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# Lecture 13 Root locus to design proportional controller

## IIT Bombay Thursday, 23 August 2012

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Outline

## Desirable region Root locus

motivation denition rules examples

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## Improving plant performance

Suppose we have a second order plant: G(s) =
2 n 2 s2 + 21 n s + n

Overdamped: 1 > 1 Poles = 1 n n Sluggish response Can we improve the performance by a controller
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2 1 1

## Closed loop system

r

v u y

Controller

Plant

Recall the variables: r: reference variable or setpoint e: error u: manipulated variable or control eort v: disturbance, taken as zero now y: plant output or controlled variable
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## Closed loop system

r

v y

Gc

Gc : controller, G: plant Derive the closed loop transfer function: GGc Gcl = , y(s) = Gcl r(s) 1 + GGc If Gc = K, a constant, Gcl =
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KG 1 + KG

## Eect of a proportional controller

Gcl = Substitute: G(s) = Gcl (s) = KG 1 + KG 2 n

2 s2 + 21 n s + n 2 Kn

2 s2 + 21 n s + (K + 1)n

2 C.L. Poles = 1 n n 1 (K + 1)2 Recall: 1 > 1 - it is a overdamped system What will happen to the roots as K increases from 0. Initially, real roots. As K increases, roots become complex!
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## Pole Locations as K Increases

O.L.T.F: G =
2 n 2 s2 + 21 n s + n 2 1 1

O.L. Poles = 1 n n

Where are these poles? Mark them on a plot. 2 Kn C.L.T.F: Gcl (s) = 2 2 s + 21 n s + (K + 1)n C.L. Poles = 1 n n Where are these poles? Plot them.
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2 1 (K + 1)2

## This is a Root Locus plot

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## Root locus, a denition

Root locus is the locus of roots of 1 + KG(s) = 0, as K goes from 0 to . 1 + KG(s) = 0 or KG(s) = 1 s is complex and hence, 1 + KG(s) also is complex. We get the following magnitude and phase relations: |KG(s)| = 1 KG(s) = (2l + 1)180 , l = 0, 1, 2, . . .
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## Root locus angle condition

KG(s) = (2l + 1)180 , l = 0, 1, 2, . . . If we assume the following form of G(s), G(s) = (s z1 )(s z2 ) (s zm )

(s p1 )(s p2 ) (s pn )

zi are known as the zeros pj are known as the poles KG(s) = (s z1 ) + + (s zm ) (s p1 ) (s p2 ) = (2l + 1)180 , l = 0, 1, 2, . . .
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## Angles made by poles and zeros

Angle made by a pole:
Im(s) (s p1 ) p1

Re(s)

## Angle made by a pole and a zero:

Im(s) (s p1 ) (s z1 ) Re(s) p1

All points s that satisfy the following condition will be on root locus: (s z1 )+ +(s zm )(s p1 )(s p2 ) = (2l + 1)180 , l = 0, 1, 2, . . .
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## Real axis portion of root locus

Singularity on left , contribution = 0 :

p1 s

s p1

z1 s

s z1

Singularity on right ,

Contr. to G = 180 or +180 , i.e. 180 The locus on the real axis is to the left of an odd no. of real poles plus real zeros
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## Left of odd number of real poles and zeros

Want to check whether a point s0 on real axis belongs to root locus Count the total number of poles and zeros to the right of s0 If this number is odd, s0 belongs to root locus If this number is even, s0 does not belong to root locus

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## Scilab code for root locus - 13-RL-1.sce

s = %s ; G = s y s l i n ( c , 1 / ( s +1) / ( s +2) ) ; e v a n s (G , 0 . 0 5 ) ; / / p l o t s f o r u n
= 1 . 5

t i l

datatipToggle

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## How did we get the root locus (red line)?

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## What we learnt today

Motivation for proportional controller Procedure to analyse it using root locus Magnitude and angle condition Real axis portion of root locus

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Thank you

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