) If the velocity is zero when x = 1.0 m, what is the speed when x = 3.0 m? (b) How long does it take the particle to travel from x = 1.0 m to x = 3.0 m 4. from Ch. 2 Prob. 122. For a spherical celestial object of radius R, the acceleration due to gravity g at a distance x from the center of the object is g = g0 R2 /x2 , where g0 is the acceleration due to gravity at the objects surface and x > R. If a rock is released from rest at a height of 4R above the lunar surface, with what speed does the rock impact the moon? Hint: Its acceleration is a function of position and increases as the object falls. So do not use constant acceleration free-fall equations, but go back to basics.