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IT is mere dogmatism to assert that we do not survive death, and mere prejudice or inertia to assert that it is impossible to discover whether we do in the West have hardly even begun to inquire into the matter ; or no. and scientific method and critical faculty were never devoted to it, so far as



I am aware, previous to the foundation, some quarter of a century ago, of . the Society for Psychical Research. " Alleged facts suggesting primd fade the survival of death ... are
. .

now at last being systematically and deliberately explored by men and women of intelligence and good faith bent on ascertaining the truth, " I am asking you to take seriously a branch of scientific inquiry which may have results more important than any other that is being pursued in
. .

our time."


Ingenoll Lecture on Immortality at Harvard^ 1908


assuredly the religious implications of



phenomena are

to treat the establishment of the facts at the foundation as no mere personal search for a faith, to be dropped when private conviction has been attained, but as a serious, a continuous, public duty. And the more convinced they are that their faith is sound, the more ready should they be to face distrust and aversionto lay their account for a long struggle with the ms inertia of the human spirit.


worthy of any man's most serious thought. Those who most feel the importance of the ethical superstructure are at the same time most plainly


W, H. MYERS, Human






author's conviction of man's survival of bodily death a conviction based on a large range of

natural facts






in this


some Idea can be gained

the most direct and

immediate kind of foundation on which

in the future he considers that this belief will In due course be scientifically

psychical research during the last of a quarter century, with an of His abridgement contemporary records.

author gives an account of vestigations Into matters connected



of his in-

following the lines of the Society for Psychical Research, began with experimental telepathy; but the largest section of the book treats of automatic writing, trance

and other instances of temporary lucidity, for In this department of the subject he considers that the most direct evidence for continued personal existence and posthumous activity will most likely be


account of his experiences In connexion with the controverted and often discredited "physical phenomena" associated with exceptional mental states, and a discussion of the right scientific and philosophic attitude to these puzzling and at first incredible facts which sight are pressing for inclusion in our scheme of



reserved for another volume,




THE SECTION OF I AND OBJECTS OP PSYCHICAL RESEARCH CHAPTER I THE ORIGIN OF THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH and vouched for weird all occurrences have been knowledge acquainted the workings of the human spirit and have reduced them to such simplicity that everything capable of happening in the mental and psychical region is of a nature readily and familiarly to be understood all with all nations and in every age. chemistry. they seem tacitly to the only parts of the universe in which fundamental f||$covery is possible. It is possible to relegate a good many asserted occurrences to the domain of superstition. but it is not Nor is it likely that in possible thus to eliminate all the present stage of natural we are among . all the rest being too well known.' pare \ and in physical assume that these . science generally. by practically to believe for although they are constrained to accept in novel and surprising discoveries biology. Yet there are many who seem from time in this improbability to time in .

made by strictly process of being discoveries quite comin the region of psychology: with those which have been made parable in importance but the last century in physics and biology. progress chance of a sane and balanced and critical reception by a fairly considerable minority. be miscellaneously absorbed or even apprehended by the. : th*: that has dread of encouraging mere stupid superstition in these branches of advance instinctively delayed of education gave a reasonable until the inquiry. work of the world would self-satisfied order. not so efficiently be done. the majority to of the subject by But whatever may be thought book is intended this at of present. and of evidence to the contrary. scientific very magnitude people the possibility that can still be discoveries of the made are indeed in during whose opportunities for practical application remain for some and usefulness may similarly have to since perhaps they cannot time in the hands of experts. assertions But. within the last half century. discoveries multitude without danger. the practical . unsettle minds thus fortified It is not easy to of unwelcome facts and their strong against the intrusion unagainst that faith is probably a salutary safeguard condition called balanced and comparatively dangerous which is ready to learn and open-mindedness. i * credit to the capacity a simple faith. concerning have not only excitei psychological supernorrnalities .<& AIMS AND OBJECTS It is [SECT. and does unfounded upon it-belief hold for belief of those who a great mass tenable only in the teeth of knowledge. assured and absurd. indicate first methods. for caution It has been partly the necessity _ ." not manifestly self-contradictory investigate anything Without people of the solid.

make its position good by crucial and repeated and convincing tests. of these assertions. both in the domain of science and in that of letters. not to be embraced It is often cursorily imagined that an adequate supply of the critical and cautious spirit necessary in this investigation is a monopoly of professed men of science.." critical examination and a given benefit possible. : to be criticised as possible.CHAP. to The attempt was responsible is be made in a serious and that spirit. based upon nothing but credulity. none was to be could not the inquiry. No phenomenon was to be unhesitatingly rejected because at first sight incredible. . Trained students of literature. a special society with distinguished membership was enrolled in London. in fact. not of dogmatic denial and assertion. It is :riot so. and yet so widely believed in among a special coterie of sane and seemed and definitely as deceit.not to rti^tion in philosophy have shown themselves as ! '. 1 length as tnie. or else to extrude them sensible people. i] ORIGIN OF THE SOCIETY ' 3 general attention. letters Twenty-eight years ago. of spirit of genuine "scepticism. No phenomenon was to be accepted which to say. with the object of inquiring into the truth of many It was started by a few men of and of science who for some years had been facts so ordinarily to these pioneers highly incorporate them properly into the province of ordered knowledge. that desirable either to it acquainted with a number of strange apparent factsstrange and unusual. So long as doubt** was the phenomenon was to be kept at arm's of any doubt. imposture. but have rather notably roused the interest of careful and responsible students. Every class of asserted fact was to have the benefit of inquiry.

. In the attitude of incredulity. in his early : Presidential Addresses the following sentences occur It is a scandal that a dispute as to the reality of be going on. They have acted scientific workers. restraint upon the more technically business is to constant because their who of one kind or a fresh variety of another have been them upon evidence not much stronger than that to which they were already well accustomed. Now we all the primary aim of our Society. The and first President was Professor Henry Sidgwick.--. actually more inventive sometimes methods of explaining iin^lir. as well as to testimony is clue : enthusiasm for knowledge. quasi-normal name no names. that the present moderately of the subject in the estimation of respectable position educated people is due. AND [SECT. that many the Interested in having question determined. the thing which unite to promote* whether as believers or non .:.:. They have even displayed professed student as a curb apci a an excess of caution. that so phenomena should still have declared should competent witnesses should be profoundly others so In them. and even impossibilities suspicious of possibilities of other and of fraud. and yet a body.-iHr facts.4 careful. and as cautious. Whereas with of the men and women of letters associated presumably first deal at hand with new phenomena willing to accept some m. but from a student of science this more 1 and it is largely to the sceptical and of some representatives of extremely cautious wisdom their energy and letters and philosophy. ready to be led by i. less the society have been invariably extremely obtrusive and plausible appearances. i as any as exact. as critical. should still be simply as that the educated world. of science.

by 1 burying It alive uhder. or how I define. We which we primarily aim. or if he was it was by an unfortunate must not expect any decisive effect in the accident for discrediting his scientific culture. Thirty years ago it was thought that want of scientific culture was an adequate explanation of the vulgar belief in mesmerism and table-turning. however complete . clairvoyance.questions. i] ORIGIN OF SOCIETY 5 believers. .^'!^^ We must 'keep. in been made. sufficient scientific proof of thought.'i$>ots. Jf any one asks me what I mean by.CHAP. and has so 'many ''and so strong. and for that we obviously require a good deal more than we have so far obtained.. it.. He was said to be or a a an amateur. I should ask to be allowed to evade the difficulties of determining in the abstract what constitutes adequate evidence. . . . Scientific ingrowing.reading. as one man of scientific repute after another came forward with the results of individual investigation. thjtt kill' 'ft wer$Ml able to M$k<ti only kill it. from any single piece of evidence. there was a quite ludicrous ingenuity exercised in finding reasons : . What I mean by sufficient evidence is evidence that will convince the scientific world.. is to make a sustained and systematic attempt to remove this scandal in one way or another. on the common of sense mankind.. direction at 1 . not specialist without professional or a mere and view of training adequate generality of strict methods with the not discoverer acquainted of the a Fellow not he was or research experimental Royal Society. I do not mean that some effect in this direction has not been produced if that were so we could not hope to do much.has credulity 'hfts >beeft 30 jpng. or the phenomena called Spiritualistic. Then. I think that something has been done that the advocates of obstinate incredulity I mean the incredulity that waives the whole affair aside as undeserving of any attention from rational beings feel their case to be not primd facie so strong now as it was. . if we are" of those .

from spiritualistic press against the thfif. and. were already thoroughly convinced of their genuine character this attitude on the part for of the founders and leaders of the Society Psychical Research always and sometimes proved irritating to an wrong-headed.n of facts.6 " AIMS AND . not wrangle too much with incredulous outsiders about the conclusiveness of any one. and attitude of those repellent responsible for the we irking of the Society. make a point of bringing no evidence before the public until we have got it to this pitch of cogency. fact can obtain out of degree of demonstrative force that we any single record of investigation is. limited by the trustworthiness of the investigator. and stilt often issue. We hav done all that we can when the critic has nothing Idt to But is in the trick. allege except that the investigator when he has nothing that.. else left to allege he will allege hope. I should say.. almost unbearable degree. upon fact. shall. slow and pomln^. of course. but trust The highest to the mass of evidence for conviction. fSwT.". through long acquaintance with the phenomena under investigation. and weighty and significant. It has been called a society for the snppn-. has been comparatively mild**** perhaps because fragmentary and intermittent~~whcn compared with the bitter and fairly continuous which have issued. The hostility of the side world and of orthodox science to the Itwestigm* tion. for the wholesale imputation of imposture. for the discouragement: of the sensitive. 1 We To many inside enthusiasts outside and to some of those the Society who.:. and for the rqnulia- . though at times fierce and scornful. i we must accumulate pegging away." as Lincoln said add and experiment upon experiment.

CHAP. . 'arise when this first stage is passed. will be amply content if we to someour of investigation only bring this first stage issue we do not look further a like satisfactory thing ahead. . . to the smiter. whose attacks are made more in sorrow than in anger. ^ ^ . . see no reason to doubt ^our . with whom the should Bible forbids us to have dealings. :> : even as a "working hypothesis. but who regard any experimental investigation' of them as wrong. . proceeds from a different another objection. I think. REPLY TO RELIGIOUS CRITICS There is a persistent class of objector. and whose earnest remonstrances are thus sympathetically parried by the founders of the Society : One word in reference to few religious persons who alleged facts. because they must be the work either of the devil or of familiar spirits. as well more ponderous blows inflicted by the other cheek it was hardly necessary to turn the and side. and we will leave it for those who may come after to deal with any moral problems that may possibly Spirits at . ." can Many of us. Jaowever. which There are not a quarter. . when the question are to be referred to the agency of certain friends is phenomena all. What^we that their scruples urge upon our religious our the have really no place in present stage of whether us is before investigation. since in an attitude of face-forward profair impartiality gress the buffets were sure to come with side making up for greater greater frequency on the one strength on the other. we have had as the to stand this buffeting. i] ORIGIN OF THE SOCIETY 7 tion of every revelation of the kind which was said to be light pressing itself upon humanity from the regions of and knowledge. Well.

before we can rationally take up any definite .8 AIMS AND OBJECTS [SECT. and with every desire to give reverence wherever reverence is found to be due. and accordingly I make a few quotations from the prelude to its first volume of Proceedings. however and however important obscure. then. i There are persons who believe themselves to have knowledge on the most Important matters on which we are seeking evidence. wherein is contained a statement of its aims gramme issued by the Society. bound to begin knowledge. but with an everpresent sense of the vast importance of the issues involved. This. but who think that such communications should be kept as sacred mysteries and not exposed to be scrutinised in the mood of cold curiosity which they conceive tb belong to science. It is subject without prepossessions. there is no sacredness in the mere limitations of our by taking these experiences. Now we do not wish to appear intrusive. which and objects : . as a part of the great which we call Nature and we must ascertain aggregate and carefully systematically their import. is what that we approach the we mean by a scientific spirit. their laws and causes. at the same time we are anxious not to lose through mere misunderstanding any good and I therefore wish opportunities for investigation to assure such persons that we do not approach these certain : matters in any light or trivial spirit. But we feel attitude of mind with regard to them. who do not doubt that they have received communications from an unseen world of spirits. realm of orderly and accepted knowledge what appears as a chaos of individual beliefs. The unknown or uncommon is not in itself an object of reverence. but with a single-minded desire to bring within the now instructive to look back at the original pro- is now housed at 20 Hanover Square.

but neve] hitherto by a scientific society on a ^are primd broad basis. or regard . amidst much illusion anc deception. work : An examination of the nature and extent of an] influence which may be exerted by one imnc upon another. regarding apparitions a the moment of death. A sensory organs. if incontestabl) established.CHAP. past which recognised facie inexplicable on any generall) hypothesis. then appointed. The of perception. resting on strong testimony. apart from any generally recog nised 2. sketched out a programme o future 1. and which. on January 6th. careful investigation of any reports. there appears to be. an important body of remarkable phenomena ^From the witnesses. and an inquiry whether such organisation possess any power of perception beyond highly exalted sensibility of the recognise* . As organised sufficient!} a preliminary step towards this end a Conference. 1882. definitely constituted on February 2Oth. and it Council. with its alleged insensi bility to pain clairvoyance and other allie< . i] . mode . was helc in London. A phenomena. t^ff of study hypnotism. and the forms of so called mesmeric trance. The task of examining such residual phenomena hai often been undertaken by individual effort. would be of the highest possible value. convened by Professor Barrett. 3. and a Society fo The Society wai Psychical Research was projected. 1882. or otherwise. including observations recently made by scientific men of eminence in various countries. critical revision of Reichenbach's researche with certain organisations called "sensitive. ORIGIN OF THE SOCIETY PROGRAMME OF THE SOCIETY recorded testimony of many competeni and present. 4.

of forces other than those recognised by Physical Science. misconception. provided they have no selfish or commercial ends to serve by seeking to Their interest. it must be expressly stated that Membership of the Society does not imply the acceptance of any particular explanation of the nor any belief as to the To prevent phenomena operation. contribute his or her share. with an attempt commonly to discover their causes and general laws. 'in And to this I may add that all seriously interested people are welcome as members. scription. as opportunity offers. and in a minor degree their subjoin. but otherwise we do not seek to be exclusive. investigated. once this of debated The founders Society fully recognise The aim of _ the exceptional difficulties which surround this branch of research but they nevertheless hope that by patient and systematic effort some results of permanent value . bearing on the history of the Society is to approach these various problems without prejudice or prepossession of exact and unimpasany kind. It is a kind of work to which any fair-minded and honest person can. and in the same spirit of Science to solve so enabled sioned inquiry which has nor less hotly obscure less not many problems. in houses reputed to be Ing disturbances haunted. An inquiry into the various physical phenomena called Spiritualistic . i 5. . may be attained. materials 6.AIMS AND OBJECTS [SECT. in view. tend to promote the object we have Merely superstitious and emotional people would find themselves out of place at our meetings. The collection and collation of existing these subjects. the physical world.

be a Scientific Society. to conduct our researches and to record our results in an accurate and scientific manner. but Our primary aim is to It as we being clear and honest. their . One of those Addresses.In difficult investigations pioneers have always made some mistakes. so as to set an example of careful work in regions where it has been the excep* tion rather than the rule. and as exact know how to be. and to be a trustworthy guide to the !.CHAPTER PRACTICAL OF II SOCIETY IN the three earliest years of the present century It fell to my lot to occupy the Presidential Chair of the Society for Psychical Research and to give an Address each year. records which follow. Tobe scientific does not mean to be infallible. but if they record their and with anxious care and scrupulous hoiiesty mistaken ere only less precision.the one for 1903 dealt with the lines of profitable work which seemed at that time be opening before us and. they have no immediate criterion or infallible touchstone to distinguish the more true from the less true.<:mM-ntlon of workers who shall follow. since the general nature of our investigation Is there referral to in a preliminary manner.. it is useful to remore detailed produce it here as an introduction to the to .

The great ship passing straight to its destination is enabled to attain this directness and spec 1 by the combined labours of a multitude of workers. during the disturbed but hopeful era of the Commonwealth. of a body of enthusiasts who. after made by early pioneers were no such thorough errors as had been thought. but few of them able to realise its stately passage. that in them all the time. or . . taking all branches of Natural Philosophy and Natural History the Physical Sciences and the Biological Sciences under its wing. much of the the Forth Bridge stands and hidden the water-mark sunk below by the painful and upon piers " " in caissons of Italian workmen labours continued long full of compressed and heated air. future the record of their work just as important to rocks and shoals of a navigators as it is to have the It is work which channel mapped out and buoyed. Us it does not recognise but then neither docs it recognise Mental and Moral Philosophy. as if they had an element of truth discoverers were endowed with a kind of prophetic a glimpse of theories and insight whereby they caught several truths which it would take generations of workers to disencumber and bring clearly to light were Suppose. fostered and promoted by the recognition in the reign of Charles II. must be done. So it is also with 'every great erection. some distinguished and remembered. some obscure and forgotten. that mistakes and sometimes turns out. had . than their partially it true generalisations a century or so. i valuable the next generation . however.12 AIMS AND OBJECTS to [Sacx. The study of specifically Natural knowledge was work is indirect . met together to discuss problems of scientific interest and to-day The Royal Society is among the dignified institutions of our land. that their errors is real ones. or Ethics.

or any part of a great region of knowledge which has hitherto been regarded as outsida the pale of the Natural Sciences.' the day except by taking our place in the workshop and our still less do we gain any doing assigned quota that the of unification has advantage by pretending day arrived while as yet its dawn is still in the future. when continuity and not classification shall be the dominant feature. it is for day for unification shall arrive. amotigf society. affixes labels. And of the utmost practical value and is essentiThat the day will come when barriers ally necessary. and studies all things in groups. doing foundation work in a and new and not yet pioneering on which future incorporated plot generations may build. when species shall be found to shade off into one another. the psychological. Half knowledge sees divisions and emphasises barriers. though we have had men our guides and leaders. until the not. or History. and we are of letters not a re- ligious society. delights in classification into genera and species. may be all but we have no anticipated by power of hastening . this is work shall be broken down. We are not a. and making as few mistakes as we can reasonably Our primary aim contrive literary by the exercise of great care. POPULAR MISTRUST OF SCIENCE.CHAP. us to do pioneer work and take our place by the side of that group of Societies whose object is the recognition and promotion of work in the mental. the philosophical direction. AND ITS REMEDY is to be a Scientific Society. . It is for if it us to introduce our subjects within that pale. o] PRACTICAL WORK * 13 Psychology. turns out that there and if they properly belong . though some of the members take ap .

and it Was he a man of Science ? is instructive to ask why. world traces its scientific ancestry to Newton. to Roger Bacon. Do scientific Did he make discoveries? No. Outside England all the they know next to nothing. aspect. No. that written in the Elizabethan me way or the other. i interest in our subject because it seems to them to a bearing on their religious convictions or hopes. our relations to literature. was able to impress his generation. but he was an enthusiast who. with science. All unconsciously scientific men owe to him a great debt Why ? scientific Because he perceived afar off the oncoming of the wave. with the fire of genius. and not his own generation alone. in language to which men would listen. some idea of the dignity and true place of to and make it possible for the early pioneers . his name was weighty and familiar in the history of English scientific ideas . have I will these points. him? to To Isaac men trace back their ancestry Newton they trace it back. to herald and welcome its scientific advance. Scientifically he was an amateur. and because he was able. with splendid eloquence. The name in the recent. and with great forensic skill. to Galileo. before that hare was started. to Kepler but of Francis Bacon . speaking for those in England. Yet the progress of science owes much to him. men outside England have scarcely heard. but of Francis Bacon No. a household word in I do not mean he wrote everything that was era (a matter to which I wish to make no reference one comic. to Descartes. to Gilbert. for it Is completely off my path). But. save as a man of letters. say a few words on both First. of Francis Bacon is the history of English and as it seems to scientific ideas.I 4 AIMS AND OBJECTS [SECT.

early ears it sounded almost as the term witchcraft or magic sounds. to shudder at. a thing for which it was ready . ripe. it was a thing from To led to atheism and to was an unholy prying many into the secrets of Nature which were meant to be hid from our eyes. which to warn young people other abominations. and to attribute All which treatment that great and to the devil eminent pioneer. atmosphere was so different from that prein the valent days of the Plantagenets ? Doubtless the age of Elizabeth. in the days of the the Stuarts. it was a thing against which the Church resolutely set its face. the patriotism aroused by the Armada and by the great discoveries in geography. and investigate openly all But. " science" was not always respectable. I mean no one Church in particular: I 'mean the religious world generally. ' . a thing to hold aloof from. How treason likewise ventured to set orthodoxy at defiance. n] PRACTICAL WORK 15 of the Royal Society to pursue their labours by persecution. it It burn those unlucky men of scientific genius who were born before their time. in partial contradiction to the expressed opinion of some men of science. and to gain some sort of unimpeded recognition evea from general and For remember that the term aristocratic Society. manner of popular British view that the result was largely cine to He the influence of the writings of Francis Bacon.CHAP. came it that a little later. experienced at the because the time was not yet University of Oxford if need were to torture or to . Science was a thing allied to heresy. 1 am disposed to agree to a considerable extent with the to experiment upon and natural facts. Roger Bacon. had had their and the same sort of originality of vivifying effect thought which did not scruple to arraign a king for high .

however that the recognition Dislike of it. i had accustomed scholars and literary men to the possihe had bilities and prerogatives of scientific inquiry. new truths born before their time must suffer the fate of other untimely births . They have achieved their foothold. nor as subjects in which the youth of a nation may be wholesomely and still . became the many. as to admitted are They to the backward and of suited an inferior grade study the Ignorant . of science was immediate and universal s and mistrust of the consequences of scientific Inquiry and anthropology. they are regarded with respect disdain to make money by means of people do not them when the but they are not really liked.1 6 AIMS AND OBJECTS [SECT. and It Is to his writings that the rapid spread of scientific Ideas. acceptable to and spread among Do not let us suppose. more is the time not quite ripe for Very well. and the prophet who preaches them must expect to be mistaken for a useless fanatic. our subject pioneers must expect hard knocks. people sciences of Chemistry prejudice against the orthodox and Physics and Biology. opportunity is forthcoming certain schools on sufferance. of the dignity experiemphasised the importance and ment. persisted well especially In geology into the Victorian era. of whom every age has . mind of a people Is changed. they are not regarded with affection arid enthusiasm as revelations of Divine working to be reverently studied. and warn young from it. discovered as always by a few. Quite apart which is unpopular and misInto affairs of the mind so that good people are still found who will attribute anything unusual to the devil. and is not wholly extinct at the from antipathy to Investigation present day. solidly trained. there Is some slight trace of lingering trusted still. the Until the mind of a people can change only slowly.

but gives some pain in the process. undoubtedly they are not liked. It The dislike and mistrust and or survives. a little more of that recognition of the insignificance of trifles and of the transitory character of full-blown fashions which is called a sense of humour. does not History repeat itself. posterity . suggest that in the history of the psychical sciences we too have had a national and one not long departed from us. In a word. though they are tolerated and I am bound to say that part of the surviving dislike is due not alone to heredity and imbibed ideas.CHAP. a little more perception of the point of view of others. which may indeed attain its ends. as of the part process of the regeneration of the world. n] PRACTICAL had WORK I? too many. a little cultivation of the historic sense. who. and I would not draw Bacon. have not always been content to go about their business in a calm and conciliatory spirit. a little more general education. It is possible that in his two posthumous volumes we have a book which will regard as a Novum Organoti. and perhaps achieves results less admirable than those which might have been attained by the exercise of a little patience. and must be content to be always literally or metaphorically put to death. a little more imagination. but have sought to hurry on things by a rough-shod method of progression. but to the hasty and intolerant and exuberant attitude of some men of science. disbelief in the validity legitimacy of psychical inquiry is familiar: the dislike of the Natural Sciences is almost defunct. feeling that they have a grain of seed-corn to and plant water. knowing themselves to be reformers. But this is a digression. I admit the of Francis the Bacon and in the history of the importance development of recognition of the natural sciences in I wish to England.

even. a judgment of real value on such a topic as that. which aid may is survive the test of time. but that for no one living to experience and Posterity alone. whether of truth or falsehood. Recently it The rate has been rapid. Millions of years passed on this planet. say. may be regard Myers as much more than sophic pioneer who has not only secured recognition for. and the Charybdis of easy and omnivorous acceptance of every straw and waif. by is able to make further knowledge which time brings. thereby throwing a light on the " meaning of personality " that posterity will as a philothat. . none too rapid. have it left It in trust with us to truth. The efficient pioneers who created the S. We have to steer our narrow way between the Scylla of stony minds with no opening in our direction. a mass of obscure and barely recognised human faculty. on to future generations. It may be so. is impotent amount of knowledge acquired was the which during small or nil Up to the sixteenth century.1 8 AIMS AND OBJECTS It [SECT. intermixed with sandy and barren resolute incredulity. was at the least slow. and upon the organisation and machinery which it has inherited from its immediate scientific progress forebears. that may course with the currents of popular superstition. of advance depends upon the activities and energies of each generation. P. i the parallel too close. R. of the Meanwhile it is for us to see that time does bring For time alone this greater knowledge and experience. but rapid. an and powerful machine for the spread of scientific an engine for the advancement of science in hand a direction overgrown with thickets of popular supertracts of stition. but has himself formulated some of the philosophic unification of.

amateurs. in Arctic or Antarctic exploration. and perceiving that a long period of and danger difficulty before us. but fortunately that has never yet been wanting in our race. who enter the field with that People object in view will do neither themselves nor science certain any good. before whose minds . ii] PRACTICAL WORK rp NEED FOR QUALIFIED INVESTIGATORS Realising this to be our duty. often of wealthy amateurs. amount of enthusiasm and pioneering proclivity is essential. and must endeavour to initiate an attitude of regarding the psychical sciences as affording the same sort of scope to a career. Hitherto we have depended speak professional manner. on the spontaneous and somewhat spasmodic work of ." because of the way they Any young man who wishes to make money should be warned off the pursuit of pure science at the outset. witness the hardships willingly entered upon. for nothing more than a living wage. it has become evident to of clear vision that persons the Society must be established on a sound and per- we have manent basis. denominated " specifically fit into our idea of the scheme of nature as by us at present recognised. as do the longer recognised those which are more sciences. It has always been recognised that those who labour at the altar should live by the altar and a minimum of provision for bread and homely needs ought to be at the disposal of a Society like this wherewith to enable a person of ability and enthusiasm to undertake the prosecution of our researches in a definite and continuous and so to A A . and the risks run. living wage is however to many a necessity. natural.CHAP. the same sort of opportunities of earning a livelihood. or at any rate because they deal with facts to which we have gradually grown accustomed.

like Cavendish and has There depend upon and be grateful for the spontaneous work and help of people of means but we must not depend solely upon that.so ATMS AND OBJECTS questions as [SECT. it has been notorious that throughout last century the best work has often been done by people pass.R.P. and disentangling their deeper meaning if ourselves to observation alone. In the more orthodox sciences. others have had independent means. be a great mistake to suppose that we have and it would had enough of them. and our nascent science will lose the benefit of their 'powers and conJoule. especially of apparitions at or near the time of death but we shall not make progress in understanding the laws of the phenomena . It is essential that we be kept informed of recent well. vl 357) and must submit them to minute investigation. to the prosecution of research. Some of the leaders have been paid a small salary. such We salary shall having the means of living otherwise secured to them were able to devote their time. and are often extremely instances valuable of a spontaneous and purposeful exercise of the faculty we are investigating.attested cases. produce and examine phenomena as it were in a laboratory such as I have elsewhere foreshadowed (Journal S. Always I say we shall . i never even momentarily need of services such as have always theirs. like Faraday. . been no rule either way. tinuous alone. In Physics for instance. work We^ cannot always depend on spontaneous cases They are most important.. experiment. else will young people of genius be diverted by sheer force of circumstance into other channels. must we confine We we must endeavour to For instance there is the question of so-called spirit . and often considerable who means too.

us no more. they A fact isolated and alone. phenomena under but until prescribed and crucial conditions these things have been submitted to long-continued scientific scrutiny they will make no undisputed impression. and decline to see any need for it They feel that if they have evidence enough to justify These understand not do spirit. Now I know that some few persons are impatient of such an investigation. the meaning of "law. is almost valueless. ht>w am I straightened till it be accomplished. one iota which that we do care not parenthetically alternative fate is in store for them : we only want the truth. they will be either improperly accepted or improperly rejected. for increase Being satisfied But real 'khdtycannot be wrapped up f' . Moreover. from which it is the business of this Society to rescue them raising them on to the dry land of science." joined by no link to the general body of knowIf what they believe is ledge. in a napkin . none of which have been subMany such jected to adequate scientific examination. the region of popular superstition. their attitude themselves. like real wealth of any kind. o] PRACTICAL WORK 21 photography. a place which can tected . they will help is selfish. further inquiry is superfluous. their own belief.CHAP. or submerging them as ." The missionary . it pines for reproduction. have not the scientific they may depend upon it that it has its be deplace in the cosmic scheme. ledge. and in great difficulty obtaining the .by human intelligence . there are asserted levitations and apports and physical movements. and will continue in that nebulous hazy region. And I may say impostures in the waters of oblivion. cases have there is been examined and found fraudulent.' and its whole bearing and meaning can gradually be made out. really a fact.

and persecution publication out even so. is It would ^be in a thing even inhuman and detestable miserliness. but to the possessor of worldly means it is far easier than to another. There like that. in much would be some excuse for a man who lived so advance of his time that. The way may be hard and long. are of They honour to take such steps as may the mass wisely cause its perception and recognition by the of mankind. . like Galileo with his newly rebuffs invented and applied telescope.* or worked out a new law. The course to pursue may be much more indirect than that. Those who believe themselves the any repositories of divine truth should realise their responsibility.22 spirit. it is his business to brave this and tell act to so business his what he knows still more is it . seen a who. of no manifest Importance to mankind. having made a discovery in Astronomy. he ran a danger of But of discoveries. should keep it new planet. upon to convert it generation as lead his fellows to accept what gradually to the truth. ignorant. some form or other. for the to himself and gloat over it in private. AND in [ SECT - ' inseparably associated Think of a man with all true and worthy knowledge. and to the acceptance by the mass of mankind of important and vivifying knowledge of which they are now then surely the path lies plain. and the mind of his now they form reject. his means can conduce If the "to proper administration of the progress of science. They are not bound to harangue the be that crowd from the nearest platform might bound in : the acceptvery way to retard progress and throw back ance of their doctrine.

But as Myers and Gurney said long ago in Phantasms of the Living it is needful to point out yet once more. He wished and as he expressed his wish it seemed to have all the cogency of absolute wisdom that men's minds should be turned to the ethical and not political problems which truly concerned them. or by gravely attending to the freaks of the unconscious or semi-conscious mind. excluded from the range of exact inquiry all such matters as the movements and nature of the sun and moon. wasted in speculation on things useless even could they be known. man's actual home and business ? the of fact tlje limits he which bounds within may set himself to learn all serve to inform his conwill all that he can. though separated from Socrates by the whole result of that physical science which Socrates had deprecated. unknowable. n] PEACTICAL WORK 23 study of occult that a the beneath dignity of phenomena science. to divert it from things remote. It was the Father of Science himself who was the Socrates expressly first to circumscribe her activity. while yet the advance of knowledge has rapidly shown the futility and folly of such discouragement. assured the solar system which is It life? his and science guide French for the has become philosopher what the $treet were for the of and market-plaice Athens . &ad What then. we find a great modern to systematlser of human thought again endeavouring to serviceable towards direct the scientific impulse things man.CHAP. . how plausible the reasons for discouraging some novel research have often seemed to be. are in useless if known. and that nothing will be gained of any use to mankind by inquisitiveness regarding the unusual and Still is ARGUMENTUM AD DIGNITATEM however there are persons who urge the lawless. unknowable things In a kindred spirit. in Comte's view.

or obscurantist demurrer. infinitely small USE OF CONTINUED INVESTIGATION But the question is of which we are sure ? reiterated. tion has been established between Neptune and Sirius. maintain that human conduct is The criticisms which have met us from the side sometimes of scientific. ? Sometimes we are theological spirit to . i need not say that Comte's prohibition has been No frontier of scientific demarcaaltogether neglected. Sometimes we are pitied as laborious triflers who prove some matter with mighty trouble and pains. in modernised phraseology. nearly every well-worn form of timid protest. have embodied. Why investigate that Why conduct experiments in or in hypnotism telepathy ? Why seek to confirm that of which we already have conviction ? Why value welleyidenced narratives of apparitions at times of death or . Our knowledge of the fixed stars increases yearly and it would be rash to . sometimes we are derided as attempting the solution of gigantic problems by slight and superficial means. savants have already fully explored the field which we propose for our investigation. with which the historians of science have been accustomed to give piquancy to their long tale of discovery and achievement. sometimes of religious orthodoxy.24 I AIMS AND OBJECTS [SECT. not already influenced by the conception thus gained of the unity and immensity of the heavens. between Uranus and Aldebaran. told that we are inviting the old encroach once more on the domain of Science sometimes that we are endeavouring to lay the impious hands of Science upon the mysteries of Sometimes we are informed that competent Religion. Sometimes that no respectable man of science would condescend to meddle with such a reeking mass of fraud and hysteria.

< there is some sort of tentative belief in the reasonable possibility of a fact there is no investigation. not by all but travellers along the road . The tion. one ijiust and action is a long process. And small blame to them. voix. in many have already been collected careful scrutiny- Phantasms of and when has proved that they cannot be the result of chance coincidence? 1 There is a quite definite answer to this question an answer at which I have already hinted which I wish to commend to the consideration of those who feel this difficulty or ask this sort of question. more pressed for time. by some of the but scientific is investigation thte prelude to action. p. 394. The object of investigation is the ascertainnseEt of 1 See the Report of Professor Sidgwidc's Committee. n] PRACTICAL when so the Living. may find it easier to subscribe their "two pence" to an endowment fund. . investigation. 1 ' . If a fact or a theory has had a primd facie case made out for it. subsequent investigation is necessary to examine and extend it Effective knowledge concerning anything can only be Belief the result of long-continued investigation belief in the Until possibility of a fact is only the very first step. I i . business of Science is is not belief but investiga- both the prelude to and the outcome of knowledge. Soii^e attend to the whole case and see it througk Others. WORK ' 2$ catastrophe. aad so give indirect but valuable assistance. they cannot stop to investigate everything that may be lying by the If they had been sure that it was a fellow roadside. creature in legitimate distress they would have acted Belief of a tentative kind will ensure differently. the scientific priest and Levite have other business. and pass by on the other side.' CHAP.


to this process




object earthquakes, and arranging delicate instruments to detect the slightest indication of earth tremor ? Every


no end. What, for of observing and recording

One knows that earthquakes exist, there is no scepticism overcome in their case even people who have never experienced them are quite ready to believe in



the whole of


Investigation into earthquakes and motile occurrences in the earth's


purpose of confirming but solely for the better understanding of the conditions and nature of the phenomena in other

crust, is not in the least for the

At first among new phenomena careful observation of fact is necessary, as when Tycho Brahd made measurements of the
motion of the

words, for the ascertainment of law. So it is in every branch of science.


accumulated a



careful observations.

Then came

the era of hypothesis,

and Kepler waded through guess after guess, testing them pertinaciously to see if any one of them would
the facts: the result of his strenuous life-work being the three laws which for all time bear his name. And then came the majestic deductive epoch of Newton, welding the whole into one


comprehensive system; subsequently to be enriched and extended by the labours of Lagrange and Laplace after which the current of scientific inquiry was diverted for a time

into other less adequately explored channels, For not at all times is

everything equally ripe for

a phase, or it may be a fashion, even in Science. I spoke of geographical exploration as the feature of Elizabeth's time. Astronomical inquiry succeeded it. Optics and Chemistry were the


dominating sciences of the early part of the nineteenth

CHAP, n]

Heat and Geology




of the

middle, Electricity

and Biology of the

Not yet has our portion. branch of psychology had its phase of popularity nor am 1 anxious that it should be universally fashionable. It is a subject of special interest, and therefore perhaps

of special danger. In that respect it is like other studies of the operations of mind, like a scientific enumeration of the phenomena of religion for instance,

the study of anything which in its early stages looks mysterious and incomprehensible. Training and some admixture of other studies are necessary for its

healthy investigation.
science will

The day


come when the


off its

foggy aspect, bewildering to





balanced and more ordinarily-equipped explorer. At present it is like a mountain shrouded in mist, whose sides offer but little secure foothold, where climbing,



a Society

possible, is difficult and dangerous. we exist to curb venturesome novices,

support trusted and experienced climbers by

roping ourselves together so that we may advance safely and in unison, guarding ourselves from foolhardy enterprises, but facing such legitimate difficulties as

in our path, and resolved that, weather and uncontrollable circumstances permitting, our exploration

shall continue,

and the








assuring of ourselves as to facts* is one of our duties, and it is better to hesitate too long over a* truth


than to welcome an error, for a false gleam may fostd us far astray unless it Is soon detected. Another of our duties is the making and testing of hypotheses^ so as gradually to make a rn^p of

district ani4

b$ able to explain


to figure






have to combine the labours of Tycho with those of for a future Newton Kepler, and thus prepare the way the who has not yet appeared above psychical horizon.

His advent must depend upon how



of this

and the next few generations are faithful to our trust, how far we work ourselves, and by our pecuniary means enable others to work; and I call upon those


are simultaneously blessed with this world's goods and likewise inspired with confidence in the truth and value of mental and spiritual knowledge, to bethink

themselves whether, either in their lifetime or by their, in wills, they cannot contribute to the world's progress a beneficent way, so as to enable humanity to rise to as a height of aspiration and even of religion

they are enabled to start with a substantial they foundation of solid scientific fact on which to erect
will if

their edifice of faith.

be said that investigation should not be expenwould sive, point to what is expended on the investiBefore Columbus's the orthodox sciences. of gation voyage could be undertaken, the Courts of Europe had to be appealed to for funds, Before astronomical discoveries can be made, large observatories and costly and not one only, but telescopes have to be provided,
it I

many, so that by collaboration of observers in many parts of the world the truth may be ascertained. Look at the expense of geographical and ethnological





one of which


highly equipped maintained at

that every commercial chemical manufacturing firm in large Germany maintains a band of trained and competent


every College 6r University in as to chemical laboratories,



always investigating, in the hope of a


CHAP, n]




compound or a new process Improvement





not scarce,


interest of science to the



out far more

lavishly than

people realised the it would be poured at present Certain

small special sums are now provided for the investigation The origin of Malaria has been traced, and of disease. has some chance of being exterminated, so disease this that the tropical belt of the earth may become open to

white habitation.


without success so far
these are bound
benefits can

is being pursued to its lair, but funds for researches such as

spending and Education are things on which they are specially economical. Municipal extravagance in any such direqT | tion is sternly checked, though in other directions it be permitted.

practical feel foreseen, justified in people definitely a rule that as Science on even though money

be forthcoming.



And why
of criminals

practical results

should not psychical investigation lead to Are we satisfied with our treatment ?



people are


content to

and to keep grow a perennial class of habitual criminals, devices check them in appropriate to savages only by them up, ex.hunting them, flogging them, locking race in the history of terminating them ? Any savage and, if they katiw as much as do could that; the world for it do their own protect to no better they are bound run wild, any tion. Society cannot let its malefactors it Till understands lunatics. its release can it more than the but sooner it them up, these things it mnst lock understands them the better an attempt at comprehension is being made by criminologists in Italy, France,*

Gtntral Psych&logiqu^ dirigg pajr.&r. Pietm E.g. BulUtin de Plnstitut * ), p. 225^ D^oembre, 1902 Janet,













and elsewhere.


Force is no remedy intelligent treat-' can doubt but that a study of obscure

a theory of the habitual criminal, to the tracing of his malady as surely as malaria has been traced to the mosquito ? And once we understand


facts will lead to

the evil the remedy will follow. Already hypnotic treatment, or treatment by suggestion, occurs to one and quite normal measures of moral improvement can also




fact of

to brilliant efforts

imprisonment ought to lend itself at reform such efforts are the only

The essence real justification for destruction of liberty. of manhood is to be free and for better for worse, free
It is a great only justified if if is salutary. doctors to have their to patients collected advantage in a and it medical without compactly hospital practice



would languish



ought to be a similar advantage


similar opportunity to have criminals herded together in gaols, and lunatics in asylums. It is unwise and unscientific to leave prisoners merely to the discipline of

warders and the preaching of chaplains. That is not the way to attack a disease of the body politic. I have no full-blown treatment to suggest, but I foresee that th;' will be one in the future. Experiments are already

being made in America, in the prisons of Elmira and Concord, experiments of hope, if not yet of achievemen. Society will not be content always to employ

methods of barbarism


the resources of civilisation are

not really exhausted, though for centuries they have appeared to be. The criminal demands careful study on the psychical side, and remedy or palliation will be

a direct outcome of one aspect of our researches. The influence of the unconscious or subliminal self, the power of suggestion, the influence of one mind over another,


of so-called



these are not

CHAP, n]




academic or
the proof.

facts alone:

practical bearing,

and sooner or

they have a deep It must be put to

of our

more immediate and special aspect one of the things I want to impress upon all readers, especially upon those who are gifted with a for faculty receiving impressions which are worth recordis that too much care cannot be ing, expended in getting the record exact. Exact in every particular, especially as regards the matter of time. In recording a vision or an audition or some other impression corresponding to some event elsewhere, there is a dangerous tendency to try to coax the facts to fit some half-fledged preconceived theory and to make the coincidence in point of
return to the



time exact.


What we not how
occur, or

distortions of truth are misleading and useless. want to know is exactly how the things occurred,

the impressionist would have liked them to how he thinks they ought to have occurred.

people attach importance to their own predilections concerning events in the Universe, they can forth in a footnote for the guidance of any one wno



think of starting a Universe on his own but such speculations are of no interest to us wish to study and understand the Universe as it is,



preceded the impression, by all means let us and it, perhaps some one may be able to detect a meaning in the time-interval, when a great numbejr
If the event


of similar instances

are compared,


If the

all means let us knOw impression preceded the event, by that too, &nd n^ver let the observation be suppressed

from a ridiculous idea that such anticipation







exclude well-attested physical phenomena from historical record, on any similar prejudice of impossibility.

Nor let us

what made up beforehand and
to learn

We want


possible, not to have minds distort or blink the facts to suit

our preconceptions. If the correspondence In time is exact, then let future students be able to ascertain that also from the record

need not make any remark about for difference of longitude" or anything of "allowing that kind, unless indeed he is an astronomer or some one who thoroughly understands all about "time." Arithmetic of that sort can be left to those who subThe sequently disentangle and criticise the results. observer may of course indicate his ideas on the subject if he chooses, but his record should be accurate and coldblooded and precise. Sentences indicating contemporary emotion, in so far as that is part of the facts to be
but the recorder
are entirely in place but ejaculations of as to the cause, or emotion, subsequent speculation moralisation as to the meaning, are out of place. It recorded,

do no harm, and can easily be a student future and that is so in one sense, ignored by but their atmosphere is rather apt to spoil the record, to
said that these

may be

put the recorder into an unscientific frame of mind. And, even when they have biassed him no whit, they suggest to a subsequent reader that they may have
biassed him, and so discount unfairly the value of his


respect to

the important

subject of possible

on which our ideas as

to the ultimate nature

of time will so largely depend, every precaution should be taken to put far from us the temptation or the of the record after the fact possibility improving original to which it refers has occurred, if it ever does occur

automatic or access of somnambulic to this writers for instance must be assumed open unless they take proper precautions and suspicion. of receiving telepathic impressions . more than we were aware of. m belief in the fact of telepathy more to spread a general or even widely a belief by no means as yet universally spread than almost anything else. in the average child. . more likely. phenomenon for captious are not aware of. a rare faculty existing only in and. not mere a test of something not is so vital and crucial inference.CHAP. yet the contrary may did not who or foreigners by posterity or by strangers we did that know us and even our friends may fancy to . The establishment of cases of real prediction. science that yet recognised by make its evidence secure. if them fully developed but it is equally possible. and are in all respects honest. nucleus. and so it is an easy step have also supplemented critics to maintain that it may likewise were of which some in they way or amended. n] PRACTICAL remember that though WORK 33 and we have done nothing of known to be the sort. in some quite hypothetical Automatic trance. it is worth every effort to Another thing on which I should value experiments . quite normal persons. not aware. in exists which every of a power is but an intensification If such should be the few*. of their writings in some inaccessible deposit copies of their and responsible custody because the essence themselves is that the hand writes what they . The power may be and ift a few individuals. or rather more likely perhaps. traces of telepathic power in is the detection of slight in the average man for instance. or one as a germ know it and its recognition would do it behoves us to . them that what we see one may say so. and be surmised honest and truthful.

: of the others. is to offer to a percipient out of two things. I am at present conspicuously lacking in the first of these essentials. and to see whether in multitudes of events the predetermination of a bystander as to which shall be chosen. i One method faint that has been suggested for detecting traces of the of the choice one power. but interest and novelty will experiments of greater be made if the devices are left Leisure. and experience. industry. . be conducted by an transmission of waves. but it is hardly necessary to call the attention of educated persons to the intense interest of this most recent purely scientific subject On another topic I might say a few words. Physicists deny action at a distance. on the ambiguity clinging round the phrase " action at a distance. etherial That process analogous to the is however a non-scguitur.. and and if I do not myself practise what I preach. and the discovery of facts concerning the Ether and Matter which I think must have some bearing. I do for one at the same time I admit Therefore telepathy.34 AIMS AND OBJECTS [SECT. in this and other particulars. viz. whatever I may lack patience." in connection with telepathy. it is because. it is supposed I necessarily 'assume that telepathy must . BEARING ON ALLIED SUBJECTS There are many is topics the recent advance in on which I might speak one our knowlege of the nature of the : atom. at least most of them do. are the requisites to individual ingenuity and and system. some to me what are at present quite unknown bearing. exerts any influence whatever on the result Many devices can be made for carrying this out. on the theory of " called physical phenomena ".

it will come into the realm 0f physics till then it stays outside. or otherwise influences it by a physical process. as soon as it is proved be an etherial process. of light and sound and electricity and magnetism and cohesion and gravitation. if exerts force upon B. or a continuous A A But what about a psychical process? There is no such word in physics the term is in that connection meaningless. he asserts. . necessitate a medium . he is not. denying anything psychical ! Absolute ignorance The less . If A mesmerises B. no physical force is exerted save through a medium. telepathy to . things ? : A A question is probably meaningand absurd. physicist can make no assertion on it . : if if A A conveys a telepathic impression to B Is a medium a then As ? I do not know these necessary physicist are not processes I understand. A to B. They may not be A physical processes at all Take it further thinks of B. There are rash speculators who presume to say that In the spiritual and psychical and physical are all one.CHAP. or shototHaot be. or . or spiritual at all All the physical things. higher reaches of Philosophy this may have some meaning there may be some advantage in thus treating boundaries and classiquestions of ultimate Ontology. n] PRACTICAL signifies that WORK is " 35 The phrase "action at a distance" a technical one. or prays to B. There must either be a projectile from from Its denial medium of some kind extending to B. or Is a medium necessary for these worships B. A one way or the other. or makes an apparition of himself appear to B. Spiritual and psychical events do not enter into the scheme of Physics and when a physicist " denies " action at a distance he is speaking of things he is competent to deal with. but beyond that he is silent If is an etherial process.

-and science. of understanding of the attributes some influence on our theory humanity cannot but have and a fuller of Divinity itself. too 'arid a creed. for the science I have tell.-and if there were none than we indicated in " Man and gone the The I and Reconciliation.36 fication AIMS AND OBJECTS must be recognised as human artifices . that they are trespassing out a what they do not know. they are its legitimate the in to humanity must be measured the science which humanity can last resort by the use of have not yet one important topic on which I mean the bearing of our inquiry on religion. -Chapter II. have some bearing. called of what I feel on the subject. -though value the outcome. of the they are not part practical applications. without ulterior we should be poorer of this spirit in the world mankind this is too high.. of man We seek to unravel the nature and hidden powers .__but for the bulk of in general must see just. and people outcome to have faith that there may enough practical be yet more. To for the enthusiast." part as far in that article as have Universe. are . some meaning. i but for practical purposes unqualified in Metaphysics for simplification has run ture to say that the instinct out of bounds away with them. . I feel entitled to go. That our researches will ultimately I do not doubt. may be enough.-! on the a large subject and one too nearly trenching suitable for consideraof emotion to be altogether region & Yet every science has its tio n by a scientific Society. [SECT. There It is is spoken. knowledge its own sake. ' make ot it. ends. What that bearing may be I can only partly . of theology. 1 venassertions make these and preaching precarious ignorance with cheap dogmatism. eking and if people distinctions are necessary.

is interesting surely the discovery of a new human is Already the discovery of faculty interesting too. The discovery of a new star. tion constitutes the first-fruits of this Society's has laid the way open to the discovery of Our aim is nothing less than the investigafaculty. or of a new extinct animal or plant. human . what. of a marking on Mars. : Society is worthy of encouragement If there is any should surely be this. and human destiny. o] If PRACTICAL scientific it WORK 37 any and support is object worthy of patient and continued attention. new " " telepathy work. of a element. it surely these great and pressing problems of whence. and whither. and better comprehension of human personality. and it much more. that have occupied the attention of Prophet and Philosopher since human history began.CHAP.

" There was some correspondence on the subject in Nature in 1881. where a number of facsimile reproductions of transferred diagrams and pictures. Barrett not attempting a history of the subject and and others in . which are of special interest. will also be found. shall do here is to describe some later observations and experiments of my own.SECTION II OR THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE CHAPTER III SOME EARLY EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE AM I for the observations of Prof. and he naturally encountered rebuff. All I . Suffice it to say that the leading Society for Psychical Research members of the first actuated in the . and he endeavoured to make a communication on the subject to the British Association in 1876. but the subject was unwelcome or the attempt premature. the experimental transference of ideas or images from one person to another I must refer students to the first volume of the Proceedings of the Society. Prof. William de Morgan so long ago as 1870-73. and an article in The Nineteenth Century for June 1882. Barrett had experimented in conjunction with Mr.

throughout ttie Spring and Autumn of 1883. Accordingly .CHAP. against the extraordinary ingenuity and subtle possibility of code signalling. so-called " " Before coming to our conclusion as to Thoughtwe considered carefully the arguments brought forward for regarding cases of . was obtained in the years 1883 and 1884 at Liverpool. Hence we have always attached special importance to experiments in which contact was excluded with regard to which this particular hypothesis . as their experience enlarged. in] SOME EXPEEIMENTS _ 39 instance largely by Prof. first actual experience of Thought-transor ference. taking due precaution. Barrett's report investigated the and matter. from among the employees of the large drapery fixm of George Henry Lee & Co. and discriminating carefully between the genuine phenomenon and the thought-reading or rather muscle-reading exhibitions. as due to involuntary Thought-reading indications apprehended through the ordinary senses and we came to the conclusion that the ordinary experiments. says Prof. transference. is clearly out of court. experimental Telepathy. Sidgwick. when I was invited by Mr. with actual or partial contact. Malcolm Guthrie of that city to join in an My own investigation which he was conducting with the aid of one or two persons who had turned out to be sensitive. where contact was allowed. but it is better for me to adhere strictly to my own experience and to relate otily those experiments over which f had control. gradually by pertinacious experiment became convinced of the reality of thought-transference. before I was asked to join. which at one time were much in vogue. A large number of these experiments had been conducted. could be explained by the hypothesis of unconscious sensibility to involuntary muscular pressure.

seem to me absolutely satisfactory. or agents. I little experiment which a of "hear to be may glad was The series of experiments recently tried here. steadfastly thinking. after One evening Jast week two . it seems definitely novel. on in this city by Mr. The experiment is thus described by me in the columns of Nature. page 145 : AN EXPERIMENT IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE interested in Those of your readers who are the now being investigated. n of my short paper reproduce here a considerable part on the subject. Herdman. Malcolm carried and originated Guthrie. on Dr. and he has prevailed on me. vol. as two since it clearly showed that when agents are acting. they were looking. subject of thought-transference. critically to examine the conditions. and to impose any fresh ones that we I need not enter into particulars. but I will just say that the conditions under which or apparent transference of thought occurs from one in the more persons. in had been severaFrimes ^iccessful instilling the idea at which of some object or drawing. But one experiment which I tried was to me. originally published in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. each contributes to the effect. but to both combined. and on one or two other more or less scientific witnesses. thought desirable. and. xxx. to be present on several occasions. and that the result is due. and such as to preclude the possibility of conscious collusion on the one hand or unconscious muscular indication on the ' other. important. ' these experiments were confirmations of the kind of thing that had been observed by other Most of experimenters.40 I THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. not to one alone. thinkers. to another same room blindfold and wholly disconnected from the others.

Guthrie's." "First I see a thing up there. She drew a square. a clear of several . when the object was a rude drawing' of the piain lines in a Unioij Jack. supposing them about equal. there was no contact of any sort or kind. in] Into the SOME EXPERIMENTS into the 41 mind of the blindfold person." "I seem to see things moving about. or I percipient room a double opaque sheet of thick brought paper with a square drawn on one side and a St Andrew's cross or X on the other. whether two ideas in ^two separate minds could be fused into one by the percipient In a very short time the percipient made the following remarks. "There was the other thing as well. and then said. ." and drew a cross inside the square from corner to corner. i no more conclusive as evidence have seen at Mr. is The experiment than others that I . The percipient was not informed in any way that a novel modification was being made and.CHAP. . and take off the bandage then the percipient to draw the told object to in her inside/ 1 . existing between each of the three people. saying afterwards. as usual. and then one down . every one else being silent "The thing won't keep still. "I don't know what made me put it ^ hidden. and silently arranged it Between the two agents so that each looked on one side without any notion of what was on the other." "I can't see either was distinctly/' The was and impression mind on a sheet of paper. quite different from the siiig^e impression which we had usually obtained when ^two agents were both looking at the same thing. Oncft for instance [to take a nearly corresponding case under lbt>se conditions]. I thought that by this variation I should decide whether one of the two was more active than the feet space agents other or. but fifty it se&ms to me somewhat interesting that two mijacls should produce a disconnected sort of impression on the mind of the percipient. : there. tlie figur&jhres reproduced by the pertipient as a whole withdut misgiving 'except.

I have no conditions and merely confidence in my own penetration. n as to whether its indeed.42 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. LIVERPOOL. can change them at will and arrange one's own experi* . . and ultimately omitted it UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. so contemporary mode of publication of minimising or overas to avoid the risk either But I of the circumstances. and that no has been felt by me from that time to this. at the invitation and with the appliances of Mr. in the same way as one is accustomed to of any satisfy oneself as to the . the It is preferable cogency emphasising wish to say strongly that the experiment was quite reasonable doubt of its validity satisfactory. so as to satisfy myself of their "genuine and objective character. Guthrie. I wish to say that I had every opportunity of examining and varying the minute conditions of the phenomena. $fune 1884 thus to quote the original record and of an experiment. and am perfectly sure that a conjurer could impose on me. possibly even to the them* So long as one extent of making me think that he was not imposing on me but when one has the control of the circumstances.truth and genuineness ordinary physical fact as a passive spectator If I I had merely witnessed facts should not publicly report upon is bound to accept imposed witness what goes on. that she expressed a doubt middle horizontal line were present or not. REPORT ON THE MAIN SERIES I now proceed : to give my report on the whole series of experiments In reporting on the experiments conducted by me.

more or in less correctly. be permitted to suggest a rough and crude analogy. because the observed facts can be " " conveniently grouped would not be understood as It is a most implying any theory on the subject to dangerous thing attempt to convey a theory by a phrase and to set forth a theory would require many under such a title. viz. words. te " physical reality underlying the terms mind/* consciousness. however. sight." "impression.. As it is. In using the term " Thought-transference.' CHAP. That . and whether* this located in the person. but only a few more experiments in the simplest and most elementary form of what is called Thought-transference . though certainly what I have to describe falls under the head of Thought-transference proper. or neither whether indeed him. is utter nonsense call is . and may be able to describe or draw it. or any transfer at all. space the term location. one gradually acquires a belief in the phenomena observed quite comparable to that induced by the repetition of ordinary physical experiments. which is more properly described as musclereading. the phrase describes correctly what appears to take place." and the like. I have no striking or new phenomenon to report. receive a of a thing which is strongly present the mind. or or or sensorium of another thought. as applied to mind. that enough one person may. I may. concerning all these tfetiRgs I obtrude no hypothesis whatsoever. or in tfie thing round or in both. person not in contact. we mind and simply meaningless." I would ask to be understood as doing so for convenience. faint impression under favourable conditions. and is not explicable by the merely mechanical transfer of impressions. ^whether there is But how the transfer takes place. but I . or what is the 1 . in] SOME EXPEBIMENTS 43 ments.

but that consciousness is located in the brain is what no as the energy of psychologist ought to assert for just an electric charge. . condition. though apparently in the conductor. (For instance. with a mind the assist this condition and to organs of sense possible .) in a Nevertheless.44 the brain is THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. nor did any of them bear the least power or not I resemblance to the object in the agent's mind. or in other of as also existing brains. person thus kept passive is "the percipient" In A the experiments I witnessed the percipient was a girl. busy and pre- experiments which I have witnessed proceed in One person is told to keep in a the following way. may be conceived like a faint echo in space.. . It was easy enough to picture things but failed abjectly. one or other of two who had been accidentally found to Whether it is a common possess the necessary power. but as a matter of fact this was not done. as vacant as perfectly passive condition. to oneself. The are unexcited. o the organ of consciousness Is patent. the perfectly ordinary no sense be said to be in a hypnotic to include the State. but in the space all round it . though apparently located in his brain. So far as I am aware I myself tried. although these are ordinarily too occupied to notice it. and things and can in like person acting as percipient is that. so is not In the conductor. it may be that the sensory consciousness of a person. but they did not appear to be impressed on me from without. unless this term be extended of mind emptiness produced by blindfolding and silence. the maintained It eyes being bandaged and silence might be as well to shut out even the ordinary street hum by plugging the ears. do not know. I said a pair of scissors instead of the five of diamonds. comparatively few persons have tried.

Whether the term thinking" can pfroperly be applied to such barbarous concentration of mind as this I am not sure its difficulty is of the nature of tediousness. only one is doing the work. . whether when several agents are thinking. and to think of nothing else of two or three minutes. differeEl ]^iits ' or aspects of the object v Most people -seem able to act as ageats/fiDiigbi $onie n : \ . tiring and tiresome thing to stare at a letter. for the space " or a donkey. We produced by different agents attending to '' . or a triangle. This person is "the agent" and position for staring at. on the the hardest time of it It is a most has. Very frequently more than one agent is employed. . or whether all really produce some effect.. i '. at sitting near the percipient. the idea being that wandering thoughts in the neighbourhood certainly cannot help. a special experiment has led me to conclude that more than one agent can be active at the same have some right therefore to conclude thai time. .CHAP. either a name. . in] SOME EXPERIMENTS . or of an object or drawing set up in a good light and in a convenient distance. 45 appearance a person in a brown study Is far more hypnotised than the percipients I saw.'* . or a teaspoon. whole. . who usually all ' To unbandaged their own eyes and chatted between successive experiments. or a scene. the As regards the question clear transfer of impression.. and may possibly hinder.'bna. several agents are probably more powerful than oae. but that a confusedness of impression may sometimes . and when two or three people are in the room they are all told to think of the object more or less strenuously . . or a thing. sometimes her hands but usually and ordinarily holding without any contact at all but with a distinct intervening first Another person was told to think hard of a particular object.

from the percipient in ordinary agents quite disconnected Mr.P. with all due precaution. Moreover. I certainly The only surface at all suspicious was the the small table on which the opaque of polished top But as the screen sloped backscreen usually stood.. life. p. to them.first and only visit experiment. folding by members vol. the headmaster of the house physician at the School. 84). or care taken in. blindfolded. was reliance no however. It was it to merely merely done because the percipient preferred remarkable experiments on blindshutting the eyes. placed and it was noticed that no mirrors or indistinct reflectors i. appear to do I have not often not or It at whether I am much good tried alone. wards on it at a slight angle. I objects were kept in selected and brought in after the percipient should say. I We have many times succeeded^ twice succeeded. and sometimes complete strangers the Birkdale Industrial Birchall. sometimes I . frequently acted and Dr. the bandaging. of a pre-arranged code is thus rendered All have failed have once or with . on his. tried I and In the majority of cases . to outsiders who are unable to witness impossible even the obvious fairness of all the experiments.R. S. were present. acting alone. . The object looked at by the agent is placed usually wooden screen between the on a small black suspicion opaque but sometimes and agents. would not rely on any ordinary wooden screen on which bandaging the opacity of the the was was the object thing really depended on. it was impossible for the object to be thus mirrored. percipient screen behind the percipient it is put on a larger The an adjoining room and were by me.J can hardly say I better than others. that was placed on. After of the Society (sez Journal. Shears.46 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE n [SBCT. had a successful Eye and Ear Hospital. when I have on the other hand.

A." (Do you see more than one round?) Yes. . " perhaps. J i at starting is recorded we are readv" bv * * * Next object a key on a black ground.^ The first seven experiments are all that percipient particular percipient." When they are simply told "ifs an object.) blue. except such an one r 1 "Now my self. Birchall. a blue square of silk. there seem to be more than one. "Is . ." (What shape?) She drew a rhombus. and is to not intended to imply that this was a success by any be understood that it was only to make a start on the first experiment that so much help was given as is involved in saying "it's a colour.CHAP. It's going to be a colour.] Told to unblindfold herself and draw. . It is it [/KA means. "Is it yellow? Something gold.) "It's something between green and Peacock. . . . Are there three rounds? Three rings. guessing is practically infinite. to Next object three gold studs in morocco case. (Now." or. ( 4 .) seconds she said. In a few Told . . she drew the three rounds la a row quite correctly. EXPERIMENTS WITH Miss Mr." draw.**! (What do they seem to be set in?) "Something bright like be&ds/* [Evidently not understanding or attending to the question. it green?" (No. It looks like a key. . she drew it just inverted. . therefore. when the field for nothing is said at all. were made on one evening with the and they were rapidly performed. . Something round. what is much the same. No one else present except myself Object ready. JR.. When no as remark none was made. holding hands. mj SOME EXPERIMENTS 49 DESCRIPTION OF SOME OF THE EXPERIMENTS In order to describe the experiments briefly I will put in parentheses everything said by me or by the and in inverted commas all the remarks of the agent. . . (It's an object. and then sketched round them absently tftfe butHrie of the case. which seemed. to have been apparent to her though she had not consciously attended to it It was an interesting and striking experiment . AS PERCIPIENT First Agent. A locket or a watch.. " It's bright . .

began it two or three times faintly. and.. Miss I hid the object. I'm not sure. Birchall but Mr. then she experiments. impression. . "Is it a card?" (Right. and proceeded to draw of the figure except the horizontal the lines all She this time drew middle one. a white ground with a black Mr. (It's Next open. very soon said. but arn not clear. pointed out to her when. Don't know what they are. They are one above the other. scissors of up. ~a with isosceles triangle on its side.. No contact at all this time. .. assisted Mr* B and Miss E* . "No. position had experiment was on to see it.. . "Now I am ready.ss E." on paper placed ready in front of hen kerchief. She then ^ object a drawing. She drew a chord across #. Birchall now let Miss E. she took off the handsaid." and stopped. and Mr. Three of JSeartt. K$ usual ORIGINAL REPRODUCTION R. "Is it a bright object? little bit . . . it a Next object flaying card with a blue anchor painted on .) "Are there three spots on it? . d } who had entered the room. . Birchall holding percipient's hands at first present as agents.. and it to be its but a settee behind her. standing . wanted she the after experiment. . indeed. ." round spots. pair vertically]. slantwise...) She drew an circle Wexta ovals. but ultimately said. remained silent for perhaps a minute . She was obviously much tempted to draw this. and Miss R. hold hands instead of himself. [END OF SITTING] Experiments with Miss R. Tiie object in this was correct in every particular. but they seem three I think they're red. instead of pips.. I don't think I can get the colour.W. I will continued now describe an experiment indicating that one agent may both be better than another. n their points 'scissors standing partly open with object-* fair of .. it. ways [indicating Something long &ow. " " cross on it ? Is it a black cross . a drawing of a right angle triangle on its side." about a minute altogether.So THOUGHT-TEANSFERENCE Next [SECT. A A drew her Time. but another lady.. two detached in drawing one with a cutting line across drawing of a Union Jack pattern.

.) She took off the bandage and drew first a square. I see things moving about .. house physician at the Eye and Ear Infirmary. There was no contact. looked at the side with the cross. Mr." and she thing as well drew a cross inside the square from corner to corner. " Very soon Miss R. I seem to I see first one up there and then one down there see two things . she could only indicate that there was something more there. I don't know which to draw. " I don't know what made me put it inside." . Mr." of it.] x ORIGINALS REPRODUCTION E. and he got up and looked out of window before the drawings were brought in. I can't see either distinctly. When asked to draw she sketched part forgotten it.CHAP. .- by the percipient between Miss R facing one another. [It was noticeable that the unusual distance at which the was from the on this drawing It placed agent occasion seemed to be interpreted object. Another object on the slant" (Do you a nicely drawn anchor. June i2th. drawn in red chalk.." (Well anyhow.. . came down to see the phenomena. Shears. No contact. She afterwards drew them crossing.] The drawing was a square on one side of the paper. and not knowing the use of the cross arm. ni] SOME EXPERIMENTS little . "Is it an anchor? . a cross on the other. Dr. . but very small. Miss R d looked at the side with the square on it Miss Doubk as smallness of size. but had evidently half It's and lines set two fair of coarse lines crossing. " I only see She saw no colour. Birchall was silently asked to take off his attention. a see any colour?) "Colour is black .. . Neither knew what the other was looking at nor did the percipient know that anything unusual was being tried. therefore.. 1884. The next is at the first trial a case of a perfect stranger acting as agent by himself Dr. and Miss iL haying arrived before the others.. for the published report of this particular incident which has been reproduced above. said. Guthrie proposed his trying a^s agent alone. and during the experiment. some distance from agents. "Then there was the other afterwards they seemed to go into one. adding afterwards. held Miss R/s hand while I set up in . Her drawing had the right slant. 51 as agents. who happened to be sitting nearly [See Nature. .. but she couldn't remember what. was now that I arranged the double object d and Miss E. Shears." quite up at correctly. ... draw what you have seen. i . and then said.

she expressed reluctance. Is it someat first on a white ground. "It's a little flag. and drew part of a star figure.. Miss E. evidently a crude the original. said it was too showed her the object for a few seconds.. She then began afresh of reproduction a by drawing triangle. . I then " Oh yes. but it was no more Here it is really like the original than the first had been. said." "I can difficult. ones. I understand it now. " Well now draw it" She made a more complete attempt.52 front of THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE him a card : [SECT. triangle within a triangle.) "A lot of black with a white Object the five of clubs.. what I saw. as percipient in Very quickly Miss R. thing bright?" (No answer. She exclaimed.. but was unable to proceed..." (Right.. . but I changed the object to a black ground where it was more conspicuous.. but incomplete. It's with something points all round It . It's a star." Another object at same sitting^ but with several agents^ no contact^ was a drawing of this form ORIGINAL REPRODUCTION see something. she drew it fairly well but the as in I showed her the flag (as usual depicted figure. or like a Asked to draw it. that's : SKETCH MADE AFTER SEEING THE ORIGINAL Experiments at a Sitting in the room of Dr. but I am sure I can't draw it .) "Is it a card?" it (Yes.) [The affirmative answer did not necessarily was a playing card . n nothing whatever being said as to the nature of " the object.] "Are there five " " " Black I can't see the suit." and when asked to draw.) spots on it ? (Yes. square on it" (Go on. "perverted" contact with Miss E. as agent ." I said. on which objects had been depicted instead of pips..) signify that but I think it's spades. because cards looking like playing cards had been used several times previously. Herdman^ Professor 0f Zoology at University College Objecta drawing of the outline of a fiag.

Miss but upside down. ticket at top]. I made another drawing. d and Miss E. and clever guesser. ordinary . but perhaps it had a cross on it. Miss R. tell us something more) [meaning But no more was said." in the same position as before. and then took it away to the drawing place to fetch else. . . but added a cross to it. . were acting as agents. in] after SOME EXPERIMENTS 53 something a success). no contact. and is only interesting because the watch-ticking sounded abnormally loud. I shan't do it this time.. nothing said.CHAP. Questioned as to aspect she said. something hanging." (What shape?) "It's oval. and set it up in the same place as before. sitting in front. something gold. behind the said board and almost hidden by it. When shown the object she said. No. R d "I see ." indicating with her fingers correctly. label object on a large drawing price swathed in a college gown. . Object same flag inverted. . "I only saw 1 said. The flag keeps me. draw what you saw anyway." bothering a bit of string with a little Object an oval gold locket hanging by the former like Placed attached. . I still see that flag. Miss E. but instead of bringing it ORIGINAL REPRODUCTION I brought the flag back again. "Oh yes. R I can't see anything this time.." Presently She said. Miss and Miss E. close board. . " After some time. (Very good so far. There was no contact this time. like a gold locket. of the little paper ticket it was just like that. Agents." but she had seen nothing Next object a watch and chain pinned up to the board as on a waiUcoat This experiment was a failure. The percipient." So she drew a flag the same flag.. said. "Yes. sufficient to give the look out for such sense any amount of hint to a person on those But it is very evident to witnessing the experiments indications. of mind to that of a attitude different a in that the percipient is quite seem indications sense wholly tieglected.. . it was just the same as before. "Well. .

that the idea of the object though not always. . 3 by the agents as a whole. " Something light. B. Agent as before. a teapot cut out of Present Dr." patch. ." " Red. but all Told nothing.. happens with is grasped rather than its actual it Another Object object a tell again. she couldn't what small printed <?. In Object an oblong piece of red (cerise) silk. in fact.ucks.shape. . . being moved farther back.. silver paper. but didn't know what it was unless it was a duck.54 I THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. .) But." of sort red contact (What ?) (What shape ?) " " One Not a pale red. I have now done with the selection of experiments in which Miss R. agent as before. Miss R - ORIGINAL d... . On being told to unbandage and draw. was then Dr. Head at one end and tail at the other/ [This R. She said.] The object. .. E?" (Yes. she drew a rude and " perverted " copy of the teapot. that the watch-ticking could pass unnoticeds though indeed we shuffled our feet to drown it somewhat. easily grasped not uncommon in d. . Object the printed letter r. "Is sort of E it was." (Well..) pair of scissors? . Miss . R. REPRODUCTION and Miss . AS PERCIPIENT Agent. . how then explained that he had been thinking all the time a duck the original teapot was. Looks like a duck. EXPERIMENTS WITH Miss E. . and. Like a silver duck. like Herdman . n scarcely expected 3 however. Herdman. Next object a yellow oblong. holding percipient's hands. had been thinking more of ducks than teapots. Is it anything like (Not a bit. B. what shade is it ?) colour. . and all we got was something bright " a or silver. so that it might be more rather large. oval." (What sort of R ?) An ordinary capital R." " A dusky gold Told it was a letter.. thinking of the object . but percipient persisted that it was like a duck. Something . " either steel but so it was .. in connection with them. acted as percipient and I will describe some of those made with Miss E. illustrates feebly what often. At the time these seemed perhaps less satisfactory and conipletes but there are several points of considerable interest noticeable . No is colour. " A dark red." This Miss E. " " I can see R. . A square of some yellow shade. Mr. .

said hopelessly. No. I don't see anything. but the agents refused.CHAP. saying that I had evidently wished to keep it secret. "I only see a triangle. I . and then with. and Miss E. but I can't see it. to close up. said. a few with both percipients sitting together- hoping to learn something by comparing their different But unfortunately these perceptions of the same object ." No Now "Is Next object a tetrahedron outline rudely drawn in projection. 55 a hand mirror brought in and set up in front object of Miss contact at first Told nothing. took Herdman reports that while I was away Miss E. Half " annoyed. tried In addition to the experiments with single percipients. she only drew a Object contact at first a rude outline of a donkey or other quadruped. " No holding percipient's hand. agents to leave the room. and it. said." Gave it up. "I " only see two lines. object they seem a drawing of two parallel but curved lines. object like that?" Next contact. drawing a triangle with her finger (no answer)." a poke bonnet. d." it out of the room. nor can I draw it. woman Finally I tried as agent alone." She then drew an isosceles triangle." " If s like a donkey GENERAL STATEMENTS ABOUT THE EXPERIMENTS. triangle. E. I shan't do this.. another triangle? " (No answer was made.) " No. She said. "Think of a pyramid. in First Miss in contact. No contact." then hastily." Asked to draw. then said. I believe it was a looking-glass. Still no " Can't I am sure. . in] SOME EXPERIMENTS . Next "Is " It's it a drawing of a right-angled triangle. Oh. Miss E. Miss E." I then asked the get it. Egypt. "Is it a colour?" (No. but I silently passed round to the agents a scribbled message. to look at herself in I don't get this. I then hid the mirror in my coat. . begged to know what the object had been. well. Next Miss R. and to come in and try when without contact." The glass was then shifted for Next Miss R. "Pyramids of it . Dr. almost like a triangle." indicating two parallel lines. "An old one by one. it doesn't matter.") Miss E.

was also rather irksome. Occasionally Miss E. but never very The necessity of imposing silence on the percipients. and renders the results less describable without the actual think that this variation might convey cirsomething interesting if pursued under favourable is cumstances. I still . has been pretty confident and yet wrong. receiving an impression. right. I asked Miss E. appear and they have a feeling when they persistently recurs. It is because of these rather delicate psychological conditions that one cannot press the variations of an experiment as far as one would do if dealing with inert and more dependable . Whether greater agent-power necessary to affect two percipients as strongly as one or whether drawings. fix upon one that it is the right one. but still right. object.56 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. as well as on the agents. One serious failure rather depresses them. and after a success others often follow. have com" plained that there seemed to be no power" or anything acting. what she felt when impressions were coming freely. and she said she felt a sort of influence or thrill They both say that several images to but that one among them them sometimes. Sometimes they seem quite certain that they are Sometimes they are very uncertain. they seem to have some sort of consciousness of the action of other minds on them and once or twice. each appeared to get different aspects or the parts of distinct or perfect impressions. when not so conscious. to the feelings of the percipients With regard when . but did not feel as if they were going to. o sometimes they experiments were not very successful. and that they not only received no impression. the blankness of other. I mind of one percipient re-acts on the cannot say.

result. and nothing tried before a mixed or jovial audience can be Such demonstrations of the slightest scientific value. experiments are only conducted for an hour or so a week. The agent. but they should be If tried soberly and quietly. and Mr. and conducts the experiments with great moderation. now feels it wiser to from acting. no harm can. or in amusing evidence must be obtained or the study. be efficient in putting money into the pockets of public may showmen. on the other hand. and it would be very interesting to know what percentage of people have the perceptive faculty well developed. Usually the presence of a stranger spoils the phenomenon. Guthrie refrain himself. m] SOME EXPERIMENTS 57 matter. one's friends. A platform is a most unsuitable place . who was a powerful and determined agent for a long time. I should judge. and I have no reason to suppose that any harm is done them. is liable to contract a headache . like any other experiment. but all real in the quiet of the laboratory . if very energetic. The experiments are easy to try. though in some cases a stranger has proved a good agent straight off The percipients complain of no fatigue as induced by the experiments.CHAP.

adepts "willing-game.CHAPTER IV FURTHER EXPERIMENTS IN TELEPATHY THE next experience of any Importance which I had in this kind of experimental telepathy took place during a visit to the Austrian province beyond Tyrol with some English friends during the summer of 1892. Carinthia. for a fortnight in the house of Herr von at Portschach am See. and is thus described in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research." and were accustomed to entertain their friends by the speed and certainty with which they could perform actions decided on by the company the operator being led either by one or by two others. though the speed and accuracy with On which the willed action was performed exceeded any muscle-reading that 1 had previously seen. vol. I found that Lyro. but not without nervous prostration. and left me 58 . vii. and . While staying be led by someone to whom she was Another lady staying in the house was said to be able to do things equally well. his two adult daughters were in the so-called page 374. preferring to accustomed. the evening when I witnessed the occurrences nothing done could be regarded as conclusive against muscle-reading.

Agent and percipient were within reach of one another. operations were conducted In an ordinary simple One of the sisters was placed behind a drawing board. even though but a quarter of an transfer. using one as agent and the other as percipient alternately. Very slight contact was sufficient. but directly the hands were separated. but no precaution was taken with reference to this blindfolding. as subsequently related. as I had but unfortunately the present instance contact seemed essential to the in the previous case reported. and on several occasions tested the power of the two sisters. while the other sat in front of the same board and the objects or drawings to be guessed were placed on a ledge in front of the board. were interested in the subject. for instance through the backs of the knuckles. in full view of the one and completely hidden from the other. The manner. Accordingly I was some genuine thought- obtained permission to experiment in satisfactory manner. and usually held each other's hands across a small table. little iv.] EXPERIMENTAL TELEPATHY 59 doubt but that there transference power. erected by me on a temporary sort of easel. since we know that it is unsafe to put any trust in bandaging of eyes (Journal. and were perfectly willing to try any change of conditions that I suggested. The kind and amount of all contact was under is control. Naturally I attended to the absence of mirrors and such obvious physical The percipient complications. and was sometimes broken altogether. 84). but without a more success. and my hope was gradually to secure the ladies The phenomenon without contact of any done in kind. . i. preferred to be blindfolded.CHAP. . Once or twice a stranger was asked to act as agent.

partial contact seemed less effective than a thorough hand grasp. directly the knuckles or finger tips. but that they are only faintly. the THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. really effective aid. but that did not do. It was almost like breaking an electric circuit. they in this case bore no likeness to the object on which the agents had been over the gap effectively with hand. or another lady's I also once tried both sisters blindfolded. reappearing again directly was established. from frequently correct to quite wild. what they " had " seen but though the two drawings were close imitations of each other. if at all. or any part of the skin of the two hands. My so that an idea may. While guessing through a pack of cards. rapidly and continuously. and the guesses changed. simultaneously and independently. At the same time. for instance. It is perfectly obvious how strongly this dependence . reverberate between hands touch. 11 contact phenomena ceased. I tried whether I could bridge own. ceased to touch. as their minds when their it were. or whether it is a not sure. and holding each other by one hand. impression. Whether the importance of contact in this case depends upon the fact that it is the condition to which they have always been accustomed. I sometimes allowed contact and sometimes stopped it. After a time the sisters were asked to draw. while two other persons completed the chain and tried to act as agents. susceptible to the influence of outside persons. gazing. is that there is some kind of close sympathetic connection between the sisters.6o inch. and how abruptly it ceased when contact was broken. it was interesting and new to me to see how clearly the effect seemed to am my depend on contact. I So far as own observation went. therefore. my .

and because such cases seem at the present time to be rather rare. My record only appeals to those who. there was a assertion that unfair practices that. therefore. and moral conviction. I am myself satisfied that what I observed was an instance of genuine sympathetic or syntonic communication. have accepted the general possibility of thought. It is only because.CHAP. and who. with full opportunity of forming a judgment. distinctly to say that none of the evidence which I can offer against a prearranged code is and scientifically Impersonally conclusive. nor could it be accepted as of sufficient weight by a sceptic on the whole subject. (2) the occasional failure to get any clue to an object or drawing with a perfectly simple and easily telegraphed I evidence of which am name. need not feel unduly strained on contact suggests the idea of a code admit at once that this flaw and have to when asked to credit my were extremely unlikely. on other grounds. or' as establishing de now the existence of the genuine power. that I make this brief report on the circumstances. I detected no well-marked difference between the powers of the two sisters. however. made. but often only one or two in each case. The internal sufficient thinking was: (i) the occasionally successful reproduction of nameless drawings. . 61 I prevents this series of observations from having any value as a test case. and in the of former ^ light experience. (3) the speed with which the guesses were often I wish. apart from this amount of internal evidence derived from the facts themselves to satisfy me that no code was used. iv] EXPERIMENTAL TELEPATHY . and it will be understood that one of them was acting as agent and the other as percipient the girls my Sometimes the parents of were present.transference.

After one or two attempts to wander about the room as usual. I think. song. was only partial. but novelty of conditions may be held responsible for that On the second and first at all subsequent evenings success was much more frequent on the whole. and it consisted in desiring that the lady One while standing in the middle of the room should kick off her shoes without touching them and begin to sing a Success. who were good enough to invite the young ladies to their sitting-room for the purpose of experiment. however. object that imperfect bandaging be read. complete . confessedly rather tedious dull. more frequent than failure.62 friends of THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. but I was told of it happen play) by several persons as more than could be accounted for to play it piece of music from a it selecting a definite to the piano. though such experiments are. In the early willing-game experiments. when and carefully performed. She then stood some little time uncertain what to do next. A sceptic. but though she did not actually touch her feet she stooped so that the held hand specified came very near them. certainly far : beyond chance. could of course would enable a title to of the things I suggested was aimed at excludthe operation of unconscious muscular guidance as ing far as possible. however. she did shuffle a shoe off. and The last by muscle-reading. taking item (the beginning to beginning I did not to witness. and at last broke silence by " saying Shall I sing?" The was not fairly attempt at the more careful experiments successful. such things were done as taking a particular ring from one person's hand and putting it on another's pile. n my own. I proceed to give a fairly account of the whole series. .

interposed obstacles. the third evening I began with a pack of cards. on which red was instantly and correctly stated. and a round ring or spot just above the intersection. The original drawings were always made by me. a nameless geometrical figure.CHAP. 12 to and gave no indicawas not i. given that. sometimes before. reproduced below. originals. the These conditions were all satisfactory. other recording the guess made. one recording the card held up. and a superfluous faint vertical stroke was added. for simplicity. but. iv] first first EXPERIMENTAL TELEPATHY 63 The The object was a teapot . The whole pack was always used and I simply cut it at random and ixi held up the bottom card. and looked like. I then drew a square with a diagonal cross. On comparing the two lists afterwards. except that the spot was put right on the centre of the cross instead of above it. It is best for no one to look on while the percipient draws } to avoid the possibility of unconscious indications. but that produced no impression. Full contact was allowed during this series. so that the chances of error were. but there was no result. An outline figure of a horse was correctly named. out of 16 guesses only 6 were are wrong. M. the ." and drew the thing almost exactly. About 10 or 12 cards could be got through . After a certain interval of silence two cat (perhaps minutes) the lady said she was ready to draw what she had "seen. On the second evening I began by saying that the object was a colour . nor did the reproduction suggest the idea : it was drawn as. So was the letter B. the whole looking something like the back of an envelope. some other things were unperceived. drawing was the outline of a box with a flag at one corner . A blue object which followed was guessed wrong. The lists The fides card guessing is be certain. I suppose. sitting. The them quickly or wrong. and such like. without knowing whether it was right I held On up the cards one after the other tion whether the guesses were right or wrong. a minute. obviously not of the slightest use unless lona it affords the readiest method of study- ing the effect of varied conditions.^was given quite wrong. running through with 2 reporters. letter Next. sometimes during. A childish back-view outline of a was given oval like an egg . reproductions were nearly always much smaller in size than the The agent did not look on while the reproduction was being made. The suit attempted. Another letter. I explained that the object this time was a (Buehstdbe\ on which it was correctly guessed E. Its possible resemblance to an envelope was not detected.

.... is The theory of such a calculation given in Tod- hunter's Algebra.. .... . .. we may over-estimate the total probability by calculating it as 10 thus leaving out the factor ()*.. of Hearts of Diamonds of Spades Nine of Diamonds Eight of Hearts Four of Spades ...64 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE following : [SECT... ... ... So an over-estimate of probability is Sssg.. . Eight Four Thus out 3 of the sixteen trials.. .. .. chance of ten at least is more like what we have to is express.... . contact CARD LOOKED AT Seven of Spades Six of Hearts Queen of Spades Nine of Spades Three of Spades Eight of Diamonds Ace of Clubs Knave of Diamonds Five of Diamonds Two Ten Ace King of Spades..... .. since follows : ^ .... chance is of this amount of entirely out of the question.. . but as exactness in such a case is rather tedious and unnecessary. is too small to be taken into account. ... when the individual probability each time is one- thirteenth... (i) This factor would be necessary to give the chance of ten successes exactly but that is needlessly narrow. CARD GUESSED Seven Six King Nine Six Eight Ace Queen Five Ace Six King Ace Six .. . ... . . Full n The allowed is the list of the first card series.. . .. .. articles 740 and 741 .. since the probability of so many successes as ten in sixteen trials.. 10 were correct and 6 were wrong... there The no particular point in the exact number of 10.. that is to . Whatever may be the cause success.

but which was reproduced as a correctly triangle or wedge. this.. standing on end like an inverted V. however. A white plaster cast of An and two of the drawings did not succeed able imitation . set up as object. in stimulating any colour- Lastly. 5 . there is less than one chance in ten million that such a result would occur at perfect random. circle with roughly The number 3145 was reproduced orally 715 also quickly as "714. a child's hand. written word hund was initial letter. An figure. was drawn fairly well as to general aspect. without contact. one of them being a vague 5-petalled . viz. iv] EXPERIMENTAL TELEPATHY 65 say. but with a capital The and very quickly as 3146. was drawn by the percipient very fairly correct. on another evening. failed to give any unlighted candle in candlestick was unsuccessful. and a protuberance was tacked on where the heel was. a figure like 4 petals was reproduced in two ways. i.CHAP. and said to be something like a boot. On other evenings other simple diagrams were tried. point geometrical diagram with the long stroke prominent. A French high-heeled shoe. A A downward. I then went back to simple drawings with the result that a cross was reproduced as a cross. reproduced as 3 rounds with dots and cross. and a figure like an A with an extra long cross stroke. Some guesses were made. such as a face. and impression. did not think of its being the thing. which could be easily signalled as an A. was reproduced imperfectly. without any special cause. but none were successful. Hungarian." reproduced correctly. both with cards and objects.e. it was objected that there was too much glare of light Subsequently the percipient said she had seen the general outline of a candlestick but A teapot and a cup both failed. A circle with 3 radii was reproduced as a inscribed triangle. I Greek letters <3>atS> . of crockery. And in tried the being told that they had previously thus reproduced a word an unknown language (not unknown character). was considered too puzzling and was only reproduced as Uaso. sinuous line was reproduced as a number of sinuous lines. With contact there was success again. another set of card trials were testing the effect of various kinds of contact : made with 3 the object of a card series being quick and easy . i to run through. next tried. object consisting of an ivory pocket measure. no 715.

.Eight Two Eight Six Five Contact with Seven one Three Seven Four Six ringer of one hand .~~but varying contact series. . Slight Ace knuckles JTwo fKnave Seven Three Four . -tKing King Knave Contact with ringers only tips . of contact was varied. . Two Nine of Nine Nine Ten Queen . . Full contact again . and as some fatigue. ii CARD NAMED BY PERCIPIENT TO AGENT Full contact with both /Nine Nine . hands .fEight of) Q. .V . Four Eight . The last two entries represent attempts to get the no is are given in stages there particular advan^ as the ^ did not strike me as but particulars a card completely. evening there was probably suit as well.-reported it came toward the end of an so instructive at the time. Three Four Ace red diamond Ace of diamonds Nine of clubs held sideways Nineclubs The record of this series is more complete than it that of another below. Ten v Queen Ace . Two Ace Four Five No contact direct jAce t Knave contact.66 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE CARD EXHIBITED [SECT. tage in thus naming On another evening the amount and it takes a longer time. . birt I omitted to call out to the reporter the position of the hands with . Seven Six . No fKing but gap bridged by Four j other person's hand ITen contact . Two Ace Six . .

iv] EXPERIMENTAL TELEPATHY 67 One hand of each person lay on a table. and sometimes made them touch. Varying amount of contact: sometimes none . fairly complete contact the two hands as may be assumed. sometimes separated them. My impression at the time was (as expressed above) that pronounced failure began directly I broke contact. success. but very soon made the hands touch intermittently. but that mere knuckle contact was sufficient to permit some amount of 1 reference to each other. At other times I broke and united I chose. Second Card Series. all the time going on with the card series. and was struck with the singular efficiency of contact. [When successes are frequent in the following list. for my own edification.] I can only give the record as it stands. I believe we began without any contact.CHAP.

3 Knave il Is because I called out some change in the contact } but I made other changes whose occurrence is not recorded. or percipient generally fatigue on the part of either agent seemed to spoil the conditions. was one reporter who wrote what he heard and the and down both what he saw that he had sometimes barely operation was so rapid Towards the end of a series. . probably the power would be found more widely distributed than is at present suspected. . wish to express gratitude to the Fraulein von Lyro and their parents. 3 6 4 3 * . nothing deleterious in the attempt. The only use to be made of the record of this series. On this occasion there . -7 -5 7 10 4 3 6 5 6 2 .68 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE CARD SHOWN Ace Ace 5 5 * [SECT. and if more persons tried. the do to time writing. is to treat it as a whole and to observe that out of 39 trials 16 were correct Where lines are drawn and 23 wrong. for the courtesy with which they I acquiesced in my request for opportunities of experiment. & . therefore. manifest that these experiments should not be conducted too long consecutively. nor repeated without but if common sense is used there is sufficient interval It is . n CARD GUESSED . .

vol. Miss Miles was living in London. by strangers can be accepted by those who know all the facts. the idea or image which she wished to convey while Miss Ramsden wrote down each day the impressions that had come into her mind. . When . ivj EXPERIMENTAL TELEPATHY conditions. endeavoured to transmit an impression of scenes and occupations from one to the other. They kept a careful record both of what they tried to send. These ladies. the times Miss Miles noted. or staying in country houses and other places at a distance from each other. Miss Miles and Miss Ramsden began their experiments in 1905. and the arrangement was that Miss Miles should play the part of of the agent. and sent the record . I must refer to the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. Miss Miles and Miss For more recent experiments. And when these records are compared. experiment being fixed beforehand. xxL. the correspondence is seen to be beyond and above anything that might be due to chance. and Ramsden. at the time of each experiment. while at their respective homes. where an account is given of the notable and careful series of observations made by two lady members of the Society. EXPERIMENTS AT A DISTANCE for experiments conducted over a considerable intervening distance.CHAP. Miss Ramsden that of percipient. and Miss Ramsden in Buckinghamshire. and of what was received. in a book kept for the purpose. in 69 and dull for the willingness with which they submitted to order to enable and irksome me to give as good evidence as possible. Collusion might rationally be urged as an explanabut that is not an explanation that tion.

Miss Miles then pasted this record into her book opposite her own notes. therefore at a distance of about 400 miles from the agent During the last three days of the experiments. was in London. and should write her impressions on a postcard or letter card. was staying first near Bristol and afterwards near Malmesbury in Wiltshire..m. Whenever it was. Miss Miles. The general plan of action was that Miss Ramsden should think of Miss Miles regularly at 7 p. n Miss Miles before knowing what she had attempted on her side. on every day that an experiment was to be tried. Inverness-shire. And copies of many of these postcards were sent also at the same time to Professor Barrett. who had advised concarping the method of experiment. Miss Miles. which was posted almost always on the next morning to Miss Miles. Miss Miles on her side had no fixed time for think- . in October and November 1906. den's impressions often corresponded. evidence possible Miss Miles obtained confirmatory had not that circumstances from other persons as to the been noted at the time. submitted to the been have records of these experiments Editor of the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. was and living all the time near Kingussie. the agent. so that the postmarks on them show the time of despatch. and in some cases added a further note explanatory of her circumstances since to these it was found that Miss Ramsat the time . and the corroboration of these All the original persons was written in her book. the percipient. These postcards or letter cards were kept by Miss Miles and pasted into her notebook. while Miss Ramsden. unknown to Miss Ramsden. and have passed that very critical ordeal In the second series of experiments.o to THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT.

appeared on six occasions in a complete or partial form among Miss Ramsden's impressions on the same date. corroborations from her friends on the spot. staying. of supernormal knowledge of her friend's surroundings. once made happened. But it also happened that almost every of Miss Ramsden's impressions represented. and also obtamed Further. as a rule. show the date of despatch of the information to Miss Ramsden. which scenes of when Miss Ramsden gave descriptions seemed to Miss Miles like the places where she ^ras When this or photogot picture postcards of them. as recorded on her postcards. she . Miss Miles at RamsMiss ckreful notes of the event or topic to which den's statement seemed to refer. so that here also the postmarks placed with her records. to Miss Ramsden. These notes were made generally on a postcard. or thought might have been conveyed. posted to Miss Ramsden next day. graphed them. and In the evening noted briefly what ideas had been most prominently before her mind and which she wished to convey. but thought of her more or less during the whole day.CHAP iv] EXPERIMENTAL TELEPATHY 7* Ing of Miss Ramsden. Out of a total of fifteen days' experiments. something that Miss In other seeing or talking about on the same day. the idea that Miss Miles was attempting to convey. the percipient seemed often words. had specially wished her Irrespective of what that friend to see. to show how far the descriptions really corresponded. be to Miles Miss to postcards were afterwards returned during the day. which The was. while the agent only succeeded occasionally in chosen by her for the transferring the ideas deliberately to have some sort purpose. day some Miles had been pretty closely.

it appears to us that while some of the coincidences of thought between the two experimenters are probably accidental.72 THOUGHT-TRANSFEKENCE The actual record is [SECT. but it must suffice here to quote and judicial opinion of the Editor. the critical illustrations." " . which is thus given : After studying all the records. xxL. n of the given in the Proceedings vol. the total amount of correspondence is more than can be thus accounted for and points distinctly to the action of telepathy between them. together with Society for Psychical Research.

to 4 * . Myers's .. being away from borne. My wife.CHAPTER V SPONTANEOUS CASES OF THOUGHTTRANSFERENCE ANEW number of authority. but never yet received with full credence by scientific follo^. must have Innumerable consequences among other things it may be held to account for a large : phenomena alleged to occur spontaneously. for Such cases as those which Immediately instance. fact of this sort. so an intimate friend of the family. we now begin Two As CASES stepping stones from the experimental to the spontaneous cases I quote two from a mass of material at the first volume. P. was unable to meet them at Southampton. tfye [ On the 27th of April. offered to do so. page 674 concerning a remote connexion of my own. 1889. classify under the head spontaneous telepathy/' and it is natural to endeavour to proceed further In the same direction and use telepathy as a possible clue to many other legendary occurrences also as we shall endeavour to show in the next chapter. If really established. first end of Mr. It was between Derby and Leicester . we were expecting my sister-in-law anil her daughter from South America. a Mr.

After it with account of vision. dictation.m. P. But then. FREDK. and that it impressed communicating *s until she her so much thai she felt quite anxious all the rest of the journey. you have received a telegram from Mr. She closed her same moment a telegram paper appeared before her with the words.m. exactly the same and wife's sent from Southampton 3.30 p. he would have been writing on a white paper form. "Come at once. p. I wrote from my wife's occurred in the train she took notice of the hour.'s. about her own child she had just left at a boarding school. n and at the was travelling in the train. LODGE In follows : reply to inquiries." and she answered. P. years having elapsed. Yes. I deferred had some refreshment. being very tired." During (the afternoon I received a telegram from Mr. is now in South America constructing a railway line.30 p. With regard to the above. we at once remarked it must have occurred as Mr. my wife had no idea of her sister being and was not even at the time thinking about them. your sister is dangerously ill.m. and from the time marked on the telegram of its despatch from Southampton. was filling in a form at Southampton. P. Mr. P. Malcolm Guthrie. periments pinch or other pain. and the one she saw was the usual brown coloured paper. to 9 On my it arrival home about p. to my wife. was A there often transferred from agent to percipient. L. and will not return to England for about a The occurrence was mentioned to him. we did notice from the telegram that the time corresponded. I thought so. "How do you know?" She then told me the contents and her strange experiences in the train. she recognised at once to be Mr. I afterwards made the remark.m.!" I said. Two FREDK. Lodge wrote as The letter I sent you. F. THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE My wife [SECT. again. but was thinking ill. Also the handwriting my wife saw. eyes to rest.74 about 3. L. -a case illustrates the communicating possibility verified in the Liverpool exof Mr.. LODGE 'of The second sensations. P. or a taste caused by some food or chemical. Mr. worded Bedford. year. Contact was usually found essential for success In these experi- . "I have some news for you. although when it happened. my wife could not say the exact time it was between 3 and 4 but now.

I know you have hurt yourself! but I'll tell you why afterwards/ He said. and with a distinct sense that I had been cut.CHAP. as it was so fine. and all for gone out on the lake I then fell asleep. * Well. throwing the tiller suddenly round. and was bleeding under my upper lip. c ? c ' e 7 who were It with us at breakfast. v] SPONTANEOUS CASES . 1883 had had a hard blow on my mouth. feeling I it was impossible anything could have struck me there. Here follows an account of the incident which happened to Mr. but I myself was present at many others of the same kind. CONISTON October 27 th. : BRANTWOOD. Arthur Severn the narrative having been obtained through the kindness of Mr. Arthur. and finding Arthur (my husband) was not in the room. It must have been about seven. Mrs. and held it (in a little pushed lump) to the part as I sat up in bed . when I was sailing. under the upper lip. as I lay fast asleep in bed. and it struck me a bad blow in the mouth. I then told what had happened to me. with a specially contrived and padded small hole in the wall so that they could hold hands through it Some but.P. a sudden squall came. and seized my pocket-handkerchief. and it has been bleeding a good deal and won't stop. to mental cases early experiments of this kind are narrated in the first volume ^Proceedings. much to Ms surprise. and saw it was seven. At breakfast (half-past nine). Severn says . S. . at happened here about three years ago Brantwood.. and every now and then put his pocket-handkerchief I said. the agent and percipient were arranged in separate rooms. 75 guard against normal sensation. and Mrs. why are you doing that ? and added a little anxiously. I was astonished not to see any blood. furtively up to his lip. in the very way I had done.' I then said. Ruskin.R. Arthur came in rather late. and after a few seconds. JOAN K. page 275. when I removed it. and so I thought it was only a dream but I looked at my watch. I concluded (rightly) that he must have then realised ! an early sail. and only I woke up with a start. and I noticed he rather purposely sat farther away from me than usual. * Have you any idea what o'clock it was when it happened ? and he answered.

" My informant tried to chaff his assistant out of his melancholy. Fortunately I am able to quote confirmatory evidence of this narrative. saying he did not feel up to it. ii. both and circumstance . as having happened in his own experience when he was engaged in' prospecting for mines in a remote district of South Africa accompanied only by a working miner His account is here abbreviated from Durham. vol. that she had spoken of him in her last hours saying that she "would to play at never see Albert again. S. but on one particular Sunday the workman declined to play. p. The ANOTHER CASE A me by my case of clairvoyance or distant telepathy was told colleague. the words of the dying woman having felt been similar to those at the time by her distant son. A.P.R. Instead of working. this : for very soon after the verification of it Professor Redmayne wrote an account gentleman I to his father. n with episode Is duly authenticated. : So far as they could keep a record of weeks the solitary two used some game on Sundays. and in accordance with North Country tradition seemed to regard it as natural that he should thus know. Weeks as to date afterwards complete confirmation came from England. Redmayne. certified and from have received a copy of the letter . S. as he had just had an intimation of his mother's death.R.. by concurrent testimony (Proc.P. But he adhered to his conviction.76 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. 188. Professor R. In accordance the rule of the S. The occurrence made a marked impression on my Informant and broke down his scepticism as to the possibility of these strange occurrences. 128 also Phantasms. . since it was a physical impossibility that they could receive recent news by any normal means. i.

however. the other day. giving it Durham pitmen.A. PADDON. GATESHEAD to Redmayne has also been good enough form concerned. 1891 you: About 6 weeks have a curious and " I saw is dead. that she died early one Sunday morning said she would never she fell she asleep and in her sleep . she said she would never see me again to forget it.CHAP. mother one me to said My morning. HAREWOOD. the date note to me asked Tonks but of more it. NATAL. but before I told some people what since a About fortnight Albert" thought (no) which I did not do. and they them the dream had come true. again. August ist. JOHN M. his wife telling see Tonks had the again. Trevelyan. ALBERT TONKS August zisf. A S. Sir. NEWCASTLE. Tonks relatives standing the and bed in dead her early this morning lying before she died. Redmayne. . NR. Seaton Delaval Garibaldi's dream of the death of his mother at Nice. I told I will never laugh at anything like this The above is an extract from a letter from my son R. ago. Tonks received a letter that his mother was dead and had been buried him from about six weeks since a week. M. as an instance of the superstitiousness of were startled when. . seemed he and I laughed at him and ridiculed the matter. B. instance qf the when he was in mid-Pacific. Natal. in the o-et a certificate from the workman Professor the of a copy of the main portion of the following note appended : above letter. REDMAYNE and dated written from Mgagane. told me. Redmayne November sxst [1891]. and we 1 tell startling thing to Last Wednesday. Date Witness to above Signature 1901 N.ribald% and the same kind (G. is a historical Ga." round the bed. 18). 1902. S. v] SPONTANEOUS CASES 77 LETTER FROM PROFESSOR REDMAYNE TO HIS FATHER MGAGANE. with The above extract correctly relates what occurred to Signed me whijst living 5 in Natal with Mr. Thousand^ p.

template the subject as reasonably and physically as we can. only apparitions of the dying and For in truth not Universe when submitted to this rationalising I do not say that its success is universal. there may pressed even which the of it will not extension greatest things Nevertheless when we a have clue we are explain. . but a number of other phenomena seem likely gradually to fall into their place in an orderly and stigmatise as impossible and absurd. intelligible treatment. how the fact of IT thought-transference or especially of the unconscious enables us to admit the variety a of truth of the possibility large number of occurrences which previously we should have been liable to phantasms of the living may tentatively and hypothetically be thus explained. and we will therefore enter upon a consideration of as many phenomena as at this stage we can see any chance So let us conof beginning rationally to understand. I is hope. I it be too that are some hold far.CHAPTER VI APPLIED TELEPATH1 AN EXAMPLE OF THE INFLUENCE OF MODERN THOUGHT ON ANCIENT SUPERSTITIONS being made subliminal clear. bound to follow it up to the utmost before abandoning it.

are often seen to be sympathetically connected. vi] APPLIED TELEPATHY I 79 mean a possible communication between mind and mind. Is a similar process. and why one end of a stick moves when the other end is touched no one at present is able clearly to tell us. comto the other through a very obvious medium of munication viz. begins . these cases is commonly considered impulse in either of and mechanical It is not so simple as we think The simple for concerning cohesion we are exceedingly ignorant. by means other than what I may call a any of the known organs of sense and mind. and a disturbance . and the transmission of the bell.. or precisely Consider. This Is known again in acoustics as symhas pathetic resonance. without By thought-transference : strict definition. suspended emit to of them and the other responds*". think unacquainted with physics may he since may "transmission" in this case a misnomer. for when a railway the official hauls one of them through a certain angle revolves through a distant lever or connexion. And as to the meaning of sympathetic : us take some examples other iron of levers. now. each other and similar musical instruments. one the same note. a couple of tuning forks. let A semaphore-arm The disturbance has travelled from one similar angle.CHAP. A measured pace approximately followed by the ringing of a pulling of a knob. say. the pair some hundred yards away on a post.*. using mind between sympathetic connexion the term mind in a vague and popular sense. Isolated from Sound us let in air. from other bodies. Is not It but Instantaneous is connexion think the The connexion is due to a pulse which travels at a reader definite and perfectly *three miles per second. an Iron wire or rope. one on the ground.

and a but It is not physical or mechanical disturbance . mirror. at simple law of Inverse square. but quite familiar. satisfactory answer can be given. whatever Is is said to one Is repeated by the other. suspend a couple of magnets. Speaking popularly. at some distance respects . pivoted Once more. They are sympathetic. and distance practically unimportant. too. or there Is a definite channel for real any rate. from each other. atmospheric air. I may axle. that much Is solid. and at a sufficiently great distance the response would be Imperceptible. a disturbance more. know something of the medium the case. We knowledge before a do. alike In let all us say. take a on an and . Consider a couple of telephones connected properly by wires. The medium viz. however. liquid. Next. pivoted. in this case Is intangible. and if one Is tapped the other receives a shock. has travelled from one to the other. n travelled through the to the other. there Is no any such kind of law the disturbance between .. Once swinging. but the medium in this case is by no means obvious. The medium Is still of communication.80 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE medium from one [SECT. the ether. or gaseous Whether it Is material or not depends partly on what we mean by " material" partly requires more It Is nothing . This may be hastily set down as a natural conse- quence of a physical medium of communication. certain. quite so. and we call it the Ether In these cases the intensity of the response varies rapidly with distance. on points. operative In this Ether of Space. Touch one of the magnets and set It the other begins to swing slightly. the two. say parenthetically.

some muscular movement of the corresponding animal So far as I know the experiment has hitherto been This has certain advantages principally tried on man. suitable receiving instrument. and certain disadvantage^. it is best to avail oneself of the entire It is then easy to animal. So far we have been dealing with mere physics. stimulate one of the brains through any of the creature's peripheral sense organs. Take two brains. nothing but a beam of sunlight. ittuch more serious than it is with a less cunning anioiaL Of course it by no means follows that the experiment ' ' ' 6 - . Apply a stimulus to one. And this may go on over great distances no wire. paper and a lens. and see if there is any sympathetic link between them. say belonging to two similar animals place them a certain distance apart. . say a drum of photographic If the sun is shining on the mirror. as like as possible. a else called " peculiar state of the ether. and it may be possible to detect whatever effect is excited in the other brain by some motor impulse. The main advantage is that the motor result of intelligent speech is more definite and instructive than mere pawings and gropings or The main disadvantage is that the liability twitchings. and every tilt given to the mirror shall be reproduced as a kink in the line. or . and not of its brain alone. material" connecting anything commonly the two stations. and observe whether the other Now poach a little . and everything properly arranged. with no known or obvious means of communication.Q *P. vi] APPLIED TELEPATHY 81 At a distance let there be a capable of slight motion. on the ground of physiology. to conscious deception and fraud becomes serious. a line may be drawn by it on the paper miles away. in any way responds ? To make the experiment conveniently.

sense organ . with One mode pain. for instance. by exciting some Apply nauseous or pleasant materials to the of one individual and get the receptive person palate to describe the substance which the other is tasting. and But they have had a fair measure of positive result. and to the taste nerves a stimulus equally well to the i. I have supposed the stimulus to be applied nerves of touch. where two individuals hold hands through a stuffed-up hole in a partition-wall and. those of taste or A result actually obtained. of trying the experiment would be to pinch or hurt one individual and see if the other can feel any If he does feel anything he will probably twitch and rub.ierves of hearing. . on the face of them. or more generally the skin but we may apply nerves. n succeeds tried with man . ought to be and it whether be positive gradually cautiously accepted. or negative. special smell. but I am not aware of its having been at present except with man. There are two varieties of the experiment First. for instance. and that any if definite and clear. or he may become vocal with displeasure. : some manifest link or possible channel. Instead of simple pain in any part of the skin. absurd. second. I am not asking for credence concerning specific facts at serious amount of study is necessary before present one is in a position to criticise any statement of fact What I am concerned to show is that such experiments are not. Experiments of this kind are mentioned above.82 will THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE succeed with a lower animal because It [Sac*. that they are experiments which ought to be made. one may stimulate the brain otherwise. or of So far to the . obvious medium. with no such . as. as when they are at a distance from one another.

would be a good one. the experiment B . the picture or diagram thus shown to is one that has only just been drawn by the responsible experimenter himself. rays from the picture can be positively asserted never to have entered the eyes of B and if. But not yet would it be conclusive. I deny that anything is solidly proved by such an experiment for cunning is by no means an improbable . Thus. if it is one that has no simple name that can be signalled if is not allowed to touch B A . Cunning takes such a variety of forms that it Is to discuss them is best to eliminate it it That can be done by using unassorted altogether. if not Two entirely different tuning . and make money out of the exhibition if they are in any sense a brace of professionals accustomed to act together. or of seeing. he can be told . is manifestly not very crucial unless the intervening distance between and B is A excessive but a sight stimulus can be readily confined within narrow limits of space. however dimly. a picture can be held up in front of the eyes of A. a smell stimulus. . either to describe If it or to draw it. however. and has never seen the picture before if. tedious . by precaution of or to .CHAR vi] APPLIED TELEPATHY 83 An experiment with a sound or smelling. move during screening. in dead silence on the part of all concerned then. and B can be asked if he sees anything. individuals in unaccustomed rooms. sider who A and B are. describes himself as " seeing" it. ment may thus become much more indeed quite impossible. and if he does. and is able to draw it. nevertheless. I say. . the experidifficult. True. hypothesis. We must con- If they are a pair of persons who go about together. A ? the course of the experiment.

and such like vague traditions as are common In most such individuals as these would naturally be families the other is thinking of. : the most likely ones to begin with. prevent the observations from being too deplorably dull They them are. The A power seems cominda . the Is found able to . experiments have been made. may exist. persons act efficiently as B Is apparently very limited But I do not make this assertion with any confidence. or to say things simultaneously. more likely to succeed than are strangers persons who feel a sympathy with each accustomed to Imagine they know what are who other.84 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. ness All shades of responsivefrom o to nearly something considerable. under the conditions already briefly mentioned. for so It is most few people have as yet been seriously tried. fairly easy conditions. and if B other respond. Relations are probably . . may be able to suggest further but at first It Is probably well to choose precautions . until experiment shows otherwise. we ought not to expect a response. the experiment may be regarded as satisI am prepared to assert that such satisfactory factory. are wanted. rather dull Before considering them satisfactory or publishing to call in the assistance of a It would be well who trained observer. In the ordinary sense of that word perhaps . not only to A 1? but also to A 2 A 3 and complete strangers. 11 forks will not respond. Two strangers are not usually sympathetic. and sufficient variety may be introduced to likely a question of degree. Nevertheless. But the power of response In this way to the unin- to be teresting Impression of strangers does not appear can who of The number a common faculty. I confess. experiment must be made. More experiments They are not difficult to try.

so. vi] APPLIED TELEPATHY the 85 B power. B to the responsive one. so. He probably is not an assistance at all. likened to the sending microphone or to the receiving telephone. I But now region want to . responding Yes. C. the experimenter. or by putting things in his mouth. Sender and receiver are terms that might be used. instruments.CHAP. at least to _ A The name agent suggests activity and . very likely he is an obstruction. but they labour under similar and worse For the present let us simply use the terms which involve no hypothesis whatever. It is the agent and B the customary to call perapient. F are present being. distinct possibility to remember. If something that C is uncon- sciously looking at is described by B. even if he is a. It may be objected that he is really to C all the time. B to the sensitive sheet. A and B are regarded as mere tools. but there may be some objection to these names. that may sometimes be and it is a . There are many such possibilities tq bear in mind in so novel a of research. far as I know. or by showing him diagrams or objects and B is then supposed to respond to A. for C to make his experiments with. go on and point out that C is not essential. indeed. it is a distinct question whether any conscious activity is necessary. either by pinching him. E. Both are passive till C comes and excites the nerve of A. the experiment will seem a failure. perhaps objections. instead of the object which is set in front of A. But observe that in all the cases hitherto mentioned a third person is mentioned too. to the sounded fork or quivering magnet. apparatus. A and B. B A A A to the flashing mirror. serious and well-intentioned But if D. may be transmitter. enough . is rather rare a prominent extent.

not to advance useless science. or he may. The human . so to speak.86 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. and to stimulate himself. or at least of dimness. simply think of a number. A look at a picture or a playing card. and may be made quite a good one the only weak part is that. race is so constituted that such performances have their value they incite others to try experiments but in them- and speaking scientifically. under the circumstances. again. or he may taste a substance. public performances are useless. To A and B : let us suppose . . front of a large audience An experiment conducted in thought-transference I is scientifically useless. talking or fidgeting. he may be simply playing the fool. return. One can never be sure what F is doing. if he can. often tend to obscure a phenomenon by covering it with semi-legitimate contempt. or even sitting still and thinking. whether by genuine persons or impostors. sometimes with a large admixture of error. and except when of an exceptionally high order as they were in the case of the Zancigs they selves. Whenever I use the term never mean anything like public performances. may keep it vividly in his mind It may happen that B will be able to describe the scene of which A is thinking. He left alone. sometimes almost correctly. The experiment is virtually the same as those above mentioned. or an event. every. I fear that some hypnotic exhibitions are worse than in so far as they are conducted. not even to students. or a scene. but to exhibit some well known fact again and . to but to an idle gaping crowd. n too as Irresponsible spectators. however. the conditions are bad. and. not stimulated by any third person it them to combine the functions of C is quite possible for with his own functions.

or fall Into a river or let him be taken or violently ill. Let however. vague sense of depression In general or he may feel the depression and associate It definitely with A. ating exists. and going about their ordinary vocations. He may perhaps only feel a conscious of something. some dim echo. a disability which he shares with he Is able to convince himself by such experiments. or is being person Is . or he may be more distinctly aware of what Is happening. at any rate. self-absorbed. Including somnolence and the other passive as thinking of experimenting at all.CHAP. or . or occupations of the twenty-four hours. actively engaged. response. let him down a cliff. whole asleep. If B Is busy. well as active us. reverberation. Is It not conceivable that if any such sympathetic connexion between individuals as I have been postulvividly excite relatives Intimate Now . let A . . after all. provided they are successful and But now go a step further. notice nothing. Is it not conceivfrom itself able or even probable that a violent stimulus. If a paltry stimulus supplied by a third capable In the slightest degree of conveying one individual to another. not suppose them strangers. Let A B be not Let them be at a distance from one another. such as we have supposed A to receive. but friends. This Is. or an accident. and A Is not always believed. or be subject to some strong emotion let him be at the point of death. may be able to induce In B. and. fall something be run over by a horse. he may If he happen to be quiescent. C . and cause him to be more or less aware that A is suffering or perturbed. vacant. even though inattentive and otherwise occupied. and call out that A has had a fall. he may realise and be half or or moody. vi] APPLIED TELEPATHY the 87 thing depends on testimony of A.

and other past documents relating and may be of fact. called Phantasms of the Living. of it is so well established. others in the neighbourhood of of A.88 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. . persons.^ . with and diligence. the yet to lead to a valid induction. however. which are available for scrutiny. vision or picture of an event not unlike what Psychical is at the time elsewhere really happening. to confess that of testimony is sufficient to satisfy my own mind B. is so cumulative. It is not material. lastly. or he may he wakes. . and dream which will trouble him long after and written down or he may be told to other persons. to matters obituaries. They have published some The Society for in two large volumes. so vividly before his "minds eye up an image of himself and others that that he may be able to persuade sometimes a mere purposehe has seen his apparition of sometimes in a "setting" of a sort A : less phantom. Research have. regarded as trustworthy. n have a specially vivid drowned. he may conjure may think he hears A's voice or. and some in all those as to bear down the dead wall of scepticism who have submitted to the drudgery of a study of The evidence induces belief. undertaken and splendid perseverance of receiving and carried forward the thankless labour as mass of testimony to phenomena such sifting a great of them I have hinted at. or is ill. The evidence Fresh evidence comes in every month. that the weight I am prepared. copious enough as I can to the simple I cannot testify to these facts Evidence the acted I have part of C. experiments where must for spontaneous or involuntary thought-transference and received from obviously depend on statements some in the as well as from other A from B. neighbourhood Times' together with contemporary newspaper reports.

like the magnets or is it something non-physical. in thus regarding it. and exclusively psychical ? No one as yet can tell you. telepathy mind and mind a better term We may be wrong (or brain and brain). to regard it unless forced into some apparently less strengthened by the fact that the spontaneously occurring impressions can be artificially opinion is The . but as scientific men that is how we are bound by the weight of evidence tenable position. is its to assume a physical medium. What is the ? Is it through the air. danger or death of <\ 1 distant child. ment signalling key in London causes a telegraphic instruto respond instantaneously in Teheran. we can answer sure we can be that question. may be signalled.CHAR such vi] APPLIED TELEPATHY 89 do undoubtedly occur. We distance be the recipient of such a message. like the tuning forks or through the ether. plainly. to the heart of a human \ ! being fitted to call . which is so the an e very-day occurrence. just as a things < . medium of communication We about before it before not. that the distance between England and India is no barrier to the syinpathetic communication of intelligence in some way bf which we are at present ignorant that. perhaps whether the question has a attitude. which for want of we at present style thought-transference. the we do . process telepathy sympathy at a not understand it. When the attempt has failed. or brother. if and to discover it and processes possible. without wire or telegraph clerk. forced to admit the the scientific after being fact. Meanwhile. it will be time enough to enter strikes us as a spontaneous occurrence of that intercommunication between upon fresh hypotheses. meaning or Undoubtedly. or husband. must know far more .

obviously. are called experimental established. and were. we may have begun but the power. at a brain of another person efort of will excite the same the of distance-say in another part ^ JO /*pk Joderate he hears a stTond person imagines that or even in some distant place. contribute of evidence. conspicuously process. -so that this call or sees a These repeating. to be solid and verifiable in terms ot cannot answer these questions except but what I believe I wish to assert nothing mm . and really simpler form of the power. the exciting in ordinary and well after all a possessed by A. as sense new of a minds? Is it conceivably the germ the in which the human race is. point out that the brain of B a thought of minds. by to lose the spontaneous mechanism. is very known mechanism to render it possible. and thus developing the beyond savages. n to imitated by conscious attempts experimentally an who can by Individuals are known produce them.. What and I speculation. with mechanism. facts.90 an/* THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT.. Conceivably. The in the development advanced far beyond the animal civilised man has advanced of this mechanism. We have a quantity of well-arranged human race has .-something fuller destined to receive in process of evolution. exists. however.nn the intercommunion Let me. appear well t but they are require care. now is the meaning of this unexpected sym- ^^ They ^^ ^J^ apparitions. by our measure? or is it the relic of a faculty possessed was? "anirnar'ancestry before speech to intrude speculations upon you I have no wish it between this syntonic reverberation pathetic resonance. and must very valuable pieces immensely to experimental psychology.

is before long aware of it. A process. as really a more simple and direct mode of conveying an idea. How can that happen ? That is not possible to a savage it would seem to him dition. The idea mysterious. but thought-trails- . in New Zealand. which travelled between the two places. However. the piece of paper held in front of B's eyes excited in him the idea or knowledge of fact which you had com- municated to A. but when you remember what conveyed the thought was the impalpable compressions and dilatations of a gas. When you corne to analyse the . however. between idea and Pass on to another illustration. and a short time afterwards that so. I I vi] .CHAP. it not go into tedious is not really at all simple. Not even a material transfer is necessary however no matter flows along a telegraph wire. . and I do not now wish to insist on any real and essential antithesis between mind and matter. not an aerial vibration A . some direct am not sure but that . all dualism is repugnant when pressed far enough. Petersburg. you may realise I process. without this sympathy mechanical process. APPLIED TELEPATHY 91 whisper a secret to A. Tell a secret to A. neither having travelled. and that in the that process of transmission it existed for a finite space of time in this intermediate and curiously mechanical con- something of puzzlement in the we ought to consider between two minds. and discover that B. transfer of material occurred. I will details. existed for a time in the form of black scrawls on a bit It is of paper. in St. process. find B It is perfectly aware of It It sometimes has probably happened in what we are happens accustomed to consider a very commonplace fashion has told him. mysterious in reality. and the air Is undisturbed by an electric current.

substance. it is only the distance and perfection of it that is new. affected by disturbances arriving through The the ether. and the like. whether the subject case of A . no still material interpose distance pushing and pulling. The old semaphore system of signal- We ling. and by those then. or sometimes your hand works unconsciously. shut the eyes. and it is a curious state of things. as if one part of your brain was signalling to another part. it remains for farther investigation to ascertain. Then you see visions and receive impressions. in our organ of vision. ancestors of last century. the help of a telegraph or telephone wire) is an accomplished fact. sometimes of momentous character. are we quite sure whether it is a and B at all . Now. Much information. crystal vision. though it would have puzzled our And yet it is not really new. automatic writing. transmit or ideas say. as well as the heliograph method. Some practice seems necessary for this. I alone. stop the ears. and your own identity was dormant or complexed for a time. and how the process they can. B functions to be apparently combined in one individual. may be conveyed by These eye is a wink or nod . if so. Can thought be transmitted ? Experiment answers that But what the medium is. We reduced our initial three individuals to two we It is possible for the A and can reduce the two to one. n ference through the etherlal medium (with. is really a utilisa- tion of the ether for this kind of thought-transference. But in these cases of so-called sufficient to stop all . occurs. and. or indeed without. all possess an etherial receiving instrument.92 THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. It seems assisted by staring at an object such as a glass globe or crystal a slight amount of selfhypnotism probably. or even by a look. also are messages sent through the ether. clairvoyance. trance-utterance.

Action of mind on matter. and to make it the property of the world. so to speak he becomes wildly excited he begins to sing L he rushes for an arrangement of wood and catgut. take a further step. I whom . One man to has the perceptive faculty. am doubt : himself nor any other living person. . distinctly possible that the world-mind is unknown clairvoyant responding to some of which he forms a part that the real agent is neither is '. and get them to look at illegible it it . is : on mind are these things. show it - . a lost manuscript of Beethoven The ! piece of paper was What is the A Where sort of thought-transference is that? to whom the ideas originally occurred? He has been dead for years his fossilised thought has lain dormant in matter "but it only wanted a sympathetic and educated mind to perceive it. Idea. ready to be released aS too. vi] . I carry another. after If so what is not possible ? Here is a room where---* ""^ all. reaction of mat"" detent. now.CHAP. They perceive little more than a savage would perceive. Suppose 1 discover a piece of paper with scrawls on it. to one person it after but excites in them no response. commonplaces F ^^^^-**~^^*^' the thereaii . 1 may guess they are intended for something* but as they are to me hieroglyphics. do 1 call it? but . Well. it not only idea there may be a world of empjju?^' thus stored up in matter. This possibility must not be ignored in ordinary cases of apparent thought-transference. too. APPLIED TELEPATHY 93 before us not sure . But not so with all of them. 1 I really acting as both ? in it is some It cases. faintly appreciate the meaning. anc Even the others can now* fills the air with vibrations. to revive it.

y ' f/ ^^** reaching over tracts of space but deferred through of time. an old garment. there may be much of the personality of Is not the emotion felt the old master thus preserved. They may be likened to telepathy not ? . They will take their place. Understand. to see. it If happen. thought-transference. for some to understand. and But in no case without the attuned and thoughtful mind and so these things are. . retains any trace of a deceased friend Does not an represents any portion of his personality ? aid letter T ? Does not a painting ? An " old master " we Aye. : Relics again is it credible that a relic. along with other not wholly unallied and already well facts may be forced upon us. because they Is the . vi] APPLIED TELEPATHY ' oc ' ' ( H . except that it is not inconceivable. 1 things and be not unduly course. I do not regard the evidence for these things as so conclusive as for some of the other phenomena 1 have" dealt with. or perhaps a dream or picture of the event as it occurred. perhaps. THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE [SECT. vague or disquiet. as we say. The music re? it A quires incarnation. known occurrences. in an orderly universe. n I 36 appreciated by an attuned or receptive mind? issert nothing. it may take many forms.sference. but the belief in such and you perceive that the garment of superstition is already dropping from them.' CHAP. _ or imaginary sounds vague visions. sense. so to speak. if true. ''on looking at it a kind of thought-transference from the call it departed that it is for all painting differs from a piece of music in It is there constantly incarnate. a lock of hair. can be " performed " then it can be appreciated. but deferred thought.

for forbids inspection. tion As . and in that sense any amount of scepticism is not only legitimate but necessary. for ( made us stupidly and inanely our knowledge and existence is shrouded in mystery the commonplace is itself full of marvel. it is rather that which confidently asserts and dogmatisceptical things. 9$ and critical inquiry must continually be maintained. premonitions. in the it proper sense of the word. . An attitude of keen' cally denies . The kind of scepticism I deprecate is not that which sternly questions and rigorously probes. our familiarity has inappreci ative of them. and the business of science is to overcome the of : The whole forces of superstition of genuine knowledge. and positive concerning the the line where superstition Phantasms and dreams and ghosts. deters inquiry and too boundaries of knowledge begins. . by enlisting them this is in the service And when doubt that some of these forces will done I do not be found auxiliary to the sacred cause of religion itself. vi] APPLIED TELEPATHY about little . crystal-gazing. taxes on credulity they are trifles compared to things with which we are already familiar only too familiar.CHAP. hitherto. and clairvoyance the region of supersti: ? Yes. but possibly also the region of fact. but this kind It is is not true scepticism.

and had been transmitted in the usual way to the brain. perfectly easy to photograph the virtual image formed : by a Still. We and wholly an affair of the subconsciousness. it would indicate a step in advance of telepathy " establish one variety of what are called physical phenomena. without the. so that the impression had probably become received by the optical apparatus of the eye. and without the percipient in He may the least understanding! think that the impression in the to mind touch Is real. a strong emotion even in a distant person may produce an echo or reverberation in the mind of a relative or even a sympathetic stranger. of conscious purpose we think may sometimes occur has any objective or physical are not sure indeed that the unconsciously too. It would not prove substantiality since of course it is . and positive acceptance in the way that telepathy has done. It. and may only be undeceived by trying he or may perceive that it is no more real . analogous to the image or impression caused in one person while another is endeavouring to transfer the image of an That which experimentally is found to occur object. in truth. . in that the ether of space had been definitely affected In a certain way also. genuine photography would looking-glass." There is. in the least conscious of what is happening.98 SPONTANEOUS TELEPATHY [SECT. But we are at present not attending to physical need not assume that an apparition phenomena. . agent being the process. an impression on the mind of a percipient. their claim to clear We It may be only reality. consciousness or will power of the agent has anything to do with it the transfer is effected we know not how. a vast amount of evidence for physical phenomena of this technically but they have not yet made good supernormal kind . it may be If so.

CHAP, vn]



the Image in a or not so real as that, looking-glass, and yet may feel certain that it corresponds to some sort of psychical reality somewhere.
the impression is called veridical or because it does convey real information, though it does so in a phantasmal or unreal manner. Hallucinations need not necessarily be unreal or


that case

every case that is a matter for further but it does investigation, assuredly clear the ground to treat them as such in the first instance.



Examples of apparitions seen by relatives at or very near to the epoch of death are so common that it is hardly worth while to quote any here. The publications of the Society for Psychical Research and the

family history. Part of the scepticism which has surrounded the subject has been undoubtedly due to the difficult notions which are rendered necessary if those apparitions are to be supposed Even supposing objective realities. a human being could thus appear, the apparition of his


book Phantasms of the Living are full of them and in most assemblages it will be found that a few of those are aware of cases of this kind in their present

sketched in as it were, as for instance part of a ship in the case of a sailor. All these difficulties sink into non-

and simplest accessories must thus become Sometimes such figures are seen puzzling. accompanied by animals, sometimes with their surroundings lightly

existence directly it is apprehended that the vision is a mental impression produced by a psychical Agency,
veridical in the sense of

corresponding to







or less closely, but subjective In the sense of there being no actual bodily presence. This is the kind of ration-

theory on which the Society for Psychical Research started its existence it must have been the hope of similarly detecting an element of common sense

running through a great variety of popular legend that conferred on its pioneers the motive power necessary.
that was their adopted theory, and accordingly such apparitions were in the first instance supposed to be due to telepathy from the dying person and were called Phantasms of the Living.



The following is an extract from a Report of one of the Committees: There is strong testimony \h%& clairvoyants have witnessed and described trivial incidents in which they had no special interest, and even scenes in which the actors, though actual persons, were complete strangers to them and such cases seem properly assimilated to those where they describe mere places and objects, the idea of which can hardly be supposed to be impressed on them by any personality at all Once

more, apparitions at death, though the fact of death sufficiently implies excitement or disturbance in one mind, have often been witnessed, not only by relatives or friends, in a normal state but interested in the event a case above considered but by other observers who had no personal interest in the matter.
secure testimony on these topics we have had to depend on the co-operation of the public, and we have


sought far and wide for trustworthy testimony, which we have tested in a stringent manner, never resting satisfied until by inquiry and pertinacious cross-examination, with an examination of contemporary records of various kinds, we have made as sure as is humanly possibly that our witnesses were neither lying nor drawing unduly on their imagination, but that the event happened pretty much as they have narrated or at the time recorded them.

CHAP, vn]



Phantasms of the Dying" might be a better name very numerous cases of apparition or veridical hallucination. Whatever the cause, the fact of their
for these


existence has been thoroughly established there Is a concordance far beyond chance between apparitions which convey the impression of the unexpected death or illness of a distant person, and the actual fact the intelligence being, in this form, impressed on a percipient at a dis;


tance, by some apparently unconscious mental and by means at present unknown.


As an instance of a vision with appropriate accessories I might take a case reported more fully in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, vol. iii. page 97 the case of a favourite and devoted Scottish workman who in what is appeared to his
described as an extraordinarily vivid dream in which the workman appeared with a face of "indescribable bluish pale colour and on his forehead spots like blots of sweat," and said several times

he had not done the thing which he was accused of When doing. asked what this was, he replied impressively " Yell sune ken." Almost immediately afterwards the news of this man's suicide arrived. But the employer felt assured on the strength of his vision that, though

dead, the man had not committed suicide ; and said so. Before long turned out that his assurance was correct, for the workman had drunk from a bottle containing nitric acid by accident. The employer

moreover subsequently ascertained that the symptoms exhibited by the phantasmal appearance were such as are appropriate to poisoning by
this liquid,


in vol. vii.

Another case of vision with more detailed accessories page 33, communicated by Dr. Hodgson,

and may be abbreviated thus

Mrs. Paquet on the morning of October 24th, 1889, after he* husband had gone to work and the children to school, feeling gloomy, was making some tea for herself, when she saw a vision of her brother,


standing only a few

[SECT, in
her report

Edmund Dunn,
continues " The

away; and

apparition stood with back toward me, or rather, partially so,

and was

in the act of falling forward away from me seemingly im a of or two pelled by ropes loop rope drawing against his legs. The vision lasted but a moment, disappearing over a low railing or bulwark,

but was very



dropped the

and exclaimed,

My God



tea, clasped drowned.'


hands to


from half-past ten a.m. my husband received a telegram arrived he When brother. the of my announcing Chicago drowning home, he said to me, Ed. is sick in hospital at Chicago ; I have just received a telegram,' to which I replied Ed. is drowned ; I saw him 3 I then gave him a minute description of what I had go overboard. seen. I stated that my brother, as I saw him, was bareheaded, had on

"At about

a heavy, blue sailor's shirt, no coat, and that he went over the rail or I noticed that his pants' legs were rolled up enough to show bulwark. the white lining inside. 1 also described the appearance of the boat
at the point



brother went overboard.



not nervous, and neither before nor since have

had any

experience in the least degree similar to that above related, " My brother was not subject to fainting or vertigo.


10.30 o'clock a.m., October 24th, 1889, I received a from telegram Chicago; announcing the drowning of my brother-in-law, Edmund Dunn, at 3 o'clock that morning. I went directly home, .and wishing to break the force of the sad news I had to convey to my wife, * I said to her : Ed. is sick in hospital at Chicago ; I have just received a telegram. 1 To which she replied Ed, is drowned ; I saw him go overboard.' She then described to me the appearance and dress of

"At about

her brother as described in her statement, also the appearance of the
boat, etc.

"I started at once for Chicago, and when I arrived there I found the appearance of that part of the vessel described by my wife to be
exactly as she

had described


though she had never seen the vessel j
of her brother's dress, etc,

and the crew


wife's description

except that they thought he had his hat on at the time of the accident They said that Mr. Dunn had purchased a pair of pants a few days before the accident occurred, and as they were a trifle long, wrinkling

CHAP, vn]
at the knees,

he had worn them rolled up showing the white


as seen





"On October 24th, 1889, Edmund Dunn, brother of Mrs. Agnes Paquetj was serving as fireman on the tug Wolf, a small steamer engaged At about three o'clock a.m., in towing vessels in Chicago harbour.
the tug fastened to a vessel, inside the piers, to tow her up the river. While adjusting the tow-line Mr. Dunn fell, or was thrown overboard

by the


and drowned."

In this case,

must have

3 a.m, signifies Chicago time, the followed the accident very closely



has gradually become clear that some of these cases do not coincide precisely with the epoch of death, but follow it sometimes at so long an interval that " Phantasms of the another group has to be classified as


(See Mrs. Sidgwick's Memoir on the subject in

Proceedings vol.


Again occasionally the hallucinations are collective, It so that several people present see the same vision. is possible to consider these as cases of contagious


not usually necessary to suppose whose image was being seen knew anything about it or was making any conscious effort to communicate. If indeed he were conscious of the attempt, still more if he knew of its success and reception, it would be a




the distant person

feature of greatly added interest it would then the class of reciprocal cases which are rarer.







fact that

such visions can also be produced

through the agency of living people even in health' was proved by the experiments conducted by Mr. S.


B., as

[SECT, in


recorded in Phantasms of the Xwing,
ar*d In





Personality^ vol.




This gentleman willed himself or rather his phantom to appear to two ladies, without their knowing of the experiment; and he succeeded in his intention. They both saw him simultaneously, though he did not see
them, and his appearance was as of one in evening dress wandering aimlessly about their room, after the traditional manner of " This experimental ghosts," production of a ghost is a particularly instructive case

and many ghostly appearances belong


to living people,


usually unconscious


any such

There appears

to be

they are producing no reason why

an apparition should always be of a deceased person. But whether every apparition is of this unsubstantial and purely subjective order, or whether a few proceed to a further degree of reality and belong to what are sometimes spoken of as incipient materialisation, I do
not at this stage even discuss. It is sufficient to indicate that a true does not close the door hypothesis to other and more extended ones, if the first is found

incompetent to explain


the facts.

For the convenient analogy of conscious and purposed Thought-transference must not be pressed too far. Our phenomena break through any attempt to group them under heads of purposely transferred impression and the words Tel&sthesia and Telepathy were introduced by Mr. Myers to cover all cases of impression

received at a distance without the normal operation of the recognised sense organs. These general terms are found of permanent service but as regards what is for the present included under them, we must limit and arrange our material rather with an eye to convenience, than Ivith any belief that our classification will a fundamental

ultimately prove





No true demarcation, In fact, can as yet be made between one class of those experiences and another; we need the record of as many and as diverse phenomena as we can get, if we are to be in a position to deal satisfactorily with any one of them.
cover a wide range of essentially different phenomena, and the hallucinatory but veridical kind of apparition, which has no close con-


" ghost" popular term


nexion with any particular place>


the best established

and commonest


kind of ghost associated with a place say a room, and seen by any one who happens to sleep in that room, provided he is fairly wakeful and not too





constitutes a against weird influences, difficult and at present somewhat unsatisfactory region The evidence for the existence of this of inquiry. " fixed local" kind of apparition is strong, but hardly conclusive; and this kind is not included among those

phantasms of the living" nor among hallucinations due to telepathy from the injured or dying. The Society has not had the opportunity of investiconsiderable gating so-called haunted houses in any number and many of such cases even when reported resolve themselves merely into uncanny noises such as may be accounted for in one of a great many different




would not be understood as expressing any

of this class of opinion as to the actual occurrence phantom our study of it as yet has been insufficient, but of the occurrence of visions which coincide fairly in time with some severe shock to the person represented,


impossible for



entertain a


man needs slvant thus deserts the field. m The mony. . as never grow until it mined avoidance. far more directly brought whose dicta mastered by specialists to in realms already with the tacts. to interpret left to individual taste or temperament a solid mass seen in twilight Our Evidence is no which it may m _ . to sitt and such testimony over a wide range of persons. the vaguely fascinated regard of futile as the savant s deterfor all scientific purposes. impossible to of knowledge facts form a foundation for the beginning . concerning them. the ordinary of the testimony to have the nature and true amount than is necessary to home him. the in the position which zoology and botany occupied time of Hippocrates. but only which men may indeed avoid stumbling And when the bv resolutely walking away from it. We of testimony have thus accumulated a great body which it is . time of Aristotle. be but more resembles over. and examine and test it by every means to the pubhc.tod SPONTANEOUS TELEPATHY [SECT. or nosology in the or methodical treatises Aristotle had no zoological gardens fishhe was obliged to go down to the to refer to and could tell. in is at present very much in fact. then to record it in volumes accessible on human evidence must certainly depend taken to collect been but immense trouble has testi- Those who have been chiefly occupied as work are able to testify concerning it for years m this follows : I hese overlook or to discard. in our power. look at whatever they could bring _Ihis spirit to him hearing omnivorous inquiry no doubt exposed but plainly the untrue or was that much exaggerated been upbuilt without science of zoology could not have shifting shadow. to hear whatever the ol him. this subject For. he may defer. Failing this direct contact the ordinary public is. . sailors market. Knowledge can these "Do you believe is realised that the question the unless it has been preceded by things?"" is puerile ? What do you know about them inquiry.

Men of science are wont to make it an objection to this quest that phenomena cannot be reproduced under our own conditions or at our own time. . still more striking parallel to the phenomena of which we are in quest. The ^exhibited by men ordinarily clear-headed is surely a striking example of the prepotence of prejudice over here looseness of thought only one concerned with phenomena which are at present to a large extent irreproducible all the sciences of life are still within that and all : education. APPARITIONS to/ . sciences it once. Will the objectors assert that all aberrations of function and degenerations of tissue are reproducible by direct experiment ? Can physicians secure a case of cancer or Addison's disease by any previous arrangement of conditions ? Our science is no means the by whatever were in category. vnj it.CHAP. Diseases afford a.

writing executed independently of the full knowledge and consciousness of the operator the hand acting in obedience either to some unconscious portion of the operator's mind. Is that the writer's unconscious intelligence xoB . or else responding less distinct to some other psychical influence it more or from both his normal and his hypernormal personality. speech voice and occasionally the person whose hand or being used for is is himself completely entranced one or two hours together. of which automatic writing that is. deny its occurrence. but of unconscious . The simplest assumption. and one that covers perhaps a majority of the facts. many surmises are legitimate but is it useless and merely ignorant to respecting it. and probably and unconscious in different cases the source is different. Sometimes takes the form not of writing. There is evidently a great deal to be learned about this and phenomenon. but whence the information is derived is uncertain. It is often quite clear that parts of the writings or speech so obtained do not represent the normal knowledge of the automatist.CHAPTER VIII TELEPATHY FROM AN IMMATERIAL REGION we THE the phenomenon upon a consideration of which shall shortly enter Is that exhibited in several forms and known under is simplest perhaps various names.

so that the things which influence the person are apparently no longer the ordinary events which affect his peripheral organs. ordinarily used portions are really dormant or no. a condition of unconscious and and subject to a sort of hyper- It has long been known that in order to achieve remarkable results in any department of intellectual activity. vm] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY his in 109 is or subliminal self dream or genius stratum at work that he is subliminal lucidity. and though probably some part of his brain Is in a state of great activity. To but It Is not as effective for brilliant When a poet or musician or mathematician feels himself Inspired. called genius. his senses are at least his commondulled or half place and non-relevant attention is asleep. I am not aware of any directed to test which that experiments part is. It would be interesting. but either . thotigh the automatic processes of the body go on with greater perfection than usual. any of the more whether. achievement. but difficult. to ascertain the precise physio- logical accompaniments of that which Is called a brown study. the conscious or noticing aspect of the mind is latent. the mind must be to some extent unaware of be keenly awake and "on passing the spot" is a highly valued accomplishment. nor in when that state.CHAP. and on a on a small scale larger scale a period of Inspiration. It does not seem unreasonable to suppose that the state is somewhat allied to the initial condition of anaesthesia the somnambulic condition in which. and for the ordinary purposes of mundane affairs Is a far more useful state of mind than the rather hazy and absorbed condition which Is associated with the quality of mind occurrences. aesthesia.

higher in some instances. as is well known. by purposed inattention and also that a receptive or clairvoyant condition occurs occasionally without provocation. or during trance. during sleep and during All these states seem to some extent allied. by crystal gazing. trance. Well now. who seek to attain to the appearance of genius by the easy process of assuming or encouraging an attitude of vacancy and There may be all grades of result attained uselessness. the half-asleep person seems to receive impressions from a different stratum altogether .g^ by drugs. or displayed automatically ? The most striking cases of which I am now . perhaps. by hypnosis.no TELEPATHY OR CLAIRVOYANCE else [SECT. Mr. In a man of genius the state comes on of and the results are astounding. usually young. There are found occasionally feeble persons. always business-like wide-awake person receives impressions from every trivial detail of his The mind whereas a receptive but the physical surroundings. and. but different always from those received in their every-day state. What is the source of the intelligence manifested during epochs of clairvoyant lucidity. the question arises. Myers has elaborated their relationship in his series of articles on the subliminal consciousness. lower in some instances. while in this state. . in something internal or the ordinarily something not belonging to all. as sometimes experienced in the hypnotic or the somnambulic state. known is physical universe at in state. by ordinary men itself. e. and the state itself is of less than no value unless it is justified by the results. By experiment and observation it has now been established that a state not altogether dissimilar to this can be induced by artificial means.

are the trance state of Mrs.e. herself when in the trance state asserts that she it She gets by conversing with the deceased friends is and relatives of people present. of hers. Piper in the trance state is undoubtedly (I use word in the strongest sense. slight mutterings qf onesided questions and replies are heard. i. very like the mutterings of a person in sleep imctergoing a vivid 4ream* . that a genuine opinion like that to her process unconscious or subconscious mind the part of her which used to call itself Phinuit and now calls itself that this And the feels Rector" I am fully prepared to believe. Piper and the automatism of such writers as Mrs. Without apparent lulling of attention at assured of the possibility of all I any am experimentally between one mind especially striking. " Conversation implies speaking with the mouth.CHAP. I have absolutely no more doubt on the subject than I have of my friends' ordinary knowledge trance of me and Piper's personality is to which she has no kind of ordinarily recognised clue. undoubtedly aware of other much But how does she get this knowledge ? nothing. and will conveying Information another without the aid of ordinary sense organs. and but the cases mentioned are serve to narrow the field to what. Verrall and Mrs. all. men). after points. vni] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY in immediately or mediately cognisant. arid when receiving or asking information she Is momentarily in a deeper slumber. and of which in her ordinary state she knows Mrs. speech. But that does not carry us very far towards a knowledge of what the process actually is. Holland. and not occupied in nornlal At times. may be considered at present the main the Mrs. or are Written. indeed.

the locomotory. this point On Newnham away from her hand and letting it be her subconscious or by some other mind. But. It is natural to ask. is being mental and muscular. " " . that she quite question difficult to answer. she is so . 63 is of assistance. m approach is certainly the ordinary person's nearest to the entranced condition and the fading of . an automatic writer quoted in Phantasms of the Living. p. guided by The instructive feature about this case was that the minds apparently influencing the hand were not so conscious mind much those of dead as of living people. The advantage . distinctly a different sort of person. vol. . instead of a nearly passive dream. Is she still herself? calls herself at all resemble her mind. Piper out of the trance. unless But it is a herself be defined. It is her mouth that is speaking. I find it difficult to discuss the question whether she or another person is the waking experience of Mrs. mainly only partially She is in a state of somnambulism in which the activity. recollection as the conscious memory returns is also paralleled by the waking of -Mrs. however. In her case the hand wrote matter not in the writer's mind and which she did not feel that she was writing. and I suppose her brain and nerves are workbut they are not worked in the ing the muscles nor does the mind manifested thereby customary way. i. Her hand wrote while she was taking the attention of her own really speaking.02 TELEPATHY OR CLAIRVOYANCE Dream [SECT. Until. or her hand which is writing. the meaning of identity can be accurately specified. it is more nearly allied to the somnambulic state though . far from chiefly mind is is more active than the so different body and the activity from her ordinary activity. appropriately by another name.

is deliberately writing . any untrained people can control their thoughts what they seem able more than in dreams. signature of an automatisms hand is equivalent to the assertion that Miss X. portion. Piper in the trance reports conversations which she has had with Phinuit's other minds (usually in deceased). ciprocally conscious. it did not represent of which they were consciously thinking. vra] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY 1 1 3 was that they could be catechised afterwards about their share in the transaction and it then appeared that they either knew nothing about it or were surat it for prised though the communication did correof this . Phinuifs statement is equally an assertion that " The 8 . When state. if by any portion at all. They did not to exercise control over the messages. minds both living and dead (by one apparently as it . and a very approximate rendering of wishing to convey. for instance. that the connexion is never re- two persons are talking. nor need their conscious mind (if they have any) be active in the the and even when come from those process. Phinuit then. need not be so. or Mrs. but not by a conscious portion of the mind of any one by the subconscious or dreamy . this will But we must not jump to the conclusion that always be the case . spond to anything was only might be something in their minds. Since the living communicant is not aware of what is being dictated. so the dead person need not be consciously operative and thus conceivably the hand of the automatist may be influenced by minds other than his own.CHAP. as when but it shows that at any rate readily as by the other). .. case voice with persons changes and very people apparently messages themselves. it does not follow that they themselves are necessarily aware of the fact.

. the over-confident and presumptuous deniers. but of themselves. E.04 TELEPATHY OR CLAIRVOYANCE . persons say I here wish to express investigate denials which it unless they choose. properly to be between brain and brain. and the distant conceivably be purely psychological. They It may be for lack of opportunity. Is deliberately speaking and the one statement may be no more a He than the other Is a forgery. or a is action the that shown be syntonic sympathetic connexion between a pair of minds. from its psychological instead of from itg physiological side. must not too readily assume that the apparent action of one mind on another is really such an action. is interchange or one-sided reception 1 venture further to certain." yet neither need be what or possibility of distant of thoughts exists. some Anima Mundi to which all ordinary minds are If it could related and by which they are influenced. expressed as that That this community of mind it without any hypothesis. come from a central mind The . discredit. not of the phenomena thus ignorantly denied. and clear to me perfectly who deny the bare fact. redound to the in or henceforth. but it may as some think more likely. m Mr. We come from the ostensible impression received may come from a third person or again it agent. it may be subject inclination of lack for they are by no means bound to . may. then it might be surmised that the action is a physical one. and is ordinarily called "true. but any dogmatic such persons may now perpetrate -will the very near future. intervention of the not stimulated be brain may by but in some more imanything physical or material mediate manner. are not studied the facts of the have simply ignorant. the action may or body and body. expressed as occurring directly the other On hand. [SECT.

and they should if possible be unaware of tb& variation which is under test. to . and the thought of A may be said to exist for a finite time as an etherial or aerial quiver before it reproduces a similar with experimentally. but. in order to test whether in any given Cfc^e such variation occurs. This last condition is desirable because of the sensitiveness of the sub-consciousness to suggestion: If the percipient got an idea self-suggestion and other. that distance or interposed screens were detrimental^ most would be detrimental and although a suggestion might be artificially instilled that distance was advantageous. thought in the mind of B. or does it not? Guesses at a priori likelihood are worthless if the question is to be answered it must be attacked . that such an the effect is a physical one it should vary according to some law of distance. communicates way in which through a certain physical mechanism. 6r it should depend on the nature of the inter- vening medium. is scouted as absurd or at least violently improbable. likely they . We A Well. without physical mechanism. this would hardly leave the test quite fair.CHAP. Now the ordinary A B is have got so accustomed the existence of this intermediate physical process that instead of striking us as roundabout and puzzling it and any more appeals to us as natural and simple direct action of on B. it is necessary to have both agent and percipient in an unusually dependable condition. . and perhaps within the range of a crucial experiment it is But it may be at once admitted If experiment is difficult of execution. vra] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY question is tf $ if The expressed: Does quite a definite one the action take place properly through a physical medium. it is merely a question of fact.

vol. of telepathy physical or not? (1) Is the mechanism The less It second question of which I am thinking is one easy to state and far less easy (as I think) to resolve. Some of the recent experiments conducted by Miss that to in Physics to look to some other Miles and Miss Rarnsden (Proc. m the lessened physical stimulus might perhaps be Still over-utilised by the more keenly excited organism.H6 for TELEPATHY OR CLAIRVOYANCE [SECT. xxL pp. or as two separate questions (2) Is the power of operating on the minds of terrestrial persons confined to living terrestrial people ? on or interfering with (3) Is the power of operating the rest of the material bodies ? I physical universe confined to living should conjecture that an affirmative answer to Question i would render likely an affirmative answer to Questions 2 and 3 . tend to support such a contention. in India when the percipient London. India or America and England. or in the then I should feel that of the source. two parts. say. in may be . then. or vice vers&. 60-93) This. would be an instructive experience if the agent was. stated thus. it and others to be tried among that is an experiment . is the first question on which crucial experiments are desirable though difficult.. but that a negative answer to . It is some day was in he thought of a extremely desirable to probe this question mode of communication in cases physical or non-physical of telepathy and if the fact can be established beyond doubt that sympathetic communication occurs between . or places as distant as the terrestrial antipodes. being unfelt between. neighbourhood I this was so unlike what we are accustomed should be strongly urged and more direct kind of mental relationship as the clue.

then no of the necessarily associated doubt the surface of one planetary masses must be the scene of its if any kind of mental action is independent activity of material or physical environment. The existence of a bat. vin] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY i 117 . but I see no a priori reason for making scientific assertions on the subject one way or the other. immense action it is conspicuous on the earth If life I should expect to find existent elsewhere. in time. Just because we know that the earth is peopled with an there variety of living beings. answers. know terrestrial people. or a lobster. It is only at present a matter of probability. but to the surface of material aggregates or globes of matter. but may luxuriate either in the interstellar spaces orl . faced. Whether there is life is on other planets we do not know. . living terrestrial people we know that there is an immense variety of other though. that renders the strict scientific statement of Questions 2 and 3 so difficult Yet they are questions which must be ought to be susceptible. and whether conscious existence between the planets we do not know. then it may con-^ ceivably be that the psychical population is not limited many . and with a expect So also since mental still more extraordinary variety. . as many would hold. Question so far as would leave 2 and 3 3 entirely open we at present people with material exist. if we were not so familiar with . and bodies. would be quite incredible. probability or almost certainty. and they of receiving definite That there are we the also know terrestrial life fact. for instance. may be the only people who or. is with a material carcase. because^ It is this possibility. the luxuriant prevalence and variety of life would be surprising. I myself should rather to find other regions many-peopled.CHAP.

nS In TELEPATHY OR CLAIRVOYANCE some undimensional form [SECT. Whether it be true or not. surviving friends. generally intelli- if handwriting of the deceased person. But the negative proof of on the of the writer is difficult. mainly from deceased relatives. in of existence of which we have no conception. reproduced accurately by an automatist who has never seen that handwriting. but often also from strangers. and others. seems an exceptionally good test facts the if Of such be obtained. But granted the fact of the question ceases to be an idle one. weight. is a crucial or test is experiment possible. to settle whether this claim well founded Mere sentimental traits of the deceased. communications purporting to come from minds not now . reported in a correct and . ( associated with terrestrial matter. The utterances of Phinuit. Stainton Moses. ignorance part it can At known first sight facts known if to the deceased but not to the automatist. Very or not ? well then . are occasionally received by living persons. may be able to communicate with us sort of process as that by the same by which we are now learning to be able to communicate with each other.. abound with A. if they any sense exist. it has been constantly and vehemently asserted as a fact that such communications. conveying personal though frequently convincing to cannot be allowed much scientific definite or Something more must be sought gible . less of verification or disproof. Were it not for the fact of telepathy the entire question would be an idle one. the handwriting of Miss Mr. messages. a speculation based on still nothing and apparently incapable of examination. because telepathy it is In just possible that these other intelligences.

But still. some time after upon by Croon. begins to operate the for if the facts are known to nobody on other way earth they cannot perhaps be verified and if they are . vm] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY 119 detailed manner so seem a has stood us in good stead so far. carefully deposited. necessary to " assume possible that they were when a miser having died with the sole clue to a deposit of " valuables. pay for a silver service . Podmore has person writing the document or burying the treasure may have been ipso facto an unconscious agent on the minds of contemporaries.CHAP. CASE OF APPARENTLY POSTHUMOUS ACTIVITY One and of the most remarkable instances of this kind. for. to was called Stockholm. over the miser's or when a signature. as to surpass mere coincidence. The test deciphered. which satisfactory test known be it to is somebody still alive " however it distant he may unconsciously telepathed from his mind. living telepathy of a deferred kind excluded (though to improbable). But a certain class of facts may be verified without as the assistance or knowledge of any living person. a goldsmith. one. . Madame bassador in Herteville (Marteville). the widow of the Dutch Amthe death of het husband. subsequently describes the place . posthumously in either of these cases is a better is is not my thinking it is rendered extremely often urged. and one in which Swedenborg acted as thus described by Kant in a letter cautious little book on published as an Appendix to his translated into English clairvoyance which has been a Dreams under the title. the as Mr. sealed document. of Spirit Seer." an automatist's hand. the Medium. one which fortunately received the attention of the is is philosopher Kant. would But here telepathy.

Swedenborg to call at her house. when a secret compartment would be disclosed. he would perhaps have the kindness to ask her husband how it was about the silver service. deferred master apparently posthumous from the living burgotelepathy deferred from the time when he was engaged in storing the papers perhaps still more in this case because they were not stored with any view of subsequently disclosing their hiding place. yet she was unable to find this In her sorrow.e. so that dead. as well as the receipt. his decease. as all people say. she receipt. in accordance with his description. Swedenborg said that her husband had described to him. strains this all contemporaries are necessarily of telepathic . The bureau was opened. and the receipt was in a bureau in the lady replied that the bureau had been quite cleared out. Swedenborg called. requested Mr. The widow was convinced that her late husband had been much too precise and orderly not to have paid this debt. and to the great astonishment of all. the papers were discovered there. they did as they were directed . he possessed the extraordinary gift of conversing with the souls of the departed. Postponement of the apparently posthumous action for more than a century. It is difficult to attribute this activity to i. Swedenborg did not at all object to comply with her request Three days afterward the said lady had company at her house for coffee. and in his cool way informed her that he had conversed with her husband. The debt had been paid several months before upstairs. the compartment was found.120 TELEPATHY OE CLAIRVOYANCE [SECT. sort breaking point The hardly within the reach of purposed experiment of and or objects storage messages is. of which no one had ever known before . m which her husband had purchased from him. After apologising to him for troubling him. she said that if. hearing this description the whole company arose and accom- panied the lady into the room upstairs. responsible people ought to write and deposit specific documents. which required to be drawn out. how after pulling out the left-hand drawer a board would appear. and that the receipt was not found among all the papers. room The Upon containing his private Dutch correspondence. and because the amount was considerable. for the purpose of posthumously communicating them to more in fact to explanation 'still but such an event is .

they can That such forgetfulness is always strongly presented of force sufficient to prevent documents with my friends. That the test may fail. As a negative experiment. in the hope that after his death its contents might be given by communication through some medium. Sir Oliver Lodge invited the Members Council and a few other Members of the Society to the Society's Rooms at 20 Hanover Square to witness the opening of a sealed envelope which had been sent to him by Mr. . repetition. is manifested by the following record which has already been more than sufficiently published and has become well known. into what seemed to be a clear and definite statement of what was contained in Sir Oliver Lodge's envelope. and gradually developed. Myers.CHAP. which is perhaps a considerable demand. and also. care that taking they do not forget the contents themselves. some of which appeared to' 'be and . VHI] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY If 121 some one taking all reasonable precautions against fraud and collusion. forget their contents itself to extremely probable has my mind. to this posthumous note had begun vaguely. OPENING OF AN ENVELOPE CONTAINING A POSTHUMOUS NOTE LEFT BY MR. 1904. reproduce the judicial statement in the Journal of it is the Society. MYERS On December of the i3th. owing either to this or to some other reason. were mixed up with writing. and has been depositing any of these am sure that I should my I forget even that I had written and if reminded should be hopelessly confused anything as to which sentence I had placed in which envelope. however. so I my business not to slur it over in any way. It had been decided to open it because various statements made in Mrs. Myers in January 1891 (nearly fourteen years ago). VerralPs automatic script during the last three years had led her to infer that it contained a certain The apparent references phrase. The with some * references to the envelope purported to come from Mr.

after making a statement regarding it and reading Mrs. The only way to avoid chance coincidence is to determine beforehand whether " " count or not . Verrairs statement of what she believes to be in it. be mistaken. inasmuch as I wish the event to be known and "counted. especially with a statement publication of Personality that a certain passage would be found in that book when published. to ascertain its amount. of which the annexed is Mariemont) Edgbaston^ December 1904 probably known to you that some years ago F. December 13th. I propose that this shall count. if there is partial agreement. because I think it desirable that one or two outsiders should be present. but the advantage of it is that it is definite. or. The envelope has been for some time deposited in a bank. but I propose to have it handed back to me some time this week. W. and find a general consensus of opinion that it is time now to open the envelope and verify or disprove the agreement . Myers deposited with me an envelope containing some sort of writing or It is message. must be underwood that the proceedings are confidential. to open it in the presence of a sufficient number of witnesses. in written before the relating to other topics. at 4 p. December i3th. subject to any given event shall anything that between now and may happen then. and. of course. and then. therefore. I have taken advice. It now appears that she believes herself to have received messages or indications as to the contents of this envelope.. Verrall developed the faculty of automatic writing soon after Myers's death. in the rooms of the Society for Psychical Research. and that the question of subsequent publication Council or the Society. 20 Hanover Square. at 4 p.m. to be posthumously deciphered if possible. That being so. it was hoped that the account given by the envelope might turn out equally correct. This impression of hers may. and to bring it up to London on Tuesday. and that the envelope shall then be opened. and she is able to put into writing what she thinks the contents of the envelope will be found to be. I invite you. H.m.122 TELEPATHY OR CLAIRVOYANCE Human [SECT. if Society It you think fit. This having been verified. to come to the rooms of the on Tuesday." whether it turn out successful or the reverse. script of the contents of the The meeting was summoned by a a copy : circular. It is also known to you that Mrs. must be reserved for the OLIVER LODGE . I do not propose to do it at a Council meeting.

Moreover. things unknown to any person living or dead may be read or inspected.CHAP. The existence of such a power as this. they are done if ever they are done by clairvoyance . however. vin] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY 123 Mrs. the knowledge should act as a gratuitously hostile or debilitating suggestion. allowance must be made for some extraordinary possibility of hyperaes- . then. decipher the unknown figures that in that collocation they have never been inspected by man. even if this disappointing. or a handful of alphabet letters or figures grasped from a box (p. On the envelope being opened. 221). the proof to us of mental " action on the part of the deceased "agent would still be incomplete. be reported that this one experiment completely failed. communication of the contents of a sealed envelope had been successfully achieved. such as a piece of print torn at random out of an unread newspaper and sealed up. is read in some unknown or fourth-dimensional manner by the subliminal self. it was found that there was no resemblance between its actual contents and what was alleged by the script to be contained in it. for it may be that telepathy is not the right kind of explanation of these things at all it may be that It has. it might be unwise to tell an automatist who is endeavouring to . . that the document. can be separately tested because. And in trying this experiment a negative conclusion must not be jumped at too readily. if straightforward clairvoyance is possible. though still sealed or enclosed in metal. however. But even when such things are read. A positive answer might be definite enough a negative answer can only be a probability. to . and it cannot be denied that the failure is But after all. Verrall first reported to the meeting the conclusions she had been led to form concerning the envelope from her own sdripts and read the apparently relevant passages.

provided the circumis stances are such as to make a sensitive kind of direct perception not altogether improbable. and that other more hypothetical kind which has been suspected as occurring between discarnate people. m thesla be that of feeling on the part of the person who sealed them up. .R. If telepathy ever occurs from a supra-mundane and immaterial region. if If the process there are of any. to : But from the scientific point of view there Is clearly all the difference In the world between recognised telepathy. viL. forced hypothesis. and living ordinary experimental telepathy were ever ascertained to be a direct action of brain on brain.124 TELEPATHY OR CLAIRVOYANCE whether It [SECT. Intelligences. but in common practice the term M often applied also to the more numerous cases when some kind of telepathy is possible. however the process of transmission should turn out at If. but I will not quote any of the instances there given. or of a kind of X-ray vision on the part of the clairvoyant. The term clairvoyance ought strictly to be reserved for direct apprehension of hidden things without aid from any human knowledge. vol. to a psychological action directly between mind and mind. or some other even more rs. such as has been proved to occur between one living person and another. that is to say from a discarnate mind not possessed of a brain. it may be difficult or impossible And indeed distinguish it from clairvoyance. so that the brains at that is be a purely psychical one.P. then acceptance of the other more hypothetical kind of telepathy would be almost forbidden any rate would be rendered extremely difficult. Sidgwick's paper on the evidence for real clairvoyance is in the Proceedings. no discrimination be would that probably necessary " " may be what second-sight or clairvoyance really is. S.

may not be the correct one. if attention is concentrated upon those obvious instruments alone. But the real arrangement Is more elaborate than that a battery or dynamo In the cellar has to be taken into and the actual process of transmission involves account. verification. . . I am speaking of ordinary telegraphy there is no need to distinguish it from " wireless. It matter at conveyed etherially. vm] IMMATERIAL TELEPATHY are 125 only the instruments of record s and then the possibility of a transfer of thought between minds unprovided with these appliances or between one such mind and an embodied mind is not at all inconceivable. method of communication. The distinction here drawn. is though It is sent and received and interpreted by matter. first 'All Is that the For telegraphy had been carried on commercially for . of course. mission is a physical process. may be illustrated by reference to the facts of telegraphy : In ordinary telegraphy the message manifestly goes somehow from signalling key to receiving galvanometer . each end that effort which for some years now the Society has been patiently making. and. It still has to be established. I am not denying of course that telegraphic trans- I imply by the parable impression of a spectator or critic/ that telepathy Is a physiological process effected direct between brain and brain. and what may strike us as a more recondite Is and unexpected. The message all. and some of the results so far attained will be dealt with in Section IV. between a comparatively customary.CHAP. and the difficulty of proof is still very great but the effort towards such a It proof is a legitimate one. it might be thought that there was some direct mechanical connexion between them. not by can cross vacuum with perfect ease." in this particular. some fairly recently discovered properties of the ether of space.

[SECT. of Ether. Perhaps It cannot be stated even in terms The whole idea or imagery of space-relations In respect of mind may be misleading.126 TELEPATHY OR CLAIRVOYANCE it . before hardly Is process which easily and quickly intelligible . nor Is It In the least certain that the mode of transmission can be stated in terms of matter. in was properly understood and even now there must remain many things to be discovered about we have a it So It is likely that In telepathy years. .

then said it was like an oval di&fa . drew a triangle with her finger in the Object drawn. vol. and asked her to describe it. xl page 192 which" she tried in November 1890 with her daughter. who was then a child aged 7^ years.'s forehead. EL AGED 7| YEARS Mrs. I tried the following experiment with H. Wrong. which* did not seem to satisfy her. three on the afternoon of at 6. Verrall in Proceedings. Verrall reports as follows : In November. drawn. thing Other instances instance p. Object A square. Result* H. triangle. like a game. I drew a diagram. which I placed on H.15 on November 3oth.CHAPTER IX EXAMPLES OF APPARENT CLAIRVOYANCE TO little show It some apparent clairvoyance. Right* A triangle with apex cut off. and one tried four experiments. We November results : i6th. while her eyes were To make the performance more shut. whether be due to hypersesthesla or telepathy or somethat else. will be mentioned later on see for RECOGNITION OF OBJECTS BY TELEPATHY OR HYPEILESTHESIA PERCIPIENT. I take an instructive recorded experiment by Mrs. is really possible.'G). I went on to ask what colour it was. A air. described and drew an irregular figure. 217. with the following Object drawn. and what she could see through it. 1890. Result H. .

Ten minutes afterwards she picked up the paper again and commented on the fact that it was blue. become cognisant closed to them. and the inside pale blue. meanand another \Right^\ The colour pale blue. " the water-dowsing faculty and to the " homing instincts of animals. Here for instance is the case of the solution of a mathematical problem by automatic writing with the pencil not held in the haftd. "It's got a line across I. " Why it's all blue." and drew a four-sided rectangular figure in the air. had previously tried experiments which seemed to show that the child could feel the diagram. so sometimes they can write poetry or solve of facts or events by means ordinarily a phenomenon which appears akin to problems beyond their normal capacity. but I could see nothing blue. Result "What is else?" said it. she turned anglewise a*nd said. but attached to the heartshaped piece of board called a "planchette." blotting paper and was not a very deep black. I did not understand. A square divided into 4 squares by a vertical and a Object drawn. She said. across that. horizontal line. ing what colour." As the diagram was drawn in ink on white paper. She could almost always tell whether the right or wrong side of a playing card were placed on her forehead. and asked what she meant. CLAIRVOYANCE [SECT. said: "It's like a window with no cross bars. and even the ink is blue. I burnt the diagram and discontinued the game that's right." etc. said: "It's a diamond. observing this persistence of a self-suggested hallucination. I quote a case which is rather a striking the fact that the intelligence operative through unconscious or subliminal processes is superior to that of the normal intelligence of the persons concerned so that just as people occasionally seem able to will now example of . bluish white The diagram had been dried with inside.128 Result . the lines dark bright blue. after " When Oh yes." it and the colour was not far wrong. I gave her the diagram. m H. -H. I We attribute was quite unable to distinguish the two sides. I am more inclined to her successes (3 out of 4) to hyperaesthesia than to telepathy." It is quoted from the record which I communicated at the . Right.

and writes as follows : that both the witnesses are written by at Bedford College in the In the early part of 1885 I was staying at in the house of Mrs. Miss Q. which belonged to Miss Q. living at Magdeburg. Musician. M. daughter of the late Dr. Pole. B. but for no other pair would the Planchette act.. xi. The account was an old pupil of my own seventies one of the ablest students there. Miss C. We Sometimes we asked *one which came for prophecies. formerly given good results with Miss Q.S. but I do not remember ever getting is true. . t]\Q for Psychical Research.. used to amuse ourselves We had several Planchettes (I think four). Planchette we asked to it to write the equation to its own curve [in other words. but we could only get response from one of them. Then it wrote that his name was getting " After other questions Jim.R.. but I only once remember a definite connected answer. but I have never written with a Planchette before or since. got all sorts of nonsense out of it. Pole. . A One CASE OF AUTOMATIC INTELLIGENCE is feature of interest exceptionally competent. and my impression that generally when we asked for a prophecy the thing went off in a straight line running off the table if we did not take our hands off. the wellknown Engineer. Miss Pole is now Mrs. and towards the end of my stay there I believe it was I believe we often asked always so . . and writer on card-games. It often did this. The same one had in writing with a Planchette. sometimes long doggerel rhymes with several verses. F. Garrett Smith. express mathematically the outline of the heart-shaped board]. and another friend.A. In the house with us were some eight or nine others. we could get no answer from it. who the guiding spirit was.CHAP. Q. and I and her daughter. ix] EXAMPLES Journal Q{ the Society 129 time to vol." and that he had been a Senior Wrangler.. refusing to write at all.Lond. Planchette wrote something like this quite distinctly (The curl backwards always denoted that the answer was finished) 9 .

I cannot say whether the Planchette we used was really exactly the shape of the outside curve . afterwards I found in a (i-Fcos lectures I 0). believed the curve to be quite a different one. which by a curious coincidence chanced to represent a heart-shaped curve. sometimes more. or to know even of what type the equation must be. but each time *the answer was the same. Planchette.. notebook the spiral rB-^n-a.130 CLAIRVOYANCE [SECT. who drew the same [sort of] curve for us. in We repeated the question several times. Also I most certainly did not know enough mathematics to know how to form an equation which would represent such a curve. I am quite sure that I had never seen the curve before. and therefore the production of the equation could not have been an act of unconscious memory on my part. and the cardioid r*=* used no text-book. but afterwards I drew [something like] the following [rough sketch] spiral : a double never-ending We checked our result by taking the equation to the Mathematical Master at the Boys' College. I knew just enough to be able to draw the curve In my first try I made a mistake and represented by the equation. I should rather fancy that with the heart shape the resemblance ended. for instance. But I had come across such equations and drawn the curves represented by them.. and in the full notes of the had attended. . sometimes less distinct We interpreted it as r=~ t . but we did not tell him where we got the equation from. like it some I If my brain produced the equation written by must have been that I unconsciously formed an equation had seen before. these were the two curves I found most my We had similar to Planchette's.

but that I think have been too much to expect. it was I were concerned.A. traps for it was quite boniof any suspicion practical joMng or setting true that when we wrote planchette. and I was familiar with polar co-ordinates But the only equations I could then in which the equation was written. November 1903 made inquiries about Miss Q. 1904 . ix] fe EXAMPLES 131 I know that we were both quite unconscious of any influence we ' " may have exercised on the Planchette. CiauA GARRETT SMITH Magdeburg.CHAP. but my impression knew more and elementary Differential. and to make up The schoolgirls. never with any serious motive. all that was written was quite in good faith.. the conic of those were identify than I did. after the manner of Nevertheless. so I wrote some further questions to her. We did not take the matter very seriously. Certainly neither of us perceived from the appearance of the would equation that the reply was the correct one. her attempts were unsuccessful We were not satisfied that the equation did represent a curve like the outline of the planchette till we had asked our mathematical master to trace it for us...) I do not remember that we ever closely compared the curve he drew in tracing the equation with the actual planchette in question. Pass Degree. As fide. and were quite content when we saw that the solution was at all events approximately . We used to ask it to prophesy future events. far as Miss Pole and to It is and was not open each other. (This was done without telling him any of the facts of the case. is that her knowledge was not sufficient to enable her to trace curves. I believe Miss Pole did attempt it. and received the I (O. and was a serious and responsible and trustworthy person. or for any scientific purpose. and found was well known to friends of mine.) that she following reply : March 23^. I then possessed. L. equation written did not come within the mathematical knowledge poetry. even if our knowledge had been much higher than it was. I did not know sufficient at that time to attempt to plot the curve. Miss Pole had read some sections. but if so. such as with the object of testing the unconscious mind. knew of course that every curve could be represented by an equation. but merely for the fun of the thing. which was limited to the mathematics necessary for the I London B. and all purely for amusement.

has been good enough to draw out an accurate graph of the curve. my memory of it. Garrett Smith says. W. nor would it have occurred to me but the sketch given does not profess to be an exact representation of the curve corresponding to the equation written by the planchette. general character.) add that the equation which would occur to any one is the cardioid r = a ( i + cos 0) naturally but it is quite likely. reproduce it on demand. and here is his drawing on a reduced scale.) . of Bournemouth. L. I am inclined to think that it very closely resembles the shape of the actual planchette used. It is to be remembered that the equation r a SI ** 8 was given by planchette. as Mrs. The equation written by Planchette is not a familiar one and certainly would not be likely to occur to her. be able to To this . that although as a student she was undoubtedly aware of this curve. . . J. as representing mathematically the shape of its own outline or boundary the intelligence controlling its movements being represented as that of a Cambridge Wrangler. . from in existence. Mr. but only represents her recollection of its . (The planchette is no longer I (O.132 CLAIRVOYANCE [SECT. Sharpe. in On now tracing the curve represented by the equation. she might not. . some years afterward.

It is of course much more difficult to invent an equation to fit a given curve (which was the feat performed by the writing in this case) than. Stainton Moses well known as a master for many years in University College School. though an exceptionally strong one. London who for a great part of this period used to write automatically in the early morning in solitude. to draw the curve represented by it Mr. . but of two sets of loops. as at first depicted roughly. ix] EXAMPLES 133 With regard to his drawing Mr. Piper and of many another medium in history. Sharpe observes that the curve does not consist of two sets of spirals. and all contained within the outer heart-shaped The loops meet only at the cusp. But if it had accidentally been reversed ^ into r = a-. Sharpe thinks it different and entirely unlike POWER OF UNSEEN READING In illustration of supernormal power of a still more excessive kind I quote from the automatic writings of Mr. ultimately sinking into the point of the cusp. all passing through the cusp and touching one another there. great number of these have been writings published and are well known to all students of the subject but the following incident Is of A . a surprising character and etc. when the equation is given. is an example.. is^an They decrease in area without limit. and there boundary.CHAP. infinite number of them. the curve would have been entirely any planchette outline. The equation very well represents the ordinary form of a planchette. possessed in some degree by one or two of the " " controls of Mrs. very unlikely that either of the automatists had ever seen an accurate graph of the equation given in their writing. -. of the power of reading letters.

1 am told you can lead. and useful only as a test.jR. Quite so.P." M. but would not change. but even since the lamentable union of kirk state and by Constantine. M. or to command . with difficulty. was right last night we can read. We will read once again. I knew it when it was done. The word was changed In error. I cannot. and write.' That is truly written. " I will send . and by fits and starts. " I wrote what I remembered and then went for more. and then impress you of the book Pope is the last great writer of . friend. "I know not.] M. Is that so? Can you read a book? S. an attempt to liberate and purify Christianity from Popery. But last case 3 take the last me the It. but the word S. not only since the little apostolic age. M. in The following script was obtained by Mr. [With a delay the following writing came.] I will curtly prove by a short historical narrative. and Priestrule. Stainton Moses while he was sitting in Dr." S. I S. S. and read paragraph of the ninety-fourth page ? I have not I seen ** and do not even know its name. Politikirkality. * : that school of poetry. Go ." (The book on examination proved to be a queer one called " JZager's Antipopopriestian. Speer's library and discoursing with various supposed communicators through his wiiting hand: See Proceedings. right. Can you go to the bookbook but one on the second shelf. my friend.) Will you write for me the last line of the first book of the JEneid ? "Wait Omnibus errantem ferns et fluctibus ass fas" [This was S. S. Yes. and Rector." M. It was done by coincidence. but only when conditions are very good. the poetry of the intellect. or of the intellect mingled with the fancy. 106. Rector is here. M. How do you read ? You wrote more slowly." The extract given above was accurate." (Handwriting changed. the elements. might have known it. How "narrative" substituted for "account") came I to pitch upon so appropriate a sentence ? S. that Popery is a novelty. XL p.j vol. Can you " read ? No. It is a Your friend special effort to read.134 CLAIRVOYANCE [SECT. and has gradually arisen or grown up since the primitive and pure time of Christianity. friend. . Are " either of those spirits here? bring one by and by. but Zachary Gray can. am not able to I will materialise myself. M.

Barkworth. that the evidence we obtain is seldom. Mr. Indeed. of acquiring and much difficulty reproducing fresh knowledge. a multitude of instances might be for Psychical quoted from the publications of the Society Almost at random I quote two. M. Amen. the permission which the great and good God gives us. *35 and take the eleventh book on the same shelf. ascertained cination had been verified by subsequently made a a Mr. " It has been often ESSEX. S. Speer's library : F. and recognise our power.dissubject of reproach by persons trust the S. interposes means of of in the spirit by It is plain that way identifying any alleged his knowledge of the facts of his earth life. DREAM LUCIDITY To illustrate the fact that extra or supernormal lucidity is possible in dreams. Romance. in the Journal of the Society for Research. [1895] who.R. CHIGWELL. if ever. Dream. August 24**. to show you of our power over matter. writing in the Nineteenth Century some years ago. H.} and page for you. and Rhetoric. 249. Thos. and there was the quotation certainly I had not seen the book before perfectly true. G. W. case which was noted at the time." (The book opened page 145.] : To this Mr. M. Barkworth.CHAP. To Him be glory. It it was was received by Mr. before it The following is a known to be veridical.P. could be produced up to the time he wrote. had no idea of its contents. went so far. Taylor Innes. It must certainly be . ix] EXAMPLES . Myers pertinently appends the note a power such as this. Dec. the first a short one of which the contemporary record is reported on by a critical and sceptical member of the Society.) [These books were in at : Dr. as to assert that no such case if I remember rightly. supported the dream or the halluby written records demonstrably made before facts. Take it and read. 1895. [I took a book It will open at the called Poetry. who writes concerning : "WEST HATCH.

my January 3rd. and while In America. elaborate one. Dream. without the slightest personal Interest In any one concerned so that it seems to make in favour of a general clairvoyant faculty rather than for any spiritistic explanation. a letter saying my brother had died on the above date. 370. E. 1847 " Dreamt last dated night 1 received a letter from my uncle. Storie's experience. as if intended to catch my eye.136 CLAIRVOYANCE it [SECT. except that the person whose fate was represented in the The . Extract from diary written out in Atlantic^ January 14^.. T. as 1 quite expected. " " E. return to England I found. The prefix P. formerly Worthing. ELLIOTT Worthing The second case I quote is its a much longer and more receipt to Dr. P. Rector of following experience of the Rev. of which an account was published in Phantasms of the Living^ vol. K. The diary is in his possession. we owe Hodgson There are many partially similar records of people becoming aware of an accident in which some near and it is noteworthy that relative was injured or killed the emotion caused by injury seems as likely to convey such an impression as anything pertaining to death : but the point of the following narrative Is that itself a complete stranger became Impressed with facts which were happening at a distance. greatly struck nie. . Elliott. K. in is admitted that in provoklngly numerous instances alleged letter or diary has found that the been destroyed. but the on leaving England was that he was better. following case has some resemblance to Mrs. the made who the and in was entry in navy. i p. E. who his diary as quoted when he was cruising in the Atlantic out of reach "The of post or telegraph. still will therefore be found of interest. H. 224. " My brother had been ill in Switzerland. B. 224 is merely a classlficatory reference number. It was death brother's dear news of which in given. last news I received "The January * "On my awaiting me 3rd' was very black.

my brain buzzed on with a myriad fancies. I was journeying to Duluth. Train men with lanterns hurried through my car and joined employe's near the engine. in the moonlit scene. and each. the pipe voice of the conductor and the awe-stricken cry of the black porter infused a livening sense to a scene which I did not readily understand. was a sudden commotion fore and aft. Attorney. Then I felt the train grind men moved along the wheels in groups. written "COURT HOUSE. from St. Paul. that if I had eyes I might see for myself that ' some one got killed. beside and beneath the cars . I left my study where I had been poring over uninspiring law text. MINN. ix] EXAMPLES in the case here printed entirely is 137 dream was unknown to the dreamer. Nothing unusual had transpired in my affairs that day. About midnight on the 29th day of December. or perhaps that a break to the train later I had occasioned this sudden uprising of train men. I reckon. Paul.. We were plunging on. distant from St. and blinking like an over-fed owl The weird * upon my donged the hour of two. " fell into bed for the night. Paul about eighty miles. in which latter place I had gone to I was aware that I had been on the train about four hours and sleep.. and. Minnesota. Wack. expected a horrible 'find. and comes to us through the American Branch of the Society. as shriek. so I was appeased to be told. 1892 " I believe I have had a remarkable experience. brake- " some hideous torture. awake. almost heedlessly as it seemed. I recognised. when I gave myself to rest. A minute was out upon the road bed.' Everybody moved and acted in a spirit of stealth.' . headsore and fatigued. Wis. The sound of the clock chime had hardly died when I became conscious [of] my position in a passenger coach on the St. I had often been over the road. I could see the lights flash here and there. climbing to my chamber door. Minneapolis and Omaha railroad. February io//. H. I lay an hour. ST. PAUL. that I was somewhere near the town of Shell Lake.CHAP. in very ugly snappish English. The brusque and busy search and the disturbed manner of the attendants did not propitiate elaborate inquiry from a curious passenger. features of country and habitation I had seen before. Instinctively I concluded that an accident had happened. when I fancied I heard and was startled from my into a piteous suffering reverie by a piercing moaning and gasping. as it 3 peered through the coach window. and as I fell intonation of an old kitchen clock ears but faintly. it appeared. and yet. W. The account by Mr. if some human which was protracted creature were There heavily to an awkward stop.

Taken alone. . what appeared of the killed was extended 500 yards back of the train and ailabout the right-of-way with no more satisfactory result than to occasionally find . pushing along at the rate of thirty miles an hour. who usually forget an ordinary dream long before breakfast recounted to the family the details of the night's distraction. that the being destroyed under the train had been concealed near the beI had read of death to tramps stealing spattered fixtures of the car. therefore. for among the were small tufts of human hair. m tracks were being examined from the rear of the train forward. This truck. to me also. me between two and three o'clock in I am positive of the time. quite an unusual feature of railroad casualty.138 CLAIRVOYANCE [SECT. there is "Now nothing remarkable in the time at which this vision blackened my sleep. From my hearers there followed only the ordinary com- On ments of how ghastly and how shocking the story was as told that no parts of the strange the nature of the accident found. " All hands boarded the train northern Minnesota. and how My had hen The latter circumstance was. it when " I awoke. I. Blood splotches were discovered on nearly all the bearings under the entire train. staining only trucks behind the engine. and finally I dis- missed meditation assured that another unfortunate itinerant had existence. crushed of some with ooze wheels was smeared the crimson But where was the body. must have The the ground over the bulk of a human body. The spell was upon the morning of that I am certain. as struck three. the morrow. The search for. rides by hiding themselves under or between cars. Every fixture between victim. When the gang reached one of the forward cars. because. I heard the clock distinctly. could so grind and triturate a vital bulk. evidently. many declaring that it was an unusual mishap on a railroad which left such uncertain trace of its victim. or at least its members ? The trucks were covered only with a pulp of mangled remnants. unless the killed at the fatal time were upon the truck or huddled closely by it. it all been crushed out of relieved to Horrible ! I shuddered and awoke comprehend a dream. I concluded. I reflected upon the experience of the night. all lights were cast upon a track which was literally scrambled with what clots appeared to be brains human brains. As I reclined there in my berth. Again I felt the train thundering on through the burnt pine wastes of a blood-stained tie. and often befuddled my sleepy head in an effort to understand how a train. the fact that the foregoing is an accurate statement of a dream experienced by me is not a matter for marvel. particularly.

CHAP. but think some unfortunate man must have been stealing a ride between Train men on a later train state that a man's leg St. as vivid of phantom-sight and in truth as I have stated it above. possible means of identification/ " Here was an evident verification of all that transpired in rrfy mind between two and three o'clock on the previous night. but just where is not known. what number of those articles. I reflected. and The next morning I scanned the pages of the Pioneer Press of December 3ist. and that for two miles this side the There is no tracks were scattered with pieces of flesh and bone. having read a authentic. as evijtoice Of the extent.. place. It it a daily evening newspaper. Special telegram. so that In picking attention read : had been flatly. Horrible death experienced by an unknown His remains scattered for miles along the the Omaha Road.. I have hesitated I now believe to be a material and striking 1 to utter. Train men did not know there had been an accident till they arrived here. Portions of the same body were also found on over 100 miles of the railroad.Every truck on the incoming Omaha train from St. December 30. Shell Lake. the caprice. as I in the habit of doing. Fragments of the body of an unknown man were picked up on the railroad track to-day. : "* Unknown man killed. Wis. I had been subjected to the an actual occurrence on the Oniaha railroad. and the possibilities of this occult phenomenon* W-WACK" . "'Duluth. and the more I pondered the faster I became convinced that I had been in some mysterious in the details. December 3oth. up casually folded by a previous the article which first fixed my man on track "'Fate of a tramp. the " I have not written this account because Mark Twain and other authors have published in current magazines their experiences in what On the contrary. Paul Dispatch. Paul and this city. stepped into my study. witness of the tragedy reported that rny vision was perfect as to general and the impression complete and exact to time. Paul this morning was splashed with blood. and read the following paragraph circumstance. o clock I returned to my home. columns of the press form. was found by them at Spooner. living and asleep. Is termed Mental Telepathy or Mental Telegraphy.' "With miles from this came the conviction to me that.wheels. He is supposed to have been killed by the night train. 100 place of the killing. reader. spirit or element. by the merciless . ix] " The at 5 3 EXAMPLES s ' 139 am evening following the night of the dream (December 3oth). I glanced at a page of the St. and.

PAUL. Mr. [SECT. Wack discovered the newspaper item. I will say that you are right every word of Replying to your valued favour of the i5th Inst. 1891. another newspaper clipping bearing on the same matter was debated by the family. "I enclose a few corroborative letters. 1892 " MY DEAR SIR. and several of the family discussed the matter. he again mentioned the dream and called my attention to the newspaper item. I beg leave to add the following facts corroborative of the narrative. February igth. which I have just perused for the first time. at the request of those present. "Aside from the unusual features and hideousness of the 3oth. 1892 "GENTLEMEN. The first newspaper dispatch appeared and was discovered in the evening of the same day. February 2oth. The first version of the dream was given in the morning of December 30*. Wack stated that he had been agitated the previous night by a dream of unusual features. Hodgson's inquiries. "MRS.CLAIRVOYANCE In reply to Dr. On the morning of December 3ist. Wack at breakfast on the morning of December 3oth. I informed the family and friends of the dream and its details. On the when Mr. If these serve you. the signatures to which I procured yesterday. and give you my solemn assurance that. MACDONALD" . before I had the first suspicion that the public press ever had contained or ever would contain a report of such an actual occurrence. in Wack wrote : "Sx. PAUL. there was nothing to startle us. of December evening dream. 1891. he recited what "now appears in his article. On that occasion Mr. until the newspaper accounts developed the affair in a mysterious sense. Referring to an account of a dream submitted to you by Mr. a true narrative. and then. February 20 fA. Harry Wack of this city which I have read. being present on each occasion. This I know of my own knowledge. "After careful consideration of the article. " If desirable 1 will make affidavit as to the truth of the substance of the narrative in your hands. in understanding that my account of the is dream submitted " I reaffirm to your Society it. MARGARET B. as I have stated. WACK " : The C1 ) following were the corroborative letters enclosed "ST. well " and good. HARRY W. I find that the story of the dream on December 29th~3oth is in substance identical with that which was related by Mr.

I your permission will I visited on December 29*. .. ST. ^itten ofi. . would add my endorsement ad bemg fiunite ""> ^ i to them Si* STt . in ^ 5 O wn mind the high y. ^ R . >. .. ". 3*. Hamilton.h. and tnerearterit-s Member of the American Branch. \3/ G.T^. April 1892 W * Mv DEAR commumca USK ^i^^^r ^ ^^ SiR. I have read the account of before on account Wack's given I understood it from Mr. February zotb. he then the newspaper item. PAUL. nkM Toll prSely the morning as of December gotb. ix] .. COMMISSION MERCHANTS. .** ' gf fc . facts Io an .-H letters g read . MINN.. : SMITH "OFFICE OFFICE OF &MI ' & AUSTRIAN. ..known force i. which Mr Wack called our attention to the he dream the experienced of verification declared was a positive it I beheve and the dream. February zoth. MINN.on^to in .e n. foregoiog and Miss Rose B. an Associate case in connection with the writes to Dr. Hodgson Mr H. Mrs Macdonald. 1892 letter -GENTLEMEN. W of PAUL. EXAMPLES Sx. ^ ^^ a PRODUCE ExCHANGE i^tk. I teidents therein set forth. PAUL.-It has been impossible I for me to accept Mr .) when when Mr. with and days following and 3^. W.-! have read the whom was present at breakfast say that I also and at dinner (6 ? . Smith.CHAP. in *. Wack mentioned the dream. 1891. "ST.

Nelly" stated that she she should tell . especially pp. Thompson at Hampstead. at his next sitting. S. from other intelligences.. who was in charge of On three occasions. that he would occasionarranged with Mrs.142 CLAIRVOYANCE [SECT.R. 86-7 and Dr. a lady who is referred to more book. Incidents that seem to point to some form of supernormal communication are exemplified in the experiments of Dr. vol. some success was obtained " in these experiments. January and February 1900. of controlling his own dreams. van Eeden of Bussum. Thompson in Pro- ceedings. Piddington. in the sittings. xvii. so as to be able to dream of performing actions which he had planned while awake. particularly in Section IV. Meanwhile all we are sure of is that information is obtained by some mediums which is entirely beyond their conscious knowledge. and occasionally beyond the But as to conscious knowledge of everyone present how this lucidity though we must sibility that it is are as yet in the dark ultimately proceed to consider the posby some sort of actual communication is attained we . by conversation. and whatever view we take of them we have to include them an explanaIt may be tion which may not be readily forthcoming. and by the press. Thompson " " Nelly" (her control") in his dreams after ally call returning to Holland.. by rumour.P. in the roll of facts demanding explanation . in Instances like this are by no means solitary. presumed that as far as they go they make against. van Eeden. having cultivated the power 112-115). the or direct form and spiritistic hypothesis in any simple that is why in a book like this it is necessary to emphasise them. that is. with Mrs. of this sittings with (See his paper on Mrs. and that if she heard him calling Mr. akin to the conveyance of Information in the accustomed and ordinary human way. in Holland.

A " Dr. which are unmistakably common.4 these are worthy of attention. but she gave a dream no had he condition which corresponded with of his description had been it what during the early part of the same time. M. though 'not exactly. 1900). ix] EXAMPLES 143 had heard Dr. visit would he dying father in England about certain matters connected with his will. the same as those recorded In his diary of dreams but on each occasion she gave details. a fourth occasion (April igth." had said that that Mrs. which were afterwards verified.) CLAIRVOYANCE or THE DYING extra lucidity of the dying is a thing so often asserted that it has become almost a commonplace. case of a somewhat similar kind is the one recorded in Dr. and had "been to see him". viii. Piper's control. " On month. . . van Eeden calling. and sometimes. it would seem to The as for instance when a dying eclipse mere imagination child welcomes. {This case is quoted below. van Eeden. deceased mother. and appears to be welcomed by. are usually of things for the most beyond our ordinary cognisance. N. see page 146. as in the case of children. stated Nelly" of her at the time. we have records a kind of clairvoyant faculty whereby terrestrial occurrences also are perceived by persons who in health had no such power ar. it? But these visions and auditions.'s Mr. Hodgson's report on Mrs.CHAP. Occasionally. when that she had been to see Dr. N. Piper (^Proceedings^ vol. 120). it p. in America relates and where later on was reported by those attending the dying father that he had complained of the presence of an obtrusive old man. as to his circumstances at the . Phinuit. the dates she gave were approximately. however. so that be relegated to the category of the part they have to of unverifiable. where Mr.

e. Piper's face at a certain stage of the waking process is manifestly similar to that seen on the faces of some dying people and both describe the subjective vision as of something more beautiful and attractive than those . thus appearing There to demonstrate reciprocal telepathic influence. and 1 also abbreviate. The writer of the following account is Colonel JX. in which are impression at both ends of a telepathic reciprocal. to be subsequently mentioned do not appear to be random or meaningless sayings. but that they . the look of ecstasy on Mrs. only quote an illustrative case or two from the few which are well evidenced i. but do really correspond to some kind of reality. Moreover. He explains that his . producing an terrestrial line. Is doubtful. The extant descriptions of dying utterances are much like the utterances in the waking stages of very Mrs. is a small group of cases illustrative of the reciprocal I can clairvoyance of the dying. of earth.144 especially CLAIRVOYANCE those [SECT. as I only here wish to Indicate the kind of thing. since in them the appearance of strangers is frequently described correctly and messages are transmitted which have a definite meaning. and these Piper's trance. a well-known Irish gentleman. Whether the dying really have greater telepathic power as agents. as if the and less material mode of communication had in their case already begun. which come up to the standard of the Society for but I omit the Psychical Research in this matter Living. which is what is assumed in the ordinary telepathic explanation of Phantasms of the sometimes have greater and sometimes sensibility as percipients seems likely the event which they are describing is likewise apprehended by another person at a distance. : authentication In quoting them.

communications. wife of Mr. in the presence of her husband spoke of voices she heard singing. and in Proc. there she is in the corner of the room .' I turned but could see nothing. having married a Mr. Button states that this with the pretty bright things hands the last thing she was a little prayer book' with 1 .P. extremely characteristic of which are quoted both in Human Personality. 386-9. it is Julia X. He said. : The remarks made at her second in the -child's mind was not this a book sitting suggest that "the thb little little one. Z. Z. ix] EXAMPLES 145 wife engaged to sing with her daughters a Miss X.. vol. was dead. "Kakie wants hanging remembers. X.. B. . it was. of puerperal fever. B. mother's testimony is thus reported pp..CHAP. said.. S. She is gone/ All these things [the hearing of singing . saying that she had heard them several times that day. at a time when Phinuit was in control It is the concluding portion of a long and striking series of identity. . and that there was one voice among them which she knew. pointing "Suddenly she stopped and " B. from it mamma put it in her Mrs. she died ' poor thing. On " morning.. who was training as a public singer but who ultimately did not in that capacity. I saw recorded the death of Julia Z. who was dying. Yes. but could not ^ remember whose voice Colonel . if Mrs. his daughter. I was so astounded that in a day or so after the funeral I went up to and asked Mr. come^out Six or seven years afterwards Mrs. she is praying. taking up the Times newspaper. Mrs. ii. and sang and sang until she died/ the day she died she began singing in the The case next quoted is a curious incident connected with a deceased child. Piper in America. vol. Z." 10 ..R. do look she is going. The book" bit of 245-7. then said. mamma read by her bedside. vision of the singer] I imagined to be the phantasies of a dying "Two days afterwards. she is coming on she is leaning over you she has her hands up . obtained in one of the bereaved mother's sittings with Mrs. over my head. ' and the person." says Why. xiii.

" April 5th. when the book was asked for later that Mrs. 1889 About the end of March of last year I made [Mrs. name disclosed Of three examples of what he calls predictions. from which I . Piper] a in February. and whose description Mrs. more to state she declined but clearly anything who would die. to see went then was I whom to Piper engaged. I asked her at that In a told her (my wife) that ray father would die days afterwards. when he was recovering from a very slight attack of . was the one sitting whether this person to me. in a cross and other symbols in places. is also evidence of reciprocity of an unusual " Phinuit" kind In connection with the Piper case. The account is corroborated "M. know any one Piper's sitting. speaking. my spoken realise with me. The account of this curious episode is from an American gentleman who had had a good deal of and who does not want his experience In Piper sittings. Sutton except perhaps for a passing and after Kakie" s death placed read it when Kakie seemed unconscious. who was advanced in years. My wife. I naturally thought of my father. She had not given me very accurately but merely as a person nearly connected as him of father. In correspondence with the assertion of Phinuit that he would go and talk to this same person about unfair clauses In his will. as it I illustrates the kind of reciprocal experience of which am now by Mrs. for a as described person at There dying has been perceived by a distance.N. and that it was sent to her by a friend attached to ribbons for marking the after Kakie had ceased to moment. Piper had some week or two previously. a few Mrs. since early about once a fortnight). visit (having been in the habit of doing so. I select this one. were put into the same position as Kakie's. thus obtained. Mrs. .146 CLAIEVOYANCE silver [SECT. [As Phinuit] told me that the death of a near should relative of mine would occur in about six weeks. About the middle of May my father died very suddenly in London from heart failure. and she few weeks. it in her prevent at the hands. She adds blood the to hands settling in the nails. some pecuniary advantages.

after the death of her uncle.. called she described an incident in connection F. Piper. who will before my annoyed him by discussing his private affairs. Three weeks afterwards I arrived in London. She said that she had been and had spoken to him.. Previous to this Mrs. but unable to speak directly. as follows On the morning : The 1 happened notice of his [F. told me that he had repeatedly complained of the presence of an old man at the foot of his bed. The will went materially as he had stated. Two days after I received the wife and I went to see Mrs. Hodgson's account of this is in death-bed. explaining that F. Myers. S. form of expression. Phinuit) had endeavoured to persuade him in those matters while my father was sick. This was confirmed in detail in the . subject to the consent of the two other executors. 378. when I got to London. Phinuit) had told me that she would endeavour to influence my father about certain matters bronchitis. Dr.. The disposition was made in my favour.R. She wrote clearly and strongly. xiii. and his sudden arrival in the spiritworld. found the principal executor to be the man Phinuit had described. vol. England. . . ("M. . and she repeated present at his death-bed.'s] death was in a Boston morning paper. who was chiefly at my father's bedside the last three days of his life. and my sister.CHAP. was there with her. he died." whose near and friends concerned in also to the communications were known Mr. with the appearance of herself to her uncle on his Dr.P. and said that he (Dr. in the report. and she [Phinuit] spoke of his presence. without my expecting it. connected with his cable announcing his death. Proceedings. and described the principal executor. Phinuit told me the state of the will. the sitting came from Madame Elisa. Piper (as Dr. and said that he (the executor) would make a certain disposition in my favour. to reach her.") A case of the lady called relatives similar Illustration of reciprocity occurred in the " Elisa Manners. p. and indicated that an unusual what she had said. ix] EXAMPLES - 147 and the very day that his doctor had pronounced him out of danger. and The first writing of to see it on rny way to the sitting.N. and that she wished to give an account: off how she had helped F. he had heard and recognised her.

repeated. and the last Phinuit.P. The first names of sitter and communicator vvere given. Hodgson I have mentioned elsewhere (Report. The names Further attempts were made to speak and write. a day two later. her. to Some of the writing was of a personal character. and the writing was very remarks : * not legible. At a sitting in 1892. the intelligence communicating by writing is not 332). that the sitter's mother was present (in " spirit ") with the communicator.P. was that which I had received from Madame Elisa through Mrs. entirely unknown to me. and also of the nearest surviving relative of F. WRITING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES Instances in which foreign languages unknown to the medium are written or spoken are comparatively rare." whispered direct control of the voice by Madame Elisa. showed or my friend the account of the sitting . and that he himself did not real know The Italian for "It is are very uncommon. Patience. 293. but not much was said. who was present at the death-bed. and he repeated what she was saying. inter alia. Piper's trance. stated spontaneously that F. the relative." with Italian as with English. Italian. when the death-bed incident was. but only two or three common words were Italian some decipherable. when dying saw Madame Elisa who was speaking The expression so to him. which the relative quoted to my friend. m only way possible at the time by a very intimate friend of Madame I Elisa and myself. and to this friend. Concerning this Dr. The writing is usually much more legible now . name was both written and afterwards given by G. and some . The chief difficulty conscious of the act of writing. stated correctly. the lady being as familiar cating. about the watch [concerning which inquiry had been made] and G. at the the end of was sitting as though by well. pp.148 CLAIRVOYANCE 3 t [SECT. another in language written by the getting apparently hand is that strange words tend to be written phonletter by etically unless they are thought out slowly As letter. when Madame Elisa Mannors was "communi- was written by request. of course.

and there was no shrubbery in the cellar. where." and Mr. where he was shot in 1886. Italian This does not appear to be a strong case. write Hawaiian. il 244). ix] EXAMPLES 149 than I it am was during the period of the records from which quoting. kill he did not " Phinuit then spoke for Kalua. Briggs there was asked that if it was Kalua. when there was frequently much difficulty English words. and he was finally discharged. and against him. and who followed Mr. Briggs. that he had been gambling with the other but did not mean to* and disputed with him and shot him. but there was no evidence in 1883. and eventually confessed that after the accident he had himself hidden the revolver behind a flue. Briggs in Honolulu in 1881. Briggs) which was (meaning wreaths. or Hum. in a sailor's Bethel." who said himself. who became much attached to Mr. The communication purported to come from a Honolulu boy named Kalua.P. xiii. but no purse was "Kalua" tried to found. but the next one seems to me better Dr. Kalua had been shot through the heart. where the pepples are" box hot the "into who threw the revolver hid his purse under and the and "furnace" the "coals"). during a six months' stay of Mr. but the only "ordinary" words deciphered were "lei" man who Mr. 337. but again returned to Boston. S. it was Mr. The cellar of the house was examined. Pers. "stomach" and "side" being mentioned. (meaning " Kalua" also said there was shrubbery the steps where he was killed. It in deciphering even the simplest was therefore not surprising that so little of the written by Madame Elisa was decipherable. near it. The Swede said that Kalua had accidentally shot himself with a revolver. whether intentionally or not was unknown. Briggs back to Boston under somewhat romantic circumstances He was soon sent back to his native island. to be the direct control of the voice by "Kalua.CHAP. him to the sitting. Vernon Briggs had with Mrs. Briggs had taken a handkerchief belonging to Kalua with found. after taking part of the chimney down. Hodgson reports the following case in a sitting which a Mr. which he made daily for . Piper in : October 1893 (Proc. some confusion apparently about the locality of the sufferunder what appeared ing.R. There was some suspicion against a Swede who was imprisoned.

in at written clearly and an attempt " aloha "-greeting." But the writing in getting was. but could only succeed " Hawaiian Islands. It is . such a faculty. pronounced Tawai by the The natives of island itself and in the island where Kalua was born. are sufficiently important to chapter. extremely difficult to contemplate Hitherto we have dealt only with knowledge of the present and the past. [SECT. the other islands call it Kawai. is Cases in which the lucidity or clairvoyant faculty the not limited to the present.1 50 and CLAIRVOYANCE frequently. The one. natives of the is but word is spelt Kawai. Phinuit tried to get the answer to the question where Kalua's father " Hiram. the answer in writing was Kawai." In reply to the question which answer the gave but Phinuit said Tawai. but apparently anticipates deserve a separate future.

CHAPTER X PREVISION BUT assertions are made that there is a kind lucidity occasionally attainable which is beyond the powers is by healthy peop of any ordinal < even aided by telepathy." but will necessity have an immediate bearing on the existenc in the universe of intelligences other than our owi cosmic picture gallery (as Mr. become aware of events befoi by means other than ordinal prediction? The at all anticipation of future events is a power n< necessarily to be expected on a Spiritistic or an it other hypothesis. is a separate question. Myers calls it). and which could not by any process reasoning be inferred. may concen ably or perhaps not conceivably in some sense exis and may be partly open and dimly decipherable to th A . and wi its have important bearings of this question in the own. An answer not 1 affirmative metaphysical notions of " may vitally affect 01 < Time. intelligence. inasmuch sometimes exhibited not only of occu knowledge rences at a distance but also of events which have n< yet happened. c photographic or phonographic record of all that ha occurred or will occur in the universe. < Is it possible to they have scientific occurred.

I wonder some enterprising forger has not endeavoured to gull a leading journal by an elaborate account. Casual and irresponsible critics have said that documentary evidence. . written on of this foreseeing power easy thing to establish in foolscap paper transmitted blank through the post. of the Victoria disaster. or the Santander explosion. in automatisms or entranced person's mind. at small cost. or perhaps on paper subsequently covered with previous postmarks by a genial Post Office friend. so far as to say that a document thus officially verified by a Post Office clerk would be worth thousands of pounds to the British Museum. because their practice makes them with the warplngs of the human mind. but a postmark on the document itself would be entirely convincing. It is not an beyond any kind of doubt. But the question for us now is whether we can obtain clear and unmistakable proof of the existence any form. and decorated with red tape by a live Government clerk ! feeling that everything done by a Post Office official is conclusive. would be proof positive to them of someA writer in The Nineteenth Century goes thing occult. such as a postmark on a letter which detailed an event either not yet happened or certainly not known by ordinary methods at the date of the postmark (like a recent shipwreck in mid-ocean for instance). say. If so it would be singularly easy I believe that a to get rich. is of the same order as the opinion The that barristers or criminal judges or medical practitioners are the only people fit to investigate unusual mental familiar phenomena. postmark on an envelope would satisfy some of these critics. or the Messina earthquake.152 lucid CLAIRVOYANCE part of the [SECT. in preparation for any such striking event .

but qua physician he is out of his element as a general investigator. are able to establish foreknowledge of events such as could hardly be guessed or inferred. . a doctor may be a scientific man in addition. . One could only grant them the loophole of self: deception on the alternative of something very like insanity. If a never be held to guard against fraud. not to prolong and investigate it True. But as I to consider the case of a medical practitioner understand a doctor's business. Let it not be thought that I claim that their evidence is worthless. then their testimony is Either strengthened by the date-marks to this extent the things happened as they say. evidence subsidiary to testimony they may be very valuable. or of any automatic record over-exuberant of self-delusion or chance imagination. But about this question of postmarks. it is to cure an abnormality if he can. and every effort should be made to get them my contention only is that they clo not dispense with testimony. little and as a leading practitioner he has very Were it not so. lost both to science and to themselves within the walls of asylums. some for investigation and some for psychical cure.CHAP. with their dates verified In some cold blooded official manner. day expect that in but essentially disgraceful To some countries there are pro- mising subjects. As This I hold is the function of all . the profession the attitude the main body of doctors has taken or used to take to everything new would be not only this pitiful. circumstantial it lessens the evidence. or they are in some sort of collusion to bear false witness and deceive.- . x] PREVISION 153 . the record against spare time. it can couple of friends by interchanging letters. I as it is.

Sidgwick's paper on the evidence for Premonitions is In vol. I dreamed that the train and came out on a high stone bridge.R. by an agent of the S. who receives It. afterwards Interviewed was who driver contained In Mrs. Mrs. a great much so that a number of these prediction predictions fall so of this kind now hardly . ^{Proceedings S. over which the train passed. : diagnosis. into I mentioned my dream the next morning to the family the river.CLAIRVOYANCE That and the [SECT. and was proud of my position.P. Besides. and then the engine turned over down the bank some 70 feet. may be so valuable Is records. of Illness I attach no high importance to predictions unusual an power of and death they may represent but need not represent anything more. ran through a shallow cut. photographs as supplementary to It. 29th. paper. m how these automatic like. perturbs an experienced person successful the even And prevision of an accident accidental concordance rule to a as must be attributed unless it is accompanied by an exceptional amount of detail The following case Is vol. we have. 333. in America. even In this direction. from and just bjuilt for speed. v. Sidgwick's It Is from an enginep. human testimony never as substitutes for ANTICIPATION OF EVENTS the trustworthy evidence at all as to ? events Strange to power of foreseeing unpredictable but It Is not yet sufficient In volume to say. and to scrutinise future evidence as it be Have we any : ready critically arrives. 1853. it is only enough to cause justify any generalisation us to keep an open mind. a fine new passenger engine. v. be on such a fine engine. One night. May .R. Proceedings.P. [In 1853] I was firing I thought myself lucky to the shop. a locomotive.

On the second morning were sent over a part of the road with which I with to whom was The me I be was going that I killed. She will surely re- member this. p. Verrall must serve as an example of the few trustworthy cases I know of (Proc. lady [now dead] but I told her that in my dream I should not be hurt. The engineer was near-sighted and did not see them. saw was 200 dream. and at the other end of the bridge turned over twice before it reached the bottom. the Frost and a candle in the sofa or in trivial helps. not his own he talked about it Then there appeared a fanciful but unmistakable attempt at the name Sidgwick. he tried to do so. 1901 i. . and seeing that part of the track ahead had been taken up. S. Marmontel. The engine left the track. Sidgwick This was done and her reply. The bridge just what I had seen in feet long. The book was lent. x] PREVISION I 155 told living. .R. he was reading on a bed there was only a candle's light. Verrall had developed the power of automatic writing her hand wrote as follows i On December ith. and looking back.e. we were on a stone bridge. receiving but a small scratch how I do not know. he jumped from the engine. rare.P. but the track was wet. Hence this. had assurance after my dream. effort naturally conveyed by the above. we was not familiar. I remained on it and tried to stop it.C*IAP. The first towards the end of the year in which Mrs.. 331). and I with it. Before this could be done. and I saw a number of men ahead on the track. The following selection from experiences of this kind received by Mrs. No meaning was concluding should be applied to. I called to him to stop the engine . . dim light. with five stone arches. feet 54 high. I climbed the bank. vol. but the suggested that Mrs. gives confidence. and presently came to a shallow cut. and I could not get off. and the bank my down which the engine rolled 70 feet THE MARMONTEL CASE perception of incidents at a distance is common but the perception of incidents in the future is enough. Nothing too mean. xx.

Now means.th she was so disturbed by a desire made time. that "she write to I . It is not in any papers an incident. Moral Tales. the record of the obtaining of the script The sentence in the first portion " She will surely remember this" is a characteristic sotto voce remark which is not infrequent in these scripts. my first conscious knowledge of Marmontel as a French writer. or Fleury. m received on said that she could make nothing of it but would report if turned up. a week-end visit and he replied fixing March ist She had had no recent communication with him since June . when at some future time the incident described is referred to. Verrall Marmontel. and that evening obtained the following : name Marmontel Marmontel is right. Memoir I think. had I which glanced at before through a list of books of advertisement an found and December nth I my return to Cambridge Mrs. Saintsbury. Soon reports after was looking about December 25th. as far as I could remember. Marmontel was not on the cover the book was bound and was lent two volumes in old-fashioned binding and print. was. It means that Mrs. selected and translated ^by G. Marsh. asking him to come for . It was a French book." This. begins the verification by quite unexpected friend of hers In January 1902 Mrs. Verrall herself will surely remember having obtained the writing. Souvenirs de Passy. Mrs. having the " So ends same sort of signification as the terminal sentence of the second portion.1 56 CLAIRVOYANCE December i7th r the [SECT. it is an attempt to make some one remember I wanted to write. 1901. strange though such an admission may seem. Verrall was now away from home and had But all the decided to abandon writing till her return. a Passy may help. Verrall happened to write to a named Mr.

CHAP, x]



On February 23rd she sent him a post card to 1901. remind him of his visit, and he replied with a letter on
February 24th.
Mrs. Verrall then reports as follows

Mr. Marsh arrived, and that evening at dinner he mentioned that he had been reading Marmontel. 1 asked if he had read the Moral Tales,, and he replied that it was the Memoirs. I was interested in this reference to Marmontel, and asked Mr. Marsh for particulars about his reading, at the same time explaining He then told me that he the reasons for my curiosity. London from the the book Library, and took the got first volume only to Paris with him, where he read it on the evening of February soth, and again on February 2 ist. On each occasion he read by the light of a candle on the 2Oth he was in bed, on the 2 ist lying on two He talked about the book to the friends with chairs. whom he was staying in Paris. The weather was cold, The London Library but there was, he said, no frost. books most of their as is are, not in modern bound, copy " " is on the back of Marmontel name but the binding, The edition has three volumes in Paris the volume. Mr. Marsh had only one volume, but at the time of his visit to us he had read the second also. I asked him whether "Passy" or "Fleury" would "help," and he replied that Fleury 's name certainly occurred in the book, in a note he was not sure about to town, Passy, but undertook to look it up on his return and to ascertain, as he could by reference to the book, what part of the first volume he had been reading in

On March



electric light in his

the habit of reading in bed, but ha,s bedroom at home, so that he had not read "in bed or on a sofa by candlelight" for months, until he read Marmontel in Paris, On his return to town Mr. Marsh wrote to -me 2 (March 4, 1902), that on February ist while lying on in the first volume of two chairs he read a chapter the MarmonteFs Memoirs describing findiag at Pas$y of
is in




[SECT, in

a panel,

connected with a story in which Fleury plays an important part It will thus be noted that the script in December, 1901, describes (as [presumably] past) an incident which in actually occurred two and a half months later, of time at the an which incident February, 1902, writing was not likely to have been foreseen by any one. I ascertained from Mr. Marsh that the idea of reading

Marmontel occurred
It is


him not long before

his visit to

full of the book, I should never have heard of his reading it, and therefore not have discovered the application of the scripts of December nth and i/tbu The description is definite, and in the main accurate. There are, however, errors Though the weather was to not have been actually freezing it does seem cold, on either of the two nights in question the book was not in two volumes only, as seems implied, though only two volumes had been read when the incident was related the name Marmontel was on the back of the to me book, though not on the face of the cover ; the binding, though not modern, can hardly be described as old But the reference to Passy and Fleury fashioned. names which, so far as I can discover are not together in any passage of Marmontel's Memoirs except that read by Mr. Marsh on February 2ist is a precise and, I

probable that had he not seen immediately upon his return, when his mind





think, remarkable coincidence.

other points may be noted (1) That the script on December i/th did not accept the suggestion that the name Marmontel had anything to


do with Mrs. Sidgwick



omission to give any


to the reader of

Marmontel. This latter kind of reticence is characteristic of the and, although it may be superficially regarded script

CHAP, x]




from a sarcastic point of view, it is really essential to the verification of the prevision, because if Mr. Marsh's name had been given, Mrs. Verrall would naturally have written to him a premature inquiry, which would have spoilt the whole thing. But inasmuch as she had no inkling of Mr. Marsh in connexion with it, that gentleman was left unconsciously
to carry out the anticipation, entirely ignorant of uninfluenced by it



anticipation received in

December was


February and was reported on







anticipation was received in by the preservation of Mrs.

letter of

December i7th saying
but that

that she could

turned up in some manuscripts she was then reading she would let Mrs. Verrall know.

make nothing of



In his book Mr.
of prevision, and

Myers contemplated the occurrence

with it in many an eloquent passage. following is too eloquent for the incident just quoted, but it serves to illustrate his view of the possibility of such things



Few men have pondered long on these problems of Past and Future without wondering whether Past and Future be in very truth more than a name whether we may not be apprehending as a stream of sequence that which is an ocean of co-existence, and slicing our subjective years and centuries from timeless and absolute The precognitions dealt with here, indeed, things. hardly overpass the life of the individual percipient Let us keep to that small span, and let us imagine that a whole earth-life is in reality an absolutely instantaneous


[SECT, in

Let us although an infinitely complex phenomenon. suppose that my transcendental self discerns with equal directness and immediacy every element of this phenomenon but that my empirical self receives each element mediately, and through media involving different

just as I receive the lightning more quickly than the thunder. May not then seventy years intervene between my perceptions of birth and death as easily as seven seconds between my perceptions of the flash and the peal ? And may not some inter;

rates of retardation

communication of consciousness enable the wider
" At such an hour this shock will reach external, " Listen for the nearing roar


to call to the narrower, the


central to the



let us consider

whether there


any way of

regarding the fulfilment of a meaningless anticipation such as this of the Marmontel case, just quoted

trenching on of time? reality



a question as


can only suggest something of the nature of An outside hypnotic suggestion, automatically effected. or, let us say, a subliminal intelligence gets the record

an unspecified man will read Marmontel on a frosty night lying on a sofa by candle light, etc., and then sets to work to try and secure that within the next two or three months some man shall do it some one who is sufficiently a friend of
Mrs, Verrall

made by

Mrs. Verrall to make


quent conversation she circumstance.

reasonably likely that in subsemay sooner or later hear of the


make the way that

suggestion for what it is worth, as the occurs to me of avoiding still more


provided of course

we do
is is

not dismiss

the whole thing as invention which or as chance, which in my judgment


put out of court

CHAP, x]


and by other Incidents of the same general nature as this one which have also occurred
in Mrs. VerralFs script

by the amount of

may be asked what

in thus predicting

possible object there can be a perfectly unimportant and common-

place incident
object, to those associated with the work of the Society for Psychical Research, is manifest enough. During the lifetime of Professor Sidgwick and Mr.


Myers we often discussed what sort of evidence could be regarded as conclusive as to the existence of superAnd it normal, even if not posthumous, intelligence. was agreed that prediction of future events of an insignificant kind, such as could not be inferred or deduced by however wide a knowledge of contemporary events, incidents which were outside the
range of any amount of historical or mathematical or would be conclusive, if obtained in political skill,

It did not at quantity sufficient to eliminate chance. follow that such anticipations were possible, so far as we could tell they might be beyond not only normal but

supernormal powers, but if possible it was realised that they would be singularly satisfactory. Accordingly it is eminently characteristic of an intelligence purporting to be associated in any way with the late Professor Sidgwick or the late Mr. Myers that Several attempts attempts of that kind should be made. have now been made with more or less success, and I have selected one of them. Others will be found in Mrs. Verrall's paper (Proceedings, vol. xx.) in the ch^pteir " Future Events." called





which of late years group the Society has been remarkably prolific and the general truth of which is accepted without hesitation
tion of a




upon the more
of facts, in

detailed considera-


the prominent



interpretation, yet practical unanimity as to its interest and importance receive it, that is to say, with all the unanimity that we desire or expect.



who, though they differ the evidence with

the end of last chapter we were discussing the possibility of the rather vague and ill-defined hypothesis that vistas of unlimited information lie open to people
a clairvoyant state, as if during unconsciousness a psychical region were entered wherein the ordinary



between soul and soul, or mind and mind, are broken down. Even this surmise must not be rejected


hypothesis of this kind referred to at the end of Chapter VIII.

without examination, if known vera cam.


are driven to



it is



Naturally it is only when all normal means of obtaining information have been scrupulously avoided

any problem



and the


hypothesis that

CHAP, xi]



influencing the sensitive of the unconscious or partially unconscious operator, after the fashion of an objectified and sympathetic dream.

must be made, whenever normal explanations thoroughly break down, is that telepathy of some kind is occurring from some living person and is

mind or brain

This hypothesis
to cover

at least


have refrained from proceeding in the direction towards which it undoubtedly points, so long as there was a chanceeven a remote chance that an established
variety of telepathy or some extension of it might constitute a sufficient Some of us hold explanation. that telepathy from living people is still sufficient or at least as sufficient as it has ever been and that no further step beyond it need be taken. Others are beginning to be impressed with the idea

For twenty years exceedingly difficult. of the have been intimately society acquainted with excellent and astonishing examples of trance speaking and automatic writing, and yet they have hesitated to make full use of all this and

not cover,

extremely elastic, and can be an immense area; indeed to get and definitely find a region which it will





not without

qualms and surviving hesitation that the time come, or is coming, when it may be legitimate necessary to take a further step, and to admit, at rate as a tentative hypothesis, the view which
doubtedly the phenomena themselves suggest view they have all the time been, as it were,






forcing the hypothesis of actual telepathic or influence from some outside -



the surviving intelligence, apparently, of some of those who have recently lived on this planet, and who are now represented as occasionally, under great difficulties


I discarding it. and If it continually fails to open them. Hesitate before If false.164 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. then utilise it to the utmost Try It in all the locks. reject It. once having determined on testing a key or theoretical solution. its' not after. discarnate temporary suspension of can with difficulty make use of these intelligences of translating organs for the purpose and so prothought Into mechanical movement. during the the normal control. apparatus. accepting a working hypothesis. endeavouring to make known the aid of such fact that they can communicate with us. but do not hesitate each . departed form which the a experience. The assertion made is that. before definitely : are going to try it at all. intelligence to is what "telergy. by their at is placed disposalintervening mechanism as muscle of an automatist and nerve brain the namely. even provisional a long as you like before giving theory and tentative acceptance but. iv and discouragements." or popularly 33 " possession. tpt normally motor automatism. person. It does not by any intelligence. hypothesis and pressed as Hesitate way to test any provisional hypothesis. or writing In the physical ducing some kind of speech world. but that phenomenon often so if we may persistently we resign ourselves to be guided by it at as well try how far the claim openly ^and made will carry us. And if we better try it frankly and thoroughly urge that we had as a working it had better be accepted provisionally That is the will it as far as go. time over the Insertion of the key. . their own Such is utilisation by an belong. or medium. . or called when of an extreme kind physiological it of which does means follow this that the agent or ^ is is active in unusual necessarily that of undoubtedly the takes all.

. sr I started with difficulty be of death.'' tond. XI ] AUTOMATIC WRITIX? " " organism' have been . But. An Id ea 1S concaved i the mind. connectfd with organism. but in ofder . arent te agency.CHAP. Given sTrvivS pe?sonality4o sav the 1 S emth7 emth aVe S9au P s 7 We\' 7*ical ' 4 f T"^ f ^ a apart from his dement of his MIND AND BODY ' " ! . ven Jven 4 D no?t fP aration C^om the uW nOt whhou? r ?n f f^T' IeP a and could %> ^ustaSed wL f Pr f f Survival a .

but of part at least of the method. the production of changes of motion. physical effect ? Physiology informs us. which only requires to be stimulated into activity in order to be transformed into visible motion and transferred in any required direction. in the shape of an intricate arrangement of which. This process may also be considered as comparatively though not completely understood : the . This part of the process is not indeed fully understood. The thing that can move matter is called muscle. is all The movement or rearrangement we ourselves are able to accomplish : the physical universe the whole of our direct terrestrial activities resolve themselves into this. may be a mere random tweaking. but it is The excitation of the nerves familiarly known. such as exists in the cortex or grey matter of the brain. . iv it in the material world must of in move matter matter. by a mechanical or electric goad but in a living organism it can also be produced in a more meaningful and . nerve fibres. produce a . In muscle is located the necessary energy. neither matter nor force it has no direct power over matter. But a thought belongs to a different order of is it whatever it is. How then can it get itself translated in terms of motion ? How can it. directly and unaided it can move nothing. it is not material existence. can cause the muscle to contract. when themselves excited in one of many ways. from the psychical category. In a living body means are provided for stimulating Its muscles. by the discharge of energy from a cell. central economical fashion. or irritation.166 to achieve AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY some that effect fSsct. not indeed of the whole manner of the achievement.

. should say an ultimately Intelligible process. without difficultynay. I have not the remotest Idea nor. so as to evoke response In a central ganglion say. and by long habit It seems to be established In normal cases Is to say. and many Involved . . in the . may be may be hoped to be ? of this order. whence the stimulus cell and so to the is efferent nerve fibres. has any one. the psychical element Is absent there is no intelligence or will In the process. xi] AUTOMATIC WRITING 167 central ganglion is clearly the direct means of getting the nerve excited. and I a rational It Is It occurs evidently spicuously a process. on and determining that there shall be a response the will material world. 1 that on which discovery Is possible. In that case no consciousness . brain ? But what It Is It that stimulates the What Is that desires the particular motion cell ? and liberates energy from the appropriate brain It In some cases is mere reflex action : It Is some stimulus which has arrived from the peripheral nerveendings. The wriggling of a worm. rather with singular easef when a pianist executes in miraculous fits complicated sonata. the muscle contracted. By what means the stimulus the of out gets psychical region Into the physical. The . In the spine or the cerebellum has proceeded to a neighbouring . and liberates energy from the brain centre. I venture to say.CHAP. shall we say But I am not taking the case . nor any necessary sensation. though at present there has been no discovery concerning it Somehow or other the connexion is established. of reflex and un- I am conscious action definitely postulating a thought or idea conceived In the mind operating. But conoperation Is at present mysterious. so to speak. contortions of the lower animals. and the direct motion produced.

mind may be unable to get at the right centre. sufficiently sympathetic thought once more. can be made more or less aware of the idea intended to be conveyed. is uncertain. the Or the the mental connexion may be in a state of suspense. Or these effects may be due to faults mechanism. feebleness of . so that stammering and contortic^ result. iv Things may go wrong. the air into vibration. then it appears to be able to play upon the brain. at one and the same time. as a musician plays upon a and to its content translated keyboard. Which means that. energy may be liberated in wrong direction. also. and at some public meetings everybody does so. many kinds. from mind to mind and through physiological apparatus physical mechanism. can all write with ink. though with some loss of if and . and when the conscious self is in good condition. so to speak. But when everything physiological is in good health. with some resulting confusion. so that other in- thought that it and suitably provided with receptive mechanism.. with a definite weak and wants to convey. belonging to to nobody. and set right.168 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. up to -paralysis. belonging equally We can We need be we can dip our pens into our neighbour's inkstand and use his desk. the wrong muscles may be stimulated. The physical mechanism is a neutral intermediary of is That the usual process. aphasia. by aid of their nerve fibres and brain centres. non-living matter. and may refrain from acting on any for a time in which case we have hesitation. get psychical into terms of mechanical motion. or all rather throw everybody. mechanical movements can be translated back into telligences. the response and dislocation in the physiological faults which can perhaps be discovered If the brain centres are fatigued.

2. and be stigmatised not merely as unrecognised and wrongful possession. we proceed The identity of the scribe Pretended identity in consideration. or otherwise than through neutral physical means. then becomes an Important such cases may perturb the social conscience. different or supplementary. Is not efficacious to fill upon on finding his cheque-book. i is entirely limited no means of getting at siological apparatus. and And the common Idea 2 to operator No. his notepaper. the As a matter of fact. prima but it ordinary experience facts may complete. state of unconsciousness perhaps. . up and sign his cheques. or" at any. xi] AUTOMATIC WRITING . belongs definitely to operator No. and has I the apparatus of another person. i.CHAP. That Is the natural . body No. body No. Idea is that operator common-sense the I might say over his own phycontrol to No. the physiological part Is undoubtedly appropriated by Individuals . but as fraud. rate of . . _ ' organism where the mind of the second person appears to be^ he may be thinking left out of the process altogether his own thoughts or' doing nothing particular^!*! a . based upon need not be exactly true or turn up which suggest something telepathy has suggested without any necessary reference to the physiological part of the business that mind can act directly on mind. and can thereby indirectly operate on the physical world throiigh But cases also occur of another person. facie notion. In any direct manner. 169 convenience we and find It it difficult to lay our hands if. forms of matter there are certainly some which can be used Intelligently though temporarily by people to whom they do not belong. But whatever may be the undlscriminatlng communism of all Thus existing of the main part of the physical universe.

assuming that a mind can operate. but directly and telergically upon another body. from which a certain class of literature usually emanates and he might not like to see it used for works of fiction. not only as usual on its own body. it its may be said. So to it far. and accordingly we are not entitled to any a priori views. except the specially appropriate organ or instrument for the purpose. but substimulating the parts usually controlled by the the parts which regulate the beating consciousness.i. The desk of an author is his private property. the digestion or secretions of the body. and belongs to. then that is exactly what is meant by a case of incipient or partial possession. Or if not upon the brain. the respiration of the lungs. then perhaps upon some other say. upon spinal or other portion of the nervous system. the special psychical character or unit which commonly employs it. ganglia not essentially or necessarily associated with consciousness. attempting to play upon it. not only telepathically as supposed on another mind. TV and yet his physiological mechanism may be set in action. of the heart.o Inattention. who might resent any other person. especially a novice. and his physical neighbourhood affected in such a way as to suggest a stimulus proceeding not from himself at all. but directly upon its brain. We know nothing about and no a priori reason to expect the connexion between that the brain is mind and body. but from the mind of another person who in this case must be conceived as operating . just as a violin belongs to a special operator. AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. . Assuming that such a thing is possible. . not upon the second mind. know that each organism is usually appropriated We by. we have no a priori reason doubt occurrence. and not arousing any consciousness.

or Christian Science. power of dislocation or suspension of the usual connexion between mind and body. we have in our new state no means of operating upon No more can we move pieces of the physical world. or be recognised as inappropriate and inconvenient. But if the power exist. one of three things happens." No. of our friends when we are "dead. matter no more can we stimulate ideas in the minds it And is usually . If it is possible for the normal operator to go out for a walk and leave his writing mechanism open to the casual tramp or the enterprising visitor. or even as dangerous and illegal. in case of what to is called travelling clairvoyance.CHAP. it would appear be in some sort a demonstrable fact. it is a fact worth knowing. and that at what we call give up this material mode of manifestation for ever : so that the body resolves itself into its original elements. it is is it supposed more or less to occur during sleep . even though we still persist as psychical entities. but religiously orthodox to maintain that the connexion between ourselves and our organism is only " " death we shall temporary. xi] AUTOMATIC WRITING 171 or scandalous gossip. it is a definite fact that we may as well know. after having lost control of our appropriate and normally possessed bodily organs. and. or the advocacy of vaccination. But that proves nothing as to the impossibility of so utilising it The power may exist. it is orthodox not scientifically orthodox. but may be in abeyance. Now as to the certainly supposed to occur during trance . or tariff reform. in such a way as to cause tkem to product some may . supposed that. First) the telepathic power may continue arid we operate directly on their conscious or uocofoscknis minds. Anyhow. not unless . or vegetarianism.

analogous to that which we have exist . save through the mechanism of a brain. when here on it planet. something of the kind has been asserted to though always. shall we so that. to digest Sec@nd> a and arrange it into the organism that served us as a It is extraordinarily difficult to conceive of such body. a telergic power. occur . to assimilate all sorts of material. some desired upon the physical world. I believe. In such a case the operator may be understood as contriving to utter in speech or writing something like the message which he intends to convey to his otherwise occupied and inaccessible but still beloved friends. and go through the process of using other people's . enabling the psychical unit to detect and fully may make use of some developed physiological mechanism. Such action we might Still well consider to be miracle.172 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. Affection which causes a given operator' to take all the trouble. Thirdly. with nerves and muscles complete vacation usual the by temporary possessor. in the presence of some peculiarly disposed organism or medium. . . iv physical effect or record. during say. a power. already supposed occasionally active. these may be utilised for a time. power may continue. and impossible to suppose that it can be a direct power of a psychical agency unaided by the re- productive activity of any other unit already incarnate because such a power would imply a control of mind over matter which by hypothesis we conceive does not in fact exist. however. by normal means. in an unpractised and more or influence less blundering fashion. and may achieve. through their own accustomed mechanism. not belonging to it a fully developed brain. need not be the only motive. materialising the analogous to that which enabled us.

they already they may imagine retention of a power to communicate indirectly and occasionally with them. shows a lack of of due thought. and fright or being ejected by medical treatment Occasionally it from the time in this life may be a scientific interest surviving when he was a keen and active S. on individual existence. but of his that believe. engaged on the same of his quest. that communications too often relate to trivial subjects. identity will usually depend on the memory The objection. and to produce movements even in the material world. some assurance. the temporary use or possession of which has been allowed him for that purpose. continued religious grounds. and what evidence of perevidential : memory can be which better than the recollection of for some personal reason happen to have made a permanent impression ? Do we not ourselves remember domestic trifles more vividly than world seem important? things which to the outside Wars and papers - coronations are they are affairs read of in newsusually f^r too public to be of fc . xi] AUTOMATIC WRITING 173 at the risk of rousing superstition writing materials. or at least the critic. or part of an organism.P. by kind permission of an organism. and not reproducing facts which belong to his memory And notice that proof of to that of the automatist. IDENTITY The question of identity is of course a fundamental The control must prove his identity mainly by one. member of the so that he desires above all things to convey to his friends. of trifles. not something dignified.R.CHAP. on the part of intelligence. frequently raised. not only in which. . The but something sistent trifling incidents object is to get.

in the mind of any living person. illustrated continually. enables a hidden thing to be discovered of which no Thus one living possessed the secret as in Swedenborg's . The regiment in Kipling's tale never thought of unconscious telepathy from themselves. as some think. in The Man Who Was. and the smashing of a wineglass after a loyal toast That is true to life it is probably true to vase.174 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY . we are bound to proceed even to this : length. Take . : that twenty years ago he was Knowledge of a trick-catch in themselves ? flower- death also. however. to crawled back from Siberia. or after a rending the shock. as spoiling the testimony to be drawn from the uncouth"*' such an explanation savage's apparent reminiscence would have been rightly felt to have been too forced and But when it improbable. [SECT. in and our own minds. comes to proof of surviving existence and of memory beyond the tomb. or a family joke. apparently an Afghan prowler. is to discount the witness of anything that is or. and exaggeratedly sceptical. or a schoolboy adventure. case of identification of the dumb and broken savage. has a more personal flavour. What was it that which he had opened the eyes of the regiment. and that is the kind of evidence which not We have not been able to hold infrequently we get it sufficient. and is of a kind more likely to be In remembered fiction this is in old age. iv use as evidence of persistent identity but a broken toy. the difficulty of incontrovertible proof of Even when the evidence identity enormously increased. to the fact one a of regimental the former position of a trophy on the wall. That is the kind of evidence which we ought to expect.

119 deferred telepathy Is sometimes adduced as preferable to what must then seem to most. the only rational explanation. xi] AUTOMATIC WRITING the 175 discovery of dead burgomaster's private papers above quoted.CHAP. p. if not to Kant. . as it did to Swedenborg.

who had been permit her. H. to write with ease. May 9th. the following is a favourable instance of the mode in which evidence is given to prove illustration of the : identity in cases of automatic writing it was described by Mr. began to ask a question. 1874. while at Bedford with his father and mother. 1874. " I should like . was an automatic writer." when a meaningless drawing was made in place of intended words. He was accustomed alternately to write a conscious question and then to receive an unconscious or subliminal answer his hand being apparently guided by an intelligence not his own. "A spirit wished to communicate. W.1 Do you know the name?" do not remember. on his first meeting with It is to be understood that he them.CHAPTER XII IDENTITY IN remarks made at end of last chapter. She is not able us. Stainton Moses. " con verse" with the script as it emanated from his own unconscious hand. The On record runs thus : receiving messages about ancient religions during the day. Fanny Westoby. Q. while it was still fresh. Mr. Myers. What is all that? And why was I stopped? A. . as it were. is but will communicate through Her name Q . Stainton Moses to Edmund Gurney and F. and we are commanded to the evening of April 8th. and one of those who could.

" How " did she find me out ? [t. A. cousin. " She says. xn] PERSONAL IDENTITY 177 She A. passed from your earth May 1 5th last. her maiden name was Kirkham." Q." Mrs. and. "She can give you no further evidence. I will. Fanny Kirkham. live at Yes. in the house now occupied She then lived at Markby." Q. her. but I can't get near Can she assure me that she is F. W. y u went to see her at Markby. She passed away at Horn castle.CHAP. married." Q. The bug. Cain I help her? 12 . ask. when. You were is taken round the farm. Any more? Is she happy? as happy as may be in her present state. I nave a dim remembrance. Q. at 63 do not remember her. and rode on a goat (she sport into result anxious on this point). I find my present same. Has she any message ? I lost A. will She Q. and she threw you in a heap of wheat which was being threshed. the My life of my opportunity for progress of gratification bodily appetite. She is a cousin of hers. Elizabeth Kirkham. in the Her mother." I wish not very different from yours. is All the better. Was she married. hovering near her friend and discovered that she could communicate. year 1845." but you may satisfy yourself that what said Q. A. at Belchford. You years of age. " Yes." have not the least idea what she means. "You will not be able to induce her to search into is this is matter. I Stay. Q. now. I am nearly the I could influence Mary. was then just released from a lingering and your mother had gone to condole with her illness. She used to Markby. A She came by chance. much ' through back. which cast me course of progress is yet to come. having by Sam Stevenson. She is it is was that you were severely bitten by the harvest very anxious that you should recall this to your ? mother. " She says that she was born in Alford. ? A. A* " She Q. "Your mother knows her well. but wise A. Mos&s]. ask your father I will about Donnington and the trap-door. true.e.

What do you mean ? A. She and all of us are helped when you devote your talents willingly to aid us. Then we are permeated with joy. on a visit wanted to go there. Communicators themselves usually appear confused about but an ostensible reporter. My father has remembered this April 9th. W. F. + RECTOR" On this Mr. as Another striking case is that of the lady known here " Blanche Abercromby though in this case the concealment of real name removes some of the interest that would otherwise be felt in it When the communication arrived through Mr. Stainton Moses comments thus: I have Inquired of my mother and find the particulars given are exactly true. place. 1874. . these more precise details having obtained the information from them at leisure. The house was double roofed. " In advocating and advancing our mission with care and judgment. and a* good view could be had from it. K. either does not remember. " Yes pray. Westoby's death M. as in the case above. A trap-door led on to the roof in the house he incident. 8 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY } [SECT.] in the It is indeed seldom that particulars of date. amid great ! laughter. . May the Supreme bless you. or will not say. and got fixed halfway. Register of Deaths.i. She wonders how I remember I things that occurred when I was only 5 years old have not ventured to say how I got the information." Q. iv A. H. My believing that it would be unwise and useless. occupied at Donnington. [We have verified Mrs. accuracy. He father I can get nothing out of about the trap-door. and circumstance are given so glibly and fully as this. can sometimes quote it through an automatist with fair . F. Stainton Moses's hand he was not aware of her death nor did he know her at all well in " .

231. not only by Mr. and by an expert (see Human Personality. posthumous.CHAP. He was surprised to find a written communication entirely characteristic of a lady known to him. Myers. point peculiar. this and other books came into Mr. Mr. Myers's hands." nor had they apparently been mentioned toany one at the time. xn] fact PERSONAL IDENTITY I79 he had only met her and her husband once at some stance. xi. but by a member of the family. or Proc. ii. some being in features of it. m : this chances necessary to secure a verification of more complex that can here be fully This lady. quite . Stainton Moses at his secluded lodgings the north of London and that afterwards the lady had ostensibly written a few lines herself. and with the consent of the executors he opened this portion. these _ The case were had been dead about twenty years when her posthumous letter was discovered in Mr. Moses had ever seen her writing. at the earliest.\ It is unlikely that Mr. who had died on a Sunday afternoon about twenty-five years ago at a country house about two hundred miles from London. opportunity. who was explained. after the death of Mr. Moses's private notebook by one of the very few surviving researches. Myers examined this case much interested carefully. is specifically testified to. p.R. alien to. S. The communicating possibility things. The evidence of the which was in one handwriting. But years later. He found that it was on the very same evening near midnight that the supernormal intimation of the death The pages of the notebook in had reached Mr.P. which the writing occurred had been gummed down and marked "private. Stainton Moses. vol. and had been annoyed at the strongly expressed disbelief of her husband in the of such purports to be a hasty amende. 96 et seq. here called Blanche Abercromby.

" Q. Seek not more now. have brought her. We do not wish you to ask any questions now. I (On Monday morning the Mentor ? wish for information about Is that true? Was it A. book will now be quoted. No The M. Do No cromby you mean reply. The communications began with some obscure drawings. iv persons who had both known her well enough to recognise the characteristic quality of the message. "Yes. Q. The entries in the MS. : A. we were glad to be able to afford you another proof of our desire to do what is in our power to bring home to you evidence of the truth of what we to you. She will rest anon. It is a spirit who ? has but just quitted the body. She desires us to say so.evidential quality appears propose to quote it because this but in this instance is an important case. Be thankful and meditate with prayer. . who took pity on a spirit that was desirous to reverse former errors. and being active. How was it that spirit [Blanche Abercromby's] came to me ? A." is [Sunday night about midnight to me. 1 Blanche Abermore.' r8o -AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. " t I S D. "Yes. called I non. " Q. but cease. In the flesh. then in apparently representing the flight of a bird "answer to a question as to the meaning it went on . Is it say. information unknown Q. the chief is here. and were also sufficiently interested in spirit identity to get the handwritings compared and the case recorded." correct to say that the direction of thought causes the spirit to be present ? . One more proof has been now given of continuity of existence. jected itself it pro- Moreover. x RECTOR : : A week later some matter of what must be . She was ever an inquiring spirit. good friend. " The mind was directed to the subject. and was called suddenly from your earth. it was Mentor.] script continues) last night. Can you write for me now ? A. Q.

At another time we may for the present resume. Circumstances enabled us to use its presence: but that presence will not be maintained. not that alone. A. souls. write with difficulty. few days spirit later.. Mr. Then a combination of favourable circumstances aided you. or does it not require it ? A. And that combination is rare. And not in all union of can be." Q. Many cases does volition or thought cause other adjuncts are necessary before such Material may oppose. Moses wrote Was it The " B. We seeing that we obstacles may prevent. combination of circumstances before such a manifestation can be possible. coupled with anxiety to discover truth and to seek into the hidden causes of things.) . " We do not know the destiny of that spirit. she will be more able to express her thoughts. "In some cases PERSONAL IDENTITY iBi it Is so. maniThis would not have been possible in Ahis case. Moreover. began by drawing. 21. One day if she is able to " return again. direction managing the elements. are skilled in becomes possible. If direction of thought causes motion. It will pass out of our control. direction of thought gives what you would call or locality to the thought By that we mean that the instinctive tendency of the desire or thought causes a posThen by the help of those sibility of objective manifestation. festation who. and the difficulty we have them : especially case of a friend It might well be that so ready a proof as this might not occur again. and the guardians are not able to pursue the subject now. . only that we took advantage of what would have passed unnoticed in order to work out another proof of the It is necessary that there should be a reality of our mission.CHAP. . (A few days later. " It is likely to come. assistance. XH] A. Hence the Infre- quency of such events. Cease and do not seek f further* I:S: D.. herself? With She could not write. Nor is it so with all. in arranging as in the the spirit rest. I should have thought it would be so with our friends and that they would therefore be more A. whose presence is earnestly desired." Q. Will when anxiety enters into the matter. Great activity of spirit. RECTOR" : A Q. like ourselves. continue to make it possible for a spirit to manifest. All cannot come to earth.

BLANCHE ABERCROMBY. Myers. The amende^ and the sentence I have like that of the lady's. if possible. herent message. some of it telepathy. much to learn. attempts are by and some of regarded as it by clairvoyance. much like to speak more with you. and are still made from time to time. they cannot be rationally signalled ." The message statement that the writing of this particular Is was long afterwards verified with some care and trouble by Mr. iv A has before communicated will write for you herself. having given the evidence that required.182 A. . in some sense new to the world. or the reception of unintelligible parts of one consistent and co. by any means. of the supposed communicating intelligence and. to explain all this sort of thing some of it by the recrudescence of lapsed memory. Attempts have been made. but it is not You have sacred truth. t( much. have much. is She will then leave you. and is correct. I permitted." are characteristic. If such successful how can it be possible. based on pertinacious and careful record (b] correspondences. much to learn. to get over the difficulty and to establish the identity of any communicator ? I reply (a] by by gradually cross accumulated internal evidence. through different mediums (c] by information or criteria specially characteristic . " It is like " I should my writing as evidence to you. Cross-correspondence that is. the reception of part of a message through one medium and part through another is good evidence of one intelligence dominating both automatists especially if the parts separately are so that unintelligible. . I know but little yet. AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY spirit wlio [SECT.

If further we get from him a piece of literary criticism which is eminently in his vein and has not occurred to ordinary people not to either of the mediums. but which on consideration is appreciated as sound as well as characteristic criticism. then to I say the proof. are the kinds of proof at which the These are the kinds of proof which Society is aiming. xn] either PERSONAL IDENTITY 183' by normal or supernormal means. and is received through people to whom he was not intimately known. showing a familiar and wide knowledge of the poetry of ages. already striking. would tend become crucial These.CHAP. many in and unifying apparently disconnected passages definite some way. then. . then it is fair proof of the continued intellectual activity of that personality. And If the message is characteristic of some one particular deceased person. and not even to the literary world. are in process of being attained.

which an Introduction wrote at that time published.CHAPTER XIII BEGINNING OF THE CASE OF MRS. fertility it of this case.A. Mr. will bear witness as well as to the industry with which THE . . so some idea of what happens. Piper has been done work With her an enormous amount of in the past and and the Proceedings of the Society. the the Society for Psychical on the 1890 English prelude to the Report first that the Society the were series of sittings. or trance speaking and trance writing of Boston. mediums. PIPER most famous of recent thorough automatists. Myers which I will make a few extracts. U. both to the richness and in future years. has been pursued and its various stages own To give anything like a full account of even my whole the of fraction work in this direction the merest would be wise would need much more space than it I shall select only such to expend on it in this book. give of who wish to pursue the matter further Proceedings Research. is undoubtedly Mrs. as will small portions and refer students to studied. because they As a from illustrate the kind of view which that experienced inthat time took of these in some respects vestigator at novel phenomena.S.

CHAP. study of trance-utterances. and of analysing the results in some such way as we have endeavoured to do. so also these utterances are now capable of being rationally studied. is that a are form of automatism that safely say they one classes constitute of of whicfcr they many phenomena occur in sane subjects without entering the normal waking consciousness or forming part of the habitual . are debut on the more delicate and interesting cisively agreed question as to the origin of the trance-utterances we cannot unite in any absolute view. although to they often occur have no necessary connection hysterical subjects. . Indeed. xin] PIPER F. But we urge that. Nor again have we any real ground for with hysteria. although their excessive All that we can repetition may lead to morbid states. H. MYERS'S EARLY TESTIMONY On certain external or preliminary points. all . 185 MR. has been . sight distasteful . calling them morbid per se. agree only in maintaining that the utterances show that knowledge We acquired by some intelligence in some and in urging on experimental supernormal fashion psychologists the duty of watching for similar cases. thanks to the advance in the comprehension of automatic as a and psychical phenomena of hysteria mere jungle of trickeries are now analysed phenomena which French and English the last few years has achieved. In previous discussions automatism has been divided into active and passive types active automatism consisting of such phenomena as automatic writing . The just as the physical long neglected with adequate security against deception. seem chain of memory. W. and with most fruitful results. is at first since real and pretended trance-utterances have notoriously been the vehicle of much conscious and unconscious fraud. effort during in These utterances. who have had adequate opportunity of judgment.

indeed." When. fact . in short. We We . they generally show little of barren eminently more than a mere power of improvisation. or may be a The istic faculty of the unconscious self. her waking state was wholly into the character of this trance Ignorant. and by Mr. and found her somewhat suggestible/ On the other hand. so to say. hearing. Hodgson. trance did in their view unquestionably contain we were informed by trusted ^witwho is a physician by Professor William James. but for a time dis- However j up places It . etc it of hallucinations of sight a motor channel. understand. that Mrs. the whole personality appears to suffer intermittent change. nesses. passive if channel. facts of Piper's which Mrs.' finds be called active it it finds a sensory may be in unsubstantial character of trance-utterances . as well as a psychologist. where. whose acumen in the detection of imposture has been proved that the utterances of Mrs.addresses are Trance general is fully admitted. the whole psychical where a secondary consciousness not only crops area here and there through the primary. the trance has occasionally appeared A .186 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY "The automatism may [SECT. in more fields than one. the case It is an Instance of automatism of that extreme one. Piper by hypnotism. some inquiry seemed to fall in the direct line of our work. These trances cannot always be Induced at pleasure. but the impulse whence it originates much the same in the one case as in the other. kind where the upheaval of sub-conscious strata Is not merely local. therefore. although Professor RIchet tried on her some experiments of suggestion in 7 " the waking state. state of quiet expectancy or "self-suggestion" will usually bring one on but sometimes the attempt altonever attempted to Induce the trance gether fails. iv and trance-utterancepassive. but affects. which may charactereither be fraudulently practised. has never been deeply hypnotised. Piper in the specific trance-utterances may be as a whole is a rare and remarkable Interpreted.

and I believe once at least it lasted came to herself. There seemed to be some irresponsible letting-off of energy which must cating seen." and then became confused. however. and the original impulse was lost in in- . looking into a crystal. America. It appeared as though the concentration of thought upon the crystal had acted as a kind of self-suggestion. and then the habitual moaning began. with the desire to see therein when (as > _ called. xin] MRS.Piper mforms us) it came as an unwelcome An instance of this kind occurred at Camsurprise. . as will be . for about a minute. but next morning she looked exhausted. f re in g to bed she had a * my ?^ request. and hallucinatory figure which might throw light on the nature of the mysterious secondary personality bne saw nothing. Phinuit. and Mrs Piper r m continue until coherence. been Myers. Un such occasions almost all that was remaining of value would be told in the first few minutes and the remaining talk would consist of vague generalities or mere repetitions of what had already been given. On one occasion in my generally house. and said that she thought that she had been entranced during the The next time that she night. Mr.CHAP. always professed himself to with spirits. says. The first time that it occurred Mrs. be a spirit communihe used to say that he remembered their messages for a few minutes after ''entering into the medium. He was not. went into a trance Phinuit [which is the name she used to be known by when in the trance] said he had come The trance when induced lasted about an hour. apparently able to depart when his budget of facts was empty. and for the first time in her life. only Fhinuit only had time to say that he could not remain. There was often a marked difference between the first few minutes of a trance and the time. and had induced the secondary state. when not desired. and no one had answered him. PIPER l87 some it was not desired.

A. " " detectives for Piper watched or shadowed by private some weeks. Piper (at that time alive and employed in a large store in Boston. relations. Verrall. Piper. not have known. Piper. Hodgson also had Mr. Piper could Dr. procedure. some Dr. . Piper made no discoverable attempt to acquire knowledge even about Still persons whose coming she had reason to expect less could she have been aware of the private concerns of persons brought anonymously to her house at Dr. to avoid information in talk and a more complete security giving is to be found in the fact that we were ourselves ignorant of many of the facts given as to our friends' In the case of Mrs. It was thus shown that Mrs.. etc. no one in Cambridge except Mrs.) went about inquiring into the affairs of possible "sitters." or whether Mrs. with the view of discovering whether Mr. iv Mrs. Piper received letters from friends or agents conveying inThis inquiry was pushed pretty closely. absolutely nothing was discovered which could throw who is now aware of the suspicion on Mrs. pains. Hodgson was in the habit twenty-five years ago. but formation. etc. U. relations. Myers. Hodgson's choice. continues Mr. of bringing acquaintances of his own to Mrs. which they feel sure that Mrs. for instance.188 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. and Mrs. Verrall herself could supplied the bulk of the information given. We took great . Piper's case has been more or less continuously observed by Professor James and others almost from the date of the first sudden inception of the trance. but has the good sense to recognise the I may say the scientific necessity of this legitimacy kind of probation. without giving their names and many of these have heard from the trance-utterance facts about their dead .S.

. more commonly called Corrie. "Cordelia Marshall. I own may say that so far as conviction to other sitters. and suppressed as too given in England. ." might have been learnt. Piper of course knew that I should be one of her sitters. But I do not think that any larger proportion of such accessible facts was given to me than to an average sitter. or as involving secrets not the property of the sitter alone. xnil MRS. from printed or other sources.CHAP. the utterance of one or two of these facts is even mqre conclusive of supernormal knowledge than the 'Correct statement of dozens of names of relations. I have not thought it worth while to cite" in extenso such statements as might possibly have been got up beforehand since Mrs. and mentioning circumstances which I believe that it would have been quite impossible for Mrs. though I do not think that they were learnt. Such facts as that I once had an aunt. Piper in both states to be able to form a judgment^ will agree in affirming (i) that many of thfe facts given could not have been learnt even by a skilled detective. there were messages purporting to come of the facts given Mrs. both in America and intimate. previously unknown nor were there any of those subtler points which could so easily have been made by dint of scrutiny of my books or On< papers. to have from a friend ^ ^ the other hand. says Mr. who have seen enough of Mrs. I believe that all observers. although possible. Piper discovered. would have needed an expenditure of tiioney as well as of time which it seems impossible to suppose that Mrs. jg9 who has been dead many years. Verrall herself did not know. some . (2) that to learn others of them. in my case. Piper could have met and (3) 'that bet* epa~ duct has never given any ground whatever for supposing . I am also acquainted with some of the facts my personal goes. eta. which the sitter had no personal motive for concealing. Myers. As regards my own affairs. On the whole. as in the case of several other sitters.

9o AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY . of The articles belong to the discreditable side ^ transatlantic and it is discouraging newspaper enterprise. so I quote utterance of the Editor of the for Psychical Research on the Journal of the Society far set the matter completely at rest so subject. PIPER AND THE PRESS It have may be in that the within the knowledge of some readers articles year 1901 absurdly misleading appeared in the American Press. part of this is signed by case. the . candour. [SECT. the second Mrs.R.. . in give up the work order to devote herself to other and more congenial and it goes on to say that it was on account of pursuits her own desire to understand the phenomena that she and placed first allowed her trances to be investigated herself in the hands of scientific men with the undertests they chose standing that she should submit to any to apply also that now.P. I find that the misconception thus started is occasionally still the critical and judicial found surviving. Piper she has been doing for the S.. to the effect that " " and exploded her whole fabric. MRS. and she has observed so carefully been so long and on all observers the impression of thorough left and honesty. and were copied in some of the English papers. . after fourteen years' work. more readily assessed that they should not have been at their true worth. uprightness. Piper had confessed Mrs. a copy of the York Htrald article on Mrs. Piper published in the New The first of October aoth [1901] has reached us. iv Few persons her capable of fraud or trickery. which as all members of the Society were concerned. Piper herself. Since issuing the November Journal. her of comments and opinions on part consisting to intends The article begins by saying that Mrs.

but I do not affirm it" The Editor of Light states in his issue of November 3Oth. that he has received a letter from Mrs. I do not believe that spirits of the dead have spoken through me when I have been in the trance state. 1901. represents her as holding a highly laudatory . says that Mrs. it will be seen that. theory of telepathy most plausible and the strongly appeals the of scientific solution genuinely problem. It terms. and from the Herald counselling her to sleep calm assuring her that the word Confession had only been used in the way of advertising smartness and would This telegram Mrs. changed. . 191 subject not being yet cleared up.. neither in the original report in the Herald nor anywhere else has any revelation been made which is to-day as it could in any way affect the evidential value of Mrs.. not appear in the Herald article. . was eighteen years ago. It may be that they have. Spirits : .. Hodgson has sent us cuttings from two Boston * ' ' ' ! 4 7 * J papers bearing on this report. in a preliminary announcement. comparing all these statements together. Now. Piper dictated the following statement to a representative of theirs " I did not make any such statement as that New York Herald to the effect the published in of the My departed do not control me." . Her honesty is not in Piper's trance phenomena. The result was that she received a telegram altogether. Piper " in which she explains that. she feels disinclined for further Investigation.. having heard that the New she says: "The to me as York Herald people had.CHAP. 1901. Spirits bf>itik>E controlled me and they may have of thfe departed may have not I do not know. . As to her own view of the phenomena." Dr. I that I confess not I make no change in my relations.. advertised her name with the word Confession above she at once forbade the publication of the article it. xm] MRS. .. Piper has sent for our inspection. and we have it still. the Herald and speaks of her throughout in question. The Boston Advertiser of October 25th.

for the telepathic over the expresses a preference spiritistic hypothesis. and it after an interval of three months. Hodgson informs us. an opinion than those who sit with position for forming remember what passes her. _ suspended on but one was held. not in a more favourable. Piper's later utterances show that. the allegation of the Herald that her Mrs. Piper had determined finally to discontinue had The sittings to be unfounded. and it is hardly necessary been have kept betore always that these two hypotheses sat with her the minds of those investigators who have in and since little value would be attached to her opinion be it cannot fairly of the . it is clear that Mrs. favour on the other side should weigh urged that her opinion said is in Mrs. Piper. as Dr.. as we have already with us. . On the other hand. of the S. Hodgson continued as before. that the report in the New York Herald was misleading. she still the 'Heralds report was garbled and post-dated. To sum up. Piper has neither said nor done anything to diminish the value of evidence obtained through her.I92 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. but even in a less favourable. fact. w incompatible Mrs. Herald October 2ist (the day after the article in the was then arranged to resume them appeared). since she does not afterwards while she is in trance. and that her relations with the on the same footing Society and Dr.R. sittings is shown to her health months some for owing been spiritistic hypothesis. .P. altnougn lent. It is well a view which is really certain view of the phenomena frauduwith the supposition that they are known to all members for us to repeat.

may be said to have been discovered by Professor William James in 1885. during the previous summer. and. PIPER Piper was brought by the Society to England In the autumn of 1889. had given her a long string of names of members of the family. she was of course known to members of the Society in America before then. His early experience of her sittings.CHAPTER XIV PROFESSOR WILLIAM JAMES'S EARLY TESTIMONY TO MRS. mostly Christian names. together with facts about the persons mentioned and their ' by a . and I shall here make a few PROFESSOR WILLIAM JAMES'S STATEMENT "I made Mrs. so far as we were " " concerned. autumn of had been told friend. P. She returned with the statement that Mrs. Gibbens. ZJL his initial scepticism was broken down. are very quotations from a short paper of his which was included in the" Proceedings of the Society along with my first Report of the Piper Case. interesting. Piper's acquaintance 1885. had paid her a visit out of curiosity. Mrs. of her in the My wife's mother. and his as to the way in which testimony A LTHOUGH Mrs. and. never having seen a medium before.

ID prevent me from going myself company with my wife. part was incomprehensible better sister-in-law went the next day. as she related them. J. of to our relatives who no reference to make to Mrs. had given it My in Italian. P. lost the previous year) . the names of spirits whom she had of most repeated announced on the two former occasions. which she said she had not been able to get on the former occasion. had preceded. then as Giblin. I remember on that occasion before my playing the esprit fort feminine relatives. ' ' The medium. she reverted in her trance to these letters. the knowledge of which on her without supernormal powers. however. This did not. when entranced. who went on to speak of him in a way which identified him unmistakably again. head. On a third occasion.. "I may add that on a later occasion my wife and I took another letter from this same person to Mrs. P. been announced course. iv relations to each other. and were only others. to get a direct personal impresThe names of none of us up to this meeting had sion. and added The names came with difficulty. the results. medium had accurately described the circumstances of forethe writer of a letter which she held against her The letter was to her. a few days later. my sister-in-law years Mrs. My first wife's father's name of Gibbens was announced A child Herman (whom we had as Niblin.. with still Amongst other things. however. and its writer was known to but two persons In this country. . "But to revert to the beginning. careful and Mrs. and I were. and seeking to explain by simple considerations the marvellous character of the facts which they brought back. P. two and I being again with later.194 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. after Miss G. gradually made perfect. and then gave us the writer's name.

P. ledge of her sittings and personal acquaintance with her has led me absolutely to reject the latter explanation. (A suggestion of this sort made by the operator in one hypnotic trance would probably have some effect on the next. that he will then start off with a copious flow of additional talk. light of subsequent experience I believe this not to be the best For it often policy. that Mrs.) She became partially hypnotised on the third trial but the effecc was so slight that I ascribe it . happens. xiv] TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM JAMES 195 name spelt out as Herrin. or knew My My later know- any community "My I first unsuccessful. " I also made during this winter an attempt to see whether Mrs. . and to believe that she has supernormal powers. either possessed of supernormal powers.' " was the acquainted with such a multitude of their domestic circumstances as to produce the startling impression which she did. agreed.CHAP. Piper's medium-trance had of nature with ordinary hypnotic trance. members of my wife's family by sight and had by some lucky coincidence become impression after this first visit was. two attempts to hypnotise her were Between the second time and the ' ' suggested to her control in the medium-trance that he should make her a mesmeric fie subject for me. third. containing in itself an abundance of ' We tests. I think that in no case were both Christian and surnames given on this visit. if you give this trance-personage a name or some small fact for the lack of which he is brought to a standstill. But the facts predicated of the persons named made it many instances impossible not to recognise the particular individuals who were talked about. his had m took particular pains on this occasion to give the Phinuit control no help over his difficulties and to ask no leading In the questions.

. hypnotic-trance such a suggestion will often patient remember all that has happened. So far as tried (only twice). medium-trance. express manipulation and suggestion must be practised. then. The automatic imitations I spoke of are in the first instance very weak. as tested by card has been found in her. and only become strong after repetiHer pupils contract in the medium-trance. but had no " result. iv rather to the effect of repetition than to the suggestion made. . but the record is obviously too imperfect for confident conclusions to be drawn from it in any ' * direction. example. no right guessing of cards in the No clear signs of thought-transference. By the fifth trial she had become a pretty good hypnotic subject. as tested by the naming of cards. muscular characterised by great unrest. So far as the evidence goes. or immediately after it although her control in the medium-trance has said that he would bring them about. This would of itself be an important result if it could be established and generalised. gave similarly negative results. or otherwise get her beyond this point Her condition in this semi-hypnosis The % latter is is very different from her medium-trance. even her ears a in way impossible to her in her moving vigorously But in hypnosis her muscular relaxation waking state. strong get .196 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. as far as muscular phenomena and but I automatic imitations of speech and gesture go could not affect her consciousness. tion. ' control that he should make Suggestions to the her recollect after the medium-trance what she had ' been saying were accepted. during the waking Trials of the state. She often makes several and to efforts to speak ere her voice Becomes audible contraction of the a for hand. willing game/ and attempts at automatic writing. either in ' - the hypnotic condition just described. and weakness are extreme. make In the the No sign of thought-transference and diagram guessing . her medium-trance seems an isolated feature in her psychology.

trance-information. during that interval.CHAP. and had confirmed in me the belief that she is an absolutely simple and genuine person. but being over-freighted with time-consuming duties* and feeling that any adequate circumnavigation of the phenomena would be too protracted a task for me to aspire just then to undertake. " And philosophy her trances its is yet to be found. and am quite satisfied to leave my is reputation for wisdom or fall far as human I folly. when challenged. and I then learned to know her ''Here mediumship for personally better than ever before. since where there are limits interesting there are . discontinuity and and apparent inability to develop beyond a certain point. halfaccidentally. No one. xiv] TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM JAMES I 197 dropped my inquiries into Mrs. and in the spring of 1889 saw her four times again. amongst its most peculiarities. into account. that. the everything result is to make me feel as absolutely certain as I am of any personal fact in the world that she knows things in her trances which she cannot have heard in possibly her waking state. to stand or by this repeat again what I said before. and practically I should be willing now to stake as much money on Mrs. having satisfied myself that there was a genuine mystery there. Piper's a period of about two years. although they end by rousing one's moral and human impatience with the phenomenon yet are. and that the definitive of declaration. Piper's honesty as on that of anyone I know. from a scientific point of view. P. so nature concerned. I saw her once. however. its The limitations of her fitfulness. Yet we all ' ' live by them from day to day. can give evidence to others for such beliefs as this. taking that I know of Mrs. In the fall of 1889 she paid us a visit of a week at our country house in New Hampshire.

. on Piper through account of conversations carried since Dr. since the publication can easily be obtained.I 98 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY and the discovery of these is [SECT.R. not quote. Hodgson's surviving personality together with do I Professor James's critical comments thereupon. iv conditions.P. Hodgson's death with what purported ^to be Dr. for June 1909 (Part LVIIL)." The most recent utterance of Professor William James is on 'the subject the Proceedings of the published in an S. always the beginning of explanation. and it contains^ Mrs.

about whom she is able to hold a conversation. and with whom she appears more or less familiar. with a manner and voice quite different from her ordinary manner and voice. on details concerning which she has had no information given her. Piper's first visit to England. acquiring courses are usually within the knowledge of sdine person "' myself that much the trance state is 199 i . PIPER M Y own first Report on this case appeared in 1890. By introducing anonymous strangers.' . In this abnormal state her speech has reference mainly to people's relatives and friends. PIPER Formal Report At the request of Mr. and it ran as follows : ACCOUNT OF SITTINGS WITH MRS. Myers I undertook a share in the investigation of a case of apparent clairvoyance. living or deceased. and in that trance to talk volubly. I have satisfied of the information she possesses ill not acquired by ordinary commonshe has some unusual means of that but methods. place The facts on which she dis-^ information. and by catechising her myself in various ways. It is the case of a lady who appears to go off into a trance when she pleases to will it under favourable surroundings. .CHAPTER XV THE AUTHOR'S FIRST REPORT ON MRS. soon after the close of Mrs.

In the midst of this lucidity a number of mistaken and confused statements are frequently made. the application of ordinary methods. 27th. which she acquires Concerning the particular means by is no sufficient there the different kinds of information. OLIVER J.200 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. She is also in the trance state able to diagnose or late owners of diseases. though they Occasionally facts have scious thought at the time. between the dates January 3oth and February when she devoted of sailed for New During these days we had twenty-two to the sittings. been narrated which have only been verified afterwards. get appears to be anxious I believe her assertion that she is and hopes by to sitting to scientific investigators have . I can evidence to make it safe to draw any conclusion. and absolutely She said in the trance state. 1890. and to specify the owners . and that it is highly improbable they were ever known to such persons. and which are in good faith asserted never to have been have left no trace that known they meaning thereby in on the conscious memory of any person present or that the neighbourhood. being desirous and satisfactory investigation as complete as possible while the opportunity lasted. having little or no apparent meaning or application. the of none is ordinary it by only say with certainty that methods known to Physical Science. iv are often entirely out of his conpresent. under circumstances which preclude portable property. 1889. Piper pretends to no knowledge as to her own making the powers. and I my whole time business. Mrs. LODGE May. has she what of ignorant the to phenomenon elucidated. my wife had invited Mrs* between the dates Piper to our house in Liverpool December i8th and December York. and again 5th. 1890 In order to gain experience.

but it deprives her of the great advantage fraudulent intention for the (assuming moment) of conthe circumstances after the manner of a trolling conjurer and prevents her from being the master of her own time . went on to enumerate eight possibilities of imposture against which we were on our guard but matters have advanced far beyond that now. xv] light REPORT ON MRS. PIPER 2OI thrown on her abnormal condition.CHAP. . however it is to be I now regard as absolutely certain. the next hypothesis is that her trance personality makes use of information acquired by her . Piper's attitude is not one of deception. and explained I make the following two statements with the utmost initial The confidence : (i. and something which may briefly be described as a duplex or trance personklity being conceded. She perfectly appreciates the reasonableness of withholding information assents with a smile to a sudden stop in the middle of a sentence. (ii. of course. That there is more than can be explained by any amount of either conscious or unconscious fraud that the phenomenon is a genuine one. and in All general is quite uninquisitive. concerns the honesty of Mrs Piper herself. this innocency may. and this is an essential ingredient for satisfactory testimony. before anything can be held worth either investigating or recording. question to be satisfactorily answered. thus entirely in The control of the experiments was my own hands. and it is useless to [I : dwell upon this discarded part of the subject] Cheating being eliminated. and movements.) No conceivable deception on the part of Mrs. Piper can explain the facts.) Mrs. about which she expresses herself as not quite comfortable. be taken as perfection of acting.

seems to me about evenly balanced on either Independent Whether scientific could give. Piper apparently so distinct from that it is permissible and convenient to call it by another name. of munications retailed by this personality are wholly great mass of facts not outside of Mrs. Piper's knowledge in detail. individual there Is any special similarity. now Is information on these points the trance speech anything details finally conclusive. Piper can an Interesting question In the at subsequent one time was trance that of speech. or a foreign language. It Is Instilled whether any tacts be recognised Into the waking Mrs. say. I do not feel in kind. by being a same any more than of the the vicious portion personification of There Is no special contrast. I am unable to say. It does not differ from her as Hyde did from Jekyll. It IY waking state. It and incidents can certainly alien and recondite subhardly information on some ject. present without great experience has difficulty. but So far _a t least my of sure how far Mrs. [Further entirely beyond her ken. The personality active and speaking In the trance Is the personality of Mrs. unknown appears that be obtained.. and retails what finds effort in her sub-consciousness without any ordinary of memory.2O2 in AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY her [SECT. Piper's knowledge or ignorance comthe on has an appreciable Influence specific facts But certainly the her trance personality. . but not accessible. Piper may happen to side. the trance My impression information is practically what specific facts Mrs. . The evidence now know. introduces itself when asked. though .^ nature Its in or anything facts.] as gone. Dr. It strikes one as a by which different personality altogether it and the name u yiz.

tactile. not. xv] REPORT ON MRS. is 203 as convenient as any other. that he is not talking Piper at all. to of any sitter. the part : fishing the utilisation of trivial indications. or whether it be something which it has distinct from her mind and the education to been subjected.CHAP. but You are all different. Phinuit as of of it be a usually latent portion^ intelligence. if Piper tion should have so much rational basis. Piper's intelligence. that I may speak Proceeding now on the assumption a genuine individual henceforth of Dr. an old man. in using this name. but be vividly felt personation a consummate piece of acting. trains of idea. And first we have the hypothesis of fishery on ihfe as distinguished from trickery. be understood as committing myself to any hypothesis regarding to a man. For that he did not ever exist is a thing practically impossible to While. mode of thought. Whether such a man as Dr. Phinuit. are no longer to a lady. of every shades intimation audible. Phinuit. tone. it can be easily supposed prove.oo. whether Mrs. but I much affect the question of genuineness. Piper. Phinuit ever existed view I do not know." I and can be used would thereby the nature of this apparently distinct and individual mind At the same time the name is useful as expressto the feeling ing compactly what is naturally prominent Mrs. muscular an4 of Kttle . part of Dr. All this cannot even by one who considered the im- cannot see that it will possible. I mean a system of ingditoite df Mrs. if he did exist. took care enough that her impersonathat Mrs. I go on to consider the hypotheses which still remain unexamined. wholly irrespective of hypothesis. nor from the evidential point of It will be interesting to have the fact care. The manner. do I greatly ascertained speaking a medical man.

Although Mrs. or ever wholly set aside. and prefer to avoid thought-transference contact whenever it is possible to get rid of it without other times is At as if . whether received in normal or abnormal not indeed obviously distinguishing between ways information received from the sitter and information received from other sources. but was often satisfied for a time with some other person's. 4 ' fuss. and yet wishful to convey as much information as possible. it he were in a difficult position. I regard it as. extent. excited In the sitter by skilful guesses and well-directed shots. and their nutriment extracted with superhuman cunning. Phinuit does fish causa. she did not always continue to hold it when speaking as too much stranger. hypothesis is Now this . preferring several occasions she let go of everyfor half-hours body. not one to be lightly regarded. sometimes talking right across a room to and about a but them to near. She did usually hold the hand of the person she was speaking to. to a certain a vera At times Dr. iv of manner too indefinable to name all these. Piper always held somebody's hand while preparing to go into the trance. and making use of the slightest indication. occasionally he guesses . The attitude is then as of one straining after every clue. [SECT. and sometimes he ekes out the scantiness of his information from the resources of a lively imagination. especially when fluent and kept well supplied with "relics!" Phinuit.204 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY . only able to gain information from very indistinct or inaudible sources. I am familiar with muscle-reading and other simulated " methods. together. . Whenever his supply of information is is abundant there no sign of the fishing process. come On I have now to assert with entire confidence that.

I consider it as firmly grounded as any of the less familiar facts of nature such as one deals with in a laboratory. The and I Phinuit facts are most of them of this nature. in known cause. xv] REPORT ON MRS. except by reason of paucity of instance. as having been regard rigorously proved before. afterwards confirmed the pressing the ingenious-guessing and unconscious-indict. given to a cautious and almost silent sitter. or the action of mind on mind independently of the ordinary channels of communication. then. thought-transference. do not hesitate to assert that confidently thought.CHAP. tion hypothesis to its utmost limit. PIPER 2p 5 . to take the to the only remaining known cause in order to account for them :viz. we are driven tact. " " regard the fact of genuine thought-transference between persons in immediate proximity (not necessarily in been established contact) as direct I having by and simple experiment. and. details of It cannot account for minute and names. And. and events. it can only be helc to account for a very few of Dr. as insufficient to account for many of the facts. circumstances. I of it therefore as a i.e. transference is the most commonplace explanation " to which I it is possible to it appeal. speak one to which there need be no hesitation in appealing order to explain facts which without it would be inexplicable. sometimes without constrongest case at once. it cannot account for the narration of facts outside the conscious knowledge of the sitter or of any person present. and as therefore requiring no fresh bolstering up.. Phinuit's statements ' It cannot in all cases be held to account for medical d iagnosis. Rejecting the fishery hypothesis. but to the many who have not made on the experiments . by regular full practitioner.

a shrewd suspicion was even then entertained that the sub-conscious part of the agent's mind might be perhaps equally effective. experimentally proved freer kind which has not yet been Facts are related which at all -a are not in the least present to the consciousnes of the sitter. or brother?. I think. : sub-conscious activity on the part of the sitter. the kind of thought-transference necessary to explain these sittings is of an altogether and higher order. whether hypnotic or other. and they are often detailed glibly and vividly without delay. Phinuit tells a stranger how many children. Hence one is at liberty to apply to these Phinuit records the hypothesis of thought-transference in its most developed state vacuity on the part of the percipient. But. whereas the kind of thought-transference which had been to my own knowledge experimentally proved was a hazy and difficult recognition by one person of in the consciousness objects kept as vividly as possible of another person. vacancy can be so perfect as that of going into a trance. For no process of inducing mental. this apparently this immaterial mode of communication direct action of mind on mind. Moreover. the record of the Phlnuit a secure basis for faith in sittings will afford.206 subject. In this form one feels that much can be explained. If Dr. But that is natural enough. . AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. although it was considered desirable to maintain the object con- templated in the consciousness of the agent. in very different style from the tedious and hesitating dimness of the percipients thought-transference experiments. iv and are therefore naturally sceptical concerning even thought-transference. when in the old we consider that the percipient in those experiments had to preserve a mind as vacant as possible.

and inaccessible they might be. were named in full. obscure. in ought to be constantly borne in of thought-transference. of the Living. it is actually established by experiment. in the course of my interviews. all this is explicable on hypothesis of free and easy thought-transference from the sub-consciousness of the sitter to the sensitive medium of the trance personality. and mother and grandmother. but it is really only a possible hypothesis to which appeal has been made whenever any other explanation seems out of the But until question. has never been experimentally it At the same time this mind that kind Certain facts not otherwise apparently proved. xv] REPORT ON MRS. . without consciously active agency. and their names the names of father . all my six brothers (adult and scattered) and one sister living were correctly named (two with some help). 207 or sisters he has. in the same way that conscious mind action has been established. . or had been. both deceased. both Christian and surname. My father and his father were likewise named. 1 For instance. pursuing it we may be turning our backs on some truer but as yet perhaps I feel as if this unsuggested clue.CHAP. with full I oitly quote these a:s identifying detail examples it is quite unnecessary as well as unwise to attach any evidential Weight to statements of this sort made during a sojourn in pae's house. 1 j ** . and the existence of the one deceased was mentioned. within the knowledge either of myself or of the sitter for the time being. it cannot be regarded as either safe or and in satisfactory. of cousins and of aunts if he brings appropriate and characteristic messages from well-known relatives deceased the . caution were necessary for as well as for other myself investigators. I^Cy wife's father and stepfather. explicsuch as those chronicled in Phantasms able. with several uncles and aunts. have suggested it. 1 So strongly was I impressed with some half-dozen sittings I ceased to ^ this feel view that after much interest being told things. however minute. so long as they were.

one's relatives and friends who have The messages and communications from these persons are usually given through Phinuit as a reporter. though they show traces of the individuality of the person represented as speaking. iv that while reading the record it will be apparent " Phinuit" frequently speaks in his own person. of course. but with one or two personages it occurs. becoming thing of his old manner realistic. he reports sometimes in the third person. sometimes in Phinuit seems the first. for a utilises it recall the voice less or once more changed. relating discovers by what I suppose we things which he himself On must sometimes he represents not himself as in communication always quite easy and comdistinct communication. what one would . just as Mrs. mode of address are and voice The time. The communications thus obtained. and more and manner of the person represented as communicating. and of rendering messages on abstruse subjects impossible. Occasionally. It is quite as while a third personality body. somefriend or relative. . and often impressive This last I say is rare. what and when does. subject to reservations to be it mentioned directly . but in call ostensible clairvoyance. be suggested that the necessity of working through the brain of a person not exceptionally educated may easily be supposed capable of dulling the It edge of refinement. who then communicates with And and individuality. Piper had done. are frequently vulgarised and the speeches " are more commonplace.208 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. suppose likely can. Phinuit does not appear to know the evacuated turn his he in if has been said. but very seldom." than from the person himself. and so to say cheaper. especially at first. to give up his place altogether to the other personality. municationwith departed this life.

Accordingly I propose to make only a few extracts. but it occupies a great deal of space.. all of which were taken down very fully some of them verbatim by a stenographer introduced on I A ND 1 now might sittings . regarded rather from the dramatic than irom the evidential of view. stenography has practically ceased. vi.CHAPTER XVI EXTRACTS FROM PIPER SITTINGS follow a detailed report of the which at that date (1889-1890) I held with Mrs. My Detailed report appears in the Proceedings of the Society. Piper in my house at Liverpool. writing being quite and limited to a few words occasionally Whereas in more recent years communication is for the most part conducted by writing only. lor by the voice. _ occasions. and the need entirely ducted those days communication was con- exceptional point The powers just (i) referred to are the trivial following :^- The perception of events occurring at a distance. quoting those incidents which demonstrate one or other of the or which illustrate following powers by way of example the general character of the . and would be merely tiresome if reproduced in any quantity. simultaneously . For in those sittings at that time. vol.

of reason verified by them at present incompletely them of some apparently absence of persons in America. ancl a sitting was immediately at all given correctly The names of his brothers were same with many of the day. I may mention Dr Gerald Rendall and received e brought with him a locket. McCunn. . introduced as was He University College. the sitter. to come from munications and reminiscences purporting some of Se deceased friend whom it commemorated. Pipers - then Principal of late of Trinity College. facts within apparen Mrs. well-known are which concerning facts and in the mind of. _ illustrating ignorance of some what are likewise normal knowledge. any person present With perhaps a supplement . therefore he AnSfS brought Prof. Cambridge.AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY (a) [SECT. H com- : and ft all commonplace tt er was Economics on Lecturer introduced as Mr. commenced Mr Roberts. tht or aTthe evening sitting snecific details Among sitters. at the time to The statement of facts unknown ^recognition _ (5) (6) ^ . E. then He whom colleague with confused. Liverpool. and statement of erroneous frequent instances to. he knew correctly stated which facts those bSt rncorrect that chance guessing n such a way as to satisfy him surmises were absurdly out other P which were correct. C K Conner. be might on a fraudulent hypothesis still Irving a book belonging to his mother. another at University College. iv The than normal letters by other reading of (3) of of objects and assignment them to their respective owners. Liverpool. details of small and intimate family (4) Perception in the case of complete strangers.

these occasions. f p anhis consequent wife was present on told S"hese arrived at the relatives and their of a peculiarities complete stranger. I take the case of two sittings on the same day at which a medical practising Liverpool was introduced without no by the false name of Dr. days "p^ Phmuit 011 *e facility with which in those m W . I my wife's father. xv.] EXTRACTS FROM PIPER SITTINGS 2II Speaking of deaths. Jones During the sitting the name. and had been remembered them. tastes. and defect of one little deaf and davs^Dr Dr. dumb . and of course eg-pam were My family incidents. who may also mention the CRSP of died when she was a fortnight oU own father down thhold of h sS clearly stated.CHAP.

brilLt woman . aged 13. was a subject him will do It good. Dr. either "You have a little lame girl. a scar through forehead over left eye. don't forget it. [This His mother's too nervous. Pretty good when The boy's erratic. Let him go to school architect likely." of whom vfvTdly seated acquainted almost entirely silent Dr. when you look closely. J. a mark. He'll make an you know him. second or third. unfortunately. (introduced as Dr. the and two girls and a baby. one named Mary. .AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY daughter " [SECT. was I may say that found with a grunt. tired of his own monologue. 42.] You have little body cancer It's the boy lame one m I care for. C. iv Daisy. but a little devil. corrected or otherwise noteworthy. accident [Dangerous yacht See next sitting. Your aunt passed out with and take hot water for it. and appear later. and what wrong as I took Phmuit was m sitter thus an excellent though trying or he would not have one of his most loquacious moods. good more mind. over eye. but I Occasionally he assented much as he was assenting to wrong quite afterwards knew what was I hardly ever statements. December 2yd and 0. false ones are The statements. had a bad You nearly last summer. There are two mothers connected with you. You have indigestion. began to get record is a very abbreviated : The following Sitting No. a little thing.] similarly collected the thigh. more has She sympathy. L. not Lt as to ri-ht right He was the notes. You have on the water. they were admitted by wife Phmuit did not a servant who announced their names. My children are he was very fond were with hi. page 215. She's a will be a She music for deal of talent ^gentlest of the lot. slipped out once Above statements are correct same evening and brought his again the This time. a curious little mark. She's got more-quite a little daisy. He came . he Towards the end one could see nroo-ressed so well. the except experience. Jones) or subsequently She following is an abstract of the correct. four a Present m in dispute. lame Dark eyes. Monday morning.] lameness. C. I do like her little daisy.

and would require a great deal of annotation to make the details clear. some of them to be partially accounted for by the fact that Dr. cousin's child. For the sake of brevity. one gone out of the body. [A that's deaf in her head going to That's Daisy. Allen.CHAP. was maiden name of mother of lame one. There are four of you.] little Daisy? She will get over her cold. about whom they seem to have a joke that of information. four going to One got irons on his foot. C. The full . 213 account of these sittings is long. stop with you. and Mrs. and O. xvi] EXTRACTS FROM PIPER SITTINGS it. not otherwise noted.] Three brpthers Three in the body. But there's her head. I quote later the misstatenients. was here handed (An envelope with letters written inside.] She's a paper oar. Thinks she knows everything. P O Q. and Phinuit wrote down I S. and two [Grandmother. Mary the mother. [Fond of painting. L. Mary the mother. been contemplated. . Therie were sisters your lady has. not in the best of tempers. of a crank. Monday evening^ J. B. aunt. really.) J The little dark-eyed one of your mother's drinks. but first large one. but cranky. comment Sitting No.] compendium N H B her. have the paints I told you of. and granddaughter.O A is second cousin Daisy. C. Mrs.] [An artificial drum had There are three Maries. and Mrs. This lady is fidgety. [This is the nurseshe is a walking Kitty. the one n'ee The lame one is a The one Allen. Mary the mother. in her surroundings is the one with iron on leg. and 'shtf s the one that's got the music in her. That little girl has got music "How's in her. she does. [Allen family. She will fly off and get married. you call her Kitty. she will girl. I like She is can't hear very well. in. I out the correct ones or those which require pick mention however. growing up to be a beautiful woman. Trustworthy.] sister's child. December [Statement correct when Present : Dr. and which Phinuit did not ascertain) so he mixed their relatives at The family seems to be a very the second sitting. 43. There's somebody round you matter with the something lame and somebody hard of hearing.] There's about 400 of your She's the one that's kind There's Kate . I There are a number propose merely to abstract them. of erroneous statements. She ought to have You have an Aunt EHza. are cousins (a fact which I did not know.

and will pass out suddenly. fail. children by ordinary social means. although her training enables her to go to school and receive ordinary lessons with other children. O.'s favourite little daughter. C. 1890. child's name gradually.] striking part of this sitting is prominence given to Dr. and all said about her is correct. Phinuit is lavish myself." [Not the " least likely. He is away. He married a cousin. with predictions. No possible normal means can be suggested by which these things were obtained. He has shining things. As a matter of fact they do not apply. such as the one at the end. L. practically including the cold she then had Mrs. deeply regret to say that his predictions regarding Daisy are likewise false. The most the .214 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. and cannot apply . He's got a catchy trouble with heart and kidneys. which freI quently. as any one will realise The to apply who will go through these incidents and try them to himself or to any friend known to him. using it at first as a mere descripI did not know it tion. but at the second sitting this is corrected and explained. only normal explanation is that they were hit upon by chance. Lorgnettes. Dr. Phinuit grasped the barely know them ourselves. J. Daisy. but evidentially it is as good as can be. a child very intelligent and of a very NOTE. sweet disposition. At the first sitting she is supposed erroneously to be lame. for she caught the influenza. nor was there any fishing or guidance by the sitter. He writes. two passed out small [Only know of nine. and the announcement of her death is in to-day's paper. but that is perfectly absurd. but quite deaf We A list of particulars like this makes very dull reading.] Fred is going to pass out suddenly. I have inquired and find that the Fred " supposed to be intended is still alive in 1909. iv eleven in your family. Piper had had no opportunity whatever of knowing or hearing of the C. I think usually. June.

] Your thesis was some special thing. there is a Fanny. written some time instance that The later : trance state seemed natural but had more in an epileptic than movement I seen had ever voluntary attack. I should say about lungs. " The behaviour is unlike an intentional effort. to anybody but the person by no means a whom they were intended Of course this is solitary instance of the detection of appropriate family details. "Your At [No. Of your children there's Eddie and : [No. but permits me to append the following note of his on the case. well." [No. Bfaimiie o/Atinie . The entire change in Mrs. numerically they are distinctly fewer parison fewer. the misses seem to balance the hits.CHAP. With regard to the result. and the 'reading' is not so After reading over your impressive as the 'sitting/ notes I think they consist of a certain amount of thought" reading and a large amount of skilful guessing.] light hair. and if the result all were due to chance they ought to be out of com- The following is a summary of the during the two sittings : fake assertions At first 4 sitting : Fred ." since even .] " Your mother's second sitting name was Elizabeth. prominent nose. but it is a sound came directly within my own observation.'has lady's Fanny. and it is possible she herself believes that the conditions mean something outside of herself. I ment find myself unable to agree with the hasty state" that the misses balance the hits. xvi] EXTRACTS FROM SITTINGS for 215 in their entirety. and perhaps it is not so striking as some others. [No. [No. Piper's manner and .] Willie Her and father's lame.] brownish moustache. doctor himself was characteristically sceptical about the whole thing.

.. so if I mention anyone belonging to you you must tell me. and I can't get things straight. [Grandmother died a few years ago. [No. [No. but who has not been recognised. who in head [no]. Then he said " There seems to be I can't avoid.] There's a Thomson connected with you [no]. and if you look you will find a dark-eyed one.] Howe girls too. with a lovely wife. He sat at a distance taking notes. L. passed out with sore throat." [No 3 three girls. and has two [correct]. [No. has brown hair and the captain [correct].] now came and took one hand } taking brief notes with tie 1. and Harry and the The wrong except Daisy.] Your grandmother had a sister who married a Howe Henry Howe.] at party. "Your relations make me get mixed.] Your brother another Instance of the disentangling of the relatives of a stranger. Get out You don't mind me. they confuse me when ITU talking to the Captain. J. one named William. L. and a brother Fred. Katie don't count) [All [being the nurse]. his brother six in a cousin Charley [true] that stops to].) [Exeunt O. L. has had trouble a boy.] One boy looks about eight. told him that his brother had had As a tooth out (which was true) and told him to inquire about a George Edward H.216 and a AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY sister that faints. [Unknown. four boys and two [Correct] . I take the case of a shorthand clerk whom I had borrowed once or twice from the College Registrar to take down what was said verbatim. Daisy. and then I will I can't help it. girls. " some of that fellow's friends about here whom You will lot. and a cousin named Harry. four. There's a talk to have to let me talk to the rest of you. [True. he's got and that fellow Ask your brother if he don't know those people who hurt his hand.. do you ? (Clerk other. that we may keep things straight.] Your wife's father had something wrong with leg . him and get all his influence. A. but Phinuit presently began to refer to him.] There are your family. iv and Willie and Katie little (no. You have used in your home [no. George Edward H. who had hurt his hand at a party. [SECT. and M. There's an old lady |n the spirit talking to me 3 and her influence disturbs me.

CHAP. Hilly? something connected with ivand Alice. xvi] EXTRACTS is SITTINGS She is 217 . glanced at the contents. (A chain was handed to Phinuit by O. and you will find it's true. hair. The paper [/>. Medium held them it came in . a 'Mr. She did not to top of her head. that fellow's Captain.] One brother writes a great deal [1 do myself.] instance of reading a letter. the package having been delivered by hand to 0* J. " Is there N. Got straightened out a little straight. been sent by Mrs. [No. L. Alfred. J. The sister Minnie. Poola "ours truly. stupid sometimes Your mother has a pain in her [true]. [Have made diligent inquiries the want I See you. only partially. W. I As an take the following case. W. : j.' "Who's Mildred.." with heart. N. paralytic something. ineffectually. it had belonged to Dr. m understand that?" 1 M No. Captain. J. John Watson from Sefton Drive. Alfred and Marie.] Lund who knew nothing whatever about s the "Who's dear Lodge? w does that mean ? 0." [" Captain but she grow out of that.] Minnie is musical [Not particularly. L. Watson's father. but which was not read in any normal manner by the medium. S-ef-t-<HL J. [Correct.] Now. something the matter Give me the wrappers. 1 see somctlm^ funny here.. Toodle. L. J. 0. L. Fve got to talk to you. too* I get Fanny* . them. Ttortfa hfe BOA'S influence on it* with him. then. then wrapped all up again and stored them. That's it . R J. All the " was the nickname by which Phmuit usually rest skip. here ? Poola Then there's Sefton." J. late the previous evening.] Your name is Ed.] cranky.] Your grandmother keeps calling Ed. 1 send hair. Pool. : Who's Poole. The chain had inside. gradually flicking away the blank ones. You ask about those people I told you of. all of them. bit? That's all right Here. J. Du L. W. Poodle? Whatever " 1 haven't the least idea. addressed O. She was all the while holding with her other hand inspect letter another stranger. or the chain. head sometimes. a letter among them.) "This belongs to an old gentleman that passed out of the body a nice old man. He had and hastily read a letter just opened the package. which had indeed passed through my mind In the way recorded. will [Correct.

and can by no means be reproduced in any Their case is one in printed report of the sitting. as well as to page 133. Verrall as reported on page 127. F. had been mourned some twenty years familiarity and touchingness of the messages ago* communicated in this particular instance were very remarkable. conspicuously mentioned. W.. were. and Hegel were both familiar with it only it was then : "reading with the pit of the stomach. iv " Dear [Note by 0. a young Edinburgh .218 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT.] "N. living and dead (small and compact Quaker families). This reading of letters in an abnormal way is very Kant curious.L. to whose name indeed. the details standing out vividly correct. the "B " being not unlike an of the sender was not but at a subsequent sitting it was correctly stated by Phinuit in connexion with the chain. Three of his and of his wife's generations family. hair/' and finished " yours sincerely J. I found afterwards that the letter began " " " and Cook Dr. loss whose The ." The name mentioned in the letter. so that in fact they found it imdoctor.S. called Now it I had a few other cases* less distinct than the above and I again refer here to the little experiment made by Mrs. ". One of the best sitters was a friend who for several years was my next-door neighbour at Liverpool. L. in the course of two or three sittings. Phinuit sent a message purporting to corne from his father. B." seems usually done with the top of the head. J." " I send you some It also said so written as to look like Poole. and is a very old type of phenomenon. Thompson. with identifying detail the main informant representing himself as his deceased brother. which very few mistakes were made. Lodge/' contained the words Sefton Drive. before he had been in any way introduced. Isaac C.

Phinuit in during sitting their case. only thought-transference explanation I cati reasonably offer him is that it was the distant activity of his own mind. better than in any other I know of.CHAP. The facts stated were admitted to be accurate and the father. full of this rather excellent case has had to be omitted report for lack of space. and it is for that reason I now. and certainly outside of our man thoughts Rich* the head of the Liverpool Post-office. when this friend of mine was present A message interpolated itself to a gentleliving in Liverpool. him . was much stricken by the blow. purported to be from a son of died suddenly a few months ago. and whom I had never seen though Isaac Thompson had. operating on the sensitive brain of ttte The . confessed that he had indeed been more than ordinarily troubled at the sudden death of his eldest son. correctly represents the impression produced by a favourable series of sittings. to both of us. xvi] EXTRACTS PROM SITTINGS 219' possible not to believe that their relatives were actually This may sound absurd. he said. who. it seems. but It speaking to them. and who was suffering from a recent occasional dizziness in his head. because of a recent unfortunate estrangement between them which would otherwise have been only temporary. This son addressed L C. Mr. so that he felt afraid he should have to retire from business. known. Simple events occurring elsewhere the were also detected by Dr. but not at all intimately known. who had once or twice spoken to him. duly conveyed. Other little things were mentioned of an character identifying and the message was. though naturally inclined to be sceptical. by name. it mention A There was a remarkable little incident towards the end of my series of sittings. his The message . T. a few days later. . and besought to convey a message to his father.

. indirectly. But I felt doubtful if it were the correct explanation. and only they were not recognised was the meaning gradually or by subsequent explanation But something of the same expericlearly perceived. Contemplating these and if it be really a case of that could not feeling help at all. One must not shut one's eyes to the possibility that in one pursuing a favourite hypothesis the wrong tack altogether. to me and to others so Things were sometimes told our conscious thought that at first entirely foreign to as true or Intelligible. And yet would really suffice to felt grave doubts whether it the facts whether indeed it went any distance explain . one sometimes turn a surprised at the dream conversation is taking.220 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. the proof of which ^be correct the were it explanation valuable. iv medium. that on his death-bed learn cannot I a black case. feels ence is gone through in dreams. supposing very of the phenomenon. it is thought-transference of thought-transference would a surprisingly vivid kind. toward their explanation. of whose existence he knew absolutely nothing. and contriving to send a delusive message to Itself! One thing about which the son seemed anxious was to his a certain black case which he asked us to speak The lost want not father about. that the particular case has been securely : I such-like communications. may after all be on worked to the utmost Every known agency must be and before one is willing to admit an unknown one^: indeed to abandon this last known link of causation as the growing weight of facts was inadequate to sustain I an operation not to be lightly undertaken. though calling out about identified. and to say he did have I but meant father did not know what case was the son was heard since.

but was Peter. was vividly conscious that his deceased father's name was not John. The only explanation of this that I can suggest. first was a few children's alphabet letters. But feeling length. by subsequently several times quoting the name as Thomas. Now his son. in the midst of much that was was reported as saying that his name was John. immediately asked for a pencil. therefore. xvi] EXTRACTS ' SITTINGS 221 and has the feeling also occasionally of learning something new* Hence this argument Is not of much strength taken alone. beyond mere bungle and error. he seemed to show consciousness that there had been an error somewhere. was shown by Phinuit though. however. . I was quite ignorant of the Christian name* Undoubtedly. the sitter. Phinuit sometimes unaccountably made. Another argument bases Itself on the mistakes which One noteDr.CHAP. telling him at the same time requesting him to do his best. shaking it a little at intervals ? as if to He disentangle the contents and bring them . to apply some the crucial tests. put in a pill box without lookpinched up sealed and by me in the presence of Prof. " to Phinuit" and asked him what was inside. to instance called one of my is attention by worthy sitters. is that / was in the room also taking notes. correct ancl striking*. No knowledge of this. and it. And handed This box I now Foster a month or so previously. and though 1 of course knew the surname.' at random. Carey ing. and holding the box to Mrs. whose father. the hypothesis of thoughttransference has to be wriggled and stretched a little though we may be willing to stretch it to any required . Piper's forehead. that no one knew. endeavoured I did commend not really that it itself. so long as it does not actually snap.

If the letters themselves could be really directly perceived. telegraphing to him to know if he were at home and ready to receive the box. in full detail. letters on a thanked him. sent him the box registered and insured. but practically the conclusion of the experiment was utterly negative.P. wrote bit of cardboard held for him. The box from which they had been pinched contained many alphabets. Carey Foster. as distinct from what seemed to me the more unknown and vague region of clairvoyance. one to Mr. He replied. " Yes. and then to open it and write out the letters and their aspects. All the letters were wrong but two though as correct. He did. do to base so clear a conclusion on the result of one It is an experiment which I want negative experiment. but it seemed to . was essential that someone somewhere should be it I do not mean that it would cognisant of the letters.222 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY down some [SECT. even to the extent of saying which way they happened to face in the box. This experiment 494).R. under seal. then could not matter. and wrote down just the same letters. I wrote two accounts of the contents of the box. Phinuit doesn't much care for this to repeat. been read (Proc. assure himself that it had not been tampered with (though indeed it had not been out of my possession all the time). and next morning for better security. S. inclined me strongly to some thought-transference explanation. iv more I clearly before him. two should have been guessed right. asked him to try again." before opening my sealed account. Myers and one to Prof. of was letters nearly happens the number and I : it According to chance. the fact that they existed in nobody's mind But if minds only could be read. though kind of thing and says it strains him. The letters had not vi. if they had been pinched from a single alphabet.

facts out of in it. Uncle Jerry. then an old man. Piper to more years ago. short for Jeremiah. I must enter on a few trivial details concerning my own relations.CHAP. with whom its late owner was anxious to communicate. and wrote or I interested him generally in the ask if . Jerry. my watch/* All this at the first sitting on the very morning the watch. Phinuit caught the name. the eldest of a surviving three out of a quite very large family. it had belonged been mentioned my before as having died from the effects of a fall one that had been very fond of Uncle Robert. no one but myself and a shorthand clerk who happened to have fceen Introduced for the was to one of told almost immediately that uncles one that had t 1 . subject. After some difficulty and many wrong attempts Dr. It The occasion is the excuse. xvi] EXTRACTS SITTINGS 223 me from some mind or other. fully reported at the time though now some twenty years old. By morning post on a certain a curious old gold watch. of which my own father was one of the youngest. the name of that the watch was now in possession of the survivor this same Uncle Robert. had a twin brother who died some twenty he would lend me some relic of this brother. "This is my watch. and Robert is my brother. bad arrived by post. happened that an uncle of mine in London. to strengthen the hypothesis of thought-transference So 1 set to work to try and obtain. when I in a state of trance. by the regular process of suits this particular medium. and said emphatically. and I am here. as if impersonating him. my communication which which were not only but never which could have been knowledge In giving an account of these experiments. which the I received day deceased brother had worn and been fond of and that same morning no one in the house having seen it or knowing anything about it I handed it to Mrs.

and of a long peculiar skin. All these facts have been more or less completely But the interesting thing is that his twin verified. was decidedly failing him. men. all of which I would faithfully report. He quite caught the idea. which he thought was now in the possession of Uncle Robert. Having thus ostensibly got into communication through some means or other with what purported to be Uncle Jerry. from whom I got the watch. But he altogether denied killing the cat. His memory. were utterly and entirely out of my ken. like a snake-skin. Phinuit to mention a number of little things such as would enable his brother to recognise him. but of whose early life I knew nothing. whom I had indeed known slightly in his later years of blindness. iv by me. References to his blindness. and could not recall Smith's field. brother. however. and with whom 1 was thus in correspondence.224 first AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY time at this sitting [SECT. " Uncle Jerry" recalled episodes such as swimming the creek when they were boys drowned . risk of getting together. and whose antecedents are well known to me. I pointed out to him that to make Uncle trivial details of Robert aware of his presence it would be well to recall their boyhood. and main facts life were comparatively useless from my point of view but these details of boyhood. and running killing a cat in Smith's the possession of a small rifle. and proceeded during several successive sittings ostensibly to instruct Dr. could not remember them all He recollected something about swimming the creek. illness. some field . two. and .thirds of a century ago. My father himself had only known these brothers as of his . being present. though he did not know where it was then. though he himself had merely looked on. He had a distinct recollection of having had the snakeskin. and of the box in which it was kept.

and ask if he had any better remembrance of certain facts of course not The result giving any inexplicable reasons for asking. such as fruit-knives right and corkscrews. full details were given. . Phinult has a keen scent" call it ? for trinkets or personal valuables of recognised a ring which my wife wears as having been given "to me for her" by a specified aunt just before her death of which he at another time Indicated the cause fairly well. he also assigned to their late owners. been usually worn with it. Piper was sitting been mentioned to him in which had never any way. . He called for a kinds. where they used to play. which was quite pulled He Even little pocket things. and said that in. living in Cornwall. an old sea captain. belonged to her father 40 years ago. but had not then had which on. near a mill-race. I may I shall all " say here that Dr. and was still unsatisfied for want of some appendage which I could not think of at the time. of this inquiry was triumphantly to vindicate the existence of Smith's field as a place near their home. xvi] EXTRACTS SITTINGS 225 he was good enough to write to another brother. in Barking. Frank and Jerry being the heroes of that foolhardy episode. He my wife sometimes wears. . but which my wife later on reminded me of.. and the killing of a cat by another brother was also recollected while of the swimming of the creek. and a seal which had Phinult at another sitting seized. and which had belonged to locket which my grandfather. asked for the chain belonging to It. Essex. He recognised my father's watch. but disconnected thq said it chain and said that didn't belong. my sister's watch out of her pocket and had been her mother's. Frank.CHAP. and once he quite unexpectedly gripped the arm of the chair Mrs.

by good luck. now to John Watson. connexion with the episode of reading a letter related on page 2 1 7 above. with whom I had been staying recently in Italy. name was written in the backward manner Phinuit sometimes affects. I happened to meet the Next morning I messenger and receive it direct handed it to Dr. did not seem to realise that it was a chair he asked what it was. that it did not belong to a relative. Phinuit. at that time quite a recent friend of mine. It was quite it was an old-fashioned ordinary true type of armchair which she valued and had had re-upholstered : for us as a wedding present 1 2 years ago. Phinuit. to me. described Next sitting accompanying I tried the chain again. Now. He said it belonged to an old man and had his son's influence on it. explained that his son had entrusted me with it on which Phinuit said the chain belonged . in response to his feeling some difficulty about it. a chain which had It is the chain referred to in belonged to his father. and asked him to be good enough to his identity. delivered by hand one evening at The package was my house. and said he took it for part : of an organ. and. I explained to the communicator that his son desired lot of other details all a known for health. and he soon very reported the late owner as present. and recognising the chain but not 1 recognising me. away and all correct old gentleman was then represented as willing to write his name.226 It AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. But perhaps the best instance of a recognised object was one entrusted to me by the Rev. John Watson. prove to . It was legible afterwards in a mirror as James Watson. iv had belonged to my Aunt Anne. He also partially read a letter It as at page 2 1 7. by the way. and The A hear from him. the name of his father I was completely ignorant of. a preacher. saying only.

. when I got a reply from Egypt where he was travelling. become valueless. took them Whereupon. but nevertheless would serve as good evidence better 1 than more conspicuous ones Indeed. . I should be forcibly impelled towards a direct If thought-transference explanation for this entire set. But. facts . down as well as I could. a number of specific though were mentioned. be to but out not name turned father's James John the A and although the facts stated son. . on the other hand. knowing absolutely nothing of the correctness or Incorrectness of most of them.CHAP. then some further step must be taken. that the statements Thus then they about the father were all wrong. I learned three weeks later. and that the statements would have a truer ring IF they had purported to come from the grandAnd I understood father Instead of from the father. except as strengthening the evidence for thought-transference from myself. Dr. Such facts as I did know were nearly all correct Hence I had good hopes of another crucial test here. my friend. while all those things which I did not know should turn out inaccurate or false. If these things of which I had absolutely never heard or dreamt should turn out true. for it was the facts of which I was ignorant that were wrong. But. xvi] EXTRACTS SITTINGS 227 trivial at intervals. which was the ostensible link of conthat the chain same as that of the son : the nexionhad belonged to both. were practically all concerning correct. They were frequently admitted to be trivial In an apologetic way. Watson told me later that James was the name of his grandfather. what I knew was stated correctly. stranger always The encounters some difficulty In getting at facts. Unfortunately the result as Is not so simple and crucial I had expected It to be.

when there was a fine for killing these birds. certainly worse He went to town either that night or next day. of whom this " Charley. and a few days before Christmas we ate it. Concerning the episode recorded I wrote to a cousin who had emigrated last October to join her " " brother (the referred to) in Manitoba. iv As an " at a distance.] Sequel added September^ 1890. Quite sick. And he has been troubled for some little stomach." when he Another instance of perception of an event happening at a distance occurred as the result of an experiment which my friend Mr.228 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY PERCEPTION OF EVENTS AT A DISTANCE [SECT. Some kind of bird. and its occurrence was only ascertained by subsequent special inquiry. : shot a prairie hen as they were coming home one night. Charley eating most The bird didn't make him ill. You write and ask him. happened during Piper was in England. You chicken will find it was." This insignificant episode was in nobody's mind or knowledge in this country. the unsportsmanlike character of the act possibly. but more likely the difficulty of realising any sense in the inquiry. having the grippe. He will tell you." living in Canada. 1889. was the adopted son. She said that she was very sorry that Charley ate the bird the and made himself sick. [This message was received on 26 Dec. It was hung for about " The boys a fortnight. but he was ill at the time. The message purported to come from my deceased Aunt Anne. So we had to hide it. It had in Canada the time that Mrs. But it is so. and was returned. near the beginning of December. out of season. instance of the perception of things happening I take the case of what may be called Charley and the bird. being responsible for some of the delay. Conner had arranged at an early . asking her if he had Charley eaten any particular bird about Christmas time which had disagreed above : Only recently have I got full information on the subject. He has had a trouble with his Her Charley. It troubled him a good deal. The bird made him sick. The evidence now obtained is as follows with him. time.

.CHAP. but Phinuit stopped present moment. for reasons to be afterwards explained. We found afterwards that the selection of an unusual proceeding consisted in driving round Regent's Park in a hansom cab in the wet And this is what she was doing during the time her son was sitting at Liverpool. Phinuit described the surroundings of this lady and a younger lady who was with her described her as being over-persuaded to go out.. but Dr. planned by Mr. though she didn't want to. wanted. though that was the stage Regent's reached while he was speaking. Conner and myself in Liverpool. such as opening a box. EXTRACTS SITTINGS 229 had combined with his sister in London to coax their mother into doing something unusual at a certain hour on a certain day. itself Is con- was a carefully arranged experiment. taking up a photograph from mentioned dressing-table to look at. and as going clearly through the operation of outdoor dressing: several minute actions. We were completely ignorant of what was going on London. He We did not get to But there it stopped. and so on. being in correctly. though he spoke as if he was describing More experiments of this and very likely have been made by that this nature are others^ I clusive. the Park and cab. clo short at the stage reached just about when the sitting the began. but he had a presentiment that some not very striking occurrence would It is impossible to say probably be deemed sufficient that the idea of a possible outdoor excursion may not have been latent in his mind. xvi] sitting. and carried out in a satisfactory manner through The problem was to remove the kind aid of his relations in London. while the medium held a little book of hers. He had carefully not arranged or suggested anything as a suitable proceeding. It not pretend experiment by but it is useful as far as it goes.

The 0." if by something actions.230 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT." Ha. both ladies being very much puzzled to account for the singular and vague request on the part of Miss Gonner. know it himself. so that there would be a good deal of apparently The taking up and looking at the photofixing things round the neck. . ha I'll tell important. She had her cloak and things on then." and the " " " is meant a garment. L. Just about 1 1 she ran upstairs to see if Mrs. nor to find that all this know that it was was scrupulously done. The latter Iady5 who was the only one of the trio who had any idea of the reason. though it was not actually seen. J. very much as described by Phinuit half an hour later. Gonner as sitter. and the cloak is troublesome to hook. Phinuit was unlikely Although distinctly left us in Liverpool with the impression that "going out" was the thing selected to be done. the success far from complete. With the aid of Miss Ledlie (the lady correctly described and named as "Annie by Phinuit). was an unfortunately passive kind of performance to select but considering the absence of every kind of information or clue to the reason for doing Miss Ledlie anything. and saw her come out of her room to a landing cupboard. Gonner was ready. neither was she to have any inkling whatever as to a reason for the connected with her son. accompanied by Miss Ledlie. giving her full particulars of what was wanted. The "taking up a pencil to write. mother and what she's doing now. it He thought-transference to as many orders of remoteness as possible. as recorder Tel! him about 1 and Prof. are brushing something. take a box out of it. who likewise knew nothing whatever as to reasons. reports that after Miss Gonner had left the house she and Mrs. therefore wrote to his sister. the wonder is that anything whatever was done. put it on a ledge. the mother was prevailed upon to accede to and she accordingly decided to go out under perfectly the request 53 . . I request. following is the record of this part of the sitting at Liverpool his Present L. you why it's It's very important. Gonner decided what to do. Miss Gonner. " O. open it and take out a muff. I read your thoughts then. unlikely circumstances. purposely absented herself from the house before any decision was made as to what should be The driving round the park on a wet Saturday morning. graph would almost certainly be done before going out. because he don't I can't generally. . J. and a vehicle was sent for. Their mother was to be requested to decide on and do something uncommon at a specified hour without letting Miss Gonner know what it was. done. though sufficiently incongruous to astonish even the cabman.

at a few minutes before eleven. . Your mother had trouble young in leg. Did you know she had some trouble with her Sitter. xvi] EXTRACTS Your mother SITTINGS 231 is just this minute fixing her hair. A young lady is with her. between you. sort of smiling It's fuzzy light hair. large building where your mother is. . head in the putting on of her bonnet. She's speaking to your mother at this minute. she prepared herself for going out to take a drive in a hansorn cab.] She's fixing something to her throat and putting on a wrap here. light complexion. (11. Sitter. a pretty girl with light hair and bluish eyes. There's a lady. " practically correct. a very nice girl.] good Thus Phinuit described all three ladles all in fact . She draws somewhat. and I should think it's her daughter. In preparation for the interview I had written and asked persuade my mother to do something that wa$ unusual for her between the hours of eleven and twelve Saturday my sister to morning ." Long . and to observe what she did. kind of rheumatic. round here. influence. as it was raining. my request Saturday morning. not Annie. She's a little nice teeth. [Yes. with light hair. Your mother is going out.who were directly or indirectly concerned in the episode and described them correctly.30) There's been some news.] Is her hair long or short?" How do you mean? . pale. that she was doing My mother was not to know. and now she has lifted up the lid of a box on a stand. . Whatever this power is due : to. . [This is the daughter. except the relationship. of her neck aad shoulders when . in London. separation She's in another place. it is certainly beyond chance. head? "No. part The Notes following are of Professor Conner's Notes by the Sitter. . putting a hair (indicating) in a room with a cot in it. distance between you and your mother. some correspondence reached the She has had a cold. [This is all . this striking her as an unusual this at Such preparation involved touching the procedure. and did not know.CHAP. and needlework and reads a great deal. her thing through up high.

or a lock of hair. be said to have been suffering from her head. episode of Miss LedlIe s hair not having been cut short. having been told in fun that It had. a bit of jewellery. which might conceivably be called a cot. Conner. my father. iv she put on her cloak. established at all. and those attributed to her by the medium at 11. to place it on a table. Ordinary thought- . an old letter. and the medium began at once with my mother. But the stance was beginning at eleven. at any distance." There is here a general correspondence between her actions at photograph of at intently. such as a book. She cannot. and take her muff out. On her dressing-table there stands a small which she very frequently takes up and looks this on the occasion in question cannot be ascertained. felt dissatisfied with Phinuit's reply implying that there was nothing special to say about its length dissatisfaction The J which he expressed to me.30. as It is one of those ordinary actions the performance of which makes no impression. Phinuit's skill in recognising diseases. and sometimes no connexion being read.232 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. is likewise good as against ordinary thought-transference. we seem driven to suppose that actions can be detected. letters. There is a wooden half-tester in her " room. Not. Whether she did three or four minutes to eleven. So even that it if activity could the hypothesis of disembodied telepathic be intelligently granted I do not see all would explain the facts. for instance.25-11. lift the lid. Then she was specially observed to take her muff-box from her wardrobe. or the mind of a neutral unconscious person If connexion being established by some link. reading and describing contemporary events. when Mr. however. It is then an interesting matter to examine whether she was trying to discover what my mother was engaged upon at the moment or to recall her actions as she last perceived them. Comment experiments like this can be got to succeed definitely.

might be read on this hypothesis by harking back to the time before they were put in or. though not case. for instance.CHAP. whether at a distance or close at hand. time If we reject . but the thing so called stands just it as need of explanation as before. p. much witnessing those actions as they occurred or is it through information received from the still existent actors. p. xvi] EXTRACTS PROM PIFEE SITTINGS some of these . whether long ago or recently. . themselves dimly remembering and relating them or. if we my . 233 It transference does better for but does not serve for all every kind of telepathic explanation. in . I see no way of evading such an elastic hypothesis but It could explain any thing "and everything as this ! . and space are not so that everything that has happened. . again. by looking forward to the time when they were taken out. it seems as if we should be driven to postulate direct in a that trance a person is to clairvoyance suppose able to enter a region where miscellaneous information of all kinds is readily available where. are said to be sometimes read. assume possible to see the future also. known read in letters in a box. Undoubtedly Mrs. . Piper in the trance state has access to some abnormal sources of information. cf. Un. fourth it A dimension of space is known to get over difficulties like this. for instance (which. 133). can be seen or heard and described. is not rather like postulating omniscience. and an omnipresent time is very like a fourth dimension. 221. and is for the time cognisant of facts which happened long ago or at a distance but the question is how she becomes cognisant Is it by going up the stream of time aad of them. and conIt is all very well to call sidering that an explanation ? a thing clairvoyance. is it through the influence of contemporary and .

is facts together and suggesting fresh fields for ex- Copernicus . iv otherwise occupied minds holding stores of forgotten information in their brains and offering them unconsciously is to the perception of the entranced person or. ordinary consciousnesses.234 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY '[SECT. past is are but portions ? Opinions may differ as to which the least extravagant supposition. the periment. as premature as it would have been for or Galvani to have expounded the nature of Electricity. lastly. unlikely that any one explanation the at beginning of what It rather feels as if we were and that to is practically a fresh branch of science in the most pretend to frame explanations. Mind back for the time into a one Universal it . but at present 1 feel as if will fit all the facts. by falling of which all and present. the laws of Comets and Meteors. more simple than any of Possibly some hypothesis it were these may be invented. except the tentative and elastic fashion for purpose of threading .

acting on the entranced I do not person as percipient. while the third is only in process of being accepted by although the first is signalling (c) by direct mind-reading. conscious or otherwise. mind by question and answer. semi-occult and unconscious methods.CHAPTER XVII DISCUSSION OF PIPER SITTINGS has UNLESS the evidence. these preliminary suppositions can be unreservedly dismissed. it is premature to examine further into their But as soon as significance. large number of instances can be easily found which are not explicable by either (a) or (6\ and to all those who have hitherto spent any labour over the aac A . the scientific men. second only recently recognised in its full development and power. or influence of the sitter's thought. be held to constitute a sufficiently strong proof that the " of this medium " are neither particular performances lucky shots nor that the information in thoroughly and waste no more time over them. (t) by muscular and other . the best plan is to dismiss them derived from (a) the sitter's some way or other: e. of which the merest sample now been given. propose critically to distinguish between these three very ancient. this point of view the next From^ hypothesis is is explicable by cunning and imposture.g.

I suppose. Elimin^ Now. Is Correspondence one. to assumed of extracting information from distant persons are fewer. in respect of it Is any particular ating them. between mind-reading and something quite distinct It between reading the mind of the sitter and reading the mind of some one else. telepathy may. telepathy from deceased persons only as a last resort. iv (c) or some even a large less admissible hypothesis necessary to explain first portion of the results. Now If you met a stranger in a railway-carriage who professed to have ^ The question : therefore of . be be another. question sitter can be is Is considered sufficiently efficacious. Methods The only method known to science of extracting Information from deceased persons is the discovery of documents. as distinct from any conceivable method of extracting information from persons present that seems to be alternative hypothesis. There are three methods of the mind of the sitter. read I should think most probable is That some mind the question not . Is Let it be clearly understood that the whether any reading of the mind of the .236 records It AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY has become clear that either is [SECT. largely turns upon proof of the genuineness of the proof ^identity Identity claimed by the communicator. Telepathy from distant persons if that Is in any way feasible. to an examination ^the of which we find ourselves forced an : by attentive study of the records. but telepathy of some kind. If anything Is obtained inexplicable by the agency of the sitter. correspondence and documents comparatively easy to be assured as to the use or non-use of these methods in case. labelled above reading (a\ (b\ and (c). It Is to telepathy that we must look for a possible explanation.

the problem you. 647. who are communicating with adopted by living people each other at a distance by telephone. It would not at first occur to you to doubt his veracity. xvo] DISCUSSION OF PIPER SITTINGS 237 returned from the friends Colonies where he had met your of he showed knowledge In some decided ways. and occasionor relations. I made an index to vol. supplied by yourself in course It was suggested that he might be a thoughtally mixed things up . even though he was a little hazy about the names of relatives. whom nor would you stigmatise him as a deceiver if he occasionally made use of Information But of conversation. own you the unconscious contents of would not be easy rigorously Only occasionally does the question forcibly arise. vl them. often very trivial but not the sitter. within the knowledge of the sitter. to the Report of the early Piper as an p. and none of those are of any use for the but every now and then of discrimination purpose . with the view of examining special study how far they are really valuable. within the knowledge of facts. It if subsequent disprove the suggestion. especially denied were mentioned access to the friends chiefly This is. and have been more or verified afterwards and in order to assist a less clearly . have been asserted. under conditions their in which they are debarred from communicating .CHAP. before us. directly reader. of course. which I published In the Proceedings. very nearly. EPISODES NORMALLY SELECTED FOR IDENTIFICATION Concerning the means of identification naturally. To that index a student may refer. Appendix sittings. most facts asserted are. detailing to your to mind. however. of these data.

The first of these objects was not intimated to any one. I was extremely careful not to breathe it to any one. under conditions in which their names might be understood as being falsely given. " II. To test the extent to which intelligent persons would spontaneously select trivial and unimportant incidents for the purpose of identification that is. "I. iv. about which there was nothing supernormal at all A telegraph line was arranged between two buildings of the Columbia University. incidents that were not connected. and this one (the communicator) was to send messages. or not necessarily connected. with the main habits of their lives. an telegraphed by the sender.) In an introduction he explains the object and the : method of these experiments. 'and especially to test how slight or how definite the incident .238 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. and a couple of friends or acquaintances were taken independently to each end of the line. ix. To test the accuracy of the identification in connection with both individual and collective incidents. or. at first vague but increasing in definiteness. Professor Hyslop made some interesting experiments which are thus reported in the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (vol. of Professor Hy slop's for the guidance out an extensive series of this kind in objects carrying the line. not even to my assistants. while the other person was . names. to guess until he could guess correctly and assuredly who it was that was at the other end of replies and guesses were likewise assistant stationed with the receiver. The of experiment are thus stated " by himself : I may now summarise the several objects of the whole series of experiments. so that the results might be entirely spontaneous and without the influence of suggestion from me. what is the same thing. only one of them knowing who was at the other end.

" I V. To study the sources of misunderstanding that arise under such circumstances when one party might was ignorant of the intentions of the other. perhaps for the reason that trivial circumstances represent far more Isolation than any chosen from the main trend of life. men will naturally select for proof of their Identity. It was simply the instinctive method which every one tended to adopt.CHAP. mend Itself to them. To test the success and personal assurance of the receiver of the messages in guessing who Is the true sender. if left to themselves. The records show very distinctly that. but hardly so to the outside At any rate the results in this regard com* observer. but the bulk of which involves sufficient cumulative facts to overcome the natural scepticism and confusion caused by incoherences and contradictions. and It unimportant Incidents is one of the most ' choice that the individual the laws of association to recall what upon was wanted. after deciding on the nature of the incidents to be chosen. but also represent ttM caprices and incoherences of associative recall. in spite of some messages that are misleading or even false. and the causes of illusion In Identification which we can determine In my And " experiments. It is very Interesting to observe the uniformity with which perfectly intelligent persons spontaneously chose what would generally be considered trivial incidents in order to This seemed naturally to recomidentify themselves. relied wholly ? interesting features of this . xvo] DISCUSSION OF SITTINGS 239 had to be In order to suggest rightly the person it was Intended to represent. and which are likely to occur in : the Piper case. intelligible to the subject on reflection. Very often there were interesting Illustrations of those capricious revivals In memory of remote incidents which not only resemble so much the Incidents in the Piper sittings in triviality." he proceeds In regard to the first of these objects. though I noticed no consciousness of this fact in any one. "III.

" add that though the incidents serving sounded for identification vague to bystanders or readers of the record. in answer to Professor Sidgwlck's tentative objection that the sitters in the Hyslop experiments were only playing at identification. and therefore were naturally in a more or less frivolous mood. I have been constantly meaningless incidents which were being referred to and yet afterwards. . iv remove all objections to the Piper phenomena from the standpoint of the triviality of the incidents chosen for identification and that is an accomplishment . where or note-takers that it has been often felt by readers sitters identify their relatives too easily and fancifully for in Professor slop's experiments the identification is . when I saw the annotations. of some worth. when both ends of the line are catechised (as they can not be catechised in the real Piper case). is of interest in connection with the Piper record. while upon them. whereas on a spiritistic hypothesis the Piper communicators would be serious and emotional and not so likely to refer to trivial incidents : we may imagine the case of a wanderer not able communicate with it to return to his for home. realised their meaning and appropriateness. Hy still slighter grounds often on what would superficially appear no legitimate ground at all and yet it turns out. and to justify the I may further And this fact leap of identification taken upon them. I Further. that these incidents are perceived to be of often performed on force adequate to support the conclusion based struck. but able to a few minutes by telephone. taking notes for a stranger at a Piper sitting. yet when they were explained from the point of view of both sender and receiver they were perceived to be distinct enough.240 pletely AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. with the apparently .

yet when asked to prove his identity and overcome the dread of illusion and personation. which. he would think of this and might very likely be accepted as sufficient. previous to identification. xvii] DISCUSSION OF PIPER SITTINGS 241 strenuous and earnest a In^however spirit he might be. both ends of the line might be. 16 . And I feel bound to say that my own experience of the Piper sittings leads me to assert that this kind of genuinely dignified and serious and appropriate message does ultimately in many cases come. indeed. and might serve as a prelude to closer and more affectionate messages. but not until the preliminary stages (stages beyond which some sitters seem unable to get) are fairly passed.CHAP. would be out trifling . some instinctively try to and absurd private incident of place.

xiil/in the year 1898. any more than into rejection. him received. undoubtedly Dr. Thompson. and he practically for the time annihilated " physical" medium Eusapia Palladino. Accordingly I extract some of them from a paper which he published in ^ v|the Proceedings^ vol. he which phenomena respects he went. of facts. was by no means a credulous man in fact he was He did this because. and when such a man is. He liminary study.CHAPTER XVIII SUMMARY OF DR. too far in his destructive career he disbelieved in Mrs. Not that we must be coerced into acceptance. his opinions deserve. by any critical judg. and 242 I begin . for instance. Piper's for he devoted phenomena than any other all men at that years of his sole life to the subject and made it practically occupation. ment passed upon them by others but undoubtedly his . the famous but hyper-scepticism is far more useful to the development of the subject than hyper-credulity. after pre- and many have been the spurious In some detected and exposed. decidedly and finally convinced. Hodgson had more experience of Mrs. and from those who knew distinctly sceptical. serious attention. views are entitled to great weight. VIEWS OF his time living. he recognised its great importance. after adequate study. in my judgment.

xvin] DR. all crowd upon his mind." Mrs. also gets during a sitting. and the used up communications tend to be coherent. and when it gets dim there herence even in otherwise clear communicators.CHAP. The relation of Mrs. the desire to render advice and assistance to other living friends and relatives. and her ordinary body appears as a shell filled with this "light" Several "communicators" may be in contact with this There are two chief "masses" of It in her light at the same time. and this appears to them as "a light. perhaps to return several times and go through a similar experience (pp. the sitter begins to ask questions about matters having no relation to what he is thinking about. that in connection with the hand has " been "brighter than that in connection with the head. the even when in contact with the of the head. If the " The municator gets into contact with the "light" and thinks his thoughts. into contact a tendency to incoIn all cases. We all have bodies composed of " luminiferous ether " enclosed in our flesh and blood bodies. " brightness of this light. he gets more and more bewildered. (But see p. but practically all can produce writing movements effects. is Mrs. when When Upon the amount and communications depend. 263. ." and drifts away. one in connection with the head. Piper's etherial body is removed by them. case. Latterly. coming with this "light" tends to produce bewilderment. is such that a special store of peculiar energy is accumulated in connection with her organism.. 400-1). loses his "grasp" of the "light. Piper's etherial body to the etherial world. more and more comatose. the other in connection with the right arm and hand. Piper is in ill-health less the "light" It is feebler. and if the contact is continued too long. HODGSON'S VIEWS of statements 243 with his summary of the kind ostensible communicators as to the way the made by the phenomenon appeared to them on their side statements which 1 judge were partially accepted by him as true. or the "light" becomes very dim. in which the "communicators" claim to dwell. they tend to be reproduced by movements in Mrs Piper's " com- organism! Very few can produce vocal " " light in contact with the "light " of the hand. Then floods of excited emotion at the presence of incarnate friends dominant ideas that disturbed him when he was incarnate himself." coeteris faribus. the consciousness of the communicator tends to lapse completely. etc.) statements of the " communicators " as to what occurs on the physical side may be put in brief general terms as follows.

or by the consciousness of the hand to an "indirect communicator. The writing at its best Is liable to include occasionally remarks not intended to be written.244 AND LUCIDITY For the [SECT. The thoughts that pass through the consciousness controlling the hand tend to be written. claims to have done much work." so as to bring usually the region of the junction between the little finger and the palm towards the mouth of the sitter. words apparently addressed by " an " indirect communicator to the consciousness of the hand. iv several years during which the personality Phinuit continued to control the voice in the " the after trance. while the hand has been used for writing. for example. were frequent enough until ." or by "indirect communicators" to one another or. communicators" frequently purport to be " and the consciousness of the hand listens to them with the hand as though they were close by. between him and other "indirect communicators. " Interruptions. and the sitter must talk to the I do not hand to be understood. different . development of the automatic writing/ the personalities controlling respectively the hand and calling itself 1 the voice showed apparently a complete independence. in worse cases. mixed up with his attempts at replies to questions of the sitter. where the power of inhibition seems to have been almost entirely wanting. present. presenting the palm of the hand. to to be able Hodgson) give any satisfactory explanation of some of the processes which I am describing. profess (says Dr. various other would-be communicators. as it were. in keeping back. so to speak. " The sense of hearing for the " hand consciousness appears to be in the hand. as it indirect ' " listens to the sitters. nevertheless." Phinuit. held in slightly different positions for the purpose by direct communicators. the wandering thoughts of the "direct communicator" are apparently reproduced in incoherent fragments. and one of the difficulties apparently is to prevent the writing out of Other thoughts which are not intended for the sitter. and bits of conversation.

CHAP. both the desire and the power to exclude "inferior" freer intelligences. HODGSON'S VIEWS 245 the advent of the group connected with "W. is also perhaps the^clearest indicated by the methods which we have found most successful In forms of ordinary telepathic experiment there take into consideration the attitude of mind of agent and percipient . clear telepathic communication. and what the causes most conducive to. and more or We Bell can all use telephones now but when Reis and and Blake and others were making experiments on . And so 1 think (says Dr. xvm] DR. in long _give series of experiments." and. lines that eventually led to satisfactory Instrument^ . to get better results." fact. if we find a particularly good agent and a particularly good percipient. it seems to me that one result of this change has been to make the from interruptions and from the admixture of apparently foreign elements that prevailed so largely in earlier The new "controls" claim to have sittings. Stalnton Moses/' and the establishment of their supervision. That the exclusion of Influences that are continually changing and that may be otherwise not conducive to results is a desirable thing. similar cases. spirits. and whether it resides In his subliminal consciousness or not. Whatever else has been done. we give the percipient a chance to receive Impressions of one object before we hurry him We along to another we have regard to what may be the extremely sensitive state of his "telepathic faculty. to ascertain if possible what are the limits of. Hodgson) that in Mrs. Piper's Similarly. and way clearer. earth-bound they speak of as from the use of the "light. but a condition for perpetual blundering. . as a matter of whom " the perturbations referred to have practically dis- appeared. by varying the conditions." whatever that may be. we should think It wise to them the best opportunity possible. the Introduction of persons less indiscriminately may not be a condition for general success. and.

< 5 At any time. to the hand-writer [who is not Phinuit but " Rector " or some one else].e. and I have known him to blurt out something about the article in the middle of the sitting. the hand was seized very quietly and. if this is Indeed he seems to prefer this. under writing is still going on. with on but talks no sign.] was present to assist knowing the lady and her family very intimately. talk to him? Phinuit frequently requests the sitter to ** G. apparently. shortly before the hand starts writing. " Phinuit gives notice that some one is going to talk is "seized. surreptitiously. In the case of a new communicator." Phinuit while convulsive and passes through vagaries the sitter continuously. sitter turns to pay attention to the hand. Sometimes. iv would hardly have thought it worth while general public spend their time in listening less inarticulate noises let the to more or through their incipient receiving apparatus. but a friend of his also present. gives even after the writing has started. so that he might have something to engage his attention." Sometimes the hand cerning her relations. as it were..246 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY to [SECT. Phinuit frequently makes some such enigmatical remark as "I'll " I'll At other times help to hold him up/ help him/' or Phinuit will request that an article should be given to himself. these circumstances. Phinuit can be evoked from his silence by talking into the ear and will at once resume ? . purporting to come from a deceased friend of mine. though Phinuit is not averse from keeping up the oral conversation as well. while the . P. and whisper a special message into the ear of the friend without disturbing the conversation. and where I [H. however. at a sitting where a lady was engaged in a profoundly personal conversation with Phinuit conits with you himself. To give an extreme instance of this. and having no relation whatsoever to the sitter precisely as if a caller should enter a room where two strangers to him were conversing. and when the desired." or i. and wrote a very personal communication to myself.

and after having analysed numerous spontaneously occurring incidents of all kinds. It occurred to me (continues Dr. not my prepared next sitting. simultaneously on different Very little. 26th. when I was accompanied for the successful. and I remarked to Phlnuit that I different persons to get a separate "control" of each hoped some day medium's body. only very unprepared made to write Independently was partially successful. but that 1 was At to make the experiment at that time. Her "deceased sister" Miss purpose by wrote with one hand. xvm] DR." that I would said and two the with hands. After having endeavoured as best I could to follow February. writing of thousands of of . while all Phlnuit was talking. HODGSON'S VIEWS 247 the communication while the writing continues without a break. The difficulty appeared to He chiefly In the deficiencies of the left hand as a writing-machine. I have no sort of doubt whatever but that the consciouswhatever that consciousness ness producing the writing. On March the different writers. while he could the of finger and toe On voice. 1894. hands both to be possible writing and Phlnuit get all at the same time on different subjects with speaking. when I was and was alone.CHAP. was written with the subjects. with both hands at the very beginning of the sitting. with the other. 1895. much more was made. P. an attempt. Edmunds. the February 24th. 1894. Gurney" using one arrange to try hand and "George Pelham" the other. however. after pages with^ scores the having put many Inquiries to communicators themselves. Hodgson) that and that It might possibly the left hand might also write. there Is no reason why various spiritual minds cannot i8th. the manage " " wrote In the course of some control Edmund Gurney " "In these cases mediums": certain about remarks . experiment " with some It time. time through the express their thoughts at the same to my proposed referred then I same organism. and G. another attempt. left hand.

as supernormal. intelligence. it and frequently writing mechanism is far from perfect. the development of the automatic writing. and the use of the hand by scores of other alleged communicators. Piper's trances. physical world. and that the thoughts that pass through some mind tend to be reproduced in writing by part of This the writing mechanism of Mrs. in a state when he has already been steeped into a state of partial sleep by coming into relation with an organism ^ not his own. produces words that cannot be read. with the hand writing on behalf of different communicators at the same sitting. with different successive communicators using the hand at the same difficult to sitting.248 be. With the advent of the G. Piper's organism. With the hand writing and the voice speaking at the same time on different subjects and with different persons. real AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. actually . This entails a repetition of the word and checks the thought of the communicator. in the earlier years of Mrs. resist the impression that there are it is here concerned various different and distinct and To the individually coherent streams of consciousness. already reduced to the necessity of thinking his words at the slow rate of writing. may first emphasise the fact that it is much more difficult now was exhibited has to suppose that the supernormal knowledge its source in the minds of living persons. Regarding these phenomena. for the purpose of manifesting in my I. and of excluding other thoughts that he does not wish written. is not conscious of "his" writing. than it when practically the only intermediary was the Phinuit personality. The dramatic form has become an integral part of the phenomenon. as well as at different sittings. then. iv whether Mrs. the problem has assumed a very different aspect. Piper's secondary personality or the communicator as alleged. P.

I would though invisible..CHAP. Why/' they will " say. P. but that others are with him parts. however. if put in the witness-box here and cross-examined. when it began again to manifest. I should expect a greater bewilderment. very complete and has lasted a very long time. as well as a confusion in manifesting If the cessation from manifestation has been to me. VIEWS 249 person unfamiliar with a series of these later sittings. it may seeni a plausible hypothesis that perhaps one secondary personality might do the whole work. These deficiencies and bewilderments I should expect to be much more marked If such a consciousness^ instead of trying to manifest Itself once more through Its own organism with all In cases I . do studying the numerous coherent groups of memories connected with different persons. clo they not give us much more evidence ? ourselves. might use the voice and write contemporaneously with the hand. and why have so few others been able to show even an approximation to such clearness as he exhibited ? " Why all the incoherence and confusion and Irrelevancy ? should expect at first a confusion In. think it at all likely that he continue to think it plausible after witnessing and also. But here objectors " arise. telepathic powers. and pretend in turn to be the friends of the various sitters might in short be a finished actor with . if discarnate persons are really communicating. and the absence of any apparent bond of union for the associated thoughts and feelings indicative of each individuality. could do vastly better even than We G. producing the impression not only that he is the character he plays. the characteristic emotional tendencies such different distinguishing persons. save some persistent basis of that individuality itself. for a short time at least. playing their respective not. the excessive complication of the acting required. understanding me. xvm] DR.

. or anaesthetisation. I more to reveal itself in what varying life. or even at all. In another case. On the second day after. seems perfectly natural after the shock and wrench of death. of a consciousness that has temporarily ceased to manifest the same inability to therein and begins once I call the waking state. wake. with what appeared to be much difficulty.. wrote. on the morning after his death. saying. that persons just "deceased" should be extremely confused and unable to communicate directly. or prolonged coma. is trying to regain its wakefulness an unwonted way. all the manifestations. This is the first point. in my physical world. but with a tendency for the incoherency of the etc. in individual cases as find they do in ordinary whether it be after ordinary sleep. when a stranger was present with me for a sitting. his name and the words.250 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY It [SECT. " I am too " weak to articulate clearly and not many days . says Dr. manifestations to be as the consciousness much more pronounced. whom I may call D. Piper's trance is partly asleep. Adieu. " I am all right now." within two or three days of his death. Again. were restricted for Its In such an event to another manifestations organism. . appreciate my injunctions and the same dreamy irrelevancy that characterises questions. I Hence In another case a friend of mine. which I wish to emphasise. he was unable to write the second day after death. inasmuch towards me by that through another organism it could only partially must suppose that even the best of " " direct communicators through Mrs. Hodgson. he wrote two or three sentences. iv for years. Thus in the case of my friend Hart. a near of was unable to write relative Madame F. Elisa. I should expect the manifestations to partake in the which had practised first instance of the same lack of inhibitory control. Whether such a consciousness could ever regain its complete former fulness in my world through another organism seems What I should expect to find is highly improbable.

and suddenly find themselves set down to play on another of a different make. and F. Returning to the actual circumstances. living to play They compelled on one very complicated speaking and writing machine. and completely the (2) inability to govern precisely which they are material organism particular gross when learned to use. due when primarily to his mental and bodily conditions living. at finding feelings Both D. HODGSON'S VIEWS fairly well 251 to and clearly. I say that if " " deceased" friends do communicate the spirits" of our as alleged through the organisms of still incarnate persons. I learned long afterwards that his illness had been much longer and more fundamental than I had supposed. should on the contrary expect even the best." whether he is communicating or not. amanuensis. both by writing and speech. three kinds of confusion that need to be distinguished by the investigator (i) the confusion We : : in the "spirit. we are not justified in expecting them to manifest themselves with the same fulness of clear consciousness that they exhibited during life. and showed always an impressively marked and characteristic personality. indeed. There are. but there was no assignable relation between his confusion and the state of my own mind. became very clear in a short time. The continued confusion in his case seemed explicable if taken in relation with the circumstances of his prolonged illness. did not become so clear till many months later. an account of his himself in his new surroundings. frequently. (2) the confusion in the "spirit" produced by the conditions into which h$ comes when in the act 0f . and dictated also as Elisa. Madame D.CHAP. on the other hand. communicators to fall short of this for the two main reasons a gross (1) loss of familiarity with the conditions of using we should expect them to material organism at all be like fishes out of water or birds immersed in it. Hart. communicated later on. later xvm] he wrote DR. chiefly the latter. including fever.

314.) The persistent failures of many communicators under the first failures of other comvarying conditions municators who soon develop into clearness in~ com. municating.252 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY . I cannot collect my thoughts to repeat sentences to you. also pp. 309. and whose first attempts apparently can be made much clearer by the assistance of persons professing to be experienced communicators the special bewilderment* soon to disappear. . dear. (2) and (3) are increased the very much by the failures of sitters to understand " Thus when a " Mrs. sound and have to half . 305. . Welcome me as you No. I can ? t 3 it is too much work and 3 repeat you must help me and I will if I were with you in the flesh and blood body. requested to repeat words which we had difficulty in deciphering. iv communicating (3) the confusion in the result due to the failure of complete control over the writing (or other) mechanism of the medium. and are exactly what we should expect . she wrote : too weakening and I cannot prove myself to you. Of such confusions find as 1 have indicated above " I cannot any satisfactory explanation in telepathy from the living" (continues Dr. Mitchell control was process. My darling husband. when we speak ? Your thoughts do not reach me at all when I am by thought only would test] . but they fall into a rational order when related to the personalities of the " dead. in little children recently deceased as contrasted with the forgetfulness of childish things shown by communicators who died when children many years before. speaking to you 9 but I hear a strange guess. ." (Cf. all present a definite relation to the personalities alleged to be communicating. and it bothers me a little how do you hear me speak. but right by your side. of communicators shortly after death and apparently in consequence of it the character of the specific mental automatisms manifest in the communications the clearness of remembrance . . [Sitter asks for * * * I cannot tell myself just how you hear me. Hodgson). . I am not away from you. . [SECT.

he acts on the hypothesis that the com" municators are cl spirits acting under adverse conditions. Hodgson Mrs. Piper and her phenomena from the pen a lady who has had considerable of Miss Robbins. claimed. It Is a selection from these notes. Hodgson. The results fit the claim. and who often acted as confidential stenographer for Dr. especially for voice sittings. being very sympathetic to the controls. he will find an improvement in the communications. some Important Civic Sometimes she was allowed to sit alone with taking her own records of her own that she has Piper. says Dr. On the other hand these are not the results which we should expect on the hypothesis of telepathy from the living. And having tried the hypothesis of telepathy from " " the living for several years. prefacing It . If the hypothesis of telepathy from the acted is living upon in anything like the ordinary experimental way. Piper's trance manifestations. get other hand. and the spirit hypothesis 1 have no also for several years.CHAP.. the communications as coming from the sources regard he will on the not the best results. under the title Both Sides of the Veil. hesitation in affirming with the most absolute assurance that the "spirit" hypothesis is justified by Its fruits. and if he treats them as he would a living person in a similar state. published by Sherman French & Co. which contains a supplementary account of Mrs. If. and the other hypothesis is not Note added October 1909 been sent me from America. If xvm] DR. as well as for Officials in Boston. A book has just experience of sittings. now printed. the supernormal results will be If the investigator persistently refuses to lessened. HODGSON'S VIEWS 253 they are actually communicating under the conditions of Mrs.

without being too critical. iv with an Introduction and Description written in an earnest and believing spirit Her point of view and mental attitude are somewhat different from ours. feel an interest in the manner and the substance of communications thus received. . and who would like to hear more of them. since she sets forth the obvious appearance of the phenomenon in is hence her record a consecutive and readable manner. I can heartily commend the book to the attention of those who. Without endorsing her estimate of value throughout. and usefully supplementary.254 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT.

Piper again on JL Nov. communication had always and any writing done was only brief and occasional Communications are now almost entirely in writing. great under the management of Dr. and only under exceptional circumstances is the voice Since our employed. on which was a pile of 255 . Piper a mass of material had been accumulated in America.CHAPTER XIX RECENT r "TT n SITTINGS. of preparation was as follows. Hodgson. but at a rate of . and of the general character of these I now propose to give an account. chair was placed near a table. at 9 1906 Liverpool. HE only two or three per week instead of two a day. and the manner In the old days of the sittings had somewhat changed. I saw Mrs. whose acquaintance she had made on her previous visit to this country* Another series of sittings then began. Mrs. Isaac Thompson of Liverpool. been made with the voice. where she had just and was staying in the house of arrived from America. first English experience with Mrs. quiet selected in which interruption need not be A a fire was provided for warmth. The manner room was feared . and the A comfortable windows were open for ventilation. GENERAL INFORMATION preceding account of my own sittings dates from 1889-90.

in charge to This could generally be was the duty of the experimenter all record that the sitter said. securely rest the side of her head when sleep not burying her face in the cushions. could that the hand conveniently write upon it pad so and to tear off the sheets as they were done with. they had to be adjusted and pressed down free by the experimenter in charge. though occasionally she breakfasted In her room/ On ordinary days she went shopping or sight-seeing. a on was obtained single page. The tearing off of the old sheet was quickly done and the hand waited the moment necessary though sometimes. momentary impatience at the interruption. it indicated . the automatic writing was large and scrawling. done sideways on the same sheet without interfering He also had to arrange the with the medium's hand. properly cut It and ready. . either on the same or on a small subsidiary table. No attempt was made to economise paper. . of the pillows. side so as to be able to breathe during the If it ever happened that the pillows incommoded the breathing. Mrs. and did not often begin Sometimes a good deal of at the top of the page. iv from four to six cushions or pillows. bwt days she went back after breakfast to her own . and occasionally only a few words. but turning it to medium the left trance. or .256 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. on which the and leaning forward could sitting in the chair came on. and four or five pencils of soft lead. sometimes only a writing few lines. so that air obtained side On the right hand access to the mouth and nose. namely a large pad or block-book (io"x8") of 100 blank sheets all numbered in order. Piper and her daughters often had breakfast with the family. when in the midst of an energetic message. ' on sitting was otherwise ordinarily occupied. 2 B or 3 B. the writing materials were arranged. * .

"woke up" then gave the hand a pencil. In the old days the control had itself we day with joy and earth once again. and the head of the medium presently dropped on to her hands on the pillows and turned itself with its face to the left. made the sign of the cross in the air. and the control Rector. " drawn. about 30 seconds of complete quiescence. this hand alone on. as it were." ostensible amanuensis." the phrase. signed R. it slowly rose. Piper sat with her hands on the pillows in front of her about five minutes of desultory conversation followed. leaving a vacant chair between him . Piper came into the arranged room and seated herself in the chair in front of the pillows then the experimenter in charge sat down on a chair near the table. Then almost at once the right hand disengaged itself and fell on the table near the After writing materials.CHAP. but there was a serious . "Phinuit". At the time fixed for the sitting. In the old days the tone was not so dignified and serious as it is now it could in fact then be described as : rather humorous and slangy. but at those held in London was introduced only after the trance had to be quiet. and indicated that it was ready to write.30 a..m. and First a cross was writing began. between fore and middle fingers. . who at my sittings was sometimes present from the first. peace^" "We return to earth this or " We greet you friend of " . Mrs. XIX ] RECENT PIPER SITTINGS 257 and the medium. say 10 or 10. room come Mrs. then heavy breathing began. calls itself now styled Phinuit never appears. written. for the sitter. and then the word " Hail was ^ The experimenter it usually by . followed or some such bring peace and love semi-religious " which stands for " Rector. it was at placing once grasped.

and was often allowed to last as much as two hours. though rarely. familiarity however. Is easy and natural. the trance seems nothing more than an exceptionally heavy sleep. strain. Usually after purposely placing herself under the familiar conditions to which she is accustomed. trance the in recent but only once my experience. and the same Into without effort a sleep with the superficial appearance of that induced by chloroform . even when Once. the loss of consciousness seemed less than complete. effort . In the old days. though not more. would have been at once In the old days the going Into trance seemed rather a painful process. Mrs. entered of the hair slight tearing . there were degrees of intensity about them. and the return to consciousness. though slow and for a time accompanied by confusion. and sometimes a Now actions accompanied the return of consciousness. and the attempt at a sitting had to be abandoned till next day. Occasionat all. refused to come on. about an hour.258 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. Under present conditions the trance is undoubtedly profound. an hour is the limit but a writing sitting seems less of a A . iv under-current the then. present even constantly even welcomes and farewells were quaint and kindly and nothing was ever said of a affectionate at times I judge that stupid character that could give offence. or at least a process Involving muscular there was some amount of contortion of the face. or frivolity on the part of a sitter for which. ally. when sittings were more frequent. of normal consciousness unmistakably complete. there was no excuse rebuked and checked. and the suspension and sometimes. trance declined to it come on did. . and on sitting used to last only the rare occasions when there Is a voice sitting now.

had fteari} closed it again. by the operating intelligence. there will hare to 'be a change '' : m t . one of the two the beginning of the sitting only [At windows in the room was open a very little way. noticing that the room was a little close had opened the other window.CHAP.) Friend. of conditions were understood. and G. handed down all the information and Hodgsonian . sitting held by Mr. Dorr at Boston a (Rector interrupting "Hodgson" communication." sometimes as "the machine. D. B. She was spoken of usually as " the light. yoti will have to change the conditions a moment." though the word "machine" commonly signified only the pencil. Is Great care was taken of the body of the medium. A few moments previ0i& to this time H. xix] SITTINGS able to let herself go off without trouble or Piper delay. or if there was insufficient air in the room. Jr. anything went wrong with the breathing. as soon easy Each experimenter. both oow and previously." or "attend to the light/' or something of that sort and the before the experimenter amended the arrangements The whole thing was as sensible and writing went on. J. B. If hand wrote "something wrong with the machine. D.] G. course. so that all the conditions to which Mrs. Piper was accustomed could be supplied beforehand. The physical It is following illustrates conditions and the the care taken of the of* way they are spoken an extract from a in 1906. as the circumstances and as possible. and so that no injury would happen to her bodily health. tradition of this kind to the next. What is wrong with the conditions? ' Do you wtt'knore ' ai or less? Well. or if the cushions the slipped so as to make the attitude uncomfortable.

Now the light All right. Then everybody had lunch together and talked of ordinary said about the sitting. nothing being . and sometimes at the end of about an hour and a half. That is better. As the time drew near to the two-hour limit. Hodgson takes a good deal of strength when he comes. hint that the sitting controls indicate the to clear must terminate soon or else the same thing. during which muttered sentences were uttered. so after the trance had however. friend. but he is all right. almost suddenly they took on a natural appearEven then. he understands the methods of operation very well. yes. if open at all. and no topics. which has been set as a period beyond which it is undesirable to persist. After a sitting. only glared in sleep-walking fashion . a good deal more just now. until only partly herself* During this time her eldest daughter usually took charge of her. and semi-consciousness lasted for several minutes. experimenter quarters. air. with the writing of a serious sentence invoking the blessing of the Most High upon concludes as the sitter and the group. and in another room went on with their letters or needlework unconcerned. (The window was now opened wide). But the trance itself was so familiar to them all that the daughters were not the least anxious. what is it. The coming out of the trance was gradual. iv And will have to be more strength. one of them was usually called and took her mother for a stroll in the garden. ance. air. and the eyes. and they then begin farewell up and it take A sitting usually began. and Mrs. begins to get clear. for half an hour or continued medium the slightly dazed and disappeared. Piper became herself. from the in charge gave a . or an hour the and three commencement.26o AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT.

appliances. the eyes became intelligent. to annotate it sufficiently. The reference actual record is whenever necessary. and that we regard them first as genuine ' . xix] 111 RECENT SITTINGS 261 It seemed a normal function in her case. The experimenter meanwhile had collected the papers and arranged them in and had removed the pencils and other order. friends* justified by the special circumto state that the family Is an admirable one. . and she recognised some one usually Lady Lodge first and then with a smile welcomed her by name. but is stances of the case. and the sitter was stared at in an unrecognising way. and speedily came to. and generally contained useful passages though part of them nearly always consisted of expressions of admiration for the state or experience she was leaving. Piper during the period of awaking from trance. : of course preserved for exact Impertinence. her daughters Piper's were children. Even a bright day was described as dingy or dark. and described as a dull and ugly person. Coming to ordinary social details it is not an . and are very useful to their mother. and send it to a typewriter.CHAP. or sometimes as a Presently. A record was also made of the remarks of Mrs. These were more or less mumbled and difficult to hear. Subsequently it was his business to write out legibly all the material accumulated during the two hours of sitting. Now they are grown up. Nothing in any way abnormal visit At the time of Mrs. result of any kind being experienced. and of repulsion almost disgust at the commonplace terrestrial surroundings in which she found herself. however. negro. but they were often a continuation of what had been obtained during trance.

" it is not to be understood in general that be it actually manipulating the organism always. if a for a few minutes." writer or speaker being either who again may or may not be a phase of Mrs. attempt to discriminate between what is given in this way and what is given directly. after I the fashion of a multiple personality think it is nearly always Rector that writes. with any occupation. she cannot to be noticed but feel that it to some extent isolates her and marks in her out as peculiar among her neighbours New state England. because it is since practically impossible to do so with any certainty . now extending over a quarter of a century. " Rector" or "Phinuit. as Phinuit often I do not did. may the actual dictating through an amanuensis as it were. and whereas now usually reporting in the first person. and their mother expresses it as her sincerest wish that they For though she must will not develop her power. realise the value of her services to science. recording the messages given to him as nearly as he can. the appearance was sometimes as if the actual control was changed . In the old days. shade special That is agency gets control and writes to say. undoubtedly. it does not seem able to sustain the position long. but soon abandons it to the more accomplished . and certainly is in general. and that the time spent in the trance must have made a distinct inroad on her available This however is to some extent the case lifetime.262 or AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY unusual is [SECT. merely that control is . iv about them. what appears to be direct control is liable to off into obvious reporting. and it is as the duty specially allotted to her that she has learnt to regard her long service. Piper's personality. In speaking of messages received from a certain "control.

Piper sat upright in her chair." speak however of the " without the etc. and with both hands available for holding objects or a hand of her head reclines throughout on a The right hand cushion. even when they are controlling as organism be directly as possible. control. he does this on page 400 of Proc* xiii. they may perhaps always . through some the physical of mind. there assertions regarding the actual method of control. tends in a general way Readers interested in these particulars may here conit veniently refer to further remarks on the subject in Chapter XL Pnrther Details In the old days Mrs. rather than directly on any part It is rather soon as yet to make definite organism. with head somewhat bowed and eyes closed. xix] RECENT personality. " Gurney control. operating telepathically on it rather than telergically stratum of the operating. And in the next few pages he goes on to indicate his own independent view of what is occurring. (A portion is quoted above on page 243). goes. Now . Hodgson has of thought it worth while to report the general aspect the to the phenomenon as it is said to appear Communicators themselves.CHAP. whole the about are too many unknown quantities phenomenon.. giving a detailed description which my own smaller experience. SITTINGS Rector. at the same time Dr. with her face turned away* the sitter. as far as to confirm. little 263 and experienced series In the recent there appeared very evidence of direct control other than Rector. that is to say." implying that Hodgson even assuming their existence and these agents We shall activity are ever really in physical possession of the and.

pp. 134). Piper in trance wrote a name in the old days as Phinuit did sometimes the writing was usually mirror-writing. to. and usually the One In shown anonymously had er other point deserves to be here mentioned the days of Phinuit considerable facility was dealing with strangers. But now that Rector writes K mirror-writing only crops up occaonly reversal consists in giving the letters of a name in inverted order. when away from the sitter. The 1S remarkably quick and that the y sometimes thought must have been "got up" for T facility n W mUGh dealing with l6SS marked things of a stranger now makes T^ strange^ intro- slow and . which it then proceeds to write down. p. When Mrs. being engaged nearly all the time in with intervals of what looks like listening. It turns itself to the sitter when it wants alone writing. going back to space i A directing itself to a part of the room where nobody is for further information and gence.? UCh special case beforehand. it turns itself but for the most part. iv active. was turned towards her face in that case the writing was ordinary. it is curious. and can be described as more like an intelligent person than a hand (cf. : to be spoken to by him . not Anting. ex.264 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY is [SECT. The dramatic activity of the hand is very remarkable it is full of intelligence. but sometimes she wrote a name on paper held to her so that the pencil forehead. sionally : voluminously. narf instead of Frank. the . 272 and 313).^ their . as if receiving communications from outside. If this should happen to have been so : supplementary intelli- consistently. as necessity arises (cf. Persons introduced m family affairs referred their relations enumerated. in a S and their fW that Way: S .

Piddington. there it . and it continued useful for a good many years till a case for investigation was firmly established. in Hodgson far hand and develop As to how have been at times some differences of opinion but in view of the remarkable tests recently given under what. may be called the new regime. though of several years' standing. old characteristics discouraged. RECENT PIPER SITTINGS and the is 265 on the whole although extent. but it must have seemed tedious to prolong that method further. for continue to some the tests now given early procedure was useful at the kind. . xix] laborious. there can be but little doubt about the reality of the improvement now. that they would take the trance on better and higher lines.CHAP. the change is an improvement. so the group of controls associated with Rector The are mainly of a different assured Dr. tests which have been and are being dissected out by Mr.^ beginning.

Edwin first The Thompson. as there stated. and the writing of Rector for a novice to read. when Mrs. eight years old. he was only had changed. Piper occurred during a business visit of the son. introduced him as a stranger not by name to Mrs. Hodgson The sitter. Piper. 218 and 225. Piper in trance at her house near Boston. Thompson had died. previous experience of the sittings because in He . Besides. during her stay with us In the interim. I consider. Piper was in Liverpool. partly in all probability had no owing to the inexperience of the had The position is a very difficult one. 1889. Hodgson after the ' . Isaac in Liverpool in 1890. to get into attempt at reaching this control through Mrs. to America in 1906. in 1903. which is referred first on pp. when Dr. effort was. the character of the sittings is not at all easy Suffice it therefore to say that Edwin Thompson was introduced anonymously by Dr. not really successful. of this family had made the acquaintance of Mrs.CHAPTER XX ISAAC THOMPSON CONTROL SHALL I to take as an example of the present a continuation of the case style of communication of the Isaac Thompson family. Members and they were anxious communication with him if possible.

though I believe that Mr. From some points of view however unfortunate it un- doubtedly was this ensuing sittings America may be held to strengthen the evidence. Hodgson conveying a message entrusted to her by the control " * George Pelham. Hodgson or others In strangers naturally knowing nothing about the family. whose slight acquaintance he had only just made. and at the next sitting he was not present. They said you would know. to clear up this unsatisfactory interview." It was however a and poor sitting. Tell Hodgson that name the gentleman in the spirit tried to get was Agnes. evidentially Boston.. who seemed to wonder how his son had " managed to find him. American held absence of any connecting link at by Dr. with it than these remarks of mine would suggest but unfortunately he had to return to England immediately. is on the whole more Thompson satisfied . xx] THE ISAAC THOMPSON CONTROL 267 trance had begun on Monday. E. since now the facts could hardly be supposed to be obtained from the sitter. Hodgson being a complete stranger to them all. at Messages purported to come from his father.. and it was the day befoie.CHAP. there Undoubtedly ought to have been another sitting without delay. 1 juries if . is quite appropriate being the at and would have been jumped name of a daughter by Edwin Thompson . nth December 1905." * 1 This evidently refers to a name " Anna" attempted near the end of the omitted The name sitting. is best treated as nearly blank. which clearly established nothing whatever. except E. She wrote : There was a message for you/ George saith. who the same evening sent a special delivery letter to Dr. and Dr. T. The sitter on i2th December 1905 was a Miss M. provided anything further was obtained as It was.

time here. That young man hath some significant light himself. H. before leaving home. Yes? I had much to do with them when R. his best attempt being something taken Annese or Anyese. Piper 1905. (Scrawls were now made. and is already on his way back. see vol.2 68 it AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. pretending . me some articles He had no more He had no We R. isth December 1905. vl. and since the spirit is now. Have you the Influences of the young man's father? R. wrote as reported below .) p. R. last night. vl Proc. to do. On the next day. be glad. though (See to Adnes before repeating it quickly changed it vol. S. after script relating to other matters had been obtained. H. iv h is sitter.") R. No. Dr. I have explained to him. H.P. had occurred while he was present as " " was a name that Phinuit in the noteworthy that Agnes he could old days had always boggled over. . H.R. * in my hand. I hold this bottle in my hand for identification. H. Who are you? your world. with our good understand. to know what he ought opportunity. in R. H. R. . not pronounce it . thank you. waiting and I shall faithful co-worker George [Pelham] we shall after pre- liminary matters are cleared up listen to what he hath to say. Bottle . p. 47^ but when he unawares he could pronounce it well enough. 509. XL Yes. and he will send of his father after he returns to England. . Didst thou receive the message from George ? R. ending "help me. Hodgson alone. It once seems almost an Injustice to us not to have met hun communicator to the a be would it as great help more. himself and all all on our side. . Hodgson had a sitting when Rector. Present Dr. Kindly tell me anything you wish. i$tk December Sitting with Mrs. : ike in America.

R. remember he has nothing or no one except yourself to attract him here. R. It will help him greatly.] . I say so. I*] (G. P. Liverpool^ you mean.CHAP. POOL. Yes. . (Excitement in hand which cramps and twists about. H. Liver-pool.) . calm friend Li . . Agnes is his daughter. and was partner In Thompson Capper.) (Excitement stops the writing again. R. xx] I THE ISAAC THOMPSON CONTROL 269 used to be address [sic] Dr. Yes. for me. Shall I talk to him? Just encourage him a little by telling him who you are etc. R. R. what your object is etc. Is he the young man's father ? he is surely. let him dream right he says anything clearly.] I live I had three daughters one son (scrawls over sheet) . R. Liverstool [Livestool?] R. H. I got [He had medical ambitions. Yes I say so I say say I understand. I say so. H. I will explain in answer to your inquiry who I am. . that I am an old friend of Professor Lodge. L O D G E. H. it & O. H. . [true] I want to help them all all all. Wait Li VERSTOOL. Yes? So he tells me. I say so I say so [sic. If What my old neighbour in Liv. . R.) He is all out H and he will be trying very hard. H. communicating. H. congratulate him help him by words of encouragement only. H. (Between sp.) Drugs Do not go. Yes? I am confused [confessed] No doubt but I will be better soon . H. understand that I am alive. I live R [R = Rector. God help me to help them to R. J.

do my best. (Perturbation in hand) Mrs. it What your name ? My name Hodgson. You R. Oh he is telling me Let I me think. now. a black so hard to understand. H. but I'll find her out is and come to you if it is a possible thing. I and sent Mrs. Where are you? is America where am now. I want to get acquainted with you. H. Yes are in the I body? am. wait I cannot tell now know son who you R H ' ' Ten m'e'all about yourself first. Was * Oh R. R R H. H. H. Kindly listen. R. America? R. you came with whom you are now communicatProfessor Lodge through ing? I mean the light? until I find my way about yet. yes Oh is yes I do I do. am so anxious with you. very very H. talk to understand all about this then I can R.-don't you remember seeing years ago Piper? Piper? R. . . Piper many am^nterested in psychical work Mrs. iv You look so heavy. H. m Where R. This are we? I left my body some I time ago. cloud comes over you and k R H I Oh I your do no7know you personally. . because I want to reach my family. but the lady m England with see not Did me. and the . Do you I can scarcely see you. Hodgson. Yes I'll I will. Yes. an Oh n TT Vgc ' yes I remember American lady ? Piper. Richard Hodgson. H. Well well that is very interesting to me. Yes. Piper a Medium. Well.27o AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY it is [SECT. H. Mr . for Can't you spell me? thank you greatly. to England.

is them I think. wife wore glasses . and one son Yes . I will tell My R.) kindly Your R. H. R. (Thump Mrs. Well I understand. Oh may be so. xx] THE ISAAC THOMPSON CONTROL' 271 Well? happy? R. I but business will be better in time. i.) . . I could not understand while you were here but after 1 could see you left. H. wife is better thank my you more about myself and Lodge you I am watching over them. it was on my mind. H. Yes. like DRUGS. R. . Yes. talk with him in general when he comes whether he gives you a chance or not. Well now I begin to understand. thank you. R. Splendid R. You mentioned her eye trouble. T him . . . very grateful to him. Did his spirit seem any clearer ? R. H. I don't know anything about I No . H. care of it for the children. chance or not he is very earnest but he does not understand yet our methods .- CHAP. he will return in a moment friend but I command him to go for a moment + JR. I friend George is am the very best helper we have. both. . he must rest + [this is the signature of Imperator] R. I shall be so pleased for you to come again and send any messages you wish to your family. H.. . . No. . did you [say] that there were three daughters in the body ? My R. . . H. H* Thank you very much. H. H. _ I say I shall return and help you. am trying to take Mr . was very very glad I came. Yes I should judge that he will probably be a very clear communicator shortly. . sounds I had a business called . . all am helping 1 can [this was evidently Rector] (Hand to Sp. the lady with my boy ? her. of hand. spectacles we called Who R.

the truth will find Farewell fare thee well . and indicates considerable anxiety on the part of the Isaac Thompson control to manifest himself. and save for the mention of my name as a common friend of Hodgson and himself. an improvement on what had been obtained at the sitting before. [SECT. . has done to help me. H. The the things said in One of the most curious episodes is way which . name had been this Before I Tell you go . . H. vol. peace . bottles profession. It very glad to be here. On such occasions it twists and squirms about and This Is frequently breaks the point of the pencil by pressure It is as if the nerves conveyed too against the paper. since this time he had to overcome the difficulty of talking to a complete stranger. vL. "Tell him"? Tell Mrs. . the other was another man looked something him. . One was like George. I understand. .] first . Proc.) There were two gentlemen resembling each other. . with you all. is characteristic. 313 and The 314). iv R. [sic. it is doubtful if anything could have been got The excitement which the hand displays. (Pause. strong a stimulus to the muscles. as here at the mention of Lodge and Liverpool. Piper said) (During the waking stage .272 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY Waking Stage Mrs. vol. and cf. Hodgson. vi) all true and appropriate. I . 525.] over to Mr. a similar are case near foot of page 554. so that until the excitement abates no writing can go on (cf. also pp. you must take mentioned. Is better so. . Thompson let . Thompson Pm its am all grateful for God way. [This was the time the . and drugs mentioned are symbolic of his (See p. him R.

H. or Rector. Oh R. Yes. information that Isaac Thompson had been with me alone for nine weeks. is also very and his Inquiry as to whether Hodgson is a natural living person or not 18 is curious. Hodgson. The sentence "oh he Is telling me. Yes. I name Is Introduced. being obtained through Mrs. Piper many don't you remember seeing Mrs. xx] ISAAC THOMPSON CONTROL 273 says. years ago to England. Piper a Piper. H. automatically recorded by the The way in which he receives the Hodgson Is In America. am Interested in psychical work and sent Mrs. thank you greatly" signifies that whereas the Thompson control had been trying to understand with difficulty what Dr.) Was Mrs. for Can't you spell me ? thank you greatly. and then the Thompson control speaks of her as a medium he had known. yes it is I do I do. Piper's R. writing hand. H. but I'll find her and come to you if a possible thing. and the . H. where In 1884 . Hodgson order to Introduce himself. the curiosity of the it Is When remembered that the whole thing is position is obvious. now as often. Piper's body. Hodgson was saying. and says he will try to find her now in order to communicate. whom he thanks . yes I remember American lady? oh yes is (Perturbation in hand. Oh he is telling me the The perturbation In hand thus begins again when name Piper Is remembered. . all this by- play being.CHAP. it What is your name ? My name Hodgson. he was now being told on his own side by G. Piper? Piper? R. Richard Hodgson. H. P." R. In Mrs. . R. Medium an Oh R.

T. But of course this sort of thing can be guessed . though he had certainly not given his name. this was within Mrs. In fact although there is nothing very much obtained. at intervals and her words are taken down. 524. I observe " that he had mentioned the name " Theodora and also spoken of "the business. and presumably not in Dr." 5 there is nothing that is inapplicable or foreign to the person represented. though of course ledge. Waking Stage While coming out of trance Mrs. "The lady with my boy" may well refer to son's : his engagement though that was not in Mrs. or in the least untrue as soon as communication really began . while to quote one record of these ejaculations which sometimes convey interesting residual information. Thompson wore Piper's spectacles. or rather mutters. Piper's previous normal knowledge. in his own sitting had clearly hinted it. and I select the following as a fairly typical case of an and unevidential but characteristic coming unimportant to. and little that can be called really evidential. Piper usually speaks. Hodgson's either. Notes intruded in square brackets are added merely . Thompson's was represented as unfamiliar with them and wanting them taken off.274 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY It Is quite true that [SECT. provided any clue to the particular family had been conveyed during Edwin Thompson's sitting. and there is much in the dramatic details that I find distinctly interesting. own know- In the previous set (p. iv Mrs. vol. in the course of which. This also was a correct apprehension of fact at the date referred to. or such of them as can be heard. vi. Piper's normal knowledge. and E. It is worth .) a sister of Mr. because of Mrs.

They ordinary surroundings. They are seldom identical. Sometimes it heralds almost a sudden return . [This means that she disfrom her trance state and coming back to changing before. though Mrs. [This refers to a sensation which she a snap in the head. Too calls bad. xx] THE ISAAC THOMPSON CONTROL 275 In order to place the reader in the same sort of position as regards understanding the significance of these subconscious utterances as a recorder finds himself in after an experience of many sittings. but I expect it is someIt is not audible to others. granted Besides. thing physiological.] . which nearly always precedes a return to consciousness. Pipers trance modification in the course of the nineteen years since I first knew her and it may be useful to quote the kind of phrases employed by her during recovery if only as a psychological study. What the snap is I do not know. Piper half seems to expect it to be so. I am aware that such explanations may irritate a certain group of people who have been all their lives familiar with trance speeches of one kind or another. each has distinctive has itself undergone : they have a strong family likeness. on an occasion after one of the sittings with the Isaac Thompson " I family : saw you likes It Is fearful. Here then they are. trances are features.CHAP. but in the first place I must beg them to observe that when I explain things I am not assuming Ignorance on the part of specialists. and she is always more conscious after a snap than she was before j but often it takes two snaps to bring her completely to. by no means identical Mrs. It would be impossible to write in an explanatory fashion on any branch of even the most orthodox science if thereby one ran the risk of In ordinary subjects it is safe to assume that silently experienced people will understand that their knowledge is taken for offending specialists. Snap. It's awful. but .] are going away.

. My Her cold" Piper was troubled with a cold at this time. and Mr. B. Why [Mrs. Looking through luminous. No. Another snap. intelligence was now normal] In further illustration of the waking stage. . you were a Well. Noise. Did you where we were sitting. Buzzing in my head. J. talking to me. iv What are all the people doing ? [Probably some of the sitters were moving about and leaving the roonij under the mistaken impression that the snap meant I saw a man Kept was over. Mrs. did you hear my head snap ? H. a silver cord.] Has an old lady with him. Thompson. Thompson. I forgot larger. There G. Now you again. all? Sounds it is like wheels clicking together Don't you hear it at and then snaps. showing similar it was in 1906 to what it is now.276 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT.] in the light. in America in 1906. I thought you were small. which looked like Mr. and as a " further description of the curious " snap sensation. The man with the cross was waving his hand. Jr. could see his face perfectly. " [" The man with the cross is intended to signify Imperator. that interest helping him out. They were trying to tell me something about the children in the body. I thought Junior. You grew hear rny head snap? It breaks. I an extract from the termination a of subjoin sitting with how Henry James.] They were I I came in on a cord. Didn't hear it? It is a funny sound.] The moon was shining [or it may have been the sun/ It only ' signifies that her recent surroundings have been bright and She is helping him read something. opera glasses at wrong end. D. Lovely place. Miss Thompson. [probably something going on outside. Dorr stranger. are really back. I didn't know you were there.

Her controls same tendency and. and to treat her as a separate exhibit the evidential it does appear to be really true that that knowledge has or no influence on the knowledge when in the trance state. sitting subsequently held in her house in Liverpool. 77 Isaac Thompson was ..CHAPTER XXI GENERAL REMARKS ON THE PIPER SITTINGS FOR It is _ vol. while of course nothing can be made to depend upon the supposition. For of course Mrs. Piper must undoubtedly possess. I individual noteworthy how natural it is for a sitter to the normal ignore knowledge which Mrs. . of the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research must be referred to It here. and had seen them assemble. Piper had known perfectly well the people likely to be present at the sitting. As a minor instance of this fact may be mentioned the surprise and shown the Isaac Thompson eagerness by surmised this at an earlier as recorded on stage page 202 and subsequent experience has only con- when after some delay he was present at the first told that Mrs. I shown by the control firmed the impression. little controls. all a further account of these sittings my paper in xxiii. would take too much space to quote further must be satisfied with a few comments.

and as a challenge to any one who will bestow time and labour upon the work I make a of analysing the records from this point of view. not anything analogous to detective work. but there are cases which have run that gauntlet. But indeed everything tends to show that during thorough trance the normal consciousAnd. When I speak of " Mrs. although it is true that we abeyance. and vice versa. IY was no news to her. Piper. . It is a genuine piece of psychological information that we now desire. Piper so. Piper's normal knowledge. they must utilise some other controls The themselves feel that ." I mean of course knowledge acquired in her ordinary state. a sitter introduced by name is no ledge. that this kind of kenosis that kind due to mere cunning but the time for suspicion of is over with most of us investigators. Of course is a sceptic may say . Knowledge acquired while in the trance state is certainly reproducible when in that state. if they want to communicate with her. cannot claim anything as evidential when it comes out ness is in had ever been known to Mrs.278 It AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. I myself am unable to trace much. It seems to me a desirable piece of work for someone to undertake. direct access to the they have no normal Mrs. connexion between the trance knowledge and her normal knowFor instance. but it appears not to be accessible in her ordinary state I do not call that "normal knowledge/' . Detective work is necessary in its proper time and place. if any. in the trance if it general statement of this kind believing that careful analysis will bear it out. and The Piper case is require more advanced treatment one of them. more likely to have his name mentioned during a sitting than one who is introduced as an anonymous stranger.

I extract a small during a of conversation which from serious quantity fragment took place between them and Dr. D. for be observed in many of the records how natural it is sitter. G. with trance. represents reasonable to suppose that something itself. itself. Alta.CHAP. Dorr was conducting the the remarks labelled G. this.D. B. It will when it does. and only when not constantly in one's la a reminiscent and holiday . and astray. It is quite natural. it cannot understand It is shut off from communication with us on our side and it must remain in ignorance of the methods which in we pursue our endeavours to reach the mortals on the earthly side. more or concerned things and it hath disturbed us not a little to see the conditions on the earthly side. B. D. : Trivial domestic incidents are thoughts. G. specific question. be more anxious about these Well. xxi] GENERAL REMARKS for instance. but as illustrative of how the phenomenon so consistently it true is indicated. to " " to furnish some evidence of hits control challenge a or to demand from him a sudden answer to a for a identity. they 279 agency. you might in Yes. sitting and speaking soon after his death. I have felt that a sense reach her. I do not adduce is this as evidence. Hodgson's executors whom To illustrate send messages through her they occasionally communicate Mr.B. own daughter. We are anxious that the light in the future should not go adrift and anxious that past relations should not be wholly interrupted by any change of environment or other. because the light cannot know itself. We are not quite pleased with them. must be admitted. or for the experimenter in charge. no one could than we ourselves are. But through the daughter. it also is to and I suppose inevitable but that some extent unreasonable. that is the only way.

2 8o




mood, or under the stimulus of friendly

chat, does


occur. vivid recollection of such incidents normally touches, It is a common experience that characteristic to and sparkling sayings, are most likely specific phrases conversation. come out in the give and take of lively

and solitary brooding, though it may generate a few cases, does valuable and even brilliant ideas in

not as a rule lead to anything specially personal, such ideas seem to the contrary, identifying; rather or to be supplied from outside, so spring up impersonally,
to speak.


control It is proverbially difficult to

thoughts to order,

and a communicator suddenly asked

remember an


or to

send an




feel rather as

a person feels
told to




Under these conditions any one brilliant for posterity." verse with the gift might compose some half-doggerel less or remember some poetry more perhaps, or might the and indeed that is what it appears accurately would there but usually controls sometimes actually do for suggesfor delay, and fishing be hesitation,' requests The records. the in find we like what

of a phonograph


"say something


assisted controls unfortunately cannot be

by the give and

under take of friendly and stimulating conversation for, on our side is the conditions of a sitting, the intercourse It is and very little "give.' nearly all "take" because a sitter to talk freely, admittedly dangerous for and more maybe the conditions then become "loose," than was intended, so that inadvertently given away otherwise good, thereafter nothing obtained, however it must also then But can be considered evidential. full sense the be admitted no conversation can be in
stimulating or satisfactory
if its



hampered by

CHAP, xxi]



a constant desire to withhold information, lurking in the background. In order to be human a conversation should be wholehearted and free from arrieres pensfas on both sides but

under evidential conditions that seems quite impossible. It is one of the many disadvantages under which the
investigation of the subject inevitably labours.


by some people who might otherwise be in favour of some form of spiritistic hypothesis bethought
It will

absurd that reference should be made under such circumstances to trifles like ordered but undelivered pictures, and to trivialities like the possession of a handkerchief or other relic. The usual excuse is that these things are mentioned for purposes of identification but though there may be some truth in that view, there is in my


that for such incidents; and The they are not contradictory of the notion of survival fate of objects once regarded with affection, or even

more reason than

and possessing any kind of personal association, does not seem to have suddenly become a matter of








innumerable instances of

this sort of curious




would be merely tedious to refer to pages where they occur. Every experienced sitter knows that such references are the commonest of
Interest in trifles

so that




the explanation




not prepared with

explanation but, granted the most completely spiritistic hypothesis, it would appear that the state after
a not a sudden plunge into a stately, dignified, and The environment, like specially religious atmosphere. the character, appears to be much more like what it Is





[SECT, iv

here than some folk This may be due to the imagine. effort and incidental to the condition of semiprocess under which alone communication is possible it return, appears to involve something less than full consciousness.

goes rather further than this, since a few of the when recently deceased (a pious old lady in particular is in my mind) have said that the surroundings were more " secular " than they expected they have indeed expressed themselves as if a little disappointed,




better than they are here. no violent or sudden

who has
care for

though they nearly always say that the surroundings are Anyhow, there appears to be change of nature and so any one

cared for trinkets


perhaps after a fashion



But there must be more than that even.
appear to serve as attractive influences, or which information may be




appears as if we left traces of ourselves, not only on our bodies, but on many other things with which we have

been subordinately associated, and that these traces can thereafter be detected by a sufficiently sensitive person. This opens a large subject which I have touched upon once or twice already in other never with papers any and which requires feeling of certainty or security
careful handling lest its misunderstanding for mere superstition.

pave the way

common sense, and without assuming of this kind, even hypothetically, how do we anything know that we are right in speaking of some things as trifles and other as things important ? What is our scale
to return to


or standard of value


one expects people to be wholly indifferent as to the posthumous disposal of their property, provided it amounts to several thousand pounds. They make careful


CHAP, xxi]



wills, and would, if they knew, be perhaps displeased If the provisions were not adhered to, or if their final will



and how
It is


on what scale



estimate property,


we measure



conceivable that, seen from another side,

personal relics may awaken memories more poignant than those associated with barely recollected stocks and






is the kind of idea which naturally connexion with the subject. Our




estimate of the comparative importance of not likely to be cosmically sufficient or perennithat

ally true.

Piper controls





clear that the


do not estimate the importance of property standard by any dependent on pounds sterling. As a variant on old letters, old lockets, and other rubbish, in which Phinuit seemed to take some interest, I once gave him a five-pound note. It was amusing to see how at first he tried to read it in his usual way by applying it to and then on realising the the top of the medium's head sort of thing it was, how he crumpled it up and flung it into a corner with a grunt, holding out his hand for

something of interest

Needless to say,


did not share

in this estimate of value, and, after the sitting, was careful to rescue the despised piece of paper from its

perilous position.










W. H. Myers was


where be con1

least communicating, while trolling, or at
shall begin,



not through

however, with communications Mrs. Piper, but through other

Piper-Myers messages were obtained, and must be dealt with, by Mr. Piddington because they often involve cross-correspondences, which work. Moreover, in belong to his department of the the recent series of sittings I had but few conversations



of the

with the Myers control as modified or represented by " " Mrs. Piper what we call the Piper-Myers or Myers P I fear I did not give him many chances, and one day was rather rebuked by Rector for not affording the

Myers P control more opportunity for utterance. This was because I usually had something else ready that I So neither from Myers P nor from wanted to try.

Hodgson P









of course in the old days, been in full vigour of life.


1889-90, both had


so happens


long before



arrived, and very soon after Mr. Myers's death, I had had a couple of unexpected and exceptional sittings




with the well-known Mrs. Thompson, at that time

(It is hardly necessary to say living at Hampstead. that she has no connexion with the Mrs. Isaac Thompson

referred to as a sitter with Mrs. Piper in previous chapters.)

She had suspended

sitting altogether;

but she

kindly allowed myself and my wife to she said she felt impelled to do so, her,

twice with

on two occa-

when she happened

to be visiting friends in or

near Birmingham. Mrs. Thompson was so well acquainted with Mr. Myers and his family that no evidential importance can be attached to remarks and messages concerning that family, obtained through her mediumship, however
natural they




to trivial facts

These are therefore all omitted. and domestic affairs are good

as evidence only in the case of unknown strangers in other cases they are only of use as contributing to the

dramatic character and personal expression of the whole.

From this point of view I regret some omissions, which nevertheless have been considered necessary. Mrs. Thompson's trance is an easy trance, not so
complete or striking as Mrs. Piper's, but it is a state of suspension, or partial suspension, of ordinary consciousness, and is accompanied by a change of voice and manner.
In the sitting which follows,
as controlling


Myers" was represented

and speaking for part of the time, but the " Nelly" control, and when the began with the




the words


not manifestly intended to be speaking, be taken as emanating either from Nelly

or from one or other of Mrs.

Thompson's ordinary controls

does not matter which, since I am not studying Mrs. Thompson's phenomena, but am giving what appear to be messages from or about Myers, who died



January 1901.



[SECT, nr

appearance of a Myers control in my experience was on Thursday, 19 February 1901, that is to say just about a month after F. W. H. Myers's decease. Present, only myself and wife with Mrs.


" Nelly" began. Thompson. At 6 o'clock the control She had been incredulous about his death, and indeed had declared that she could not find him anywhere and See J. G, P/s did not believe that he had come over. also But now vol. xviii. 238, p. 240, paper. Proceedings^ she was just beginning to admit the fact


igth February 1901. Thompson at 225 Hagley






Notes by O.


L. and



6.0 p.m. {"Netty" control speaking?)

was allowed to go on his birthday to see him. have plenty of work to do, for he has promised
messages to 74 people. said he was dead, but




All the people

did not believe

and though


saw him,


thought he only came

over for his birthday like in a vision, But I see him now. It is the truth, it is the truth (excitedly). Let us see if he can talk sense. He was talking on the It was at a station by a racecourse. platform with you.

had met him

at Liverpool;

landing stage



come when he

seen him off from the But this is unimportant] more wakened up before

9 o'clock.

You be

be awake by then. for a little space by himself. He is sensible, for a spirit. Before you came, mother was praying. She said "Come and tell the truth for truth's sake." (At 6.30 Mrs, Thompson came to.) Then we had dinner, and at 8.30 the Control "Nelly" appeared
again, saying

ready at 25 minutes to 9. He will He would rather think and realise

the day I was with you hare? When remember you 1 went home that day I was ill I had such a bad night* It is in ill He my diary. It was in May. One of yours twinkle one. when it is not myself talking. Sidgwick knows the am with him. I am trying It is funny to feel myself talking to show him the way. CONTROL the matter with the to little girl's 287 throat? What is her ear a seems have made her throat ache. thought in my impatience. Gurney says Oh. Then Do you know (A he feels like the note-taker. 1 I can hear myself using Rosa Thompson's voice.] (Here there was an incipient attempt at a Myers and an incident at a Club was referred to. Lodge. and he saw me first. another control said) control. what is it when I s I had to Was about in the Albemarle Club oh. are together. He says " Myers. He dear. me that I am me in the morning of the day he went to Trevelyan. but it is best to record all Tell them it I deal with. I think I was very [This about Trevelyan seems to refer to . not it I am getting on first rate. and then ec Myers " purported to communicate) it is not as easy as I Lodge. One of my twin daughters was often troubled with ear-ache about this time. it is like distinctly feel I feel as if I 1 can looking at a misty picture. you convince now we sending my messages. said that it he saw me morning of Oh always leaves off in the interesting places. not like the spirit that has to speak. Do talking. want to convince Sidgwick. xxn] . short interval of apparent discomfort. I think he will speak presently. [This is of course a mere friendly interlude. met Trevelyan. ought to be taking a note of it I do were speaking. am more stupid than some of those Oh Lodge. But 1 am short of breath. It is not my whole self When I am awake I know where I am. I it we went to when see you? I talked leaves off. and that she is not getting them from us some He says he saw way/' He still wants me to show him.CHAP.

I it ? arn going to I talk to you clearly and very distinctly in . and yet if you put it fully it is there want it full and you can pick out the points too. I was confused when I I came I through passages. 3803 404. I am going to see you in April I am going to know who I am by then. I had lost my way the I my way people I along that a strange town. xviii. before groped my way as if knew I was dead. I do not know. 241. Piddington. vol. I thought here. 295.P.. 239. . Let me think. xiii. of for those who it. J. iv with by Mr. Let now. 405. p. But I have. If it is cussion is there' good matter in those papers that I left gone through. me think. What did Battersea say about L. 366.] am going to be bold and prophesy already. especially p.. and bit by bit give it you. I used to get better evidence when I let them say what they wanted to say. a thing thirty or forty years.] you want to say anything about the Society ? J. What Society? You remember Do the S. forgotten just when you have wanted at last got it. help me. and you do not think of much else beside. Do Chap. .288 an AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY incident dealt [SECT. You know. I have not think that I have forgotten. . XVIII. April. Lodge. L. O. L.] while engaged [The description of the feeling of the control in communication agrees closely with that of Dr. Hodgson based upon his experience of Mrs. What James good. and I groped And even when I saw passage. They will 0. See Proc. J. . I have not seen Tennyson yet by the way. in knew were dead. do not know gave my Mother's name now. there is too much . immediately following in may the forgetfulness be compared with statements And O. 252. above. Piper.R. They tell me it was my best love that Society. me to make me sleep did not do me any There is plenty of if it . . . I thought they were only% visions. See for instance vol. pp. [Cf. pp. You remember the diswas over Hyslop's paper and its length? put in too much detail.

] (Cf. It will but keep the group.. is more helpful than anything else* and with sympathy Among the things which ate everything slips into place. (Trance ends about 10. (Cf. xxii] CONTROL 289 J. [/. What do they mix me up /"him for? his glory ? with (Jocularly. evidently was R it is public and general knowledge that this was only true of his brother Ernest. and it went on] He says he must stay and try and help* He says. And will you then read what you wrote in the envelope ? What envelope ? I shall be told. and James will do it well. J."] [Then the control seemed to change. 1 never finished those letters I was writing letters to be I : published. write a notice in the Society's Proceedings . wanted you to do for me what I did for Sidgwick.) Thank you for being You have helped him. 342 below. " He wants Lodge to be President if he dare spare the work. Bless him when he has so much to do* He says " Brothers I have none excepting Lodge. 341.) 1 .30 p. He will remember what he wrote for you in the envelope. There are so many he would like to help." that is 0. 146.CHAR O. Ah. BJchet knows me . and so are Elchet and James. but to which some one in the Times office appended a supplementary statement that W. We are trying to get Rayleigh. but he says "Do not rope : yourself. Man's sympathyhelpful to him. see p. J. He promised. They must take Those that seek only the evidential things will it all not get them. keep the group together. will not evidential you get things which are.m.) Do they think i want to shine in [This notice. L. soon take care of itself. That would be splendid. p. amd he will have to. M. L. When he comes In April he will remember a great deal more. [Probably meaning the book Human Personality. incident on whereas p. had been a joint translator of Homer together with Walter Leaf and Andrew Lang. H. Richet Yes. 1 am going to . but think it too good to hope for. I be you. a reference to the Times obituary which I had written.] L. Ernest does not mind now.) O.

this sitting omitted. all been definitely told that occur. invent an experience or a or more what we under the supposed circumstances. Myers and after the death of seemed itself control found confusion in which the Myers was really a remarkoccurred only a month very natural.) Indeed it . H. since we had that rather or sittings were suspended. . W. anything that could be imagined further communicaThis was in February 1901. taking notes And as <o his temporary insistent. but no opportunity for tion was promised for April." struck still "convincing Sidgwick go? The necessity for so did several other little us as amusingly characteristic be felt as if he ought to that Myers traits. "-a point on which F.P. always specially of the existence of the S. ably . and everything of the Myers stttmgs seems to me about the best Without concerned. which I have been immediately as convincing as was in fact m it being strictly evidential. and then it came another sitting came until May 8th. H. iv lifelike one. of that kind. (Compare and interesting.. would be difficult for me to communication more reasonable. And indeed the With portions Hodo-son's statement on p.R. taken into account. than what we actually miaht suppose to be "natural. In quite unexpectedly that any sitting would fact at that time it was unlikely Mrs. 252. A . and without being arranged for.vivid and the state of F. though forgetfulness as an absurdity by it will probably be pounced upon course of was quite unexpected scoffers/and though it as humanly natural the time vet even that struck us at so it does now. such as was M. Thompson's henceforth they were intended to cease. W .29 o AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY The impersonation at this sitting It [SECT.

Birmingham the following contemporary notes. XXH] CONTROL 291 SECOND THOMPSON SITTING AT EDGBASTON On May come and the I Hagley Road Thompson happened to to see her connexions there . to made me Prom 0. again. but that she was under the impression that during the last month or so she had had three or . before the ." and it worth while to reproduce them as a seems^ representation of the circumstances of the case at this time. Mrs. saying as she went upstairs that she felt only half conscious. It lasted about sitting ^ Nelly" appeared and notes began: The was dim and an hour and a half. She also told me. that of late she had been quite unconscious of any communications. one continuous trance. and in most respects apparently at the time a failure. going Upstairs time. Lodge to take her up into my study. ^nd this appeared". Thompson spontaneously asked Mrs. that is to say. At last Lodge taking them as well as myself. sitting began. she incidentally visited us at our temporary home in to 8th.'s Note-book. to be the case. and as if she were off. 1901. Lodge spoke no word during the trance from first to last unsatisfactory. . Mrs. f. and at the end Mrs. 9 May. she could not remember their contents. 1901 After dinner Mrs. we " three alone sat and talked for some Mrs. L. Thompson was much agitated not exhausted. but weepy how much she disliked the idea of saying back to consciousness and coming leaving the conditions in which she had just been. She said she had iiq recollection of what had been said.CHAP.

though most all not at sense* likely important . communication had been a great blow to and seemed to upset her physically to some extent. at different times. gibberish. notes aim at recording the My sense of what was intended. However I had no sitting in April nothing till this birthday.292 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY when no one was herself [SECT. if it could have been heard and understood. Also that she had been promised something for her evidently connecting it Nelly had indeed promised me a sitting in April [as recorded in last sitting]. April 2 and. it is not really bad though the utterances were so feeble and confused that to a novice it would have been nearly all . and contemporary impression of the sitting. " " with me. but on reading over the notes I find them better than I and now think that though at the time it expected seemed a bad sitting to everybody concerned. difficulties of clear The them as utterance at times rendered necessary for far as me I to help the ideas out. and that once she found waking on the floor with all a feeling of great satisfaction and contentment. though not for any particular date. and can only be of interest to those who understand. May it 8th. It probably had sense only as heard and taken down. iv four trances there. attached to gibberish remains undeciphered in recorded in case any meaning can be I do not think it is gibberish really. but is it. But it seems she had expected it on the 22nd. or anticipate could. 1901 The above was gives my . dictated before copying the notes. She further said that the sudden cutting off of attempts at her. A little places . Additional Note written on n May.

9 both taking notes* (Nelly speaking?) P'fessor Lodge. to "come in. L.0 Present -0. though no relation whatever to each other. I don't feel like that to me any of the Marshall family. nor did it seem understood by Nelly herself. No. . I have not seen him since they put that umbrella up. (Further indications followed that she had tried to communicate but found it dark. and that communication was very convulsive difficult and not clear to-day. Myers mistrusted ^te mutterings. explaining that such undercurrent befogged her. nor to Frederic Myers's relations of that name. and as if she could not see clearly the people on the other side of the en* closure. and incidentally remarked that she felt as if in a pound in the middle of a field.) [This evidently refers to the suspension of sittings. Nelly asking he had been told not. Nelly then appealed to me to try and believe her and receive her statements sympathetically and not with an undercurrent of suspicion. L. from 9." and Mr* Myers saying . and that she could give me I asked her not to regard better things if I was sympathetic. till i J. Myers. that he had understood the communications Mm were suspended for a time. Thompson at 225 Hagley Birmingham^ 8 May> 1901. that umbrella they have put up and wish they would take it away.Mf.that Myers. and only did it now as I a special favour. and M. sort of internal They appeared calloquy of which only fragments however to indicate a confused conversation between Nelly and . But this was only an impression gathered from the confused A further impression was that Mr. Nelly then sent a few messages to Mr. Piddington. Mrs. " said she and as in any way hostile. It is perhaps worth noting incidentally that my grandmother and my wife's father were both Marshalis. what ? is made it all dark I Thompson." This remark was not amplified. sit for for some private reason. had declined to the last few months. Then followed some movements and a were audible. and because she felt internally urged to do so*] have not seen Mr.CHAR xxn] CONTROL 293 Second Sitting with Mrs. not once .

Myers. but not this one.294 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY : [SECT. A I hundred results nil It is true I tried Lodge it is true. year. something that was not understood or that was not put down. is Tell Fielding that he time. We were all in my room together tad I told him. Myers worrying about something connected with Mr. So stupid not to tell them what I wished The time was gradually passing. a disappointments. will help. S. only Lodge's wife. [But 1 understood the communicator to mean that it was not. is doing something that is waste of The Times said something about it and said it was valuable. Mrs. a hundred. Ultimately the conversation with me began again.] had some Jews in College and he could not do it on a Saturday. The following however are my notes of what was said :- Mr. on the Sunday with saw the receptacle. I do not know what work is being referred to. and was being reassured by Nelly that was only Mrs. Bitter But when I can give pound [muddle] Given a grain and found as much as would have been. We had many. Sidgwick. at Newcastle. More than I anticipated much more. and doing both badly and with difficulty. Lodge don't love her. . if he were in difficritr In putting things straight. for Sidgwick. but in a very no marked personality at all somewhat halting and indistinct fashion as if Nelly were half giving messages and half personating Mr. but I cannot. whom you who love. It was Hodgson and Smith and I. Sidgwick was cold on a brick floor. Lodge It's No It's I only Mrs. He [H.. I told him I would find no difficulty.] The first shock to my dearest hopes. > 'V. in that hundred. iv it presence of a third person. You know Sidgwick and I had many disappointments [when communications would not come clear?] I thought I should like this do better. With other barely intelligible fragments of internal colloquy.

about the othe But I must do as I promised. 1 talk to you. the temporary house in Birmingham which I had taken. do not know. p. My I philosophy did not help in fog me much.] thought I knew better than be such a miserable failure. pined to hear from you all I I was so far away. I wish I had not been taken so far. It difficult to communicate.] had gone away. and which he had never seen. 1 feel I am it selfish still. when 1 corne to side. wishful to pass when he was trying to communicate.] had plenty of this kind of unsatisfactory experience [meaning bad sittings. It I feel just as lonely.CHAP. 29 But I [Meaning that it was much harder than he thought. not at least when trying to communicate and also further statements that he could not very clearly realise the . is just as they say. I seemed to be taken from all my pain and suffering into 1 light. . and then 1 could baYfe what I tell now. but 1 wanted. I hardly like to selfish whom suffer you what I wanted to do. 288. and on and up and not stay to redeem that his Is the typhoid better? What are you doing in this place ? [Apparently meaning strange and unfamiliar surroundings. it makes. (Cf. Lodge. . wished you would all write to me. But I was told that I naust I idolised. wanted for my own Further indications that the conditions under which he was were not altogether to his liking. xxn] CONTROL It Is. satisfaction. conditions on that side now he was promises. thought I would come and read it.] James went with me. you grop< and darkness. 1 [Apparently or possibly meaning the sealed letter.) for my promises. I thought I was not to communciate no^ It is not the time now. it seems so wanted to go and talk to Tennyson.

xviii. Moses Stainton Moses. vol.] I tried Procn by writing. Someone is calling What did Miss Edmunds want called. on the floor. See also notes below. I am wanted everywhere. . to Mrs. Piddington vol. yet I saw it going on. and I cannot tell who it is at first. and not to be split up. arrived later. or in one place. Do appeal to them not to break me up so. They keep on calling me. and I could not stop them. i5th. They had something from me on the tried to communicate on a i$th. But I want to concentrate in a few places. [These things are referred to In Mrs. when she knows I want to be cleansed from earth first? I do not want her to fetch I did not throw her It me back at all times. [A letter from America referring to May 3rd. 148 the control went on. VerralTs report. I am only one now. when she woke up and found herself on the floor. It was not I. and the noise of you all calling makes me Friday she feel I cannot.] Tell Kichet I shall meet in him in Rome. 9 referring to one of the incidents mentioned by Mr.296 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. me now. Why does she [meaning apparently the Medium] pray to me and beg me to come. I wanted her to know I was there. 147. I shall speak to him Rome on them the third day of the Congress. They I hear tell me I am wanted. iv Then referring as I thought at the time. and leave me not clear in one spot. was TalbotTalbot Forbes. but Talbot only wanted her to tell his Mother. describing I heard how I died. pp. xx pp. 207-9. But somehow I could not help it It was some unpublished Piper sittings not I me communicating. them calling. but they were translating like a schoolboy does his first lines of Virgil so terribly confused and inaccurate. with me? On this. but perhaps more probably in Proc. [Referring apparently to in America. Thompson's unexpected and undesired trance which she had told me of.] I could not say it.

After Hodgson hears that I have tried. and yet it keeps on being interfered with by other people. could hear what she (the Medium) was saying. and she then admitted that she thought of him frequently and urgently. Have you Do ten days work in a week? I cannot protect you from the calls upon you as they may protect me. but that she would try to refrain. Mrs. and false things may creep in without my knowing it.) Do you know last Monday when 1 went to Dr. do you know I have seen such a funny I have seen Mr. When he wants to go to sleep and be quiet she keeps him back. because when Mr. You must tell her not to. Tell her it is wicked to call him. I have gone back from where I was that I night. and it all got confused. I wish Mother was not so wicked . and while he was talking to it some one came up and touched it. but now I cannot hear what is being said : I can only think the things. [I promised to give her the message. which I did after the trance. he called for me and we went Mr.) Lodge. Myers thing. [Apparently referring to some unpublished and to me unknown account of the death-bed.] How easy to promise and how difficult to fulfil. Mother will not let him. xxn] MYERS CONTROL 297 They mixed the deaths up his death and my death. Myers wants to go to sleep and be quiet. Myers cam .She must not do it. and keep a check on it. Make one appeal to them to let me be at rest for two or three weeks after they get the note. and tell him that if he does. . talking as if to a stick right through Mother's body. he has ten days work a week? (Then the Nelly Control reappears.CHAP. She will call him. and he could not think why it went funny. Lodge. they will not let me hear him. It applies to him and not to me. Van Eeden's house . ask him not to call me. you not think. however badly. P'fessor He seems to have to talk through this stick.] (Nelly went on.

but Mrs. want you to stop the phenomenon. and yet he is He how it is worked. iv We both went. but he finds this more than the genuine communications. He It is likes to not he that watch the somnambulistic thing is doing it. [Cf.. Myers said He and see 'old Whiskers' in his little bed and laugh at him. "Let us go helped him to call me. Eva now do not think I am talking about Mrs. and he does not looking on. Mr. 201. Myers an has impression got Monday. and yet it is not him doing stick that . He said full sheets in the middle of a Gurney letter.] But he does seem worried. above. out how honest non-phenomena are Apparently dishonest phenomena are phenomena of extreme to be [interest?] apart from the spirit which purports communicating* . but it was not cheating.R. and thought It was not he. they had a shaking of the curtain. but neither was it fraud. See also chapter IX. Miss Rawson wrote two that was writing. but he is studying. Proc. that Mr. it was he. very it stopped. on calling.P. and he said it was not he that wrote when Miss Rawson wrote and said he told her. that others tell He says He says he is" finding to be accounted for. Eva. But it was not he You know when .. Some one has called him in a glass bottle yes. does not see does not know stand want you to make them think that they are cheats.. Sometimes when he thought they were communicating they were not. the cheating things that are not cheats are not cheating. xviii p. S. vol. a crystal Oh yes. Myers. He wants to study You are not to say that it was wrong and get it it. There was no there. at work. went through any one's body him it was just the same with them. and yet they knew about it.298 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY and told me he was [SECT. and much more wakened up than when he is talking down that stick. it. He does not was not he." He is much more lively when he is talking to me. interesting He did not rattle the curtains either. he gets no rest. He how it is worked. thinks and he it will help a great deal if he can under- how It is done. yes.

xxn] [This last part was slowly recited by Nelly. as related in Proceedings. to describe where Mrs. March iyth (Proceeding's. Finally. which induced Mrs. about which Mrs. 10. there seems a close correspondence between the above remarks as to difficulties produced by simultaneous efforts at communication and similar observations in Mrs. he says.m. p. in Mrs. 207-209). Thus pp. the control Thompson's sitting Myers speaks of 11 the noise of you is all Someone he also says "false things calling and the may creep in". me now " calling makes me feel ! cetnnot . pp. xx. Forbes in what eventually became a long scries of cross-correspondences between those two automatists.) Notes on this Sitting of the remarks reported above seem to indicate a connexion with statements made In Mrs. vol. S." and the attempts misunderstood at the time in Mrs. vol. 221). Sidgwick was to look for something of the nature " of a book. like a lesson not understood by her. VerralFs script of the same day and approximately the same hour (Proceedings. Again I tried on the Sunday with I saw the receptacle but not this one" may perhaps be connected with the sudden impulse on Sunday. Thompson knew nothing. Thus there appears a certain similarity between the remark " Mr.. Myers Is worrying about something connected with Mrs.CHAP. (End of sitting. 195-198. . VerraH's script between April 19 and May 8. vol. VerralFs auto- Some matic writing of the same period. Verrall to write automatically and which produced the first reference to Mrs.] I can't help what I must go now.30 p. xx. Nelly control describes how. xx.

Cambridge 10-10. doing something else to-night." is off). "I cannot" i. and in those early safer. never far The utterances of Mrs. script of . but the correspondence is mentioned in her paper on pages 207 et $eq> to Mrs.30 p." Mrs. " Doing something to-night" 3.m. Thompson were . " Note hour. got : Monday.m. Desine (leave Falsehood away. VerralFs writing it was . cannot No power. as follows (see also p.. iv someone came up and touched the stick u and through which communication was being made.W." " 3. May 8th. . 8. I What do you want with me. H initial." 4. correspondence can be shown by a statement : The in parallel columns.M. concludes as from the Myers control with the words " falsehood is never far away. "False creep things in. " " 2. because that purported to represent F. xx.30 p. 10-10." " calling _ 2. 1901 Mrs.." else "Some one is me now. not known when she wrote the script reported in her paper. 1.H. Verrall Thompson Birmingham 9-10. Verrall .m. AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY " " [SECT. Non possum (I cannot)/' No power." The initial " with which the message is there as a was substitution for the real reported signed . vol. days of Mrs. Let me be at rest. Proc." may " 4.300 just before.30 p. thought this as and at any rate less sensational. it all automatic While Yen-all's confused. 306) May Mrs. to treat mere impersonation.

who was represented as speaking through Miss Rawson as 1901. At every sitting 'Call Myers! Bring Myers ^ there's not a place in England where they don't ask for him. . Do appeal to them not to break me up so. to it. 7th. but it will help nobody that he should be called In fact it will back. come from Edmund Gurney. Myers* control : . it disturbs him. and that He tempted to quote here.. correspondence. It is all . it takes away his rest. three months earlier be a considered may fairly very simple kind of crossalso correspond with something to the . forget the life was given earthly things. by the I f am vol. to fulfil. called Miss and constitute what Rawson. only make him earthbound. . How easy to promise and to how difficult appeal weeks. . and made to hover near the earth.CHAR XXH] CONTROL 301 Further Notes on the Thompson Myers Sittings rather strikingly worded complaints and rerecorded above (p. a different though not altogether dissimilar extract from the script of Mrs. accord. . He gets no to Implore you not rest day or night. He was allowed just to say that he continued. purported to : follows "1 have to let come to warn you for my friend them call him... His must be the help. Holland in India which was written on January 5th and 6th. This message. What we want right for him to come of his own for him now is to rise. as received quests through Mrs. That was his great desire. xxi. and to can't help any more. I am wanted everywhere." them to let me be at rest for Make one two or three same effect Indereceived pendently through another lady. For God's sake don't call him. from page 213 of Proc. . . Thompson " The They keep on calling me. 296 and 297). 1904. received on Feb.

What. and it is a reverberation and later expansion of the thought in the extracts already quoted. 3 " This clearly expresses the idea of "service which I wish to emphasise. . . GENERAL REMARKS. " communication destroys any claim to consideration as a Besides It was only an explana* cross-correspondence. actuated by the missionary spirit. It is a . full of earnestness *> and anxiety. as it were. e ' matter very largely of voluntary choice I am. for the purpose of proving to those left behind the fact of survival and the continuance of personal Identity. ADDRESSED TO RELIGIOUS OBJECTORS though moderately Intelligent sometimes seek to pour scorn upon the not reality. and the great longing to speak to the souls in prison still in the prison of the flesh leads me to 'absent me from felicity awhile. Holland. of why* the messages still willingly continued whereas the other two so soon after the death are tlon . which had not been published and were not known to But the long post-dating of this last Mrs. iv could only leave you the if I could only get to them proofpositive that I remember recall know continue. for "just men made perfect" "who have entered Into " to be remembering trivial and minute details. felicity under circumstances of exceptional difficulty.of any of these apparent communications for any scientific reason. but for reasons born of They think that It is not a worthy occupation prejudice. may or may not be possible to saints* it is religious people * Good and earnest ' . It Is taken for that saints be to otherwise granted ought occupied in their new and lofty and favoured conditions.302 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY "Oh [SECT. I have thought of a simile which may help you to realise the bound to earth condition which persists with me.

xxn] MYERS CONTROL : 303 hardly for me or other gropers among mere terrestrial facts to surmise nor am I anxious to imagine that all our communicators belong to the category of " perfected and glorified saints/' it seems to me. .. does it And as regard dignity and appropriateness. contemplation and * other rewards appropriate to a well-spent life or to well-held creeds.people Who are confessedly far from perfection and who have still much to learn. Whereby they may learn that. exercises entirely as we report even to if they are constitute fully and what they pretend be any large are pro- proportion of the activity of the people who fessedly concerned in their production. Felicity was not entered into save after an er%of Those further personal service of an efficient kind. in a world of sorrow and sin ? But seriously. is it people whether. even after* such a Life and Death as that. in spite of his being on the brink of eternity. a to in such who interpret the parables way as imagine dignified idleness is the occupation of eternity that there will be nothing to do hereafter but Idly to this notion of perennial service is not with their own doctrines and beliefs ? and that - enjoy the beatific. singunor is it necessary to suppose that such larly unlikely . and otherwise to disport himself. saint in ? if not legitimate to ask these good an opportunity of service to brethren it arises. -an effort to seize may not be made even by a Whether accordance whether they are not impressed by that clause In the creed of most Christians which roundly asserts that Hades ? for purposes their Master descended into which In another -place are suggested. free from remorse of every kmd> and without any call. I confess.CHAP. not sometimes happen that an Archbishop or a Savant is found willing to play a frivolous childish game.

such people some day find themselves mistaken. and when a person's knowledge of we may be pardoned for holding his opinion concerning it in light esteem. and to some they These will regard the whole not appeal at all. and probably realise that as yet they will will conception of what is "the Joy of the Lord" have formed a very inadequate meant by that pregnant phrase FURTHER COMMENTS Those who think or specially that there in emotional these is mistaken. When this happens. a tone of the voice. and other unmistakable and unexpected revelations of identity forged or real such as may be conveyed by an appropriate nickname or by some trivial reminiscence.304 for AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY future [SECT. and likewise to the same occasional surprising gleams of vividness. a happy turn of phrase. They are within their will and the other a subject is rights in doing so if they have conscientiously read this As a rule however that is where records. iv work and self-sacrifice. fail . kinds of appeal to different people. and are applicable to this whole group reported on by me they are not limited in : their application to I any one particular series. and when relatives are present. lines as The conversation anything sensational communications are conducted on the same is : a telephonic conversation it is liable to the same sort of annoying interruptions. have not the slightest interest in attempting to The facts will make different coerce belief of any kind. for instance. Among the messages the most interesting to me are . their emotions are certainly perturbed These remarks are general. they are apt to small. business with contempt and pity.

. who arrive approxi- They mately at their aim without achieving what they want exactly. and he does not want you to make them think that they are cheats. He does not phenomenon. and often they don't 'fenow what 20 . does his accurate. . . [And then came the laborious sentence] "He says he is finding out how honest non-phenomena are dishonest apart to be accounted for. Apparently phenomena from the are phe- nomena of extreme [interest] spirit which purports to be communicating. yet neither are they Whatever my fraud. It is not he that is doing it. xxn] CONTROL 305 the concluding observations. He likes to watch the somnambulistic thing at work. these words do. I can only think and false things may creep in without my knowing He said it was not he. in a childish voice. was not cheating. it Is a to them as to us. . They are trying to get something definite through. but neither want you - to stop the was it fraud. It was not me lines of Virgil it communicating. He does not see how it is worked. . and yet he is looking on. You are not to say it was wrong and get it stopped. communications. and something like it comes* Occasionally they hardly' know how it comes. he wants to study it. first but they were translating like a schoolboy so terribly confused and infiut somehow I could not help it." their origin. but he finds this more interesting than the genuine . it" " (Nelly) going on. in judgment.CHAP. the words (repeated below) sounding odd (Myers) " I could not say it. but he is studying and he thinks it will help a great deal if he can understand how the cheating things that but it are not cheats are done. let us say. part of which were carefully " and laboriously reported by the " Nelly control. yet I saw the things. He does not know how it is worked. represent the truth about a good many of these phenomena that is to say.. are attempts at doing something ratjier beyond the power of the operators. He did not rattle the curtains either . that they are not precisely what their surface-aspect implies..

Verrall at Cambridge. but which they are powerless to prevent. as exhibited in the analytical statement above. aware of the result. as here. and to be worried by the misconception and misunderstanding which they we have got . is very remarkable and worth careful notice especially when the unexpected taken into character account. 300." The coincidence in time between the termination of this sitting at Birmingham and some writing obtained by Mrs. An immense mass has been obtained Thompson. Sidgwick's incredulity (p. 287).306 it is AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY that [SECT. through her in the past (see Reports in vols. except. on p. It is a telepathic method. and that he ought to be putting it all down (p. see will arise. Another amusing episode was the persistence of Prof. and that the medium was not " getting it out of him somehow. not the communicator. 287). and the reproduction by voice or pen is a supplementary and only barely controllable process also pp. by trying to instruct us and awaken our intelligences into a condition in which we too can understand and grapple with the unavoidable difficulties of the situation. " I can only think the things " : seems to me likely to be an accurate description of the method. These observations terminate this account of communications received through the mediumship of Mrs. xvii and . 252 and 308). (c It was characteristic also of Myers to feel as if he were the note-taker. of It the Thompson makes an really sitting is effective cross-correspondence. so that he was represented as asking to be convinced that he was himself communicating. iv but sometimes they too seem to be spectators.

S. . and are therefore of of view. from It is just possible that a hostile critic any point may here find part of the pabulum necessary for making every effort at studying matters of the kind appear ridiculous. which I regard as an important one. this portion.P. or such few of the carried dialogue " " unverifiable communications as have been reported Whether In our Proceedings (such. interest to students of psychical matters. owe her thanks for the time and opportunity which she has freely accorded to members of the Society for We scientific purposes.CHAP. but so far as know these two sittings are among the last which she has given. as that on 181 above) will appear the more humorous when regarded from the scoffer's point of view. or the subsequent commonplace on through Mrs.). for Instance. xxn] MYEBS CONTROL I 307 xvlii of Proceedings. I claim that these utterances represent a genuine psychological phenomenon. Piper. I am unable to judge.R. Nor need the question deeply concern us. In concluding this chapter.

J. no one is more desirous of proving his identity . clear. It should be with a few of his real friends. O. Yes. I quite understand. and wishes very much to communicate R. pushed away from the pigeon-hole before 1 can influence " her mind No the scribe's 308 . than Myers.CHAPTER RECENT XXIII IN AND HODGSON CONTROLS SITTINGS AS I Mrs. the opportunity can be given him. Holland's script of i6th April 1907 a decontrol of one of the scription is given by the Myers H difficulties of communication. and given him in any case. Yes. He understands. partly because 1 did not give these " Rector" complains of Indeed controls much chance. J. as he Is intelligent. Understand ? L. They were not so good as some of those to received by others. " I want to understand you me but 1 have so few chances to I speak it's like waiting to take a ticket and am always . understands the necessity of so doing. that is fairly true so far. this as follows : Myers has had very little opportunity or encouragement to prove his identity. Myers and Hodgson controls through old the in control the days Gurney Piper like I do not propose to report the communications received. L. And now if on our side O. "' In Mrs.

. was less unlike those of the old Phinuit than I had days expected. Much light seems to me to have been thrown upcte' Phinuit s mistakes and obscurities and general method of trying to get at facts. xiii. as a voice a not a sitting. Hodgson's Report. m It was out of the automatic dreameries of persons some such conditions as those which I have illus- " trated above. that Phinuit in my present view so often fish his facts . weak spots. writing." when Phinuit was groping in tentative fashion for a name and hoping for help from the sitter. it old days used to be called "fishing. enabling him to 'cast his line' for those mental automatisms that specially concerned the sitter. 382. xxm] MYERS AND HODGSON CONTROLS 309 Only one of the English sittings in 1907 was conducted on similar lines to those in the old days. in what were on the whole bad sittings. and indeed I But in truth have Phinuit from emphasised. Thompson's "Nelly" I and tentative approach to things probably represented a genuine difficulty. by comparison of the results obtained from the various communicators writing directly or " .. In fact there was distinct recurrence of what in the sitting : and talking. and was part of the phenomenon which needed study so I am interested in in . judicial p. that is to say. and I think that assent to correct statements.CHAP. always felt that his haziness Dr. and other clues from the sitters besides had to helping the 'communicator' were probably of great service to Phinuit. vol. like all other to had not been trained precautions against it. The "fishing" procedure had to be admitted. and Phinuit eschew normal help and to take as Mrs. long wanted to exonerate most of the blame in this matter. had been trained but . reading the following pronouncement : .

" Prudens also. that messenger. [SECT. let loose. It is rather a puzzle to me why Mrs. that would appear as if they did not very seriously pretend to be identical It is seldom nowadays that there is any marked change of control. any connexion with the non-medical " Doctor" of Stainton Moses. Piper's personalities In general should have assumed the same set of names. So . And hitherto the Piper Imper" ator has not given to us the same old earth-name as " did the original Imperator" to Stainton Moses. a crowd of earthly MANNER It will OF THE STAINTON MOSES GROUP be of interest to those familiar with the script of Stainton " Moses to see the names of his old controls Not only Imperator and Rector. this characters they are similar but I see no very close " resemblance in detail. as amanuensis much of Phinuit's 'fishing' was due to the confusions of the more or less comatose communicators. utterances appear to consist of first-personon the part of Rector. but cropping up. sometimes at any rate no identity. a "Doctor" is represented or as communicating controlling. however. nor to claim. to act as an accomplished whatever relaI conjecture. whose minds had memories. Oliver. who speaks or writes reporting after the fashion of a dignified and gentle old man* It may be noted that In America* with the adveat The .310 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY . is little or instance. so to speak. but he appears neither to have." and is probably Piper one is called intended to represent a deceased medical man of Boston.P. these personages and the tionship may exist between who appears there corresponding ones of Stainton Moses. iv and I feel pretty sure that using G. such as occurred with Phinuit someit times. For " Dr.

friends. talking to me and talking to me. it is How a great delight to me to see your face once more. Is that you. teach them Thy to receive suffering. but of an even tenor. I did not expect to see 1 Jr. terminating his communication) Good-bye for the present is first-rate. Harry am delighted to see you. H. The following from a is a characteristic Hodgson greeting extracted it is always serious. Farewell. first rate ? . (" Hodgson " Well. long more than anybody I ever saw. illness is and sorrow. xxm] MYERS AND HODGSON CONTROLS 30 Moses controls.CHAP. reported to me by Mr. at Boston Ha I ! you so soon. in Thy Thy power kindness guide Thy children of earth. teach them to know that May Thy grace and now and evermore. Good morning. pain. Dorr and Henry James. sitting with in 1906 : Mr. The last moment he kept He could not give it up.) All right." sitting sometimes This can be illustrated by the following close of an of the Stalnton American Voice-Sitting Dorr : in 1906. is everything with you. I will be off. depart. Jr. Mr. the atmosphere of a " became rather markedly religious.. always with them. Well. The atmosphere is only occasionally solemn usually and sometimes it is hearty and jovial. Took him a PRAYER Father. presence abide with them and be love everlasting Thy We be bestowed on you. J. may the blessings of God MANNER OF THE HODGSON CONTROL of a sitting . (Rector resumes. bestow with Thy presence and blessings on them. Hodgson ? Yes. and Farewell. That He dislikes to go and round turn to time get out.

G. [SECT. Good. and you cannot change me no matter what you do. I hope you do if you don't. y However O.312 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY Very well. Hodgson. Do Ask you wish slowly . Why. with Alta and Minerva. I will send it Newbold for me. but I cannot take Rector's place to-day. me to take a message for you ? as well as remember we cannot hear you can. Will you take a message to Billie L. she Do I understand that Mrs. L. J. Yes. J.J. George H. the most joyful is when I meet you all You people don't appreciate ! This sort of thing is of course not in the least evidential. Very glad Here's to see you. J. O. L. I will make a poor attempt to speak through him. To illustrate the manner of the Hodgson control my own experience the following brief extract must : serve At the Eighth Sitting on 23 Nov. ? L. B. Jr. am glad. 0* J. I think we appreciate it. J. Hello. and yet if I were asked to invent some scheme of salutation more natural and characteristic of Hodgson's personality I should not be able to improve upon in it. ditto. I am glad I it is so. and is staying in my house. well first rate* and happy. D. and I shall never be anything else. and of all the joyous moments of my whole existence. Capital If I were in the body it would not be so. my spirit of fun But I am I shall be and Hodgson to the end of all eternity. She is here. Yes. L. . 1906 {present : O. Hello ! I feel ! as though I was one among you. Well. because I am what I am. J. you have lost something. Piper is in England is. Hodgson. safe ? through William James. Mr. alone\ "Isaac Thompson" wrote a good deal but the following came from Hodgson^ : 1 am Hodgson. Jr. However O. iv H.

MANNER As OF THE IMPERSONATION GENERALLY Illustrating the dramatic activity of the hand in always very marked.CHAP. J. The impression :giveri is like is " The hand 1 . so glad to be on this side. Sidgwick during a sitting in which the Myers P control. another time. suggestion in experiment ought to be made by some competent person. ' ' tremendously pleased and excited and thumps and gesticulates. You know when I am talking to you I am talking to the hand but I . an extreme case though it is . 264) quote/ the made note following contemporaneous by Mrs. at length after much effort. I permit first rate. But after all is necessary manipulation of the medium's head during trance seemed rather It is an repellent experiment worth trying. First rate. however. I . L. Hodgson. Nevertheless the inhibitory would have had it done but hyper^sthesia would have be allowed for in the positive direction also . Well. for the hand is full of I "personality" (p. if we could be sure of a clear result If I could have been sure of a crucial test I to possibly the negative. want to know whether it is through the hand you hear. J. would it make any difference? Would the message still come? I think it O. it . xxin] I AND HODGSON CONTROLS 313 am O. Very well. try it. and on the whole I felt that no definite deduction could be made. L. had just succeeded in giving Abt as the a name of Vogler poem he was referring 'to. did not try the experiment for it exceedingly difficult to secure complete deafness by Moreover the plugging the ears even with putty. I will would. Suppose I stopped up your medium's ears with cotton wool. I do want to ask you something. whatever the result.

The record runs thus : He E. name repeating of a poem. Good. I see. M. But if you ask me to correct it of course I can. and to "fishing" sitter. is evidently in the position of receiving Ideas by a sort of dictation. The record runs thus "Abt ABT.314 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY room [SECT. dissatisfaction with this. S. Voglor. E. Just as you were coming out ? left Just as I the light." With regard to the misspelling is which occurs here it and elsewhere. M. S. Now dear (Myers communicating) Mrs. It With regard tions given the . when he is . No. Volg. he whispered it in my ear." this success Is " But indeed the writing which Immediately followed worth quoting. see I do not always catch the letters as he repeats them* I see. (Rector communicating) pronounced it for me again and again just as you did. R. Therefore when I am registering I am apt to misspell E. iv that of a person dancing round the In delight at having accomplished something. S. but later. w } 1 and making use of Indicaseems likely that with the by most transparent honesty this would be likely to happen because Rector. yes. S. or any other scribe. and he said Rector get her to pronounce it for you and you will understand. the difficulty is thus expressed by Rector. E. M. .) (Rector communicating) You R. (Hand expresses Vogler. the readily imaginable. M. Sidgwick in future have no doubt or fear of so-called death as there is none as there is certainly Intelligent life beyond it.

who in this case was obviously trying to talk about the Odes of Horace in order to connect them with the quotations from Abt Vogler just previously made. appeared doubtful about the word. xxm] MYERS AND HODGSON CONTROLS 315 need not always be able clearly to discriminate their source.CHAP. For instance. and did so. after writing "Odes" without difficulty. attempted to speak about the Odes of Horace. and finally half accepted Mrs." etc. the MyersP control and also of discontinuity of consciousness between Rector and the real communicator. even when what he has independently written is right . a good instance of how ready Rector is to accept a misleading suggestion. ." "Odesesis. whether from the ultra-material or from the material side.. and wrote "Odessus. but Rector. Sidgwick's suggestion "Odyssey".

more akin to that of the time when Phinuit showed himself able to deal with the concerns of miscellaneous strangers. in December 1906. and of the first of the second series. but I do not repeat them here. totally unknown to Mrs. which were in many respects akin to those which had been received by the same sitter through other mediums. a Mr. Piper. Piper had been hence these utterances have an importance of their own. sent many appropriate messages. SOME rather striking sittings were held by a lady reported in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research (Part LVIIL). Marble and some others. though I repeat an experiment made in connexion with them : EXPERIMENT ON THE RECOGNITION OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF ONE OF THE CONTROLS stages of the last sitting of the first Edgbaston series. with an interval between The waking . Her friends were perfectly obscure people. Grove. in May 1907.CHAPTER XXIV SUMMARY OF OTHER EXPERIENCES AND COMMENT THEREUPON named Mrs. and unknown in any district in which Mrs. whose deceased friends. They are .

On the second occasion I tried directly after the It waking stage was complete and then the recognition was Immediate and certain. and before the end of th. But In a few minutes It had become vague and dim. which had lasted from 11. and says that it Is a condition in which she frequently has visions of the entirely normal. was. in become distant or departing " communicators. Hodgson on page 401 of voi xiil where he calls it Mrs. xxiv] OTHER EXPERIENCES months. Piper again with another of photographs of men.CHAP. No.10 to 10 on ^rd December 1906 lunch I took eleven photographs of men. and asked Mrs. . Sequel After if to sitting 1. portly the satae and partly different. somewhere. subliminal Piper's stage.e day It had again completely ceased. She looked over them. I 317 them of five experiment a person supposed to have been communicating during the trance (in this case Mr. Nothing was said by me during Next day. and then picked that out and said she had seen that man Piper but she could not remember where. she had ever seen any of them. 1 tested Mrs. Joseph Marble for some time." ^ On the first occasion I waited rather a long time before trying the experiment. This stage Is referred to by Dr. and by next day had entirely disappeared. . the point being Marble) to see whether there would be any recognition of a photograph by the automatlst before her state had : made In are worth recording because of an connexion with the likeness of that is during the sort of which It is period customarily possible dimly to remember dreams (see page 275). since it was not permanent. something more than an and the recognition was uncertain but faint as hour. . of course. the process. set In the evening. It seemed to be a residual effect of the trance . hesitating on the one representing Mr. 13.

and no remembrance of the appearance seemed to persist. saying she had " seen him somewhere.) is pounced on one without the slightest That is the man 1 saw. Joseph Marble. This time. I saw him. a different one as a possibility. i. A other dream impressions it fades. COMMENT The result of this experiment. No. was looked at without comment and without interest." but finished up by saying) I do not know. the photograph was one of the person she calls Joe. She remembered the fact it of having recognised one before . The visual impression . I could see him. she picked out. with other experiences relating to the description of the personal appearance of a person spoken of in the trance. could see Mr. and it was strongest within an hour of the the day before had been made about an hour a half after a sitting at which " Mr. however. Piper. after much hesitation. and that sitting. : the man 1 saw. veridical dream to be caused in these cases but like . iv but containing among others the critical one. I again put the photographs in front of her. She looked at them as if for the first time.3i8 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. has satisfied me that whatever may be the cause a visual likeness of the people supposed to be communicating in the trance is sometimes really impressed at the time upon the subconscious mind of impression seems Mrs. and said that she thought it had been found in America that the memory evaporated in time. Seq^telto Waking Stage of No. x . Hodgson pushing him up to the front* [The selection was correct . her 14 on igt/i May 1907 (A number of men's photographs were placed in a row before as soon as she had come to: she immediately hesitation.] (An hour or so later. That I saw him up there such a nice face. Marble " had been one of the The test made communicators. and I said) I do not know the photographs.e. of the late Mr. (She then hesitated long over the right one. but when asked to do it again.

from the surviving influence of the deceased person. is a more difficult question.CHAP. t . and is of a similarly evanescent character. at least occasionally. and to deny that. on which at present I do For what it not feel competent to express an opinion. which is capable of arousing ness of an entranced person. interest and affection Undoubtedly the existence of real on the part of a person present is an awakening cause of a particular veridical impression. however. as appears more likely. and indeed a determining set of impressions is cause why one produced and not a totally different set. It is that which determines the selection. whatever be the cause. During trance undoubtedly her subconsciousness is thus. But although sympathy of this kind is the selective and determining cause. a telepathic impression received from the sitter perhaps. That much is certain . what nature this evanescent but for a time vivid impression of appearance and character and personality really is. a vast multitude of impressions good bad and indifferent and that out . in touch with a simulacrum or hallucinatory representation of a deceased person. in the subconsciousready. out of the infinite multitude of other impressions which otherwise might equally well be produced. I do not feel that it is appears to me that there It the creative or constructive cause. or. my judge that it is not solely due to a telepathic impulse from the sitter in spite of the fact that the sympathy and understanding of the sitter is a great help. is an agency or energy lying .of . which is also impressed upon the same stratum of her subconsciousness. me to leads instinct is worth. is merely to But of refuse to be informed by facts of experience. or of persons endowed with automatic faculty. xxiv] is 319 merely an extension of the impression of character and of speech.of this multitude.

these experiences. and I call it generally the medium and not direct. a unity . of the working hypoAnd they tend to render probable that that version to I choose proceed. I do not to bring them to book. as nearly always because it represents itself _ occasionally-with tertiary. render certain the existence which are omitted. : and is or terrestrially the impersonation of verifiable us in the first instance to individuals to which it behoves known view the sittings in the Mrs. From this point of . Piper or other medium. ^^cwith many others the whole. On which they of the nature of the intelligences In other the truth. and as far Mrs. distinct from the of some outside intelligence as I can judge from the subconsciousness. iv less some are selected with more or possible impressions to a particular discrimination as appropriate caserne detent or trigger winch the presence of a sitter being not in one direction and liberates or guides the energy in another. tend to or control. on which . because it is always through I call the touch secondary. like is something present and favour or tertiary touch words I feel that we are in secondary some stratum of the surviv- themselves -at least as of the individuals who are represented ing personality sending messages.320 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. consciousness also. was present must be Grove case at some of which I the most strictly evidential of all for regarded as among of character and of message is preserved. decided pay attention. thesis. but it is difficult or impossible be deferred it an examination of their nature may . an agency or medium on that side operating through " Rector or Phmuit also-an agency which calls itself are really themselves That these latter impersonations venture either to assert or deny individuals. .

Hodgson. Piper convinced of survival. being consciously . Grove had sat with Mrs. hypothesis of surviving intelligence and personnot only surviving but anxious and able with ality. is the simplest and most difficulty to communicate. own view would agree with his. istic If I my me pronounce a prematurely decided opinion. for reasons which I should find It hard to to strict fashion. has been made by Dr. both and against the genuine activity of deceased Communicators. DEDUCTIONS A for careful analysis and examination of the facts. and will be found in his Report 412.CHAP. in Proceedings. and his critical faculty so awake.) He is led distinctly to countenance. that such a conclusion of his is entitled to the gravest consideration. so large. Similar messages had come when Mrs. not as a working hypothesis only. more usually the messages came though consciously in all probability from an unconscious stratum. received by the medium in an inspirational manner analogous to psychometry. and indeed to champion. vol. and the only one that fits all the facts. The old series of sittings with Mrs. a cautious and discriminating form of spirittheory. xiil pages 357- (Extracts are quoted above in Chapter XVIII. Thompson and other mediums. had formulate in any effect but that was their distinct or in They also made me suspect suspect that surviving intelligences were more than some cases yes. straightforward. xxw] OTHER EXPERIENCES 321 no matter through what medium the communication comes. but as His experience was truly representing part of the facts. The But the process of communication is sophisticated by . in some few cases communicating.

straightforward. Hodgson. Similar messages had come when Mrs. has been made by Dr. xxiv] OTHER EXPERIENCES 321 no matter through what medium the communication comes. Grove had sat with Mrs. yes.CHAP. series of sittings with Mrs. Piper which I should find strict fashion. If I my me had to pronounce a prematurely decided opinion. for reasons convinced it hard to formulate in any effect They also made me suspect but that was their distinct or more than suspect that surviving Intelligences were In some cases communicating. is the simplest and most difficulty to communicate. and indeed to champion. Thompson and other mediums. so large.) He is led distinctly to countenance. The old of survival. being consciously . pages 357 are (Extracts quoted above In Chapter XVIII. but as His experience was truly representing part of the facts. hypothesis of surviving Intelligence and personnot only surviving but anxious and able with ality. that such a conclusion of his Is entitled to the gravest consideration. and his critical faculty so awake. both and against the genuine activity of deceased Communicators. a cautious and discriminating form of spirit- found In his Report 412. received by the medium In an Inspirational manner analogous to psychometry. the only one that fits all the facts. own view would agree with his. DEDUCTIONS A for careful analysis and examination of the facts. and will be In Proceedings^ vol. istic theory. not as a working hypothesis only. In some few cases though more usually the messages came consciously In all probability from an unconscious stratum. and The But the process of communication Is sophisticated by . xiii.

race of inspired certainly extremely important people would be hopelessly unpractical. at a time when they are inAnd to the things of this world? completely awake are aware that a brown study favours by . The fact that these communications are obtained is sometimes held to through subconscious agency militate against their importance as a subject of study. has always been recognised and insisted on.322 A 0TOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. viz. so to disentangle and exhibit clearly the present impossible. between to sav an intercourse of existence. perhaps at influences. One that is more grade and independent of. many part that each that itself js thing that conspicuously suggests we are here made aware. by than one mind and mind in means apart from. Most people with what for the time are are too thoroughly occupied affairs. But have not men of genius sometimes testified that brilliant ideas do surge up into their consciousness from some submerged stratum. plays. ordinary people the conscious reception of something presumably akin to relegating ordinary experience to the few individuals of this type. as a guiding force in human and terrestrial affairs. the direct interaction of incarnate with discarnate mind. the temporary mechanism of the The facts indeed open the way to a perception of the influence of spirit generally. active not under the exceptional circumstances of trance alone. through these trivial but of a process which by religious people illuminating facts. so uniformly active in fact that by is undetected and unperordinary people the agency far too busy to attend they are ceived. but always and constantly and normally. though Society f r the existence and utterance of a is : A usually grateful inspiration. iv that it is very difficult. body.

fact may be regarded as an undeserved. only moderately valuable. renders the normal though obscure activity of an unNot indeed familiar psychical region still more manifest. some of the privileges of or even of genius. thereby attaining. ideas to enter or germinate in the trance. who is unaware of the whole phenomenon. while he "himself remains in an His experience in ordinary and business-like condition. xxiv] OTHER EXPERIENCES 3^3 new and unfamiliar background. who is allowed to enlarge his experience and to receive or at second impressions by deputy. or any state of complete unconsciousness. to the A patient remembers it only after the indistinct and temporary fashion of a dream but to an observer or experimenter. hand. and thereby enabling mind. and therefore of vicarious inspiration.CHAP. or intuition clairvoyance. kind .

the at Instance and beyond that of anyone present The facts on which this statement Is based have not yet (October 1909) been published. they are eminently ^ Mrs. Piper they are full of own for beyond that of ordinary people beyond my time. And noteworthy fact. In recent volumes of the communications from a man of letters. not obvious and as exhibit a range of reading elementary ones. Verrall. such scholarly allusions are obtained. Piddington. and allusions. but such far obscure classical I may here state. as a parenthetically that nowadays even through Mrs. Returning correspondence. Whatever else they are. to be Interpreted by scholars. not the a single medium actuated by a IQA. and others.CHAPTER XXV INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF CROSSCORRESPONDENCE AA ^ 1 opinion publications Is so large and subject of cross-correspondence to form an wishes who one complicated that any detailed the on It Is bound to study Johnson. Miss by Mr. . to the the general main crossof subject feature of this kind of ^ communication Is that we by phenomena exhibited are required to study. It for Psychical Research. Proceedings of the Society and would be impossible otherwise to give the critical references substantial study which the elaborate literary demand.

then at last the several parts were unified and the whole message and intention of this ingenious and complicated effort clearly is to prove that there is some definite intelligence underlying the phenomena. distinct from that of any of the automatists. each other. So that the content of the mind until the message was in no ately living correspondences were detected by laborious criticism a year or two later. xxv] CROSS-CORRESPONDENCE of 325 number effected ostensible controls. who are sometimes unknown to each other. That has themselves. as conversely different the utterance of one but heretofore. of the prove as of the far as possible. eliminate what had long been all members recognised by Society for Psychical Research as the most troublesome and indestructible 'of the semi-normal And the further object is evidently to hypotheses. by of a or made out The object sending fragments message literary reference which shall be unintelligible to each so that no effective mutual telepathy is separately thus eliminating or trying to possible between them. who are at a distance from through . ostensible control the contributory agency of several mediums who write automatically quite of each independently other. the messages as separobtained were quite and only unintelligible.CHAP. it message. moreover. clearly Whether been the aim of the communicators or not they have been successful . at first many cases. exhibited a when were meaning they subsequently put together by another person. who ostensibly communicating. that by the substance and quality is characteristic of the one is particular personality and of no other. and who In were unaware that any kind of correspondence was going on.

iv a question which If may take some time and study finally and conclusively to decide. attention. I will quote from the paper of our Research Officer. since it was through her patient care and perspicacity that the existence of such things. Piddington and Miss Johnson and Mrs. Experiments. read in full the elaborate papers of Mr. It W.326 is AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY it [SECT. Myers hints more than once at a favourite theory of his that the influence of science on modern thought is not confined to this life . a student is to form a first hand judgment of any value on this subject. . he must. her Chapter VII." (Human Personality\ vol.) And then it continues : In Human Personality Mr. as I have said. there are . was F. I say. by the efforts of spirits who discern pathways and possibilities which for us are impenetrably dark. All that we can contribute to the new result is an attitude of patience. probably experiments of a complexity and difficulty which surpass our imagination . but they are made from the other side of the gulf. Myers. first demonstrated. care. " It opens with a quotation from the writings of H. 15 called "The Theory of Cross-correspondences. The experi- ments which are being made are not the work of earthly skill. 275. which illustrates his attitude to the subject is when not we living : who are in reality the discoverers here. DISCOVERY OF CROSS-CORRESPONDENCES But as giving the best introductory and purely initial account of this large and evidently growing subject. Miss Johnson. on the way to something like their present striking form. Verrall in the important recent volumes of the Proceedings of the Society which is no light task. ii p. an honest readiness to receive and weigh whatever may be given into our keeping by intelligences beyond our own.

In studying these in proof in the early part of 1906 by the fact that some of the most remarkable instances the statements the script of one writer were by no means a simple reproduction of statements in the script of the other. l Ve?raD?o 1 SCnpt f 2 6th. Seed sent to her Th . but seemed to represent different aspects S e ne suPP le or completing the menting Shi otner. e n a" a a descn P tio n of the same plrt of the SW? 1 1116 mention of *d D^'^' ocLfiST"* ^.whic h was about published three m bma I9 3 Further ^rences to the &i S^ll Symposwm appeared in Mrs. our Research Officer-! was struck m m m m? ? ' " " / Tabo Fo hvj bv n 7 h?r son f the e reent t to " suspended burfe rf . r ' I9 2 refe ren ' ? f ? s' N?^ 1 - . since he was looking for a sensitive aut rder that he atically in *ht obtain ctroho f h6 Wn Writin Mrs Verra ll. "will be found in Myers' own. on the A Wr te / f fir tree lanted in a garden. iv correspondences between her script and the script or automatic speech of other automatists.. Forbes's script to give a certain test " word. Forbes's scriot purporting to come from her son Talbot. i8th. . Mrs. Forbes's script in the early part of I9 o 3 see Mrs. cts These fa were unknown to Mrs. gG m Verral hfd h readm n da ^a These references alsofn^ apP r P na ef tothese an obscure ^ sentence in Mrs.. ' 6 * bdonged and Mrs Forbes ' reeS gr Wn fr m to P roduced on November ' absolutely meaningless herilf & PaS G ***#***** ^hich Mrs. stated that he must now leave her. Ihus. and P r trinf' script was signed with a sword wor an and ' -says Miss Johnson. . attempts were made in Mrs.328 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. Verrall's to . and on December i8th I. "Dion" or which k wls Dy 7 stated. 223). one case (p. p 246) . Verrall. Mrs VerTall ra the tes p at the time for '' s y. DSl monTnT ^ T P ! ' 71 > ' -ln ^> ^ - Report.

afterwards verified. external to the minds of both autoIf we simply find the same idea expressed-^matists. that by this method. purporting to come from her son. Forbes sitting in her drawing-room. Forbes's script of the standing looking at her. partially expressed in each. of an equally pointless character but when we put the two togetheV. we see that they supplement one another. even though in different forms -by both of them. VerralPs script they took. as superposing certain things on others. and that a test was being given for her at Cambridge. It occurred to me. 1904. it might be possible to obtain evidence more conclusive than any obtained hitherto of the action of a third intelligence.CHAR xxv] 329 In another case (pp. same day. . stated that he was present and wished she could see him. Verrall's script gave details. from direct telepathy between them. with the figure of her son Mrs. 1 became convinced through the study of these cases that there was some special purpose in the particular form all the more because in Mrs. It may. apparently to draw attention to some peculiar kind of test. statements were often associated with them. What we get is a fragmentary utterance in one script. when >or at least all would be clean The characteristic of these cases of some is that we of them automatist anything duction of phrases in same idea expressed do not get in the writing of one like a mechanical verbatim reprothe other we do not even get the . if by any. and another fragmentary utterance in the other. Mrs. as I have just between them be explained by telepathy difficult to suppose that the telepathic perception of one fragment could lead said. e. then. but only in different result . Verrall had a mental Impression of Mrs. but is much more 1 1 . described. as might well ways. most it easily . which seems to have no particular point or meaning. Forbes was doing and Immediately afterwards Mrs. and that there is apparently one coherent idea underlying both. 269-271). October i6th. of what Mrs.g.

that is. such as we sometimes get between living persons. to' . ifl . apparently telepathy relating to the present. for the very thing to be proved is the existence of the dead person. be seen to be related to the first The weakness of all well-authenticated cases- of apparent telepathy from the dead is. that they can generally be explained by telepathy from the knowledge displayed by the medium is that is. script J$ all . must be stronger it is evidentially than telepathy relating to the past. after careful comparison.. a dead person. temporaneous. the corresponding statements are approximately con-. and purposes. we must refer it 'to that source rather living person. To do otherwise would be to beg the whole question at issue. telepathy relating to the present. we find that is. than to a person whose existence is uncertain.person. Hitherto the evidence for survival has depended on statements that seem to show the control's recollection of living. telepathic agency. been supposed impossible that we could ever get this kind of evidence for telepathy from the dead. since events in the present are either known to some living in which case we could not exclude his person. iv to the production of another fragment which can only. any possessed by any person certainly existing. In these cross-correspondences.330 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. If the incidents in his past life. or they are unknown to any living person. Now. of course. It would be useless for him to communicate life. because much easier to exclude normal knowledge of events in the present than of events in the But it has past. however. telepathically anything about his present because there could be no proof of the truth of the This is the fundamental difference between the types of evidence for telepathy from the living and for telepathy from the dead. in which case it would be difficult or impossible to prove that they had occurred. communication. and to events in the present which. are unknown to any intents^ living/' since the meaning and point of her .

Mrs. If plan It be. Mrs. it suggests an independent invention-**-**** active* .CHAP. Mrs. At the same time we have proof of what has occurred that a correspondence is [i. not a mere echo or remnant of individualities of the past . who are sufficiently well instructed to know all the objections that reasonable sceptics have urged against the previous evidence. often uncomprehended Is solution possibility of communication. some special indication being attempted] in the scripts themselves. the plan of cross-correspondences. to meet the sceptics' objections.e. ' Yes. . And the Important point is that the element Is a new one. There is no doubt that the are a characteristic element In the cross-correspondences that we have been scripts collecting in the last few the of Mrs. Piper. but a student of their it has scripts every appearance of being an element It imported from outside suggests an Independent Invention. Myers We In his lifetime. it that within the last few years a certain group of persons have been trying to communicate with us. for there Is his written utterances able to discover. and. as I have shown above. Forbes. Verrall. . that the idea of making a statement in one script complementary of a statement In another had not occurred to Mr. granted the may be supposed sufficiently Intelligent realise to the full all the force of these objections. this no reference to it in any of on the subject that I have been Neither did those who have been investigating automatic script since his death invent It was not the autoniatlsts plan. years. xxv] CROSS-CORRESPONDENCE 331 by each automatist until the found through putting the two scripts together. an active intelligence constantly at work in the present. still more recently. themselves that detected It. have reason to believe. scripts Holland. and to Now. Thus it appears that this method is directed towards satisfying our evidential requirements. It may be supposed that these persons have Invented a new plan.

since at this stage they are not capable of effective abridgement. Piddington in the scripts of the automatists mentioned. moreover. when independently comwith veiled statements In those same pared together. SUMMARY Summarising once more our position as regards cross-correspondence we have In the course of the last few years been driven to recognise that the controls are pertinaciously trying to communicate now one another definite Idea by means of two or more different automatists. when once the clue is found. . no room Is left for doubt as to the proper interpretation. whom at the same time they arc to from trying prevent communicating telepathically or unconsciously with one another and that In order to achieve this deliberate aim the controls express the factors of the idea In so veiled a form that each writer Indites her own share without Yet understanding it . which symbolically but definitely claim that such Those correspondences are to be found if looked for. iv intelligence constantly at echo or w@rk in the present\ not a mere remnant of individualities of the past. scripts so far discovered are reported in the Society's Proceedings a series of documents upon a consideration of which I do not propose to enter. _ that the correspondence is intended and not accidental and. now some identifying symbol or phrase Is often In each script. And so the matter has gone on developing. and a still further and more elaborate system of evidently and experimental designed cross-correspondence has now been discovered by Mr.332 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. so as to indicate to a critical Included examiner . the idea thus co-operatively expressed Is so definite that.

it would mean that Intelligent co-operation between other than embodied human minds and our own. this careful . and by more careful collation of the documents has already been found true. Mrs. Can It be a mind still in the for If this be so have we got Into relation with very Important stage of the Society's work. and we should be justified in feeling that we are entering on a new and or says the present President of the Society Psychical Research. body? minds which have survived bodily death and are endeavouring by means of the cross-correspondences to produce evidence of their operation? If this last hypothesis be the true one. human minds than our own It is surely difficult to . Sidgwick the question what mind this is becomes of extreme interest and importance. I hold for my own part to be fully justified . has become possible. though still in form hypothetical. of so momentous over-estimate the importance an induction when it can be finally made. Intelligent co-operation between . xxv] CROSS-CORRESPONDENCE 3:5o That Is precisely what we have quite recently again and again obtained. than has become embodied possible. Man's practical outlook upon the universe is entering upon a new phase. We are told by the communicators that there are other correspondences not yet detected by us . in experiments of a new kind intended to prove continued existence. Consider for a moment the purport and full bearing of a judgment which. other . Simultaneously with the beginning of a revolutionary increase In his powers of physical locomotion which will soon be extended Into a third . but it affords strong evidence of the intervention of a mind behind and independent of the automatist. The evidence needs and critical study It is not in itself sensational.CHAP.

iv dimension surface-his power a^ d no longer % o limited to a solid or liquid so { intercourse P ns m ^ ^ ^ conditions of extstence. concerning other .4 33| AtJTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT.

->* ' wlf^ ' . evidence for the survival of man. has always b The cumulative. beginning to be crucial The fame of Mrs. through recent developmen^ the ancient phenomenon of automatic writing. some power of acting as translate interpreter between the psychical and the physical w|eF own and a< endowed with ' ' There are also dther ladies to some.CHAPTER XXVI TENTATIVE CONCLUSION IF at summarise once more the position which we have so far arrived which I have endeavoured to express in the try to we now concluding para- graph of the preceding chapter we somewhat as shall represent it follows . extent conceni&!& the recent unsensatlonal but most intelligent phenoix especially the one known as Mrs. that is f' the persistence of human intelligence and individ personality beyond bodily death. Verrall also these recent cases of automatism the Society has singularly fortunate. Piper has spread into all 1 and I should think the fame of Mrs. management and of our for the greater part of her psychical in the other we have one of the sanest investigators fortunately power herself. and now. for in the one we have a Me who has been under strict supervision and com ' ' ' . Holland.

let us through a telephone or a typewriter. and have done their "he st ty to satisfy the rational demand.. Myers. even when of endly and intimate character. have succeeded. be sus- ! : peoted . such as in normal would be considered amply and . of us think ejThe following Mrs. can rationally . ' f everything has been deposited at the time with responsible persons outside the sphere of influence. Not easily or early do we make this admission. : And what do we find ? We find 'to deceased friends some of them well known us and active members of the Society while alive specially Gurney. unperturbed by any moral suspicions. others are still is Some doubtful. indeed. But. the whole thing has been so conducted that no duplicity. required ite and crucial proof a proof difficult even to We ine as well as difficult to supply. iv _ likewise above any suspicion of duplicity. In of long conversations with what purported to be ' and giving us cross- l '\ surviving gators. and we are at liberty to learn what we can from the record of the phenomena. Verrall's conclusion after j H of first-hand experience and carefql testing . We also ^nd them answering specific questions in a manner Haracteristic of their known personalities and giving idence of knowledge appropriate to them. ostensible communicators realise the need of :h proof just as fully as we do. ity intelligence of these friends and in- we were by no means convinced of their by mere general conversation. either conscious or unconscious. overwhelmingly dent for the identification of friends speaking.'336 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. with the express purpose of oatiently proving their identity correspondences between different mediums. and Hodgson constantly purDorting to communicate.

but it is wearing thin in places and like excavators engaged in boring a tunnel from opposite ends. or in some cases too easily credulous. So we presently come back out of our tunnel into the light of day. In fact. though We stale news. and that as the time it is present legitimate to grant that lucid moments of intercourse with deceased persons may in the best cases supervene . though they would like to see further and still stronger and more continued proofs. world. 1 am entirely acquiesce in this judgment. the like we. but mostly of a presumably subliminal and less evidential kind. of those who. wings. xxvi] It TENTATIVE CONCLUSION }J 337" cannot be denied that the " communicator of the Piper sittings and of my own script presents a consistent personality dramatically resembling that of the person whom I he claims to be. and that our laboriously constructed tunnel was quite unnecessary* doubtless shall we Agile climbers may have been oven Flying messages from to the top and peeped the other side may have But arrived. quite natural under the circumstances. pioneers must have surveyed the route. are of opinion that a good case has been made best working hypothesis at the out. we dig and work on the common earth^ our busmesg is to pierce 22 . and relate our experience to a busy and incredulous. amid a mass of supplementary material. expect to be received with incredulity.CHAP. side. navvies. we are beginning to hear now and again the strokes of the pickaxes of our comrades on the other . The boundary between the two states the known and the unknown is still substantial. that there be told in some quarters that it is all has been access to the other side of the mountain range from time immemorial. amid the roar of water and other noises. are unprovided with.

I say. though not of geography. no new method of communication. iv the mountain struct some moderate elevation. perhaps ethereal. But of " let J> us not jump to the conclusion that the idea space no longer means anything to persons removed from the planet. and cont a permanent road or railway for the service of to humanity. exists quite as much on the other side of the partition as on our side there has been distinct co-operation : between those on the material and those on the im- and we are at liberty. not indeed to material side announce any definite conclusion. as we are. for ail we know. That is one of the things we may gradually find out not to be true* . then. they may exist in the ether and be as aware of space and of the truths of geometry. but to adopt as a working hypothesis the ancient doctrine of a possible intercourse of intelligence between the material and . some other. What we have announce. order of existence. of carefully reception. Some people have expected or hoped to communicate . as they did when they had bodies for that express purpose. is no striking but only the novelty. but. and indeed not in) the hypothetical. dwellers in (or perhaps realm of space. They are no longer in touch with matter truly. constructed evidence of identity more exact and more Carefully nearly complete than perhaps ever before. Let us not be too sure that their condition and surroundings are altogether and utterly different from those of mankind. and therefore can no longer appeal to our organs of sense. by old but developing methods.338 AUTOMATISM AND LUCIDITY [SECT. The constructive ingenuity constructed evidence. with Mars tion less it may some day occur with appears likely that recognised communicaless removed.

is no such sudden break in the conditions of existence as may have been continuous anticipated . xxvi] TENTATIVE CONCLUSION Is 339 Meanwhile tentatively we can there anything that provisionally and say that is earnestly taught to those who are willing to make the hypothesis that the communications are genuine ? The first thing we learn. perhaps the only thing we There clearly learn in the first instance.CHAP. and no break identity at all in the and conscious of genuine character and personality. Meanwhile it would appear that knowledge is not suddenly advanced it would be unnatural if it were. we suddenly flooded with new information. but powers and faculties are enlarged. and affection. change our identity. . all these. on the strength of vision and revelation for quite short of any recognised Divine revelation more than a century. for worse. Terrestrial accretions. Essential belongings. for and better to a as certain extent tastes and interests. if effort here has rendered the acquisition of such extra insight are not nor do we at all legitimate and possible. and they are left poor indeed Such doctrines have been taught. is continuity. divested of their exuberant trappings. worldly possessions. - . On the other hand. these for the most part naturally drop away. The visions of Swedenborg. education. such bodily pain and disabilities. are not wholly There is unreal. culture. are retained. character. such as memory. there are doubtless the some whom removal of temporary accretion and accidents of existence will leave in a feeble and impoverished condition for the things are gone in which they trusted. and the scope of our outlook on the universe may be widened and deepened. habits. and are by no means wholly untrue.

34U LUCIDITY AUTOMATISM AND his reat and eloquent work. .

and I can discharge the debt most compactly by quoting here the Address which I gave to the Society for Psychical Research shortly after the death of its President of 1900 on the occasion when it fell to my lot to succeed him in the Chair. the and now is left desolate. Society was Of the original for chief founders. W.pVVfJt. IN MEMORY OF T F.lp(OV A. Professor Barrett alone remains.fVQ$ 7JV ^U^J/ would have thought a year ago. * without emphasising the debt I owe to those who have immediately preceded me in this study. that we should so soon be lamenting his decease ? Who . MYERS KOL VQCTTQV TO.CHAPTER XXVII IN behoves Research less MEMORY OF MYERS learnt so IT Pioneers and Founders of the Society for Psychical not to me who have much from the conclude this attempts to set forth in some detail book. which an outline of the I orthodox facts by which among other things have been led to my views concerning the universe. when our Secretary and joint Founder at length consented to be elected President. Sidgwick it died. H. ' When Henry orphaned . 341 .

falls the duty of . To how many was he really known? ! wonder. but the blow must not be paralysing. am called to this Chair. determined that a group of workers the a for for founding and pioneering work. and we must be faithful to the noble leaders who summoned us together. I would for unworthy. Podmore. except the unlettered.342 IN OF only other It. [CHAP. Our loss Is certain. was not one of the actual Neither the wisdom of SIdgwick nor the energy and power of Myers can by any means be replaced. Rather It must stimulate those that remain to fresh exertions. every reason that It could have but It is the wish of your Council I am told that it was the wish of Myers. his is a precious memory a memory which will not decay with the passing of the years* 1 honoured with his intimate friendship. and I regard It as a duty from I. I esteem it one of the privileges of my life. though not to me alone. xxvn first Mr. must band us called together. and laid this burden to . the Council founders still member of the remaining on the of Society. together new science. Known In a sense he was to all. But to the few who were privileged to know : him. and the ignorant. must not handing on to posterity of a be permitted to disband and scatter till their work is That work will not be done In our lifetime It done. Known in reality he was to very few. : The last communication which my predecessor made was In memory of Henry SIdgwick my own first communication must be In memory of Frederic Myers. must continue with what energy and wisdom we can muster. which I must not shrink. been postponed. . our charge. To me.

and made to contribute each its quota to his Cosmic scheme. Even into some of the more technical details. : . when they were properly presented. however grasp of Tennyson. He could in literature and most other things. Our paths in life were wide apart. xxvn] IN MEMORY OF MYERS 1 343 doing some justice to his memory. all through this last quarter of a century he was laying the foundation for a cosmic philosophy. nor one with whom it was a greater pleasure to talk. 1 would that I was not one of those who knew him as a youth. though many who did not really know him will fail to realise that this was possible nor was he fully : . utilised for the purpose of telling and brilliant illustrations. but it was a grasp.CHAP. might be inspired for the task. that of science It was not a detailed knowledge he possessed. of course. His different : instruct me . but not our tastes. and our powers were our powers. . of the meaning and bearing of it all. do we find the facts. and his mind was in so prepared a state that any fact once sown in it began promptly to take root and bud. For that is what he was really doing. a philosophic grasp. not unlike the accurately comprehending And again and again in his writings which his mind had thus from many sources absorbed. conscious of it himself. I could instruct him in science he was the greedier learner of the two. Do I mean that he achieved such a structure? I do not A philosophy of that kind is not to be constructed by the labour of one man. a scheme of existence as large and comprehensive and well founded as any that have appeared. I do not hesitate to grasp of science was profound say it. I never knew a man more receptive. he could and did enter. and my acquaintance with him ripened gradually.

Yet in modern science great degree This is in have always we realise that to understand a thing thoroughly it must be observed not only in its normal state but under all the conditions into which it can be thrown by experiment.344 brilliant. that he strenuously and conscientiously sought facts. To me it from a dearth of has seemed that most philosophers suffer facts. especially those recognised of the mind in its normal state. a thing of yesterday. In the past necessarily so. would be the first to deprecate what he has done but he himself any exaggeration of would have admitted this. did mind in health any philosopher ever know the and in disease more profoundly. xxvn and Myers laboured almost solely on the psychological side. is Our cosmic outlook very different from that of the ancients. before many discoveries connected these : with less familiar household words than in the matter of physical science alone the most recent philosopher advantage. for physical universe *is. and not in the dark gropings of his own unaided . mental phenomena must contribute the larger part of it is that. IN MEMORY OF MYERS He [CHAP. is different even from that of philosophers of the middle of last century. And. and the facts of the mind have been open generally But this is must needs have some a small item in his total outfit. the scientific exploration of the as it were. and made use of these facts. before the spectroscope was invented. assumed from all antiquity* and philosophers true. . every variation being studied and laid under contribution to the general understanding of the whole. and endeavoured to construct his cosmic foundation by their aid and in their light. intelligence. Qf the 1 ask. before Darwin and Wallace wrote.

by some truth-seeker clear-sighted enough to outstep the fashion of his time and to look at things with his own eyes. in advance of the science of could they know all that we know to-day Fifty years ago the facts even of hypnotism were not by orthodox science accepted such studies as were made. and allowed a place for clairvoyance in their scheme. were made almost surreptitiously. as well as other philosophers. . laid under in Myers? *He condition trance. of delirium. and doubtless fear of ridicule and the brethren. but they do not grasp the whole . All honour to those great men for . every state of the mind In excitement He was hallucinations.doing so. automatisms. and from the testimony of all the savants of Europe. there.CHAP. The men who . observe they each contribute their portion. recognised some and of the waking ultra-normal mental manifestations. them are too busy to unify them ' I assert that PO I Myers was that philosopher. then in my own mind place him on a pedestal . of dreams. and to some extent Kant also. their time ? but how . self-suggestion. his many were his lost for contempt of : professional But now it is different not so different as it ought even yet but facts previously considered occult are now investigated and recorded and published in to be. It will be said that Hegel. drawn from personal inquiry. than did Frederic . visions of genius. But only with difficulty could he publish observations. xxvn] IN MEMORY OF 34S with more detailed and Intimate knowledge. the grasping of the whole is the function of a philosopher. in studied contribution every the Salp^triere. every country of Europe. in abnormal hypnotic placidity and in well acquainted with the curious facts of multiple personality. here and . of clairvoyant vision.

To others. ages have had some such Religious faith. and in the strength of that belief he looked forward hopefully to perennial effort and unending progress : "Say. even now. it will penetrate downwards and be accepted by ordinary persons. that hereafter it would become open to all He knew that the multitude could appreciate science no more. could aught else content thee? which were After so brief a battle an endless rest. perhaps a more restful and less strenuous faith he but to Myers the faith did not come by religion who walked as one himself would have described by his eager and than rather and faith. perhaps less. XXVH a wider adapted to the needs of an emancipated spirit. and in this he died. by knowledge sight was in order that he life-long struggle for knowledge might by no chance be mistaken. such as the the earth in of the solar planetary position system. of a field of service. conviction of this kind would be impossible they are the many who know not what science is. as they other established doctrine. on the many who have gone before. or the not because they have really made ^volution of species ? now accept any . But by a few here and there.34 8 IN MEMORY OF MYERS [CHAP. Or By the ancient conflict rather to renew. re-uniting with gradual opportunity So he believed. what he thought a sure foundation of experience. the old deeds strengthened mightier deeds to do?" he lived. conviction of this kind seems unnecessary they are the favoured ones who feel that they have grasped all needed truth by revelation or by intuition. best. : . this avenue to knowledge Myers believed concerning the unseen is felt to be open. knew further that when presently any truth becomes universally accepted by scientific men. than they can appreciate religion but he Such was his faith : by this men in all . To some.

but because it atmosphere Into which they were born. as Myers . ? temper. narrow men held these doctrines for a time : beliefs they did and promulgated these good service in their day by clearing away some superstition. and sought to pour ever. with their healthy breezy common-sense. I say no word against the scientific men of that day. and. the unimagined scope of the regions still. say. the wealth of their inheritance. an attempt bined. scorn upon the possibility. effective their warlike energy. of prayer or of any mode of communication between this world and a purely Honest and true and brilliant though hypothetical other. though it made them crusaders. from the conventional utterance of phrases embodying beliefs only half held. left their philosophy defective and But their science unbalanced. freeing the mind from cant that is. religious intrusion men of little faith who resent did. His was ao purblind outlook at a true cosmic scheme. it surely is gulf a desirable and worthy object for science to aim at. xxvn] IN MEMORY OF MYERS Is '349 a study of the matter. much more comprehensive it meant a science and a philosophy and a religion comIt meant. There was a little science in my youth which prided itself upon being positive knowledge. There be some this of scientific proof into their attempted arena as if they had a limited field which could be encroached upon. If continuity of existence a part of the and intelligence across the of death really can ever be thus proved. and perhaps for beyond the grasp of what we now call science. . to whom were opposed theologians of equal narrowness and of a more bitter. as it meant to Newton. Those men do not realise.CHAP. It has not fully re-attained : With Myers the word Science meant equilibrium yet something much larger. They little know the magnitude of the possibilities of the universe.

a microcosm akin to the which again might be only an atom of I was disposed at that time to whole. and is in touch always with another but that which he might come to be hereafter he life. larger I should not demur now the progress of demur. the subliminal self still keeps watch and ward beyond the threshold. : .it only upon material things that he looked with the eye of prescience and of hope. as the planets move in the solar system. for as many aeons of unmitigated and wise terrestrial happiness as might ! last till the secular fading of the sun* and then an end. each spaced out far away from others and not colliding. He had an imagination wider than that of most men. Myers spoke to me once of the possibility that the parts of an atom move perhaps inside the atom in astronomical orbits. whatever it might be. could by no means guess OUTW e^avepwdvf rl ecro/iefik and Gradually perhaps through much suffering. said than is generally known. Nor was. He would not No limit could satisfy him. xxvii on a material universe limited and conditioned by our poor senses. for to him not the whole of each personality is incarnate in this mortal flesh. from which indeed he sensitively shrank. science within the last few years of the nineteenth cosmos some . Physics and astronomy are rapidly advancing in this direction. the atom. but altogether constituting the single group or system we visible call . knew He were once asked me whether I would barter if it possible my unknown destiny.350 IN MEMORY OF [CHAP. 1 never a man so hopeful concerning his ultimate destiny. That which he was now he only barely knew. but through which nevertheless he was ready to he believed that a go. century makes the first part of this thesis extremely On the latter part too there is more to be probable.

. "out of kirn" as much higher in the scale of creation that crawls. and live at last." progress. impassable barriers. and for ever. blindness. Naught bear they with them master of the soul . In all the eternal whirl. xxvn] IN MEMORY OP MYERS 53 351 being would be evolved out of him. or employed the customary phrases. it . as he would say. Nay. a highest in the scale of being beyond which it was imlimits. together hurled.CHAP. rekindled solitary sun . seemed to him comparatively : imminent "That hour may come when Earth no more can keep Tireless her year-long Nay. this was the dominant mind and if he seldom used the word God . Limits conditioned by the flesh and by imperfection. Crash in one infinite and lifeless world Yet hold thou still. Infinity of infinities he could conceive no end. : All the eternal is akin to her. cessation of development. save souls has perished in the past. Limits for him were repellent and impossible. these were the things which filled and dominated his existence. and error. the cosmic stir. these are obvious. when Feed their voyage thro' the deep sucked and swept in one. all When Infinite and quicken. infinite harmony. up and up. nor yet of development though an end of the solar system and therefore of mankind. what worlds soe'er may roll. these he admitted and lamented to the full but ultimate . to him to contradict all that he had gleaned of the essence and meaning of existence. Principalities without limit now note of his and Powers on and on. these he would not admit. except in poetry. infinite love. "even. all planets. as he now was above the meanest thing Nor yet an end. of space or time or existence. these seemed possible to go. by rebellion. She shall endure. when all suns that shine.

His was a keenly emotional nature. and which. seemed to him to lead to more than could be desired or deserved " Live thou and love so best and only so Can thy one soul into the One Soul flow. was because everything was so supremely real to him and God. Speak as we can. and after much . And if ye call us dreamers. if patiently pursued. no man think that He has himself borne witness to the struggle. to could . . perhaps to few he showed it. at first : it his creed He with his whole was not so much being and with many delay and hesitation." Not his faith that he believed easily came easily and cost : let him nothing. What he felt. he believed in no half-hearted or conventional manner! When he doubted. xxvn . of conviction. "Either we cannot or we hardly dare Breathe forth that vision into earthly air. but in the end richly and enthusiastically rose to this height of emotion. . And thou be nothing. he felt strongly what he believed. dreamers then Be we esteemed amid you waking men Hear us or hear not as ye choose but we . For practical purposes something less lofty served. which is for all of us the immediate business in hand. and are what we must be. and of serenity though personality rebuffs slowly and painfully. he doubted fiercely but the pain of the doubt only stimulated him to to effort." the personified totality of existence. struggle . and the Lord in thee. too t( blinding a conception to conceive." ! This is an expression of himself as himself. the groanings that not be uttered. Can thy small life to Life's great centre flee. and he could return from cosmic speculations to the simple everyday life. .352 IN MEMORY OF MYERS [CHAP.

Nowise so far thy love from theirs can roam As past the mansions of His endless home. content with Seeker after Truth and Helper of his comrades a line in his own metre. fore-front of this essay. know at least the worst. xxvn] IN MEMORY OF MYERS 353 and doubt no longer. with purged eyes behold them hand in hand in a vision from that lovely land. he must know or he must suffer. " often infrequent autobiographical sentence as having a sense of great solitude. only with great heart and spirit sure Deserve them and await them and endure Come . brought hope The deep personal conviction will one day prove. 23 To how many . He was no half knowledge. no years that Can sunder God from these. 1 f striving to save my own soul and my comrades homeward way/" But the years of struggle and effort brought in the end ample recompense. for they gave him a magnificent power to alleviate distress. and in the end he believed that he knew. or God from thee . Knowing well. so that more than one bereaved friend learned to say with him "What Still Or Or matter if thou hold thy loved ones prest with close arms upon thy yearning breast. He was able to communicate something of his assurance to others. if ever published. almost in a manner at his own request. letters. and of an effort beyond my as Homer says of Odysseus in striving/ strength. no shocks that fall. a sorrowful heart his words have and comfort. behind his message drove it home with greater force. I have placed in the is . though not a quotation. a line which I should wish graven on some tablet in * For he speaks of himself in an my memory." flee. no clouded faith. which runs in my mind as descriptive of him suggested doubtless by that line from the Odyssey which.CHAP.

blended. and rang with no fessional note. insisting to possible interfusion appreciate Myers : is perhaps that essay on his best-beloved Virgil of his literary most us of all his utterances which gives him in the to was of And the very heart Virgil self in JEneas to Elysium famous speech of Anchises " as we who meant. this on without. that with his undoubted he to some extent deserted for the rugged tracts but indeed the two were closely of scientific inquiry imIt is. ot This ultimate subordination of form to substance. There are those who lament letters powers as a man of the sunny fields of pure literature . 724-755). and the triumphant song is taken up _ and proclaimed again after two thousand years "To God again the enfranchised soul must tend. pression of his The his height." . of whole literary the Myers's story art to thought. He is her home. Starlike she soars and Godlike melts in Him. life after his of rest the know to devote to philosophy The "an answer the completion of the '^neid'" propounds an in universe unexpectedly definite to the riddle of the form. is His art gained all the more because it was not work. Those only who followed the of it were little sought. . as Dr." . he reached translation of Virgilian tilHhe transfused is ideal truest his ever poet who was Roman and the Englishman blend in one passion. human and divine. . the where poet \^En. will adequately recognise his working of his aspirations him style was but the exfor how see mastery. and the obvious rewards pursued as a primary aim. Walter Leaf has said. vi. xxvn enfranchised nor did it lose influence because it was hollow profrom orthodox traditions. and In his wonderful fragments inmost soul.354 IN MEMORY OF MYERS [CHAP. her Author is her end No death is hers when earthly eyes glow dim .

265.. Habitability. 250 Contact. loi. 154 Future Service. 287 Anticipation of Future. 99 168. 178 Experimental Apparitions. Clairvoyance Bacon. 66 Hades. 97. 105 . Experimental. 165 Forbes.R. Francis. 129 Double Object 41. 101 Bacon. 144. 93. 27 2 ? 3*3 Hauntings. 328 "Doctor. Professor. Communicators. Malcolm. 338 Battersea. 228 Clairvoyance. 90. 244. 105 Criminals. Activity of. 314 Body and Mind. 28 Communication. 108. 97. 77 233 Clairvoyance of the Dying. Charley and Bird case. 247. 299. 303 Automatic intelligence. 70.. 249. 314 Accessories in Visions." 310 Dorr. 12 Future. 99 Ghosts. 23 Confusion. Professor. 341 Ether of space. 306. Lord. 228.. 17 of. of. 142 Dying. 339 of. 48. 211. Effect Continuity. Process 244. 322 Foreign languages. Edmund. Columbus. Mr. 311 99~l5 Apparitions. 243^ 263 Gonner. 247 Guthrie. 99. 147 Clothes of Ghosts. 109. 150. 303 Hallucination. 320 Gurney. 46 " '* Blanche Abercromby case. 97. 34 Death. 154 Apparitions. 252. Clothes of. Mrs. 1 88 Difficulties Agent and Percipient. 3<>5 of. IOI 3 135. 162.. 29 Cross-Correspondence. 231 Grove.4 Comte and Socrates. 147 Dying. 123. 105 Ghosts. Si for Thought-Transference. 305.INDEX Abt Vogler." 303 Detectives. 182.. 15 Barrett. 134. Statements of. 80 Evidence. 93 Birchall. 103 " Fishing.P. 276. Mrs." 309. Aimof S. 347 " Descent into Hell. 288 Beethoven. Anticipation 222. 326 Crystal Vision^ 92 35S Hand. 328 Brown Study. 144. Roger. 38. 279. 103 Archbishop or Savant. 14. 316. 90. 39. Mr. Phantasms of. 99 Action at a distance. 48. 44 37 Albemarle Club. of Communication. 308 Diotima. 303 Garibaldi's dream. 113. 150. 149 Forth Bridge. 97. Dream lucidity. 117 7.

Ernest. 69. 9 Ramsden. 74 Preparations for Sitting. 8 2 2 2 Identity.." 284. 203. 172 Programme of S. 129 Podmore. 68 Prisoners. 322 Inspiration. and Kepler. Recognition Photography. 174 Normal knowledge of Mrs. 217. 326 Photographs.174 Professional exhibitions. 175. Posthumous. American. 74 Paquet case. 273 Phinuitcase. 345 Keno$i$) 278 28 Kepler. 153 Prayer. 317 Records. 116 Rawson. 257. 256. Professor. 186. 320 of. 103 Phantasms of the Living. 267. 354 letters. 308 283 . Walter. 28 Newton. Professor Reflex action. 129 Kirkham case." 310 Infinity. 97 317 Physical phenomena. Mrs. 286. 289 Marmontel case..." 170 Posthumous Leaf. 92 Herdman. 309. 155 Marsh. Mr. 121 Lodge. 30. 184. 119 Pole. Piper. George. and Tycho. 233 Recognition of Photographs. 30 case. 281. Dr.R. Ill. Miss. Myers on Time. 192. 176 "Possession. 319 Inspiration. 161. in. 97 "Imperator. 99. 172 "Joy of the Lord. Movement. 269. Kipling. 221. 69. Agent and.. 301.R. 257. 238." III. Lunatics. Mrs. Object of. 121 Postmarks. 337 Heliograph. 225. 339 Letters.P. 27 Hodgson. 98. 29 Man who was-. 190 Lyro. 25 Pelham. 83 Marble. 76 "Myers Control.. 131 Miles. Lord. 322 Precautions. 320 Materialisation. 193. 332 261. Unseen. Mr. 262. 44 Phantasms. 26. 102 Image. Nineteenth Century. 18. 309. 152. 40. 265. Mr. 81. 159 Mathematical Problem. 186. Pain and Taste experiments. Dr. Miss. Miss. 316. 289 Johnson. Fredk. 88. 247 Holland. Professor William. 101. Miss. 256 Press. Dr." 312 "Nelly" Control. Mr. 116 Mind and Body. 33 Lessons to be learnt. 271 Percipient. 55 " Hodgson Control. "304 Piddington. 298 Rayleigh. 100 Phinuit. 341 "Rector. I73> *$ > 3^ 40> 33 Novum Organon % 17 "Old Master. 94. "94 6 Opposition to S. 218 in. 288. 273> 335 Piper. 351 Influence of Sitter. 305 26. 247. 167 Relics. (case). 262.356 THE SURVIVAL OF MAN Navvies. 109.. 166 165 Reading. 323 Investigation. 186. 31 Myers.. Thompson case. 159 320 Redmayne. 58. Kant.. 278 Planchette. Vicarious. 169. Newton.. 305. Tycho. 134..P. Exactness of. Miss. Isaac Isaac Thompson. 302. Count von. 289 Myers.. 119. Mr. 33*> 335 288 Hyslop.. 240. 147 James.

INDEX on s 36 Religious objectors. 127. 221. Opposition to. 301. 322 S. Rev. Virgil. 48. 95 in." 303 Spiritual influence. 239.P. 256 275. 333 Sitter. John. 12 Telephones. 133. 145. 97. M. 132 Thought . 172 Tennyson. Mr. for. Prof. 51 Shears. Influence 357 and Taste and Pain experiments. 241 Sidgwick. Professor. Isaac. 9 Stainton. 306. 75 Savant. Sir George. Future. 323 Verrall. 339 Swedenborg case. 303 Science.. 302 Kendall. 161. 155. 319 and Relics. 89.. 253 Royal Society. Mr. Dr. Mrs. 16 Scylla and Charybdis. Influence of. Archbishop or. P. 161. 74 Telegraphy 125 Telepathy. 323 Trevelyan. 173. and Newton.. 105. 26. 164. Mr. 159 Trance. 238. Mrs. 78. 348 164. 219 Richet. "Uncle Jerry "case. Mrs. 295. 354 Visions. Tests.R.Transference. 170.. Aim of. 6 S. "Snap" in head.. G. 343 Ruskin. 77 Trevelyan. Myers on. 75 Sharpe. 28 Trifles Sitting. Miss. 337 Tycho. 327 Semaphore. 86 . Ancient. 217. 118. 337.P. 274 Watson. Henry. 7. Kepler. 300. R. The.. Programme of. 314... 333.. 289. Dr. 119 Sympathetic connexion. 18 280 Thompson. 101 "Spirits in Prison. 226 Zancigs. 3. Double Object 41. 210 Religion. 306. 288. 336 Vicarious inspiration. 341 Time. 304 Telergy. Identity of. 306. 285. 233 Veridical.. 134. 291. 91 Rich. 303 Severn case. 283 Tunnel. 92 Service. Moses.. 261. 79 Waking stage. 238. 276 Socrates and Comte. 267 Thompson. Edwin. 23 Spiritistic hypothesis. 310 Stranger. 176. 281. 240. 223 Unseen reading. 37 S. Preparations for. 335. 102. 99. Mr. 296 Robbins. Dislike of.R. 253. 147 Swedenborg. 175. 46 Sidgwick. 287 Trifles. 218 Thompson. 186.. 237 Superstitions. So.

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