How to create root locus in theory of control structures

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How to create root locus in theory of control structures

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

Outline

motivation denition rules examples

2/18

Suppose we have a second order plant: G(s) =

2 n 2 s2 + 21 n s + n

Overdamped: 1 > 1 Poles = 1 n n Sluggish response Can we improve the performance by a controller

3/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

2 1 1

r

v u y

Controller

Plant

Recall the variables: r: reference variable or setpoint e: error u: manipulated variable or control eort v: disturbance, taken as zero now y: plant output or controlled variable

4/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

r

v y

Gc

Gc : controller, G: plant Derive the closed loop transfer function: GGc Gcl = , y(s) = Gcl r(s) 1 + GGc If Gc = K, a constant, Gcl =

5/18 CL-417 Process Control

KG 1 + KG

Gcl = Substitute: G(s) = Gcl (s) = KG 1 + KG 2 n

2 s2 + 21 n s + n 2 Kn

2 s2 + 21 n s + (K + 1)n

2 C.L. Poles = 1 n n 1 (K + 1)2 Recall: 1 > 1 - it is a overdamped system What will happen to the roots as K increases from 0. Initially, real roots. As K increases, roots become complex!

6/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

O.L.T.F: G =

2 n 2 s2 + 21 n s + n 2 1 1

O.L. Poles = 1 n n

Where are these poles? Mark them on a plot. 2 Kn C.L.T.F: Gcl (s) = 2 2 s + 21 n s + (K + 1)n C.L. Poles = 1 n n Where are these poles? Plot them.

7/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

2 1 (K + 1)2

8/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

Root locus is the locus of roots of 1 + KG(s) = 0, as K goes from 0 to . 1 + KG(s) = 0 or KG(s) = 1 s is complex and hence, 1 + KG(s) also is complex. We get the following magnitude and phase relations: |KG(s)| = 1 KG(s) = (2l + 1)180 , l = 0, 1, 2, . . .

9/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

KG(s) = (2l + 1)180 , l = 0, 1, 2, . . . If we assume the following form of G(s), G(s) = (s z1 )(s z2 ) (s zm )

(s p1 )(s p2 ) (s pn )

zi are known as the zeros pj are known as the poles KG(s) = (s z1 ) + + (s zm ) (s p1 ) (s p2 ) = (2l + 1)180 , l = 0, 1, 2, . . .

10/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

Angle made by a pole:

Im(s) (s p1 ) p1

Re(s)

Im(s) (s p1 ) (s z1 ) Re(s) p1

All points s that satisfy the following condition will be on root locus: (s z1 )+ +(s zm )(s p1 )(s p2 ) = (2l + 1)180 , l = 0, 1, 2, . . .

11/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

Singularity on left , contribution = 0 :

p1 s

s p1

z1 s

s z1

Singularity on right ,

Contr. to G = 180 or +180 , i.e. 180 The locus on the real axis is to the left of an odd no. of real poles plus real zeros

12/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

Want to check whether a point s0 on real axis belongs to root locus Count the total number of poles and zeros to the right of s0 If this number is odd, s0 belongs to root locus If this number is even, s0 does not belong to root locus

13/18

s = %s ; G = s y s l i n ( c , 1 / ( s +1) / ( s +2) ) ; e v a n s (G , 0 . 0 5 ) ; / / p l o t s f o r u n

= 1 . 5

t i l

datatipToggle

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15/18

16/18 CL-417 Process Control Root locus guidelines

Motivation for proportional controller Procedure to analyse it using root locus Magnitude and angle condition Real axis portion of root locus

17/18

Thank you

18/18

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