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Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of
Both consume valuable time and resources, and a small company0s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer. ( second risk is that 5hite-owned companies may seek to cash in on the increasing apportion(45)
the principal reasons why Blacks, ispanics, and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the si!able orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. "ow Congress, in appar-
ments through formation of .oint ventures with minority-owned concerns. 6f course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for .oint ventures7 clearly, 5hite and minority enterprises can team up to ac#uire business that neither could
ent agreement, has re#uired by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $%&&,&&& do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the government. 'ndeed, some federal and local agen(50)
ac#uire alone. But civil rights groups and minority business owners have complained to Congress about minorities being set up as 8fronts9 with 5hite backing, rather than being accepted as full partners in legitimate .oint ventures.
cies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises. Corporate response appears to have been substantial. (ccording to figures collected in )*++,
-hird, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often run the danger of becoming--and remaining:dependent. ;ven in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies
the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from $++ million in )*+, to $). lbillion in )*++. -he pro.ected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for the early )*/&0s is estimated to be over %1 billion per year with no
makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases< when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.
letup anticipated in the ne2t decade. 3romising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too. 4irst, minority firms risk e2panding too fast and overe2tending themselves financially, since most
). -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> present a commonplace idea and its inaccuracies =B> describe a situation and its potential drawbacks =C> propose a temporary solution to a problem =?> analy!e a fre#uent source of disagreement =;> e2plore the implications of a finding ,. -he passage supplies information that would answer which of the following #uestions@ =(> 5hat federal agencies have set percentage goals for
are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, e#uipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. 'f, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason
reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fi2ed e2penses. -he world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get re#uests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.
the use of minority-owned businesses in public works contracts@ =B> -o which government agencies must businesses awarded federal contracts report their efforts to find minority subcontractors@ =C> ow widespread is the use of minority-owned concerns as 8fronts9 by 5hite backers seeking to obtain subcontracts@ =?> ow many more minority-owned businesses were there in )*++ than in )*+,@ =;> 5hat is one set of conditions under which a small business might find itself financially overe2tended@ 1. (ccording to the passage, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority- owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have =(> been especially vulnerable to governmental mismanagement of the economy =B> been denied bank loans at rates comparable to those afforded larger competitors =C> not had sufficient opportunity to secure business created by large corporations =?> not been able to advertise in those media that reach large numbers of potential customers =;> not had ade#uate representation in the centers of government power A. -he passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts result #uickly in orders might cause it to =(> e2perience frustration but not serious financial harm =B> face potentially crippling fi2ed e2penses =C> have to record its efforts on forms filed with the government =?> increase its spending with minority subcontractors =;> revise its procedure for making bids for federal
contracts and subcontracts %. -he author implies that a minority-owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should =(> avoid competition with larger, more established concerns by not e2panding =B> concentrate on securing even more business from that corporation =C> try to e2pand its customer base to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation =?> pass on some of the work to be done for the corporation to other minority-owned concerns =;> use its influence with the corporation to promote subcontracting with other minority concerns B. 't can be inferred from the passage that, compared with the re#uirements of law, the percentage goals set by 8some federal and local agencies 9=lines )A)%> are =(> more popular with large corporations =B> more specific =C> less controversial =?> less e2pensive to enforce =;> easier to comply with +. 5hich of the following, if true, would most weaken the author0s assertion that, in the )*+&0s, corporate response to federal re#uirements =lines )/-)*> was substantial =(> Corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses totaled $, billion in )*+*. =B> Between )*+& and )*+,, corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses declined by ,% percent. =C> -he figures collected in )*++ underrepresented the e2tent of corporate contracts with minorityowned businesses. =?> -he estimate of corporate spending with minority-owned businesses in )*/& is
appro2imately $)& million too high. =;> -he $).) billion represented the same percentage of total corporate spending in )*++ as did $++ million in )*+,.
defended or attacked. -he United States, it was believed, had no status quo ante. 6ur only 8station9 was the turning of a stationary wheel, spinning faster and faster. 5e did not base our system on property but opportunity---which meant we based it not on stability but on mobility. -he more things changed, that is, the more rapidly the wheel turned, the steadier we would be. -he conventional picture of class politics is
/. -he author would most likely agree with which of the following statements about corporate response to working with minority subcontractors@ =(> (nnoyed by the proliferation of 8front9 organi!ations, corporations are likely to reduce their efforts to work with minority-owned subcontractors in the near future. =B> (lthough corporations showed considerable interest in working with minority businesses in the )*+&0s, their aversion to government paperwork made them reluctant to pursue many government contracts. =C> -he significant response of corporations in the )*+&0s is likely to be sustained and conceivably be increased throughout the )*/&0s. =?> (lthough corporations are eager to cooperate with minority-owned businesses, a shortage of capital in the )*+&0s made substantial response impossible. =;> -he enormous corporate response has all but eliminated the dangers of overe2pansion that used to plague small minority-owned businesses.
(35) (30) (25)
of the aves, who want a stability to
keep what they have, and the ave-"ots, who want a touch of instability and change in which to scramble for the things they have not. But (mericans imagined a condition in which speculators, self-makers, runners are always using the new opportunities given by our land. -hese economic leaders =front-runners> would thus he mainly agents of change. -he nonstarters were considered the ones who wanted stability, a strong referee to give them some position in the race, a regulative hand to calm manic speculation7 an authority that can call things to a halt, begin things again from compensatorily staggered 8starting lines.9 8Reform9 in (merica has been sterile because it can imagine no change e2cept through the e2tension of this metaphor of a race, wider inclusion of competitors, 8a piece of the action,9 as it were, for the disenfranchised. -here is no
5oodrow 5ilson was referring to the liberal idea of the economic market when he said that the free enterprise system is the most efficient economic system. Ca2imum freedom means
attempt to call off the race. Since our only stability is change, (merica seems not to honor the #uiet work that achieves social interdependence and stability. -here is, in our legends, no heroism of the office clerk, no stable industrial work
productiveness7 our 8openness9 is to
be the measure of our stability. 4ascination with this ideal has made (mericans defy the 86ld 5orld9 categories of settled possessiveness versus unsettling deprivation, the cupidity of retention
force of the people who actually make the system work. -here is no pride in being an employee =5ilson asked for a return to the time when everyone was an employer>. -here has been no boasting about our social workers---they are
versus the cupidity of sei!ure, a 8status #uo9
merely signs of the system0s failure, of opportunity denied or not taken, of things to be eliminated. 5e have no pride in our growing interdependence, in the fact that our system can serve others, that we are able to help those in
=;> ( government inspector A. -he author sets off the word 8Reform9 =line 1%> with #uotation marks in order to =(> emphasi!e its departure from the concept of settled possessiveness =B> show his support for a systematic program of change =C> underscore the fle2ibility and even amorphousness of United States society. =?> indicate that the term was one of 5ilson0s favorites =;> assert that reform in the United States has not been fundamental %. 't can be inferred from the passage that the author most probably thinks that giving the disenfranchised 8a piece of the action 9 =line 1/> is =(> a compassionate, if misdirected, legislative measure =B> an e2ample of (mericans0 resistance to profound social change =C> an innovative program for genuine social reform =?> a monument to the efforts of industrial reformers =;> a surprisingly 86ld 5orld9 remedy for social ills B. 5hich of the following metaphors could the author most appropriately use to summari!e his own assessment of the (merican economic system =lines 1%-B&>@ =(> ( windmill =B> ( waterfall =C> ( treadmill =?> ( gyroscope =;> ( bellows +. 't can be inferred from the passage that 5oodrow 5ilson0s ideas about the economic market =(> encouraged those who 8make the system work9 =lines A%-AB> =B> perpetuated traditional legends about (merica
need7 empty boasts from the past make us ashamed of our present achievements, make us try to forget or deny them, move away from them. -here is no honor but in the 5onderland race we must all run, all trying to win, none
winning in the end =for there is no end>.
). -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> critici!e the infle2ibility of (merican economic mythology =B> contrast 86ld 5orld9 and 8"ew 5orld9 economic ideologies =C> challenge the integrity of traditional political leaders =?> champion those (mericans whom the author deems to be neglected =;> suggest a substitute for the traditional metaphor of a race ,. (ccording to the passage, 86ld 5orld9 values were based on =(> ability =B> property =C> family connections =?> guild hierarchies =;> education 1. 'n the conte2t of the author0s discussion of regulating change, which of the following could be most probably regarded as a 8strong referee9 =line 1&> in the United States@ =(> ( school principal =B> ( political theorist =C> ( federal court .udge =?> ( social worker
=C> revealed the pre.udices of a man born wealthy =?> foreshadowed the stock market crash of )*,* =;> began a tradition of presidential proclamations on economics /. -he passage contains information that would answer which of the following #uestions@ Ⅰ.5hat techni#ues have industrialists used to manipulate a free market@ Ⅱ.'n what ways are 8 "ew 5orld9 and 8 6ld 5orld9 economic policies similar@ Ⅲ. as economic policy in the United States tended to reward independent action@ =(> Ⅰonly =B> Ⅱonly =C> Ⅲ only =?> Ⅰand Ⅱ only =;> Ⅱand Ⅲ only *. 5hich of the following best e2presses the author0s main point@ =(> (mericans0 pride in their .obs continues to give them stamina today. =B> -he absence of a status quo ante has undermined United States economic structure. =C> -he free enterprise system has been only a useless concept in the United States =?> -he myth of the (merican free enterprise system is seriously flawed. =;> 4ascination with the ideal of 8openness9 has made (mericans a progressive people.
under oceans and continents are sufficient to produce convection in the mantle of the earth with rising convection currents under the midocean ridges and sinking currents under the continents. -heoretically, this convection would carry the continental plates along as though they were on a conveyor belt and would provide the forces needed to produce the split that occurs
the ridge. -his view may be correct< it has
the advantage that the currents are driven by temperature differences that themselves depend on the position of the continents. Such a backcoupling, in which the position of the moving
has an impact on the forces that move it,
could produce complicated and varying motions. 6n the other hand, the theory is implausible because convection does not normally occur along lines. and it certainly does not occur along
broken by fre#uent offsets or changes in
direction, as the ridge is. (lso it is difficult to see how the theory applies to the plate between the Cid-(tlantic Ridge and the ridge in the 'ndian 6cean. -his plate is growing on both sides, and since there is no intermediate trench, the two ridges must be moving apart. 't would be odd if the rising convection currents kept e2act pace with them. (n alternative theory is that the sinking part of the plate, which is denser than the
surrounding mantle, pulls the rest of the
plate after it. (gain it is difficult to see how this applies to the ridge in the South (tlantic, where neither the (frican nor the (merican plate has a sinking part.
"o very satisfactory account of the mechanism that caused the formation of the ocean basins has yet been given. -he traditional view supposes that the upper mantle of the earth behaves as a
(nother possibility is that the sinking plate cools the neighboring mantle and produces convection currents that move the plates. -his last theory is attractive because it gives some hope of e2plaining the enclosed seas, such as the Sea of
li#uid when it is sub.ected to small forces for long periods and that differences in temperature
-hese seas have a typical oceanic floor,
e2cept that the floor is overlaid by several kilometers of sediment. -heir floors have probably been sinking for long periods. 't seems possible that a sinking current of cooled mantle material
by back-coupling =;> account for the rising currents under certain midocean ridges A. -he author regards the traditional view of the origin of the oceans with =(> slight apprehension =B> absolute indifference =C> indignant anger =?> complete disbelief =;> guarded skepticism %. (ccording to the passage, which of the following are separated by a plate that is growing on both sides@ =(> -he 3acific 6cean and the Sea of Dapan =B> -he South (tlantic Ridge and the "orth Sea Ridge =C> -he Eulf of Ce2ico and the South (tlantic Ridge =?> -he Cid-(tlantic Ridge and the 'ndian 6cean Ridge =;> -he Black Sea and the Sea of Dapan B. 5hich of the following, if it could be demonstrated, would most support the traditional view of ocean formation@ =(> Convection usually occurs along lines. =B> -he upper mantle behaves as a dense solid. =C> Sedimentation occurs at a constant rate. =?> Sinking plates cool the mantle. =;> 'sland arcs surround enclosed seas. +. (ccording to the passage, the floor of the Black Sea can best be compared to a =(> rapidly moving conveyor belt =B> slowly settling foundation =C> rapidly e2panding balloon =?> violently erupting volcano =;> slowly eroding mountain /. 5hich of the following titles would best describe the content of the passage@
on the upper side of the plate might be the cause of such deep basins. -he enclosed seas are an important feature of the earth0s surface, and seriously re#uire e2planation in because, addition to the enclosed seas that are developing at present behind island arcs, there are a number of
older ones of possibly similar origin, such as the Eulf of Ce2ico, the Black Sea, and perhaps the "orth Sea.
). (ccording to the traditional view of the origin of the ocean basins, which of the following is sufficient to move the continental plates@ =(> 'ncreases in sedimentation on ocean floors =B> Spreading of ocean trenches =C> Covement of mid-ocean ridges =?> Sinking of ocean basins =;> ?ifferences in temperature under oceans and continents ,. 't can be inferred from the passage that, of the following, the deepest sediments would be found in the =(> 'ndian 6cean =B> Black Sea =C> Cid-(tlantic =?> South (tlantic =;> 3acific 1. -he author refers to a 8conveyor belt 9 in line )1 in order to =(> illustrate the effects of convection in the mantle =B> show how temperature differences depend on the positions of the continents =C> demonstrate the linear nature of the Cid-(tlantic Ridge =?> describe the complicated motions made possible
solved the problems of powered flight. the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. and hind feet are reptilian.> pterosaurs walked on all fours . 3erhaps the least controversial assertion about the (10) pterosaurs even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. -he wind that made such waves however.. 'n pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a winglike membrane. dense. by dropping from trees.fforts to e2plain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by . 'n the birds. -he anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. the pterosaurs.ect to aerodynamic constraints. have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. -he recent discovery Passage 4 -he fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates. u2ley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warmblooded because flying implies a high rate of (35) metabolism. -he pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in (25) their overall structure and proportions. u2ley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. (45) or had wingspans from / to ).umping from cliffs. might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to -he other fingers were short and reptilian.=(> ( ?escription of the 6ceans of the 5orld =B> Several -heories of 6cean Basin 4ormation =C> -he -raditional Fiew of the 6ceans =?> Convection and 6cean Currents =. ow such large creatures. -. -heir skulls. . these (30) bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts. and e2actly what these creatures were--reptiles or birds-are among the #uestions scientists have pu!!led over. which in turn implies a high internal tem- perature. a feature that represents a savings in weight. and with it the wing. -he author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created (20) pterosaur walked or remained stationary. -he third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider (5) and of a pterosaur specimen covered in long. -he first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs0 hind feet resembled a bat0s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. -he second (50) is that they were reptiles. and (40) relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct. 'f the pterosaurs walked on all fours. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones. 5hen a (55) control their flight once airborne. 't can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the =(> enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances =B> structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats =C> fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight =?> pterosaurs were reptiles =. with sharp claws.> -emperature ?ifferences (mong the 6ceans of the 5orld (lthough scales typically cover reptiles. . however. meters. the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. the fourth finger. . pelvises. . -his is not sur- prising because the design of any flying vertebrate is sub. ). which consists primarily of feathers. (15) hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings.ach hypothesis has its difficulties. 'n birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing. could only turn upward in an e2tended inverted F-shape along each side of the animal0s body.
=C> (nimals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time. our social statistics e2aggerate the degree of hard(5) ship. =C> -hey flew in order to capture prey. the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the =(> si!e of its wingspan =B> presence of hollow spaces in its bones =C> anatomic origin of its wing strut =?> presence of hooklike pro. and their implications for future study are pro.> consumed twice their weight daily to maintain their body temperature Passage 5 ow many really suffer as a result of labor market problems@ -his is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy #uestions. u2ley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements@ =(> (n animal0s brain si!e has little bearing on its ability to master comple2 behaviors. and when there .> -he pterosaurs should be classified as birds. and conclusions are drawn.> -hey lived primarily in a forestlike habitat. =?> -hey were an early stage in the evolution of the birds. =B> -hree e2planations for a phenomenon are presented. Unemployment does not have the same dire conse#uences today as it did in the )*1&0s when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners. %. =.oint . .5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation of the last paragraph of the passage@ =(> "ew evidence is introduced to support a traditional point of view.> ( summary of the material in the preceding paragraphs is presented.oining the wing to its body A. (ccording to the passage. =?> Recent discoveries are described. =C> -hree hypotheses are outlined. B. =B> (n animal0s appearance is often influenced by environmental re#uirements and physical capabilities.by waves as =(> revolutionary =B> unlikely =C> unassailable =?> probable =. 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs@ =(> -hey were unable to fold their wings when not in use. and evidence supporting each is given.ected =. =B> -hey hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight. -he ideas attributed to -. =?> -he origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of speciali!ation or adaptation.ections on its hind feet =. 'n many ways. +. not reptiles.> outdated 1. 't can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs =(> lived near large bodies of water =B> had sharp teeth for tearing food =C> were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles =?> had longer tails than many birds =.> location of the shoulder . =. and each is disputed by means of specific information. when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence.
income transfers in our country have neglecting the needs of the working poor. employment. 'ncreasing affluence. the overwhelming ma. and earnings statistics are inade#uate for one their primary applications. How wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment fre#uently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support. it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of thousands or the tens of millions. employment. .oblessness. -he author uses 8labor market problems9 in lines )-.(10) were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labor market. and depen(45)dent. measuring the conse#uences of labor market problems. and improved social welfare pro(50) (s a result of such contradictory evidence. -here is only one area of agreement in this debate---that the e2isting poverty. Cost of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force. Since the number e2periencing . whether high levels of . that transfers ing in the labor market are ade#uately protected. -he author contrasts the )*1&0s with the present in order to show that =(> more people were unemployed in the )*1&0s =B> unemployment now has less severe effects =C> social programs are more needed now =?> there now is a greater proportion of elderly and (25) accurate indicator of labor market pathologies. so the poverty statistics are by no means an ). or else outside the labor force but wanting a . so the dramatic e2pansion of cash and in-kind does not necessarily mean that those fail- always focused on the elderly.obless in any month really suffer.> ow social statistics give an unclear picture of the degree of hardship caused by low wages and insufficient employment opportunities .oblessness at some time during the year is several times (35)the number unemployed in any month. (mong the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level. -he unemployment counts e2clude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are (30) so low that their families remain in poverty. 4inally.obs providing ade#uate income =. #uences of . and. the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed. and earnings figures =.ority (20) are from multiple-earner. hence.ob creation and (55) (15) tection have un#uestionably mitigated the conse- economic stimulus. relatively affluent families. the rise of families with more than one wage earner.arnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hardship. disabled.ob. there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work.. 4or every person counted in the monthly (40) unemployment tallies. 5hich of the following is the principal topic of the passage@ =(> 5hat causes labor market pathologies that result in suffering =B> 5hy income measures are imprecise in measuring degrees of poverty =C> 5hich of the currently used statistical procedures are the best for estimating the incidence of hardship that is due to unemployment =?> 5here the areas of agreement are among poverty. to refer to which of the following@ =(> -he overall causes of poverty =B> ?eficiencies in the training of the work force =C> -rade relationships among producers of goods =?> Shortages of .> Strikes and inade#uate supplies of labor 1.oblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by . even though only a minority of the . . Get there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labor-market-related hardship. those who suffer as a result of forced idleness can e#ual or e2ceed average annual unemployment.
besides the unemployed. one factor that causes unemployment and earnings figures to overpredict the amount of economic hardship is the =(> recurrence of periods of unemployment for a group of low-wage workers =B> possibility that earnings may be received from more than one . -he author states that the mitigating effect of social programs involving income transfers on the income level of low-income people is often not felt by =(> the employed poor =B> dependent children in single-earner families =C> workers who become disabled =?> retired workers =. different people are unemployed =. =. both underemployed part-time workers and those not actively seeking work =?> at different times during the year. is the best criticism of the author0s argument concerning why poverty .ob per worker =C> fact that unemployment counts do not include those who work for low wages and remain poor =?> establishment of a system of record-keeping that makes it possible to compile poverty statistics =. -he conclusion stated in lines 11-1* about the number of people who suffer as a result of forced idleness depends primarily on the point that =(> in times of high unemployment. of members of families in which others are employed /. 5hich of the following.ob vacancies. there are some people who do not remain unemployed for long =B> the capacity for self-support depends on receiving moderate-to-high wages =C> those in forced idleness include.handicapped people among those in poverty =.oblessness as an evil greater than economic control and those who hold the opposite view.-he author0s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly unemployed during a twelve-month period is most probably to show that =(> there are several factors that cause the payment of low wages to some members of the labor force =B> unemployment statistics can underestimate the hardship resulting from .> -he labor force should be restructured so that it corresponds to the range of . among low-wage workers and the unemployed. =B> ( compromise should be found between the positions of those who view .5hich of the following proposals best responds to the issues raised by the author@ =(> 'nnovative programs using multiple approaches should be set up to reduce the level of unemployment.> full-time workers who become unemployed +.> poverty has increased since the )*1&0s A. =?> Consideration should be given to the ways in which statistics can act as partial causes of the phenomena that they purport to measure.oblessness =C> recurrent inade#uacies in the labor market can e2ist and can cause hardships for individual workers =?> a ma. (ccording to the passage.> many of those who are affected by unemployment are dependents of unemployed workers *.ority of those who are . %.obless at any one time to not suffer severe hardship =.obs at some time during a year than would be e2pected on the basis of monthly unemployment figures B.> prevalence. =C> "ew statistical indices should be developed to measure the degree to which unemployment and inade#uately paid employment cause suffering.> there are fewer individuals who are without . if true.
found themselves under financial stress. =C> 3overty statistics do not consistently agree with earnings statistics. known as goyo-kin7 . and since the income of Dapan0s central government consisted in part of ta2es collected by the shogun from his (35) huge domain.obs because the basic number of those unable to accept employment remains appro2imately constant. Dapan0s feudal overlords. ?irect ta2ation of the samurai themselves would be politically dangerous. Cash profits from government-owned mines Passage 6 'n the eighteenth century. =B> 4or those who are in poverty as a result of . Concentration of the samurai in castle-towns had acted as a stimulus to trade.oblessness. poor workers in one country are competing with poor workers in another with respect to the level of wages and the e2istence of . Since most samurai had been reduced to idleness by years of peace. or so it seemed. despite the increase in rice production among their tenant obtaining such revenue was soon found by levying forced ioans. in further reclamation was technically unfeasi- ble. (50) (10) turn. 't appeared reasonable that they should contribute part of that revenue to ease the shogun0s burden of financing the state. 6verlords0 income. the -okugawa shoguns began to look to other sources for revenue. encouraged to engage in scholarship and martial e2ercises or to perform administrative tasks that took little time. when each is taken as a measure of hardship resulting from unemployment.statistics cannot properly be used to show the effects of problems in the labor market@ =(> ( short-term increase in the number of those in poverty can indicate a shortage of . 6pening up new farmland was a possibility. could put a domain in debt to the city rice-brokers who handled its finances. -his left the shoguns only commerce as a potential source of government income. neither the individual samurai nor the shogun himself found it easy to recover. bringing an increase in e2penses or a drop (25) in revenue. this stress can be attributed to (5) were already on the decline because the most (40) easily worked deposits of silver and gold had been e2hausted. from the shogun to the humblest samurai. was finding its way into the hands of city merchants. the government too was con- strained. but the stress was also due to factors beyond the overlords0 control. although debasement of the coinage had compensated for the loss. 6nce in debt.obs. had put temptations in the way of buyers. =. ( means (55) of (15) not surprising that their tastes and habits grew e2pensive. it is Cost of the country0s wealth. there are social programs available that provide a minimum standard of living.> Since the labor market is global in nature. failed to keep pace with their e2penses. but most of what was suitable had already been e2ploited (45) and the overlords0 failure to ad. (lthough shortfalls in overlords0 income resulted almost as much from la2ity among their ta2 collectors =the nearly inevitable outcome of hereditary officeholding> as from their higher standards of living. (30) (20) farmers. 't was difficult for individual samurai overlords to increase their income because the amount of rice that farmers could be made to pay in ta2es was not unlimited. -herefore. a misfortune like a fire or flood. Commercial efficiency.ust to a rapidly e2panding economy. 'n part. =?> -he elderly and handicapped categories include many who previously were employed in the labor market.
> 3rofoundly shocked A. =. 5hich of the following could best be substituted for the word 8-his 9 in line A+ without changing the meaning of the passage@ =(> -he search of Dapan0s -okugawa shoguns for they pushed up prices.although these were not ta2es in the strict sense. they were high in yield. since they were irregular in timing and arbitrary in amount. but insurance covers the cost of rebuilding. 5hich of the following best describes the attitude of the author toward the samurai discussed in lines ))-)B@ =(> 5armly approving =B> Cildly sympathetic . =. (60) =C> Bitterly disappointed =?> arshly disdainful =. ). regrettably. -he passage is most probably an e2cerpt from =(> an economic history of Dapan =B> the memoirs of a samurai warrior =C> a modern novel about eighteenth-century Dapan =?> an essay contrasting Dapanese feudalism with its 5estern counterpart =.> the samurai had concentrated in castle-towns %. but is able to pay off its debt early when it is awarded a lucrative government contract.> an introduction to a collection of Dapanese folktales . Unfortunately. -hus. =?> -he domains of samurai overlords were becoming smaller and poorer as government revenues increased. (ccording to the passage. in eighteenth-century Dapan.> took up most of the officeholder0s time +.or reason for the financial problems e2perienced by Dapan0s feudal overlords in the eighteenth century was that =(> spending had outdistanced income =B> trade had fallen off =C> profits from mining had declined =?> the coinage had been sharply debased =. =B> 4ire destroys a small business. 5hich of the following financial situations is most analogous to the financial situation in which Dapan0s -okugawa shoguns found themselves in the eighteenth century@ =(> ( small business borrows heavily to invest in new e#uipment. -he passage suggests that. the ma.> ( small business is able to cut back sharply on spending through greater commercial efficiency and thereby compensate for a loss of revenue.ust to the needs of a changing economy. B. the office of ta2 collector =(> was a source of personal profit to the officeholder =B> was regarded with derision by many Dapanese =C> remained within families =?> e2isted only in castle-towns =. the -okugawa shoguns0 search for solvency for the government made it increasingly difficult for individual Dapanese who lived on fi2ed stipends to make ends meet. 1.-he passage implies that individual samurai did not find it easy to recover from debt for which of the following reasons@ =(> (gricultural production had increased.. =C> ( small business is turned down for a loan at a local bank because the owners have no credit history@ =?> ( small business has to struggle to meet operating e2penses when its profits decrease.> -here was a limit to the amount in ta2es that farmers could be made to pay. =B> -a2es were irregular in timing and arbitrary in amount. =C> -he Dapanese government had failed to ad.
and its (15) influence e2tended far beyond its borders. a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe (5) internal decline. -he wealth of the state and its sub. =C> Dapan had suffered a series of economic reversals due to natural disasters such as floods. By!antine resources naturally e2panded and more money became available to patroni!e art and literature.?. -he common e2planation of these apparent connections in the case of By!antium would run like this< when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its territory. the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year B&&.mpire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival. -o consider the By!antine military. By the early eighth century. Rome under (ugustus and fifth-century (thens provide the most obvious e2amples in anti#uity. (fter all. economic . these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civili!ations. =B> Cost of the country0s wealth appeared to be in city merchants0 hands.> 4urther reclamation of land would not have been economically advantageous. -herefore.ects was greatly diminished. cultural. By the early eleventh century. Get it is not clear that military advances invariably came first. -he economy had recovered. its new frontiers were secure. economic. =. By!antine military achievements led to (35) economic own territory and had begun to raid and con#uer enemy advances.> -he difficulty e2perienced by both individual samurai and the shogun himself in e2tricating themselves from debt /. the By!antine . Coreover. and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single (20) phenomenon is reasonable. *. who at times threatened to take Constantinople and e2tinguish the (10) empire altogether. the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions. the actions of the -okugawa shoguns in their search for solvency for the government were regrettable because those actions =(> raised the cost of living by pushing up prices =B> resulted in the e2haustion of the most easily worked deposits of silver and gold =C> were far lower in yield than had originally been anticipated =?> did not succeed in reducing government spending =. and cultural forms of progress might help e2plain the dynamics of historical change. -he passage implies that which of the following was the primary reason why the -okugawa shoguns turned to city merchants for help in financing the state@ =(> ( series of costly wars had depleted the national treasury. which in turn led to cultural revival. "o doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. and its remaining area was being raided by (rabs and Bulgarians. an e2amination of the apparent se#uential connections among military. however. and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. =?> -he merchants were already heavily indebted to the shoguns. and art and scholarship had advanced..> acted as a deterrent to trade (30) (25) Passage 7 Between the eighth and eleventh centuries (. the treasury was full.solvency =B> -he importance of commerce in feudal Dapan =C> -he unfairness of the ta2 structure in eighteenthcentury Dapan =?> -he difficulty of increasing government income by other means =. (ccording to the passage.
mpire was a uni#ue case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed. the military balance with the (bbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire0s favor.> -he revival of the By!antine .mpire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the se#uence of revivals in (ugustan Rome and fifthcentury (thens. and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered.> had achieved control of By!antine governmental structures . a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in (50) )A%1. cultural.mpire sustained significant territorial losses =(> in B&& =B> during the seventh century =C> a century after the cultural achievements of the By!antine . =. a cultural revival was in full bloom. -he beginning of the empire0s economic revival. the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress. economic. 'n the (40) /B&0s . =?> -he eighth-century revival of By!antine learning is an ine2plicable phenomenon. wherever possible. -he primary purpose of the second paragraph is which of the following@ =(> -o establish the uni#ueness of the By!antine revival =B> -o show that (ugustan Rome and fifth-century (thens are e2amples of cultural. =B> -he economic. by the last decade of the eighth century. 't can be inferred from the passage that the By!antine . can be placed between /)& and /1&. =?> -o argue that. cultural e2pansion that lasted until )A%1. while the revivals of (ugustan Rome and fifth-century (thens were similar.-hus the commonly e2pected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in By!antium. %. and military revival in the By!antine .. 'n the third paragraph. (45) 4inally.mpire had been lost =?> soon after the revival of By!antine learning =. the By!antine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. and intellectual advances third.mpire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival. they are unrelated to other historical e2amples =. ).> in the century after /+1 1. 5hich of the following best states the central idea of the passage@ =(> -he By!antine . 't can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the By!antine military forces =(> had reached their peak and begun to decline =B> had eliminated the Bulgarian army =C> were comparable in si!e to the army of Rome under (ugustus =?> were strong enough to withstand the (bbasid Caliphate0s military forces =.advances second. the revival of By!antine learning may itself have influenced the subse#uent economic and military e2pansion. ( number of notable scholars and writers appeared by +// and. later. the author most probably A. historians should seek to make comparisons with the earliest chronological e2amples of revival the By!antine . and military e2pansion against which all subse#uent cases must be measured =C> -o suggest that cultural.mpire began to recover from (rab incursions so that by /+.> -o indicate that. =C> (fter /)& By!antine economic recovery spurred a military and. 'n fact. economic. and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies. however.
(ccording to the author. =?> -he revival of By!antine learning began toward the end of the eighth century. Get there is another form of radiation that permeates the universe< (5) neutrinos. =C> -he By!antine economic recovery began in the *&&0s. 8-he common e2planation9 =line . the apparatus must be sufficiently shielded from the interfering effects of other particles. neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked production< therefore.mpire =B> reasonable. But a neutrino telescope. is difficult to construct.ects outside the solar system is based on the detection of photons-#uanta of electromagnetic radiation.> argue that military con#uest is the paramount element in the growth of empires B. and cultural development is =(> revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the By!antine . (20) Rome =. .provides an e2planation of the apparent connections among economic. economic. military. and cultural advances in ancient Ereece and (25) research with neutrinos has been with neutrinos created artificially in large particle accelerators and studied under neutrino microscopes. but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival =?> e#ually applicable to the By!antine case as a whole and to the history of military. and negligible mass. =B> -he By!antine cultural revival lasted until )A%1.> By the early eleventh century the By!antine .> essentially not helpful. But how can scientists detect a particle that interacts so infre#uently with other matter@ -wenty-five years passed between 3auli0s hypothesis that the neutrino e2isted and its actual detection< since then virtually all cosmic phenomena and about the history of the uni- +.mpire had regained much of its lost territory. "eu(10) trinos can thus escape from regions of space where light by matter. economic. but an anti#uated theory of the nature of progress =C> not applicable to the By!antine revival as a whole. =. without being absorbed or even deflected. because military. because great mass is synonymous with huge numbers of nucleons =neutrons and protons>. the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe. and cultural development in order to =(> suggest that the process of revival in By!antium accords with this model =B> set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of By!antium =C> cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about By!antium =?> suggest that By!antium represents a case for which no historical precedent e2ists =. "o apparatus can detect neutrinos unless it is e2tremely massive. 4urthermore. even traversing substantial aggregations of matter. and cultural advances are part of a single phenomenon Passage 8 Firtually everything astronomers known about ob. the greater the pro(30) bability of one of its nucleon0s reacting with a neutrino. and the more massive the detector. 5ith =as its name implies> no electric charge. the detection of cosmic neutrinos (15) could provide new information about a wide variety of verse. 5hich of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the By!antine revival began@ =(> -he By!antine military revival of the /B&0s led to economic and cultural advances. military. 'n addition./> of connections between economic. capable of detecting cosmic neutrinos.
=?> "eutrino astronomy will disclose phenomena that will be more surprising than past discoveries. =B> "eutrino astronomy will be abandoned if the A. the result is a cascade of electrically charged particles and a flash of light that can be detected by the sensors. "eutrino astronomy will doubtless bring its own share of surprises. -he detecting medium is the seawater itself< when a neutrino interacts with a is that it will e2ploit an important source of information about the universe.. =C> "eutrino astronomy can be e2pected to lead to ma. #uasars.ect apparatus mentioned in lines .ect fails.4ortunately.A-1. the primary use of the and other matter are .> "eutrino astronomy will always be characteri!ed by a large time lag between hypothesis and e2perimental confirmation. .> contrast the motivation of earlier astronomers with that of the astrophysicists working on the ?UC("? pro.> -he 3roperties of the "eutrino . the author describes the development of astronomy in order to =(> suggest that the potential findings of neutrino astronomy can be seen as part of a series of astronomical successes =B> illustrate the role of surprise in scientific discovery =C> demonstrate the effectiveness of the ?UC("? apparatus in detecting neutrinos =?> name some cosmic phenomena that neutrino astronomy will illuminate =. (ccording to the passage.> are very similar to other electromagnetic particles 1. 'n the last paragraph.> detect the presence of cosmic neutrinos B.or breakthroughs in astronomy. "amed ?UC("?. a group of astrophysicists has proposed a means of detecting cosmic neutrinos by harnessing the (35) mass (40)particle in an atom of seawater. would be to =(> increase the mass of a neutrino =B> interpret the information neutrinos carry with them =C> study the internal structure of a neutrino =?> see neutrinos in distant regions of space =.ect ?UC("? pro. one advantage that neutrinos have for studies in astronomy is that they =(> have been detected for the last twenty-five years =B> possess a variable electric charge =C> are usually e2tremely massive =?> carry information about their history with them =. and pulsars.ect calls for placing an array of light sensors at a depth of five kilometers under the ocean surface. -he strongest motivation for the ?UC("? pro. the pro. 5ith which of the following statements regarding neutrino astronomy would the author be most likely to agree@ =(> "eutrino astronomy will supersede all present forms of astronomy. -he passage states that interactions between neutrinos %.ach of these discoveries came as a surprise. for ?eep Under- water Cuon and "eutrino ?etector. =. ). -he e2tension of astronomy from visible light to radio waves to 2-rays and gamma rays (50) never through the atmosphere. 5hich of the following titles best summari!es the passage as a whole@ =(> (t the -hreshold of "eutrino (stronomy =B> "eutrinos and the istory of the Universe =C> -he Creation and Study of "eutrinos =?> -he ?UC("? System and ow 't 5orks =. -he five kilometers of seawater above the sensors will shield them from the interfering effects of other high-energy particles raining down (45) of the ocean. failed to lead to the discovery of unusual ob.ects such as radio gala2ies.(ccording to the passage.
ence. (ccording to the passage.=(> rare =B> artificial =C> undetectable =?> unpredictable =. usually in an overt fashion. -hat each large firm will act with consideration of its own needs and thus avoid selling its products for more than its competitors charge is commonly recogni!ed by advocates of free-market economic theories. 4ormal price-fi2ing Passage 9 Cost economists in the united States seem (40) by cartel and informal price-fi2ing by agreements .> e2periments with electromagnetic radiation (30) (25) (20) (15) captivated by the spell of the free market. established by anyone other than the aggregate of consumers seems pernicious. it re#uires a ma.ach large firm will thus avoid significant price-cutting. -hese economies employ intentional price-fi2ing. -he passage mentions which of the following as a reason that neutrinos are hard to detect@ =(> -heir pervasiveness in the universe =B> -heir ability to escape from different regions of space =C> -heir inability to penetrate dense matter =?> -he similarity of their structure to that of nucleons =. Cost economists do not see price-fi2ing when it occurs because they e2pect it to be brought about by a number of e2plicit agreements among large firms7 it is not. one of the methods used to establish the properties of neutrinos was =(> detection of photons =B> observation of the interaction of neutrinos with gamma rays =C> observation of neutrinos that were artificially created =?> measurement of neutrinos that interacted with particles of seawater =. nothing seems good or normal that does not accord with the re#uirements of the free market. Coreover. price-fi2ing is normal in all industriali!ed societies because the industrial system itself provides. (ccording to the passage.or act of will to think of price-fi2ing =the determination of prices by the (10) seller> as both 8normal9 and having a valuable economic function. as an effortless conse#uence of its own development.udicial to the common interest in a stable demand for products. for that matter. Conse#uently. But each large firm will also act with full consideration of the needs that it has in common with the other large firms competing for the same customers.> a situation in which light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation are blocked *. because pricecutting would be pre. (5) ( price that is determined by the seller or.> -he infre#uency of their interaction with other matter /. 'n fact. those economists who argue that allowing the free market to operate without inter(35) ference is the most efficient method of establishing prices have not considered the economies of nonsocialist countries other than the United states. (ccordingly. . the interaction of a neutrino with other matter can produce =(> particles that are neutral and massive =B> a form of radiation that permeates the universe =C> inaccurate information about the site and circumstances of the neutrino0s production =?> charged particles and light =. the price-fi2ing that it re#uires. a comparatively small number of large firms will be competing for the same group of consumers.> ha!ardous +. Codern industrial planning re#uires and rewards great si!e.
't can be inferred from the author0s argument that a price fi2ed by the seller 8seems pernicious9=line +> because =(> people do not have confidence in large firms =B> people do not e2pect the government to regulate prices =C> most economists believe that consumers as a group should determine prices =?> most economists associate fi2ed prices with communist and socialist economies =. -he passage provides information that would answer which of the following #uestions about price-fi2ing@ . ). -he suggestion in the passage that price-fi2ing in industriali!ed societies is normal arises from the author0s statement that price-fi2ing is =(> a profitable result of economic development =B> an inevitable result of the industrial system =C> the result of a number of carefully organi!ed and used the second would have suffered drastically in their economic development.5hat are some of the ways in which prices can be fi2ed@ Ⅱ.usting prices that a more informal evolution has accorded the capitalist system..covering the members of an industry are commonplace.> argue that price-fi2ing.> most economists believe that no one group should determine prices %. .'s price-fi2ing more common in socialist industriali!ed societies or in nonsocialist industriali!ed societies@ =(> Ⅰonly =B> Ⅲ only =C> Ⅰand Ⅱonly =?> Ⅱand Ⅲ only =. -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> refute the theory that the free market plays a useful role in the development of industriali!ed societies =B> suggest methods by which economists and members of the government of the United States can recogni!e and combat price-fi2ing by large firms =C> show that in industriali!ed societies price-fi2ing and the operation of the free market are not only compatible but also mutually beneficial =?> e2plain the various ways in which industriali!ed societies can fi2 prices in order to stabili!e the free market =.> Ⅰ. in one form or another. (55) But Soviet firms are no more sub.Ⅱ. 4or what products is price-fi2ing likely to be more profitable that the operation of the free market@ Ⅲ. is an inevitable part of and benefit to the economy of any industriali!ed society . 5ere there something peculiarly efficient about the free market and inefficient about pricefi2ing. Soviet firms have been given the power to fi2 prices.conomists in the United States have hailed the change as a return to the free market.> uncertain but interested A. -he author0s attitude toward 8Cost economists in the United States9=line )> can best be described as =(> spiteful and envious =B> scornful and denunciatory =C> critical and condescending =?> ambivalent but deferential =.and Ⅲ 1. the countries that have avoided the first (45) Ⅰ. (50) the Soviet Union began to give firms and industries some of the fle2ibility in ad. Socialist industry also works within a framework of controlled prices. -here is no indication that they have. 'n the early )*+&0s.ect to prices established by a free market over which they e2ercise little influence than are capitalist firms7 rather.
> a phenomenon best achieved cooperatively by government and industry B. an en!yme that breaks down the chemical called cyclic (C3. conse#uently. *. ?aly and Bruns have recently proposed that caffeine affects behavior by countering the activity in (5) the human brain of a naturally occurring chemical called adenosine. prolonged periods at the elevated concentrations. which is struc(15) /. adenosine must first bind to specific receptors on neuronal membranes. 4or many years. could lead to a greater amount of neuron firing and. =. price-fi2ing in nonsocialist countries is often =(> accidental but productive =B> illegal but useful =C> legal and innovative =?> traditional and rigid =. Coreover. (ccording to the author. (ccording to the author.ust to tech nological advances. chemicals that carry nerve impulses from one neuron to the ne2t.( number of neurotransmitters e2ert their effects by first increasing cyclic (C3 concentrations in target neurons. which prevents adenosine from attaching there and allows the neurons to fire more readily than they otherwise would. to behavioral stimulation. as might be brought about by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. =(> predicting the conse#uences of a practice =B> critici!ing a point of view =C> calling attention to recent discoveries =?> proposing a topic for research =. -herefore.> Soviet firms are more responsive to the free market. 't apparently does this by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters.arth .> summari!ing conflicting opinions Passage 10 Caffeine. 5ith which of the following statements regarding the behavior of large firms in industriali!ed societies would the author be most likely to agree@ =(> -he directors of large firms will continue to anticipate the demand for products =B> -he directors of large firms are less interested in achieving a predictable level of profit than in achieving a large profit. -here are at least two classes of these receptors. =B> Soviet firms have less control over the free market. (denosine normally depresses neuron firing in many areas of the brain. the stimulant in coffee.decisions =?> a phenomenon common to industriali!ed and nonindustriali!ed societies =. what is the result of the Soviet Union0s change in economic policy in the )*+&0s =(> Soviet firms show greater profit. caffeine0s effects have been attributed to its inhibition of the production of phosphodiesterase. the author is primarily concerned with (30) (25) (20) turally similar to adenosine. other com- . =?> Soviet firms have some authority to fi2 prices.. 'n the passage. is able to bind to both types of receptors. But Snyder et al point out that the caffeine concentrations needed to inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase in the brain are much higher than those that produce stimulation. =C> Soviet firms are able to ad.> Cany directors of large firms believe that the price charged for products is likely to increase annually. Snyder et al propose that caffeine. which have been designated () and (. (10) Hike many other agents that affect neuron firing. has been called 8the most widely used psychoactive substance on .9 Synder.> intentional and widespread +. =C> -he directors of large firms will strive to reduce the costs of their products =?> Cany directors of large firms believe that the government should establish the prices that will be charged for products =.
1. a not unusual occurrence with psychoactive drugs.9 they reported.> -he concentration of 'BCI re#uired to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in mouse brains is much smaller than the concentration that stimulates locomotion in the mouse. .> inhibits both neuron firing and the production of phosphodiesterase when there is a sufficient venting adenosine binding. whereas adenosine decreases such concentrations =?> permits release of neurotransmitters when it is bound to adenosine receptors.9 -heophylline.. the higher their capacity to bind at the receptors. which bound very (50) well but actually depressed mouse locomotion. whereas adenosine inhibits such release =.ven caffeine. 6ne of these was a compound called 1-isobuty)-)-methyl2anthine='BCI>. was one of the most (45) effective compounds in both regards.or stumbling block to their hypothesis. ). 5hich of the following. =. whereas adenosine has only a stimulatory effect =C> increases cyclic (C3 concentrations in target neurons.> challenge the validity of a theory by e2posing the inconsistencies and contradictions in it . =?> -he concentration of caffeine re#uired to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in the human brain is much greater than the concentration that produces behavioral stimulation in humans.e. (ccording so Snyder et al. if true. whereas adenosine stimulates behavior in humans only =B> has mi2ed effects in the brain.pounds that block phosphodiesterase0s activity are not stimulants. 8the =B> -he ability of caffeine derivatives at very low (40) correlates with their ability to stimulate locomotion in the mouse7 i. concentrations to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in mouse brains correlates well with their ability to stimulate mouse locomotion at these low concentrations =C> -he concentration of cyclic (C3 in target neurons in the human brain that leads to increased neuron firing can be produced by several different phosphodi esterase inhibitors in addition to caffeine. -o buttress their case that caffeine acts instead by pre(35) . Snyder et al compared the stimulatory effects of a series of caffeine derivatives with their ability to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in ability of the compounds to compete at the receptors the brains of mice. -here were some apparent e2ceptions to the general correlation observed between adenosine-receptor binding and stimulation. a close structural relative of caffeine and the ma. displays this property. -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> discuss a plan for investigation of a phenomenon that is not yet fully understood =B> present two e2planations of a phenomenon and reconcile the differences between them =C> summari!e two theories and suggest a third theory that overcomes the problems encountered in the first two =?> describe an alternative hypothesis and provide evidence and arguments that support it =. depressing mouse locomotion at very low concentrations and stimulating it at higher ones. would most weaken the theory proposed by Snyder et al@ =(> (t very low concentrations in the human brain. both caffeine and theophylline tend to have depressive rather than stimulatory effects on human behavior.. which is generally (55) known only for its stimulatory effects. 8'n general. caffeine differs from adenosine in that caffeine =(> stimulates behavior in the mouse and in humans.or stimulant in tea. the higher their ability to stimulate locomotion. -he problem is that the compound has mi2ed effects in the brain. Snyder et al suggest that this is not a ma.
Substances other than caffeine that inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase would be stimulants. which of the following would have to be the case@ Ⅰ.(ll neurotransmitters would increase the short-term concentration of cyclic (C3 in target neurons.> the ability to dislodge caffeine from receptors in the brain and (. =(> Ⅰ only =B> Ⅰ and Ⅱ only =C> Ⅰand Ⅲ only =?> Ⅱ and Ⅲ only =. =?> Reports inconsistent e2perimental data and describes the method Snyder et al will use to reanaly!e this data. . Ⅲ. whereas adenosine inhibits only neuron firing A. Snyder et al suggest that caffeine0s ability to bind to () probably in order to =(> reveal some of the assumptions underlying their theory =B> summari!e a ma. (ccording to Snyder et al.> phosphodiesterase +. Snyder et al contended that it is not uncommon for psychoactive drugs to have =(> mi2ed effects in the brain =B> inhibitory effects on en!ymes in the brain =C> close structural relationships with caffeine =?> depressive effects on mouse locomotion =.3=(> 'BCI =B> caffeine =C> adenosine =?> theophylline =.> refute the ob.IC.Ⅱ. =B> Specifies the basis for the correlation observed by Snyder et al and presents an e2planation in an attempt to make the correlation consistent with the operation of psychoactive drugs other than caffeine. 'n response to e2perimental results concerning 'BCI.concentration in the brain. -he passage suggests that Snyder et al believe that if the older theory concerning caffeine0s effects were correct. all of the following compounds can bind to specific receptors in the brain . receptors can be at least partially attributed to which of the following@ =(> -he chemical relationship between caffeine and phosphodiesterase =B> -he structural relationship between caffeine and adenosine =C> -he structural similarity between caffeine and neurotransmitters =?> -he ability of caffeine to stimulate behavior =.or finding of their e2periments =C> point out that their e2periments were limited to the mouse =?> indicate that their e2periments resulted only in general correlations =. -he last paragraph of the passage performs which of the following functions@ =(> ?escribes a disconfirming e2perimental result and reports the e2planation given by Snyder et al in an attempt to reconcile this result with their theory.ections made by supporters of the older theory *. =C> .laborates the description of the correlation observed by Snyder et al and suggests an additional e2planation in an attempt to make the correlation consistent with the older theory. -he author #uotes Snyder et al in lines 1/-A1 most %.and Ⅲ B.> Ⅰ.> -he natural occurrence of caffeine and adenosine in the brain /.(ll concentration levels of caffeine that are high enough to produce stimulation would also inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase. Ⅱ.
everything that comes our of the ground has scientific value.> a new system for cataloguing duplicate artifacts Gou might ob. =B> Such artifacts seldom have scientific value. 'n one small e2cavation in Cyprus. =C> -here is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts. and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional archaeologist who e2cavated it@ (15) the e2cavation and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of results. it is the poorest of the poor. But the demand for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. (20) ). But. -heoretically. (30) about duplicate artifacts are true .&&& virtually indistinguishable small .&&& e2amples so far.IC. there is the problem of illegal e2cavation. you are wrong. once e2cavated. 3ractically.. 'ndeed.3-< =(> ( market for such artifacts already e2ists.=. 6nly paltry sums are available for e2cavating and even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the sites (5) (40) discovered in the future.> 3rovides an e2ample of the hypothesis proposed by Snyder et al and relates this e2ample to caffeine0s properties. not sold to the highest bidder. Get archaeologists deal with priceless ob. Sell nothing that has uni#ue ac#uire knowledge. ' agree. -he author implies that all of the following statements tific value. not money. (t the same time. thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal activities. Second. ' would propose that scientific archeological e2peditions and governmental authorities sell e2cavated artifacts on the open market. Coreover. ' would like to make an outrageous suggestion that each could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be maintained on the computer ( purchaser could even be re#uired to agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.ects every day. resulting in museum-#uality pieces being sold to the highest bidder. ' refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. -here is not enough money even to catalogue the finds7 as a result.. with the help of a computer. Such sales would provide substantial funds for would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market. 3rior to (45) sale.. archaeologists recently uncovered .=B> a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the (25) artistic merit or scientific value.ect that professionals e2cavate to facts are part of our global cultural heritage. ancient arti. you might reply. 't would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging (50) (10) would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal digging. they would break the illegal e2cavator0s grip on the market. -he basements of museums are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be Passage 11 (rchaeology as a profession faces two ma. they cannot be found again and become as inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. (35) a single courtyard. 5ho would want an unmarked pot when another was available whose provenance was known. -he primary purpose of the passage is to propose =(> an alternative to museum display of artifacts archaeological profession =C> a way to distinguish artifacts with scientific value from those that have no such value =?> the governmental regulation of archaeological sites =.or problems.ven precious royal seal impressions known asJmelekh handles have been found in abundance---more than A. ere we part company. 4irst. sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the pieces stored in bulging museum basements.ugs in . which should be available for all to appreciate. . you may be correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scien.
=.ections to the adoption of his proposal@ =(> Cuseum officials will become unwilling to store artifacts. =.and Ⅲ Passage 12 4ederal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the . =B> Space that could be better used for display is taken up for storage. =C> (rtifacts discovered in one e2cavation often become separated from each other. =. =B> (rtifacts that are very similar to each other present cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists. =C> (rtifacts that would have been displayed in public places will be sold to private collectors. =(> Ⅰonly =B> Ⅲ only =C> Ⅰand Ⅱonly =?> Ⅱ and Ⅲ only =. =?> Such artifacts are often damaged by variations in temperature and humidity. =B> -he price of illegally e2cavated artifacts would rise. Ⅱ. =C> (rtifacts that are not uni#uely valuable. +.> Such artifacts0 often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage. -he author mentions the e2cavation in Cyprus =lines 1)-1A> to emphasi!e which of the following points@ =(> (ncient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable. -he author anticipates which of the following initial ob. -he author implies that which of the following would occur if duplicate artifacts were sold on the open market@ Ⅰ. %. =?> 'llegal e2cavators will have an even larger supply of artifacts for resale. 1. than royal seal impressions.> 'llegal sales of duplicate artifacts are wide-spread. =?> 'llegal e2cavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.> Such artifacts fre#uently e2ceed in #uality those already catalogued in museum collections.> Ⅰ. are available in large #uantities.=?> Cuseums are well supplied with e2amples of such artifacts. -he author0s argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal e2cavation is based on which of the following assumptions@ =(> 3rospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.'llegal e2cavation would eventually cease completely. B. =?> Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing large #uantities of salable artifacts.(rchaeologists would be able to publish the results of their e2cavations more fre#uently than they currently do.> Coney gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal e2cavators. =. A. =C> Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts. particularly on the island of Cyprus. 5hich of the following is mentioned in the passage as a disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum basements@ =(> Cuseum officials rarely allow scholars access to such artifacts. =. and therefore could be sold.Cyprus would become the primary source of marketable duplicate artifacts Ⅲ. although more rare.> Counterfeiting of artifacts will become more commonplace.Ⅱ. =B> (n oversupply of salable artifacts will result and the demand for them will fall.
who are usually senior managers from sponsoring corporations.&&& in order to generate sufficient income and to sustain the #uality of management needed.udged by established business considerations. C.> 4or the first time since )*B&.SB'C directors may revert to policies likely to re-create the disappointing results of the original SB( approach.SB'C directors. the results were disappointing. intermediary companies.SB'C0s and they are concerned that.)*B&0s when the Small Business (dministration =SB(> began making federally guaranteed loans and government-sponsored management and technical assistance (5) available (40) the legal minimum of $%&&.SB'C. =. tend to approach investments in minority firms more pragmatically than do many C. minority businesses have begun to e2pand at a steady rate.ob-specific e2perience. large corporations are making significant contributions to the development or customers of the sponsoring company. C.SB'C0s for aiding minority entrepreneurs seems to have greater potential for success than does the original SB( approach.SB'C0c are now emerging as increasingly important financing sources for minority enterprises. aiding small minority enterprises and toward supporting larger. C. and capital shortages led to high failure rates. 5hich of the following best states the central idea of the passage@ =(> -he use of C. 4urther. since potential markets for the minority busi- (35) nesses already e2ist through the sponsoring companies. -he C.nterprise Small Business 'nvestment Company or C. as (30) well as substantial amounts of capital.SB'C0s far above the minority businesses face considerably less risk in . unless a more prudent course is followed.SB'C staffs.SB'C then provides capital and guidance to minority (25) businesses that have potential to become future suppliers ). =C> (fter initial problems with management and marketing. gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management e2perience and small amounts of capital available. should be . Recently federal policymakers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the (15) minority often still think mainly in terms of the 8social responsibility approach9 and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria business sector by moving away from directly growth-oriented minority firms would warrant. -hese staff members believe their point of view is closer to the original philosophy of C. sponsoring corporations began to capitali!e C. Such differences in viewpoint have produced uneasiness among many minority staff members. minority (50) business receipts were not #uite two percent of the national economy0s total receipts.ven )% (10) years 'ronically. -he latter after the program was implemented. -he capital is used by a participating company to establish a Cinority . =?> Cinority entrepreneurs wishing to form new businesses now have several e#ually successful federal programs on which to rely. (45) to minority business enterprises. terms of location and market fluctuation. large corporations participate in the development of successful and stable (20) through (55) who feel that minority entrepreneurs and businesses minority businesses by making use of governmentsponsored venture capital. 5hile this program enabled many minority entrepreneurs to form new businesses. C. unfavorable locations. which usually consist of ispanic and Black professionals. .SB'C0s are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techni#ues and more . since managerial ine2perience. 4ollowing early financial and operating problems.SB'C0s. =B> -here is a crucial difference in point of view between the staff and directors of some C. 'n this approach.
which of the following would be indicative of the pragmatism of C.SB'C limits on minimum funding .Ⅱ and Ⅲ B.SB'C0s =?> compare SB( and C.of minority businesses. 5hich of the following does the author cite to support the conclusion that the results of the SB( program were disappointing@ =(> -he small number of new minority enterprises formed as a result of the program =B> -he small number of minority enterprises that took advantage of the management and technical assistance offiered under the program =C> -he small percentage of the nation0s business receipts earned by minority enterprises following the programs.. ( desire to invest in minority businesses that produce goods and services likely to be of use to the sponsoring company Ⅲ.>Ⅰ.SB'C0s must receive ade#uate funding in order to function effectively =C> show that sponsoring companies were willing to invest only $%&&.SB'C staff members@ Ⅰ.> select minority businesses on the basis of their location 1.&&& of government-sponsored venture capital in the original C.> -he small number of minority enterprises that chose to participate in the program A. =C> -he anticipated failure rate for recipient businesses was significantly lower than the rate that actually resulted. =. 5hich of the following statements about the SB( program can be inferred from the passage@ =(> -he ma2imum term for loans made to recipient businesses was )% years.> -he capitali!ation needs of recipient businesses were assessed and then provided for ade#uately.SB'C approach differs from the SB( approach in that C.SB'C0S through sponsoring companies =B> call attention to the fact that C. -he author refers to the 8financial and operating problems9=line 1/ > encountered by C. (ccording to the passage.SB'C0s primarily in order to =(> broaden the scope of the discussion to include the legal considerations of funding C. =?> -he small percentage of recipient minority enterprises that were able to repay federally guaranteed loans made under the program =. the C. %. =?> Recipient businesses were encouraged to relocate to areas more favorable for business development.SB'C0s =(> seek federal contracts to provide markets for minority businesses =B> encourage minority businesses to provide markets for other minority businesses =C> attempt to maintain a specified rate of growth in the minority business sector =?> rely on the participation of large corporations to finance minority businesses =. Based on information in the passage. =B> Business loans were considered to be more useful to recipient businesses than was management and technical assistance.( reluctance to invest in minority businesses that show marginal e2pectations of return on the investments Ⅱ. . implementation. ( belief that the minority business sector is best served by investing primarily in newly established businesses =(>Ⅰonly =B> Ⅲ only =C>Ⅰand Ⅱ only =?>Ⅱ and Ⅲ only =.
( third function of intuition is to synthesi!e isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture. but is based (25) on years of painstaking practice and hands-on e2perience that build skills. (10) novelty. -he author0s primary ob. making a decision.=.ob-specific e2perience is more useful to minority businesses than is general management e2perience =. managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. often in an 8(haK9 e2perience. and surprise7 and to integrate action into the process to thinking. in dollars. 'senberg0s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers0 intuition is (20) neither of these. these senior e2ecutives rely on what is vaguely termed 8intuition9 to mangage a network of interrelated problems that re#uire them to deal with ambiguity. Rather. they intuitively sense when a problem e2ists. Eenerations of writers on management have recogni!ed that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. 4ourth.SB'C0s@ =?> ow has the use of federal funding for minority businesses changed since the )*B&0s@ =. 't can be inferred from the passage that the attitude of some C. 'n general. Cost senior e2ecutives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools.> ow do minority businesses apply to participate in a C. -he passage provides information that would answer which of the following #uestions@ =(> 5hat was the average annual amount. some managers use intuition as a check on the results (30) of more rational analysis. Second. formulating options. estimating likelihoods of success. in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers.SB'C program@ Passage 13 -he ma. inconsistency. -his intuition is not arbitrary or irrational. such writers display a (15) poor grasp of what intuition is.SB'C staff members toward the investments preferred by some C. (5) and only then taking action to implement the decision.ective in the passage is to =(> disprove the view that federal efforts to aid minority businesses have been ineffective =B> e2plain how federal efforts to aid minority businesses have changed since the )*B&0s =C> establish a direct link between the federal efforts to aid minority businesses made before the )*B&0s and those made in the )*/&0s =?> analy!e the basis for the belief that . and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions . Some see it as the opposite of rationality< others view it as an e2cuse for capriciousness. assessing the problem.SB'C0s have been only marginally successful +. of minority business receipts before the SB( strategy was implemented@ =B> 5hat locations are considered to be unfavorable for minority businesses@ =C> 5hat is the current success rate for minority businesses that are capitali!ed by C.SB'C directors can best be described as =(> defensive =B> resigned =C> indifferent =?> shocked =. 4irst.> argue that the 8social responsibility approach9 to aiding minority businesses is superior to any other approach /.> refute suggestions that C. Rather.ority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals.> disapproving *. however.
and Canager G. but by acting and analy!ing in close concert.> ( manager swiftly decides which of several sets of tactics to implement in order to deal with the conti ngencies suggested by a problem. they fre#uently act first and e2plain later.> -hey have not acknowledged the role of intuition in managerial practice. A. not ./> as it is presented in the passage@ =(> ( manager risks taking an action whose outcome is unpredictable to discover whether the action changes the problem at hand. 4inally.3. Used in this way.or difference in behavior between Canager I. in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organi!ations not by analy!ing a problematic situation and then acting. who uses only formal . intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recogni!es familiar patterns. 6ne implication of thinkingJacting cycles is that action is often (55) issue. =?> -hey have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions. (nalysis is ine2tricably tied e2perience9 =line . ).to =(> speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem =B> identify a problem =C> bring together disparate facts =?> stipulate clear goals =.ust of implementing the solution. -he passage suggests which of the following about the 8writers on management9 mentioned in line ). the classical model of (45) to action in thinkingJacting cycles. -hey then use the results of the action to develop =?> ( manager rapidly identifies the methodology used part of defining the problem.> evaluate possible solutions to a problem . 5hich of the following best e2emplifies 8an L(haK0 acting. =B> -hey have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers.3=(> evaluation of a problem =B> creation of possible solutions to a problem =C> establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision =?> action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem =.> comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem %. =C> ( manager suddenly connects seemingly unrelated facts and e2periences to create a pattern relevant to the problem at hand. decision analysis includes all of the following . Since managers often 8know9 what is right before they can analy!e and e2plain it. sense of the correct course of action. (ccording to the passage. senior managers often insti- gate a course of action simply to learn more about an a more complete understanding of the issue. managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution.suggested by these methods which run counter to their (35) =C> -hey have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do. =B> ( manager performs well-learned and familiar behavior patterns in creative and uncharacteristic ways to solve a problem. who uses intuition to reach decisions. =.IC.@ =(> -hey have critici!ed managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis. to compile data yielded by systematic analysis. (40) 6ne of the implications of the intuitive style of e2ecutive management is that 8thinking9 is inseparable from 1.. senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways . (ccording to the passage. Eiven the great uncertainty of many of the manage(50) ment issues that they face. =. 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one ma.IC.
=. Ⅲ. however. Hater biologists found that the situation was not so simple.decision analysis@ =(> Canager I analy!es first and then acts7 Canager G does not.( manager analy!es a network of problems and then acts on the basis of that analysis. -his led them to believe that the cells in the early embryo are undetermined in the sense that each cell has the potential to develop in a variety of different ways.ustify their intuitive decisions. it will not form two whole embryos. =B> Canagers cannot . have opened up prospects for a resolution of the debate. =B> Canager I checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis7 Canager G does not =C> Canager I takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem7 Canager G does not. ( manager gathers data by acting and observing the effects of action. =C> -he results of recent research are introduced and summari!ed =?> -wo opposing points of view are presented and evaluated. =. Passage 14 "early a century ago. =C> Canagers0 intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills =?> Hogical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.> 'ntuition enables managers to employ their practical (20) (15) (10) (5) e2perience more efficiently. Recent discoveries in molecular biology. /. biologists found that if they separated an invertebrate animal embryo into two parts at an early stage of its life. "ow investigators think they know at least some of the molecules that act as morphogenetic determinants in . =?> Canager G draws on years of hands-on e2perience in creating a solution to a problem7 Canager I does not. 't matters in which plane the embryo is cut. and Ⅲ +. ( manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action. . B. =. it would survive and develop as two normal embryos. =(> Ⅰ only =B> Ⅱ only =C> Ⅰ and Ⅱ only =?> Ⅱ and Ⅲ only =.Ⅱ.> ( widely accepted definition is presented and #ualified. 5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation of the first paragraph of the passage@ =(> (n assertion is made and a specific supporting e2ample is given. Ⅱ. 'f it is cut in a plane different from the one used by the early investigators. 5hich embryo cells are determined. -he passage provides support for which of the following statements@ =(> Canagers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis. ( debate arose over what e2actly was happening.ust when do theybecome irreversibly committed to their fates. and what are the 8morphogenetic determinants9 that tell a cell what to become@ But the debate could not be resolved because no one was able to ask the crucial #uestions in a form in which they could be pursued productively. =B> ( conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.> Ⅰ. 't can be inferred from the passage that 8thinkingJacting cycles9 =line A% > in managerial practice would be likely to result in which of the following@ Ⅰ.> Canger G depends on day-to-day tactical maneuvering7 manager I does not.
when the fertili!ed egg divides. govern (35) substances distributed homogeneously.early development. (ccording to the passage. the substances are inactive and are not the substances become active and.e. cell determination begins even before an egg (25) is fertili!ed. in large part. .> scientific dogma as a factor in the recent debate over (50) ?"( strings that guides the fate of the cells in which they are located. 't can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are Studying sea urchins. unfertili!ed egg. =.ors in a molecular biology course . e and other biologists studying a wide variety of organisms have found that these particular R"(0s direct. the (45) histones move into the cell nucleus. -he substances that Eross studied are maternal (40) messenger R"(0s --products of certain of the maternal genes. the resulting cells are different from the start and so can be #ualitatively different in their own gene activity. biologist 3aul Eross found that an unfertili!ed egg contains substances that function as morphogenetic determinants.. presumably. where section of bles beads. (nd it is the structure of these beaded ?"( wrap around them to form a structure that resem. 5hen the egg is fertili!ed. or knots. -he main topic of the passage is =(> the early development of embryos of lower marine organisms =B> the main contribution of modern embryology to molecular biology =C> the role of molecular biology in disproving older theories of embryonic development embryonic development the value of molecular biology A.> Undergraduate biology ma. =B> -hey did not reali!e that there was a connection between the issue of cell determination and the outcome of the separation e2periment. -hey have been able o show that. 6nce synthesi!ed.=?> cell determination as an issue in the study of segments wrapped around the histones7 the string is the =. -he passage is most probably directed at which kind of audience@ =(> State legislators deciding about funding levels for a state-funded biological laboratory =B> Scientists speciali!ing in molecular genetics =C> Readers of an alumni newsletter published by the college that 3aul Eross attended =?> Carine biologists studying the processes that give rise to new species made which of the following mistakes@ =(> -hey did not attempt to replicate the original e2periment of separating an embryo into two parts. =C> -hey assumed that the results of e2periments on embryos did not depend on the particular animal species used for such e2periments. they ). -hey are located (30) cell0s in the cytoplasm of the egg cell7 i. when biologists believed that the cells in the early embryo were undetermined. =C> inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly the behavior of the genes they interact with. -he beads are ?"( intervening ?"(. the synthesis of histones. 'n the =B> evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally committed to their final function unfertili!ed egg =. in a sense. Since the =?> identical to those that were already present in the are unevenly distributed in the egg. on a string. in that part of the =(> located in the nucleus of the embryo cells protoplasm that lies outside of the nucleus.. a class of proteins that bind to ?"(.> present in larger #uantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual 1.
ects but not both Passage 15 /. =. 5hich of the following circumstances is most comparable to the impasse biologists encountered in trying to resolve the debate about cell determination =lines ). -he instrument with which the separations is accomplished Ⅲ. -he passage suggests that which of the following plays a role in determining whether an embryo separated into two parts will two parts will develop as two normal 'n the two decades between )*)& and )*1&.Ⅱ.> "onbeaded intervening ?"( embryos@ Ⅰ.-)/>@ =(> -he problems faced by a literary scholar who wishes to use original source materials that are written in an unfamiliar foreign language =B> -he situation of a mathematician who in preparing a proof of a theorem for publication detects a reasoning error in the proof =C> -he difficulties of a space engineer who has to design e#uipment to function in an environment in which it cannot first be tested =?> -he predicament of a linguist trying to develop a theory of language ac#uisition when knowledge of the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best =.> in certain sections of the cell nucleus B. -he plane in which the cut is made that separates the embryo =(> Ⅰonly =B> Ⅱ only =C> Ⅰ and Ⅱ.only =?> Ⅰ and Ⅲ. and migrated to northern . over ten percent to the Black population of the United States left the South. the morphogenetic determinants present in the unfertili!ed egg cell are which of the following@ =(> 3roteins bound to the nucleus =B> istones =C> Caternal messenger R"(0s =?> Cytoplasm =.-he stage in the embryo0s life at which the separation occurs Ⅱ. and Ⅲ *.only =. 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is dependent on the fertili!ation of an egg@ =(> Copying of maternal genes to produce maternal messenger R"(0s =B> Sythesis of proteins called histones =C> ?ivision of a cell into its nucleus and the cytoplasm =?> ?etermination of the egg cell0s potential for division =. %.=?> -hey assumed that it was crucial to perform the separation e2periment at an early stage in the embryo0s life. 't can be inferred from the passage that the initial production of histones after an egg is fertili!ed takes place =(> in the cytoplasm =B> in the maternal genes =C> throughout the protoplasm =?> in the beaded portions of the ?"( strings =.> Ⅰ.> -he dilemma confronting a foundation when the funds available to it are sufficient to support one of two e#ually deserving scientific pro. where the preponderance of the Black population had been located. (ccording to the passage.> -hey assumed that different ways of separating an embryo into two parts would be e#uivalent as far as the fate of the two parts was concerned.> Eeneration of all of a cell0s morphogenetic determinants +.
9 the federal census category roughly encompassing the entire industrial sector. more recently urbani!ed. -he author indicates e2plicitly that which of the following records has been a source of information in her investigation@ =(> United States 'mmigration Service reports from )*)A to )*1& =B> 3ayrolls of southern manufacturing firms between )*)& and )*1& =C> -he volume of cotton e2ports between )/*/ and )*)& =?> -he federal census of )*)& =.obs would have reason to move to another area of the country. that they could earn more even as unskilled workers in the "orth than they could as artisans in the South. carpenters-which had had a monopoly of certain trades. a background that implies unfamiliarity with urban living and a lack of industrial skills. reported themselves to be engaged in 8manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.uropean immigration caused by the outbreak of the 4irst 5orld 5ar in )*)A. and Black workers were aware. (40) were from the old artisan class of slavery-blacksmiths. -he remaining si2ty-five percent. popu(35) following as a possible ob. who were driven (50) to (10) factors< the collapse of the cotton industry following the boll weevil infestation.ority of the migrants in what has come to be called the Ereat Cigration came from rural areas and were motivated by two concurrent 5ages in the South. the author anticipates which of the then prevalent in the South. however. urban Black workers faced competition from the continuing influ2 of both Black and 5hite rural workers. (lthough numerous areas to southern cities prior to the Ereat Cigration. -he Ereat Cigration could easily have been made up entirely (30) of this group and their families. no one has considered whether the same migrants then moved on to northern cities. were low. ). =B> -he eventual economic status of the Ereat Cigration migrants has not been ade#uately traced. =.&&& investigations document an e2odus from rural southern (25) Black workers. and railroads.ection to her argument@ during the Ereat Cigration. mechani!ation. 'n the passage. 't has been fre#uently assumed. =C> 't is not likely that people with steady . with the largest number moving. between )*)B and )*)/.> (dvertisements of labor recruiters appearing in southern newspapers after )*)& (15) tion has led to the conclusion that the migrants0 subse#uent lack of economic mobility in the "orth is tied to rural background.> 6f the Black workers living in southern cities. through labor recruiters and the (45)Black press. and increased demand in the "orth for labor following the cessation of . Some masons. and the easy conclusion tying their subse#uent economic problems in the "orth to their rural background comes into #uestion.obs. which began in )/*/. but an e2planation lies in the labor conditions . that the ma. coal and iron manufacture. only (bout thirty-five percent of the urban Black =(> 't is uncertain how many people actually migrated lation in the South was engaged in skilled trades. lumber.. (fter the boll weevil infestation. 'n )*)& over B&&. -his assump- undercut the wages formerly paid for industrial . but not proved. . but they were gradually being pushed out by competition. worked in newly developed industries---tobacco. or ten percent of the Black work force. a move north would be seen as advantageous to a group that was already urbani!ed and steadily employed. and obsolescence. -hus. 't is perhaps surprising to argue that an employed population could be enticed to move. it is claimed.(5) states. But the #uestion of who actually left the South has (20) never been rigorously investigated. =?> 't is not true that the term 8manufacturing and mechanical pursuits9 actually encompasses the entire industrial sector.
those in a small number of trades were threatened by obsolescence. =B> -hey had begun t to rise so that southern industry could attract rural workers. in the period between )*)& and )*1&@ =(> (rtisans in the "orth7 artisans in the South7 unskilled workers in the "orth7 unskilled workers in the South =B> (rtisans in the "orth and South7 unskilled workers in the "orth7 unskilled workers in the South =C> (rtisans in the "orth7 unskilled workers in the "orth7 artisans in the South =?> (rtisans in the "orth and South7 unskilled urban workers in the "orth7 unskilled rural workers in the South =. 't can be inferred from the passage that the 8easy conclusion9 mentioned in line %1 is based on which of the following assumptions@ =(> 3eople who migrate from rural areas to large cities usually do so for economic reasons. A.> 3eople who migrate from their birthplaces to other /. unskilled rural workers in the "orth and South7 unskilled urban workers in the "orth and South . (ccording to information in the passage. -he primary purpose of the passage is to of wages in southern cities in )*)&@ =(> -hey were being pushed lower as a result of increased competition. -he material in the passage would be most relevant to a long discussion of which of the following topics@ =(> -he reasons for the subse#uent economic difficulties of those who participated in the Ereat Cigration =B> -he effect of migration on the regional economies of the United States following the 4irst 5orld 5ar =C> -he transition from a rural to an urban e2istence for those who migrated in the Ereat Cigration =?> -he transformation of the agricultural South following the boll weevil infestation =. regions of country seldom undertake a second migration. which of the following is true B. =.obs in cities return to rural areas as soon as it is financially possible for them to do so. =B> Cost people who leave rural areas to take . =?> -hey had increased in large southern cities but decreased in small southern cities. =C> 3eople with rural backgrounds are less likely to succeed economically in cities than are those with urban backgrounds. =.IC. =C> -hey had increased for skilled workers but decreased for unskilled workers.> (rtisans in the "orth and South. -he author cites each of the following as possible influences in a Black worker0s decision to migrate north in the Ereat Cigration .> -he disappearance of the artisan class in the United =(> support an alternative to an accepted methodology =B> present evidence that resolves a contradiction =C> introduce a recently discovered source of information =?> challenge a widely accepted e2planation =.3=(> wage levels in northern cities =B> labor recruiters =C> competition from rural workers =?> voting rights in northern states =. =?> Cost people who were once skilled workers are not willing to work as unskilled workers.> the Black press %.> -hey had increased in newly developed industries but decreased in the older trades. (ccording to the passage.> argue that a discarded theory deserves new attention +. from highest paid to lowest paid. which of the following is a correct se#uence of groups of workers. 1.
. Pricing the Priceless Child.9 5ell established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-)/&&0s. education. (llowing only a small role for cultural forces in the form of individual 8preferences. Meli!er takes issue with practitioners of the new 8sociological economics. (5) crass business world became enormously important for late-nineteenth-century middle-class (mericans. and health solely in terms of their economic determinants. its parents.&&&. that is.9 these sociologists tend to view all human behavior as directed primarily by (10) Meli!er0s e2cellent book. 'n stressing the cultural determinants of a child0s worth. marriage.> amount of suffering endured by the family of the person killed Get 8e2pulsion of children from the Lcash ne2us. =. and emphasi!es instead the opposite phenomenon< the power of social values to transform price. 4or Meli!er the origins of this transformation were their intangible worth into cash terms. the conversion of (20) centuries as reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicated in part on the assumption that a child0s emotional value made child labor taboo.0. their 8e2change9 or 8 sur(55) render9 value on the market. Meli!er is for.States as a conse#uence of mechani!ation in the early twentieth century economic. in )*+*. and indeed e2tremely costly to. 9 3rotecting children from the Passage 16 'n )/*B a Eeorgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of their two year old was told that since the child had made no real economic contribution to the family. (s children became more valuable in emotional terms. there was no liability for damages. ).9 who have analy!ed such tradi(45) less than a century later. 't can be inferred from the passage that accidental-death damage awards in (merica during the nineteenth century tended to be based principally on the =(> earnings of the person at time of death =B> wealth of the party causing the death =C> degree of culpability of the party causing the death =?> amount of money that had been spent on the person killed (25) many and comple2. and family structures. -he transformation in social values implicit in . though producing no income (15) (50) the principle of ma2imi!ing economic gain. Meli!er (35) maintains. she argues.. this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the iate-nineteenth and early-twentieth highly critical of this approach. occupational. and the development of the companionate family =a family in which members were united by (30) e2plicit bonds of love rather than duty> were all factors critical in changing the assessment of children0s worth. ?uring the nineteenth century. the concept of the 8useful9 child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present-day notion of the 8useless9 child who. she suggests7 this sacrali!ation was a way of resisting what (40) they perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace. although clearly shaped by profound changes in the . 't can be inferred from the passage that in the early . the parents of a three year old sued in "ew Gork for accidental-death damages and won an award of $+%&. became much greater.. -he gradual erosion of children0s productive value in a maturing industrial economy. is yet considered emotionally 8priceless.9 8was also part of a cultural process Lof sacral- i!ation0 of children0s lives.u2taposing these two incidents is the sub.ect of Fiviana tionally sociological topics as crime. especially in child mortality. she argues. the decline in birth and death rates. 'n contrast.
)/&&0s children were generally regarded by their families as individuals who =(> needed enormous amounts of security and affection =B> re#uired constant supervision while working =C> were important to the economic well-being of a family =?> were unsuited to spending long hours in school =;> were financial burdens assumed for the good of society 1. which of the following alternative e2planations of the change in the cash value of children would be most likely to be put forward by sociological economists as they are described in the passage@ =(> -he cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because parents began to increase their emotional investment in the upbringing of their children. =B> -he cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because their e2pected earnings over the course of a lifetime increased greatly. =C> -he cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because the spread of humanitarian ideals resulted in a wholesale reappraisal of the worth of an individual =?> -he cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because compulsory education laws reduced the supply, and thus raised the costs, of available child labor. =;> -he cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because of changes in the way negligence law assessed damages in accidentaldeath cases. A. -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> review the literature in a new academic subfield =B> present the central thesis of a recent book =C> contrast two approaches to analy!ing historical change
=?> refute a traditional e2planation of a social phenomenon =;> encourage further work on a neglected historical topic %. 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the following statements was true of (merican families over the course of the nineteenth century@ =(> -he average si!e of families grew considerably =B> -he percentage of families involved in industrial work declined dramatically. =C> 4amily members became more emotionally bonded to one another. =?> 4amily members spent an increasing amount of time working with each other. =;> 4amily members became more economically dependent on each other. B. Meli!er refers to all of the following as important influences in changing the assessment of children0s worth ;IC;3- changes in =(> the mortality rate =B> the nature of industry =C> the nature of the family =?> attitudes toward reform movements =;> attitudes toward the marketplace +.5hich of the following would be most consistent with the practices of sociological economics as these practices are described in the passage@ =(> (rguing that most health-care professionals enter the field because they believe it to be the most socially useful of any occupation =B> (rguing that most college students choose ma.ors that they believe will lead to the most highly paid .obs available to them =C> (rguing that most decisions about marriage and divorce are based on rational assessments of the likelihood that each partner will remain committed
to the relationship =?> (naly!ing changes in the number of people enrolled in colleges and universities as a function of changes in the economic health of these institutions =;> (naly!ing changes in the ages at which people get married as a function of a change in the average number of years that young people have lived away from their parents
however, the biggest increases in public-sector unioni!a(30) tion
have been among clerical workers. Between )*++
and )*/&, the number of unioni!ed government workers in blue-collar and service occupations increased only about ).% percent, while in the white-collar occupations the increase was ,& percent and among clerical workers in particular, the increase was ,, percent. 5hat accounts for this upsurge in unioni!ation among clerical workers@ 4irst, more women have
3rior to )*+%, union efforts to organi!e public-sector clerical workers, most of whom are women, were somewhat limited. -he factors favoring unioni!ation drives seem to have been either the presence of large numbers
the work force in the past few years, and more of them plan to remain working until retirement age. Conse(40) #uently,
they are probably more concerned than their
predecessors were about .ob security and economic benefits. (lso, the women0s movement has succeeded in legitimi!ing the economic and political activism of women on their own behalf, thereby producing a more positive atti(45) tude
workers, as in "ew Gork City, to make it worth the
effort, or the concentration of small numbers in one or two locations, such as a hospital, to make it relatively easy, Receptivity to unioni!ation on the workers, part was also a consideration, but when there were large
toward unions. -he absence of any comparable
increase in unioni!ation among private-sector clerical workers, however, identifies the primary catalyst-the structural change in the multioccupational public-sector unions themselves. 6ver the past twenty years, the occu(50) pational
numbers involved or the clerical workers were the only unorgani!ed group in a .urisdiction, the multioccupational unions would often try to organi!e them regardless of the workers0 initial receptivity. -he strategic reasoning was based, first, on the concern that politi-
distribution in these unions has been steadily
shifting from predominantly blue-collar to predominantly white-collar. Because there are far more women in white-collar .obs, an increase in the proportion of female members has accompanied the occupational shift
and administrators might play off unioni!ed
against nonunioni!ed workers, and, second, on the conviction that a fully unioni!ed public work force meant power, both at the bargaining table and in the legislature. 'n localities where clerical workers were few
has altered union policy-making in favor of orga-
ni!ing women and addressing women0s issues.
in number, were scattered in several workplaces, and e2pressed no interest in being organi!ed, unions more ). (ccording to the passage, the public-sector workers who often than not ignored them in the pre-)*+% period. But since the mid-)*+&0s, a different strategy has emerged. 'n )*++, 1A percent of government clerical were most likely to belong to unions in )*++ were =(> professionals =B> managers =C> clerical workers =?> service workers =;> blue-collar workers
workers were represented by a labor organi!ation, compared with AB percent of government professionals, AA percent of government blue-collar workers, and A) percent of government service workers, Since then,
,. -he author cites union efforts to achieve a fully unioni!ed work force =line )1-)*> in order to account for why =(> politicians might try to oppose public-sector union organi!ing =B> public-sector unions have recently focused on organi!ing women =C> early organi!ing efforts often focused on areas where there were large numbers of workers =?> union efforts with regard to public-sector clerical workers increased dramatically after )*+% =;> unions sometimes tried to organi!e workers regardless of the workers0 initial interest in unioni!ation 1. -he author0s claim that, since the mid-)*+&0s, a new strategy has emerged in the unioni!ation of publicsector clerical workers =line ,1 > would be strengthened if the author =(> described more fully the attitudes of clerical workers toward labor unions =B> compared the organi!ing strategies employed by private-sector unions with those of public-sector unions =C> e2plained why politicians and administrators sometimes oppose unioni!ation of clerical workers =?> indicated that the number of unioni!ed public-sector clerical workers was increasing even before the mid)*+&0s =;> showed that the factors that favored unioni!ation drives among these workers prior to )*+% have decreased in importance A. (ccording to the passage, in the period prior to )*+%, each of the following considerations helped determine whether a union would attempt to organi!e a certain group of clerical workers ;IC;3=(> the number of clerical workers in that group =B> the number of women among the clerical workers in that group
=C> whether the clerical workers in that area were concentrated in one workplace or scattered over several workplaces =?> the degree to which the clerical workers in that group were interested in unioni!ation =;> whether all the other workers in the same .urisdiction as that group of clerical workers were unioni!ed %. -he author states that which of the following is a conse#uence of the women0s movement of recent years@ =(> (n increase in the number of women entering the work force =B> ( structural change in multioccupational publicsector unions =C> ( more positive attitude on the part of women toward unions =?> (n increase in the proportion of clerical workers that are women =;> (n increase in the number of women in administrative positions B. -he main concern of the passage is to =(> advocate particular strategies for future efforts to organi!e certain workers into labor unions =B> e2plain differences in the unioni!ed proportions of various groups of public-sector workers =C> evaluate the effectiveness of certain kinds of labor unions that represent public-sector workers =?> analy!ed and e2plain an increase in unioni!ation among a certain category of workers =;> describe and distinguish strategies appropriate to organi!ing different categories of workers +. -he author implies that if the increase in the number of women in the work force and the impact of the women0s movement were the main causes of the rise in unioni!ation of public-sector clerical workers, then
it is a more continuous record than that taken from rocks on land. the continental ice sheets grow. in comparison with working women today. ( recent discovery (10) makes such a determination possible< relative land-ice volume for a given period can be deduced from the ratio of two o2ygen isotopes.arth0s orbit and the periodicity of the ice ages. but a few molecules out of every thousand incorporate the heavier isotope )/. )B and )/. as volcanic particulates or variations in the amount .arth0s climate. it is important to note that other factors. steadily reducing the amount of water evaporated from the ocean that will eventually return to it.&&& years. it is a global record< there is remarkably little variation in isotope ratios in sedimentary specimens taken from different continental locations. -hese data have established a strong connection between variations in the . Because of (35) these advantages.arth0s orbit around the Sun.ob security and economic benefits =?> side with administrators in labor disputes =. owever. the isotope record has two advantages. Second.> the union included members from only a few occupations *. (lmost all the o2ygen in water is o2ygen )B. (s an indicator of shifts in the . 4or sometime this theory was considered untestable.urisdictions =. sedimentary evidence can be dated with sufficient accuracy by radiometric methods to establish a precise chronology of the ice ages. largely because there was no suffi(5) ciently (40) volume over the past several hundred thousand years have a pattern< an ice age occurs roughly once every )&&. 5hen an ice age begins. (45) such precise chronology of the ice ages with which the orbital variations could be matched.=(> more women would hold administrative positions in unions =B> more women who hold political offices would have positive attitudes toward labor unions =C> there would be an e#uivalent rise in unioni!ation of private-sector clerical workers =?> unions would have shown more interest than they have in organi!ing women =. -he higher the ratio of o2ygen )/ to o2ygen )B in a sedimentary specimen. -he degree of enrichment can be determined by analy!ing ocean sediments of the period. (20) the remaining ocean water becomes progressively enriched in o2ygen )/. -he author suggests that it would be disadvantageous to a union if =(> many workers in the locality were not unioni!ed =B> the union contributed to political campaigns =C> the union included only public-sector workers =?> the union included workers from several .arth0s past. -he dated isotope record shows that the fluctuations in global ice Passage 18 Cilankovitch proposed in the early twentieth century that the ice ages were caused by variations in the . because these sediments are composed of calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms. the more land ice there was when the sediment was laid down. women working in the years prior to the mid-)*+&0s showed a greater tendency to =(> prefer smaller workplaces =B> e2press a positive attitude toward labor unions =C> ma2imi!e .> #uit working prior of retirement age (30) (15) -o establish such a chronology it is necessary to determine the relative amounts of land ice that e2isted at various times in the . found in ocean sediments. shells that were (25) constructed with o2ygen atoms drawn from the sur- rounding ocean. -he author implies that.> the increase in the number of unioni!ed publicsector clerical workers would have been greater than it has been /. 4irst. Because heavier isotopes tend to be left behid when water evaporates from the ocean surfaces.
A. =B> -hey are less reliable than the evidence from rocks on land in determining the volume of land ice. 1.. 't can be inferred from the passage that the isotope record taken from ocean sediments would be less useful to researchers if which of the following were true@ =(> 't indicated that lighter isotopes of o2ygen predominated at certain times. although it has opened up promising possibilities for future research. which of the following is true of the ratios of o2ygen isotopes in ocean sediments@ =(> -hey indicate that sediments found during an ice age contain more calcium carbonate than sediments formed at other times.&&& years. =. =. -he author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the Cilankovitch theory@ =(> 't is the only possible e2planation for the ice ages.> more o2ygen )B than has precipitation formed from fresh water bodies in the solar system. =C> -hey can be used to deduce the relative volume of land ice that was present when the sediment was laid down.&&& years ago.> 't is not a plausible e2planation for the ice ages.> initiating a debate about a widely accepted theory .%. =. =?> -hey are more unpredictable during an ice age than in other climatic conditions. 't can be inferred from the passage that precipitation formed from evaporated ocean water has =(> the same isotopic ratio as ocean water =B> less o2ygen )/ than does ocean water =C> less o2ygen )/ than has the ice contained in continental ice sheets =?> a different isotopic composition than has precipitation formed from water on land =. -he advantage of the Cilankovitch theory is that it is testable< changes in the . %. despite recent research findings.> 't stretched back for only a million years. ). =B> 't is too limited to provide a plausible e2planation for the ice ages. (ccording to the passage. =?> 't is one plausible e2planation.> -hey can be used to determine atmospheric conditions at various times in the past.of sunlight received by the . -he last ice age occurred about .arth.arth0s orbit can be calculated and dated by applying "ewton0s laws (50) of gravity to progressively earlier configurations of the =B> 't had far more gaps in its se#uence than the record taken from rocks on land. B. for the ice ages. Get the lack of information about other possible factors affecting global climate does not make them unimportant. the author is primarily interested in =(> suggesting an alternative to an outdated research method =B> introducing a new research method that calls an accepted theory into #uestion =C> emphasi!ing the instability of data gathered from the application of a new scientific method =?> presenting a theory and describing a new method to test that theory =. though not the only one. =?> 't indicated that the ratios of o2ygen )B and o2ygen )/ in ocean water were not consistent with those found in fresh water. 'n the passage. . (ccording to the passage. =C> 't indicated that climate shifts did not occur every )&&. which of the following is =are> true of the ice ages@ Ⅰ. =C> 't cannot be tested and confirmed until further research on volcanic activity is done. could potentially have affected the climate.
't can be inferred from the passage that calcium carbonate shells =(> are not as susceptible to deterioration as rocks =B> are less common in sediments formed during an ice age =C> are found only in areas that were once covered by land ice =?> contain radioactive material that can be used to determine a sediment0s isotopic composition =. in that it is largely dependent upon social-group resources for (5) its development. ( ma.> Ⅰ. 'ce ages have lasted about )&. 3ersonal savings have been accumulated. and neighborhood or community subgroups.Ⅱ and Ⅲ +. one advantage of studying the isotope record of ocean sediments is that it =(> corresponds with the record of ice volume taken from rocks on land =B> shows little variation in isotope ratios when samples are taken from different continental locations =C> corresponds with predictions already made by climatologists and e2perts in other fields =?> confirms the record of ice volume initially established by analy!ing variations in volcanic emissions =. from the informal encouragement of family members and friends to (10) dependable sources of labor and clientele from the owner0s ethnic group. Cost scholars agree that minority business owners have depended primarily on family funds and (25) ethnic community resources for investment capital . 'ndividual entrepreneurs do not neces- . (dditional loans and gifts from relatives. -hey form an intermediate social level between the individual and larger 8secondary 9 institutions based on impersonal relationships. consist of 8primary9 institutions.&&& years for at least the last several hundred thousand years. =(> Ⅰ only =B> Ⅱ only =C> Ⅲ only =?> Ⅰand only =. peer. which encourage and support ethnic minority entrepreneurs.> provides data that can be used to substantiate records concerning variations in the amount of sunlight received by the . Specifically.arth Passage 19 'n contrast to traditional analyses of minority business. Ⅲ. 3rimary institutions (20) comprising the support network include kinship. -he purpose of the last paragraph of the passage is to =(> offer a note of caution =B> introduce new evidence =C> present two recent discoveries =?> summari!e material in the preceding paragraphs =.&&& years for at least the last several hundred thousand years. (15) -hey are characteri!ed by the face-to-face association and cooperation of persons united by ties of mutual concern. Such self-help networks. this analysis indicates that support networks play a critical role in starting and maintaining minority business enterprises by providing owners with a range of assistance.Ⅱ.> offer two e2planations for a phenomenon *. 'ce ages have occurred about every )&&. the sociological analysis contends that minority business ownership is a group-level phenomenon. often through frugal living habits that re#uire sacrifices by the entire family and are thus a product of long-term family financial behavior. (30) forthcoming because of group obligation rather than narrow investment calculation.or function of self-help networks is financial support.> reflect the isotopic composition of the water at the time the shells were formed /. have supplemented personal savings. (ccording to the passage. those closest to the individual in shaping his or her behavior and beliefs.
training programs that can lead to certification in a variety of technical trades. Based on the information in the passage. =B> -hey accounted for a significant portion of the investment capital used by Chinese immigrants in "ew Gork in the early twentieth century. owever.&0s would have been unlikely to rely on them.(S. in turn. -hey. =C> ( ma.> ( community college offers country residents Some groups. -hey may actu(35) ally =. which themselves had =(> -hey were developed e2clusively by Chinese Black churches. like Black (mericans. found other means of financial support for their entrepreneurial efforts. 6ther ethnic and minority groups followed similar practices in founding =?> -hey were fre#uently . of two or three different ethnic groups. 'rish immigrants in (merican cities organi!ed many building and loan associations to provide capital for home construction and purchase.sarily rely on their kin because they cannot obtain financial backing from commercial resources.-he first Black-operated banks were created in the late nine. 6ne author estimates that A& percent of "ew (45)Gork Chinatown firms established during )*&&-)*%& utili!ed such associations as their initial source of capital.or commercial bank offers low-interest loans to e2perienced individuals who hope to establish their own businesses. 5hich of the following illustrates the working of a selfhelp support network. as such networks are described in the passage@ =(> ( public high school offers courses in book-keeping and accounting as part of its open-enrollment adult education program. (50) generations of older groups now employ rotating credit =. =?> ( neighborhood-based fraternal organi!ation develops a program of on-the-.. ). avoid banks because they assume that commercial institutions either cannot comprehend the special needs of minority enterprise or charge unreasonably high interest rates. =.oint endeavors by members ethnic-directed financial institutions. =C> -hird-generation members of an immigrant group who started businesses in the )*.obs. -hese associations are informal clubs of friends and other trusted members of the ethnic group who make regular contributions to a fund that is given to each contributor in rotation. -he passage best supports which of the following statements@ =(> ( minority entrepreneur who had no assistance from fraternal or lodge groups. =B> -he local government in a small city sets up a program that helps teen-agers find summer . recent immigrants and third or fourth associations only occasionally to raise investment funds. A.1. provided work for many 'rish (60) home-building contractor firms.> -he entrepreneur0s banker . 5ithin the larger ethnic community. Black banks made limited invest- ments in other Black enterprises.ob training for its members and their friends.> Recent immigrants still fre#uently turn to rotating credit associations instead of banks for investment capital. it would be H.likely for which of the following persons to be part of a self-help network@ =(> -he entrepreneur0s childhood friend =B> -he entrepreneur0s aunt =C> -he entrepreneur0s religious leader =?> -he entrepreneur0s neighbor . rotating credit (40) associations have been used to raise capital. 5hich of the following can be inferred from the passage teenth century as depositories for dues collected from sprung (55) from about rotating credit associations@ immigrants.
2amine businesses primarily in their social conte2ts =B> 4ocus on current. but it can also become a point of weakness when one species involved in the relationship is affected by a catastrophe. flowering (5) plant species dependent on insect pollination. could be endangered when the population of insect-pollinators is depleted . =B> (n assertion is made and several e2amples are provided to illustrate it.likely to do which of the following@ =(> . rather than historical. once a minority-owned business is established.ncouragement of a business climate that is nearly free of direct competition =C> 6pportunities for the business owner to reinvest profits in other minority-owned businesses =?> Contact with people who are likely to be customers of the new business =. =?> -hey contributed to the employment of many 'rish construction workers. =. e2amples of business enterprises =C> Stress common e2periences of individual entrepreneurs in starting businesses =?> 4ocus on the maintenance of businesses.> -hey provided assistance for construction businesses owned by members of other ethnic groups. =B> Self-help networks have been effective in helping entrepreneurs primarily in the last %& years. =. =?> (n e2ample of a phenomenon is given and is then used as a basis for general conclusions. B.(S.> Contact with minority entrepreneurs who are members of other ethnic groups +. rather than means of starting them =.> ( group of parallel incidents is described and the distinctions among the incidents are then clarified. -hus. =B> -hey originated as offshoots of church-related groups. as opposed to self-pollination or wind pollination. 5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation of the second paragraph@ =(> (n argument is delineated. =.family members would not be able to start a business.> 4ocus on the role of individual entrepreneurs in starting a business /. followed by a counterargument. =?> -he financial institutions founded by various ethnic groups owe their success to their uni#ue formal organi!ation.> Successful minority-owned businesses succeed primarily because of the personal strengths of their founders. (ccording to the passage. %. 5hich of the following can be inferred from the passage about the 'rish building and loan associations mentioned in the last paragraph@ =(> -hey were started by third-or fourth-generation immigrants. =C> ( situation is described and its historical background is then outlined. Passage 20 Species interdependence in nature confers many benefits on the species involved. =C> Cinority groups have developed a range of alternatives to standard financing of business ventures. 't can be inferred from the passage that traditional analyses of minority business would be H. =C> -hey fre#uently helped 'rish entrepreneurs to finance business not connected with construction. self-help networks contribute which of the following to that business@ =(> 'nformation regarding possible e2pansion of the business into nearby communities =B> .
for e2ample. =B> . -he passage suggests that the lack of an observed . =C> -he used of pesticides may be endangering certain plant species dependent on insects for pollination. -hey found that the most pronounced ). (15) -hey studied Catacil0s effects on insect mortality in a wide variety of wild insect species and on plant fecundity. -he fecundity effects described here are 1.> 3lant species lacking key factors in their defenses against human environmental disruption will probably become e2tinct. and a dependence on a small number of insect-pollinator species. =?> Respond to the fecundity decline by producing more flowers. 'f. Scientists have now investigated the effects of the spraying of Catacil. tative propagation. whatever its cause. (10) likely to have the most profound impact on plant species with all four of the following characteristics< a short life span.% years in efforts to control the spruce budworm. (ccording to the author.fforts to control the spruce budworm have had deleterious effects on the red-osier dogwood. but is generally beneficial to insects involved in pollination. -his species is highly dependent on the insect-pollinators most vulnerable to Catacil.. (20) mortality after the spraying of Catacil occurred among =(> Species interdependence is a point of weakness for the smaller bees and one family of flies. on the other hand. 'n the forests of "ew Brunswick. an incapacity for vege(50) various pesticides have been sprayed in the past . showed no significant decline in fecundity. but which is pollinated by large bees. 3lant species dependent =(> Reproduce itself by means of shoots and runners.> (ttract large insects as pollinators (45) species. are available as alternative reproductive strategies for a =. vegetative growth and dispersal =by means of shoots or runners> more vulnerable to any decrease in plant fecundity that =C> Survive in harsh climates. an economically significant pest. a flowering plant species (35) tive to the pesticide used decreases plant fecundity. =. such as bumblebees. e2pressed as the percentage of the total flowers on an individual plant that actually developed fruit and bore seeds.. 5hich of the following best summari!es the main point of the passage@ some plants. insects that were all important pollinators of numerous species of plants growing beneath the tree canopy of forests. 3erhaps we should give special attention to the conservation of such plant species since they lack key factors in their defenses against the environmental disruption caused by pesticide use. one of the antibudworm agents that is least to2ic to insect-pollinators. then decreases in plant fecundity may be of little conse#uence. the (25) red-osier dogwood. =?> -he spraying of pesticides can reduce the fecundity of a plant species. a narrow geographic range. -he creeping dogwood. Since large bees are not affected by the spraying of Catacil. -he #uestion of whether the decrease in plant fecundity caused by the spraying of pesticides actually causes a decline in the overall population of flowering plant whose fecundity has declined due to pesticide spraying may not e2perience an overall population decline if the plant species can do which of the following@ =B> Survive to the end of the growing season. was significantly reduced in the sprayed areas as compared to that of plants in control plots where Catacil was not sprayed. a species similar (30) to the red-osier dogwood. species still remains unanswered.by the use of pesticides. (40) solely on seeds for survival or dispersal are obviously occurs. these results and weight to the argument that spraying where the pollinators are sensi. -he fecundity of plants in one common indigenous species. but probably does not affect its overall population stability.
decline in the fecundity of the creeping dogwood strengthens the researchers conclusions regarding pesticide use because the =(> creeping dogwood its a species that does not resemble other forest plants =B> creeping dogwood is a species pollinated by a broader range of insect species than are most dogwood species =C> creeping dogwood grows primarily in regions that were not sprayed with pesticide, and so served as a control for the e2periment =?> creeping dogwood is similar to the red-osier dogwood, but its insect pollinators are known to be insensitive to the pesticide used in the study =;> geographical range of the creeping dogwood is similar to that of the red-osier dogwood, but the latter species relies less on seeds for reproduction A. -he passage suggests that which of the following is true of the forest regions in "ew Brunswick sprayed with most anti-budworm pesticides other than Catacil@ =(> -he fecundity of some flowering plants in those regions may have decreased to an even greater degree than in the regions where Catacil is used. =B> 'nsect mortality in those regions occurs mostly among the larger species of insects, such as bumblebees. =C> -he number of seeds produced by common plant species in those regions is probably comparable to the number produced where Catacil is sprayed. =?> Cany more plant species have become e2tinct in those regions than in the regions where Catacil is used. =;> -he spruce budworm is under better control in those regions than in the regions where Catacil is sprayed. %. 't can be inferred that which of the following is true of plant fecundity as it is defined in the passage@ =(> ( plant0s fecundity decreases as the percentage of
unpollinated flowers on the plant increases =B> ( plant0s fecundity decreases as the number of flowers produced by the plant decreases. =C> ( plant0s fecundity increases as the number of flowers produced by the plant increases. =?> ( plant0s fecundity is usually low if the plant relies on a small number of insect species for pollination. =;> ( plant0s fecundity is high if the plant can reproduce #uickly by means of vegetative growth as well as by the production of seeds. B. 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the following plant species would be H;(S- likely to e2perience a decrease in fecundity as a result of the spraying of a pesticide not directly to2ic to plants@ =(> ( flowering tree pollinated by only a few insect species =B> ( kind of insect-pollinated vine producing few flowers =C> ( wind-pollinated flowering tree that is short-lived =?> ( flowering shrub pollinated by a large number of insect species =;> ( type of wildflower typically pollinated by larger insects +. 5hich of the following assumptions most probably underlies the author0s tentative recommendation in lines %)-%A@ =(> uman activities that result in environmental disruption should be abandoned. =B> -he use of pesticides is likely to continue into the future. =C> 't is economically beneficial to preserve endangered plant species. =?> 3reventing the endangerment of a species is less costly than trying to save an already endangered one. =;> Conservation efforts aimed at preserving a few wellchosen species are more cost-effective than are broader-based efforts to improve the environment.
Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial
Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early history of the United States by applying new social research findings on the e2periences of ;uropean migrants. 'n his reinterpretation, migration becomes the
culture. 't is true, as Bailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in ;ngland. But what
seventeenth-century "ew ;ngland, where the settlers
created effective laws, built a distinguished university, and published books@ Bailyn might respond that "ew ;ngland was e2ceptional. owever, the ideas and institutions developed by "ew ;ngland 3uritans had power(45)
organi!ing principle for rewriting the history of preindustrial "orth (merica. is approach rests on four separate propositions. -he first of these asserts that residents of early modern ;ngland moved regularly about their coun-
ful effects on "orth (merican culture. (lthough Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of indentured servants who migrated .ust prior to the revolution, he fails to link their e2perience with the political development of the United States.
tryside7 migrating to the "ew 5orld was simply a 8natural spillover.9 (lthough at first the colonies held little positive attraction for the ;nglish---they would rather have stayed home:by the eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to (merica because they
presented in his work suggests how we might
make such a connection. -hese indentured servants were treated as slaves for the period during which they had sold their time to (merican employers. 't is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up
it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn
holds that, contrary to the notion that used to flourish in (merica history te2tbooks, there was never a typical "ew 5orld community. 4or e2ample, the economic and demographic character of early "ew ;ngland towns
wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their
personal independence by ac#uiring land. -hus, it is in the west that a peculiarly (merican political culture began, among colonists who were suspicious of authority and intensely antiaristocratic. ). 5hich of the following statements about migrants to colonial "orth (merica is supported by information in the passage@ =(> ( larger percentage of migrants to colonial "orth (merica came as indentured servants than as free agents interested in ac#uiring land. servants were more successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans. =C> Cigrants to colonial "orth (merica were more successful at ac#uiring their own land during the eighteenth century than during the seven-tenth century. =?> By the )+1&0s, migrants already skilled in a trade were in more demand by (merican
varied considerably. Bailyn0s third proposition suggests two general patterns prevailing among the many thousands of migrants< one group came as indentured servants, another came to ac#uire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn
that those who recruited indentured servants
were the driving forces of transatlantic migration. -hese colonial entrepreneurs helped determine the social char(t first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited7
acter of people who came to preindustrial "orth (merica. =B> Cigrants who came to the colonies as indentured the )+1&0s, however, (merican employers demanded
skilled artisans. 4inally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a halfcivili!ed hinterland of the ;uropean culture system. e is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were
part of an (nglo-(merican empire. But to divide the empire into ;nglish core and colonial periphery, as
employers than were unskilled laborers. =;> ( significant percentage of migrants who came to the colonies to ac#uire land were forced to work as field hands for prosperous (merican farmers. ,. -he author of the passage states that Bailyn failed to =(> give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political interdependence of the colonies and ;ngland =B> describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds preserved their culture in the united States =C> take advantage of social research on the e2periences of colonists who migrated to colonial "orth (merica specifically to ac#uire land =?> relate the e2perience of the migrants to the political values that eventually shaped the character of the United States =;> investigate the lives of ;uropeans before they came to colonial "orth (merica to determine more ade#uately their motivations for migrating
=?> -he southern colonies were greatly influenced by the high culture of "ew ;ngland. =;> "ew ;ngland communities were able to create laws and build a university, but unable to create anything innovative in the arts. %. (ccording to the passage, which of the following is true of ;nglish migrants to the colonies during the eighteenth century@ =(> Cost of them were farmers rather than trades people or artisans. =B> Cost of them came because they were unable to find work in ;ngland. =C> -hey differed from other ;nglish people in that they were willing to travel. =?> -hey e2pected that the colonies would offer them increased opportunity. =;> -hey were generally not as educated as the people who remained in ;ngland. B. -he author of the passage is primarily concerned with
1. 5hich of the following best summari!es the author0s evaluation of Bailyn0s fourth proposition@ =(> 't is totally implausible. =B> 't is partially correct. =C> 't is highly admirable. =?> 't is controversial though persuasive. =;> 't is intriguing though unsubstantiated. A. (ccording to the passage, Bailyn and the author agree on which of the following statements about the culture of colonial "ew ;ngland@ =(> igh culture in "ew ;ngland never e#ualed the high culture of ;ngland. =B> -he cultural achievements of colonial "ew ;ngland have generally been unrecogni!ed by historians. =C> -he colonists imitated the high culture of ;ngland, and did not develop a culture that was uni#uely their own.
=(> comparing several current interpretations of early (merican history =B> suggesting that new social research on migration should lead to revisions in current interpretations of early (merican history =C> providing the theoretical framework that is used by most historians in understanding early (merican history =?> refuting an argument about early (merican history that has been proposed by social historians =;> discussing a reinterpretation of early (merican history that is based on new social research on migration +. 't can be inferred from the passage that (merican history te2tbooks used to assert that =(> many migrants to colonial "orth (merica were not successful financially =B> more migrants came to (merica out of religious or
ngland colonies. they (15) develop an intricate web of marketing. Contrary to the general impression. =?> Bailyn failed to test his propositions on a specific group of migrants to colonial "orth (merica. production. -he bi!arre aspect of the complaint was that a foreign conglomerate with United States operations was crying for help against a United States company with foreign operations.uropean relations =.ven when no unfair practices (10) are alleged. =C> Bailyn0s description of the colonies as part of an (nglo-(merican empire is misleading and incorrect.political conviction that came in the hope of ac#uiring land =C> "ew . and research relationships. 'f the competitor can prove in.ury from the imports---and that the United States company received a subsidy from a foreign government to build its plant abroad:the United States company0s products will be uncompeti(30) tive in the United States. 3erhaps the most bra!en case occurred when the '-C investigated allegations that Canadian companies were in. used to de-ice roads. (35) (20) helped. this #uest for import relief has hurt more companies than it has .uring the United States salt industry by dumping rock salt.> Bailyn overemphasi!es the e2periences of migrants to the "ew . and neglects the southern and the western parts of the "ew 5orld. Since )*/& the United States 'nternational -rade Commission ='-C> (5) States9 company claiming in. (s corporations begin to function globally.ury was a subsidiary of a (40) ?utch conglomerate.ect to duties. -he author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about Bailyn0s work@ =(> Bailyn underestimates the effects of 3uritan thought on "orth (merican culture =B> Bailyn overemphasi!es the economic dependence of the colonies on Ereat Britain. the simple claim that an industry has been in. -he passage is chiefly concerned with =(> arguing against the increased internationali!ation of United States corporations =B> warning that the application of laws affecting trade fre#uently has unintended conse#uences =C> demonstrating that foreign-based firms receive more subsidies from their governments than United States firms receive from the United States government =?> advocating the use of trade restrictions for 8dumped9 products but not for other imports has received about . -he comple2ity of these relationships makes it unlikely that a system of import relief laws will meet the strategic needs of all the units under the same parent company. while the 8Canadian9 companies included a subsidiary of a Chicago firm that was the second-largest domestic producer of rock salt. Suppose a United States-owned company establishes an overseas plant to manufacture a product while its competitor (25) makes the same product in the United States. unfortunately.ngland communities were much alike in terms of their economics and demographics =?> many migrants to colonial "orth (merica failed to maintain ties with their .ngland communities was very high /. ). 'nternationali!ation increases the danger that foreign companies will use import relief laws against the very companies the laws were designed to protect.or line of work. (nother 1A& charge that foreign companies 8dumped9 their products in the United States at 8less than fair value.ured by imports is sufficient grounds to seek relief.> the level of literacy in "ew . since they would be sub./& complaints alleging damage from imports that benefit from subsidies by foreign governments.9 . made the search for legal protection from import competition into a ma. -he 8United Passage 22 Cany United States companies have. =.
=?> 't introduces an additional area of concern not mentioned earlier.> -hose that are applied to international companies will accomplish their intended result. =B> -he complaint violated the intent of import relief laws. companies have the general .> -he company re#uesting import relief has been barred from e2porting products to the country of its foreign competitor. -he passage warns of which of the following dangers@ =(> Companies in the United States may receive no protection from imports unless they actively seek protection from import competition. =B> -hey will enable manufacturers in the United States to compete more profitably outside the United States. =C> Companies that are United States-owned but operate internationally may not be eligible for protection from import competition under the laws of the countries in which their plants operate. =C> -he response of the '-C to the complaint provided suitable relief from unfair trade practices to the complainant. 1. A. =. =. =C> ( foreign competitor is selling products in the United States at less than fair market value.ured by the sale of imports in the United States. =?> -he company re#uesting import relief has been in. =. =?> Companies that are not United States-owned may seek legal protection from import competition under United States import relief laws. +.=. 't can be inferred from the passage that the minimal basis for a complaint to the 'nternational -rade Commission is which of the following@ =(> ( foreign competitor has received a subsidy from a foreign government.> Companies in the United States that import raw materials may have to pay duties on those materials. =?> -hose that help one unit within a parent company will not necessarily help other units in the company. =. -he last paragraph performs which of the following functions in the passage@ =(> 't summari!es the discussion thus far and suggests additional areas of research. (ccording to the passage. =. =B> 't presents a recommendation based on the evidence presented earlier. =C> 't discusses an e2ceptional case in which the results e2pected by the author of the passage were not obtained.> 't cites a specific case that illustrates a problem presented more generally in the previous paragraph. %. =C> -hey will affect United States trade with Canada more negatively than trade with other nations. =?> -he '-C did not have access to appropriate information concerning the case. 't can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about the complaint mentioned in the last paragraph@ =(> -he '-C acted unfairly toward the complainant in its investigation. =B> Companies that seek legal protection from import competition may incur legal costs that far e2ceed any possible gain. B. -he passage suggests that which of the following is most likely to be true of United States trade laws@ =(> -hey will eliminate the practice of 8dumping9 products in the United States.. =B> ( foreign competitor has substantially increased the volume of products shipped to the United States.> recommending a uniform method for handling claims of unfair trade practices .ach of the companies involved in the complaint acted in its own best interest.> .
9 while 3aul Radin contended that investigators rarely spent enough time with the tribes they were observing. and they believed that the personal (10) understanding stories. .> had less impact on international companies than the business community e2pected (25) and that it was important to preserve for posterity as (15) much information as could be ade#uately recorded before the cultures disappeared forever. "ative (mericans recogni!ed that the essence of their lives could not be communicated in . tool for ethnological research< such personal reminis(40) cences and impressions. are likely to throw more light on the working of the mind and emotions than any amount of speculation from an ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another culture. the very act of telling their stories could force (35) "ative (merican narrators to distort their cultures. . autobiography remains a useful Passage 23 (t the end of the nineteenth century. 5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation of the passage@ research methods are chronicled. -here were.> (ssisting corporations in the United States that wish to compete globally tribe. much was inevitably lost.impression that 'nternational -rade Commission import relief practices have =(> caused unpredictable fluctuations in volumes of imports and e2ports =B> achieved their desired effect only under unusual circumstances =C> actually helped companies that have re#uested import relief =?> been opposed by the business community =. a rising interest in "ative (merican customs and an increasing desire to understand "ative (merican culture prompted ethnologists to begin recording the life stories of "ative (mer(5) ican.ditors often decided what elements were significant to the field research on a (30) given /. and inevitably derived results too tinged by the investigator0s own emotional tone to be reliable. 'ndeed.ured by import competition =C> Recommending legislation to ensure fair =?> 'dentifying international corporations that wish to build plants in the United States =. and useful chiefly for the study of the perversion of truth by memory. 4ran! Boas. could increase their =(> -he historical backgrounds of two currently used of the cultures that they had been observing from without. ). .ven more importantly. ?espite all of this. incomplete as they may be. the 'nternational -rade Commission is involved in which of the following@ =(> 'nvestigating allegations of unfair import competition =B> Eranting subsidies to companies in the United States that have been in. =C> -he usefulness of a research method is #uestioned .nglish and that events that they thought significant were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers. arguments against this method as a way of ac#uiring accurate and complete information. described autobiogra(20) phies as being 8of limited value. however. as these life stories moved from the traditional oral mode to recorded written form. 'n addition many ethnologists at the turn of the century believed that "ative (merican manners and customs were rapidly disappearing. as taboos had to be broken to speak the names of dead relatives crucial to their family stories. =B> -he validity of the data collected by using two different research methods is compared. even of a single individual. (ccording to the passage.thnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to hear the stories< they were after linguistic or anthropological data that would supplement their own field observations. for e2ample.
-he primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to =(> #uestion an e2planation =B> correct a misconception =C> criti#ue a methodology =?> discredit an idea =. =B> ( stockbroker refuses to divulge the source of her information on the possible future increase in a stock0s value.> clarify an ambiguity B.> the collection of life stories does not re#uire a culturally knowledgeable investigator A. -he passage mentions which of the following as a factor that can affect the accuracy of ethnologists0 transcriptions of life stories@ of which of the following@ =(> 'nvestigators familiar with the culture under study =B> ( language other than the informant0s for recording life stories =C> Hife stories as the ethnologist0s primary source of information =?> Complete transcriptions of informants0 descriptions of tribal beliefs =.> ( politician fails to mention in a campaign speech the similarities in the positions held by her opponent for political office and by herself.> ( research method is evaluated and the changes necessary for its adaptation to other sub. =?> ( chef purposely e2cludes the special ingredient from the recipe of his pri!ewinning dessert. the following may be a possible way to eliminate bias in the editing of life stories@ =(> Basing all inferences made about the culture on an ethnological theory =B> .ury trial invokes the 4ifth (mendment in order to avoid relating personally incriminating evidence.> Reporting all of the information that the informant provides regardless of the investigator0s personal opinion about its intrinsic value %. =. collecting life stories can be a conducted during the nineteenth century was the use useful methodology because =(> life stories provide deeper insights into a culture than the hypothesi!ing of academics who are not members of that culture =B> life stories can be collected easily and they are not sub.> Stringent guidelines for the preservation of cultural data . . 'nformation in the passage suggests that which of +.liminating all of the emotion-laden information reported by the informant =C> -ranslating the informant0s words into the researcher0s language =?> Reducing the number of #uestions and carefully specifying the content of the #uestions that the investigator can ask the informant =. =?> -he use of a research method is described and the limitations of the results obtained are discussed. 't can be inferred from the passage that a characteristic of the ethnological research on "ative (mericans 1.ect areas are discussed.ect to invalid interpretations =C> ethnologists have a limited number of research methods from which to choose =?> life stories make it easy to distinguish between the important and unimportant features of a culture =. =C> ( sports announcer describes the action in a team sport with which he is unfamiliar. =. 5hich of the following is most similar to the actions of nineteenth-century ethnologists in their editing of the life stories of "ative (mericans@ =(> ( witness in a ..and then a new method is proposed. (ccording to the passage.
(u2in also causes the plant to develop a vascular system. the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific. for e2ample. Such a hierarchy may also e2ist in plants.> -hey provide incidental information rather than significant insights into a way of life. one of which stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal corte2. . -hese hormones 6ne hormone stimulates the thyroid gland. leaves. =?> -hey are most useful as a source of information about ancestry. stimulates the rate of cell elongation. to form lateral roots. =B> -hey are most useful as a source of linguistic information. Passage 24 (ll of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complement of genes. another the ovarian follicle cells. 't can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the usefulness of life stories as a source of ethnographic information@ =(> -hey can be a source of information about how people in a culture view the world. causes shoots to (20) grow up and roots to grow down. Studies of plants have now identified a new class of regulatory molecules called oligosaccharins. and so forth. stems. or turned on. and to produce ethylene. hormones from the hypothalamus in the brain stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to synthesi!e and release many different hormones. 'n other words. (15) each has more than one effect on the growth and devel- opment of plants. and fruits@ -he answer is that only a (5) small hormones may actually function by activating the (40) en!ymes that release these other. 6ligosaccharins are fragments of the cell wall released by en!ymes< different en!ymes release different oligosaccharins. the five well-known plant hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops because =(> it is not known e2actly what functions the hormones perform =B> each hormone has various effects on plants =C> none of the hormones can function without the others =?> each hormone has different effects on different kinds subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell are e2pressed. (ccording to the passage. 4or e2ample. =C> -hey re#uire editing and interpretation before they can be useful. cytokinin.=(> -he informants0 social standing within the culture =B> -he inclusiveness of the theory that provided the basis for the research =C> -he length of time the researchers spent in the culture under study =?> -he number of life stories collected by the researchers =. (35) (30) Unlike the oligosaccharins. -his is accomplished by a comple2 system of chemical messengers that in plants include hormones and other regulatory molecules. -here are indications that pleiotropic plant have specific effects on target organs all over the body. abscisic acid. for instance. at a given time. ). ow then can these cells differentiate and form structures as different as roots. (u2in. =. and gibberellin.or hormones have been identified< (10) au2in. and inhibits the growth of lateral shoots. that is. more specific chemical messengers from the cell wall. -he five has so many simultaneous effects that they are not very useful in artificially controlling the growth of crops. ethylene. -he pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant (25) hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animal.> -he verifiability of the information provided by the research informants /. there is a hierarchy of hormones. 4ive ma.
4ew academic programs have ever received such public attention.> e2plain the distinction between hormones and regulatory molecules Passage 25 'n )*++ the prestigious .> 'nfluencing the development of a plant0s cells by controlling the e2pression of the cells0 genes B. -he passage suggests that the place of hypothalamic hormones in the hormonal hierarchies of animals is similar to the place of which of the following in plants@ =(> 3lant cell walls =B> -he complement of genes in each plant cell =C> ( subset of a plant cell0s gene complement =?> -he five ma.> -he oligosaccharins 1. -he passage suggests that. -he author mentions specific effects that au2in has on plant development in order to illustrate the =(> point that some of the effects of plant hormones can be harmful =B> way in which hormones are produced by plants =C> hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant hormones =?> differences among the best-known plant hormones =. (ccording to the passage.> concept of pleiotropy as it is e2hibited by plant hormones %.> alter the effects of the five ma.> -o produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells A. -he author discusses animal hormones primarily in order to =(> introduce the idea of a hierarchy of hormones =B> e2plain the effects that au2in has on plant cells =C> contrast the functioning of plant hormones and animals hormones =?> illustrate the way in which particular hormones affect animals =.of plants =. announced the opening of the first women0s studies program in (sia..or hormones on plant development +. oligosaccharins could be used effectively to =(> trace the passage of chemicals through the walls of cells =B> pinpoint functions of other plant hormones =C> artificially control specific aspects of the development of crops =?> alter the complement of genes in the cells of plants =.or hormones =. which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins@ =(> Regulating the daily functioning of a plant0s cells =B> 'nteracting with one another to produce different chemicals =C> Releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant0s cell walls =?> 3roducing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions =. Norea. -he passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin@ =(> -o stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant0s root system =B> -o stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins =C> -o activate en!ymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls =?> -o duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell =.> each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell0s genes at any particular time .wha 5omen0s University in Seoul. unlike the pleiotropic hormones. 'n .
and a distraction from the real task of national unification and economic development. whereas in 5estern culture. But in the (sian scholars in the field of women0s studies undertook an analysis of 4reudian theory as a response to which of the following@ =(> (ttacks by critics of the . -he ideal is one . not by individual self-assertion. (ll this bears directly on the (sian perception of men0s and women0s psychology because men are also 8 dependent9. which is social and group-centered. Such a concept of pro.wha women0s studies program theory =C> -he popularity of 4reud in Norean psychiatric circles =?> -heir desire to encourage Norean scholars to adopt the 4reudian model (35) concept of personality there is no ideal attached to indi vidualism or to the independent self. -he founders of the program. but in ways different from those cited by 5estern theorists. wife and daughter. 't can be inferred from the passage that Norean father against son and sibling against sibling. four generations may live in the same house. what is recogni!ed as 8dependency9 in 5estern psychiatric terms is not. and the assembly line. electricity. like the 5estern feminist criti#ue of the criti#ue finds 4reudian theory culture-bound. 'n such a conte2t.ven supporters underestimated the program 7 they thought it would be (45) of interdependency. which means that people can be sons and daughters all their lives. 5hich of the following best summari!es the content of =(> ( criti#ue of a particular women0s studies program =B> ( report of work in social theory done by a particular women0s studies program =C> (n assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a particular women0s studies program =?> (n analysis of the philosophy underlying women0s studies programs =. of 5estern feminist theories to the role of women in (sia and felt that such theories should be closely e2amined. informed by the special e2perience of (sian women. men cry and otherwise easily show their (50) (10) merely another of the many 5estern ideas that had already proved useful in (sian culture..ects the competitive model of 5estern society onto human personalities. individualistic society. (20) 4or instance. 'n Norean culture. -he Norean theorists claim that 4reudian theory ). 'n the kinship-based society of Norea.(5) broadcast debates. are often incompatible. the roles of husband and son. -he 5estern model acteristics of the Norean personality. (n analysis based on such assumptions could be valid for a highly competitive. the Norean the passage@ (25) assumes the universality of the 5estern nuclear. -hey had some reservations about the appli(15) cability emotions. family members are assumed to be engaged in a ?arwinian struggle against each other— . . something that might be considered a betrayal of masculinity in 5estern culture. an imitation of 5estern ideas. in Norean terms. however. -heir approach has thus far yielded important criti#ues of 5estern theory. 'n the 4reudian (30) family drama. and the well-being of both men and women is determined by the e#uilibrium of the group. akin to airlines. maleheaded family and focuses on the personality formation of the individual.> (n abbreviated history of Norean women0s studies programs 4reudian model of the human psyche.=B> -he superficiality of earlier criti#ues of 4reudian and acting in a group. an admission of weakness or failure. -he 8self9 is a social being defined by (40) of personality development does not e2plain ma.or char. independent of society. critics dismissed the program as a betrayal of national identity. reali!ed that neither view was correct.
> "o theory of personality development can account for the differences between Norean and 5estern culture. =B> -he introduction of 5estern ideas to Norean society is viewed by some Noreans as a challenge to Norean identity. few 5estern ideas have been successfully transplanted into Norean society. /. =B> 't was written after )*++. critics of the . 5hich of the following conclusions about the introduction of 5estern ideas to Norean society can be supported by information contained in the passage@ =(> . 5hich of the following statements about the 5estern feminist criti#ue of 4reudian theory can be supported by information contained in the passage@ =(> 't recogni!es the influence of 5estern culture on 4reudian theory.wha women0s studies program cited the program as a threat to which of the following@ Ⅰ. male-headed family. (ccording to the passage.> incomprehensible %. 't can be inferred from the passage that the position taken by some of the supporters of the . in order to be valid. "ational identity Ⅱ. =?> 3ersonality development is hindered if a person is not permitted to be independent. =?> -he e2tent to which 5estern ideas must be adapted for acceptance by Norean society is minimal.> -heir assessment of the relevance and limitations of 5estern feminist theory with respect to Norean culture 1.wha women0s studies program =(> praiseworthy =B> insignificant =C> newsworthy =?> imitative =. =C> 3ersonality development is influenced by the characteristics of the society in which a person lives. beginning with dependency in childhood and ending with independence in adulthood.> 't fails to address the issue of competitiveness in 5estern society. 5hich of the following statements is most consistent with the view of personality development held by the . =?> 't challenges 4reud0s analysis of the role of daughters in 5estern society. =. =. =C> -he development of the Norean economy depends heavily on the development of new academic programs modeled after 5estern programs.> accepted the universality of 4reudian theory B. +.> -he introduction of 5estern ideas to Norean society accelerated after )*++. A. =C> 't acknowledges the universality of the nuclear. "ational unification .2cept for technological innovations. must be universal. =B> (ny theory of personality development.wha women0s studies group@ =(> 3ersonality development occurs in identifiable stages. 't can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast media in Norea considered the establishment of the . =.=.wha women0s studies program was problematic to the founders of the program because those supporters =(> assumed that the program would be based on the uncritical adoption of 5estern theory =B> failed to show concern for the issues of national unification and economic development =C> were unfamiliar with 5estern feminist theory =?> were not themselves scholars in the field of women0s studies =.
since lake levels are controlled by rates of evaporation as well as by precipitation. paleoclimatologists invoke four principal criteria.Ⅲ. 'n arid and semiarid regions. . it has been concluded that the climate then was not necessarily wetter than it is now. -he type of vegetation in a specific region is determined by identifying (45) and enough to provide plenty of information.=(> ?ata provided by dating marine sedimentation is tion is much less continuous in continental regions. because dating of only a small number of layers in a marine se#uence allows the age of difference between marine and continental other layers to be estimated fairly reliably by sedimentation is supported by information in the e2trapola(20) passage@ more consistent with researchers0 findings in other disciplines than is data provided by dating continental sedimentation. etc—on which the method relies must be (5) widespread both summers and winters were cooler.and Ⅲ only =?> Ⅱ. because sedimenta.Ⅲ. the small number of lakes and the great distances between them reduce the possibilities for correlation. ). -his last criterion is more easily met in dating marine sediments. making accurate correlations between neighboring areas difficult to obtain. it must be possible to deter(15) retained the signal unaffected by subse#uent changes (50) which there is not much vegetation. and Ⅳ (35) (30) reliable picture. =B> 't is easier to estimate the age of a layer in a se#uence of continental sedimentation than it is to estimate the age of a layer in a se#uence of marine sedimentation. tion and interpolation. there are enough lakes for correlations between them to give us a .> Ⅰ. resulting in reduced evaporation. 5hich of the following statements about the signal that reflects a change in climate and that can be deciphered by modern physical or chemical means. the fact that lake levels in the semiarid southwestern United States appear to have been higher during the last ice age than they are now was at one time attributed to increased precipitation. By contrast. and Ⅳ only =. the interpretation of such levels is ambiguous. since analysis of material that is rarely encountered will not permit correlation with other regions or with other periods of geological history. Ⅲ. Second.Ⅱ. however. estimating the age of a continental bed from the known ages of beds above and below is more risky. vegetation. 4or instance. the material must have received an environ(10) mental counting the various pollen grains found there. Coreover. 6ne very old method used in the investigation of past (25) climatic conditions involves the measurement of water levels in ancient lakes. 6n the basis of snow-line elevations. the method often works well in the temperate !ones. (nother problematic method is to reconstruct former climates on the basis of pollen profiles.conomic development Ⅳ. 'n temperate regions. 'n arid and semiarid regions in changes in one or a few plant types can change the picture dramatically. small mine the time at which the inferred climatic conditions held. -hird. at least some of the material must have in the environment.4amily integrity =(> Ⅰ only =B> Ⅰ and Ⅱ only =C> Ⅰ. 4ourth. on the other hand. lakes.Ⅱ. but rather (40) that Passage 26 'n choosing a method for determining climatic conditions that e2isted in the past. (lthough the relationship between vegetation and climate is not as direct as the relationship between climate and lake levels. however. 4irst. in the process of formation. the material---rocks.
=?> Researchers are more often forced to rely on e2trapolation when dating a layer of marine sedimentation than when dating a layer of continental sedimentation. =C> Hake levels in the semiarid southwestern United States were lower during the last ice age than they for a paragraph that logically continues the passage@ =(> -he kinds of plants normally found in arid regions =B> -he effect of variation in lake levels on pollen distribution =C> -he material best suited to preserving signals of climatic changes =?> 6ther criteria invoked by paleoclimatologists when choosing a method to determine past climatic conditions =.> ( third method for investigating past climatic conditions %.=C> Carine sedimentation is much less widespread than continental sedimentation. -he author discusses lake levels in the southwestern United States in order to =(> illustrate the mechanics of the relationship between lake level. =B> -here was less precipitation during the last ice age than there is today. evaporation. cooler weather led to lower lake levels than paleoclimatologists had previously assumed.> -he author describes how methods for determining past climatic conditions were first developed and then describes two of the earliest known methods. 't can be inferred from the passage that paleoclimatologists have concluded which of the following on the basis of their study of snow-line elevations in the southwestern United States@ =(> -here is usually more precipitation during an ice age because of increased amounts of evaporation. are today. 5hich of the following would be the most likely topic . =. A. 1.> -he high lake levels during the last ice age may have been a result of less evaporation rather than more precipitation. =B> -he author discusses the method of dating marine and continental se#uences and then e2plains how dating is more difficult with lake levels than with pollen profiles. and precipitation =B> provide an e2ample of the uncertainty involved in interpreting lake levels =C> prove that there are not enough ancient lakes with which to make accurate correlations =?> e2plain the effects of increased rates of evaporation on levels of precipitation =. =.> Carine sedimentation is much more continuous than is continental sedimentation. =?> ?uring the last ice age. 5hich of the following statements best describes the organi!ation of the passage as a whole@ =(> -he author describes a method for determining past climatic conditions and then offers specific e2amples of situations in which it has been used. =. =C> -he author describes the common re#uirements of methods for determining past climatic conditions and then discusses e2amples of such methods.. =?> -he author describes various ways of choosing a material for determining past climatic conditions and then discusses how two such methods have yielded contradictory data.> suggest that snow-line elevations are invariably more accurate than lake levels in determining rates of precipitation at various points in the past B. 't can be inferred from the passage that an environmental signal found in geological material would not be useful to paleoclimatologists if it =(> had to be interpreted by modern chemical means .
3aleoclimatologists need to make comparisons with data collected in other regions.obs and retraining employees to work smarter. not harder:do produce results. But the tools #uickly reach the limits of what they can . 5hich of the following can be inferred from the passage about the study of past climates in arid and semiarid regions@ =(> 't is sometimes more difficult to determine past climatic conditions in arid and semiarid regions than in temperate regions.> owever. post-)*A% upturns. Canufacturing regularly observes a 8A&. =. it became clear that the harder manufactures worked to imple- (15) ment cost-cutting. productivity:the value of goods manufactured divided by the amount of labor input: (10) did not improve7 and while the results were better in the business upturn of the three years following. and capacity of facilities> and in approaches (25) to materials. A&.&9 rule. the material used to determine past climatic conditions must be widespread for which of the following reasons@ Ⅰ. dating this information is more difficult. =Costcutting here is defined as raising labor output while holding the amount of labor constant. the more they lost their competitive edge. from )*+/ through )*/. Roughly A& percent of any manufacturing-based competitive advantage derives from long-term changes in manufacturing structure =decisions about the number.> Ⅱ and Ⅲ only /. Ⅱ. (t the same time. (nother A& percent comes from ma. -he final .> -he study of past climates in arid and semiarid regions has been neglected because temperate regions support a greater variety of plant and animal life. manufacturers in the United States have been trying to improve productivity:and therefore enhance their international (5) competitiveness:through cost:cutting programs. =?> 't is difficult to study the climatic history of arid and semiarid regions because their climates have tended to vary more than those of temperate regions. location.=B> reflected a change in climate rather than a longterm climatic condition =C> was incorporated into a material as the material was forming =?> also reflected subse#uent environmental changes =. (ccording to the passage. si!e. -he well-known tools of this approach: (30) including simplifying .% percent lower than productivity improvements during earlier. 3aleoclimatologists need to compare materials that have supported a wide variety of vegetation.3aleoclimatologists need to make comparisons between periods of geological history.. 5ith this parado2 in mind.& percent rests on implementing conventional costcutting. Ⅲ.% companies7 it became clear to me that the cost-cutting approach to increasing productivity is fundamentally (20) flawed. Passage 27 Since the late )*+&0s. they ran . =B> (lthough in the past more research has been done on temperate regions. =(> Ⅰ only =B> Ⅱ only =C> Ⅰ and Ⅱ only =?> Ⅰ and Ⅲ only =.> was contained in a continental rather than a marine se#uence +. =C> (lthough more information about past climates can be gathered in arid and semiarid than in temperate regions. in the face of a severe loss of market share in do!ens of industries. -his rule does not imply that cost-cutting should not be tried. . paleoclimatologists have recently turned their attention to arid and semiarid regions. ' recently visited .or changes in e#uipment and process technology.
=(> #ualify an observation about one rule governing (55) factory to speciali!e in different markets replaced the conventional cost-cutting approach7 within three years the company regained its competitive advantage.ectives besides cutting costs. -his dimension of performance has =B> anticipate challenges to the prescriptions that follow =?> summari!e a number of long-accepted e2planations =. mechanistic culture in most factories that has kept away creative managers.ectives innovation and discourages creative people. reducing its ability to develop new products. successful companies are also encouraging managers to focus on a wider set of manufacturing. .> describing a number of parado2es factories is best described as =(> cautious =B> critical =C> disinterested =?> respectful =.> adulatory . but it has =C> clarify some disputed definitions of economic terms created a penny-pinching.ob as one of minimi!ing costs and (45) ma2imi!ing passage is to =(> outline in brief the author0s argument output. ob.ections to a recommendation about improving manufacturing competitiveness =C> support an earlier assertion about one method of increasing productivity =?> suggest the centrality in the United States economy of a particular manufacturing industry wisdom of revising a manufacturing strategy %. 'n one company a manu. e2pected that the measures they implemented would =(> encourage innovation =B> keep labor output constant =C> increase their competitive advantage =?> permit business upturns to be more easily predicted =. (nother problem is that the cost-cutting approach (35) hinders .very company ' know that has freed itself from the (50) parado2 has done so.contribute. an industry can easily become prisoner of its own investments in cost-cutting techni#ues.> given an e2ample of research that has #uestioned the ). (s (bernathy0s study of automobile manufacturers has shown. in part. Such a strategy focuses on the manufacturing structure and on e#uipfacturing strategy that allowed different areas of the ment and process technology. -he primary function of the first paragraph of the which they are measured.> present a historical conte2t for the author0s observations A. but it clearly rests on a different way of managing. by developing and implementing a manufacturing strategy. 3roduction managers have always seen their .. 't can be inferred from the passage that the manufacturrs mentioned in line .> cause managers to focus on a wider set of ob. -he author refers to (bernathy0s study =line 1B> most probably in order to manufacturing =B> address possible ob.-he author of the passage is primarily concerned with =(> summari!ing a thesis =B> recommending a different approach =C> comparing points of view =?> making a series of predictions =. -ogether with such strategies. -here is hope for =. -he author0s attitude toward the culture in most until recently sufficed as a basis of evaluation. (nd managers under (40) pressure to ma2imi!e cost-cutting will resist innovation because they know that more fundamental changes in processes or systems will wreak havoc with the results on 1.
in -urnerian tradi(25) tion. displaced persons in a hostile milieu that intensified the worst aspects of gender relations. e argued for the frontier as an agent of social change. free from the constraints binding their eastern sisters. Reac(35) tionist writers took the view that frontier women were lonely. Recently the .9 By the middle of the twentieth century. and durable lot. the frontier had furnished 8a gate of escape from the bondage of the past.or drawback< his defenders and critics alike have reconstructed men0s. not women0s. 5estern women. and that this individualism in turn promoted democratic institutions and economic e#uality. capable. a thesis that e2plained (merican development in terms of westward (5) e2pansion. -his interpretation implied that the 5est provided a congenial environment where women could aspire to their own goals. 4aragher demonstrated the persistence of the 8cult of true womanhood9 and the illusionary #uality of change on the westward . new interpretations of women0s relationship to capital. -urner0s e2clusively masculine assumptions constitute a ma. when they considered women at all. owever. the 4rontier -hesis fell into disfavor among historians. 'n -urnerian terminology.IC. 'n the passage.3=(> personal observation =B> a business principle =C> a definition of productivity =?> an e2ample of a successful company =. which sidestepped the good bad (40) dichotomy and argued that frontier women lived lives similar to the live of women in the . precisely because of this masculine orientation.> an illustration of a process technology +. (15)-urner claimed that the frontier produced the individualism that is the hallmark of (merican culture. -he author suggests that implementing conventional cost-cutting as a way of increasing manufacturing competitiveness is a strategy that is =(> flawed and ruinous =B> shortsighted and difficult to sustain =C> popular and easily accomplished =?> useful but inade#uate =. and statute. Hater. Cost novelists and (20) historians writing in the early to midtwentieth century who considered women in the 5est.ast. (10)revising the 4rontier -hesis by focusing on women0s e2perience introduces new themes into women0s history:woman as lawmaker and entrepreneur:and. -he renaissance of the feminist movement during the )*+&0s led to the Stasist school. fell under -urner0s spell. the author includes all of the following .B. 'n their works these authors tended to glorify women0s contributions to frontier life. labor.ourney.> misunderstood but promising Passage 28 -he settlement of the United States has occupied traditional historians since )/*1 when 4rederick Dackson -urner developed his 4rontier -hesis. 4rom the perspective of women0s history. conse#uently. were a fiercely independent. free from constrictive stereotypes and (30) se2ist attitudes. 'n one nowstandard te2t. lives on the frontier.
A. the frontier offered women opportunities that had not been available in the .> 5estern women did not have an effect on divorce laws. marked women0s lives as they moved from .ast. =?> -hey underestimated the endurance and fortitude of frontier women. =. ( connection between (merican individualism and economic e#uality Ⅱ.Ⅱ and Ⅲ %. but disagreed with other assumptions that he made. =B> -he urban frontier in the 5est offered more occupational opportunity than the agricultural frontier offered. =C> ?espite its rigors.> 5omen on the "orth (merican frontier adopted new roles while at the same time reaffirming traditional roles. 't can be inferred that which of the following statements is consistent with the Reactionist position as it is described in the passage@ =(> Continuity. =?> 5estern women received financial compensation for labor that was comparable to what women received in the .ast. ). =?> Eender relations were more difficult for women in the 5est than they were in the .ast. not change. ( connection between social change and financial prosperity =(> ' only =B>Ⅱonly =C> Ⅲ only =?> Ⅰand Ⅱ only =. =C> 5omen participated more fully in the economic decisions of the family group in the 5est than they had in the . but lawmakers in the 5est were more responsive to women0s concerns than lawmakers in the .> Ⅰ.(45) Stasist position has been revised but not entirely discounted by new research. B. =.ast.ast.ast to 5est.ast. 5hich of the following.ast. 5hich of the following can be inferred about the novelists and historians mentioned in lines )*-. 1. =B> 5omen0s e2perience on the "orth (merican frontier has not received enough attention from modern historians. would provide additional evidence for the Stasists0 argument as it is described in the passage@ =(> 4rontier women relied on smaller support groups of relatives and friends in the 5est than they had in the . ( connection between geographical e2pansion and social change Ⅲ. =B> discuss divergent interpretations of women0s e2perience on the western frontier =C> introduce a new hypothesis about women0s e2perience in nineteenth-century (merica =?> advocate an empirical approach to women0s e2perience on the western frontier =. -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> provide a framework within which the history of women in nineteenth-century (merica can be organi!ed. =B> -hey assumed that the frontier had offered more opportunities to women than had the . =. (ccording to the passage. if true.. 5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation of the passage@ .> -hey agreed with some of -urner0s assumptions about frontier women.ast were. =C> -hey included accurate information about women0s e2periences on the frontier.> resolve ambiguities in several theories about women0s e2perience on the western frontier . -urner makes which of the following connections in his 4rontier -hesis@ Ⅰ.&@ =(> -hey misunderstood the powerful influence of constrictive stereotypes on women in the .
become constricted. its heart beats physiological behavior of an animal in the wild than more slowly. suggest that =(> 6bservations of animals0 physiological behavior in during more typical dives in the wild. results in the production of large amounts of lactic acid =C> (n important theory and its effects are discussed and which can adversely affect the p of the seal0s blood (20) then ways in which it has been revised are described.> 't was the first school of thought to suggest substantial revisions to the 4rontier -hesis. tissues which have been isolated from the seal0s blood =. ensuring that the seal0s blood =C> -he level of lactic acid in an animal0s blood is likely remains concentrated near those organs most crucial to to be higher when it is searching for prey than when its ability to navigate underwater. during which it appears to be either e2ploring distant (35) routes or evading a predator. But why do the seal0s laboratory dives always evoke this response. it does not know how long it will remain Studies of the 5eddell seal in the laboratory have described the physiological mechanisms that allow the underwater and so prepares for the worst. -he seal0s longer e2cursions underwater. -he seal essentially it s evading predators. the seal0s -urnerian and Reactionist thought. returns to the surface in less than twenty minutes. stop functioning until the seal surfaces or switch to an =B> -hree theories are presented and then a new anaerobic =o2ygen-independent> metabolism. response seen in the laboratory. however. only after the seal surfaces.(15) shuts off the flow of blood to other organs. =C> 't has recently been discounted by new research organs do not resort to the anaerobic metabolism gathered on women0s e2perience. liver. when the lungs. re#uiring less o2ygen. regardless of their length or depth@ Some biologists speculate that because in laboratory dives the seal is forcibly Passage 29 (40) submerged. 5hich of the following is true of the Stasist school as it (25) stream. women0s history. and other organs #uickly clear the acid from the seal0s blood+. but since the anaerobic metabolism occurs only in =?> ( controversial theory is discussed and then those viewpoints both for and against it are described. . studies. observed in the laboratory. -he latter hypothesis that discounts those theories is described. do evoke the diving =. seal to cope with the e2treme o2ygen deprivation that occurs during its longest dives. however. which can e2tend %&& ). this seal0s physiothe wild are not reliable unless verified by laboratory logical behavior is different. Recent field studies. is described in the passage@ Recent field studies. -he passage provides information to support which of (5) meters below the ocean0s surface and last for over +& the following generali!ations@ minutes.> ( phenomenon is described and then theories supply. and its arteries in the laboratory. which =(> ( current interpretation of a phenomenon is described and then ways in which it was developed either are discussed. -he =B> 't resolves some of the ambiguities inherent in absence of high levels of lactic acid in the seal0s blood (30) after such dives suggests that during them. the seal usually heads directly for its prey and relationship to work and the law. reveal that on dives in =(> 't provides new interpretations of women0s the wild. the lactic acid is released into the seal0s blood concerning its correctness are discussed. when the seal dives below the =B> 't is generally less difficult to observe the (10) surface of the water and stops breathing. 'n the laboratory. but are supplied with o2ygen =?> 't avoids e2treme positions taken by other writers on from the blood.
> ow the 5eddell seal responds to o2ygen prey deprivation during its longest dives appears to =C> e2hibits physiological behavior similar to that which depend on whether the seal is searching for prey or characteri!es its longest dives in the wild. =C> organs that revert to an anaerobic metabolism are =?> -hey are based on the assumption that 5eddell seals temporarily isolated from the seal0s bloodstream rarely spend more than twenty minutes underwater =?> o2ygen continues to be supplied to organs that clear on a typical dive in the wild. 't can be inferred from the passage that by describing necessary for biologists to revise previous the perceptions of how the 5eddell seal behaves 5eddell seal as preparing 8for the worst9 =line A)>.. =C> -hey provide evidence that undermines the view =B> the seal typically reverts to an anaerobic metabolism that the 5eddell seal relies on an anaerobic only at the very end of the dive metabolism during its most typical dives in the wild. production of lactic acid because =B> -hey present an oversimplified account of =(> only those organs that are essential to the seal0s mechanisms that the 5eddell seal relies on during its ability to navigate underwater revert to an anaerobic longest dives in the wild. 5hich of the following best summari!es the main point of the passage@ B. biologists mean that it =?> Biologists speculate that laboratory studies of the =(> prepares to remain underwater for no longer than physiological behavior of seals during dives lasting twenty minutes more than twenty minutes would be more accurate if =B> e2hibits physiological behavior similar to that which the seals were not forcibly submerged. -he passage suggests that during laboratory dives. =C> -he results of recent field studies have made it . lactic acid from the seal0s bloodstream =. =?> begins to e2hibit predatory behavior =. the the increased production of lactic acid by organs p of the 5eddell seal0s blood is not adversely that revert to an anaerobic metabolism during its affected by the longest dives in the wild. physiologically during its longest dives in the wild. . characteri!es dives in which it heads directly for its =. =B> -he 5eddell seal has developed a number of uni#ue mechanisms that enable it to remain submerged at depths of up to %&& meters for up to +& minutes. avoiding predators during such dives. -he author cites which of the following as characteristic =(> Recent field studies have indicated that descriptions of the 5eddell seal0s physiological behavior during =?> -he level of lactic acid in an animal0s blood is likely to be lowest during those periods in which it e2periences o2ygen deprivation.> -he physiological behavior of animals in a laboratory setting is not always consistent with their physiological behavior in the wild. (ccording to the author. =. A.> clears the lactic acid from its blood before %. which of the following is true attempting to dive of the laboratory studies mentioned in line ) @ =(> -hey fail to e2plain how the seal is able to tolerate 1.> -hey provide an accurate account of the =. mechanism.> the seal remains submerged for only short periods of physiological behavior of 5eddell seals during time those dives in the wild in which they are either evading predators or e2ploring distant routes.of the physiological behavior of the 5eddell seal during laboratory dives are not applicable to its most typical dives in the wild.
and Ⅳ only . and =(> . . as =B> summari!ing and assessing a study (10) (le2ander Neyssar shows in his recent book. (25) Neyssar also scrutini!es unemployment patterns forcibly submerged during laboratory dives. Neyssar uses they do on typical dives in the wild.ven when dependent on the wild. Passage 30 Since the early )*+&0s. Get Neyssar rightly understands that a better way to (20) measure the impact of unemployment is to calculate unemployment fre#uencies:measuring the percentage of workers who e2perience any unemployment in the course of a year. Eiven this perspective. ( temporary halt in the functioning of certain organs =(> Ⅰand Ⅲ only =B> Ⅱ and Ⅳ only =C> Ⅱ and Ⅲ only =?> Ⅰ. in the )/+&0s and )/*&0s.oblessness of the previous decades. Get the impact of unemployment on a specific =B> . -he ). unemployment was around )% percent. class. and the findings applicable to other industrial areas.Ⅱ. But mobility was not the dominant working-class dives in the wild strategy for coping with unemployment.2hibit the physiological responses that are gender. his study. we know (5) remarkably little of worklessness. 5hen historians have evidence. Self-help (40) and the help of kin got most workers through . they do which of the following@ according to skill level.> Ⅰ. Get while we now have studies of contemporary public policy. geographical mobility in the nineteenth-century United =. in its thorough (45) research and creative use of #uantitative and #ualitative working-class communities and culture.obless spells. ( constriction of the seal0s arteries Ⅲ.2amining =C> making distinctions among categories the period )/+&-)*.Ⅲ. race. these differential rates to help e2plain a phenomenon =?> 3roduce smaller amounts of lactic acid than they do (35) that has pu!!led historians:the startlingly high rate of on typical dives in the wild.oblessness +. -he passage suggests that because 5eddell seals are looms much larger. they have focused on the Ereat ?epression of the )*1&0s. ethnicity. is a model of historical analysis. paid any attention at all to unemployment. at least by Ereat ?epression standards< during the worst years.oblessness differed characteristic of dives in the wild that last less than primarily according to class< those in middle-class and twenty minutes.&. historians have begun to 5hile Neyssar might have spent more time developdevote serious attention to the working class in the ing the implications of his findings on .oblessness for United States. . white-collar occupations were far less likely to be unem(30) ployed. the same trade. ( decrease in the rate at which the seal0s heart beats Ⅱ. ( decrease in the levels of lactic acid in the seal0s blood Ⅳ. . and Ⅳ only =. ad. where the historical materials are particularly rich.2hibit the physiological responses that are characteristic of the longer dives they undertake in class was not always the same. -he passage is primarily concerned with narrowness of this perspective ignores the pervasive =(> recommending a new course of investigation recessions and . nor was assistance from private charities or state agencies.> "avigate less effectively than they do on typical States.oining communities could have =C> Cope with o2ygen deprivation less effectively than dramatically different unemployment rates. age. e finds that rates of .chusetts. (15 ) -he unemployment rates that Neyssar calculates appear to be relatively modest. Neyssar concentrates on Cassa=?> critici!ing the current state of a field dives observed in the laboratory@ Ⅰ.
-he person0s class =C> -hey are the first to mention the e2istence of high Ⅱ. and Ⅲ A. /.> comparing and contrasting two methods for =. would most strongly =?> -hey have been considered by many historians to support Neyssar0s findings as they are described by the underestimate the e2tent of working-class author@ unemployment. if true. which of the following is true B. .=.. in =B> -hey are possible because Cassachusetts has the late nineteenth-century Cassachusetts@ most easily accessible historical records. which of the following was true of the study by historians of %. 5here the person lived or worked rates of geographical mobility in the nineteenth Ⅲ. =C> 't can be calculated more easily than can =?> -he study focused more on the working-class unemployment fre#uency. narrow focus. (ccording to the passage. =C> polite skepticism =B> -hey give less than a full sense of the impact of =?> scrupulous neutrality unemployment on working-class people. #uantitative evidence. and Ouincy. 5hich of the following statements about the the working class in the United States@ unemployment rate during the Ereat ?epression can be =(> -he study was infre#uent or superficial. =C> Ⅰand Ⅱ only =. Neyssar considers which of of Neyssar0s findings concerning unemployment in the Cassachusetts@ following to be among the important predictors of the =(> -hey tend to contradict earlier findings about such likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed unemployment.> 't has been shown by Neyssar to be lower than the Ereat ?epression. =(> Ⅰonly =?> -hey are relevant to a historical understanding of =B> Ⅱonly the nature of unemployment in other states.> Ⅰ. Cassachusetts. around )% percent during =B> wary concern the period )/+&-)*. Ⅰ. Cassachusetts. =.> -hey have caused historians to reconsider the role of =?> Ⅰand Ⅲ only the working class during the Ereat ?epression. 1. (ccording to the passage. =. community than on working-class culture. =B> 't has been analy!ed seriously only since the early =C> -he study relied more on #ualitative than )*+&0s. -he passage suggests that before the early )*+&0s.> #ualified admiration =C> -hey overestimate the importance of middle class and white-collar unemployment. on average.&. -he author views Neyssar0s study with of the unemployment rates mentioned in line )% =(> impatient disapproval =(> -hey hovered. which of the following is true +. previously thought. =. inferred from the passage@ =B> -he study was repeatedly critici!ed for its allegedly =(> 't was sometimes higher than )% percent. -he person0s age century.> -hey are more open to #uestion when calculated for calculating data years other than those of peak recession. =?> 't was never as high as the rate during the )/+&0s. or both.oblessness during =. 5hich of the following. (ccording to the passage.Ⅱ. .> -he study ignored working-class . =(> Boston.
6 serves on si2 boards.oining 5est Chelmsford. =. (25) education. 5omen of that generation were often who were chief e2ecutive officers =C. (lthough pressure to recruit women directors. =B> 5hite-collar professionals such as attorneys had as much trouble as day laborers in maintaining a steady level of employment throughout the period )/+&)*. where shoe factories were being replaced by other industries. . 'n aged to direct their attention toward efforts to addition. these women are particularly #ualified to serve on boards because of the changing nature of corporations. since it is only recently that large numbers of women have begun to rise in management.&. Conse#uently. it should be higher percentage of women on their boards. shoe-factory workers moved away in large numbers from Chelmsford. they initially sought women years old. Cassachusetts. -he fact that the women from these sectors who were appointed were often ac#uaintances of the boards0 chairs seems #uite reasonable< chairs have always considered it important for directors to interact comfortably in the boardroom. Cany such women are well known for their contributions in government.oining communities. owever. -oday Passage 31 -he number of women directors appointed to corpoa rate boards in the United States has increased dramaticompany0s ability to be responsive to the concerns of cally. owever.able only if every C. company0s growth and survival. positioned to be responsive to some of these (lthough small companies were the first to have concerns.60s are still rare. to ad. (5) unlike that to employ women in the general work force.6 e2perience. large corporations currently have a (lthough conditions have changed. -his raises the specter of director overcommitment and the resultant dilution of contribution. it is nevertheless real. the chairs ne2t sought women in business who had the e#uivalent of (20) C. Cassachusetts. women directors. had a higher rate of unemployment for working-class people in )/+& than in )/*&. 30) (lthough many successful women from outside the business world are unknown to corporate leaders. the ideal of si2 C. and the nonprofit sector. were more likely than working-class men living in Cambridge to be unemployed for some period of time during the year )/+1. 5omen are uni#uely does not derive from legislation. =C> 5orking-class women living in Cambridge. 5hen the remem(10) chairs of these large corporations began recruiting bered that most directors of both se2es are over fifty ( 0) women to serve on boards.60s =female or male > improve serving the community. workers of all classes in Cassachusetts were more likely than workers of all classes in other states to move their place of residence from one location to another within the state. such women C. -his fact is reflected in the career (15) on the board of each of the largest corporations is develreali!opment of most of the outstandingly successful ad.encourrations. but the ratio of female to male directors remains the 35) community and the environment can influence that low. =?> 'n the )/*&0s. the chairs began to recruit women of high achievement outside the business world. where the shoe industry flourished.60s> of large corpo.> 'n the late nineteenth century.
(ccording to the passage. =B> health and safety regulations government regulation. who currently =?> Corporations have only recently been pressured to serve include women on their boards. the pressure to appoint =(> Cost do not serve on more than one board.> Corporations are not sub. 6ne organi!ation of women directors is helping busi1. they =?> ( larger percentage are from government and law have such a small number of openings. of the generation now in their fifties. and the =C> retirement and pension programs environment.ect to statutory penalty for .> 't would be more reali!able if C.60s had a more %. A. and the nonprofit failing to include women on their boards. the aging population. 't can be inferred from the passage that.women boards. about women outside the business world who are currently serving on corporate boards@ . which of the following is true e2tensive range of business e2perience. B. than are from the nonprofit sector.3about =(> long-term inflation social issues. ( 5) on corporate boards< . -he author of the passage would be most likely to agree appoint new members to a corporation0s board. sector. stockholders. women to corporate boards differs from the pressure to =B> ( large percentage will eventually work on the staff employ women in the work force in which of the of corporations. such as problems with the economy. -he passage suggests that corporations of the past differ =C> Corporate boards have received less pressure from from modern corporations in which of the following the media and the public to include women on their ways@ .. (ll of the following are e2amples of issues that the ness become more responsive to the changing needs of organi!ation described in the last paragraph would be (50) society by raising the level of corporate awareness likely to advise corporations on ..> Cost are less than fifty years old. when seeking to ). law. the chair with which of the following statements about traditionally looked for candidates who achievement of the 8ideal9 mentioned in line )A@ =(> had legal and governmental e2perience =(> 't has only recently become a possibility. consumers. =. and workers within companies to include women on their boards. =B> Corporate boards have received less pressure from =.60s were =C> could work easily with other members of the board women =?> were already involved in establishing policy for that =C> 't is very close to being a reality for most corporate corporation boards. (ccording to the passage. percent are in government.IC. following ways@ =C> Cost were already known to the chairs of the board =(> Corporate boards are under less pressure because to which they were appointed. =B> had e2perience dealing with community affairs =B> 't would be easier to meet if more C.% percent are in education and =.> had influential connections outside the business =?> 't might affect the #uality of directors0 service to world corporations.> how to develop new markets (55) potential candidates for corporate boards. -his organi!ation also serves as a resource =?> the energy shortage center of information on accomplished women who are =. =.
-he increased number of women C. or appro2i(5) mately one-si2th of the human race at that time:and the few million full-blooded "ative (mericans alive at the end of the nineteenth century. measles. population declines. -he nature of modern corporations 4urthermore.60s populations away. -he effects of their sudden introduction continuing e2istence are summari!ed. =. important in (merican history is strongly indicated by =B> ( problem is described. and Ⅲ nous population. -hat virgin-soil epidemics were discussed. +. the surviving records of "orth (merica do =?> Ⅰand Ⅲ only contain references to deadly epidemics among the indige=. rather than enslaving them as the Ⅲ. Ⅰ. of British and 4rench colonies is not as definitive /. and undoubtedly =C> ( problem is described.:new estimates of which soar as high as )&& million. the British tended to drive the native Ⅱ. yellow fever. -he evidence provided by the documents effects are discussed. and then various measures that have successfully which contain reports of horrendous epidemics and steep resolved it are discussed. =C> Ⅲ only . and then its #uantitative analyses of Spanish tribute records and (25 ) other sources.ect to more stringent government regulations. by which time the (30) worst epidemics had probably already taken place. -he careers pursued by women currently available to serve on corporate boards Spaniards did. -here is no doubt that chronic disease was an important factor in the precipitous decline.> Corporations were sub. and then an advantage of evidence that a number of dangerous maladies:smallresolving it is offered. po2. especially as manifested in virgin-soil epidemics. historians are blaming diseases imported from the 6ld 5orld for the staggering disparity between the indigenous population of (merica in )A*.> Ⅰ. =?> -he historical origins of a problem are described.Ⅱ.'ncreasingly.> -he causes of a problem are described. malaria. possibly of bubonic or pneumonic plague. confirmed in many cases by recent =. 't can be inferred from the passage that factors making because the con#uerors of those areas did not establish women uni#uely valuable members of modern corporate permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous boards would include which of the following@ records until the seventeenth century. and then reasons why diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologi(15) various proposed solutions succeeded or failed are cally almost defenseless. 5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation Firgin-soil epidemics are those in which the populaof the passage@ tions at risk have had no previous contact with the =(> ( problem is described. =B> Corporations were less responsive to the financial needs of their employees. are demonstrated in the early chronicles of (merica. =?> ( corporation0s effectiveness in coping with community needs was less likely to affect its growth and prosperity. swept coastal "ew =(> Corporations had greater input on government policies affecting the business community. and it is highly probable that the greatest (10) killer was epidemic disease.ven so. 'n )B)B-)B)* an epidemic. so that the epidemics of British (merica =(> Ⅰonly occurred beyond the range of colonists0 direct (35) =B> Ⅱonly observation. and then reasons for its several more:were unknown in the pre-Columbian (20) "ew 5orld. =C> -he ability of a corporation to keep up with changing markets was not a crucial factor in its success. Passage 32 .
'n the )/. virgin-soil epidemics can be distinguished from other catastrophic outbreaks of disease in that virgin-soil epidemics =(> recur more fre#uently than other chronic diseases =B> affect a minimum of one-half of a given population =C> involve populations with no prior e2posure to a disease =?> usually involve a number of interacting diseases =. (ccording to the passage. %.soil epidemic. =C> -hey were the last native people to be struck by a virgin.> 't affects only those who are immunologically defenseless against it. =?> 't was not a significant problem in Spanish colonies. in )*%. epidemic. -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> refute a common misconception =B> provide support for a hypothesis =C> analy!e an argument =?> suggest a solution to a dilemma =. -he author implies which of the following about measles@ =(> 't is not usually a fatal disease. 4or e2ample. (ccording to the passage..> reconcile opposing viewpoints . =B> -hey were immunologically defenseless against measles. =.. ?uring the )B1&0s smallpo2. Cases such as this demonstrate that even (55) diseases that are not normally fatal can have devastating conse#uences when they strike an immunologically defenseless community.&0s fever devastated the people of the Columbia River area. the documentation of these and other epidemics is slight and fre#uently unreliable.> are less responsive to medical treatment than are other diseases 1. measles outbreak most probably in order to =(> demonstrate the impact of modern medicine on ). eliminated half the population of the uron and 'ro#uois confederations. =. B. the disease most fatal to the "ative (merican people. even though some had the benefit of modern medicine. Ouebec. (45) killing eight out of ten of them..ngland. =C> -hey were being kept prior to the seventeenth century. =B> 't ceased to be a problem by the seventeenth century. 5hich of the following can be inferred from the passage about the "ative (merican inhabitants of Ungava Bay@ =(> -hey were almost all killed by the )*%. =. 5hich of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning Spanish tribute records@ =(> -hey mention only epidemics of smallpo2. killing as many as nine out of ten.> -hey had been inoculated against measles. affected ** percent of the population and killed + percent. =?> -hey did not come into fre#uent contact with white (mericans until the twentieth century. +.> enslaved the native populations in (merica A.> -hey prove that certain diseases were unknown in the pre-Columbian "ew 5orld. the British colonists wereunlike the Spanish colonists in that the British colonists =(> collected tribute from the native population . (40) =B> kept records from a very early date =C> drove "ative (mericans off the land =?> were unable to provide medical care against epidemic disease =. -he author mentions the )*%. =B> -hey were instituted in )A*. an outbreak of measles among the "ative (merican inhabitants of Ungava Bay. =?> -hey provide #uantitative and #ualitative evidence about "ative (merican populations. Unfortunately. =C> 't is the disease most commonly involved in virginsoil epidemics. and it is ecessary to supplement what little we do know with evidence from recent epidemics among "ative (meri(50) cans.
Scientists have begun to suspect about the evolution of gala2ies that this intergalactic gas is probably a mi2ture of gases =C> summari!e the state of and prospects for research in left over from the 8big bang9 when the gala2ies were intergalactic astronomy and gas was forced out of gala2ies by supernova e2plosions. if newly discovered.+% =the sub. to be a strange-looking ob. the cooler gas (20) shrinks inward toward the center of the gala2y. Because the strands (35) of gas radiating from "EC ).+% are visible in optical smallpo2 prior to )A*.+%. the physicist 4abian reasoned that as intergalactic gas cools. each a little larger than the planet Dupiter. -he primary purpose of the passage is to (10) amount of 8intergalactic rainfall9 into some of these =(> illustrate a hypothesis about the origin of gala2ies gala2ies has been enough to double their mass in the =B> provide evidence to dispute an accepted theory time since they formed. disagreed. 't is well known that when gas is cooled at a constant pressure its volume decreases. however. space between the gala2ies in our universe was a nearlike that which was captured in the photographs. 4abian.epidemic disease =B> corroborate the documentary evidence of epidemic disease in colonial (merica =C> refute allegations of unreliability made against the historical record of colonial (merica =?> advocate new research into the continuing problem of epidemic disease =.> Remains of 4rench settlements dating back to the photographs. 4abian suggested that such strands consisted si2teenth century not of gas blown out of the gala2y but of cooling flows of gas streaming inward. Ceanwhile its place is taken by hotter intergalactic gas from farther out on the edge of the gala2y. 4abian0s perfect vacuum. e noted that the wavelengths of the radiation emitted by a gas would changes as the (40) gas cooled.ect of apparently condenses into a collection of small stars. =C> ?ocuments detailing sophisticated "ative (merican (ccording to previous speculation.> challenge assumptions about how the statistical evidence of epidemics should be interpreted (15) formed /. it would emit not 2-rays. -his orthodo2 view of the universe is hypothesis was supported by Cani!ares0 determination in now being challenged by astronomers who believe that a )*/. which cools as it is compressed and flows into the gala2y. =. would a most seriously weaken the author0s argument concerning the importance of virgin-soil epidemics in 8cooling flow. -hese stars vastly outnumber the other stars in a given gala2y. but visible light. -hus. the photographs> was at one-tenth this temperature. -he net result is a continuous flow of gas. the depopulation of "ative (mericans@ ( fairly heretical idea in the )*+&0s.vidence setting the pre-Columbian population of theory gained support when 4abian observed a cluster the "ew 5orld at only /& million of gala2ies in the constellation 3erseus and found the (30) =B> Spanish tribute records showing periodic population central gala2y. 5hich of the following. -he gas gas immediately surrounding "EC ). -he ).9 falling into the central gala2y. so that as the gas flowed into the gala2y and Passage 33 Until recently most astronomers believed that the became cooler.ect fluctuations with irregular. starting as hot gases in inter(25) galactic space and ending as a dri!!le of cool gas called . whereas the the supposedly empty space around them. "EC ). the cooling-flow =(> . that most of the gas in the 3erseus cluster was at a (5) heavy 8rain9 of gas is falling into many gala2ies from (45) temperature of /& million degrees Nelvin. these strands were medical procedures gases that had been blown out by an e2plosion in the =?> 4ossils indicating "ative (merican cortact with gala2y. thin strands of gas radiating from it.
which =(> Eas emanating from an e2plosion will be hotter the form clusters more distant it is from the origin. Passage 34 %.> (s gas cools. =?> 't loses *& percent of its energy as it moves to the center of the gala2y. (ccording to the passage. cools remains constant.+% had been presented.=?> report new data on the origins of intergalactic gas =. =C> is composed primarily of gas left over from the big bang +. its density decreases. gas in the peripheral regions of a gala2y cluster =?> -he volume of a gas will increase as the pressure =(> streams outward into intergalactic space increases.> gala2ies are being penetrated by gas forced out of =B> -he wavelength of radiation emitted by a gas as it other gala2ies by supernova e2plosions.> provide an alternate point of view concerning the movement of gas within a gala2y cluster =B> 't emits radiation with wavelengths that change as the gas moves toward the center of the gala2y. =C> -he total amount of radiation emitted diminishes as the gas cools. each the si!e of Dupiter. if 4abian is will decrease as it is cooled. =(> clarify an ambiguity in 4abian0s research findings =C> 't did not receive support initially because =B> illustrate a generali!ation about the temperature of technology was not available to confirm its tenets. Na!uko "akane0s history of the early Dapanese immigrants to central California0s 3a. gas in a gala2y cluster =?> 't supports earlier speculation that intergalactic gas =C> introduce a new argument in support of the orthodo2 was largely the result of e2plosions outside the view of gala2ies gala2y. correct. =. 4abian believes that gas flowing into a central gala2y has which of the following characteristics@ =(> 't is one-tenth hotter than it was in the outer regions of the gala2y cluster.> 't condenses at a rate much slower than the rate of decrease in temperature as the gas flows inward. =B> is hotter than gas in the central regions of the gala2y =. =. the volume of a gas 1.> e2pands to increase the si!e of the gala2y =(> 't did not receive approval until Cani!ares0 work A.> 't was widely challenged until 2-ray evidence of gas 3erseus gala2ies temperatures in "EC ).. 4abian0s theory makes use of formation which of the following principles@ =?> gala2ies contain stars. =. =?> provide support for 4abian0s assertions about the =. -he 'ssei =first-generation immigrants> . 't can be inferred from the passage that. -he author uses the phrase 8orthodo2 view of the universe9 =line 1> to refer to the belief that =(> the space between the gala2ies is devoid of matter =B> the space between gala2ies is occupied by stars that cannot be detected by optical photographs =C> gala2ies have decreased in mass by half since their B. (ccording to the passage.aro Falley focuses on the development of farming communities there from )/*& to )*A&. -he author of the passage probably mentions Cani!ares0 was published. =C> 'f pressure remains constant.> reconcile opposing views on the formation of intergalactic gas . 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the =?> results in the creation of unusually large stars following is true of 4abian0s theory@ =. determination in order to =B> 't was not widely accepted in the )*+&0s.
5hich of the following best describes a 8labor club. -he Dapanese provided the labor and the crop =B> (n association whose members included labor was divided between laborers and landowners. -he 'ssei contractors and landowning 8bosses9 began to operate farms. belong if they sought employment in the 3a.9 )/*&0s (15)which provided .> ( social organi!ation to which Dapanese laborers and But immigrants could circumvent such e2clusionary laws their families belonged by leasing or purchasing land in their (merican-born (35) children0s names. ).> 't was passed under pressure from the 3a. they began to marry and start =C> ( type of farming corporation set up by 'ssei who families. who gathered workers for a community with studies of Dapanese settlements particular . =?> 't was applicable to first-generation immigrants but (45) and what variations e2isted between rural Dapanese not to their (merican-born children. such as the (lien Hand Haw of )*)1.aro Falley to raise sugar beets. =. ( related institution was the 8labor club. Based on information in the passage. Several 'ssei families .ob information and negotiated employment contracts and other legal matters.aro farmland. Dapanese men in California as narrow and ill constructed rural areas sought employment via the 8boss9 system. -his same system was originally =. forming an established Dapanese (merican had resided in the 3a. (merican communities@ =.aro Falley for some time (30) community. -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> defend a controversial hypothesis presented in a A.> e2amine the differences between Dapanese and utili!ed by the Chinese laborers who had preceded the Chinese immigrants to central California in the Dapanese. the 'ssei0s efforts to attain =?> ( cooperative association whose members were agricultural independence were hampered by governdues-paying Dapanese laborers ment restrictions.aro Falley0s strawberry farmers. =B> dismiss a history of an early Dapanese settlement in Hike 'ssei laborers in (merican cities. 1. however. Falley similar to or different from 'ssei in urban settings. for 'ssei who chose to belong and paid an defined in the passage@ annual fee to the cooperative for membership. (40) methodology:that of oral history:which cannot =B> 't sought to restrict the number of foreign substitute for a broader theoretical or comparative immigrants to California. 4urture research might well consider two =C> 't successfully prevented 'ssei from ever purchasing issues raised by her study< were the 'ssei of the 3a. such as the . perspective. ..ob and then negotiated a contract between throughout California workers and employer. Unfortunately. too =(> 't e2cluded (merican-born citi!ens of Dapanese particularistic. =C> summari!e and criti#ue a history of an early -he system comprised three elements< immigrant wage Dapanese settlement in California laborers7 'ssei boardinghouses where laborers stayed7 =?> compare a history of one Dapanese (merican (10) and labor contractors.oin together to purchase a history of early Dapanese immigrants to Califronia strawberry field and the necessary farming e#uipment..aro (20) the 'ssei began to lease land from the valley0s strawberry Falley farmers. 't is. =(> (n organi!ation to which 'ssei were compelled to 5hen the local sugar beet industry collapsed in )*&. -his limitation derives from "akane0s ancestry from landownership. which of the "akane0s case study of one rural Dapanese (merican following statements concerning the (lien Hand Haw of community provides valuable information about the )*)1 is most accurate@ lives and e2periences of the 'sseil.(5) were brought into the 3a.9 as rental of land.
-he author of the passage would most likely agree that segment:people who need the commodity in #uestion.&0s and )*1&0s. 'ssei. indirect conse#uence of the collapse of the sugar beet =C> -hey paid for the use of the land with a share of the industry in the 3a. Passage 35 =?> -he 'ssei adopted a labor contract system similar to that 't can be argued that much consumer dissatisfaction used by Chinese immigrants.> -he 'ssei suffered a massive dislocation caused by advertising at only the likely buyers of a given product. dealing with the 3a. there is the market B.> -hey violated the (lien Hand Haw. all sharing a particular need. such as high-speed fillers of bottles at brewof the 3a. 4irst. Hots of people may need trousers. for e2ample.aro Falley@ strawberry crop. Such customers. =(> -he 'ssei formed a permanent. 4inally. sugar beets. =C> -he 'ssei began to lease land in their children0s names. which of the following.aro Falley from )/*& to )*A& or want the product. (15) -hese three groups are rarely identical. there is the program target:people in the "akane0s study. there is the program audience Falley ―all people who are actually e2posed to the =B> ( statistical table showing per capita income of marketing program without regard to whether they need 'ssei in the 3a. but (10) only a few #ualify as likely buyers of very e2pensive =(> ( statistical table comparing per capita income of 'ssei wage laborers and sharecroppers in the 3a. (n e2ception =C> ( statistical table showing rates of farm ownership by Dapanese (mericans in four central California occurs occasionally in cases where customers for a counties from )/*& to )*A& particular industrial product may be few and easily iden=?> ( discussion of original company documents tifiable. 'n such circumstances. when the 'ssei began to lease land from the Falley0s strawberry farmers. would best remedy the particularistic market segment with the 8best fit9 characteristics for a nature of that study@ specific product. as it is described in the passage@ =(> ( typical sharecropping agreement =B> ( farming corporation =C> ( 8labor club9 =?> -he 8boss9 system =. family-based =?> -hey earned higher wages than when they raised community. all (20) companies with a particular application of the product the turn of the century =. -here are three groups of consumers who are affected (5) by the marketing process. =B> Boardinghouses were built to accommodate the =.aro Falley Dapanese (merican community eries.> Circumvention of the (lien Hand Haw . unemployment. the 'ssei most probably did which of the following@ =(> -hey used profits made from selling the strawberry crop to hire other 'ssei. -he passage suggests that which of the following was an 8boss9 system.> -ranscripts of interviews conducted with members in #uestion. if it had been included in Second. direct selling =marketing that who were born in the )*.+.aro designer trousers.aro Falley sugar beet industry at are likely to form a meaningful target. =B> -hey negotiated such agricultural contracts using the %. reaches only the program target> is likely to be Such a situation best e2emplifies which of the following. with marketing strategies arises from an inability to aim =. 't can be inferred from the passage that.
and mass marketing:a marketing programs. there are many rather than few (30) potential customers. Ⅱ. marketing for products in which they have no interest and so they become annoyed.> Ⅰ.> 't is less successful at directing a marketing program marketing program e2clusively to the program target.> -hey are used only when direct selling has not %.ach represents a relatively small 1. differences among consumers with similar demographic =B> 't is often used in cases where there is a large (35) characteristics. in information technology. Customers who differ significantly from each other for it. people get e2posed to a great deal of approaches. Harge numbers of potential customers =C> (n idea for a speciali!ed product remains Ⅲ.ustified. and Ⅲ different. 5hich of the following best e2emplifies the situation reached the appropriate market segment. to the target audience than are other marketing 'nevitably. A. =.ven with all the past decade0s advances program target. there potential customers.. described in the last two sentences of the passage@ =(> ( product suitable for women age . =?> Ⅱ and Ⅲ only Cost consumer-goods markets are significantly =. -he passage suggests which of the following about =(> make a comparison between the program target and highly speciali!ed trade media@ the program audience =(> -hey should be used only when direct selling is not =B> emphasi!e the similarities between the market economically feasible.Ⅱ. Customers who each represent a small percentage of . and the program target =?> -hey are rarely used in the implementation of =. Rarely do members of a direct selling@ particular market segment group themselves neatly into =(> 't is used in the marketing of most industrial a meaningful program target. =?> clarify the distinction between the market segment =C> -hey are used only for very e2pensive products.)-1& is marketed . and highly speciali!ed trade potential sales (25) media e2ist to e2pose members of the program target =(> Ⅰ only : =B> Ⅱ only and only members of the program target:to the =C> Ⅰ and Ⅱ only marketing program.> introduce the concept of the program audience marketing programs for industrial products. Unfortunately. . approach that aims at a wide audience:remains the =?> 't is used only for products for which there are many only economically feasible mode.economically . segment and the program target =B> -hey can be used to e2clude from the program =C> provide an e2ample of the way three groups of audience people who are not part of the program consumers are affected by a marketing program target. -he passage suggests which of the following about percentage of potential sales. markets share which of the following characteristics@ =B> ( company develops a new product and must develop an advertising campaign to create a market Ⅰ. -ypically. most consumer-goods at meetings attended only by potential customers. (ccording to the passage. (40) are few media that allow the marketer to direct a =. -he author mentions 8trousers9 =lines * and ))> most likely in order to ). . direct selling of consumer =C> 't is not economically feasible for most marketing goods is rare. -here are substantial products.
=B> Cass marketing is the only feasible way of advertising such products. which strings together amino acids in the order specified by the se#uence of elements in the mR"( molecule. which reproduces the information contained in that (5) se#uence. =. =. =B> ( program audience is usually composed of people Biologists once assumed that the variable rates at with similar demographic characteristics. -ransported outside the nucleus to the cytoplasm.> Collecting demographic data is the first step that in their cytoplasm.une2plored because media e2posure of the product to its few potential customers would be too e2pensive. B. -he gene0s se#uence of nucleotides is transcribed into a molecule of messenger R"( =mR"(>. 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the (n important e2ample of this phenomenon is the following is true for most consumer-goods markets@ development of red blood cells from their unspeciali!ed .> -he program target and the program audience are not usually identical. of the protein insulin results in diabetes. =C> -he marketing program cannot be directed specifically to the program target.ustify the e2pense of direct selling. =?> -he program target is larger than the market segment. but rather with the e#ually varitarget.> -he program audience would necessarily be made up of potential customers. =?> Consumers with similar demographic characteristics the concentrations of most mR"(0s correlate best. =.> ( product suitable for men age B& and over is advertised in a maga!ine read by adults of all ages. -he passage supports which of the following statements of mR"(0s play a ma. 'f a cell degrades both a rapidly and (25) a slowly synthesi!ed mR"( slowly. recent investigations have shown that demographic factors in defining a market segments. accumulate to high levels. -he passage suggests that which of the following is true about the marketing of industrial products like those discussed in the third paragraph@ =(> -he market segment and program target are identical. able rates at which cells degrade the different mR"(0s =. =?> ( new product is developed and marketers collect demographic data on potential consumers before developing a specific advertising campaign. an e2cess of certain proteins can cause cells (15) to proliferate abnormally and become cancerous7 a lack how successful a product will be with a particular group of consumers. =B> -he program audience and the market segment are usually identical. factors affecting the abundance +. both mR"(0s will marketers take in designing a marketing program. =(> -he program audience is smaller than the market segment. the mR"( is translated into the protein it encodes by an organelle known as a ribosome. which cells synthesi!e different mR"(0s determine the =C> 3sychological factors are more important than #uantities of mR"(0s and their corresponding proteins (20) in a cell.or part in the normal functioning about demographic characteristics and marketing@ of a cell by appropriately regulating protein synthesis. /. =C> -he market segment and the program target are usually identical. regardless of the marketing approach that was used. Since the (10) amount of mR"( in a cell determines the amount of the corresponding protein. =(> ?emographic research is of no use in determining 4or e2ample. owever. not do not necessarily form a meaningful program with their synthesis rate. =?> Core customers would be needed to . Passage 36 3rotein synthesis begins when the gene encoding a protein is activated.
-he passage is primarily concerned with discussing the paragraph. . =(> only the degradation rate for the mR"( of the =?> ?ifferent mR"(0s undergo degradation at widely protein involved varying rates. =B> only the synthesis rate for the mR"( of the protein =. %. -he passage suggests that a biologist who held the view threatens to make the cell cancerous described in the first sentence of the second paragraph =.parent cells in bone marrow. alting synthesis of mR"( alone would =C> -he third paragraph describes a specific case of a not affect the #uantities of proteins synthesi!ed by the phenomenon that is described generally in the mR"(0s still e2isting in the cytoplasm. -o do this. rather than by phenomena described in the second paragraph. the =(> -he second paragraph presents arguments in support cells0 parent cells must simultaneously produce more of of a new theory and the third paragraph presents the constituent proteins of hemoglobin and less of most arguments against that same theory. as developing red cells do. Biologists now second paragraph. the parent cells halt synthesis =B> -he second paragraph describes a traditional view (35) of nonhemoglobin mR"(0s in the nucleus and rapidly and the third paragraph describes the view that has degrade copies of the nonhemoglobin mR"(0s remaining replaced it on the basis of recent investigations. =.> Cost mR"(0s degrade very rpaidly.> Both paragraphs describe in detail specific e2amples of the phenomenon that is introduced in the first ). 4or red blood cells to accu. =(> influence of mR"( concentrations on the development of red blood cells A.1.> way in which mR"( synthesis contributes to the =C> -he importance of activating the genes for particular onset of diabetes proteins at the correct moment =?> -he abnormal proliferation of a protein that . in the cytoplasm.ust varying one or the other. the passage suggests that a promising be studied intensively. involved . e2perimental treatment would be to administer a drug =C> -he rates of synthesis and degradation for any given that would reduce mR"( are normally e#ual.> -he kind of evidence that biologists relied on for would most probably also have believed which of the support of a view of mR"( synthesis that is now following@ considered obsolete =(> -he rate of degradation of specific mR"(0s has little effect on protein concentrations.. (40) believe that most cells can regulate protein production =?> -he third paragraph describes an investigation that most efficiently by varying both mR"( synthesis and was undertaken to resolve problems raised by degradation. other proteins. -he accumulation of concentrations of hemoglobin in =B> role of the synthesis and degradation of mR"( in red blood cells is mentioned in the passage as an cell functioning e2ample of which of the following@ =C> mechanism by which genes are transcribed into =(> -he effectiveness of simultaneous variation of the mR"( rates of synthesis and degradation of mR"( =?> differences in mR"( concentrations in cell nuclei =B> -he role of the ribosome in enabling a parent cell to and in the cytoplasm develop properly into a more speciali!ed form =. 5hich of the following best describes the relationship (30) mulate sufficient concentrations of hemoglobin =which between the second and third paragraphs of the passage@ transports o2ygen> to carry out their main function. -o begin to control a disease caused by a protein =B> -he rate of degradation of specific mR"(0s should deficiency.
which of the following can happen when protein synthesis is not appropriately regulated@ =(> ?iabetes can result from errors that occur when the ribosomes translate mR"( into protein. 5hen the two top Dapanese automobile makers matched and then doubled United States productivity . -his is not the case. believed to be. (ccording to the passage. =. and still is. (15) 6ther observers link high Dapanese productivity to higher levels of capital investment per worker. =C> -he cells are likely to proliferate abnormally and possibly become cancerous due to the levels of these proteins. =C> -he concept of mR"( degradation is so new that most biologists still believe that the vital role in protein regulation belongs to mR"( synthesis. owever. =B> -he two proteins are most likely constituents of a comple2 substance supporting the cells0 speciali!ed function. Passage 37 Dapanese firms have achieved the highest levels of manufacturing efficiency in the world automobile industry. (ccording to the passage. =. =B> -here is no consensus among biologists as to the significance of mR"( degradation in regulating protein synthesis.> -he mR"(0s for the two proteins are being synthesi!ed at identical rates in that type of cell. /. Some observers of Dapan have assumed that Dapanese firms use the same manufacturing e#uipment (5) and techni#ues as United States firms but have benefited from the uni#ue characteristics of Dapanese employees and the Dapanese culture.=C> both the synthesis and degradation rates for the mR"( of the protein involved =?> the incidence of errors in the transcription of mR"(0s from genetic nucleotide se#uences =. -he passage suggests that a biologist who detected high levels of two proteins in a certain type of cell would be likely to consider which of the following as a possible e2planation@ =(> -he rate of mR"( degradation for one of the proteins increases as this type of cell develops a more speciali!ed function. =?> -he mR"(0s for both proteins are being degraded at a low rate in that type of cell. if this were true. then one would e2pect Dapanese auto plants in the United States to perform no better than factories (10) run by United States companies. =C> ( deficiency of red blood cells can occur if bone marrow cells produce too much hemoglobin.> ?egradation of mR"( is now considered to be as important as mR"( synthesis has been. =B> Cancer can result from an e2cess of certain proteins and diabetes can result from an insulin deficiency.> the rate of activity of ribosomes in the cytoplasm of most cells B. But a historical perspective leads to a different conclusion. =. +. =?> ?egradation of mR"( is now considered to be the key process and mR"( synthesis is no longer believed to play a significant role.> . =?> Cancer can be caused by e2cessively rapid degradation of certain amino acids in the cytoplasm of cells. which of the following best describes the current view on the relationship between the synthesis and the degradation of mR"( in regulating protein synthesis@ =(> Biologists have recently become convinced that the ribosome controls the rates of synthesis and degradation of mR"(. Dapanese-run automobile plants located in the United States and staffed by local workers have demonstrated higher levels of productivity when compared with factories owned by United States companies.2cessive synthesis of one protein can trigger increased degradation of mR"(0s for other proteins and create severe protein imbalances.
it had were located. Dapanese automobile producers plants run by United States companies. to be other factors that led to higher productivity. =C> ?uring the late )*+&0s and early )*/&0s. components or models on single machines. 4or instance. fi2ed assets re#uired to produce one vehicle was =?> -he workers in Dapanese-run plants would have roughly e#uivalent in Dapan and in the United States. capital investment per different production . -he primary purpose of the passage is to statements is true of Dapanese automobile workers@ =(> present the ma. would be different from the e#uipment used in United States plants.obs. 4urthermore. employee was comparable to that of United States =C> Culture would not have an influence on the firms. which of the following ).or steps of a process =(> -heir productivity levels did not e#ual those of =B> clarify an ambiguity United States automobile workers until the late =C> chronicle a dispute seventies. 5hich of the following statements concerning the procedures. =?> -he greater the number of cars that are produced in (utomakers could schedule the production of different a single lot.ob. 5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation =B> Dapanese workers would be trained to do several of the first paragraph@ . %.> defend an accepted approach cultural influences. (ccording to the passage. including the use of fle2ible e#uipment that could be productivity levels were comparable in Dapan and (40) altered easily to do several different production tasks the United States. =. several departures from United States practices. A. did not simply implement conventional processes more (30) effectively< they made critical changes in United States 1. .obs.(20) levels in the mid-si2ties. Dapanese automakers chose to =B> -he culture of a country has a large effect on the make small-lot production feasible by introducing productivity levels of its automakers. which of the following =?> -hey are trained to do more than one . higher productivity levels regardless of where they (25) Since capital investment was not higher in Dapan.> -hey produce larger lots of cars than do workers in =(> -he e#uipment used in Dapanese automobile plants United States factories. thereby =. mentioned in line 1 were correct. -he author suggests that if the observers of Dapan =C> -hey operate component-specific machinery. =?> correct misconceptions =B> -heir high efficiency levels are a direct result of =. component-specific e#uipment and to Dapanese automakers were e2ceeded by those of (35) occupy fully workers who have been trained to e2ecute United States automakers. and the training of workers in multiple .> -he production levels of Dapanese-run plants located ( more fruitful e2planation may lie with Dapanese in the United States would be e#ual to those of production techni#ues. the productivity levels of the top e2pensive. would be the case@ =. one operation efficiently. the mass-production philosproductivity levels of automakers can be inferred from ophy of United States automakers encouraged the the passage@ production of huge lots of cars in order to utili!e fully =(> 3rior to the )*B&0s. and workers are kept constantly active. the amount of productivity levels of workers.> -he amount of capital investment made by eliminating the need to store the buffer stocks of e2tra automobile manufacturers in their factories (45) components that result when speciali!ed e#uipment determines the level of productivity.. the higher a plant0s productivity level. by the late seventies.
5ith which of the following predictive statement regarding Dapanese automakers would the author most likely agree@ =(> -he efficiency levels of the Dapanese automakers will decline if they become less fle2ible in their approach to production =B> Dapanese automakers productivity levels double during the late )**&0s. =. classified. however. =?> United States-owned factories abroad have higher production levels than do Dapanese owned plants in the United States. brain tryptophan. =B> 6pposing views are presented. /. and then amended. which emphasi!e the development of facility in several production .> Dapanese automakers will spend less on e#uipment repairs than will United States automakers because Dapanese e#uipment can be easily altered.> -he need to increase the investment per vehicle in order to achieve high productivity levels +. #ualified. 5e gave the rats a carbohydrate- . and brain serotonin levels.obs. =?> Dapanese automakers will hire fewer workers than will United States automakers because each worker is re#uired to perform several . 't can be inferred from the passage that one problem associated with the production of huge lots of cars is which of the following@ =(> -he need to manufacture fle2ible machinery and e#uipment =B> -he need to store e2tra components not re#uired for immediate use =C> -he need for e2pensive training programs for workers. parallel elevations occurred in blood tryptophan. 'n later studies we found that in. and an e2planation is advanced and then refuted. 5e found that.ecting insulin into a rat0s bloodstream also caused parallel elevations in blood and brain tryptophan levels (20) and in serotonin levels. and then reconciled. =?> ( theory is proposed. B. considered. 5hich of the following statements is supported by information stated in the passage@ =(> Dapanese and United States automakers differ in their approach to production processes. 6ur first studies sought to determine whether the increase in serotonin observed in rats given a large in. we have discovered that the production and release in brain neurons of the neuro(5) transmitter serotonin =neurotransmitters are compounds that neurons use to transmit signals to other cells> depend directly on the food that the body processes. 5e then decided to see whether the secretion of the animal0s own insulin similarly affected serotonin production. =C> Dapanese automakers invest more capital per employee than do United States automakers.> Dapanese automakers have benefited from the cultural heritage of their workers. =?> -he need to alter conventional mass-production processes =. immediately after the rats began to eat. =B> Dapanese automakers have perfected the use of single-function e#uipment. =.> (n opinion is presented.obs.=(> ( thesis is presented and supporting e2amples are provided. =C> United States automakes will originate net production processes before Dapanese automakers do. =C> ( fact is stated.ec(10)tion of the amino acid tryptophan might also occur after rats ate meals that change tryptophan levels in the blood. and then reaffirmed. -hese find(15) ings suggested that the production and release of serotonin in brain neurons were normally coupled with blood-tryptophan increases. =. 'n recent studies. Passage 38 't was once believed that the brain was independent of metabolic processes occurring elsewhere in the body.
when the authors began their first studies. 5hich of the following titles best summari!es the =(> depress the rats0 tryptophan levels contents of the passage@ =B> prevent the rats from contracting diseases =(> "eurotransmitters< -heir Crucial 4unction in =C> cause the rats to produce insulin Cellular Communication =?> demonstrate that insulin is the most important =B> ?iet and Survival< (n 6ld Relationship Ree2amined substance secreted by the body =C> -he Blood Supply and the Brain< ( Reciprocal =. however. Surprisingly. proportionately. the blood tryptophan (25) level and the concentrations of tryptophan serotonin in the brain increased after the meal. the lower is the ratio of the resulting blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration of competing amino (40) acids. -his same mechanism also provides the brain cells with other amino acids found in protein. than it does that of tryptophan. =?> concentration of tryptophan in the brain before a meal =.> -he . brain tryptophan and serotonin levels fell.> compare the effect of carbohydrates with the effect ?ependence of proteins =?> (mino (cids and "eurotransmitters< -he Connection Between Serotonin Hevels and -yrosine %. one reason that the authors gave rats carbohydrates was to ). -hus the more protein in a meal. they were aware that =(> they would eventually need to design e2periments that involved feeding rats high concentrations of protein =B> tryptophan levels in the blood were difficult to monitor with accuracy =C> serotonin levels increased after rats were fed meals rich in tryptophan =?> there were many neurotransmitters whose production was dependent on metabolic processes elsewhere in the body. =. and the more slowly is tryptophan provided to the brain..> serotonin levels increased after rats were in. the lower will be the Release of Serotonin< Some Recent 4indings =(> ratio of the rat0s blood-tryptophan concentration to the amount of serotonin produced and released in the . such as tyrosine and leucine. (ccording to the passage. when we added a large amount of protein to the meal. (ccording to the passage. -he consumption (35) of protein increases blood concentration of the other amino acids much more. the less serotonin subse#uently produced and released. (ccording to the passage. (s we had hypothesi!ed. Since protein contains tryptophan. -he more protein in the meal. (30) why should it depress brain tryptophan levels@ -he answer lies in the mechanism that provides blood tryptophan to the brain cells.ffects of 4ood 'ntake on the 3roduction and consumes. the speed with which rat0s brain tryptophan is provided to the brain cells of a rat varies =B> ratio of the rat0s blood-tryptophan concentration to with the the concentration in its blood of the other amino =(> amount of protein present in a meal acids contained in the protein =B> concentration of serotonin in the brain before a meal =C> ratio of the rat0s blood-tyrosine concentration to its =C> concentration of leucine in the blood rather than on blood-leucine concentration the concentration of tyrosine in the blood after a =?> number of neurotransmitters of any kind that the rat meal will produce and release .containing meal that we knew would elicit insulin secretion. (ccording to the passage.ected with a large amount of tryptophan A. the more protein a rat =.> number of serotonin-containing neurons present in the brain before a meal 1.
and uniformity of racial segregation =B> leucine in the South.9 -hat was a bit like hearing (30 )-homas 3aine apologi!e for the timing of his pamphlet what would happen when they fed large amounts of protein to rats@ Common &ense.> is meant to =(> stimulate further research studies Passage 39 =B> summari!e an area of scientific investigation istorians sometimes forget that history is conunu=C> help e2plain why a particular research finding was ally being made and e2perienced before it is studied. 5oodward =. e argued that the Dim Crow laws of the =C> blood late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries not only =?> tryptophan codified traditional practice but also were a determined (15) effort to erase the considerable progress made by Black =. which had a comparable impact. than would their leucine levels =. 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the -his revisionist view of Dim Crow legislation grew in following would be H. of course. obtained interpreted. -hese latter activities have their =?> provide supporting evidence for a controversial own history. for e2ample. blood tryptophan to the brain cells9 =lines 1)-1. /. like 3aine. =(> -he rats0 brain serotonin levels would not decrease.> refute the conclusions of a previously mentioned when 8new pasts9 will overturn established historical research study interpretations and change the course of history. continuity. 'n the fall of )*%A. (lthough Common &ense also had a mass readership. %he =C> Ceals that would elicit insulin secretion &trange Career o# 'im Crow. which may impinge in une2(5) pected ways on public events. -en years later. in a =?> Ceals that had very low concentrations of tyrosine (25) preface to the second revised edition. Get.> protein people during and after Reconstruction in the )/+&0s. =. (ccording to the passage.> Ceals that had very low concentrations of leucine confessed with ironic modesty that the first edition 8had begun to suffer under some of the handicaps that *. -he Supreme Court had producing and releasing serotonin@ =(> Ceals consisting almost e2clusively of protein issued its ruling in this epochal desegregation case a few =B> Ceals consisting almost e2clusively of months before 5oodward0s lectures.ection of insulin was delivered a lecture series at the University of Firginia (10) most similar in its effect on rats to an in.> number of amino acids the rat0s blood will contain . an in. -he authors0 discussion of the 8mechanism that provides serotonin. and read. C.(S. 't is difficult to predict scientific theory =.=?> -he rats would produce more insulin.> -he rats would produce neurotransmitters other than B.ection of which challenged the prevailling dogma concerning the =(> tyrosine history. carbohydrates -he lectures were soon published as a book.likely to be a potential 3art from the research that 5oodward had done for the source of aid to a patient who was not ade#uately "((C3 legal campaign during its preparation for (20 ) !rown v" !oard o# $ducation. 't can be inferred from the passage that the authors might be e2pected in a history of the (merican Revoluinitially held which of the following hypotheses about tion published in )++B. Fann 5oodward +. and thus not concerned with accuracy or the (35) dangers of historical anachronism. =B> -he rats0 brain tryptophan levels would decrease 3aine had intended to reach and inspire< he was not a =C> -he rats0 tyrosine levels would increase less #uickly historian.
referred to in line .> the Dim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were passed to reverse the effect B. Fann 5oodward and reading new historical writing -homas 3aine were similar in all of the following ways =C> change in people0s understanding of the past due to .oyed widespread =. (40) Dr.+@ =B> Black people made considerable progress only after =(> ( history of an auto manufacturing plant written by Reconstruction. 5hich of the following best describes the new idea of earlier Dim Crow laws e2pressed by C. and A. an employee during an autobuying boom =B> ( criti#ue of a statewide school-desegregation plan written by an elementary school teacher in that state =C> ( newspaper article assessing the historical importance of a United States 3resident written shortly after the 3resident has taken office =?> ( scientific paper describing the benefits of a certain surgical techni#ue written by the surgeon who developed the techni#ue =. =(> respectful regard =C> Dim Crow laws were passed to erase the social gains =B> #ualified approbation that Black people had achieved since Reconstruction =C> implied skepticism =?> the continuity of racial segregation in the South was =?> pointed criticism disrupted by passage of Dim Crow laws =. 5hich of the following is the best e2ample of writing =(> Southern racial segregation was continuous and that is likely to be sub. ). interpretation will be overturned =C> Both e2hibited an understanding of the relevance of historical evidence to contemporary issues.3-< more recent historical writing =(> Both had works published in the midst of important =?> overturning of established historical interpretations historical events. testified to the profound effect of %he &trange Career o# 'im Crow on the civil rights movement by praising the book and #uoting it fre#uently. Cartin Huther Ning. South =B> Dim Crow laws were passed to establish order and %. by politically motivated politicians =B> Both wrote works that en..ect to the kinds of 8handicaps9 uniform..5oodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary moment. . -he 8new pasts9 mentioned in line B can best be described as the =(> occurrence of events e2tremely similar to past events =B> history of the activities of studying. -he attitude of the author of the passage toward the uniformity in the discriminatory practices of work of C.IC. =(> Dim Crow laws were passed to give legal status to =. interpreting. -he passage suggests that C. Fann 5oodward is best described as one of different southern states.> fervent advocacy =. 't can be inferred from the passage that the 8prevailling =?> -he works of both had a significant effect on events dogma9 =line )&> held that following their publication.> Both were able to set aside worries about historical well-established discriminatory practices in the anachronism in order to reach and inspire. and of how historical evidence could undermine the mythological tradition that was crushing the dreams of new social possibilities.> ?iary entries narrating the events of a battle written by a soldier who participated in the battle .> difficulty of predicting when a given historical popularity. Fann 5oodward in his University of Firginia lectures in )*%A@ 1.
which they hoped would help (frican (mericans achieve freedom and postwar civil e#uality.udice endemic in =. -hus. promotion.=C> Dim Crow legislation was conventional in nature. Black regiments. .ob assignments. -he passage as a whole can best be characteri!ed as inatory treatment of Black soldiers in pay. their mortality rate from disease. But to call their (5) rates more intensely on Black-5hite relations in Black ( 0) feelings 8powerful racial pre.or killer in his war. By Passage 40 Doseph Elarthaar0s (orged in !attle is not the first e2cel. this state.oined Black than do previous studies.> Dim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce (meri(35) can society7 they participated eagerly in this military a tradition of segregation. 8virtually all of them held powerful racial and pre. and .> (n argument in favor of revising a view one-third that of 5hite units. was twice as great.=C> 't contains some unsupported generali!ations. which of the following is true (20) ?espite these obstacles.udices9 is to indulge in regiments than do any of its predecessors. abolitionists =?> Dim Crow laws did not go as far in codifying who became officers in Black regiments.). friendship. and respect among present 5hite officers and Black soldiers were fostered by the standards. however.udices. the courage and effectiveness of of several Black units in combat won increasing respect from Elarthaar0s (orged in !attle compared with previous initially skeptical or hostile 5hite soldiers. appropriately emphasi!ing the following@ the campaign by Black soldiers and their officers to get the =(> (n evaluation of a scholarly study opportunity to fight. but it uses more soldiers0 letters and diaries: paternalism including rare material from Black soldiers:and concentoward (frican (mericans was racist. e2per- iment.9 =(> 't is more reliable and presents a more complete (25) 'n trying to demonstrate the magnitude of this attitudi. years fighting against the race pre.9 he writes of these =B> 't uses more of a particular kind of source material men. but it ment misrepresents the attitudes of the many rightly emphasi!es a theme ignored by most previous .9 focuses more closely on a particular aspect of the topic (30) 5hile perhaps true of those officers who . (10 ) Elarthaar accurately describes the government0s discrim. aving spent traditional practice as they might have. while their combat death rate was only =. mutual dangers they faced in combat. Elarthaar seems to e2aggerate the of the historical events on which it concentrates than do prewar racism of the 5hite men who became officers in previous studies.udge past eras by e2presses his thesis< loyalty.. a ma. (s one 5hite studies officer put it. Elathaar0s title generational chauvinism:to . units for promotion or other self-serving motives. (ccording to the author.current lent study of Black soldiers and their 5hite officers in the standards of racial egalitarianism. 83rior to the war. 8they have fought their way into the respect on the same topic@ of all the army. -hat chance remained limited through =B> ( description of an attitudinal change (15) out the war by army policies that kept most Black units =C> ( discussion of an analytical defect serving in rear-echelon assignments and working in labor =?> (n analysis of the causes of a phenomenon battalions.picture nal change. medi which of cal care. these men0s Civil 5ar.
> 't makes skillful use of supporting evidence to true of illustrate a Black units0 disease mortality rates in the Civil 5ar@ subtle trend that previous studies have failed to detect.> -he standards of racial egalitarianism that came to be contention that adopted as a result of 5hite Civil 5ar veterans0 =(> virtually all 5hite officers initially had hostile repudiation of the previous racism attitudes toward Black soldiers A.> respect in the army as a whole was accorded only to . =C> -he changes in discriminatory army policies that =. %.> -he discrimination that Black soldiers faced when it trying accurately describes conditions often neglected by for promotions those studies. refers =B> -hey resulted in part from the relative ine2perience specifically to which of the following@ of =(> -he sense of pride and accomplishment that Black these units when in combat. -he passage mentions which of the following as an =B> Black soldiers were often forced to defend important theme that receives special emphasis in themselves Elarthaar0s book@ from physical attacks initiated by soldiers from 5hite =(> -he attitudes of abolitionist officers in Black units units =B> -he struggle of Black units to get combat =C> the combat performance of Black units changed the assignments attitudes of 5hite soldiers toward Black soldiers =C> -he conse#uences of the poor medical care received =?> 5hite units paid especially careful attention to the by performance of Black units in battle Black soldiers =. partly as a result of their use of in organi!ational skills honed by combat Black combat units.1-. =?> -he motives of officers serving in Black units =?> 't surpasses previous studies on the same topic in that =. soldiers increasingly felt as a result of their Civil 5ar =C> -hey were especially high because of the nature of e2periences these =B> -he civil e#uality that (frican (mericans achieved units0 usual duty assignments. -he author implies that the title of Elatthaar0s book of 5hite units. -he author of the passage #uotes the 5hite officer in by lines the races0 facing of common dangers and their waging . after =?> -hey resulted in e2tremely high overall casualty rates the Civil 5ar.studies.> -hey e2acerbated the morale problems that were were caused made as a direct result of the performance of Black by the army0s discriminatory policies. combat units during the Civil 5ar =?> -he improved interracial relations that were formed B. -he passage suggests that which of the following was =.A primarily in order to provide evidence to support of a common fight during the Civil 5ar the =. =(> -hey were almost as high as the combat mortality rates 1.
5hich of the following actions can best be described as that the tree of life had only two stems. indulging in 8generational chauvinism9 =lines A&-A)> as arguthat ments pointing out the e2tent of both structural and funcpractice is defined in the passage@ tional differences between eukaryotes and true bacteria =(> Condemning a present-day monarch merely because convinced many biologists that the precursors of the many monarchs have been tyrannical in the past. -he distinction between individuals in order to provide grounds for a negative eukaryotes and bacteria./@ =(> 'nsisting on an unwarranted distinction between two Passage 41 groups of individuals in order to render an argument 't was once assumed that all living things could be concerning them internally consistent divided into two fundamental and e2haustive categories.%-. =?> ?eriding the superstitions accepted as 8science9 in three stems in the tree of life. was ulti(10 ) mately carried to the molecular level. the true bacteria are prokaryotic cell. ere prokaryotic and =?> ?escribing the conditions prevailing before a given event in such a way that the contrast with those eukaryotic cells have many features in common. =.> (sserting that a given event is caused by another where the molecular processes are the same. are eukaryotic:their large. as well as many unicelluinterpretation lar organisms. given event occurred -he differences between the groups and the similarities within each group made it seem certain to most biologists (20) /. 4or prevailing after the event appears more striking than it instance. it seems fundamentally wrong in one those standards is intolerable respect. there are organisms that are =C> Ouestioning the accuracy of a report written by an significantly different both from the cells of eukaryotes and (30) from the true bacteria.> Habeling a nineteenth-century politician as 8corrupt9 for engaging in once-acceptable practices considered intolerable today. initially defined in terms of evaluation of their actions subcellular structures visible with a microscope. 4or e2ample. the amino acid se#uences of various en!ymes tend to be typically prokaryotic or eukaryotic. that performed well in battle beliefs today.those units. Coreover. 5hich of the following best describes the kind of error attributed to Elarthaar in lines . 6n the of a situation with evidence that is not particularly relevant to the situation other hand. the details in (15) the two forms are different and characteristic of the respecevent merely because the other event occurred before the tive forms. comple2 cells (5) have a well-formed nucles and many organelles. "ew techni#ues for deterpast mining the molecular se#uence of the R"( of organisms eras without acknowledging the prevalence of irrational have produced evolutionary information about the degree . they translate genetic information into proteins actually is according to the same type of genetic coding. and it now appears that there are employee merely because of the employee0s gender. common (lthough much of this picture has been sustained by in one0s youth to such a degree that any rela2ation of more recent research. (mong the bacteria. which =C> 3resenting a distorted view of the motives of certain are simple and lack a nucleus. =B> Supporting an argument in favor of a given Culticellular plants and animals. But even =. whether Black or 5hite. +. eukaryotes must have diverged from the common =B> Clinging to the formal standards of politeness (25) ancestor before the bacteria arose.
-hese techni#ues have strongly eukaryotic cells. which of the following than eukaryotes. which are also prokaryotes and which resemble true multicellular organisms. true =?> summari!ing the differences in structure and bacteria. unlike prokaryotic cells. -he passage is primarily concerned with similarity between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. statements about the two-category hypothesis is likely to =. the archaebaccells. =?> subcellular structures are visible with a microscope =B> Cany species of bacteria will be reclassified =. represent a distinct evolutionary branch that =C> 't is flawed because it fails to account for the great far antedates the common ancestor of all true bacteria.. 'f the 8new techni#ues9 mentioned in line 1) were =(> most eukaryotic organisms are unicellular applied in studies of biological classifications other than =B> comple2 cells have well-formed nuclei bacteria. (ccording to the passage. =C> -he cellular structures of multicellular organisms and eukaryotes and unicellular organisms =.> formulating a hypothesis about the mechanisms of =?> -he molecular se#uences in eukaryotic R"(. certain other bacteria.> 't will be found that there is a common ancestor of be true@ the eukaryotes. =(> 't is promising because it e2plains the presence of . 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the current hypothesis concerning the number of basic following have recently been compared in order to categories of living organisms clarify the fundamental classifications of living things@ =C> evaluating e2periments that have resulted in proof =(> -he genetic coding in true bacteria and that in other that the prokaryotes are more ancient than had been prokaryotes e2pected. suggested that although the true bacteria indeed form a =B> 't is promising because it e2plains why eukaryotic large coherent group.> -he amino acid se#uences in en!ymes of various eukaryotic species and those of en!ymes in . and archaebacterial R"( prokaryotes =. and true bacteria. and the reconstruction of ancesbacteria-like organisms such as organelles in tral versions of genes. =B> -he organelle structures of archaebacteria. =?> 't will be found that true bacteria are much older 1. (ccording to the passage. and eukaryotes function found among true bacteria.to which organisms are related. =?> 't is flawed because it fails to account for the ). true evolution that resulted in the ancestors of the bacterial R"(. =(> detailing the evidence that has led most biologists to =. which of the following is most likely@ =C> prokaryotes and cukaryotes form two fundamental =(> Some of those classifications will have to be categories reevaluated. tend to form teria. the time since they diverged true (35) from a common ancestor.> prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have similar =C> 't will be determined that there are four main en!ymes categories of living things rather than three. variety among eukaryotic organisms. investigations of eukaryotic archaebecterial species and prokaryotic cells at the molecular level supported the conclusion that %. with a dichotomous one =B> outlining the factors that have contributed to the A.> 't is flawed because it fails to recogni!e an important replace the trichotomous picture of living organisms distinction among prokaryotes. archaebacteria. archaebacteria. (40) bacteria.
-he draw=C> -rue bacteria and eukaryotes employ similar types of back is the remote possibility of getting caught by the news genetic coding. discount (15) stores. ?umping perfectly useful products can turn into a =?> -rue bacteria and eukaryotes are distinguishable at (25) public relations nightmare. 5ith =B> inaccurate forecasting of buyers0 preferences (5) some products:computers and software. e2cess inventory . 6ccasionally the competition introduces a =(> prokaryotes form a coherent group better product. and other outlets. -he corporation passage takes a straight cost write-off on its ta2es and hauls the .B. re#uires little time or preparation on the bacteria. are 'n )*+B the 'nternal Revenue Service provided a tangible divided into three categories is best described as one of incentive for businesses to contribute their products to char=(> tentative acceptance ity. bacteria 6ne common way to dispose of this merchandise is to =?> true bacteria are . leaving a manufacturer or distributor with (10 ) thousands =or millions> of items that the fickle public no properties =C> eukaryotes are fundamentally different from true longer wants. -he new ta2 law allowed corporations to deduct the (35)cost of the product donated plus half the difference =B> mild skepticism =C> limited denial between cost and fair market selling price. suits to the local dump. a massive problem for many busi). But in many cases the public0s buying tastes =B> the common ancestor of all living things had comple2 simply change.36verstocks may accumulate through production overruns or =(> production of too much merchandise errors. (20) =(> -rue bacteria form a distinct evolutionary group.IC. encourages:an above-cost federal ta2 deduction for companies that donate inventory to charity.> ancestral versions of eukaryotic genes functioned then resells the merchandise through catalogs. 't is =B> (rchaebacteria are prokaryotes that resemble true perfectly legal. company0s part.ust sent %&& new snowsubcellular level. (ll of the following statements are supported by the dispose of e2cess inventory is to dump it. Certain styles and colors prove unpopular. researchers working under the books:last year0s models are difficult to move even at two-category hypothesis were correct in thinking that huge discounts.IC. Passage 42 . 3arents of young children are =. with the proviso =?> studious oriticism that deductions cannot e2ceed twice cost.ust as comple2 as eukaryotes sell it to a li#uidator.> (mino acid se#uences of en!ymes are uniform for barely getting by and O3S Company dumps ). Children living in poverty are the free!ing and IGM Company has . -hus. for the merchandise than it cost to make it. -he author mentions each of the following as a cause of nesses.3-< merchandise to a landfill. toys. some of which are unavoidable. (nother way to +. (ccording to the passage. li#uidators may pay less differently from their modern counterparts. owever. -he author0s attitude toward the view that living things wasteful7 they are simply unaware of all their alternatives. and =C> unrealistic pricing policies . and solves the problem #uickly. media. disposable diapers because they have slight imperfections. there is a sort of convoluted logic to this approach. who buys as cheaply as possible and =.2cess inventory.&&& cases of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. has several causes. (lthough it is hard to believe.> whole hearted endorsement government sanctions:indeed. (30) -he managers of these companies are not deliberately /. the federal =.
-he author cites the e2amples in lines . =(> the fiscal irresponsibility of dumping as a policy for =?> -he fair-market value of an item in e2cess inventory dealing with e2cess inventory is ). By asserting that manufacturers 8are simply unaware9 slight imperfections =line 1)>.> Children0s clothing dumping are unaware of the needs of those people who would find the products useful..> 'tems end up as e2cess inventory because of a products creates change in the public0s preferences. =(> -he costs of getting the inventory to the charitable =?> Canufacturers who dump their e2cess inventory are destination are greater than the above-cost ta2 often caught and e2posed by the news media. -he passage provides information that supports which =. =(> 4urniture =C> Canufacturers who choose to dump e2cess =B> Computers inventory are not aware of the possible effects on =C> Nitchen e#uipment their reputation of media coverage of such dumping. the author suggests which of the following@ =C> the law allows a deduction in e2cess of the cost of =?> products0 rapid obsolescence =. -he passage suggests that which of the following is a =B> -he federal government has failed to provide kind of product that a li#uidator who sells to discount sufficient encouragement to manufacturers to make stores would be unlikely to wish to ac#uire@ use of advantageous ta2 policies. 'nformation in the passage suggests that one reason =?> alternatives to dumping e2plored by different manufacturers might take advantage of the ta2 provision companies mentioned in the last paragraph is that =.2cess inventory results most often from insufficient market analysis by the manufacturer. =?> Baby-care products =?> -he manufacturers of products disposed of by =. entory to charity less attractive to manufacturers than =C> 4ew manufacturers have taken advantage of the dumping@ changes in the federal ta2 laws. B. if true.%-.* most =C> "o straight-cost ta2 benefit can be claimed for items probably in order to illustrate that are dumped. =C> the advantages to the manufacturer of dumping as a policy +.> Cost products available in discount stores have =B> -he news media give manufacturers0 charitable come from manufacturers0 e2cess-inventory stock. . A. would make donating e2cess inv contribute to e2cess inventory.% times its cost.> availability of a better product . =. =B> the waste-management problems that dumping new =. -he information in the passage suggests that which of =B> 3roducts with slight manufacturing defects may the following. 1. deduction.> how the news media could portray dumping to the =(> there are many kinds of products that cannot be detriment of the manufacturer0s reputation legally dumped in a landfill =B> li#uidators often refuse to handle products with %. =(> .> -he manufacturers who dump their e2cess inventory of are not familiar with the employment of li#uidators the following statements@ to dispose of overstock.=(> Canufacturers might donate e2cess inventory to charity rather than dump it if they knew about the provision in the federal ta2 code. contributions the same amount of coverage that they give dumping.
obs came to be regarded as female .9 Core remarkable than the origin has been the persistence of such se2 segregation in twentieth-century industry.ob security =?> reluctantly challenged by employers e2cept when the economic advantages were obvious =. . unpaid 8women0s work9 in the home. 4or instance. and office secretary. employers #uickly returned to men most of the 8male9 .> no ta2 deduction is available for products dumped or sold to a li#uidator Passage 43 istorians of women0s labor in the United States at first largely disregarded the story of female service workers -women earning wages in occupations such as salesclerk. less secure . such .obs that women had been permitted to master.ustifying women0s employment in wage labor. (nd despite the urgent need of the United States during the Second 5orld 5ar to mobili!e its human resources fully.ob segregation by se2 in the United States was =(> greatly diminlated by labor mobili!ation during the Second 5orld 5ar =B> perpetuated by those te2tile-mill owners who argued in favor of women0s employment in wage labor =C> one means by which women achieved greater . for not even industrial wage labor has escaped continued se2 segregation in the workplace. even when such allocation is inappropriate to new conditions. even when higher profits beckoned. 6nce an occupation came to be perceived as 8female. 't can be inferred from the passage that early historians of women0s labor in the United States paid little attention to women0s employment in the service sector of the economy because =(> the e2treme variety of these occupations made it very difficult to assemble meaningful statistics about them =B> fewer women found employment in the service . Unfortunately. historians of women0s labor focused on factory work as a more promising area of research than service-sector work because factory work =(> involved the payment of higher wages =B> re#uired skill in detailed tasks =C> was assumed to be less characteri!ed by se2 segregation =?> was more readily accepted by women than by men =. in .manufacturing the product =?> media coverage of contributions of e2cess-inventory products to charity is widespread and favorable =. -o e2plain this unfinished revolution in the status of women. domestic servant. (ccording to the passage. and because the underlying economic forces of industrialism were presumed to be gender-blind and hence emancipatory in effect.> a constant source of labor unrest in the young te2tile industry . made much of the assumption (20) that women were by nature skillful at detailed tasks and patient in carrying out repetitive chores7 the mill owners thus imported into the new industrial order hoary stereotypes associated with the homemaking activities they presumed to have been the purview of women.obs came to be perceived as 8female. who assumed that women0s 8real9 aspirations were for marriage and family life. historians have recently begun to emphasi!e the ( 15) way a prevailing definition of femininity often etermines the kinds of work allocated to women. Because (25) women accepted the more unattractive new industrial tasks more readily than did men. primarily because it seemed so different from traditional. -hese historians (5) focused instead on factory work. -hus many lower-skilled.> fitted the economic dynamic of industrialism better 1. Coreover. emanci(10) pation has been less profound than e2pected. . (ccording to the passage.ob segregation by se2 characteri!ed even the most important 40) war industries. once the war ended. declined to pay women wages commensurate with those of (30) men.9 employers (35) showed surprisingly little interest in changing that perception.. lower-paid. early te2tile-mill entrepreneurs.obs. (nd employers. ).
=.A> %. losing interest in marriage and family life. be much more short-term than in factory work =B> 'ndustrial employers generally prefer to hire women =. homemakers should be compensated at rates =B> -he central idea is restated in such a way as to form comparable to those prevailing in the service sector a transition to a new topic for discussion. A..)> condition of women by emancipating them from =B> 8repetitive9 =line .obs they would discourage women from manufacturing sector. 5hich of the following best describes the relationship revolution9 the author mentions in line )1 refers to of the the final paragraph to the passage as a whole@ =(> entry of women into the industrial labor market =(> -he central idea is reinforced by the citation of =B> recognition that work done by women as evidence drawn from twentieth-century history.> -he service sector of the economy has proved more =(> -hey hoped that by creating relatively unattractive nearly gender-blind in its hiring policies than has the 8female9 . of the economy =C> -he central idea is restated and .ob allocation .> emancipation of women wage earners from genderidea0s validity is gradually diminishing. =B> -hey sought to increase the si!e of the available +. much in common with the unpaid work associated =C> 3ost-Second 5orld 5ar hiring policies caused with homemaking women to lose many of their wartime gains in employment opportunity.> -hey felt guilty about disturbing the traditional =?> 8homemaking9 =line .> 8purview9 =line .> =. 't can be inferred from the passage that the 8unfinished /.sector than in factory work B. of the author of the passage concerning the notion that =C> -hey argued that women were inherently suited to women are more skillful than men in carrying out do well in particular kinds of factory work. unrelated to the economic forces of industrialism =?> ( partial e2ception to the generali!ations of the =?> introduction of e#ual pay for e#ual work in all central idea is dismissed as unimportant.ven war industries during the Second 5orld 5ar about the early mill owners mentioned in the second were reluctant to hire women for factory work.obs.> employment in the service sector seemed to have with previous e2perience as homemakers. detailed tasks@ =?> -hey thought that factory work bettered the =(> 8patient9 =line .u2taposed with =C> development of a new definition of femininity evidence that might appear to contradic it. professions =. -he passage supports which of the following statements =C> the wages paid to workers in the service sector were about hiring policies in the United States@ much lower than those paid in the industrial sector =(> (fter a crisis many formerly 8male9 . paragraph@ =.1> division of labor in family.)> dependence on income earned by men. =C> 8hoary9 =line . -he passage supports which of the following statements =?> . 5hich of the following words best e2presses the labor force as a means to keep men0s to keep men0s opinion wages low.obs are =?> women0s employment in the service sector tended to reclassified as 8female9 . determined .> Recent history is cited to suggest that the central =.
> Himiting e2ploration to sites where alluvial gold has (30) likely to be minerali!ed. Passage 44 (ccording to a recent theory.arth.> challenging the assumptions on which a theory is based . most deposits not yet discovered have gone =C> were formed from alluvial deposits (15) undetected because they are buried and have no surface =?> generally have surface e2pression e2pression..> are not discoverable through chemical tests -he challenge in e2ploration is therefore to unravel the subsurface geology of an area and pinpoint the position of 1. that is. -he passage implies that which of the following steps buried minerals. 5hich of the following statements about discoveries of -hese models are constructed primarily from empirical gold deposits is supported by information in the and from theories observations of known mineral deposits passage@ 35) of ore-forming processes. tries to select areas for e2ploration that e2hibit as many of =B> "ew discoveries of gold deposits are likely to be the ). the widely held view of (10) the original gold rushes were e2posed at the . and mineralogical properties of the more than two billion years ago rocks being investigated7 and sensitive chemical tests that =B> Himiting e2ploration to sites known to have been are able to detect the subtle chemical halos that often formed from metamorphic fluid.the critical features as possible. and then and the present. (25) envelop minerali!ation.arth0s surface (rchean. A. (rchean-age gold-#uart! vein systems were formed over two billion years ago from magmatic fluids that originated from molten granitelike bodies deep beneath the surface of the . electrical. Cethods widely used today include would be the first performed by e2plorers who wish to (20) analysis of aerial images that yield a broad geological ma2imi!e their chances of discovering gold@ overview7 geophysical techni#ues that provide data on the =(> Surveying several sites known to have been formed magnetic. he recently developed theory has considerable practical importance. Such ground selection relies to previously been found varying degrees on conceptual models. Cost of the gold deposits discovered during . owever. -he author is primarily concerned with =(> advocating a return to an older methodology =B> e2plaining the importance of a recent theory =C> enumerating differences between two widely used methods =?> describing events leading to a discovery =.age gold-#uart! vein systems is that such and were found because they had shed trails of alluvial systems gold that were easily traced by simple prospecting methods. and to ma2imi!e =?> Using geophysical methods to analy!e rocks over a the chances of discovery the e2plorer must therefore pay broad area particular attention to selecting the ground formations most =. none of these high=C> Using an appropriate conceptual model to select a technology methods are of any value if the sites to which site for further e2ploration they are applied have never minerali!ed. =. from fluids that formed during the dehydration of wet sedimentary rocks. which take into account theoretical studies of relevant factors. (ccording to the passage. =(> were formed from metamorphic fluids (lthough these same methods still lead to an occasional =B> originated in molten granitelike bodies discovery. -his theory is (5) contrary to the widely held view that the systems were deposited from metamorphic fluids. -he e2plorer uses the models to =(> -he number of gold discoveries made annually has identify those geological features that are critical to the increased between the time of the original gold rushes formation of the minerali!ation being modeled.
since the other types of gold deposits are found in %. and. =C> Ⅰand Ⅱ only =C> 't suggests that there may not be enough similarity =?> Ⅰ and Ⅲ only across (rchean-age gold-#uart! vein systems to =. hence. =?> 't corrects e2isting theories about the chemical halos of gold deposits. shows one approach that works< privati!ation.> ( gold deposit that e2hibits chemical halos Ⅰ. 't can be inferred from the passage that the efficiency of =C> ( gold deposit that is mi2ed with granite model-based gold e2ploration depends on which of the =?> ( gold deposit that has shed alluvial gold following@ =.Ⅱ and Ⅲ warrant the formulation of conceptual models. in which . =(> ( gold-#uart! vein system originating in magmatic since the other types of gold deposits are unlikely to fluids yield concentrated #uantities of gold. can support conceptual Ⅲ. 5hile there is no blueprint for transforming a largely =. and thus provides a Passage 45 basis for correcting current conceptual models. +.> Ⅰ.> Codels based on the theory that gold originated =C> Cost of the . -he degree to which the model chosen relies on following ways@ empirical observation of known mineral deposits =(> 't may furnish a valid account of ore-forming rather than on theories of ore-forming processes processes. -he degree to which the model chosen is based on models that have great practical significance. are in fact =(> Ⅰonly minerali!ed.result of e2ploration techni#ues designed to locate buried minerali!ation. -he closeness of the match between the geological features identified by the model as critical and the B. discoveries of gold deposits. methods of e2ploring for gold =C> 't is unlikely that newly discovered gold deposits will that are widely used today are based on which of the ever yield as much as did those deposits discovered following facts@ during the original gold rushes. =?> 6nly one type of gold deposit warrants e2ploration. the still have a higher success rate in the discovery e2perience of the United Ningdom since )*+* clearly of gold deposits than do more modern methods. long minerali!ation believed to be minerali!ed. =(> Cost of the . following is easiest to detect@ =. =. =B> ( gold-#uart! vein system originating in meamorphic fluids /. 't can be inferred from the passage that which of the regions difficult to reach. (ccording to the passage. an accurate description of the events leading to =B> 't suggests that certain geological formations. thus confirming current conceptual =B> Ⅱ only models. e2posed at the surface.arth0s remaining gold deposits are from magmatic fluids have already led to new buried and have no surface e2pression.> 't suggests that simple prospecting methods government-controlled economy into a free one. utility of simple prospecting methods as a source of =B> Cost of the .arth0s remaining gold deposits are new discoveries of gold deposits. -he theory mentioned in line ) relates to the conceptual actual geological features of a given area models discussed in the passage in which of the Ⅱ.arth0s remaining gold deposits are still =?> Codern e2plorers are divided on the #uestion of the molten.> 6nly one type of gold deposit warrants e2ploration.
which of the following British (irways and British Eas. 't can be inferred from the passage that the author (30) British -elecom. -hey =. and they must commit some of their own =(> (t three different companies. (erospace.> -otal borrowings and losses of state-owned (15) 'n fact. (25) because the employees of privati!ed industries were given =?> Unions conducted wage negotiations for employees. =B> a positive sign of employee concern about a the new employee-owners grew so concerned about their company company0s profits that during wage negotiations they =C> a predictor of employee reactions to a company0s (35) actually pressed their union to lower its wage demands. all of the following were industries were running at about t1 billion a year.or industries. shareholders. (t associated have been privati!ed@ (20) British 3orts. the total borrowings and losses of state-owned ). but has also raised the level of performance in every area. percent. the government has been able =?> 3rofits from industries that were still state-owned to repay ). and now receives ta2 revenues =B> -he government gained revenue from selling statefrom owned industries. out of ten of the workers were eligible to buy . (ccording to the passage. By )*+*. and countries. gained over t1A =(> 3rivati!ed industries paid ta2es to the government.% percent of the net national debt over a increased. there is no longer a waiting list:as there always =B> 4ree shares were widely distributed to individual was before privati!ation:to have a telephone installed. the opportunity to buy shares in their own companies.IC. companies. 3art of this improved productivity has come about =C> -he government ceased to regulate ma.mployee-owners agreed to have their wages responded enthusiastically to the offer of shares7 at British lowered. -elecom. they think about it. the government has United Ningdom . privati!ation has not only rescued individual industries decreased.& percent.3-< decreased these borrowings and losses. -he passage supports which of the following statements employees and other individuals must make their own about employees buying shares in their own companies@ decisions to buy. two-year period. (10) billion from the sales. (t the "ational 4reight Consortium. care about it. (ccording to the passage. By benefits of privati!ing state-owned industries in the selling many of these industries... (t . (long with a dramatically =C> -he government repaid some of its national debt. Get they miss -homas 3aine0s point that =. offer to sell shares to them Some economists have suggested that giving away free =?> a phenomenon found more often in state-owned shares would provide a needed acceleration of the privatiindustries than in private companies !ation process. improved overall economy. *. the newly privati!ed companies.> . appro2imately nine resources to the choice. 5hen people have a personal considers labor disruptions to be stake in something. (t British shares in their companies.> a deterrence to high performance levels in an 8what we obtain too cheap we esteem too lightly. for e2ample.(5) state-owned industries are sold to private companies. industries and a whole economy headed for disaster. *& percent7 and at 1. labor disruptions common in the )*+&0s and =(> ( large number of employees chose to purchase early )*/&0s have now virtually disappeared.9 'n industry (40) order for the far-ranging benefits of individual ownership to be achieved by owners. /* percent of the eligible work force bought shares7 at (ssociated British 3orts. A. productivity resulted in increased productivity in companies that per employee has risen by . work =(> an inevitable problem in a weak national economy to make it prosper. =.
=C> show how opponents of the viewpoint of the author =. 5hich of the following statements is most consistent =.@ introduced in the third paragraph =(> ( democratic government that decides it is inappropriate to own a particular industry has in no way abdicated its responsibilities as guardian of the Passage 46 public interest. (s the economic role of multinational. =. the international economic environment will interests is to force companies to maintain their be shaped increasingly not by governments or international share of a competitive market without government institutions.C> to dismantle impediments to share of the gains from whatever sacrifices he or she the free flow of goods.> present a historical ma2im to challenge the principle with the principle described in lines 1&-1. although B.urope. "one=C> 't was originally conceived to include some giving theless.shares in their companies. 5hich of the following can be inferred from the passage (15) numerous political and economic factors were operative in about the privati!ation process in the United Ningdom@ launching the move to integrate the . the overwhelming reason for that bilateral initiative (20) 3alne0s prescription for business ownership. global corpora=B> -he ideal way for a government to protect employee tions e2pands. as well as provoke #uestions . concern =(> 't depends to a potentially dangerous degree on about protectionism within the .> 't is taking place more slowly than some economists =B> (ppro2imately *&P of the ellgible workers at three suggest is necessary.or consideration. -he #uotation in line 1* is most probably used to =C> -he opportunity to buy shares was discouraged by at =(> counter a position that the author of the passage least some labor unions. member states by the end of )**. which has a potentially large effect on the =?> Eovernments that want to implement privati!ation evolution of the world trading system. and labor among makes to achieve these gains. ( significant factor in this shifting important reason that state-owned industries perform world economy is the trend toward regional trading biocs poorly..urope )**.> -he individual shareholder will reap only a minute . markets of the world. capital. and Dapan. -wo e2amples of (10) programs must try to eliminate all resistance to the this trend are the United States-Canada 4ree -rade free-market system. +.. services. believes is incorrect =?> Companies that demonstrated the highest =B> state a solution to a problem described in the productivity were the first to allow their employees previous sentence the opportunity to buy shares. been a ma. subsidies.C0s markets. -his is in sharp contrast to the =B> 't conforms in its most general outlines to -homas 4-(. was fear of increasing United States protectionism. both regional developments are highly significant in that =?> 't has been successful. (greement =4-(> and .uropean Community =.ligibility to buy shares was contingent on of the passage have supported their arguments employees0 agreeing to increased work loads.C does not appear to have individual ownership of shares.> . but by the interaction between governments (5) and global corporations. away of free shares. different companies chose o buy shares in their companies. =C> -he failure to harness the power of self-interest is an . especially in the United States. even though privati!ation has they will foster integration in the two largest and richest failed in other countries. =?> point out a parado2 contained in a controversial viewpoint %. the move by the =. of nations. although markedly different in origin and nature. owever.
=C> an increase in the formation of multinational trading =?> -he flow of goods between the member nations and alliances Canada was insignificant.> trace the history of regional trading blocs increase +.> -heir influence on world economics will continue to =.3=B> -he economic policies of the member nations =(> an alteration in the role played by governments focused on global trading issues.> Relations between multinational corporations and of the world the governments of the member nations were =. all of the following are member nations. =?> an increase in integration in the two richest markets =.urope )**. most global corporations@ likely in order to =(> -heir continued growth depends on the e2istence of =(> point out the similarities between two seemingly a fully integrated international market. by other nations =C> -wo hypotheses are described and shown to =C> e2emplify a trend toward regionali!ation of inconsistent with one another. program@ =(> -here were restrictions on commerce between the .uropean Community prior to the adoption of the . -he passage suggests which of the following about B. ). (ccording to the passage. produce different types of trading blocs =C> -hey will have to assume #uasi-governmental =C> provide contrasting e2amples of a trend that is functions if current economic trends continue.. =?> place the economic needs of the trading bloc ahead of those of the member nations =. disparate trading alliances =B> -heir potential effect on the world market is a matter =B> illustrate how different economic motivations of ongoing concern to international institutions.urope )**. shifting world economy =B> (n assertion is made and opposing evidence =B> originated out of concern over unfair trade practices presented. 5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation A. -he author discusses the 4-( and .IC. .> a fear of increasing United States protectionism strained. is that they both =(> (n argument is put forth and evidence for and =(> overcame concerns about the role of politics in the against it given. (ccording to the passage. -he primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to =(> describe an initiative and propose its continuance =B> chronicle a development and illustrate its inconsistencies =C> identify a trend and suggest its importance =?> summari!e a process and #uestion its significance =. influencing the world economy =?> -hey have provided a model of economic success =?> identify the most important characteristics of for regional trading blocs.> help to ensure the continued economic viability of the world community %.(25) about the future direction of the world trading system. 1. one similarity between the of the passage@ 4-( and . 5hich of the following can be inferred from the passage about the .> report a phenomenon and outline its probable future commercial markets. elements of the shifting world economy . successful economic integration =. =B> an increase in interaction between national =C> -here were few impediments to trade between the governments and international regulatory institutions member nations and the United States.urope )**.
although the =. =(> 't develops a topic introduced in the first paragraph. management chose "JC. "oble0s only evidence of conspiracy is that. its programs were =C> 't gives e2amples of a phenomenon mentioned in the produced not by engineers at their computers. ment of workers0 skills< unlike "JC. digi1. -he author of the passage is primarily concerned with =B> 't could have been implemented either by =(> ree2amining a political position and defending its e2perienced machinists or by computer engineers. -he passage suggests which of the following about " (25) scientific advances allow it. the first paragraph. 'n automating. (ccording to information in the passage. and his central (5) argument is that management.> chronicling the history of an industry and critici!ing its development . =B> 't provides evidence to refute a claim presented in "oble clearly prefers RJ3. =?> e2plaining a trend in automation and warning about its dangers =. (15) (lthough both systems reduced reliance on skilled labor. the industry moved to computer-based. 5hich of the following best characteri!es the function tali!ed 8numerical-control9 ="JC> technology. with its inherent acknowledgthe first paragraph. but because it is a tool in automation in the machine-tool industry@ the ceaseless war of capitalists against labor. "oble fails to substantiate this claim.> 't suggests two possible solutions to a problem two approaches were roughly e#ual in technical merit. owever.. skilled machinists.=?> ( phenomenon is identified and illustrations of this phenomenon offered. . ). in its decisions to automate. rather than to of the second paragraph of the passage@ artisan-generated 8record-playback9 =RJ3> technology. 4rom this he concludes that automation is undertaken not because efficiency demands it or A. although his argument is impressive when he applies the Car2ist concept of (10) 8de-skilling9:the use of technology to replace skilled labor:to the automation of the machine-tool industry. ?avid "oble e2amines the transformation of the machine-tool industry as the industry moved from reliance on skilled artisans to automation. =(> 't displaced fewer skilled workers than RJ3 automation did. conspired against labor< the power that the skilled machinists wielded in the industry was intolerable to management. necessity =?> 't was more difficult to design than RJ3 automation =C> analy!ing a scholarly study and pointing out a was. the term 8deskilling9 refers to the =(> loss of skills to industry when skilled workers are replaced by unskilled laborers =B> substitution of mechani!ed processes for labor formerly performed by skilled workers =C> labor theory that automation is technologically comparable to skilled labor =?> process by which skilled machinists 8teach9 machines to perform certain tasks =.> ( specific case of a phenomenon is discussed a generali!ation drawn.> e2clusion of skilled workers from participation in the development of automated technology Passage 47 'n (orces o# Production. "oble writes from a Car2ist perspective. who recorded their own movements to =?> 't presents a generali!ation about e2amples given in (20) 8teach9 machines to duplicate those movements. central weakness =. presented in the first paragraph.> 't was technically superior to RJ3 automation. =. validity =C> 't was designed without the active involvement =B> e2amining a management decision and defending its skilled machinists. but by first paragraph.
a rush of prostaglandin0s sensiti!es nerve endings at the in. . making the nerves particular industry evolved electrically #uiescent7 thus no pain signals are sent to the =B> (n e2amination of the origin of a particular concept spinal cord or to the brain.> (n attempt to relate an industrial phenomenon in block pain signals within the brain itself. or. for that matter. -he presence (35) of endorphins may also help to e2plain differences in one industry to a similar phenomenon in another industry response to pain signals. 5hich of the following best characteri!es (orces o# 2ylocaine work by blocking the electrical transmission (25)along nerves in a particular area. 3rostaglandins are chemicals produced in and released from virtually all mammalian cells when they are in. 't now appears that a number of techni#ues for blocking chronic pain:such .%. since individuals seem to differ in their ability to produce endorphins. Rather. of technology employed in the machine-tool industry 4rom nerve endings at the in. -he author of the passage commends "oble0s book for (10) pain signals that do not originate in the nervous which of the following@ system. 5hen (20) electrical impulses get to the spinal cord.> 8only evidence of conspiracy9 =line . tubular conspired against labor in the automation of the membranes of nerve cells carry electrical impulses. tool industry Substance 3 then e2cites nearby neurons to send impulses to the brain. pain signals:and pain relief:are delivered through a highly (5) comple2 interacting circuitry.ured< these are the only B. 5hen a cell is in.ury. =(> Concentrating on skilled as opposed to unskilled (spirin and other similar drugs =such as indomethacin and workers in its discussion of the machine-tool ibuprofen> keep prostaglandins from being made by interindustry fering with an en!yme known as prostaglandin synthetase. -hey inhibit the flow of Production as it is described in the passage@ =(> ( comparison of two interpretations of how a sodium ions through the membranes.ury. in industrial economics Recent discoveries in the study of pain have involved =C> ( study that points out the weakness of a particular (30) the brain itself:the supervising organ that notices pain interpretation of an industrial phenomenon signals and that sends messages down to the spinal cord =?> ( history of a particular industry from an to regulate incoming pain traffic.ury. Hocal anesthetics such as novocaine and +. =B> 6ffering a generali!ation about the motives behind or cycloo2ygenase. -he long.> (pplying the concept of de-skilling to the machinechemical known as substance 3 is released there. a pain-signaling machine-tool industry =.ured. in any one place in the nerves or brain.)> Passage 48 -he sensation of pain cannot accurately be described as 8located9 at the point of an in. pain signais move to =?> Calling into #uestion the notion that managers nerves feeding into the spinal cord.ndorphins:the brain0s ideological point of view own morphine:are a class of small peptides that help to =.ury. 5hich of the following phrases most clearly reveals the attitude of the author of the passage toward "oble0s central argument@ =(> 8conspired against9 =line B> =B> 8intolerable to management9 =line +> =C> 8impressive when he applies the Car2ist concept9 =line *> =?> 8clearly prefers9 =line )B> =. -he drugs0 effectiveness against pain is (15) proportional to their success in blocking this en!yme at the the machine-tool industry0s decision to automate =C> Caking an essential distinction between two kinds site of in.
ured@ =(> -he flow of electrical impulses through nerve cells at the site of the in. bution. so some pain signals will not reach the brain.ury.ndorphins begin to speed up the response of nerve cells at the site of the in.> "erve cells connected to the spinal cord become electrically #uiescent. but production of substance 3 will be prevented.ured person ?espite Beta0s substantial technological head start and reports relief in the anestheri!ed area. the largest payoffs may go to companies that lead in developing integrated approaches for successful mass production and distribution. Passage 49 -raditionally. a patient with chronic back pain reports that the pain is much less severe. tition for the global FCR market.ury. =?> Some prostaglandins will be produced.ury is broken.> differentiating the kinds of pain that occur at different points in the body0s nervous system. so some pain signals will reach the brain. 3roducers of the Beta format for videocassette recorders =FCR0s>. a person with a headache ances and eventually lost ground to F S in the compegets #uick relief. -oday. =C> Some sodium ions will be blocked.> (fter acupuncture. but producers of the rival F S =Fideo ome System> format proved to be more successful at 1. A. an in. =B> -he production of substance 3 traveling through nerve cells to the brain increases. =C> describing how pain signals are conveyed in the body and discussing ways in which the pain signals can be blocked =?> demonstrating that pain can be influenced by acupuncture and electrical stimulation of the central brain stem. 6f the following.ection was given. were first to develop the FCR com(10) mercially in )*+%.ection of novocaine.> Some peptides in the brain will receive pain signals and begin to regulate incoming pain traffic. developers of F S #uickly turned a slight early =?> (fter being given aspirin. the fact that F S was neither technically better nor cheaper (20) than Beta. which is most likely attributable to the forming strategic alliances with other producers and effect of endorphins as described in the passage@ distributors to manufacture and market their FCR format =(> (fter an in.. (ccording to the passage. =C> . =. . the first firm to commerciali!e a new technology has benefited from the uni#ue opportunity to shape product definitions. which of the following is likely to be true@ =(> Some endorphins will be produced. ). =. -he passage is primarily concerned with =(> analy!ing ways that en!ymes and other chemicals influence how the body feels pain =B> describing the presence of endorphins in the brain and discussing ways the body blocks pain within the brain itself. forcing followers to adapt to a standard or invest in an unproven alternative. for e2ample. =?> ( flood of prostaglandins sensiti!es nerve endings at the site of the in.as acupuncture and electrical stimulation of the central (40) brain stem:involve the release of endorphins in the brain and spinal cord. a child with a badly . a patient has no Seeking to maintain e2clusive control over FCR distri(15) feeling in the area where the in. Beta producers were reluctant to form such alli=B> (fter taking ibuprofen. and some pain signals will be intensified. =B> Some substance 3 is likely to be produced. scraped elbow feels better. =C> (fter receiving a local anesthetic. how( 5) ever. which of the following is one of the first things to occur when cells are in. 't can be inferred from the passage that if the prostaglandin synthetase is only partially blocked. =. =.
-he passage is primarily concerned with which of the =(> carefully restricting access to FCR technology following@ =B> giving up a slight early lead in FCR sales in order to =(> .lead in sales into a dominant position. . (ccording to the passage. Strategic alignments with producers of prerecorded tapes reinforced the F S advantage. -he perception among consumers that prerecorded tapes were more available in F S format further (25) e2panded F S0s share of the market. 5hich of the following best describes the relation of the competing-format FCR0s.. By the end of the )*/&0s. preference for FCR0s in the F S format because they =. today0s successful firms. mass production and distribution of a new =?> -he alignment of an automobile manufacturer with technology. availability of the fuel re#uired by a new type of =. =(> 't makes a general observation to be e2emplified. =B> -racing the impact of a new technology by narrating =C> retaining a strict monopoly on the production of a se#uence of events prerecorded videotapes. may earn the greatest =(> -he alignment of an automobile manufacturer with profits by another automobile manufacturer to adopt a =(> investing in research to produce cheaper versions of standard design for automobile engines.> sacrificing technological superiority over Betaformat history FCR0s in order to remain competitive in price. which of the following@ unlike successful firms in the past. =. -he author implies that one way that F S producers won control over the FCR market was by ). -he alignment of producers of F S-format FCR0s with producers of prerecorded videotapes is most similar to .> 3roposing an innovative approach to business planning %. e2isting technology =B> -he alignment of an automobile manufacturer with =B> being the first to market a competing technology an automotive glass company whereby the =C> adapting rapidly to a technological standard manufacturer agrees to purchase automobile previously set by a competing firm windshields only from that one glass company =?> establishing technological leadership in order to =C> -he alignment of an automobile manufacturer with a shape product definitions in advance of competing petroleum company to ensure the widespread firms.> -he alignment of an automobile dealer with an believed which of the following@ automobile rental chain to adopt a strategy for an =(> FCR0s in the F S format were technically better advertising campaign to promote a new type of than competing-format FCR0s. =C> Reinterpreting an event from contemporary business =?> sharing control of the marketing of F S-format history FCR0s =?> illustrating a business strategy by means of a case =. A. automobile =B> FCR0s in the F S format were less e2pensive than B.> emphasi!ing the development of methods for the engine developed by the manufacturer. first paragraph to the passage as a whole@ =C> F S was the first standard format for FCR0s. =. Beta was no longer in production.valuating two competing technologies improve long-term prospects. =?> F S prerecorded videotapes were more available than Beta-format tapes.> FCR0s in the Beta format would soon cease to be produced. (ccording to the passage. its dealers to adopt a plan to improve automobile 1. consumers began to develop a design.
Such evidence is consistent with electrical stimulus than were the electro receptors. ). =C> point out a serious complication in the research on electroreceptors in anteaters. -he author of the passage most probably discusses the food of anteaters live. researchers0 hypothesis that anteaters use electroreceptors =. such receptors do so only in response to =B> Researchers found that the level of nervous activity ( 10) electrical field strengths about ). 'n one behavioral e2periment.> introduce a factor that was not addressed in the =(> -he manner in which electroreceptors respond to research on electroreceptors in anteaters. electrical stimuli =B> -he tendency of electroreceptors to be found in clusters =C> -he unusual locations in which electroreceptors are found in most species. one with a weak electrical field receptors were more easily e2cited by a strong and the other with none.&&& times greater than in the anteater0s brain increased dramatically as the those known to e2cite electroreceptors.. can also respond to electrical field strengths. =. strength of the electrical stimulus was increased. tactile receptors@ =. Passage 50 (ustralian researchers have discovered electroreceptors =sensory organs designed to respond to electrical fields> clustered at the tip of the spiny anteater0s snout. researchers have observed function of tactile receptors =lines +-))> in order to anteaters breaking into a nest of ants at an obli#ue angle =(> eliminate and alternative e2planation of anteaters0 and #uickly locating nesting chambers. -he . another kind of electroreceptors respond to such a narrow range of sensory organ on the anteater0s snout. aving discovered the electroreceptors. (ccording to the passage. =?> -he amount of electrical stimulation re#uired to e2cite electroreceptors =. Still. according to the researchers. responding to the stimulus. electrical stimuli. where the favorite 1. -his ability #uickly response to electrical stimuli (25) to locate unseen prey suggests. ( 20) researchers as yet have been unable to detect electrical signals emanating from termite mounds. =?> 't advances an argument to be disputed. (15) successfully trained an anteater to distinguish between =?> Researchers found that the anteater0s tactile two troughs of water. electroreceptors in the anteater because 5hile it is true that tactile receptors. researchers are =C> Researchers found that some areas of the anteater0s now investigating how anteaters utili!e such a sophisticated snout were not sensitive to a weak electrical sensory system.. which of the following is a =?> suggest that tactile receptors assist electroreceptors characteristic that distinguishes electroreceptors from in the detection of electrical signals. 5hich of the following can be inferred about the researchers made this discovery by e2posing small areas of e2periment described in the first paragraph@ (5) the snout to e2tremely weak electrical fields and recording =(> Researchers had difficulty verifying the e2istence of the transmission of resulting nervous activity to the brain.> 't introduces conflicting arguments to be reconciled. =B> highlight a type of sensory organ that has a function that the anteaters were using their electroreceptors to identical to that of electroreceptors locate the nesting chambers. =C> 't poses a #uestion to be answered.=B> 't outlines a process to be analy!ed.> -he amount of nervous activity transmitted to the brain by electroreceptors when they are e2cited .> Researchers tested small areas of the anteater0s snout to detect electrical signals given off by prey7 in order to ensure that only electroreceptors were however. researchers stimulus.
which had historically barred chambers without the assistance of electroreceptors. Such a threat. Randolph0s efforts in the battle helped =(> -he event they observed provides conclusive transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and (10) toward themselves as an identifiable group7 eventually. from the behavioral e2periment mentioned in the =C> (nteaters are observed taking increasingly longer second paragraph@ amounts of time to locate the nesting chambers of =(> -hey are unable to distinguish between stimuli ants. 5hich of the following. 5hich of the following can be inferred about anteaters colony. 3orters were scattered throughout the signal emanating from the nesting chamber of an ant country./ he took the bold step of threatening a strike against the hypothesis mentioned in lines )+-)*@ 3ullman. helped replace the stereotype of the Black (25)worker as servant with the image of the Black worker as an underground chamber that is emitting a strong electrical signal.> -he speed with which the anteaters located their weakened support among Black workers for an prey is greater than what might be e2pected on the independent entity. the porters0 very isolation aided =B> Researchers are able to detect a weak electrical the Brotherhood. was the union that 3ullman itself had formed. 3hilip Randolph assumed the leadership of the controlled environment than in a natural Brotherhood of Sleeping Car 3orters.> (nteaters are observed using the same angle used signals emanating from termite mounds and those with nests of ants to break into the nests of other emanating from ant nests.> -hey are more efficient at detecting stimuli in a 5hen (. would most strengthen )*. 'n B. =B> -hey are unable to distinguish between the electrical =. however. wage earner.A. Randolph helped to weaken organi!ed labor0s antagonism =B> -he event they observed was atypical and may not toward Black workers. presence of a particular stimulus. detected by their electroreceptors and stimuli =?> (nteaters are observed using various angles to break detected by their tactile receptors. Passage 51 =. 'n the 3ullman contest Randolph faced formidable =C> 't is likely that the anteaters located the ants0 nesting obstacles. into nests of ants. types =C> -hey can be trained to recogni!e consistently the of prey. -he passage suggests that the researchers mentioned in (5) States and the company that controlled the railroad the second paragraph who observed anteaters break into industry0s sleeping car and parlor service. battle to win recognition from the 3ullman Company. =?> -hey react more readily to strong than to weak stimuli. basis of chance alone. which =. including Randolph0s own tactical abilities. the largest private employer of Black people in the United %. 'n addition. on a national scale. sleeping in dormitories in Black communities7 . -he first was Black workers0 understandable ( 15) skepticism toward unions. reflect the usual hunting practices of anteaters. =?> (nteaters possess a very simple sensory system for Black workers from membership. he began a ten-year environment. evidence that anteaters use their electroreceptors to locate unseen prey. if true. (20) -he Brotherhood possessed a number of advantages. under Black =(> Researchers are able to train anteaters to break into leadership.or corporation. 'n )*1% the a nest of ants would most likely agree with which of the Brotherhood became the first Black union recogni!ed by a following statements@ ma. (n additional obstacle use in locating prey.
-he passage suggests that if the grievances of porters in one part of the United States had been different from those of porters in another part of the country. =?> pressure its employees to contribute money to maintain the company0s own union =. thus sharing the same grievances from city to city. -he passage suggests that in the )*. =B> concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between )*. enthusiastically supported this union. threaten strikes.&0s a company in the United States was able to =(> use its own funds to set up a union =B> re#uire its employees to . -he passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the 3ullman Company0s own union@ =(> 4ew porters ever . (ccording to the passage. which of the following would have been the case@ ). =B> Some porters supported this union before )*1%. =C> 3orters. . 1.their segregated life protected the union0s internal (30) communications from interception.> 't would have been easier for the Brotherhood to (merican 4ederation of Habor. "ot content with this triumph. Brotherhood to control its channels of =B> reinforced by the actions of the 3ullman Company0s communication. by )*1% the skepticism of =(> 't would have been more difficult for the 3ullman Black workers toward unions was Company to have had a single labor policy. Company0s union to attract membership. =?> -he porters0 response was most positive after )*1%. more than other 3ullman employees. Such restrictions were eventually found unconstitutional in )*AA. =?> weakened by the opening up of many unions to =?> 't would have been easier for the 3ullman Black workers. =. -hat the porters were a homogeneous group working for a single employer with single labor policy.> -he porters0 response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions. Randolph brought the (40) Brotherhood into the (merican 4ederation of Habor. 'n using the word 8understandable9 =line )A>. %.&0s toward unions.% and )*1% to establish an independent union. e reasoned that as a member union. also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well.> regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers. where it became the e#ual of the 4ederation0s )&% other unions. the author most clearly conveys =(> sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between )*.% and )*1% were indeed formidable =C> ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the )*. =?> appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the )*.> use its resources to prevent the passage of federal legislation that would have facilitated the formation . A. =.. =.> largely alleviated because of the policies of the =.oin the company0s own union =C> develop a single labor policy for all its employees with little employee dissent.oined this union. union =C> 't would have been more difficult for the =C> mitigated by the efforts of Randolph Brotherhood to uild its membership. the Brotherhood would be in a better position to e2ert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions. =(> unchanged e2cept among Black employees of =B> 't would have been more difficult for the railroad-related industries.&0s. But it was only 35) ( in the early )*1&0s that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with company money eventually allowed the Brotherhood to become recogni!ed as the porters0 representative.
5hich of the following is cited in the passage as a goal (10) negative conse#uences of bad service are grave. or of some professional service firms in offering business is difficult to obtain through referrals and unconditional guarantees of satisfaction@ word-of-mouth. service firms=for e2ample.ustify fee increases (15) ure is possible.services most clearly implies that which of the following suits or medical procedures will have guaranteed outis true@ comes. offering unconditional guarantees of satisfaction. guarantee can be an effective marketing tool if the client is very cautious. 3articularly with first-time clients. the guarantee may. (nd any firm (25) that implements an unconditional guarantee without undertaking a commensurate commitment to #uality of service is merely employing a potentially costly marketing gimmick.IC. . some professional long standing. or health care services> have considered through client recommendations.> -he success he and the Brotherhood had in influencing the policies of the other unions in the .> 'mprovement in the #uality of the firm0s service promised level of service. -he passage0s description of the issue raised by a firm is begging for business. 5ith its implication that fail=C> (bility to .> e2plain the reasons for pursuing a strategy =. it may mislead clients by suggesting that law.. parado2ically. an unconditional =. =B> -he firm is having difficulty getting business accounting. 'ndeed.3-< =(> -he firm is having difficulty retaining its clients of Passage 52 Seeking a competitive advantage.> -he client is reluctant to incur risk. Such =C> -he firm charges substantial fees for its services. the 1. 't may conflict with a firm0s desire to appear sophisticated. (ll of the following are mentioned in the passage as (merican 4ederation of Habor circumstances in which professional service firms can benefit from offering an unconditional guarantee . B. professional service firms with outstandin =(> -he legal and medical professions have standards of reputations and performance to match have little to gain practice that would be violated by attempts to fulfill from offering unconditional guarantees. or may even suggest that A. cause =?> (ttainment of an outstanding reputation in a field clients to doubt the service firm0s ability to deliver the =. -he passage supplies information concerning which of the following matters related to Randolph@ =(> -he steps he took to initiate the founding of the Brotherhood =B> is motivation for bringing the Brotherhood into the ). =(> ( limit on the firm0s liability owever.of independent unions. -he primary function of the passage as a whole is to (merican 4ederation of Habor =(> account for the popularity of a practice =C> -he influence he had on the passage of legislation =B> evaluate the utility of a practice overturning race restrictions in )*AA =C> demonstrate how to institute a practice =?> -he influence he had on the passage of legislation to =?> weigh the ethics of using a strategy bar companies from financing their own unions =. (5) guarantees specify what clients can e2pect and what the =?> -he adverse effects of poor performance by the firm firm will do if it fails to fulfill these e2pectations. the firm0s fees are high. 'n legal and health care unconditional guarantees for health care or legal (20) services. firms providing advertising. are significant for the client. an unconditional guarantee can sometimes =B> Successful competition against other firms hinder marketing efforts.
Passage 53 . =C> ( business consultant0s unconditional guarantee of -hus. -he passage most clearly implies which of the following because of ecological changes that caused )edes aegy*ti. =. infection had occurred during infancy. e2posure to polio until adolescence or adulthood. some epidemics are caused by %. for e2ample. 3oliomyelitis.> 3redicting the monetary cost of legal or health care services is more difficult than predicting the monetary cost of other types of professional services. 'n analy!ing the latter. =?> -heir fees are usually more affordable than those charged by other professional service firms. emerged satisfaction encourages patients to sue for as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth malpractice if they are unhappy with the treatment century7 by then. the hygiene that helped prevent typhoid epidemics satisfaction is undermined when the consultant fails indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic. =B> -he result of a lawsuit of medical procedure cannot necessarily be determined in advance by the professionals handling a client0s case..> -heir clients are usually already satisfied with the #uality of service that is delivered. guarantees of satisfaction in the past.(lthough genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemics. =?> Clients whose lawsuits or medical procedures have unsatisfactory outcomes cannot be ade#uately compensated by financial settlements alone. which is caused by bacteria to provide all of the services that are promised. including unconditional guarantees. (nother (15) e2ample is Hyme disease. 5hich of the following hypothetical situations best bacteria and viruses that have undergone no significant e2emplifies the potential problem noted in the second genetic change. an outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever became an epidemic in (sia in the )*%&0s B. recently become prevalent in parts of the United States. when it new clients #uickly to increase the firm0s income. =C> -hey usually practice in fields in which the outcomes are predictable. to proliferate about the professional service firms mentioned in line . (25) the mos#uito that transmits the dengue virus. 3revi=B> ( lawyer0s unconditional guarantee of satisfaction makes clients suspect that the lawyer needs to find ously.@ -he stage is now set in the United States for a =(> -hey are unlikely to have offered unconditional dengue epidemic because of the inadvertent introduction such unconditional guarantees. =. =B> -hey are usually profitable enough to be able to compensate clients according to the terms of an unconditional guarantee. modern sanitation was able to delay they receive. =C> -he dignity of the legal and medical professions is undermined by any attempts at marketing of professional services. Similarly. =. 't occurred only sposatisfaction makes clients wonder how often the radically during the late nineteenth century but has architect0s buildings fail to please clients. at (10) which time polio infection produced paralysis. typically provided lifelong immunity without paralysis. =?> (n architect0s unconditional guarantee of that are transmitted by deer ticks.> (n accountant0s unconditional guarantee of largely due to an increase in the deer population that (20) occurred simultaneously with the growth of the suburbs satisfaction leads clients to believe that ta2 returns prepared by the accountant are certain to be and increased outdoor recreational activities in the accurate. scientists have (5) discovered the importance of social and ecological facsentence of the second paragraph =lines )A-)+>@ =(> ( physician0s unconditional guarantee of tors to epidemics. deer0s habitat.
discussed and left unresolved. =C> ( theory is proposed and is then followed by descriptions of three e2periments that support the theory. .> 't replaced )edes aegy*ti in (sia when ecological changes altered )edes aegy*ti. =?> 'ndividuals who would normally ac#uire immunity to the dengue virus as infants were not infected until later in life.s habitat. (ccording to the passage. =?> 't caused an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the )*%&0s.and wide dissemination of another mos#uito. -he passage suggests that a lack of modern sanitation would make which of the following most likely to occur@ =(> (n outbreak of Hyme disease =B> (n outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever =C> (n epidemic of typhoid =?> (n epidemic of paralytic polio among infants =. =B> -he mos#uito )edes aegy*ti became more numerous. )edes al+o*ictus. 5hich of the following can most reasonably be concluded about the mos#uito )edes al+o*ictus on the basis of information given in the passage@ =(> 't is native to the United States. =.> (n increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks A. 5hich of the following. 5hich of the following best describes the organi!ation of the passage@ =(> ( parado2 is stated. argued. would most strengthen the author0s assertion about the cause of the Hyme disease outbreak in the United States@ =(> -he deer population was smaller in the late nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century. =B> 'nterest in outdoor recreation began to grow in the late nineteenth century. =.> (n epidemic of paralytic polio among adolescents and adults . =?> ( generali!ation is stated and is then followed by three instances that support the generali!ation. 1. %. if true.. and reconciled. =B> -wo opposing e2planations are presented. =C> 't transmits the dengue virus.> (n argument is described and is then followed by three countere2amples that refute the argument. B.> Core people began to visit and inhabit areas in which mos#uitos live and breed. 't can be inferred from the passage that Hyme disease has become prevalent in parts of the United States because of which of the following@ =(> -he inadvertent introduction of Hyme disease bacteria to the United States =B> -he inability of modern sanitation methods to eradicate Hyme disease bacteria =C> ( genetic mutation in Hyme disease bacteria that makes them more virulent =?> -he spread of Hyme disease bacteria from infected humans to noninfected humans =. =. the outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the )*%&0s occurred for which of the following reasons@ =(> -he mos#uito )edes aegy*ti was newly introduced into (sia.> Scientists have not yet developed a vaccine that can prevent Hyme disease. =C> 'n recent years the suburbs have stopped growing. ). =?> 6utdoor recreation enthusiasts routinely take measures to protect themselves against Hyme disease. =C> -he mos#uito )edes al+o*ictus became infected with the dengue virus. =. =B> 't can proliferate only in (sia.
By contrast. has often simply treated as irrelevant the family roles important to many women.nglishspeaking countries. they underline women0s physiological and psychological (40) distinctiveness.nglish-speaking countries the concept of individual rights was already well estab=?> help account for an increasing shift toward lished in the (nglo-Sa2on legal and political tradition. even though this )*. But the individualist approach. (t the same time. irreconcilable. denying the significance of physiological difference. 'f the individualist framework.nglish history coe2isted within the feminist movement. continued to emphasi!e women0s =(> -he predominance of individualist feminism in special contributions to society as homemakers and . -he passage suggests that the author of the passage economic opportunities outside the home should be availbelieves which of the following@ able for all women. been investigated. speaking countries. given their theoretical differences Relational arguments have a ma.nglish-speaking countries is a historical mothers7 they demanded special treatment phenomenon. while agreeing that e#ual educational and . the causes of which have not yet (35) including protective legislation for women workers.or pitfall< because concerning the foundations of society.. -hey posit that biological distinctions between the se2es result in a necessary se2ual division of labor in the family and throughout society and that women0s procreative labor is currently undervalued by society. these views . often within =B> argue that feminism was already a part of the larger the writings of the same individual. -he author of the passage alludes to the welland celebrates women0s #uest for personal autonomy. however. . 'ndividualist feminists began to advocate a totally speaking countries gender-blind system with e#ual rights for all. to (10) the disadvantage of women. and condemning e2isting familial institutions as hopelessly (45) patriarchal. the individualist feminist tradition emphasi!es individual human rights ).ngland and the United States.=B> -he individualist and relational feminist views are tion for housework. and which still preemancipation. =C> e2plain the decline in individualist thinking among lost ground in . relational feminism. could be harmoni!ed with the family-oriented concerns of relational feminists.&.9 or e#uity as distinct for e#uality. Because feminists in non-. a more fruitful model for con(50) temporary feminist politics could emerge. (rguments in what could be called the 8relational9 feminist tradition maintain the doctrine of 8e#uality in (5) difference. Between )/*& nd (nglo-Sa2on intellectual tradition. which had been the has often gone unnoticed by critics of women0s (20) dominant strain in feminist thought.uropean and non-5estern feminists. dominates among .nglishable. established nature of the concept of individual rights in while downplaying the importance of gender roles and the (nglo-Sa2on legal and political tradition in order to minimi!ing discussion of childbearing and its attendant =(> illustrate the influence of individualist feminist (15) responsibilities. the goals of the =. state-sponsored maternity benefits.> account for the philosophical differences between two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilindividualist and relational feminists in . Relational (30) feminists. by attacking gender roles. with its claim for women0s autonomy.nglish(25) individualist feminism came to predominate in . thought on more general intellectual trends in Before the late nineteenth century.Passage 54 -wo modes of argumentation have been used on behalf of women0s emancipation in 5estern societies. individualist feminism among feminists in . they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. and paid compensa.
relational feminists and =. (ccording to the passage. se2es should receive e#ual treatment under the law. =?> -hey moderated their initial criticism of the economic systems that characteri!ed their societies. increased efficiency with regard to the performance =?> -he predominant view among feminists held that the of group tasks. programs began to be adopted by mainstream =. =(> -hey were less concerned with politics than with =?> Culturally determined distinctions based on gender intellectual issues.> . based on gender among members of a social group =C> -hey called repeatedly for international cooperation can result in a sense of greater well-being for all among women0s groups to achieve their goals. which of the following was true of feminist thought in 5estern societies before )/*&@ =(> 'ndividualist feminist arguments were not found in the thought or writing of non-. in a social group foster the e2istence of differing =B> -hey began to reach a broader audience and their attitudes and opinions among group members. =(> individual human rights take precedence over most other social claims Passage 55 =B> the gender-based division of labor in society should Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth be eliminated in temporary employment that occurred in the United =C> ( consensus concerning the direction of future feminist politics will probably soon emerge. =?> 3olitical adversaries of feminism often misuse arguments predicated on differences between the se2es to argue that the e2isting social system should be maintained. -he author implies that which of the following was true group is necessitated by the e2istence of se2-linked of most feminist thinkers in . given the awareness among feminists of the need for cooperation among women. feminist tradition denies the validity of which of the predominated.&@ members of the group. A. members of the group. (ccording to the author. welfare of women was ultimately less important than =B> ( division of labor in a social group causes the welfare of children.ngland and the United biological differences between male and female States after )*.%.ducational programs aimed at reducing ine#ualities political parties. but another strain. =. relational feminism.> the same educational and economic opportunities should be available to both se2es . =C> laws guaranteeing e#ual treatment for all citi!ens regardless of gender should be passed =?> a greater degree of social awareness concerning the importance of motherhood would be beneficial to society =. ine#uities in the distribution of opportunities and =.nglish-speaking feminists. following causal statements@ =C> Relational and individualist approaches were e#ually =(> ( division of labor in a social group can result in prevalent in feminist thought and writing. =C> ( division of labor on the basis of gender in a social B.> Relational feminism provides the best theoretical framework for contemporary feminist politics. but individualist feminism could contribute much toward refining and strengthening modern feminist thought. =B> 'ndividualist feminism was a strain in feminist 1.> -he predominant view among feminists held that the benefits among group members. 't can be inferred from the passage that the individualist thought.> -hey did not attempt to unite the two different individualist feminists agree that feminist approaches in their thought.
6ne factor is product demand< temporary in accounting for the increase of temporary employment is favored by employers who are adapting employment during the )*/&0s. owever. . growth in temporary employment now far e2ceeds the 1.obs fre#uently led to permanent positions measures to address it. (nother during the )*/&0s. firms should be )*/&0s@ discouraged from creating e2cessive numbers of tem.obs primarily to employees who policies.> 't increased partly as a result of workers0 reduced =(> present the results of statistical analyses and propose ability to control the terms of their employment. =. statistical analyses reveal that demogrowth in temporary employment that occurred graphic changes in the workforce did not correlate with during the )*/&0s.obs during the )*/&0s@ =C> identify the reasons for a trend and recommend =(> -heir . and encouraging firms to =C> 't was discouraged by government-mandated assign temporary . organi!ed by labor unions. =B> e2plain a recent development and predict its A. ni!ing temporary workers.> -hey are more difficult to account for than at other allows employers more control over the terms of factors involved in the growth of temporary employment. promoting pay e#uity between temporary =B> 't increased as a result of increased participation in (25) and permanent workers. to fluctuating demand for products while at the same =?> -hey included a sharp increase in the cost of labor time seeking to reduce overall labor costs. within firms. assisting labor unions in orgathe workforce by certain demograp groups. which of the following is true =?> -heir pay declined during the decade in comparison of the 8factors affecting employers9 that are mentioned with the pay of permanent employees.states during the )*/&0s to increased participation in in lines the workforce by certain groups. -he passage suggests which of the following about the eventual conse#uences. further studies. (15) factor is labor0s reduced bargaining strength. variations in the total number of temporary workers. which =.=(> 't enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product porary positions.> describe the potential conse#uences of implementing =C> -hey were occasionally involved in actions a new policy and argue in favor of that policy. =B> -hey may account for the increase in the total 'nstead. who supposedly prefer such arrange=(> Cost e2perts cite them as having initiated the ments. -he passage suggests which of the following about the level e2plainable by recent workforce entry rates of use of temporary employment by firms during the (20) groups said to prefer temporary . e2plicitly indicate that preference. number of temporary workers during the )*/&0s. employees. which reveal that employment during the )*/&0s. (ccording to the passage. =?> outline several theories about a phenomenon and =B> -hey constituted a less demographically diverse advocate one of them group than has been suggested.obs. ). Eiven the analyses. . =?> 't was a response to preferences indicated by certain employees for more fle2ible working arrangements. workers who took temporary . such as first-time or *-)&@ (5) reentering workers. Eovernment policymakers should demand far more efficiently than they before the consider mandating benefit coverage for temporary )*/&0s. these analyses suggest that factors affecting. (10) employers account for the rise in temporary employ=C> -hey were less important than demographic change ment.. -he primary purpose of the passage is to =.
growth of a population in a region decreases as the =C> 4ar more than can be beneficial to the success of the (20) number of animals increases. 4or e2ample. -here . for e2ample. =C> facilitating the organi!ation of temporary workers by labor unions. B. the fluctuations are often temporary and. %. include physiological control mechanisms< for e2ample. =?> -hat more workers would be hired for temporary positions as product demand increased.IC. =. -he first sentence in the passage suggests that the observers mentioned in line ) would be most likely to predict which of the following@ =(> -hat the number of new temporary positions would decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary employment entered the workforce.> 4ar more than can be attributed to increases in the and Folterra have shown.3crowding that results from a rise in numbers may bring =(> getting firms to offer temporary employment about hormonal changes in the pituitary and adrenal =30) glands that in turn may regulate population by primarily to a certain group of people. -his theory---the . =B> -hat the total number of temporary positions would increase as fewer workers were able to find permanent positions =C> -hat employers would have less control over the terms of workers0 employment as workers increased their bargaining strength. =?> establishing guidelines on the proportion of temporary workers that firms should employ =.=.> -hat the number of workers taking temporary positions would increase as more workers in any given demographic group entered the workforce. 6ther regulators total number of people in the workforce. as numbers =?> 4ar more than can be accounted for by an e2panding increase. the food supply would probably diminish. climatic changes need not be catastrophic< normal seasonal changes in photoperiod =daily amount of sunlight>.> ensuring that temporary workers obtain benefits from their employers.)> most closely corresponds to which of the density-independent view---asserts that climatic factors (15) e2ert the same regulatory effect on population regardfollowing phrases@ =(> 4ar more than can be . preferences ( second theory argues that population growth is =B> 4ar more than can be e2plained by fluctuations in primarily density-dependent---that is. +. as Hotka =.ustified by worker less of the number of individuals in a region. -he first theory attributes a relatively constant population to periodic climatic catastrophes that decimate populations with such fre#uency as to prevent them from e2ceeding some particular limit. the rate of product demand. 'n addition. 'n the case of (10) small organisms with short life cycles. -he mechanisms that firms themselves. which would increase mortality. national economy. the word 8e2cessive9 =line can govern population growth. over long periods. trivial. -he passage mentions each of the following as an Christian and ?avis have demonstrated how the appropriate kind of governmental action . manage regulation may vary. 'n the conte2t of the passage.> -hey did not necessarily prefer temporary employment to permanent employment. predators can find prey more (25) easily in high-density populations. Scientists have advanced three theories of population control to (5) account for this relative constancy. Passage 56 (lthough numbers of animals in a given region may fluctuate from year to year. =B> encouraging e#uitable pay for temporary and lowering permanent employees se2ual activity and inhibiting se2ual maturation.
has been challenged.> triggering hormonal changes of the density-dependent theory of population control have not yet been able to %.dwards and 1. if true. the growth rate of this population of (45) and population control.. if necessary.> demonstrate how predator populations are (35) develop models that would allow the precise prediction themselves regulated of the effects of crowding. increase. owever. e2ercise reproductive restraint.dwards-theory by =(> use their theory to e2plain the population growth of several studies is regarded by the author with organisms with short life cycles =(> complete indifference =B> reproduce the results of the study of Christian and =B> #ualified acceptance ?avis =C> skeptical amusement =C> e2plain ade#uately why the numbers of a population =?> perple2ed astonishment can increase as the population0s rate of growth =. =(> argue against those scientists who maintain that =?> (fter the number of beavers in -ennessee decreases. ( third theory. the vocali!ing7 such codes provide organisms with inforgrowth rate of this population of fo2es begins of mation on population si!e in a region so that they can.> agitated dismay decreases B. and epideictic theories of population control =. 5hich of the following. 5hich of the following statements would provide the . proposed by 5ynne-. =B> (s the number of woodpeckers in Fermont wynne-. . (ccording to the 5ynne-. =C> provide e2ample of some of the ways in which the food supply of this population of eagles also animals e2ercise reproductive restraint to begins to decrease. with some woodpeckers also begins to decrease.dwards theory as it is concentrate on the social behavior of animals described in the passage. would best support the have evolved termed 8epideictic.> (fter the number of eagles in Contana decreases. 't can be inferred from the passage that proponents =. control their own numbers =?> suggests that theories of population control that A. linking animal social behavior decreases. animal populations tend to fluctuate the number of predators of these beavers begins to =B> compare and contrast the density-dependent increase.ustification.> summari!e a number of scientific theories that =(> determining roosting aggregations attempt to e2plain why animal populations do =B> locating food not e2ceed certain limits =C> attracting predators =?> regulating se2ual activity . -he primary purpose of the passage is to prairie dogs also begins to increase.dwards0 theory. -he challenge posed to the 5ynne-. effects of crowding 6ne challenge for density-dependent theorists is to =.9 argues that organisms density-dependent theory of population control as it is a 8code9in the form of social or epideictic behavior described in the passage@ (40) displays.is evidence that these effects may persist for three =?> make sufficiently accurate predictions about the generations in the absence of the original provocation. such as winter-roosting aggregations or group =(> (s the number of fo2es in Cinnesota decrease. by several studies. the growth rate of this population of ). epideictic behavior displays are more open to debate than are theories that do not serve the function of =. =C> (s the number of prairie dogs in 6klahoma increases.
-he passage suggests that the factor mentioned in lines e2perts in the field find it difficult to decide which of )A-)+ complicates professors0 attempts to construct (10) these to assign to students7 none2perts who teach in introductory reading lists for courses in (sian (merican related areas and are looking for writings for and by studies in which of the following ways@ (sian (merican to include in survey courses are in an =(> By making it difficult for professors to identify even worse position.valuating a past course of action than group vocali!ing in order to provide =. -oday. -he author of the passage is primarily concerned with =?> Some of these studies have. worked out doing which of the following@ a systematic and comple2 code of social behavior =(> Recommending a methodology that can regulate population si!e. . in fact. history. Such works would enable students passage@ taking (sian (merican studies courses =and professors =(> -hus wynne-. epideictic e2planations of include more challenging (sian (merican material in (25) their introductory reading lists. can best be characteri!ed as being caused by the necessity to make a choice when faced with a =(> lack of acceptable alternatives Passage 57 'n recent years.dwards0 theory raises serious in related fields> to look up basic information on (sian (20) (merican individuals. ). such as biographical dictionaries or desktop anthologies and introductory te2ts in the field that .ven professors who are 1. e2cellent antho=?> multitude of different alternatives (5) logies and other introductory te2ts e2ist. -he 8dilemma9 mentioned in line . without having to wade through mountains of primary =B> Because 5ynne-.> 6ne study.dwards0 theory is able to e2plain source material. for e2ample. has demonstrated that birds =C> ?iscussing a problem are more likely to use winter-roosting aggregations =?> . and books on =.> large number of alternatives that are nearly identical individual (sian (merican nationality groups and on in content general issues important for (sian (mericans are published almost weekly. teachers of introductory courses in =B> lack of strict standards for evaluating alternatives (sian (merican studies have been facing a dilemma =C> preponderance of bad alternatives as compared to none2istent a few decades ago. 'n addition. when hardly any te2ts good in that field were available. works allow students to ac#uire on their own the back=C> -he results of one study.. since good reference population regulation are now widely accepted. . =B> ?escribing a course of study =.most of logical continuation of the final paragraph of the encyclopedias. and culture #uestions about the constancy of animal population in a region. have ground information necessary to interpret difficult or suggested that group vocali!ing is more often used unfamiliar material. to defend territory than to provide information about population density.> Responding to a criticism information on population si!e. (sian more kinds of animal behavior than is the density(merican studies professors might feel more free to dependent theory. primary source material and to obtain standard ( complicating factor has been the continuing lack information on (sian (merican history and culture (15) of speciali!ed one-volume reference works on (sian =B> By preventing professors from identifying e2cellent (mericans. institutions. give such works. for instance.
the e2istence of good one't is possible that productivity may be a 8hygiene volume reference works about (sian (mericans could factor.obs as customer service.'n an attempt to improve the overall performance of clerical workers. =. who true of introductory courses in (sian (merican studies a without e2ception identified the most important element in few decades ago@ their . critical factor in assigning ratings.> By making it more necessary for professors to select readings for their courses that are not too challenging for students unfamiliar with (sian (merican history and culture =. the monitored workers and =(> -he range of different te2tbooks that could be their supervisors all responded that productivity was the assigned for such courses was e2tremely limited. -his finding suggested =B> -he te2ts assigned as readings in such courses were =15) that there should have been a strong correlation between a often not very challenging for students. monitored worker0s productivity and the overall rating the =C> Students often complained about the te2ts assigned worker received. between overall rating and individual elements of perfor=?> Such courses were the only means then available by mance clearly supported the conclusion that supervisors 20) which people in the United States could ac#uire ( gave considerable weight to criteria such as knowledge of the field. attendance. it will hurt the overall result in rating. 'n (10) A. (ccording to the passage.9 higher =(> increased agreement among professors of (sian (merican studies regarding the #uality of the productivity per se is unlikely to improve a rating. which of the following seemed =C> increased accuracy in writings that concern (sian likely@ (merican history and culture =(> -hat workers with the highest productivity would =?> the use of introductory te2ts about (sian (merican also be the most accurate history and culture in courses outside the field of =B> -hat workers who initially achieved high (sian (merican studies productivity ratings would continue to do so are both recent and understandable to students =C> By preventing professors from ade#uately evaluating the #uality of the numerous te2ts currently being published in the field =?> Such courses were offered only at schools whose libraries were rich in primary sources. owever. if it is too low. at least one study has shown that such monitoring may not be having the desired effect.accuracy.9 that is. %.> the inclusion of a wider range of (sian (merican material in introductory reading lists in (sian (merican studies Passage 58 . researchers asked monitored clerical workers and their supervisors how assessments of productivity affected supervisors0 ratings of workers0 performance. -he passage implies that which of the following was contrast to unmonitored workers doing the same work.> By making it more likely that the readings professors assign to students in their courses will be drawn solely from primary sources =. before the final results of the introductory courses in (sian (merican studies study were known. (ccording to the passage. owever. sources available in their field =B> an increase in the number of students signing up for ). 'n the study. But the evidence suggests that beyond the point at (25) which productivity becomes 8good enough . measures of the relationship to them in such courses. many companies have introduced computeri!ed performance monitoring and control systems =C3CCS> that record and report a worker0s computer(5) driven activities. and indications of customer satisfaction.
Cy research suggests.consistently =C> -hat the highest performance ratings would be achieved by workers with the highest productivity =?> -hat the most productive workers would be those whose supervisors claimed to value productivity =. for e2ample. and homehighly with measures of productivity than the making.lectronic monitoring greatly increased productivity. Some researchers even claim that by the time . have conducted =B> is so basic to performance that it is assumed to be studies that suggest that children0s attitudes about particular (25) culture are strongly influenced by the te2tbooks used in ade#uate for all workers .. by measures of productivity. ratings of both accuracy and attendance. te2tbooks stereotype and deprecate the numerous "ative =B> . Get substantial evidence e2ists to the performance contrary. =.obs =.> is important primarily because of the effect it has on a worker0s rating %. -he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> e2plain the need for the introduction of an innovative strategy =B> discuss a study of the use of a particular method =C> recommend a course of action =?> resolved a difference of opinion =.uropean con#uest of the "ew 5orld denotes the superi=C> Cost supervisors based overall ratings of performance on measures of productivity alone. however. if true.> suggest an alternative approach Passage 59 Schools e2pect te2tbooks to be a valuable source of information for students. comple2. 5hich of the following.uropean cultures.. highly with measures of accuracy than with 6ne argument against my contention asserts that. 'n essence. 't can be inferred that the author of the passage discusses 8unmonitored workers9=line )&> primarily in order to =(> compare the ratings of these workers with the ratings of monitored workers =B> provide an e2ample of a case in which monitoring might be effective =C> provide evidence of an inappropriate use of C3CCS =?> emphasi!e the effect that C3CCS may have on workers0 perceptions of their . political systems. 'n some te2tbooks. would most clearly have (5) a particular cultural value system.1> is an aspect of a worker0s performance that students are in high school. ' contend that they do it from an ethnocentric. that te2tbooks that address the place of "ative (mericans within he history of the United States distort history to suit 1. (ccording to the passage.> -hat supervisors who claimed to value productivity would place e#ual value on customer satisfaction . -wo researchers. for supported the conclusion referred to in lines )*-. nature.biases. a 8hygiene factor9 =lines . te2tbooks are culturally biased and that ' am simply underestimating children0s ability to see through these (20) A. and wise than "ative (merican.uropean perspective without recogni!ing that other perresearchers e2pected.> illustrate the effect that C3CCS may have on workers0 ratings =C> is given less importance than it deserves in rating a worker0s performance =?> if not likely to affect a worker0s rating unless it is .udged to be inade#uate =. ority of . (15) .)@ e2ample. they know they cannot take =(> has no effect on the rating of a worker0s te2tbooks literally. (merican cultures while reinforcing the attitude that the (10) .> 6verall ratings of performance correlated more spectives are possible. =(> Ratings of productivity correlated highly with skillful. (lthough te2tbooks evaluete =?> 6verall ratings of performance correlated more "ative (merican architecture. settlers are pictured as more humane.
> Students are less likely to give credence to history "ative (mericans and influence children0s attitudes te2tbooks than to mathematics te2tbooks.schools. -he author implies tha%t which of the following will by various "ative (merican groups occur if te2tbooks are not carefully reviewed@ =(> Children will remain ignorant of the .> summari!e ways in which some te2tbooks give distorted pictures of the political systems developed B. -he author mentions two researchers0 studies =lines.> 5ays in which parents influence children0s political mentioned in line )* would be most likely to agree attitudes with which of the following statements@ =(> Students form attitudes about cultures other than .> disapproval =?> -he contributions of . -he author0s attitude toward the content of the history passage@ te2tbooks discussed in the passage is best described as =(> Specific ways to evaluate the biases of United States one of history te2tbooks =(> indifference =B> -he centrality of the teacher0s role in United States =B> hesitance history courses =C> neutrality =C> "ontraditional methods of teaching United States =?> amusement history =. .> Children will stop taking te2tbooks seriously. 't can be inferred from the passage that the researchers =.uropean 1.. children . messages in te2tbooks more literally than do older =. =?> demonstrate that te2tbooks carry political messages meant to influence their readers =. States history te2tbooks =?> . Eiven this. careful review of how school te2tbooks depict "ative (merican is certainly warranted.%> most likely in order to =B> Children will lose their ability to recogni!e biases =(> suggest that children0s political attitudes are formed in te2tbooks.uropean immigrants to the development of the United States %. =?> argue that te2tbooks used in schools stereotype =. =(> describe in detail one research study regarding the =B> 4or the most part. 5hich of the following would most logically be the topic of the paragraph immediately following the A. and beliefs about certain cultures =C> -e2tbooks play a crucial role in shaping the attitudes =B> describe revisions that should be made to United and beliefs of students.settlers0 con#uest of the "ew 5orld. through stereotypes in te2tbooks =?> Children will develop an understanding of =C> suggest that younger children tend to interpret the ethnocentrism.> prove that te2tbooks are not biased in terms of their political presentations ). primarily through te2tbooks =C> Children will form negative stereotypes of "ative =B> counter the claim that children are able to see (mericans. -he primary purpose of the passage is to their own primarily inside the school environment.. an ongoing. =. seniors in high school know that impact of history te2tbooks on children0s attitudes te2tbooks can be biased.lementary school students are as likely to =C> discuss the difficulty of presenting an accurate recogni!e biases in te2tbooks as are high school history of the United States students.
regardless of its age. . the naked mole rat. . and tunneling.usocial insect societies have rigid caste systems. -he #ueen of the largest member of the colony. wasp0s nest. body si!e. =?> 'n eusocial insect societies. and when they die or are removed from a colony one sees violent fighting for breeding status among the larger remaining females. =C> Behavior in naked mole rat colonies may well be a close vertebrate analogue to behavior in eusocial insect societies. Harger nonreaders are active in defending the colony and perhaps in removing dirt from the tunnels. transporting nest material. all tasks ate performed cooperatively. and mating by subordinate females may not be totally suppressed. =B> "aked mole rat colonies e2hibit social organi!ation based on a rigid caste system. =.> 'n eusocial insect societies.> -he basis for the division of labor among naked mole rats is the same as that among eusocial insects. colony si!e is much smaller. (40) whereas in naked mole rat colonies subordinate females are not se2ually active. the performance of tasks is less rigidly determined by body shape. =B> 'n naked mole rat colonies. and she maintains her breeding status through a mi2ture of behavioral and. 't can be inferred from the passage that the performance of tasks in naked mole rat colonies differs from task performance in eusocial insect societies in which of the following ways@ =(> 'n naked mole rat colonies. Oueens have (15) been long-lived in captivity. but unlike naked mole rats. 5hich of the following most accurately states the main idea of the passage@ =(> "aked mole rat colonies are the only known e2amples of cooperatively breeding vertebrate societies. or (10) termite mound.Passage 60 Until recently. . =C> 'n naked mole rat colonies. such a vertebrate society may e2ist among underground colonies of the highly social rodent -eteroce*halus gla+er. is ruled by its #ueen. each (20) insects0s role being defined by its behavior. 6ther adult female mole rats neither ovulate nor breed. body shape. owever. /ycaon *ictus> 35) ( are dominated by a pair of breeders rather than by a single breeding female. Smaller nonbreeding (25) members.> 3reviously e2hibited behavior 1. sometimes even sacrificing their own oppor( 5) tunities to survive and reproduce. and many never breed. most cooperatively breeding vertebrates =e2cept the wild dog. ( naked mole rat colony. -he passage suggests that Darvis0 work has called into #uestion which of the following e2planatory variables for naked mole rat behavior@ =(> Si!e =B> (ge =C> Reproductive status =?> Rate of growth =. the distribution of tasks is based on body si!e. reproduction is limited to a single female. for the good of others. leading to a takeover by a new #ueen. =?> -he mating habits of naked mole rats differ from those of any other vertebrate species. on the other hand. 'n naked mole rat societies. both male and female. and perhaps age. ). differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive status =reproduction being limited to the #ueen and a few males>. chemical control. =. Darvis0 work has suggested that differences in growth rates may influence the length of time that an individual performs (30) a task. presumably. like a beehive. scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue to the e2treme form of altruism abserved in eusocial insects like ants and bees. and physiology. breeding is limited to the largest animals. Cooperative breeding has evolved many times in vertebrates. whereby individuals cooperate.. seem to participate primarily in gathering food. or reproducing female. -he division of labor within social groups is less pronounced among other vertebrates than among naked mole rats.
. =. Symbiotic cells of algae known as !oo2anthellae carry out =?> -he growth of coral reef communities tends to photosynthesis using the metabolic wastes of the coral destabili!e underwater herbivore populations.> describing the abundance of algae and filter-feeding =?> Breeding in the social group is not cooperative. =B> She e2erts chemical control over the colony. a variety of 1.> Breeding is not dominated by a single pair of dogs. ). =. -he passage is primarily concerned with %. ?eclines in reef communities are consistent with observations that nutrient input is increasing in direct proportion to growing human populations. and diverse marine ecosystem on . (ccording to the passage.A. comple2. biologically to thrive in waters that are relatively low in nutrients. =.arth. =?> e2plaining how coral reefs produce food for =C> Breeding is the only task performed by the breeding themselves female.> She is the only breeding female. waters sup sphere< how do clear.&> human activities are causing worldwide degradation of in order to (15) shallow marine habitats by adding nutrients to the =water. of reef decline are destabili!ed herbivore populations and (20) an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals. and thus nutrient-poor. which of the following is a supposition rather than a fact concerning the #ueen in a naked mole rat colony@ =(> She is the largest member of the colony. thereby producing food for themselves. however. =C> discussing the process by which coral reefs =B> (n individual0s ability to breed is related primarily deteriorate in nutrient-poor waters to its rate of growth. -his =B> -he nutrients on which coral reef communities ecosystem is one of the fascinating parado2es of the biothrive are only found in shallow waters. diverse -his symbiotic process allows organisms in the reef comthan most ecosystems located on dry land. munity to use sparse nutrient resources efficiently. for their corals. animals in coral reef areas =. =(> provide an e2ample of a characteristic sign of reef (griculture. Unfortunately for coral reefs. =?> She attains her status through aggression. and even for other members of the reef community. =C> uman population growth has led to changing ocean (5) port such prolific and productive communities@ 3art of the temperatures. -he passage suggests which of the following about coral reef communities@ =(> Coral reef communities may actually be more likely Passage 61 Coral reefs are one of the most fragile. thereby threatening reef com(25) munities sensitive to subtle changes in nutrient input to their waters.> Coral reef communities are more comple2 and (10) hosts. -he author refers to 8filter-feeding animals9 =line . slash-and-burn land clearing. communities. -he passage supports which of the following inferences =(> describing the effects of human activities on algae in about breeding among /ycaon *ictus@ coral reefs =(> -he largest female in the social group does =B> e2plaining how human activities are posing a threat not maintain reproductive status by means of to coral reef communities behavioral control. -ypical symptoms for survival . sewage disposal deterioration and manufacturing that creates waste by-products all =B> e2plain how reef communities ac#uire sustenance increase nutrient loads in these waters. which threatens coral reef answer lies within the tissues of the corals themselves. . =C> She mates with more than one male.
which of the following is a factor that is threatening the survival of coral reef communities@ =(> -he waters they inhabit contain few nutrient resources. neither fully captures the dynamic and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States. 6ne e2ample of this process is the rise of participation by "ative (merican people in the broader United States political system since the Civil Rights movement of the (20))*B&0s. =. late-twentieth-century Ce2ican (merican leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols.> 5aste by-products result in an increase in nutrient input to reef communities. -he Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the uses to which ethnicity was put by Ce2ican (merican people.=C> identify a factor that helps herbivore populations thrive =?> indicate a cause of decreasing nutrient input in waters that reefs inhabit =. this movement also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional culture.or holidays in the countries of origin>. 'n the )*B&0s. 'n )*B/ enry Censors. Ce2ican (mericans formed (30) community-based political groups that emphasi!ed ancestral heritage as a way of mobili!ing constituents. Hike . ( different conception of ethnicity de-emphasi!es the cultural component and defines ethnic groups as interest groups. =B> ( decline in nutrient input is disrupting their symbiotic relationship with !oo2anthellae =C> -he degraded waters of their marine habitats have reduced their ability to carry out photosynthesis =?> -hey are too biologically comple2 to survive in habitats with minimal nutrient input. Besides leading "ative (mericans to participate more actively in politics =the number of "ative (merican legislative officeholders more than doubled>.uropean ethnic groups in the (35) nineteenth-century United States.> -hey are declining even when the water surrounding them remains clear. =?> -heir metabolic wastes contribute to the degradation of the waters that they inhabit. but rather reinforce one another. Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Ce2ican (merican advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity. Rather. =C> -hey are able to survive in an environment with limited food resources. 't can be inferred from the passage that the author describes coral reef communities as parado2ical most likely for which of the following reasons@ =(> -hey are thriving even though human activities have depleted the nutrients in their environment. =B> -hey are able to survive in spite of an overabundance of algae inhabiting their waters. ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which pree2isting communal bonds and common (15) cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real-life situations. %. 'n this view. Cultural and instrumental components of (25 )ethnicity are not mutually e2clusive. 3atrick0s ?ay =both are ma. people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture. (ccording to the passage. then mayor of San (ntonio. Passage 62 -wo divergent definitions have dominated sociologists0 discussions of the nature of ethnicity. -e2as.> identify members of coral reef communities that rely on coral reefs for nutrients A. 5hile both of these definitions are useful. (nd every year. =. cited Ce2ican leader Benito Duare! as a model for Ce2ican (mericans in their fight for con(40) temporary civil rights. with both holidays having been reinvented in the conte2t of the United States (5) . Ce2ican (mericans celebrate Cinco de 0ayo as fervently as many 'rish (merican people embrace St. 'n this view. ethnicity serves as a way of mobili!ing a certain population behind issues (10) relating to its economic position. -he first emphasi!es the primordial and unchanging character of ethnicity.
.> -he two definitions of ethnicity that have dominated groups promoted ethnic solidarity primarily in sociologists discussions are incompatible order to effect economic change and should be replaced by an entirely new approach. than did other ethnic groups in the United States. -he passage supports which of the following statements political and economic interests.uropean ethnic =(> the ability of membership in groups based on groups in the nineteenth-century United States@ shared ancestry and culture to satisfy an essential =(> -hey emphasi!ed economic interests as a way of human need.thnicity is best defined as a dynamic process that combines cultural components with shared A.> -he preparation of traditional cuisine 1. 'nformation in the passage supports which of the e2ample of following statements about many . ). sociologists have underestimated the power of the primordial human need to belong. =B> -he wearing of traditional clothing =. symbols. changed by the Civil Rights movement.thnicity in the United States has been significantly own ethnic holidays. and the other is the result of analysis of %. had greater success in mobili!ing constituents and the other focuses on the economic aspects. 5hich of the following types of ethnic cultural . =B> how ethnic feelings have both motivated and been strengthened by political activity =C> how the Civil Rights movement can help promote solidarity among United States ethnic groups =?> how participation in the political system has helped to improve a group0s economic situation =. =C> 6ne is the result of analysis of United States populations. =?> -he celebration of traditional holidays =. e2pression is discussed in the passage@ =?> 6ne focuses more on the ancestral components =(> -he retelling of traditional narratives of ethnicity than does the other. about the Ce2ican (merican coQmunity@ =C> 'n the United States in the twentieth century. other is favored by members of ethnic groups. 5hich of the following best states the main idea of the passage@ =(> 'n their definitions of the nature of ethnicity. group in the United States into the observation of its =?> . mobili!ing constituents behind certain issues. =B> 'n the )*B&0s Ce2ican (merican community =. 5hich is the following statements about the first two a renaissance of ethnic history and culture definitions of ethnicity discussed in the first paragraph =?> 'n the )*B&0s members of the Ce2ican (merican is supported by the passage@ community were becoming increasingly concerned =(> 6ne is supported primarily by sociologists.and linked to ideals.> the benefits gained from renewed study of ethnic history and culture . -he author of the passage refers to "ative (merican people in the second paragraph in order to provide an B.> 6ne focuses more on immigrant groups than does =C> -he playing of traditional music the other.> 'n the )*B&0s the Ce2ican (merican community =B> 6ne emphasi!es the political aspects of ethnicity. =. and the about the issue of voting rights. =C> 'n the )*B&0s leader of the Ce2ican (merican community concentrated their efforts on promoting . =B> . and heroes of the United States. ethnic =(> 'n the )*B&0s the Ce2ican (merican community groups have begun to organi!e in order to further began to incorporate the customs of another ethnic their political and economic interests.uropean populations.
-he primary purpose of the passage is to =(> many Ce2ican (merican would respond positively =(> contrast possible outcomes of a type of business to the e2ample of Benito Duare!. 'nvest=?> insufficient analysis that managers devote to them ments in service. since service is a deciding acceptable rate factor for customers only in e2treme situations. =?> trace the general problems of a company to a =?> the #uickest way of organi!ing community-based certain type of business investment groups was to emulate the tactics of Benito Duare! =. -he passage suggests that in )*B/ enry Cisneros most likely believed that ).. then investment in higher =(> 't enabled the bank to retain customers at an service levels may be wasted. like those in production and distribution. -he only merit of the improvement was that it could easily be described to customers. . +. which failed to improve its competitive position (15) despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. (ccording to the passage.> critici!e the way in which managers tend to analy!e =. investment =B> many Ce2ican (merican were insufficiently =B> suggest more careful evaluation of a type of educated in Ce2ican history business investment =C> the fight for civil fights in the United States had =C> illustrate various ways in which a type of business many strong parallels in both Ce2ican and rish investment could fail to enhance revenues history. -he passage suggests which of the following about par with its competitors because it provides service that service provided by the regional bank prior to its customers from avoids a damaging reputation and keeps investment in enhancing that service@ (10) leaving at an unacceptable rate.> Ce2ican (mericans should emulate the strategies the costs and benefits of business investments of "ative (merican political leaders. =. =B> 't threatened to weaken the bank0s competitive -his truth was not apparent to managers of one regional position with respect to other regional banks .=B> -hey conceived of their own ethnicity as being primordial in nature.> -hey organi!ed formal community groups designed to promote a renaissance of ethnic history and culture. =. "or did they analy!e their service improvement to (20) determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would e2cite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. 'f a company is already effectively on a 1. -he bank managers did not recogni!e the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. investments in service are comparable to investments in production and distribution in terms of the Passage 63 =(> tangibility of the benefits that they tend to confer -he fact that superior service can generate a competitive =B> increased revenues that they ultimately produce advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt =C> basis on which they need to be weighed at improving service will create such an advantage. =?> -hey de-emphasi!ed the cultural components of their communities in favor of political interests. bank. tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues.> degree of competitive advantage that they are likely (5) must be balanced against other types of investments on the to provide basis of direct. =C> -hey created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin.
C 1.BC.%.).=C> 't had already been improved after having caused damage to the bank0s reputation in the past.CC(I.CB.+.? =C> 't demonstrates the kind of analysis that managers .. -he author uses the word 8only9 in line .C?C.( investment in service made in the first paragraph.B. A1.C?.?C(.BC?C(.B.??B(?.*...B(.CC?B? investment over another 11.CC( A%.?BCB?(? competitive advantage.> point out the limited duration of the actual service improvement 《《《《 EC(.?( +. certain aspects of service are more advantageous 1+. -he passage suggests that bank managers failed to consider whether or not the service improvement mentioned in line )* =(> was too complicated to be easily described to prospective customers =B> made a measurable change in the e2periences of customers in the bank0s offices =C> could be sustained if the number of customers increased significantly =?> was an innovation that competing banks could have imitated =..> was ade#uate to bring the bank0s general level of service to a level that was comparable with that of its competitors in order to =(> highlight the oddity of the service improvement =B> emphasi!e the relatively low value of the investment in service improvement =C> distinguish the primary attribute of the service improvement from secondary attributes =?> single out a certain merit of the service improvement from other merits =.(?.B..> 't provides an e2ample of the point about A).? .1.?C(?C?C( =(> 't describes an e2ceptional case in which )+.CBC( service at a time when investment is needed .B.BC. =?> 't was slightly superior to that of the bank0s regional competitors. =.BC..?B apply when they choose one kind of service 1).?(.1 most likely A+.?..( B. investment in service actually failed to produce a )*.(.?BCB(.B whole@ )%.?(C.BC(C(C more urgently in another area.B(B?BCB =?> 't supports the argument that investments in 1%.. =.> 't needed to be improved to attain parity with the service provided by competing banks.?(B %. 1*. A.B.?. . -he discussion of the regional bank =line )1-.BC.A> serves )).C?BB?C *. .《《《《《《《 《 ).??C?C?.C(CB.?(BB %..C.CB(C.C(CB which of the following functions within the passage as a )1.(?CB(( than investments in other aspects of service.C( =B> 't illustrates the pitfalls of choosing to invest in .(CCB..
.(CBBC?B )/.B..CB.C( .(( %+.((C AA.B?(..BC(?.CB. A.CB.B .(?CCCBB.(B?BCC?.??BCBC.???(?.(BC.C B1.B(C((.(.CBC?(( A&.B(?B(C.BB( ).B((.??BC( . %*.(?B(.B ..??C( %).? )A.?.BB???C? 1&.C?( %%..C.?C )&.B??( .C??(.C?B( /.BCCC(BB? 1A..C(C? A/..B?.&.(BC?? )B....?.(..C??B(CC 1B.? 1.A..?BCB(B( B.CB..A*./.C?BC(B %1.C(?((CB .BC B)..(?B.BCBC? A.B(CB?(C? AB.C?.(C(?.(B .B? 1/.
CBB..C?.?B B&.B %.(C B.?(?BC %/.B(BB?.%&... %B.?C(C.B?B??C( .??C.B. %A.
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