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Chronology of the Attacks of September 11,2001,


Subsequent Events through April 15,2002 (Eastern time is used.)

Prepared by the FAA Agency Historian, this timeline is a reference tool. It does not represent an official position of the FAA.

Sep 11,2001: In an unprecedented terrorist assault on the United States, hijackers seized the controls of four airliners for use as missiles against ground targets. Events included:

8:00 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 with 92 persons aboard, lifted off from Boston Logan for Los Angeles.(a) 8:14 a.m.: United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767 with 65 persons aboard, lifted off from Boston Logan for Los Angeles.(a) 8:21 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 with 64 persons aboard, lifted off from Washington Dulles for Los Angeles.(a) 8:40 a,m.: FAA notified NORAD's Northeast Air Defense Sector concerning the suspected hijacking of American Flight 11.® 8:41 a.m.: United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 with 44 persons aboard, lifted off from Newark for San Francisco,(a) after leaving the gate at 8:01 .(l) 8:43 a.m.: FAA notified NORAD's Northeast Air Defense Sector concerning the United Flight 175 suspected hijacking.® 8:46 a.m., approx.: American Flight 11 crashed into the north tower of New York's World Trade Center.1 8:46 a.m.: NORAD ordered two F-15 fighters to scramble from Otis Air National Guard Base, Mass. They were airborne at 8:52 a.m.® 9:02 a.m., approx.: UAL Flight 175 crashed into the World Trade Center's south tower.2 9:04 a.m., approx.: FAA's Boston Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) stopped all departures from airports within its jurisdiction.3 9:06 a.m.: FAA stopped departures of flights bound to or through the airspace of the New York ARTCC from airports within airspace controlled by that ARTCC and its adjacent ARTCCs (Washington, Cleveland, and Boston).(d) 9:08 a.m.: FAA stopped departures nationwide for traffic flying to or through the airspace of the New York ARTCC.(d) FAA also issued a written advisory that "sterilized" the airspace controlled by the New York ARTCC, meaning that all aircraft operating in that airspace were ordered to leave it.(e) 9:24 a.m.: jFAAnotified NORAD^s Northeast Air Defense Sector concerning the

jasr mbig from

Tjbey were airborne at 9:30 SLm. FAA and

NbRAD estabUsMan opelQluielb dlscuss'AAX Flight 77 aMTJALFnpt 93;® 9:26 a.m.: FAA issued a nationwide ground stop that prevented the takeoff of all civil aircraft, regardless of destination.(d>e) At 9:29 a.m., FAA issued Advisory 031 concerning the ground stop.(d)

9:40 a.m., approx.: American Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon, the Defense Department's Washington headquarters.4 9:45 a.m.: In the first unplanned shut down of civil operations throughout U.S. airspace, FAA ordered all civil aircraft to land at the nearest airport as soon as possible. At the time of the order, 4,546 flights were airborne. (At 10:39 a.m., FAA followed up on this order with a Notice to Airmen closing operations at all airports; at 11:06 a.m., the agency issued Advisory 036 suspending operations hi the National Airspace System.)(M'e) 9:48 a.m.: According to media, the Capitol and the West Wing of the White House were evacuated; from about 10:00 to 11:30 a.m., Federal buildings nationwide were evacuated.^ 9:55 a.m.: President George W. Bush departed from Sarasota, Fla., according to media., and arrived at Barksdale Air Force Base, La., at about 11:40 a-m.^ 10:10 a.m., approx.: United Flight 93 crashed in Stony Creek Township, Pa.5 In cellular telephone calls, passengers had stated their intention to resist the hijackers.11 12:16 p.m.: The national airspace was clear of civil traffic, except for a small number of law enforcement or emergency operations, and a few international arrivals.(d) 1:37 p.m.: According to media, President Bush left Barksdale Air Force Base. At 2:50 p.m., the President arrived at Offutt Air Force Base, Neb., where he received national security briefings. At 4:36 p.m., he left Offutt for Washington, where he arrived about 7:00 p.m, and addressed the Nation at 8:30 p.m.^

Determining the total loss of life due to the September 11 attacks proved difficult. The foliowhig fatality figures were reported by the Associated Press on Apr 22,2002:

New York, 2,823 (including 128 listed as missing); Washington, 189; Pennsylvania, 44; total, 3,056.

Sources and Notes Regarding the Times of Events on September 1 1, 2001

(a) FAA (APA), Flights in September 11 Incidents, undated^Sep 2001)

(b) FAA, History of Ground Stop Order, undated (Sep 2001)







FAA (AAT-20)^ American Airlines Flight 77, Sep 15, 2001

FAA (AAT), Initial Ground Stop Decisions/Traffic in the NAS, Sep 18, 2001 FAA, Statement of Administrator Jane F. Garvey before a House subcommittee, Sep 21, 2001 FBI Press Release, Sep 14, 2001 NORAD, NORAD's Response Times, Sep 17, 2001 News media.

1 Approximation, based on document (g) and on Secretary Norman Y. Mineta's testimony before a Senate subcommittee, Sep 20, 2001; document (a) lists 8:47

2 Approximation, based on (a) and (g); document (f) lists 9:05

3 Approximation; document (d) lists 9:04, but earlier times have been mentioned

4 Approximation^dpaiment (g) estimates 9:37; (f) lists 9:39; Associated Press, Sep 12, 2001, lists

5 Approximation; document (g) lists 10:03; (f) lists 10:10; (a) estimates 10:15

Sep 12,2001: DOT announced that FAA would begin a limited reopening of the nation's commercial airspace to allow flights diverted during the previous day to proceed to their destinations. This included international flights bound for U.S. airports that had been diverted to Canada. Apart from these operations, the ground stop order remained hi effect while additional security steps were completed. These measures

included: search and security check of all airplanes and airports before passenger reentry; a ban on curbside and off-airport check-in; access to boarding areas for ticketed passengers only; increased monitoring of vehicles near airport; and a strict ban on knives and cutting tools as carry-on items. In an early example of the attacks' economic effects, Midway Airlines announced that it was shutting down permanently due to the previous day's events. The carrier had already filed for bankruptcy protection on August 13.

Sep 13, 2001: DOT ordered the reopening of the national airspace to U.S. air carriers, effective 11:00 a.m., provided that the airport involved had implemented the new security measures. Part 135 operators were included in the reopening. General aviation remained grounded, except in Alaska. Foreign air carriers were still not allowed to fly into the United States, with certain exceptions, but could depart if they met the new security standards. By the following day, foreign carriers were being permitted entry if they met those standards, and depending on their point of origin.

Sep 14, 2001: As of 9:00 a.m., FAA had recertified 421 of 451 airports as meeting the new security standards. Among the airports continuing to reopen during the day were the three major facilities serving New York City, which had already reopened for a time on September 13, but had closed again due to security concerns. The major airports yet to reopen were Boston Logan and Washington's Reagan National. The latter facility remained under "temporary, indefinite" closure. Effective at 12:15 p.m., FAA reauthorized agricultural flight operations (crop dusting) under Part 137. Effective at 4:00 p.m., DOT approved reopening of the airspace to certain general aviation flights. Instrument Flight Rules (EFR) operations were permitted, except within two areas under Temporary Flight Restrictions that extended 25 nautical miles from New York Kennedy and Washington Reagan National airports. (Exceptions applied to airports at White Plains, N.Y., and Manassas, Va.) Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations remained grounded nationwide, except to allow removal of aircraft from the predicted path of a tropical storm in four southern states. In other developments on September 14, fighter jets reportedly forced down three small planes in Maryland, West Virginia, and Texas for violating flight restrictions. The FBI released the names of 19 men identified as the September 11 hijackers. Four were aboard the United Flight 93 that crashed in Pennsylvania, and five aboard each of the other three hijacked flights.

Sep 15, 2001: Boston Logan airport reopened, leaving Washington's Reagan National as the only major airport yet to do so. FAA announced that some commercial and





and 24.


Sep 16, 2001 : Secretary of Transportation Norman Y. Mineta announced the creation of two Rapid Response Teams composed of six leaders in aviation and security protection.

The teams would make recommendations on improving aviation security no later than October 1 , 2001. One team would focus on airport security, the other on aircraft security. FAA grounded Part 137 agricultural operations due to security concerns. Effective this date, however, authorities permitted shipment of mail and packages aboard passenger flights to resume, subject to heightened security. Such shipments had been suspended after the terrorist attacks. In remarks at the White House beginning at 3:23 p.m., President Bush named the leader of the Al Qaeda organization, Osama bin Laden , "the prime suspect" in the September 1 1 attacks.

Sep 17, 2001: FAA again permitted the resumption of agricultural flight operations under Part 137. Other Visual Flight Rules operations remained grounded. FAA's Administrator Jane F. Garvey held a teleconference with 31 airport operators to review the status of airports' return to operation, to stress the importance of the new security measures, and to encourage contact with the agency on questions or concerns.

Sep 18, 2001: By this date, announced aviation employee layoffs following the

September 1 1 attacks reportedly totaled 44,000 in the airline sector. On that

Boeing stated that it would lay off up to 30,000 workers. By October 4, media reported

announced airline layoffs totaled 128,000.

same day,

Sep 19, 2001 : On or about this date, FAA initiated a revalidation by airport operators of identification badges of employees with access to secure areas.

Sep 19, 2001 : Late on this day, the agency permitted limited resumption of general aviation Part 91 operations under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Exceptions included flight in Enhanced Class B (ECB) airspace, meaning that VFR flying was not allowed over, through, or "under the shelf of the Class B airspace category surrounding major airports. (Later, ECB was defined to exclude airspace above 18,000 feet.) Other types of Part 91 VFR operations not permitted to resume were: civil flight training; banner towing; circling or loitering by news reporting helicopters; traffic watch; sightseeing; and airship/blimp flights. In another development on Sep 19, FAA prohibited U.S. civil flights to or over Afghanistan, a ban that remained in effect until Feb 1, 2002.

Sep 20, 2001: At about noon, FAA issued a Notice to Airmen (FDC 1/0257) restricting flight over major sporting events or other major open-air assemblies. Flight below 3,000 feet was not permitted within 3 nautical miles of such events.

Prc^ StabilizatioB Act<P.L,4^7^2), Among oth^ provisiom, the act: directed federal compensation to air carriers for losses due to the September 1 1 terrorist attacks and the resulting ground stop orders; established an Air Transportation Stabilization Board to issue federal credit to air carriers; directed DOT to take appropriate actions ensure continuation of scheduled air service, including essential air service to small

communities; and authorized DOT to provide certain insurance against risks to aircraft in the United States. (Later, on Sep 25, President Bush notified the Speaker of the House that he was providing up to $5 billion to DOT's Compensation for Air Carriers account under the terms of the Act. Another implementation step came on Oct 5, when the Office of Management and Budget released regulations that gave the Air Transportation Stabilization Board broad powers in providing up to $10 billion in loan guarantees to air carriers.) Effective at 7:00 a.m. on September 22, FAA lifted some of the restrictions on general aviation (Part 91) flight training under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Such training might be permitted in non-turbojet aircraft of less than 12,500 Ibs. outside of Enhanced Class B airspace. Training in single- and twin-engine piston powered aircraft and helicopters was permitted within Enhanced Class B airspace except in and around Boston and in the areas of New York City and Washington, B.C., covered by temporary flight restrictions. Part 91 sightseeing outside of Enhanced Class B airspace and temporary restricted areas was also allowed to resume.

Sep 23,2001: Due to security considerations, FAA imposed a ban on Part 137 agricultural flight operations for the second time since permitting the flights to resume on September 14.

Sep 24,2001: Administrator Garvey traveled by commercial airliner to New York, where she met with employees of FAA's Eastern Region headquarters, many of whom lost relatives and friends in the terrorist attacks.

Sep 25,2001: FAA's second ban on Part 137 agricultural flights ended at 12:05 a.m. in each time zone. In an address at the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal, Administrator Garvey called on ICAO member states to cooperate in investigating the September 11 attacks and to meet at a high level to agree on steps to eradicate terrorism from civil aviation. DOT's Research and Special Projects Administration issued a Broad Agency Announcement requesting papers on innovative technical or operational concepts to improve transportation security.

Sep 27,2001: President Bush announced a program to enhance civil aviation security, based on a midpoint review of the work of DOT's Rapid Response Teams. Elements of the plan included a continued expansion of the Federal Air Marshals

^ to ^ to^eky ^ dmy^ockpit^iccess4^

place the federal governmentin charge of airport security. Uniformed federal personnel would manage a combined federal and non-federal security workforce at airports. The President would request state governors to deploy National Guard troops at airports pending implementationof the new program, which was expected to take

four to six months.

workwithCongress to

Media reported on this day that President Bush had delegated to certain military officers the authority to order airliners shot down, as a last resort, if the public was threatened. FAA permitted the resumption of curbside check-in at some airports with additional security measures in place. Applications for employment as a Federal Air Marshal reached more than 20,000 by this date. The total had reached more than 136,000 applications by January 7, 2002.

Sep 28, 2001: National Guard personnel began assisting security at multiple airports around the nation. By Oct. 16, a total of 6,155 Guard members had been deployed at 420 airports in 53 states and territories. FAA issued a 15-part Notice to Airmen (1/0586) on emergency rules currently in effect. Changes to flight restrictions included authorization for all general aviation Part 91 operations outside of Enhanced Class B (ECB) airspace, including previously grounded airships/blimps, news helicopters, traffic-watch aircraft, and banner-towing operations. Flight training operations were permitted for aircraft up to 12,500 Ib. outside of ECB airspace and up to 6,000 Ib. inside ECB airspace, except in the Boston ECB and in the continuing restricted areas around New York and Washington, D.C. Also on Sep 28, FAA warned that pilots who violated restricted or prohibited areas faced risks that included military interception, forced landing, and, as a last resort, the use of deadly force.

Oct 1,2001: The Rapid Response Teams completed their reports, which they submitted to the Secretary of Transportation in meetings on this day and the next. The aircraft security team made 17 recommendations on issues that included: installation within 90 days of a flight deck barrier device on the entire airline fleet; new requirements for future flight deck doors; changes in security training; prompt delivery of security advisories to crewmembers; and a task force on modifications to assure continuous transponder signal transmission. The airport security team recommended establishment of a new DOT security agency for transportation law enforcement, including officers to oversee airport security. The team's 15 other recommendations concerned: sharing security information; exploiting new technologies; unproved screening and access control; and a voluntary pre-screening regimen to qualify passengers for faster processing. Also on Oct 1, FAA issued Special Federal Aviation Regulation 91 requiring operators of private charters and general aviation flights using secure areas at airports to implement security procedures already required for public charters and scheduled passenger flights. This provision was effective on Oct 6. The rule also qthgL^^ ifTwEenTa

Oct 2, 2001: President Bush announced a phased reopening of Washington's Reagan National Airport, beginning on October 4, for commercial service only. Extraordinary airport security measures would include: a ban on aircraft with more than 156 seats; operations only between 7 a.m. and 10 p.m.; and temporary discontinuance of the river approach that had been used to mitigate noise. Phase I of the reopening, to last

about 3 weeks, would be limited to shuttle flights and service to eight hubs by six airlines. Phase n, to last 30-45 days, would add flights to additional cities (see Oct 18, 2001). Further phases would be announced after review of the initial operations. A series of events leading to alarm over terrorist use of anthrax began when a man who worked in the American Media building in Boca Raton, Fla., was hospitalized with pulmonary anthrax. He died on October 5. Subsequentincidents involving receipt of contaminated letters at media offices spread concern over the delivery of anthrax spores by mail (see Oct 15,2001).

Oct 2,2001: Also on this date, problems during a power failure at FAA's national headquarters highlighted safety issues and reinforced ongoing security concerns. A program of improvements at headquarters included barriers and guard booths outside of the building, as well as more emergency lighting and public address system speakers.

Oct 3,2001: FAA issued Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 92 granting

temporary relief from certain regulatory requirements in order to permit passenger airlines to quickly modify flight deck doors to prevent unauthorized entry, using both short-term and longer-term measures. SFAR 92 also banned possession of flight

deck door keys by cabin attendants during

flight. The rule was modified by SFAR 92-1,

issued on October 12, which broadened the regulatory relief provisions to cover cargo operations as well as passenger flights under Part 121. Further modifications were contained in SFAR 92-2, published on Nov 21, which allowed cabin attendants on passenger flights to possess cockpit door keys if the flight crew used an additional lock to secure the door from the inside. (See Jan 15,2002.)

Oct 4,2001: As announcedby President Bush on October 2, Washington's Reagan National Airport opened to limited airline flights. The event marked the return to service of all U.S. commercial airports.

Oct 5,2001: Secretary of Transportation Norman Y. Mineta made public the recommendations of the two Rapid Response Teams. FAA announced that Secretary Mineta had directed the agency to take any necessary steps to support installation of secure mechanisms on airline cockpit doors within 30 days. FAA also announced that the Secretary had established a $20 million grant program to develop aircraft security technologies as part of the $500 million initiative unveiled by the President on Sep 27. Media reported that Associate Administrator for Civil Aviation Security Michael A. Canavan would leave FAA by mutual agreement. Subsequent reports linked Canavan's departure to a disagreement over the assignment of Federal Air Marshals to flights carrymgjCabinetrnembCTS.


Restrictions around New York City and Washington were reduced.

nautical miles radii around Kennedy and Reagan National airports were lowered to 18 nautical miles. In the same Notice to Airmen (NOTAM FDC 1/0989), FAA specified Temporary Flight Restrictions banning general aviation operations within a radius of 15 nautical miles from the Boston's BOS VORTAC, except for Instrument Flight


a.m., thejireas covered by Temporary Flight

The specified 25

Rules flights to and from Logan airport. In a separate NOTAM (FDC 1/0982), FAA permitted "flush flights" for private aircraft trapped within the New York and Washington restricted areas on this day through October 9.

Oct 7,2001: Starting at 12:30 p.m. EDT, the United States and Britain began air strikes against targets in Afghanistan as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. In an address beginning at 1:00 p.m., President Bush stated that the attacks were directed against the Al Qaeda terrorist network and against installations of the Taliban regime, which had not complied with U.S. demands concerning the terrorists. According to media reports, the Nation stepped up security measures as the air campaign began, including additional police and National Guard at airports. Also on Oct 7, FAA sent a notice to airlines of a new carry-on security measure required to be implemented within 72 hours of receipt. Each passenger was to be limited

to one carry-on bag and one personal item such as a purse or laptop computer.

following day, FAA issued a news release advising air travelers on this and other current

security measures. Airlines with appropriate security measures in place were now permitted to operate automated check-in kiosks.

On the

Oct 8,2001: A man with a history of mental problems reportedly stormed into the cockpit of an American Airlines 767 before being subdued by passengers and crewmembers. Fighter aircraft escorted the plane to a safe landing in Chicago. This was the most serious of several incidents in which fighter jets intercepted or escorted airline flights since the recent terrorist attacks. Examples of these escort incidents reported by the media included: on Sep 11, a Korean Airlines 757 landed at White Horse, Yukon Territory, due to a transponder code error; on Sep 19, an American Airlines flight with radio problems returned to Chicago; on Sep 27, an Air Canada flight returned to Los Angeles due to a passenger's hostile behavior; and, on Oct 10, a Delta flight made an unscheduled landing at Shreveport, La., after a passenger gave a suspicious note to a flight attendant.

Oct 10,2001: Secretary of Transportation Mineta sent to Congress proposed legislation to strengthen safety and security in transporting hazardous materials. The proposal included greater enforcement authority for state, postal, and DOT officials.

Oct 11,2001: The FBI warned that there might be additional terrorist attacks within'the next several days against the United States and its overseas interests, and called upon law enforcement officials to be on the highest alert.

Oct 12.200JLL FAA announced a three-phase program to allow private aircraftto r^mTfl^ifil^fiae? Visual Flight Rules (VFRTTn[Enhanced Class B airspace .aEound45~maj»r cities,. Ai^ ^ require a waiver. The resumption would be effective each morning as follows: on Oct 15: Houston, Kansas City, Memphis, New Orleans, and St. Louis; on Oct 16: Cleveland, Dallas-Fort Worth, Honolulu, Minneapolis, and Phoenix; and on Oct 17: Charlotte, Salt Lake City, Seattle, Tampa, and the area surrounding Cincinnati, Ohio, and Covington, Ky. Restrictions in the other 15 areas with Enhanced Class B airspace remained

unchanged (see Oct 21, 2001). VFR operations still not permitted in Enhanced Class B airspace included: news reporting; traffic watch; banner towing; commercial sightseeing; airship/blimp flights; and flight training in aircraft over 6,000 Ibs.

FAA announced that Secretary Mineta was directing joint teams

from the agency

and from DOT's Office of the Inspector General to conduct an audit of employee background checks of Argenbright Security, a firm providing airport screening services The audits would take place at 13 airports at which FAA had recently found background check violations by Argenbright. (On Oct 23, a Federal court reportedly approved a settlement in a case against Argenbright,under which the firm would continue on probation and take certain actions related to background checks.) FAA also announced that separate teams from the agency would soon begin an audit of background checks of all U.S. airport security screeners.

Oct 15,2001: The developing anthrax hazard spread to the U.S. Congress when a Senate aide reportedly opened a contaminated letter. On Oct 16, FAA headquarters employees received notice of a suspensions of mail throughout DOT pending implementation of a new system to protect against the anthrax threat. (See Oct 23,2001.)

Oct 15,2001: As of this date, DOT had distributed nearly $2.43 billion to 111 carriers as compensation for losses due to the September 11 attacks. The sum represented nearly half of the $5 billion authorized (see Sep 22, 2001).

Oct 17,2001: In a speech to the National Press Club, Administrator Garvey said that she was ordering a criminal history check on all airline and airport employees with access to secure areas, broadening a procedure that had previously applied to new employees with such access. (Without new legislation, however, lids could be applied immediately to only 21 major airports, since the Aviation Security Act of 2000 stipulated that smaller airport were not required to implement such employee checks before November 2003.) The Administrator also said that explosives detection program must be accelerated with the goal of screening every checked bag.

Oct 18,2001: DOT announced an expansion of flight operations at Reagan National

Airport, representing Phase date). Phase n was to begin

the number of airports served to/from Reagan National by 18, for a total of 26. (See Dec


Also on this date, a Federal judge in New York City sentenced four terrorists to life imprisonmentfor conspiring with Osama bin Laden in the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. The four had been convicted in May.

n of the reopening program unveiled on Oct 2 (see that on Oct 26 and was expected to last for 45 days. It increased

Oct21,,200,14- FAA announced restoration ofgeneral aviation-Visual flight Rules operations in 12 more metropolitan areas under the same terms as for 15 areas announced nine days previously (see Oct 12, 2001). The restoration was effective at 7:00 a.m. Eastern time according to the following schedule: Oct 22: Atlanta, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, and San Francisco; Oct 23: Denver, Detroit, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,

and San Diego; Oct 24: Chicago and Orlando. Restrictions on VFR flying remained unchanged in the specified areas of Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C.

Oct 23,2001: As the anthrax outbreak continued, authorities confirmed two fatalities from the disease among workers at the Brentwood postal facility in Washington, D.C. The victims had died on Oct 21 and Oct 22. Subsequent events included further anthrax cases and the detection of spores, particularly in postal facilities and government buildings in the Washington area. On Oct 29, Administrator Garvey reported that tests had shown no anthrax contamination of the FAA national headquarters mailroom or its employees. Similar tests at DOT headquarters were also negative. On Oct 30, FAA resumed delivery of interoffice mail at headquarters. On that same day, however, some FAA offices at Washington Dulles airport closed for part of the day as a precaution after a trace of anthrax was found at a U.S. Postal Service facility in the same building. The anthrax outbreak claimed its fourth fatality on Oct 31 in New York City, and its fifth on Nov 21 in Connecticut. Unlike earlier fatalities, neither of these victims were media or postal employees. On Nov 29, FAA headquarters staff received notice that delivery of external mail would resume.

Oct 25, 2001; The Security Subcommittee of FAA's Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee(REDAC) convened to evaluate industry recommendations on development of promising security technology. The subcommittee made its initial report to the Administrator on Nov 20,2001.

Oct 26,2001: FAA sent a letter to U.S. air carriers offering partial reimbursement for

certain increases in war risk insurance costs due

authorized by the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act (see Sep 22,


to the September 11 attacks, as

Oct 29, 2001; The FBI issued a second alert against terrorism (see Oct 11,2001), warning that attacks against the United States or its overseas interests might occur during the next week. Also on this date, an AmericanAirlines flight made an unscheduled landing at Washington Dulles airport due to the reported discovery of a threatening note on board.

Oct 30,2001: In response to the previous day's FBI alert, FAA prohibited most general aviation flying over 86 sensitive sites, most of which were nuclear power plants. The ban applied within a radius of 10 nautical miles and below 18,000 feet, and were planned to last through Nov 6. Exceptions included certain law enforcement and

emergency j^ejjtflQni^jwhe^^ "Trfcifelic!^^ an area j>f dpwnjgwn jThieagni to l^tii^fb^e r notice (see Jan 24, 2002)^ The agency also implemented temporaryflight restrictions to protect New York's Yankee Stadium during a game attended by President Bush. In a speech to a National Transportation Security Summit meeting, Secretary Mineta announced a crack-down on continuing deficiencies in airport security. Mineta stated that he had met that morning with FAA agents from around the country,


directing them to react to security lapses by such measures as clearing secure areas, rescreening passengers, or holding flights for luggage recheck. The Secretary also discussed steps to supplement FAA's agent workforce with personnel from the Office of the Inspector General, and perhaps by FAA internal reassignments or new hiring.

Oct 3 1 , 2001 : Events on this day included two incidents reported by media. Due to a suspected biohazard, two Northwest Airlines flights from Tokyo were held at the gate in Seattle, and authorities detained two passengers from one of the aircraft. At Pittsburgh,

FAA held airliners on the ground while military jets investigated the sighting of a single-

engine plane over a nuclear plant in the


Oct 2001: Bureau of Transportation Statistics indicators for this month reflected the economic impact of the terrorist attacks on an air travel industry already feeling the effects of recession. As compared to October of the previous year, for example, revenue passenger enplanements were down 21 percent for domestic service by large U.S. airlines. Revenue passenger enplanements for international flights by U.S. carriers were down 32 percent.

Nov 1,

on Oct 30, FAA agents closed an American Airlines security checkpoint at New York Kennedy because of a failure to follow proper procedures. After the concourse was emptied and checked, all passengers and employees were rescreened. Also on Nov 1, another airliner was diverted due to a threatening note discovered on board, according to media. Fighter jets escorted the Northwest Airlines flight to a landing at Detroit. In Washington, Secretary Mineta presented DOT's 2001 Gold Medal Award for Outstanding Achievement to FAA's air traffic controllers for their performance during September 1 1emergency. The House of Representatives passed an aviation security bill that differed significantly from a version passed unanimously by the Senate on Oct 1 1 . Reflecting the Republicans' preferred approach, the House measure provided that airport screeners might remain employees of private firms, although they would be placed under Federal supervision. Under the Senate's bill, the screeners would become Federal personnel.

(See Nov 19, 2001.)

2001 : In one example of multiple actions such as Secretary

Mineta had called for

Nov 2, 2001: Effective at 5: p.m. EST, FAA revised the temporary flight restrictions issued on Oct 30 to cover a total of 95 nuclear sites, a change made by deleting four sites and adding 13. The agency allowed general aviation aircraft located at 15 airports within the restricted areas to depart during the day between 1 1:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. The ^

Nov 3, 2001: According to media, a Nepalese man breached a security checkpoint at Chicago O'Hare airport as he attempted to board a United Airlines flight. Argenbright Security personnel at the checkpoint detected two of the man's knives, which were

confiscated; however, they failed to detect other knives and additional prohibited items found during a later search at the gate.

Nov 5,2001: Secretary Mineta stated that airport security was still inadequate, despite the crack-down announced on Oct 30. He cited the incident at Chicago on Nov 3 (see that date) and a lapse in airport screening at Louisville, Ky., on Nov 4. Mineta said that he intended to hold the airlines and their screening contractors accountable for security until forthcoming legislation reassigned responsibility to the Federal government. To underline this, he planned to hold a meeting of the airlines' top executives during the following week. Also on this date, FAA announced mat it would hire temporary personnel to begin assisting security inspectors within the next few weeks. More than 200 individuals were recruited.

Nov 8,2001: FAA issued temporary flight restrictions at Cape Canaveral that enlarged the permanent restricted area around the NASA and USAF facilities there.

Nov 9,2001: President Bush announced a temporary increase in National Guard troops protecting air travel during the holiday season. (States were authorized and funded to deploy a 25 percent increase above current personnel levels for a 60 day period to begin about Nov 15.) The President also mentioned that FAA was deploying a core team of security professionals to improve security oversight at airports, and that DOT's Office of the Inspector General would conduct undercover audits of airport security nationwide. In addition, he noted that major airlines had now fortified 100 percent of their cockpit doors.

Nov 10-11,2001: FAA reportedly issued temporary flight restrictions to protect a United Nations General Assembly meeting in New York City on these dates.

Nov 12,2001: According to media, Federal Air Marshals aboard a USAirways jet ordered the flight diverted to Washington Dulles after handcuffing a man who was walking toward the cockpit. The man's action reportedly violated the requirement that passengers remain seated during the last half hour of an approach to Reagan National airport.

Nov 13,2001: America West became the first airline to apply for a Federally guaranteed loan under the program established by Congress in the wake of the September 11 attacks (see Sep 22,2001). The Air Transportation Stabilization Board




-*-- -



applied for loans under the program; however, none of them had received approval as of Apr 12,2002.

Nov 16,2001: A man penetrated a secure area at Atlanta Hartsfield airport, evading guards by running down an up-bound escalator. The incident resulted in evacuation of

all concourses and widespread interruptions of flight operations. FAA imposed a fine of $3,300 on the perpetrator, who, in addition, later received criminal penalties including a jail term.

Nov 19, 2001: President Bush signed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (P.L. 107-71). The act created a new DOT organization, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), to assume responsibility for the security of all modes of transportation. TSA was to be headed by an Under Secretary of Transportation for Security, who would serve for a fixed five-year term. TSA was to assume the aviation portion of its security responsibilities within 90 days of the law's enactment, replacing FAA as the Federal agency with primary responsibility in that field. Within one year, airport security screening was to be performed by TSA employees, who must be U.S. citizens. TSA would then implement a pilot program under which screening at five airports would be performed by private firms under TSA contracts. Two years after TSA certified that all Federal screeners were in place, airports would be granted the option to request such contract screening. The act required use of the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS) for all passengers and included provisions on the effective use of the system. To help pay for the screening personnel and certain other expenses, airline passengers were to pay a security service fee of $2.50 for each time they boarded, with a maximum of $5 for any one-way trip. The fee was to begin within 60 days, or as soon possible thereafter. Shortfalls in revenue from the fees were to covered by the airlines. The legislation authorized the $500 million fund, announced earlier by the President, to assist airlines in making security upgrades. It also contained provisions on airport use of funds from the Airport Improvement Program and from Passenger Facility Charges. The act created a Transportation Security Oversight Board, chaired by the Secretary of Transportation and including: the heads of the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Defense; the CIA Director; and representatives of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security office. The Board's functions of oversight and coordination included the authority to ratify or disapprove TSA regulations and directives. The act required a wide range of security-related actions, many with specific deadlines. By the end of 2002, for example, TSA was to deploy sufficient Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) to permit all air carrier airports to screen all checked baggage with this equipment. Within 60 days, meanwhile, TSA was to implement screening of all checked baggage at these airports using available EDS or alternative means such as bag matching, manual search, or inspection by canine units. The legislation authorized TSA to deploy Federal Air Marshals on all passenger


flights, and required them aboard flights.presenting high security risks. TSA

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authorization by DOT of non-lethal weapons for flight deck crew. Provisions of the act directed to FAA included: certain required actions concerning flight deck security; rapid development of guidance and training to prepare flight crews for threat situations; and establishment of pilot programs at no fewer than 20 airports to test emerging security technologies. The act required U.S. and foreign

airlines, within 60 days, to provide to the Commissioner of Customs passengers and crew manifests for flights bound for the United States. Among other features of the legislation were provisions included measures to heighten the security of flight schools and airport perimeters, and to increase penalties for interference with aviation security personnel.

Nov 23,2001: On the Saturday following Thanksgiving, examples of security-related air travel problems reportedly included a temporary stop on departures from Seattle- Tacoma airport, caused by the discovery that a metal detector had been unplugged during screening. Ripple effects included closure of Oakland and Reno terminals while passengers arriving from Sea-Tac were rescreened. Other security problems caused flight delays at Memphis, Tenn., and Santa Ana, Calf.

Nov 26,2001: Administrator Garvey announced that she had recently formed a new office of emergency operations and communications as a result of the September 11 events.

Nov 27,2001: Secretary Mineta reportedly stated that the government was not likely to meet the deadline for screening all checked baggage within 60 days, as mandated in the recent airport security bill. Mineta cited insufficient personnel, equipment, and bomb-detecting dogs. The next day, however, media carried a DOT statement that the deadline would be met.

Dec 3,2001: Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge issued a general security alert, stating that the action was based on intelligence that did not identify a specific threat. The FBI had issued two similar alerts on Oct 11 and Oct 29, 2001.

Dec 6, 2001: FAA published a rule strengthening criminal history check requirements for employees at airports who: were screeners; supervised screeners; possessed unescorted access to secure areas; or had authority to grant such access. It required a finger-print-based criminal history check, if such a check had not been performed in the past. The fingerprinting requirement applied to new applicants immediately and to current employees within one year. On the same day, FAA announced that the American Association of Airport Executives would serve as a clearinghouse for these record checks.

Dec 7,2001: Media reported that FAA had unveiled temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) to protect the Winter Olympics during 19 days beginning on Feb 6,2001. Included were an "Olympic Ring" TFR area from the surface to 18,000 feet msl within a 45 mites rajdjius of Salt Lake City airport^ and nine smaller TFRs. Before entering the

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.jafJaur^a^ Boise, Idaho. These requirements were published on Jan 18,2002, as Special Federal Aviation Regulation 95. Also on this date, an FAA official testified to Congress that more than 2000 Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) would be needed to meet the mandated goal of screening all checked baggage with this equipment. Fewer than 200 EDS were currently

deployed. The official noted that FAA was also purchasing Explosives Trace Detection (ETD) equipment and had installed more than 850 of the devices at airports.

Dec 10,2001: President Bush announced his intention to nominate John Magaw to be Under Secretary of Transportation for Security. A former director of the Secret Service and of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Magaw was currently Acting Executive Director of the Office of National Preparedness hi the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Magaw received a recess appointment on January 7,


Dec 11,2001: The Justice Department indicted Zacarias Moussaoui on charges of conspiracy in the September 11 attacks. The first individual to be charged directly in connection with the attacks, Moussaoui was a French citizen of Moroccan descent. He had been in custody since August 16, when he was arrested on charges of immigration violation. The arrest was reportedly triggered by his suspicious behavior as a student at a Minnesota flight school.

Dec 13,2001: Media reported that 50 Salt Lake City airport employees had been arrested on charges of giving false information to obtain security access badges. The arrests were said to be part of a coordinated security effort in preparation for the Whiter Olympics. Reported incidents at Boston Logan airport marked Argenbright Security's last day of duty at the facility. Areas of the airport were evacuated and passengers rescreened after FAA identified improperly trained screeners. Later in the day, more passengers were rescreened after an individual objected to screening and fled.

Dec 19,2001: FAA lifted the broad restrictions on general aviation Visual Flight Rules flying in 27 major metropolitan areas imposed after September 11 on airspace designated as Enhanced Class B. The agency also reduced flight restrictions in the Boston, New York, and Washington areas. For the latter city, special restrictions on general aviation were now limited to a radius of 15 statute miles around the Washington Monument, with accommodations for three of the area's small airports. Among the

prohibitions not affected by the changes were: Temporary Flight Restrictions for downtown Chicago, for other specific locations, and for major sporting events; certain restrictions on both foreign and U.S.-registered general aviation aircraft; and the weight limit on aircraft that might be used for flight training under Visual Flight Rules. Also on this day, the Transportation Security Administration issued eligibility requirements for airport screeners hired by security companies after TSA assumed

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Dec 21,2001: DOT announced the schedule for Phase III of the restoration of flights a t Washington' s Reaga n Nationa l Airpor t (se e Oc t 18,2001) . Phas e TTT woul d b e carried out in three stages, to begin on January 2, February 1, and March 1, 2002. Service to additional 43 cities would be restored during Phase III, returning service all

airports that had non-stop flights to Reagan National prior to its closure. At the

completion of Phase HI, daily operations the airport were expected to number about 620

flights, representing 77 percent of the level before the September

11 attacks. (See Mar


Also on this day, FAA published a rulemaking proposal on procedures for

reimbursement of certain mandated security costs incurred parking lots, and vendors of on-airfield services.

by airports, on-airport

Dec 22,2001: Aboard an American Airlines flight from Paris to Miami, a passenger allegedly tried to ignite explosives hidden in his shoes, but was subdued by passengers and flight attendants. The suspect was Richard C. Reid, a British national who was said to be a convert to Islamic extremism. Reportedly, FAA had earlier issued an alert concerning the need for airport screeners to check passengers' shoes, and issued more precise instructions after the Reid incident. In indicting Reid for attempted murder and other charges on Jan 16,2002, the Justice Department alleged that he had received Al Qaeda training in Afghanistan. Inauguration on this date of a new interim government in Afghanistan to replace the Taliban regime reflected the achievement of an important U.S. objective in Afghanistan, although not the end of U.S. military involvement in that country.

Dec 28,2001: In issuing amended procedures for compensating airlines for losses due to the September 11 attack, DOT noted that it had so far received applications from over 300 air carriers. The Department had made payments to 131 of these carriers, totaling more than $3.8 billion of the $5 billion authorized.

Dec 31,2001: DOT announced that the new Transportation Security Administration

had met the first requirements under the Aviation and Transportation

Nov 19,2001). These included: issuing qualification standards for Federal airport security screeners; publishing procedures for airports to seek part of the funds authorized for security improvements; reporting to Congress on airspace security measures for general aviation; and lifting, through FAA, most restrictions on visual flight rules flying

in major metropolitan areas imposed after the September 11 attacks (see Dec 19, 2001). As of this date, 30 evacuations at U.S. airport terminals had occurred since October 30 at the direction of FAA civil aviation security special agents, and 434 flights had been deplaned due to agents' observations of improper screening. (See Feb 16,

Security Act (see

2002.) Also on this day, FAA published a request for public comments on certain issues relating to arming flight crews and to the provision of emergency services on on Feb 14,_2002,_FAA had_


Jan 5,2002: A 15-year-old student pilot died as he deliberately crashed a Cessna 172R into a high-rise building in Tampa, Fla. No one else was injured. After taking off without permission from a flight school, Charles Bishop flew over McDill Air Force Base and ignored signals from an intercepting Coast Guard helicopter before colliding with the building. Bishop reportedly left a suicide note in which he expressed sympathy for the

September 1 1 attackers, but made clear that he was acting alone. On Jan 9, FAA issued a notice containing suggested security enhancements for flight schools and fixed base operators.

Jan 8, 2002: DOT announced it had begun to recruit Transportation Security Administration security directors for the nation's top 429 airports, beginning with the largest 81 facilities.

Jan 10, 2002: A defense appropriation act (P.L. 107-1 17) signed into law on this date provided additional funds for civil aviation security through the Airport and Airway

Trust Fund, including added funds to partly reimburse

requirements imposed after the September 2001 attacks. On Mar 18, DOT announced that FAA would dispense $175 million to 317 airports.

airports for the cost of security

Jan 15, 2002: FAA published in the Federal Register a Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 92-3 on cockpit doors, superceding previous SFARs on this topic (see Oct 3, 2001). The new SFAR required operators to install temporary locking devices on their cockpit doors within 45 days, if they had not already done so as part of the already completed short-term fixes (see Mar 19, 2002). The same issue of the Federal Register carried an FAA final rule setting longer-term standards for reinforced cockpit doors, to be met by April 9, 2003.

Jan 16, 2002: DOT announced a senior advisor program for the Transportation Security Administration, under which private sector executives would help establish the new agency. Secretary Mineta also stated on this date that Baltimore Washington airport would be used to test TSA procedures, train TSA senior managers, and study airport security. Also on this date, a U.S. court sentenced Moktar Haouari, an Algerian, to 24 years in prison for conspiracy to support terrorist activities. On July 13, 2001, Haouari had been convicted of providing certain assistance to convicted terrorist Ahmed Ressam. Arrested after he tried to bring explosives into the United States from Canada in December 1999, Ressam had not revealed his intended target during his own trial. At Haouari's trial in July 2001, however, Ressam admitted that he had planned to plant a bomb at Los Angeles airport.

Jan 17, 2002: Telair International became the first company to both to pass FAA security requirements for a blast resistant luggage container, also know as a hardened unit load device (HULD), and to obtain Technical Standard Order (TSO) approval for such a cojijainer.^

screening of all checked baggage at US. airports began, using a variety of approved methods (see Nov 19, 2001). No major problems were reported. Also on this day, FAA fulfilled a requirement in the same legislation by issuing detailed new guidance for training aircrew members to deal with threats such as hijacking, reflecting a revised strategy that involved active resistance by the crew (see Mar 19, 2002). The

Transportation Security Administration met a similar mandate on time by issuing plans for training of security screeners.

Jan 23, 2002: The Secretary of the Army reportedly stated that, in the next 60 to 90 days, the National Guard would begin removing the approximately 6,000 troops assigned to assist airport security. Also on this day, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reportedly issued an advisory warning U.S. nuclear power plants that terrorists might attempt to crash an aircraft into one of the facilities.

Jan 24,2002: At the behest of city authorities, FAA established Temporary Flight Restrictions area for downtown Chicago.

days, this restricted area was subsequently extended through Apr 8, 2002.) Other temporary flight restrictions issued in early 2002 included expanded restrictions for

Washington during the evening of the State of the Union address on Jan 29, and restrictions on Feb 1-4 to protect Super Bowl activities at New Orleans.

an expanded (Originally set to last 60

Jan 30, 2002: Authorities ordered an evacuation at San Francisco airport after personnel at an Argenbright Security checkpoint failed to detain a man whose shoes tested positive for explosives.

Feb 1,2002: The Transportation Security Administration announced a study of security procedures at 15 selected airports, to be conducted during the next six weeks.

Feb 4,2002: DOT unveiled a fiscal 2003 budget request that reflected funding for upgraded security, including $4.8 billion for the first full year of the Transportation Security Administration. Also on this date, examples of bomb threat incidents reportedly caused a Delta Airlines flight to return to Denver and a Northwest Airlines flight to return to Cancun, Mexico.

Feb 6,2002: DOT stated that Argenbright Security would not be receiving new contracts for security screening when the Transportation Security Administration assumed from the airlines the responsibility for such contracts later hi the month.

Feb 7,2002: According to media reports, a Uruguayan passenger aboard a United Airlines 777 kicked in part of the cockpit door, which had been reinforced with a bar in response to an FAA directive. When the passenger tried to crawl into the cockpit, the copilot struck him on the head with a fire axe. Other passengers and crew subdued the individual, and the flight from Miami to Buenos Aires was completed safely.


terroristattackj^as-early-asthe,ibllowing .day,inJheUnited.States or,agains.tU,S^interests in Yemen. The Bureau identified 17 men, mostly Yemenis, as suspects. U.S. authorities had previously issued three other broad security alerts on Oct 11, Oct 29, and Dec 3,


Feb 13,2002: FAA announced a rule to enable private flying to resume at three suburban Maryland airports that had been largely shut down since the September 11 attacks: the College Park, Potomac, and Executive/Hyde airports. Although flight restrictions for the Washington area had been reduced on Dec 19,2001, the three facilities had not been able to reopen because they were in the still-restricted area within a radius of 15 miles from the Washington Monument. Under the new rule, flying could resume at the three airports when special security procedures were hi place for pilots and facility managers. College Park and Potomac began flights on Feb 23, Executive/Hyde on March 2, 2002.

Feb 16,2002: From October 30 through this date, FAA civil aviation security special agents initiated 40 evacuations at U.S. airport terminals, and directed the deplaning of 636 flights due to agents' observations of improper screening. In addition, the aviation industry initiated 73 evacuations and 47 deplanings during this same period. (See Apr 6,


Feb 17,2002: Under the terms of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, TSA assumed responsibilities for civil aviation security formerly assigned to FAA under Chapter 449 of Title 49, United States Code. FAA personnel responsible for these functions were transferred to TSA. In addition, TSA assumed management of

airport security screening contracts, formerly the responsibility

Security at airports was now overseen by Interim Federal Security Representatives, who were scheduled for replacement by Federal Security Directors. (See Mar 13, 2002.)

of the airlines.

Feb 19-20,2002: Representatives of 154 states and 24 organizations attended an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ministerial conference on aviation security. The group issued a declaration that called for steps to strengthen security, including regular, mandatory, and systematic security audits through ICAO. To support the audit program, the United States pledged $1 million in addition to its ongoing ICAO contributions.

Feb 25,2002: USA Today reported charges against FAA by a "whistleblower" who stated that the agency had for years covered up airport security lapses revealed by its own "red team" inspections. The allegations were attributed to Bogdan Dzakovic, a former "red team" member and current TSA employee. On the following day, the U.S. Office of Special Counsel reportedly stated that it had ordered DOT to investigate Hie charges.

Feb 28, 2002: Fighter jets escorted an Air India flight from London to a landing at M§iy^oi:kJKejmedy^^Bojrt^uejto a report of a suspicious passenger aboard. AlirMOTti^ -was^lughly,publicized example of the continuing military intercepts of ciyU fjigbts^due to security concerns.


Mar 2,2002: According to media, government officials stated that airport security had selected 9 of the 19 hijackers for special attention before they boarded on September 11,


Mar 4,2002: DOT and TSA announced a contract with NCS Pearson, Inc., for recruitment of 30,000 Federal security personnel, including testing and management of selection processing.

Mar 12,2002: Homeland Security Director Ridge announced the creation of a Homeland Security Advisory System including five color-coded levels of risk of terrorist attack. The Attorney General would be responsible for developing the final system, and for implementing it following a public comment period and approval by the President.

Mar 13, 2002: Secretary Mineta swore in the first group of Federal Security Directors to oversee security at airports. He also announced that Washington's Reagan National airport would be authorized to return to its pre-September 11 capacity by April 15 (see that date). In addition, Secretary Mineta announced a 60-day extension of DOT's special war risk insurance program for the aviation industry. In the wake of the September 11 attacks, legislation had broadened FAA's authority to issue war risk insurance to close the gap between the industry's needs and the coverage available from private insurers on reasonable terms. The initial policies issued under the new authority were effective through October 31; however, coverage had subsequently been extended through Jan 11, then Mar20, and - with this latest action - through May 19,2002.

Mar 19,2002: All U.S. certificated air carriers met the deadline for submitting to FAA new training programs for crew members in dealing with hijacking. Legislation had mandated this be done within 60 days after FAA issued guidelines for the training (see Jan 18, 2002). By Apr 17, all the airlines had either obtained FAA approval for their programs or received them back for revision. Also on this date, FAA published Special Federal Aviation Regulation 92-4 clarifying certain provisions concerning cockpit doors contained in SFAR 92-3, which it superseded (see Jan 15, 2002).

Mar 21,2002: The International Civil Aviation Organization (1CAO) announced strengthened international inflight security standards. The new standards included reinforced cockpit doors on international flights of more than 60 passengers, effective Nov 1,2003.

Mar 25,2002: USA Today reported criticism of airport screening by the DOT Office 19 memo by the OIG stating that



Mar 25,2002; The first 300 TSA screener-trainer candidates took the oath of office before staring their training.


Apr 1, 2002: A Frontier Airlines crew attracted media attention when their 737 strayed into restricted airspace near the White House after takeoff from Reagan National airport.

Apr 2, 2002: Media reported that JetBlue had begun installing video cameras in the passenger cabins of its aircraft. The airline was the first to begin regular use of this system, which FAA had approved for installation but had not required.

Apr 4,2002: The New York Times reported that two companies had announced orders

from TSA for hundreds of explosives detection systems for screening luggage. firms were L-3 Communications Corporation and InVision technologies.


Apr 6, 2002: Figures on security actions from February 17 through this date indicated that TSA had initiated 31 evacuations at U.S. airports, and also the deplaning of 179 flights for passenger rescreening. During the same period, the aviation industry initiated an additional 36 evacuations and 39 deplanings. (See Feb 16,2002.)

Apr 15'02: DOT completed its phase-out of broad restrictions on airline service at Washington's Reagan National airport that had been imposed after the September 11 attacks. The airport still remained under certain security-related rales that included a ban on general aviation flights and on aircraft seating more than 156 passengers, as well as flight path restrictions and a curfew. On April 24, however, DOT announced that these restrictions would end on April 27 insofar as they affected commercial aviation.