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INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION

HYDROGRAPHIC DICTIONARY
Part I Volume I, English

Special Publication No. 32

FIFTH EDITION

MONACO 1994

600-XII-1994

S-32

INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION

HYDROGRAPHIC DICTIONARY
Part I Volume I, English

Special Publication No. 32

FIFTH EDITION

MONACO 1994

PREFACE
The preparation of the Fifth Edition of the Hydrographic Dictionary was undertaken by a Working Group established in accordance with the Bureau's Circular Letter CL 45/1984 of 13 December 1984. The Working Group was comprised of staff members of the Hydrographic Offices of Argentina, Croatia (associate member), France, and the United States of America (NOS). It carried out its work under the chairmanship of Captain H.-P. Rohde, IHB. The Hydrographic Dictionary is published in two parts. Part I contains terms and definitions in the two official IHO languages and is published in separate volumes for each language. The definitions are intended to give concise explanations of terms, without necessarily considering specific applications or interpretations as, for example, for legal matters. Definitions of terms in Part I which were taken from publications of other authorities, are given without quoting these authorities. Other IHO publications containing glossaries were consulted to ensure consistency. Part II will consist of separate supplements that provide a translation of the terms into various languages other than the official IHO languages. In each supplement, the terms will be listed alphabetically in English, with their equivalent in the other language, but without a translation of the definition. Each supplement will also contain an alphabetical listing of the terms in the other language, giving the relevant index number of the term in the English volume of Part I. The English text in Volume I of this Dictionary has been modified to ensure maximum agreement with the French text and also to take into account certain more recent sources which have become available since the date of the Fourth Edition. Valuable advice has been received from the Hydrographic Offices of a number of Member States and from other users of the Hydrographic Dictionary which sent the Bureau lists of proposed amendments to the 1990, Fourth Edition. __________

INTRODUCTION

Terms and expressions are listed alphabetically in English, according to standard dictionary practice, and assigned index numbers to be used as reference for the translation of terms from one language to another. The definitions are given in English, one of the two official languages of the IHO. The work is cross-referenced in the following manner: a) Most of the terms and expressions appearing in the definitions when defined under another heading are printed in capital letters. Terms or expressions consisting of several words may be listed under a heading with a different word order. In some cases reference is only made to the generic term. b) Attention is drawn to related terms by the words 'see', or 'see also' followed by the term (in capital letters). c) When synonyms exist, they are usually given at the end of a definition and printed in italics.

Abbreviations adj. adv. n. v.t. v.i. pl. adjective adverb noun verb transitive verb intransitive plural

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A
1 2 abeam. In a line approximately at right angles to the ship's keel; also: the waist or middle part of the ship. aberration of light. In ASTRONOMY, the apparent displacement in position of a HEAVENLY BODY caused by the combination of the VELOCITY of light and that of an observer on the surface of the EARTH. Aberration of light due to the ROTATION of the EARTH on its AXIS is termed diurnal aberration. That due to the REVOLUTION of the EARTH around the SUN is termed annual aberration. In optics, failure of an OPTICAL SYSTEM to bring all LIGHT RAYS received from a point object to a single IMAGE POINT or to a prescribed geometric position. Spherical aberration is caused by RAYS from various zones of a LENS or MIRROR coming to FOCUS at different distances from the LENS or MIRROR. Chromatic aberration (or chromatism) is due to the differences in REFRACTION of the coloured RAYS of the SPECTRUM; those of each colour having a different FOCUS. abrasion. The wearing away or rounding of surfaces by friction. abscissa. See COORDINATES: PLANE RECTANGULAR. absolute accuracy. See ACCURACY: ABSOLUTE. absolute error. See ERROR. absolute orientation. See ORIENTATION. absolute stereoscopic parallax. See PARALLAX. absorption: atmospheric. Transformation of RADIANT ENERGY into thermal, mechanical, electrical, etc. energy, by interaction with atmospheric constituents. abyssal(adj.). Belonging to the lowest DEPTHS of the OCEAN, generally below 3,700 METRES (2,000 FATHOMS). abyssal gap. A gap in a sill, ridge, or rise that lies between two abyssal plains. abyssal hills. A tract of small elevations on the deep-sea floor. abyssal plain. An extensive, flat, gently sloping or nearly level region at abyssal depths. acceleration. The rate of change of VELOCITY. acceleration: angular. The rate of change of ANGULAR VELOCITY. acceleration of gravity. The ACCELERATION of a freely falling body caused by the force of GRAVITY. accidental error. See ERROR. acclivity. An upward SLOPE of GROUND; as opposed to DECLIVITY. accommodation. The faculty of the human eye to adjust itself to give sharp IMAGES for different object distances. In STEREOSCOPY, the ability of the eyes to bring two IMAGES into superimposition for stereoscopic viewing. accretion. The gradual building up of LAND over a long period of time, solely by the action of the forces of nature, on a BEACH by deposition of water or air-borne material. Artificial accretion is a similar build-up of LAND by reason of an act of man. Also called aggradation. accuracy. The extent to which a measured or enumerated value agrees with the assumed or accepted value. See PRECISION. accuracy: absolute. The evaluation of all errors encountered in defining the position of a single feature or point on a GEODETIC DATUM or system. accuracy: relative. The evaluation of the RANDOM ERRORS in determining the positional orientation of one point or feature with respect to another. accuracy: repeatable. See REPEATABLE ACCURACY.

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achromat. See ACHROMATIC LENS. achromatic lens. A compound LENS that has been partly corrected for chromatic aberration. Such a LENS is customarily made to bring green and red LIGHT RAYS to approximately the same point focus. Also called achromat. See ABERRATION OF LIGHT. aclinic line. See EQUATOR: MAGNETIC. acoustic. Science of sound, including its production, transmission and effects. acoustic bearing. See BEARING: SONIC. acoustic line of position. See SONIC LINE OF POSITION. acoustic navigation. See NAVIGATION: SONIC. acoustic sounding. See ECHO SOUNDING. acoustic wave. See WAVE: SOUND. active satellite. 1. An artificial satellite which transmits an electromagnetic signal. A satellite with the capability to transmit, repeat, or retransmit electromagnetic information as contrasted with passive satellite. 2. As defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), an earth satellite carrying a station intended to transmit or retransmit radiocommunication signals. active system. Any electromagnetic or sonic position fixing system operating with an interrogation-response procedure. See also PASSIVE SYSTEM. active tracking system. A satellite system which operates by transmission of signals to and receipt of responses from the satellite. adiabatic process. A thermodynamic change of state of a system in which there is no transfer of heat or mass across the BOUNDARIES of the system. In an adiabatic process, compression always results in warming, expansion in cooling. adiabatic temperature change. RISE or fall of temperature due to compression or expansion without gain or loss of heat to the surroundings. adjacent coasts. The coasts lying either side of the land boundary between two adjoining States. adjusted position. See POSITION. adjustment. The determination and application of CORRECTIONS to OBSERVATIONS or MEASUREMENTS, for the purpose of reducing ERRORS or removing internal inconsistencies in observed results. Adjustment may either refer to mathematical procedures or to CORRECTIONS applied to instruments. aerial. See ANTENNA. aerial camera. See CAMERA. aerial navigation. See NAVIGATION: AIR. aerial photogrammetry. See PHOTOGRAMMETRY. aerial photograph. See PHOTOGRAPHY. aerial photography. See PHOTOGRAPHY. aerial survey. See SURVEY. aerial triangulation. See PHOTOTRIANGULATION. aerology. Study of the FREE ATMOSPHERE. aeromarine light. See LIGHT.

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aeronautical beacon. See BEACON. aeronautical chart. See CHART. aeronautical ground light. See LIGHT. aeronomy. Term proposed for the study of the chemistry and physics of the high ATMOSPHERE. aerotriangulation. See PHOTOTRIANGULATION. affluent. A STREAM flowing into a larger STREAM or LAKE; a TRIBUTARY. afloat. Floating, as opposed to being AGROUND. age of diurnal inequality. The time interval between the maximum semi-monthly north or south declination of the moon and the maximum effect of the declination upon the range of tide or the speed of the tidal current, this effect being manifested chiefly by an increase in the height or speed difference between the two high (low) waters or flood (ebb) currents during the day. The tides occurring at this time are called TROPIC TIDES. Also called diurnal age. age of parallax inequality. The time interval between perigee of the moon and the maximum effect of parallax upon the RANGE OF TIDE or the speed of the TIDAL CURRENT. age of phase inequality. The time interval between new or full moon and the maximum effect of these phases upon the range of tide or the speed of the tidal current. age of the moon. The elapsed time since the last new moon; usually expressed in DAYS and fractions of a DAY. See PHASES OF THE MOON. age of tide. See AGE OF PHASE INEQUALITY. agger. See TIDE: DOUBLE. aggradation. See ACCRETION. agonic line. The line through all points on the EARTH's surface at which the MAGNETIC VARIATION is zero. aground(adj. and adv.). Touching, resting or lodged on the BOTTOM of shallow water. The opposite is AFLOAT. ahead. Bearing approximately 000 relative. The term is often used loosely for dead ahead or bearing exactly 000 relative. The opposite is ASTERN. aid to navigation. BUOYS, BEACONS, FOG SIGNALS, LIGHTS, RADIO BEACONS, LEADING MARKS, radio position fixing systems, and generally any charted or otherwise published device serving the interests of safe NAVIGATION. See NAVIGATIONAL AID. aiming line. See COLLIMATION: LINE OF. air almanac. See under ALMANAC. air base. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the line joining two AIR STATIONS, or the length of this line; also, the distance (at the SCALE of the STEREOSCOPIC MODEL) between adjacent PERSPECTIVE CENTRES as reconstructed in the plotting instrument. See also PHOTO BASE. air camera. A CAMERA specially designed for use in flying craft. air mass. Ensemble of air particles whose PATHS and physical properties exhibit, in the horizontal, only small and continuous differences. The mass may extend over an area of several million square miles and over a depth of several kilometres. air navigation. See NAVIGATION. air photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH: AERIAL. air photography. See PHOTOGRAPHY: AERIAL.

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air sextant. See SEXTANT. air speed. The SPEED of an aircraft relative to the surrounding ATMOSPHERE. As opposed to GROUND SPEED. air station. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the point in space occupied by the camera lens at the moment of EXPOSURE. Also called exposure station or camera station. albedo. The ratio of radiant energy reflected to that received by a surface, usually expressed as a percentage. alga. A plant of simple structure which grows chiefly in water, such as the various forms of seaweed. aliasing. An occurence in tidal analysis when the sea level varies with a period that is less than the sampling period. Due to the varying position of the samples on the curve, a spurious tidal frequency appears in the analysis. It is usually only possible when there is a seiche at the observation site or observations are taken at intervals greater than one hour. alidade. Pivoted sight bar that moves over a graduated arc. The upper part of a THEODOLITE. The alidade used in topographic SURVEYING consists of a straight-edge ruler carrying a TELESCOPE or other sighting device and used in recording a DIRECTION on the plane table sheet. The term is also used to describe a BEARING CIRCLE fitted with a TELESCOPE to facilitate OBSERVATION of BEARINGS. If a TELESCOPE is used, the instrument is often termed a telescopic alidade. alignment. The placing of objects along a straight line. In NAVIGATION, the bringing into line of two or more conspicuous objects, such as LIGHTS, BEACONS, etc. Also their BEARING as seen by an observer from seaward. alignment correction(tape). See TAPE: ALIGNMENT CORRECTION. alignment of base. The laying out of a BASE LINE in correct ALIGNMENT by means of a THEODOLITE and range poles, before the length of the line is measured. alkalinity. The number of milliequivalents of hydrogen ions that are neutralized by 1 KILOGRAM of SEA WATER at 20 C when a large excess of acid is added. almanac. A periodical publication of astronomical data useful to a navigator. It contains less information than an ephemeris, and values are generally given to less precision. If information is given in a form and to a precision suitable for air navigation, it is called an air almanac. almanac: air. A periodical publication containing various computed astronomical DATA primarily intended for use in AIR NAVIGATION. See also EPHEMERIS. almanac: nautical. An annual publication containing various computed astronomical DATA primarily intended for use in MARINE NAVIGATION. See also EPHEMERIS. almucantar. Any SMALL CIRCLE on the CELESTIAL SPHERE parallel to the HORIZON. Also called parallel of altitude. alphanumeric. Contraction of alphabetic-numeric. Characters including letters of the alphabet and numbers. alt-azimuth instrument. An instrument equipped with both horizontal and vertical graduated CIRCLEs, for the OBSERVATION of horizontal and vertical DIRECTIONS or angles. altimeter. An instrument that indicates directly the HEIGHT above a reference surface. altimeter: barometric. A sensitive ANEROID BAROMETER calibrated to read the HEIGHT above a pressure datum according to the standard atmospheric pressure-to-height relationship. altimeter: pulse radio. See ALTIMETER: RADIO. altimeter: radar. See ALTIMETER: RADIO. altimeter: radio. Any instrument used for determining an aircraft's flight altitude by the measurement of time intervals between the emission and return of electromagnetic PULSES. Also called pulse radio altimeter or radar altimeter. See ALTITUDE: FLIGHT.

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100 altimetry. The process of determining the difference of ELEVATION by the use of ALTIMETERS.

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101 altitude. The vertical distance of a LEVEL, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from a given datum, usually MEAN SEA LEVEL. See also ELEVATION. In ASTRONOMY, the vertical angle between the plane of the HORIZON and the line to a CELESTIAL BODY. See also ANGLE OF DEPRESSION and ANGLE OF ELEVATION. 102 altitude: apparent. The SEXTANT ALTITUDE of a CELESTIAL BODY corrected for INDEX ERROR, DIP (HEIGHT of EYE), and (for SUN or MOON only) SEMIDIAMETER. Also called rectified altitude. 103 altitude: ex-meridian. An ALTITUDE of a CELESTIAL BODY near the CELESTIAL MERIDIAN of the observer, to which a CORRECTION is to be applied to determine the MERIDIAN ALTITUDE. Also called circummeridian altitude. 104 altitude: flight. The vertical distance above a given DATUM, usually MEAN SEA LEVEL, or an aircraft in flight. 105 altitude: meridian. The ALTITUDE of a CELESTIAL BODY when it is on the CELESTIAL MERIDIAN of the observer. 106 altitude: observed. The SEXTANT ALTITUDE of a CELESTIAL BODY after all corrections (see ALTITUDE: APPARENT) have been applied. In American terminology the term is usually employed in the place of TRUE ALTITUDE. 107 altitude: rectified. See ALTITUDE: APPARENT. 108 altitude: sextant. The ALTITUDE as indicated by a SEXTANT before CORRECTIONS are applied. 109 altitude: true. The APPARENT ALTITUDE of a CELESTIAL BODY after all corrections have been applied. In American terminology usually referred to as OBSERVED ALTITUDE. 110 altitude difference. See INTERCEPT. 111 altocumulus. See CLOUD GENERA. 112 altostratus. See CLOUD GENERA. 113 aluminium sheet. An aluminium-mounted paper sheet occasionally used for BOAT-SHEETS, SMOOTH SHEETS, or plane table boards. 114 ambient noise. The erratic electromagnetic or sonic background noise emitted by natural or artificial sources contaminating the proper signal. 115 ambiguity. Uncertainty of value or meaning because of the possibility of two or more interpretations. The condition when navigational COORDINATES define more than one POSITION, DIRECTION, LINE OF POSITION, or SURFACE OF POSITION. 116 Amici prism. A prism which deviates the RAYS of light through 90and because of its shape inverts the IMAGE. See ROOF PRISM. 117 amidships. At, near, or toward the middle of a ship. 118 ampere. The unit of density of electric current in the SI SYSTEM. 119 amphidromic point. A no-tide point, from which COTIDAL LINES radiate. 120 amplitude. In ASTRONOMY, the arc of the HORIZON, between a CELESTIAL BODY at rising or setting and true east or west point. In tide terminology, the semi-range of the HARMONIC CONSTITUENT. In physics, the maximum departure of a WAVE or other periodic PHENOMENON from the average or zero position. 121 amplitude modulation. See MODULATION. 122 anaglyph. A STEREOGRAM in which the two views are printed or projected superimposed in complementary colours, usually red and green. By viewing through filter spectacles of corresponding complementary colours a STEREOSCOPIC IMAGE is formed. 123 anaglyphic map. See under MAP.

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124 analemma. A SCALE of the SUN's daily DECLINATION drawn from TROPIC OF CANCER to TROPIC OF CAPRICORN on TERRESTRIAL GLOBES. An ORTHOGRAPHICAL PROJECTION of the sphere made on the plane of the MERIDIAN, the eye being supposed to be an infinite distance and in the east or west point of the HORIZON. 125 anallatic lens. A convergent LENS fitted between the OBJECTIVE LENS and the DIAPHRAGM of TELESCOPES of instruments for direct measurements of distances between the OPTICAL CENTRE of the instrument and a graduated staff called STADIA. 126 analogue. The way of representing information by continuous data. 127 analogue computer. See under COMPUTER. 128 analytical (or analytic) photogrammetry. See under PHOTOGRAMMETRY. 129 anastigmatic(adj.). Free from ASTIGMATISM. Corrected for ASTIGMATISM. 130 anchorage. An area in which vessels anchor or may anchor. 131 anchorage buoy(s). BUOY(S) marking the limits of an ANCHORAGE. 132 anchor buoy. A BUOY marking the position of an anchor. 133 anchor ice. ICE which is attached to the BOTTOM, irrespective of the nature of its formation. Also called bottom ice, depth ice, ground ice, lappened ice and underwater ice. 134 anemometer. Instrument used in the measurement of wind speed or of wind speed and direction. See also ANEMOGRAPH. 135 anemogram. Record of the ANEMOGRAPH. 136 anemograph. An instrument which records WIND speed and direction. See also ANEMOMETER. 137 aneroid barometer. See BAROMETER. 138 aneroid capsule. Metallic capsule, of thin sides, partially evacuated by a fixed amount, carrying an arrangement to prevent its collapsing under ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, and whose shape changes in accordance with changes of this pressure. 139 angle: check. See CHECK ANGLE. 140 angle: concluded. In a TRIANGULATION, the third angle of a triangle, not measured, but computed from the other two angles. 141 angle: conversion. See ARC TO CHORD CORRECTION. 142 angle: crossing. The angle at which two LINES OF POSITION intersect. Also called angle of cut. 143 angle: danger. See DANGER ANGLE. 144 angle: drift. See DRIFT ANGLE. 145 angle: hour. See HOUR ANGLE. 146 angle: masthead. See MASTHEAD ANGLE. 147 angle: parallactic. See PARALLACTIC ANGLE. 148 angle: phase. See PHASE ANGLE. 149 angle: slope. See SLOPE ANGLE. 150 angle: vectorial. See COORDINATES: PLANE POLAR and COORDINATES: POLAR. 151 angle of convergence. See PARALLACTIC ANGLE.

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152 angle of cut. See ANGLE: CROSSING. 153 angle of depression. The angle in the VERTICAL PLANE between the horizontal and the line to an object below the HORIZON. Also called negative altitude. 154 angle of elevation. The angle in the VERTICAL PLANE between the horizontal and the line to an object above the HORIZON. Also called positive altitude. 155 angle of incidence. The angle between the line of motion of a RAY and the perpendicular to a surface at the point of impingement. 156 angle of reflection. The angle between the line of motion of a reflected RAY and the perpendicular to a surface at the point of REFLECTION. 157 angle of refraction. The angle between a refracted RAY and the perpendicular to the refraction surface. 158 angstroem. A unit of length, used especially in expressing the length of light waves, equal to one ten-thousandth of a 8 MICRON or one hundred-millionth of a centimetre (1 x 10- cm). 159 angular acceleration. See ACCELERATION. 160 angular distance. The angular difference between two directions, numerically equal to the angle between two lines extending in the given directions. The arc of the GREAT CIRCLE joining two points, expressed in angular units. 161 angular distortion. See DISTORTION. 162 angular parallax. See PARALLACTIC ANGLE. 163 angular rate. See SPEED: ANGULAR. 164 angular speed. See SPEED. 165 angular velocity. See SPEED: ANGULAR. 166 annotation. Any marking on illustrative material for the purpose of clarification, such as numbers, letters, symbols, and signs. 167 annual aberration. See ABERRATION OF LIGHT. 168 annual change. See MAGNETIC ANNUAL CHANGE. 169 annual inequality. Seasonal variation in water level or tidal current speed, more or less periodic, due chiefly to meteorological causes. 170 annual parallax. See PARALLAX. 171 annual variation. See MAGNETIC ANNUAL VARIATION. 172 annular eclipse. See ECLIPSE. 173 anomalistic month. See MONTH. 174 anomalistic year. See YEAR. 175 anomaly. Deviation from the normal or natural characteristics of a PHENOMENON. Abnormality. In ASTRONOMY, true anomaly is the angle at the SUN between lines connecting the SUN with a PLANET and with the PLANET's PERIHELION. Mean anomaly and eccentric anomaly are also considered. 176 anomaly: gravity. See GRAVITY ANOMALY, BOUGUER ANOMALY, FREE AIR ANOMALY, ISOSTATIC ANOMALY. 177 anomaly: magnetic. See LOCAL MAGNETIC DISTURBANCE. 178 Antarctic circle. The GEOGRAPHIC PARALLEL having a south LATITUDE equal to the complement of the o DECLINATION of the WINTER SOLSTICE (lat. = 66 33' S app.).

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179 antenna. A conductor or system of conductors for radiating or receiving RADIO WAVES. Also called aerial. 180 antenna: directional. An ANTENNA for transmitting or receiving SIGNALS in, or from, a given direction. 181 antenna: omnidirectional. An ANTENNA having essentially uniform response in AZIMUTH and a directional pattern in ELEVATION. 182 antenna: screened. Any ANTENNA which is screened in some way to counteract disturbances. 183 antenna: unidirectional. An ANTENNA having a single well-defined direction of maximum radiation intensity or maximum GAIN. 184 anthelion. Pure white, rounded spot, but sometimes iridescent or surrounded by coloured rings or arcs, which appears on very rare occasions opposite the SUN and at the same HEIGHT above the HORIZON. 185 anticline. An arch of stratified ROCK in which the LAYERS bend downward in opposite directions from the CREST. 186 anticyclone. Region of the ATMOSPHERE where the pressure is high relative to the surrounding region at the same LEVEL. It is represented on a SYNOPTIC CHART by a system of ISOBARS at a specified LEVEL or of CONTOURS at a specified pressure which enclose relatively high values of pressure or LEVEL. Also called high. 187 antimeridian. The MERIDIAN which is 180 of LONGITUDE from a given MERIDIAN. One MERIDIAN with its antimeridian constitute a complete GREAT CIRCLE. 188 antipode(s). Place(s) on the surface of the EARTH directly opposite to each other. 189 antiselena. Luminous PHENOMENON analogous to ANTHELION, the luminary being the MOON. 190 anti-trade. Air current with a westerly component which in various subtropical regions of either hemisphere sometimes blows above the TRADE WIND. 191 aperture: relative. For a photographic or telescopic LENS, the ratio of the EQUIVALENT FOCAL LENGTH to the diameter of the ENTRANCE PUPIL. Expressed as f: 4.5; also called f-number, f-stop, or speed of lens. 192 aperture of antenna. The diameter of a reflector antenna, usually expressed in units of WAVE LENGTH. 193 aperture stop. The physical element (such as a DIAPHRAGM, or lens periphery) of an OPTICAL SYSTEM which limits the size of the PENCIL of RAYS traversing the system. Also called the stop. Diameter of that part of the LENS actually used. 194 apex. The top, PEAK, or highest point of something, as of a MOUNTAIN. See also VERTEX. 195 apex: solar. The point of the CELESTIAL SPHERE towards which the SOLAR SYSTEM as a whole is moving. It lies in the CONSTELLATION of Hercules. 196 aphelion. That orbital point farthest from the SUN when the SUN is the centre of attraction, as opposed to PERIHELION. 197 aphotic(adj.). Without light. 198 apochromatic lens. A LENS that has been corrected for CHROMATIC ABERRATION for at least three colours. 199 apogean tide(s). See under TIDE. 200 apogee. That orbital point farthest from the EARTH when the EARTH is the centre of attraction, as opposed to PERIGEE. 201 apparent altitude. See ALTITUDE: APPARENT. 202 apparent horizon. See HORIZON. 203 apparent motion. See RELATIVE MOTION. 204 apparent noon. See NOON.
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205 apparent position. See POSITION. 206 apparent precession. Apparent change in the direction of the axis of rotation of a spinning body, as a GYROSCOPE, due to the ROTATION of the EARTH. 207 apparent shoreline. The seaward limit of marine vegetation, such as mangrove, marsh grass, or trees in water that would reasonably appear to the mariner from a distance to be the fast shoreline. The seaward limit of kelp, low grass in water, and other low-lying vegetation normally does not constitute an apparent shoreline. A line drawn on the chart in lieu of the mean high water line or the mean water level line in areas where either may be obscured by marsh, mangrove, cypress, or other type of marine vegetation. This line represents the intersection of the appropriate datum with the outer limits of vegetation and appears to the navigator as shoreline. 208 apparent solar day. See DAY: SOLAR. 209 apparent solar time. See TIME. 210 apparent sun. See SUN. 211 apparent time. See TIME: APPARENT SOLAR. 212 apparent wind. See RELATIVE WIND. 213 approximate position. A position that is considered to be less than third-order accuracy, but is generally considered to be within 100 feet (30.5 metres) of its correct geographic location. The method of location may be an indication of the recorded accuracy. 214 apron. 1. A gently dipping featureless surface, underlain primarily by SEDIMENT, at the base of any steeper SLOPE. 2. The area of wharf or quay for handling cargo. 3. A sloping underwater extension of an iceberg. 4. An outwash plain along the front of a glacier. 215 apsis(pl. apsides). See LINE OF APSIDES. 216 arc: astronomical. The apparent arc described above (diurnal arc) or below (nocturnal arc) the HORIZON by the SUN or another CELESTIAL BODY. 217 archipelagic apron. A gentle SLOPE with a generally smooth surface on the SEA FLOOR, particularly found around groups of ISLANDS or SEAMOUNTS. 218 archipelagic baseline(s). See BASELINE. 219 archipelagic sea lane. Sea lanes designated by an ARCHIPELAGIC STATE for the passage of ships and aircraft. 220 archipelagic state. A State constituted wholly by one or more archipelagos, eventually including other islands. 221 archipelagic waters. The waters enclosed by ARCHIPELAGIC BASELINES. 222 archipelago. A group of ISLANDS. 223 arc of triangulation. See TRIANGULATION: ARC OF. 224 arc of visibility. The arc of a LIGHT SECTOR designated by its limiting BEARINGS in which a LIGHT is visible as viewed from a vessel. 225 Arctic circle. The GEOGRAPHICAL PARALLEL having a north latitude equal to the complement of the o DECLINATION of the SUMMER SOLSTICE (lat. = 66 33' N app.). 226 arc to chord correction. The quantity used by seamen to correct a GREAT CIRCLE BEARING of a point B from a point A to a MERCATOR BEARING, and usually referred to as the half convergency. On the MERCATOR PROJECTION, this quantity is equal to half the convergency, on the SPHEROID, of the MERIDIANS through the two points being considered. Also called conversion angle. See CONVERGENCE OF THE MERIDIANS. 227 Area. In United Nations Law of the Sea terminology the sea-bed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

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228 area clearance. The effective depth, within specified limits, obtained by a WIRE DRAG SURVEY. 229 area to be avoided. A routing measure comprising an area within defined limits in which either navigation is particularly hazardous or it is exceptionally important to avoid casualties and which should be avoided by all ships, or certain classes of ships. 230 area survey. A method of BOTTOM RELIEF SURVEY consisting of surveying overlapping strips which allow soundings to be obtained with a specified accuracy at any position of the area under survey. 231 argillaceous(adj.). Applied to all ROCKS or SEDIMENTS composed partly or completely of CLAY. 232 arming. Tallow or other substance placed in the recess at the lower end of a SOUNDING LEAD for obtaining a sample of the BOTTOM. See BOTTOM SAMPLE. 233 arm of the sea. A narrow portion of the SEA projecting from the main body. The expression is often shortened to 'arm'. 234 array(s). The order in which equipment (antenna, oceanographic equipment) or mathematical quantities are ordered. 235 articulated beacon. A vertical pipe structure that oscillates around a universal coupling connected to a sinker. The structure is kept upright by the buoyancy of a submerged floating chamber. Primarily designed to mark narrow channels with greater precision than conventional buoys. 236 articulated light. See ARTICULATED BEACON. 237 artificial horizon. See HORIZON. 238 artificial intelligence. 1. The capability of a device to perform functions that are normally associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and self-improvement. 2. Research and study in methods for the development of a machine that can improve its own operations. The development or capability of a machine that can proceed or perform functions that are normally associated with human intelligence, as learning, adapting, reasoning, self-correction, automatic improvement. 3. The study of computer and related techniques to supplement the intellectual capabilities of man. As man has invented and used tools to increase his physical powers, he now is beginning to use artificial intelligence to increase his mental powers. In a more restricted sense, the study of techniques for more effective use of digital computers by improved programming techniques. 239 artificial installation. See INSTALLATION OFFSHORE. 240 artificial island. See INSTALLATION OFFSHORE. 241 artificial satellite. See SATELLITE. 242 ascending node. See NODE. 243 ashore(adj. and adv.). On the SHORE, on LAND or AGROUND. 244 assumed position. See POSITION. 245 astenosphere. See MANTLE. 246 astern. Bearing approximately 180relative. The term is often used loosely for DEAD ASTERN, or bearing exactly 180 relative. The opposite is AHEAD. 247 asteroid. One of the many small PLANETS revolving around the SUN, most of the ORBITS being between those of Mars and Jupiter. Also called PLANETOID or MINOR PLANET. 248 astigmatism. An aberration affecting the sharpness of IMAGES for objects off the AXIS, in which the RAYS passing through different meridians of the LENS come to FOCUS in different planes. 249 astro compass. See under COMPASS. 250 astrolabe. An instrument formerly used for measuring ALTITUDES of CELESTIAL BODIES. See ASTROLABE: PRISMATIC.

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251 astrolabe: prismatic. An ASTROLABE consisting of a TELESCOPE in a horizontal position, with a prism and ARTIFICIAL HORIZON attached at its objective end, used for determining ASTRONOMIC POSITIONS. 252 astrometry. That branch of ASTRONOMY dealing with the determination of POSITIONS and motions of CELESTIAL BODIES, including the EARTH. 253 astronautics. The science of locomotion and travel outside the EARTH's ATMOSPHERE, involving the problems of ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES and of interplanetary journeys. 254 astro-navigation. See NAVIGATION: CELESTIAL. 255 astronomic(al) arc. See ARC. 256 astronomic(al) azimuth. See AZIMUTH. 257 astronomic(al) control. See CONTROL. 258 astronomic(al) day. See DAY. 259 astronomic(al) equator. See EQUATOR. 260 astronomic(al) latitude. See LATITUDE. 261 astronomic(al) longitude. See LONGITUDE. 262 astronomic(al) meridian. See MERIDIAN. 263 astronomic(al) observation(s). See OBSERVATION. 264 astronomic(al) parallel. See PARALLEL. 265 astronomic(al) position. See POSITION. 266 astronomic(al) refraction. See REFRACTION. 267 astronomic(al) station. See STATION. 268 astronomic(al) tide. See TIDE. 269 astronomic(al) time. See TIME. 270 astronomic(al) transit. See TRANSIT. 271 astronomic(al) traverse. See TRAVERSE. 272 astronomic(al) triangle. The triangle on the CELESTIAL SPHERE formed by arcs of GREAT CIRCLES connecting the CELESTIAL POLE, the ZENITH and the CELESTIAL BODY. Also called navigational triangle. 273 astronomic(al) twilight. See TWILIGHT. 274 astronomic(al) year. See YEAR: TROPICAL. 275 astronomy. The science which deals with the size, constitution, motions, RELATIVE POSITIONS, etc. of CELESTIAL BODIES, including the EARTH. See also ASTROMETRY. 276 astronomy: geodetic. ASTRONOMY as applied to GEODESY. 277 astronomy: nautical (or navigational). ASTRONOMY as applied to NAVIGATION. 278 atlas. A collection of CHARTS or MAPS to be kept (loose or bound) in a volume. 279 atmosphere. Gaseous envelope which surrounds the EARTH. The gaseous envelope surrounding any STAR, PLANET, etc. A unit of pressure, equal to the pressure exerted per square centimetre by a column of mercury 760 mm high at a 2 temperature of 0 C when the ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY is 980.665 centimetres per SECOND .

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280 atmosphere: free. That part of the ATMOSPHERE above the FRICTION LAYER, in which the air motion is affected to a negligible degree by surface friction. 281 atmosphere: ICAO. STANDARD ATMOSPHERE adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Its o main features are mean sea-level pressure of 1013.25 mb, and a temperature lapse rate of 6.5 C/km from surface to the TROPOPAUSE situated at 11 km. 282 atmosphere: standard. Conventional reference atmosphere, chosen to represent in a simple way the approximate average condition in the VERTICAL. 283 atmospheric. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE resulting from an electric discharge (LIGHTNING) in the ATMOSPHERE. 284 atmospheric drag. A major perturbation of close artificial satellite orbits by the resistance of the atmosphere. 285 atmospheric pressure. See PRESSURE. 286 atmospheric refraction. See REFRACTION. 287 atmospheric window. The region in the radiation spectrum containing wavelengths between 8.5 and 11 micrometers, which are not absorbed to any great extent by atmospheric gases. In the absence of cloud, terrestrial radiation of this wavelength is lost to space, enabling the cooling of the earth to take place. Other narrower wavebands also do not absorb long-wave radiation, but these are of less importance in this context. 288 atoll. A coral ISLAND consisting of a ring-shaped REEF nearly or entirely surrounding a central LAGOON. 289 atom. The smallest particle of an element which can enter into a chemical combination. 290 atomic clock. See CLOCK. 291 Atomic Time: International. The time reference coordinate established by the Bureau International de l'Heure on the basis of atomic clocks. 292 attenuation. A lessening in amount, particularly the reduction of the AMPLITUDE of a WAVE or the intensity of light or SOUND with distance from the origin. 293 audiofrequency. A FREQUENCY within the audible RANGE, about 20 to 20.000 CYCLES per SECOND. Also called sonic frequency. 294 aurora. Luminous PHENOMENON which appears in the high ATMOSPHERE, mainly in high LATITUDES, in the form of RAYS, arcs, bands, draperies, or CORONA. Also called polar aurora. 295 aurora australis. AURORA of the southern hemisphere. 296 aurora borealis. AURORA of the northern hemisphere. 297 autocollimator. See COLLIMATOR. 298 automated cartography. The performance of cartographic functions in a fully automatic mode. 299 automatic floating station. A BUOY equipped with instruments automatically recording oceanographic and meteorological DATA. Also called automatic buoy. 300 automatic gain control. A circuit which automatically maintains a constant output volume regardless of input signal strength. Also called automatic volume control. 301 automatic plotter. See PLOTTER. 302 automatic tide gauge. See GAUGE: TIDE. 303 automatic volume control. See AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL. 304 automation. The technique of improving human productivity in the processing of materials, energy and information, by utilizing in various degrees elements of automatic CONTROL, and of automatically executed product programming.

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305 autopositive. A material which gives a positive copy from a positive TRANSPARENCY (or a negative from a negative) by direct processing. 306 autumnal equinox. See EQUINOX. 307 avulsion. Rapid EROSION of shoreland by WAVES during a STORM. 308 awash (adj. and adv.). Flush with, or washed by the WAVES. 309 axis. The line, real or imaginary, about which something centres or revolves. 310 axis: horizontal. In a THEODOLITE or TRANSIT, the AXIS about which the TELESCOPE of the instrument rotates when moved vertically. Also called trunnion axis, or transit axis. 311 axis: optical. See AXIS OF LENS. 312 axis: polar. In a system of POLAR or SPHERICAL COORDINATES, the primary AXIS of DIRECTION. 313 axis: principal. See AXIS OF LENS. 314 axis: trunnion. See AXIS: HORIZONTAL. 315 axis: vertical. In a THEODOLITE or TRANSIT, the line through the centre of the instrument about which the ALIDADE rotates. 316 axis of camera. A line perpendicular to the FOCAL PLANE of the CAMERA and passing through the emergent nodal point of the LENS SYSTEM. Also called camera axis. See NODAL POINT. 317 axis of channel. The centre line of a CHANNEL. See also TALWEG. 318 axis of collimation. See COLLIMATION AXIS. 319 axis of homology. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the intersection of the plane of the PHOTOGRAPH with the horizontal plane of the MAP or the plane of reference of the GROUND. Corresponding lines in the PHOTOGRAPH and map planes intersect on the axis of homology. Also called the axis of perspective, or map parallel. 320 axis of lens. The straight line which passes through the centres of curvature of the lens surfaces. Also called principal axis, optical axis or lens axis. 321 axis of optical system. The line formed by the coinciding principal axes of the series of optical elements. 322 axis of perspective. See AXIS OF HOMOLOGY. 323 axis of spirit level. The line tangent to the surface of a spirit level tube against which the bubble forms, at the centre of the graduated SCALE of the LEVEL, and in the plane of the tube and its centre of curvature. Also called level axis or spirit level axis. 324 axis of tilt. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a line through the PERSPECTIVE CENTRE perpendicular to the PRINCIPAL PLANE. 325 azimuth. A horizontal angle reckoned clockwise from the meridian. The horizontal direction of a celestial point from a terrestrial point, expressed as the angular distance from a reference direction. It is usually measured from 000 at the reference direction clockwise through 360 . An azimuth is often designated as true, magnetic, compass, grid, or relative as the reference direction is true, magnetic, compass, or grid north, or heading, respectively. Unless otherwise specified, the term is generally understood to apply to true azimuth which may be further defined as the arc of the horizon, or the angle at the zenith, between the north part of the celestial meridian or principal vertical circle and a vertical circle, measured from 000 at the north part of the principal vertical circle clockwise through 360 . When the angle is measured in either direction from north or south, and labelled accordingly, it is properly called azimuth angle; when measured either direction from east or west, and labeled accordingly, it is called AMPLITUDE. 326 azimuth (of a celestial body). The angle between the observer's MERIDIAN and the VERTICAL CIRCLE through the body, measured in the plane of the HORIZON. There is no universally accepted manner of reckoning the AZIMUTHS. Quadrantal, half-circle, and whole-circle methods are being used. In the latter, the AZIMUTH is measured preferably clockwise from north. See also AZIMUTH ANGLE.

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327 azimuth: astronomic(al). The angle between the astronomic meridian plane of the observer and the plane containing the observed point and the VERTICAL of the observer. 328 azimuth: astronomic(al) determination of. The determination of the AZIMUTH of a line or BASE LINE by ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 329 azimuth: back. An AZIMUTH 180 from a given AZIMUTH. In GEODESY, the DIRECTION of the line BA as distinguished from the forward azimuth AB. The two differ by 180 plus the amount of CONVERGENCE OF THE MERIDIANS between points A and B. Also called reverse azimuth. See AZIMUTH: GEODETIC. 330 azimuth: forward. See AZIMUTH: GEODETIC. 331 azimuth: geodetic. For the GEODESIC LINE from A to B, the angle between the tangent to the MERIDIAN at A and the tangent to the GEODESIC LINE at A. This AZIMUTH is called the forward azimuth for the line AB. See AZIMUTH: BACK. 332 azimuth: grid. The angle in the plane of PROJECTION between a straight line and the Y-AXIS of a PLANERECTANGULAR COORDINATE system. See BEARING: GRID. 333 azimuth: Laplace. A GEODETIC AZIMUTH derived from an ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH by means of the LAPLACE EQUATION. 334 azimuth: magnetic. At the point of OBSERVATION, the angle between the VERTICAL PLANE through the observed object and the VERTICAL PLANE in which a freely suspended symmetrically magnetized NEEDLE, influenced by no transient artificial magnetic disturbance, will come to rest. 335 azimuth: reverse. See AZIMUTH: BACK. 336 azimuth: true. AZIMUTH relative to TRUE NORTH. 337 azimuthal equidistant projection. See PROJECTION. 338 azimuthal orthomorphic projection. See PROJECTION: STEREOGRAPHIC. 339 azimuthal projection. See PROJECTION. 340 azimuth angle. AZIMUTH measured from 0at the north or south reference direction clockwise or counter-clockwise through 90or 180 . It is labelled with the REFERENCE DIRECTION as a prefix and the DIRECTION of measurement from the REFERENCE DIRECTION as a suffix. 341 azimuth circle. See BEARING CIRCLE. 342 azimuth diagram. A DIAGRAM for obtaining graphically rather than by computation the AZIMUTHS of observed CELESTIAL BODIES. 343 azimuth mark. A MARK set at a significant distance from a TRIANGULATION or TRAVERSE STATION to mark the end of a line for which the AZIMUTH has been determined, and to serve as a starting or reference azimuth for later use.
o

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B
344 back azimuth. See AZIMUTH. 345 backbeach. Also written as two words. See BACKSHORE. 346 backing wind. Counter-clockwise change of wind direction, in either hemisphere. 347 backrush. The seaward return of water following UPRUSH of WAVES on a BEACH. 348 backrush current. See CURRENT: BACKRUSH. 349 backshore. That part of a BEACH which is usually dry, being reached only by the highest TIDES. Also called backbeach. See also FORESHORE. 350 backsight. In NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY, an OBSERVATION of a CELESTIAL BODY made by facing 180from the AZIMUTH of the body. In LEVELLING, a reading on a LEVELLING ROD held on a point whose ELEVATION has been previously determined and which is not the closing SIGHT of a level circuit. Also written as two words. See also FORESIGHT. 351 backwash. Water or WAVES thrown back by an obstruction such as a ship, BREAKWATER, CLIFF, etc. 352 backwater. Water turned back by an obstruction, opposing CURRENT, etc. Water held back from the main FLOW. 353 ballistic camera. See CAMERA. 354 band of colour. See STRIPES (OF COLOUR) 355 band of frequency. The RANGE of FREQUENCY between two specific limits. Also called frequency band. 356 bandwidth. The number of units (HERTZ, kilohertz, etc.) of FREQUENCY required for transmission. 357 bank. An ELEVATION of the SEA FLOOR located on a CONTINENTAL (or an ISLAND) SHELF, over which the DEPTH of water is relatively shallow but sufficient for safe SURFACE NAVIGATION. A shallow area of shifting SAND, GRAVEL, MUD, etc. as a sand bank, mud bank, etc. The sloping margin of a RIVER or STREAM; the GROUND bordering upon a RIVER. A raised margin of a POND, LAKE, etc. See LEFT BANK and RIGHT BANK. 358 bar. A RIDGE or succession of RIDGES of SAND or other substances extending across the MOUTH of a RIVER or HARBOUR and which may obstruct NAVIGATION. Derived pressure in the CGS SYSTEM. See also MILLIBAR. 359 bar buoy. A BUOY marking the location of a BAR. 360 bar check. An on-site calibration method for echo sounders. 361 bar scale. See SCALE. 362 bar sweeping. A sweeping procedure using a beam suspended horizontally under a vessel. The sweep passing over the bottom may be equipped with rockers or other sensors to record contact with the bottom. 363 baroclinity. The condition and type of motion in which pressure is not constant on surfaces of constant density, e.g. internal waves. 364 barogram. Record made by a BAROGRAPH. 365 barograph. RECORDING BAROMETER. 366 barometer. Instrument for measuring ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. 367 barometer: aneroid. BAROMETER whose sensitive element comprises one or a series of ANEROID CAPSULES. 368 barometer: marine. MERCURY BAROMETER used on board ships, characterized by a constriction in the tube in order to damp out OSCILLATIONS of the mercury caused by the movements of the ship.

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369 barometer: mercurial (or mercury). A BAROMETER in which ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE is balanced against the pressure exerted by a column of mercury. 370 barometer: recording. BAROMETER which gives a continuous graphic representation of the atmospheric pressure variations with TIME. 371 barometric altimeter. See ALTIMETER. 372 barometric elevation. See ELEVATION. 373 barometric gradient. See PRESSURE GRADIENT. 374 barometric levelling. See LEVELLING. 375 barometric pressure. See PRESSURE: BAROMETRIC. 376 barotropy. The condition and type of motion in which pressure is constant on surfaces of constant density, e.g. surface tides. 377 barrel buoy. See BUOY. 378 barrier reef. A CORAL REEF fronting the SHORE, at some distance from it, and separated from it by a LAGOON or a navigable CHANNEL of moderate DEPTH. See also FRINGING REEF. 379 barye. Pressure unit in the CGS SYSTEM. 380 barysphere. See CENTROSPHERE. 381 basal coplane. See COPLANE: BASAL. 382 basal orientation. See ORIENTATION. 383 basal plane. See EPIPOLAR PLANE. 384 base. In a TRIANGULATION, the side of one of a series of connected triangles, the length of which is measured directly and with prescribed ACCURACY and PRECISION, and from which the lengths of the other triangle sides are obtained by computation. Also called base line or triangulation base line. See also BASE TERMINALS. 385 base apparatus. Any apparatus designed for use in measuring with ACCURACY and PRECISION the length of a BASE in TRIANGULATION, or the length of a line in TRAVERSE. 386 base course (of a vessel). The true course between a vessel's point of departure and arrival. 387 base direction. See DIRECTION. 388 base extension triangulation (British terminology). A part of a TRIANGULATION NET starting with a measured BASE and expanding that relatively short distance to a larger distance comparable to the average length of the triangulation sides. Called base net in U.S. terminology. 389 base height ration. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the ratio between the AIR BASE and the FLIGHT ALTITUDE of a STEREOSCOPIC PAIR of PHOTOGRAPHS. 390 base line. The line from which the outer limits of the territorial sea and certain other outer limits are measured. In RADIOLOCATION, the GEODESIC LINE between two stations operating in conjunction for the determination of a LINE OF POSITION. Also written as one word. See also BASE. 391 baseline: archipelagic. Archipelagic baselines are straight lines joining the outermost points of the outermost islands and drying reefs of an archipelago. 392 baseline: normal. The low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State. 393 baseline: straight. Straight baselines are a system of straight lines joining specified or discrete points on the low-water line, usually known as straight baseline turning points. Straight baselines are used in DELIMITATION.

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394 base line extension. In RADIOLOCATION, the extension of the BASE LINE beyond the TRANSMITTERS. 395 base map. See MAP. 396 base net. See BASE EXTENSION TRIANGULATION. 397 basepoint. A basepoint is any point on a baseline. 398 base tape (or wire). A tape or wire of metal or alloy, so designed and graduated that it is suitable for measuring the lengths of BASES. See also TAPE: INVAR, TAPE: STEEL and WIRE: INVAR. 399 base terminals. The two extremes of a BASE LINE. Usually marked on a MONUMENT or metal stake buried beneath a visible SURFACE MARK. See also REFERENCE MARK. 400 base tilt. See TILT. 401 basic control. See CONTROL. 402 basic survey. A hydrographic survey so complete and thorough that it does not need to be supplemented by other surveys, and is adequate to supersede, for charting purposes, all prior hydrographic surveys of the area. 403 basin. Sheltered body of water available for port operations connecting either with the SEA or with an outer PORT or with another basin, sometimes by means of a LOCK or PASSAGE. In geography, the tract of country drained by a RIVER and its TRIBUTARIES or which drains into a particular LAKE or SEA. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a DEPRESSION of the SEA FLOOR more or less equidimensional in form and of very variable extent. 404 basin: tidal. A BASIN affected by tidal forces in which water can be kept at a desired LEVEL by means of a gate. 405 bathymeter. An instrument primarily designed for measuring DEPTH of water. 406 bathymetric (adj.). Of or pertaining to BATHYMETRY. 407 bathymetric chart. See CHART. 408 bathymetric map. A topographic map of the ocean floor, or the bed of a lake. A topographic chart of the bed of a body of water, or a part of it. Generally, bathymetric maps show depths by contour lines and gradient tints. 409 bathymetry. The determination of ocean depths. The general configuration of SEA FLOOR as determined by profile analysis of depth data. 410 bathyscaphe (or bathyscaph). A free, manned vehicle for exploring the deep OCEAN. 411 bathysphere. A diving sphere for deep-sea observations. 412 bathythermogram. The record of temperature versus DEPTH made by a BATHYTHERMOGRAPH. Rarely used. 413 bathythermograph. A device for obtaining a record of temperature against DEPTH in the OCEAN, from a ship underway. 414 bay. Wide INDENTATION in the COASTLINE generally smaller than a GULF and larger than a COVE. For the purposes of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a bay is a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast. See also HISTORIC BAY. 415 bay closing line. A line dividing the internal waters and territorial seas in a bay. 416 bay ice. Level FAST ICE of more than one winter's growth, which may be nourished by surface layers of SNOW. Thickness of ICE and SNOW up to about 2 m above SEA LEVEL. When bay ice becomes thicker than this, it is called an ICE SHELF. 417 bayou. A minor sluggish WATERWAY or estuarial CREEK, generally tidal or characterized by a slow CURRENT, with a COURSE generally through LOWLANDS or SWAMPS, TRIBUTARY to or connecting with other bodies of water. Various specific meanings have been implied in different parts of the Southern United States. Sometimes called SLOUGH.

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418 beach. On a SHORE, the area on which the WAVES break and over which shore debris, such as SAND, SHINGLE, PEBBLES accumulate. A beach includes BACKSHORE and FORESHORE. 419 beach comber. See COMBER. 420 beacon. A prominent specially constructed object forming a conspicuous MARK as a fixed AID TO NAVIGATION, or for use in HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY. Also called day beacon or DAYMARK. 421 beacon: aeronautical. An AERONAUTICAL GROUND LIGHT visible at all AZIMUTHS, either continuously or intermittently, to designate a particular point on the surface of the EARTH. A radiobeacon may be coterminous with the aeronautical beacon. 422 beacon: hazard. A BEACON marking an OBSTRUCTION or hazard. 423 beacon: identification. An AERONAUTICAL and/or RADIO and/or LIGHT BEACON emitting a coded SIGNAL by means of which a particular REFERENCE POINT can be identified. 424 beacon: light (or lighted). A BEACON from which a LIGHT is exhibited. 425 beacon: omnidirectional. See OMNIRANGE. 426 beacon: radio. See RADIOBEACON. 427 beacon: responder. See TRANSPONDER BEACON. 428 beacon: transponder. See TRANSPONDER BEACON. 429 beaconage. A system of BEACONS. See BUOYAGE. 430 beam. RADIANT ENERGY confined to a particular shape. 431 beam compass. An instrument consisting of a beam or rod with sliding sockets that hold pencil, pen, or steel points, used together with a SCALE for plotting exact lengths or for drawing large circles. 432 beam sea. WAVES moving in a direction approximately 90from the HEADING. 433 beam width. The angular measure of the transverse section of a beam (usually in the main lobe) lying within directions corresponding to specified values of field strength relative to the maximum. 434 beam wind. WIND blowing in a direction approximately 90from the HEADING. 435 bearing. The horizontal DIRECTION of one terrestrial point from another, expressed as the ANGULAR DISTANCE from a REFERENCE DIRECTION. It is usually measured from 0at the REFERENCE DIRECTION clockwise through 360 . The terms bearing and AZIMUTH are sometimes used interchangeably, but in NAVIGATION the former customarily applies to terrestrial objects and the latter to the DIRECTION of a point on the CELESTIAL SPHERE from a point on the EARTH. A bearing is designated as true, MAGNETIC, or compass as the REFERENCE DIRECTION is TRUE, MAGNETIC, or COMPASS NORTH. 436 bearing: acoustic. See BEARING: SONIC. 437 bearing: compass. See BEARING. 438 bearing: danger. The maximum or minimum BEARING of a point for safe passage of an offlying danger. 439 bearing: great circle. The initial DIRECTION of a GREAT CIRCLE through two terrestrial points, expressed as ANGULAR DISTANCE from a REFERENCE DIRECTION. BEARINGS obtained by any form of RADIANT ENERGY are great-circle bearings. 440 bearing: grid. BEARING relative to GRID NORTH. See also AZIMUTH: GRID. 441 bearing: magnetic. BEARING relative to MAGNETIC NORTH. COMPASS BEARING corrected for MAGNETIC DEVIATION. 442 bearing: Mercatorial (or Mercator). See BEARING: RHUMB.

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443 bearing: polar. In a system of POLAR or SPHERICAL COORDINATES, the angle formed by the intersection of the reference MERIDIONAL PLANE and the MERIDIONAL PLANE containing the point. 444 bearing: radar. A BEARING obtained by RADAR. 445 bearing: radio. The angle between the apparent direction of a definite source of emission of ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVES and a REFERENCE DIRECTION, as determined at a RADIO DIRECTION-FINDING STATION. 446 bearing: reciprocal. A BEARING differing by 180from a given BEARING. 447 bearing: relative. BEARING relative to the HEADING of a craft. 448 bearing: rhumb. The direction of a RHUMB LINE through two terrestrial points expressed as ANGULAR DISTANCE from a REFERENCE DIRECTION. Also called mercatorial (or mercator) bearing. 449 bearing: sonic. A BEARING determined by measuring the direction from which a SOUND WAVE is coming. Also called acoustic bearing. 450 bearing: transit. A BEARING taken of two objects when in line. 451 bearing: true. See BEARING. 452 bearing circle. A ring designed to fit snugly over a COMPASS or COMPASS REPEATER, and provided with VANES for observing BEARINGS. A similar ring provided with means for observing AZIMUTH of the SUN is called an azimuth circle. 453 bearing plate. See PELORUS. 454 beat. The periodic variation that results from the superposition of two OSCILLATIONS whose FREQUENCIES differ by a small amount. 455 Beaufort wind scale. A numerical scale for indicating wind speed, devised by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort in 1805. Beaufort numbers (or forces) range from force 0 (calm) to force 12 (hurricane). 456 bed. The GROUND upon which a body of water rests. 457 bedrock. Any solid ROCK underlying SOIL or unconsolidated SEDIMENTS. 458 bel. A dimensionless unit for expressing the ratio of two values of power, the number of bels being the logarithm to the base 10 of the power ratio. In practice decibel is commonly used, the number of decibels being 10 times the logarithm to the base 10 of the power ratio. 459 bell buoy. See BUOY: SOUND. 460 belt. In ice terminology, a long area of PACK ICE from a few kilometres to more than 100 kilometres in width. 461 bench. See TERRACE. 462 bench mark (benchmarks). A permanent, stable object containing a marked point of known ELEVATION with respect to a DATUM used as a REFERENCE LEVEL for TIDAL OBSERVATIONS or as a control point for LEVELLING. 463 beneaped (or neaped). Said of a vessel left aground following a spring high tide. 464 benthic division. In the classification of the marine ENVIRONMENT and its inhabitants, a primary division of the SEA which includes all of the ocean floor. The other primary division of the SEA is the PELAGIC DIVISION. 465 benthos. The category of marine organisms that live on, in, or close to the BOTTOM of the OCEANS. 466 berg. Short for ICEBERG. 467 bergy bit. A massive piece of SEA ICE or disrupted HUMMOCKED ICE; also medium-sized piece of floating GLACIER ICE. Generally less than 5 m above SEA LEVEL, and not more than about 10 m across.

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468 berm. A narrow, raised path or EMBANKMENT along a STREAM, CANAL, or BEACH. On a BEACH it may be formed by the deposit of material by WAVES and marks the limit of HIGH TIDES. 469 berm line. In CARTOGRAPHY, the outer edge of vegetation shown as SHORELINE on CHARTS in marsh or mangrove areas. 470 berth. Place in which a ship is moored at WHARF. 471 beset(adj.). Of a ship when surrounded so closely by SEA ICE that steering control is lost. The term does not imply pressure. See also ICEBOUND, NIPPED. 472 Bessel's spheroid. See REFERENCE SPHEROID. 473 between-the-lens shutter. See SHUTTER. 474 bias. The distortion of a result through negligence of a factor usually introducing a systematic error of unchanging magnitude and sign throughout a given series of observations. 475 bifurcation. A division into two branches. 476 bifurcation buoy. See BUOY: BIFURCATION. 477 bight. A bend or curve in the COASTLINE, a bend in a RIVER, etc. In ice terminology, an extensive crescent-shaped indentation in the ICE EDGE formed either by WIND or CURRENT. 478 Bilby steel tower. A demountable and transportable TRIANGULATION TOWER for elevating a THEODOLITE and LUMINOUS SIGNALS above the GROUND, designed by J.S. Bilby, USC&GS. 479 billow. A great WAVE. 480 binary. The number system using 2 as the base for number representation. Binary numbers are composed of BITS. Generally any element capable of only two mutually exclusive states is called binary. 481 binnacle. The stand in which a COMPASS is mounted and in which lighting and compensatory units are carried. 482 binocular(s). An optical instrument consisting of a pair of TELESCOPES joined so as to be adaptable to the use of both eyes simultaneously. 483 binocular vision. Simultaneous vision with both eyes. 484 biology: marine. The study of the life, history and ECOLOGY of marine and brackish water plants and animals. 485 bioluminescence. The emission of light by living organisms. See also NOCTILUCA. 486 biosphere. Spherical terrestrial LAYER comprising the lower part of the ATMOSPHERE, the SEAS and the upper LAYERS of the SOIL within which living organisms can exist naturally. 487 bissextile year. See YEAR: CIVIL. 488 bit. Short for "binary digit", the digit in binary number representation. A bit can only assume the binary values "0" and "1". A binary number representation is composed of bits just as a decimal number is represented by decimal digits. A unit of 8 bits is called a BYTE. It also stands for "basic indissoluble information unit", a unit used for measuring the information content in information theory. 489 blind rollers. Long, high SWELLS which have increased in HEIGHT, almost to the breaking point, as they pass over SHOALS or run in shoaling water. Called blind seas in some localities. 490 blind seas. See BLIND ROLLERS. 491 blind zone. An area within or from which little or no radio SIGNAL is received. Also called zone of silence. 492 blip. Indication of a SIGNAL on the SCOPE of an electronic instrument, produced by a short sharply-peaked PULSE of voltage.

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493 blizzard. Violent and very cold WIND which is laden with SNOW, some part, at least, of which has been raised from snow-covered GROUND. This term originated in North America but has been extended to include similar WINDS in other countries. 494 block correction. See CHARTLET. 495 blow up. Enlarge photographically. 496 bluff. A CLIFF or HEADLAND with an almost perpendicular face. 497 blunder. See ERROR: GROSS. 498 boat compass. See COMPASS. 499 boat grid. See CAREENING GRID or GRIDIRON. 500 boat sheet (U.S. terminology). The work sheet used by the HYDROGRAPHER in the field for plotting the details of a HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY as it progresses. See also FIELD BOARD. 501 boat slip. A SLIPWAY designed specifically for boats. 502 bog. Wet spongy ground consisting of decaying vegetation, which retains stagnant water, too soft to bear the weight of any heavy body. 503 bold coast. A prominent land mass that rises steeply from the SEA. 504 bollard. Small shaped post, mounted on a wharf or dolphin used to secure ship's lines. Also see MOORING. 505 boom. A floating barrier used to protect a river or harbour mouth or to create a sheltered area for storage purposes. 506 boomer. Seismic instrument for shallow penetration work. The boomer TRANSDUCER produces acoustic pulses by the motion of a metal plate in the water. 507 border. The district lying along the edge of a country or territory; a frontier. The boundary line which separates one country from another, the frontier line. 508 border break. A cartographic technique to extend cartographic detail of a map or chart beyond the neatline into the margin to show important features. This technique eliminates the necessity of producing an additional CHART. Also called Blister. 509 border of chart. The NEATLINE defining the limits of the area charted. 510 borderland. A region adjacent to a CONTINENT, normally occupied by or bordering a SHELF, that is highly irregular with DEPTHS well in excess of those typical of a SHELF. 511 border scale. See SCALE. 512 bore. A high breaking WAVE of water, advancing rapidly up an ESTUARY. Bores can occur at the MOUTHS of shallow RIVERS if the TIDE RANGE at the MOUTH is large. They can also be generated in a RIVER when TSUNAMIS enter shallow coastal water and propagate up the RIVER. Also called eager, mascaret, or tidal bore. 513 boring. Forcing a vessel under power through ICE. 514 bottom. Any GROUND covered by water. 515 bottom: nature of. The feature of the BOTTOM including the material of which it is composed and its physical characteristics. Also called character (or characteristics) of the bottom, or quality of the bottom. 516 bottom characteristics. Designations used on survey and nautical charts to indicate the consistency, colour, and classification of the sea bottom. Also called NATURE OF THE BOTTOM, CHARACTER OF THE BOTTOM. 517 bottom contour chart. A chart designed for surface and sub-surface bathymetric navigation seaward of the 100-fathom contour. Bottom configuration is portrayed by DEPTH CONTOURS and selected soundings.

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518 bottom friction. The force resulting from the interaction between the ocean bottom and water particle motion over it. 519 bottom ice. See ANCHOR ICE. 520 bottom profiler. An ECHO SOUNDER for precision surveys of the sea bottom surface. 521 bottom relief survey. A survey conducted to obtain information on the spatial characteristics of the sea bottom relief. 522 bottom sample. A portion of the sea bottom material brought to the surface for examination. See also CORE. 523 bottom sampler. Any device for obtaining a BOTTOM SAMPLE. See also CORER, DREDGE, DRIVER ROD, GRAB and SNAPPER. 524 bottom sampling. The process of collecting bottom samples. 525 bottom sediments. See SEDIMENTS: BOTTOM. 526 Bouguer anomaly. A difference between an observed value of GRAVITY and a theoretical value at the point of observation, which has been corrected for the effect of the TOPOGRAPHY and ELEVATION only, the TOPOGRAPHY being considered as resting on a plane of indefinite extent. 527 boulder. A rounded ROCK with a diameter of 256 millimetres (about 10 INCHES) or larger. 528 boulder clay. See TILL. 529 boundary. Anything marking a limit; bound; BORDER. 530 boundary layer. The LAYER of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface. It is the LAYER in which frictional forces are not negligible. 531 boundary monument. A material object placed on or near a boundary line to preserve and identify the ground location of the boundary line. Where it is impracticable to establish a monument on or very close to a boundary line, the position of the boundary line on the ground is preserved by means of reference marks. The term monument is sometimes used to include both the mark on the boundary and the reference mark. 532 boundary wave. See WAVE: INTERNAL. 533 Bourdon tube. Closed, curved, flexible tube of elliptic cross-section which is deformed, according to type, by variations of ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE or temperature and so provides a measurement of the particular element. 534 Bowditch rule. A method of ADJUSTMENT of TRAVERSES. 535 box compass. See DECLINATOIRE. 536 box gauge. See GAUGE: FLOAT. 537 box sextant. A small portable instrument used for approximate measurement of angles. 538 brackish water. Water in which salinity values range from approximately 0.50 to 17.00 parts per thousand. 539 brash ice. Accumulation of FLOATING ICE made up of small fragments not more than 2 metres across; the wreckage of other forms of ICE. 540 breaker. A WAVE breaking on the SHORE, over a REEF, etc. Breakers may be roughly classified into three kinds, although the categories may overlap: spilling breakers break gradually over a considerable distance; plunging breakers tend to curl over and break with a crash; and surging breakers peak up, but then instead of spilling or plunging they surge up on the beach face. The French word 'brisant' is also used for the obstacle causing the breaking of the WAVE. 541 breaking of waves. Disintegration of a WAVE which breaks with foam in SHALLOWS whose gradient is more or less regular. An incomplete breaking can likewise result from a sudden reduction in DEPTH.

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542 breakwater. A structure protecting a shore area, HARBOUR, ANCHORAGE, or BASIN from WAVES. See also FLOATING BREAKWATER. 543 breeze. A WIND of moderate strength. See LAND and SEA (or LAKE) BREEZE. 544 bridge. 1. An elevated structure extending across or over the weather deck of a vessel, or part of such a structure. The term is sometimes modified to indicate the intended use, such as navigating bridge or signal bridge. 2. A structure erected over a depression or an obstacle such as a body of water, railroad, etc., to provide a roadway for vehicles or pedestrians. 545 bridge: bascule. A counterpoise bridge rotated in a vertical plane about an axis at one or both ends. Also called balance bridge. 546 bridge: draw. A general name for bridges of which part or the entire span of the bridge may be raised or drawn aside to allow ships to pass through. 547 bridge: lift. A movable bridge which is capable of being lifted vertically to allow vessels to pass beneath. 548 bridge: swing. A movable bridge which rotates in a horizontal plane about a vertical pivot to allow the passage of vessels. 549 bridge clearance. See CLEARANCE. 550 bridging. See STEREOTRIANGULATION. 551 broad on the beam. Bearing 090relative (broad on the starboard beam) or 270relative (broad on the port beam). If the bearings are approximate, the expression on the beam or abeam should be used. See also ON THE BEAM. 552 broad on the bow. Bearing 045relative (broad on the starboard bow) or 315relative (broad on the port bow). If the bearings are approximate, the expression on the bow should be used. See also ON THE BOW. 553 broad on the quarter. Bearing 135relative (broad on the starboard quarter or 225relative (broad on the port quarter). If the bearings are approximate, the expression on the quarter should be used. See also ON THE QUARTER. 554 broadcast. Communication by RADIO intended for reception at any point within a specified area. 555 broadcast ephemeris. Ephemeris transmitted by a satellite which describes its position and orbital parameters. 556 broadside on. Beam on, as to the wind or sea. 557 broken telescope transit. See TRANSIT. 558 broken water. An area of small WAVES and EDDIES occurring in what otherwise is a calm SEA. 559 brook. A small STREAM; a RIVULET. Also called run. 560 bubble: spirit (or sensitive). See LEVEL: SPIRIT. 561 bubble sextant. See SEXTANT. 562 bucket temperature. Temperature of surface sea water trapped and measured in a bucket or similar receptacle. 563 bulkhead. On land, a structure or partition built to retain or prevent sliding of the land. A secondary purpose is to protect the upland against damage from wave action. Bulkheads are frequently backfilled thereby increasing the utility of the adjacent land area. 564 bull's eye level. See LEVEL: SPIRIT.

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565 buoy. A floating object moored to the BOTTOM in a particular (charted) place, as an AID TO NAVIGATION or for other specific purposes. Navigational buoys may be classified according to: (a) their shape, appearance, or construction, such as barrel, CAN, cask, CONICAL, cylindrical, DAN, KEG, NUN, PILLAR, SPAR, spherical, or TOPMARK BUOY; (b) their colour, such as black, chequered, green, red buoy; (c) their location, such as BIFURCATION, FAIRWAY, JUNCTION, MID-CHANNEL, MIDDLE-GROUND, or TURNING BUOY; (d) the various kinds of hazards or dangers to NAVIGATION which they mark, such as BAR, ISOLATED DANGER, FISH TRAP, OBSTRUCTION, SPOIL GROUND, TELEGRAPH or WRECK BUOY; (e) their particular purpose or use, such as ANCHOR, ANCHORAGE, COMPASS ADJUSTMENT, DREDGING, FAREWELL (or landfall), MARKER, QUARANTINE, STATION (or watch), or WARPING BUOY. 566 buoy: automatic. See AUTOMATIC FLOATING STATION. 567 buoy: bifurcation. A distinctive lateral BUOY used to indicate both the point at which a channel divides and the channel that has been designated as preferred channel. 568 buoy: cable. A BUOY used to indicate the run of a SUBMARINE CABLE. 569 buoy: cardinal. A BUOY used to indicate that the best navigable water is to be found in one particular of the quadrants that are bounded by the four bearings NW, NE, SE and SW taken from the position of the mark. 570 buoy: fairway. A BUOY intended to be the first to be seen during an approach from the open sea to a FAIRWAY. 571 buoy: lateral. A BUOY used to indicate a lateral limit of NAVIGABLE water. 572 buoy: life. A BUOY intended to keep persons afloat. Also called life jacket. 573 buoy: light (or lighted). A BUOY with a LIGHT having definite characteristics for detection and identification during darkness. See CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHT. 574 buoy: lighted sound. A LIGHT BUOY provided with a SOUND SIGNAL. 575 buoy: mooring. A BUOY secured to the BOTTOM by permanent moorings with means for mooring a vessel by use of its anchor chain or mooring lines. 576 buoy: radar. A BUOY with a cluster of RADAR REFLECTORS. 577 buoy: radiobeacon. A BUOY equipped with a MARKER RADIOBEACON. 578 buoy: sound. A BUOY equipped with a characteristic SOUND SIGNAL. Sound buoys may be further classified according to the manner in which the SOUND is produced, such as bell, gong, horn, trumpet, or whistle buoy. 579 buoy: special. A BUOY primarily used to indicate an area or feature referred to in nautical documents rather than to assist navigation. 580 buoy: super. A very large BUOY designed to carry a signal light of high luminous intensity at a high elevation. See also LARGE AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION BUOY (LANBY). 581 buoy: survey. A BUOY used by SURVEY SHIPS to control HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS. See also BUOYCONTROL METHOD. 582 buoyage. A system of, or providing with, BUOYS, serving the purpose of indicating NAVIGABLE waters. See BEACONAGE. 583 buoyancy. Force resulting from the upward pressure of water, acting upon the immersed volume of a body, set against the total WEIGHT of such body. If the volume immersed is such that the upward pressure counterbalances the WEIGHT of the body, the buoyancy is said to be positive and the body floats on the surface; if the volume immersed is insufficient, the weight of the body is greater than the upward pressure, the buoyancy is negative, and the body sinks. 584 buoyancy: centre of. CENTRE OF GRAVITY of liquid displaced by a floating body. 585 buoyant beacon. See ARTICULATED LIGHT.

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586 buoy-control method. A system of accurately located BUOYS on which THREE-POINT FIXES could be observed, or to which distances could be measured by radio acoustic methods, for extending HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS beyond the VISIBILITY of shore control. 587 butte. An isolated flat-topped HILL, similar to, but smaller than a MESA. 588 byte. A unit consisting of 8 BITS, frequently used for measuring the capacity of storage devices. 10 1 Kbyte = 2 byte = 1.024 byte (kilo-byte) 20 1 Mbyte = 2 byte = 1.048.576 byte (mega-byte) 30 1 Gbyte = 2 byte = 1.073.741.824 byte (giga-byte)

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C
589 cable. A unit of distance originally equal to the length of a ship's anchor cable, but now generally considered to be about 600 FEET. In the British Navy it is 608 FEET, or exactly one-tenth of a NAUTICAL MILE. In the United States Navy it is 720 FEET but is infrequently used. Sometimes called cable length. A chain or very strong fibre or wire rope used to anchor or moor vessels or BUOYS. A stranded conductor or an assembly of two or more electric conductors insulated from each other, but laid up together with a strong, waterproof covering. cable: coaxial. A transmission cable consisting of two concentric conductors insulated from each other. cable: degaussing. CABLE carrying an electric current for degaussing a vessel. cable: leader. CABLE lying on the BOTTOM and carrying an electric current by which ships equipped with appropriate instruments, can be guided. cable: submarine. An insulated, waterproof wire or bundle of wires for carrying an electric current under water. cable buoy. See BUOY. cable length. See CABLE. cable sign. A sign on a post marking the point from which a cable runs under water. C/A Code. The standard (Coarse/Acquisition, or Clear/Access) GPS code; a sequence of 1023 pseudo-random binary biphase modulations on the GPS carrier at a chip rate of 1.023 MHz, thus having a code repetition period of one millisecond. See also P-CODE. cadastral map. See MAP. cadastral survey. See SURVEY. cadastre. A public record of the extent, value, and ownership of LAND for purposes of taxation. cairn. A mound of STONES, usually conical or pyramidal, raised as a LANDMARK or to designate a point of importance in SURVEYING. caisson. A steel structure used for closing the entrance of LOCKS, WET and DRY DOCKS. See also LOCK GATE. calcareous (adj.). Composed of or containing calcium or calcium carbonate. calculator. A machine for performing arithmetical operations usually more complex than that done by an adding machine; a calculating machine, which may be mechanical, electrical, electronic or a combination of all three. A person who calculates. calendar line. See DATE LINE. calibrate (v.t.). To fix, check or correct the GRADUATIONS of a measuring instrument. To determine the calibre of. calibrated focal length. See FOCAL LENGTH. calibration. The act or process of determining certain specific measurements in an instrument or device by comparison with a STANDARD, for the purpose of correcting or compensating ERRORS or for purposes of record. calibration: direct base. The calibration of a positioning system with the help of one or more baselines of known length, which is determined with an instrument having an accuracy superior to that of the positioning system. calibration: direct simultaneous. The calibration of a positioning system at the same time when the distances used for calibration are measured using another system or instrument of superior accuracy.

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calibration: indirect position. The calibration of a positioning system using positions of the survey vessel at different locations which were determined independently of the positioning system. True distances can be derived from these positions and by comparison with the data rendered by the positioning system, calibration values can be deduced. calibration: indirect variation. The calibration of a positioning system by obtaining redundant observations so that calibration values can be deduced mathematically from the discrepancies between uncalibrated values at different locations. calibration of compass. See SWINGING SHIP. calling-in point. Point at which vessels are required to report to a traffic control center. calling the soundings. Announcement made by LEADSMAN when heaving the LEAD. calm. WIND with a SPEED zero or less than 2 KNOTS (BEAUFORT SCALE wind force 0). The state of sea when there are no WAVES. calorie. A unit of quantity of heat, originally defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one GRAM of water through one DEGREE C. The 15-degree gram-calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one GRAM of water from 14 .5 C to 15 .5 C, and is equal to 4.1855 JOULES. calving. The breaking away of a mass of ICE from a GLACIER, ICE FRONT, or ICEBERG. camber. A small BASIN, usually with a narrow ENTRANCE, situated inside a HARBOUR. camera. A lightproof chamber or box in which the IMAGES of exterior objects are projected upon a sensitized PLATE or film, through an opening usually equipped with a LENS or LENSES, SHUTTER and variable aperture. camera: aerial. A CAMERA specially designed for use in aircraft. camera: ballistic. A precision terrestrial camera usually employing glass plates, used at night to photograph such objects as ROCKETS or SATELLITES against a star background. If the CAMERA is mounted so that it tracks the STARS or the object, it may be called a tracking camera. camera: continuous-strip. A CAMERA in which a continuous-strip exposure is made by rolling the film continuously past a narrow slit opening at a SPEED proportional to the GROUND SPEED of the aircraft. camera: deep sea. A camera system specially designed for obtaining PHOTOGRAPHS of the ocean bottom. camera: multiple lens. A CAMERA with two or more LENSES, with the AXES of the LENSES systematically arranged at fixed angles in order to cover a wide field by simultaneous EXPOSURES in all chambers. camera: photogrammetric. A general term applicable to CAMERAS used in any of the several branches of PHOTOGRAMMETRY. camera: stereometric. A combination of two CAMERAS mounted with parallel OPTICAL AXES on a short rigid base; used in TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY for making PHOTOGRAPHS in STEREOSCOPIC PAIRS. camera: surveying (or mapping). A CAMERA specially designed for the production of PHOTOGRAPHS to be used in SURVEYING. The prefix 'mapping' or 'surveying' indicates that the CAMERA is equipped with means for maintaining and indicating the INTERIOR ORIENTATION of the PHOTOGRAPHS with sufficient ACCURACY for surveying purposes. A mapping camera may be an aerial mapping camera or a terrestrial mapping camera. camera: terrestrial. A CAMERA designed for use on the GROUND. See PHOTOTHEODOLITE. camera: tracking. See CAMERA: BALLISTIC. camera axis. See AXIS OF CAMERA. camera station. See AIR STATION. canal. An artificial WATERCOURSE. A long narrow ARM OF THE SEA extending inland between ISLANDS, or between ISLANDS and the MAINLAND.

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can buoy. A BUOY the above-water part of which is in the shape of a cylinder. Sometimes called cylindrical buoy. candela. The unit of LUMINOUS INTENSITY in the SI SYSTEM. candlepower. LUMINOUS INTENSITY expressed in CANDELAS. Also written as two words. cantilever extension. PHOTOTRIANGULATION from a controlled area to an area of no CONTROL. Also, the connection by RELATIVE ORIENTATION and scaling of a series of PHOTOGRAPHS in a strip to obtain STRIP COORDINATES. canyon. A relatively narrow, deep depression with steep sides, the bottom of which generally has a continuous slope. canyon: submarine. A relatively narrow, deep DEPRESSION with steep SLOPES, the BOTTOM of which grades continuously downward. cap. A feature with a rounded cap-like top. capacitor. See CONDENSER. cape. A piece of LAND projecting into a body of water. capillary wave. See WAVE. card. See COMPASS CARD. cardanic suspension. See GIMBALS. cardinal points. The four points of the HORIZON at the intersections of the HORIZON with the MERIDIAN and the PRIME VERTICAL; the north, south, east and west points. cardinal system. A buoyage system generally used to indicate dangers where the COAST is flanked by numerous ISLANDS, ROCKS and SHOALS as well as to indicate dangers in the open sea. In this system the BEARING (TRUE) of the MARK from the danger is indicated to the nearest CARDINAL POINT. A system of BUOYAGE in which the aids are assigned shape, colour, and number distinction in accordance with location relative to the nearest OBSTRUCTION. The CARDINAL POINTS delineate the sectors for buoy location. careen. Causing a vessel to lie over on one side. careening grid. A timber structure in the intertidal zone serving as a support for vessels at low stages of the tide to permit work on the exposed portion of the vessel's hull. carrier. See WAVE: CARRIER. carrier wave. See WAVE. cartogram. A MAP showing geographical statistics by means of lines, dots, shaded areas, etc. cartographer. Person employed in drawing and constructing CHARTS or MAPS. cartography. The art and science of expressing graphically, by MAPS and CHARTS, the known physical features of the EARTH, or of another CELESTIAL BODY. Often includes the works of man and his varied activities. cartouche. A panel on a MAP, often with decoration, enclosing the TITLE or other LEGENDS, the SCALE, etc. Cassini projection. See PROJECTION. cast. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a single lowering of a series of WATER BOTTLES or other oceanographic instruments at an OCEANOGRAPHIC STATION. Also referred to as oceanographic cast. catenary. The curve formed by a uniform CABLE, CHAIN, or TAPE supported only at its ends. catenary correction (tape). See TAPE: SAG CORRECTION.

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cathode-ray tube. A vaccum tube in which electrons emitted by a hot cathode are formed into a narrow BEAM, accelerated at high VELOCITY and directed towards a specially prepared SCREEN which fluoresces at the point where the electrons strike. catoptric light. See LIGHT. causeway. A raised way across low or wet GROUND or water. cautionary (or caution) note. Information calling special attention to some fact, usually a DANGER AREA shown on a CHART, or other publication. cavitation. The turbulent formation, generally mechanically induced, including growth and collapse of bubbles in a fluid, and occurring when the static pressure at any point in fluid flow is less than fluid vapour pressure. cay (also kay, key). A low, flat ISLAND of SAND, CORAL, etc. awash or drying at LOW WATER; a term originally applied to the coral islets around the COAST and ISLANDS of Caribbean Sea. ceiling. See HEIGHT OF CLOUD BASE. celestial body. Any body pertaining to the heavens, constituting a unit for astronomical study, such as the SUN, the MOON, the PLANETS, FIXED STARS, COMETS, etc. Also called heavenly body. celestial concave. See CELESTIAL SPHERE. celestial coordinates. See COORDINATES. celestial equator. See EQUATOR. celestial equator system of coordinates. A set of CELESTIAL COORDINATES based on the CELESTIAL EQUATOR as the PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE. Usually DECLINATION, RIGHT ASCENSION and HOUR ANGLE, or SIDEREAL HOUR ANGLE. Also called equinoctial system of coordinates. celestial globe. See STAR GLOBE. celestial horizon. See HORIZON. celestial latitude. See LATITUDE. celestial line of position. A LINE OF POSITION determined by means of one CELESTIAL BODY. celestial longitude. See LONGITUDE. celestial meridian. See MERIDIAN. celestial navigation. See NAVIGATION. celestial pole. See POLE. celestial sphere. An imaginary sphere of infinite radius, concentric with the EARTH, on which CELESTIAL BODIES are imagined to be projected. Also called celestial concave. cellular wave. See WAVE. Celsius temperature scale. A thermodynamic scale of temperature (t C) defined as a function of the KELVIN TEMPERATURE SCALE (T K) by the relationship t C = T K 273.15. Name for Anders Celsius (1701-44), Swedish astronomer who first described, in 1742, the centigrade temperature scale. NOTE. According to a resolution of the Ninth International Conference on Weights and Measures (1948), temperature should be designated 'degrees Celsius' and the designation 'degrees centigrade' should be discontinued. centering (or centring). The placing of an instrument with its VERTICAL AXIS in the VERTICAL through the ground mark. The setting of LENSES of an optical instrument in such a manner that their OPTICAL AXES are in the same straight line. centigrade temperature scale. See CELSIUS TEMPERATURE SCALE.

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centimetre-gram-second (CGS) system. The system of physical units in which the fundamental units of length, mass and TIME are the centimetre, GRAM and SECOND, respectively. central meridian. See MERIDIAN: INITIAL. central processing unit (CPU). In computers in general the unit that comprises the arithmetic logic unit and the control unit. centre: reduction to. See REDUCTION. centre of buoyancy. See BUOYANCY. centre of gravity. See GRAVITY. centrifugal force. The force with which a body moving under constraint along a curved PATH reacts to the constraint. Equal and opposite to the CENTRIPETAL FORCE. centripetal force. The force directed towards the centre of curvature which constrains a body to move in a curved PATH. Equal and opposite to the CENTRIFUGAL FORCE. centrosphere. The central CORE of the EARTH, composed of dense material, and making up most of its mass. Also called barysphere or CORE. cesium clock. See CLOCK: CESIUM. cesium magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. C-factor (U.S.A.). In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, an empirical value which expresses the vertical measuring capability of a given stereoscopic system; generally defined as the ratio of the flight height to the smallest CONTOUR INTERVAL accurately plottable. The C-factor is not a fixed constant but varies over a considerable RANGE, according to the elements and conditions of the photogrammetric system. In planning for AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, the C-factor is used to determine the flight height required for a specified CONTOUR INTERVAL, CAMERA, and instrument system. CGS system. See CENTIMETRE-GRAM-SECOND (CGS) SYSTEM. chain. A group of TRANSMITTERS broadcasting the same programme. In ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION, several related transmitting stations in geographic proximity (Decca chain, Loran chain, etc.). In DIGITAL data, a sequence of one or more line segments. chaining. See TAPING. chain adjustment. A mathematical adjustment of a whole series of figures, for example, a CHAIN OF TRIANGULATION. chain of triangulation. See TRIANGULATION: ARC OF. challenger. See INTERROGATOR. change of tide. A reversal of the direction of motion (rising or falling) of a TIDE. The expression is also sometimes applied to a reversal in the SET of a TIDAL CURRENT. Also called turn of the tide. See also STAND OF TIDE. channel. That part of a body of water (sometimes dredged) deep enough for NAVIGATION through an area otherwise not navigable. It is usually marked by a single or double line of BUOYS and sometimes by RANGES. The deepest part of a STREAM, BAY or STRAIT through which the main CURRENT flows. See also STRAIT. channel: frequency. A continuous portion of the frequency spectrum appropriate for a transmission utilizing a specified class of emission. channel: sea. A long, narrow, U-shaped or V-shaped shallow depression of the SEA FLOOR usually occurring on a gently sloping PLAIN or FAN. A continuously sloping, elongated DEPRESSION commonly found in CONES or ABYSSAL PLAINS and customarily bordered by levees on one or both sides.

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character. As pertains to typography, a graphic symbol such as a letter of the alphabet, figure, punctuation mark or sign employed in recording language. In data processing, an element of a CODE set used for representing information. characteristics of light. All particularities of a LIGHT, such as colour, PERIOD, group number, VISIBILITY, HEIGHT above SEA LEVEL and CHARACTER. Also called light characteristics. See also GROUP. character of light. The distinct character, such as fixed, flashing, or occulting, which is given to each LIGHT to avoid confusion with neighbouring ones. character (or characteristics) of the bottom. See BOTTOM: NATURE OF. chart. A special-purpose MAP generally designed for NAVIGATION or other particular purposes. See CHART: NAUTICAL, PAPER. chart: aeronautical. A representation of a portion of the EARTH, its CULTURE and RELIEF, specifically designed to meet the requirements of AIR NAVIGATION. chart: bathymetric. A topographic CHART of the BED of a body of water, or a part of it. Generally, bathymetric charts show DEPTHS by CONTOUR LINES and GRADIENT TINTS. chart: blank. A chart with a reduced amount of detail serving as cartographic basis for graphical documents of all kinds and for the depiction of reference data. chart: coast (or coastal). A NAUTICAL CHART intended for inshore COASTWISE NAVIGATION. chart: cotidal. A CHART showing COTIDAL LINES. chart: current. A CHART on which current data are graphically depicted. chart: datum. A CHART depicting the undulations of the GEOID. chart: fair. See FAIR CHART. chart: field. A NAUTICAL CHART prepared at the survey site, usually contains limited, and/or unedited information. chart: fishery. A chart with additional details required for the exploitation of marine natural resources. chart: general. A NAUTICAL CHART intended for offshore COASTWISE NAVIGATION. chart: gnomonic. A CHART on the GNOMONIC PROJECTION. Also called great circle chart. chart: geophysical. A chart which primarily shows parameters of geophysical nature. chart: gravity anomaly. A CHART on which current GRAVITY ANOMALIES are graphically depicted. chart: great circle. See CHART: GNOMONIC. chart: grid. A chart only showing a cartographic grid on its inner border. chart: harbour. A NAUTICAL CHART intended for NAVIGATION and ANCHORAGE in HARBOURS and small WATERWAYS. chart: hydrographic. See CHART: NAUTICAL. chart: index. An outline CHART showing the limits and identifying designation of navigational CHARTS, volumes of SAILING DIRECTIONS, or LIST OF LIGHTS. chart: layer depth. A chart showing the synoptic distribution of LAYER DEPTHS. chart: magnetic. A CHART showing for an established EPOCH the values of such magnetic elements as VARIATION, DIP, HORIZONTAL and VERTICAL INTENSITY of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD, and TOTAL MAGNETIC INTENSITY.

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715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728

729 730

731 732

37

733 734

chart: marine. See CHART: NAUTICAL. chart: Mercator. A CHART on the MERCATOR PROJECTION. This is the CHART commonly used for MARINE NAVIGATION. On a Mercator chart, a RHUMB LINE is a straight line. chart: nautical. A CHART specifically designed to meet the requirements of MARINE NAVIGATION, showing DEPTHS of water, NATURE OF BOTTOM, ELEVATIONS, configuration and characteristics of COAST, dangers and AIDS TO NAVIGATION. Also called marine chart, hydrographic chart, or simply CHART. chart: new. The first publication of a CHART. chart: new edition. See NEW EDITION (OF CHART). chart: original. A CHART which has been drawn up as a result of direct SURVEY. chart: pilot. A CHART containing information required for safe NAVIGATION, including OCEAN CURRENTS, ICE at SEA, WIND ROSES, storm tracks, ISOTHERMS, MAGNETIC VARIATION, great circle routes, limits of TRADE WINDS, etc. chart: polar. A CHART of the polar areas, or one on a polar PROJECTION. chart: provisional. A special CHART, usually for which there is an urgent need. The chart is compiled from approved source materials and may be drafted for direct reproduction. All charted information is usually combined on the black printing plate and no other colours are shown. chart: radar. A CHART designed primarily for use with RADAR, or one suitable for this purpose. chart: radionavigational. A chart with additional details for the determination of a vessel's position with the aid of radionavigation systems. chart: route (or routeing). A CHART showing routes between various places, usually with distances indicated. chart: sailing. A small scale nautical chart for OFFSHORE NAVIGATION. chart: sea bottom sediment. A chart primarily showing information on the types and characteristics of sea bottom. chart: star. A representation, on a flat surface, of the CELESTIAL SPHERE or a part of it, showing the POSITIONS of the STARS and sometimes other features of the CELESTIAL SPHERE. chart (or map): synoptic. See CHART (or MAP): WEATHER. chart: tidal current. A CHART showing by arrows and numbers the average direction and SPEED of TIDAL CURRENTS at a particular part of the current cycle. chart (or map): weather. Geographical MAP on which meterological conditions or elements are represented by figures, SYMBOLS, or ISOPLETHS. Also called synoptic chart (or map). chart: working. In HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY, a working document (CHART or PROJECTION) by means of which a survey programme can be broadly planned. chart amendment patch. See CHARTLET. chart comparison unit. A device which provides simultaneous, superimposed views of a CHART and radar scope. chart compilation. The production of a new or revised map or chart, or portions thereof, from existing maps, aerial photographs, surveys, new data and other sources or the selection, assembly, and graphic representation of all relevant information required for the preparation of a map or chart. chart datum. See DATUM: CHART. charted depth. See DEPTH.

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742 743

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38

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chart evaluation survey. The Chart Evaluations Surveys (CES) program is designed to: 1. Resolve all deficiencies reported or discovered. (A deficiency is defined as charted information that can be made more complete through field examination, or information which should be charted but is not.) 2. Evaluate the adequacy/accuracy of hydrographic information on existing charts. 3. Verify or revise information published in the appropriate Coast Pilot. 4. Conduct user evaluation and public relations efforts to provide an awareness of products and obtain user input. chartlet. A small auxiliary CHART giving new details on a particular area, to be added to the CHART after publication. Also called block correction or chart amendment patch. A small CHART, such as one showing the coverage area of electronic navigational systems, with the distribution of its LINES OF POSITION, CORRECTIONS to be applied to readings, location and identification of TRANSMITTERS, etc. chart portfolio. A systematic grouping of nautical charts covering a specific geographical area. chart production. All processes in the design, compilation, draughting and reproduction of a chart. chart projection. See PROJECTION. chart reading. Interpretation of the symbols, lines, abbreviations, and terms appearing on charts. May be called map reading when applied to maps generally. chart scale. See SCALE. chart sounding datum. The tidal datum to which soundings and drying heights on a chart are referred. It is usually taken to correspond to a low water stage of the tide. Often shortened to CHART DATUM, especially when it is clear that reference is not being made to a horizontal datum. chart symbol. A character, letter, or similar graphic representation used on a chart to indicate some object, characteristic, etc. May be called map symbol when applied to any map. check angle. A third angle taken to a fourth point as a check to a THREE-POINT FIX. check lines of sounding. SOUNDING LINES run after completing the main system of SOUNDING LINES for the purpose of checking them. See also CROSS LINES OF SOUNDING. chlorinity. The total amount in GRAMS of chlorine, bromine and iodine contained in one KILOGRAM of SEA WATER, assuming that the bromine and the iodine had been replaced by chlorine. See SALINITY. chlorophyll. The green pigment contained in the leaves of plants. See PHOTOSYNTHESIS. chlorosity. The property of SEA WATER corresponding to the CHLORINITY expressed as GRAMS per LITRE at 20 . choppy (adj.). Of the SEA, having short, abrupt, breaking WAVES dashing against each other. choppy sea. The state of the sea caused by interaction of waves running in different directions. chromatic aberration. See ABERRATION OF LIGHT. chromatism. See ABERRATION OF LIGHT. chromosphere. The reddish LAYER of incandescent gases around the SUN, visible at a TOTAL ECLIPSE. A similar LAYER surrounding a STAR. chronograph. An instrument for measuring and recording TIME or time intervals. chronometer. A portable timekeeper with a compensated balance, capable of showing TIME with extreme PRECISION and ACCURACY. chronometer: sidereal. A CHRONOMETER that indicates SIDEREAL TIME at a given place, or that corresponding to a given MERIDIAN. chronometer: standard. The CHRONOMETER with which the others aboard a vessel are compared and to which all OBSERVATIONS involving TIME are referred.

758

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768

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771 772 773 774 775

776 777

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chronometer correction. The amount to be added algebraically to the TIME of the CHRONOMETER to obtain the correct TIME. chronometer rate. The amount gained or lost by a CHRONOMETER in a unit of TIME. It is usually expressed in SECONDS per 24 HOURS, and is sometimes called daily rate. chronometric method. A former method of determining LONGITUDE by transporting CHRONOMETERS between STATIONS whose DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE was to be determined. cinders. Fragments formed when MAGMA is blown into the air; larger in size than VOLCANIC ASH. Cinders are a constituent of certain marine sediments. circle. In a surveying instrument, the graduated disk which is perpendicular to and centered about an AXIS of ROTATION and is calibrated to read the amount of ROTATION. circle: dip. See DIP CIRCLE. circle: fundamental. See PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE. circle: great. The intersection of a sphere and a plane through its center. See also ORTHODROME. circle: horizontal. In a surveying instrument, the graduated CIRCLE used for measuring horizontal angles. circle: hydrographic. A double-reflecting instrument intended primarily for use in HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY; enables measurement of angles up to 180 . See also SEXTANT: SOUNDING. circle: small. The intersection of a sphere and a plane which does not pass through its center. circle: vertical. A GREAT CIRCLE on the CELESTIAL SPHERE passing through the ZENITH and NADIR. Vertical circles are perpendicular to the HORIZON. In a surveying instrument, the graduated CIRCLE used for measuring vertical angles. circle of declination. See HOUR CIRCLE. circle of equal altitude. A SMALL CIRCLE on the surface of the EARTH at every point of which, at the instant of OBSERVATION, the observed CELESTIAL BODY (SUN, STAR, or PLANET) has the same ALTITUDE and, therefore, the same ZENITH DISTANCE. circle of latitude. A GREAT CIRCLE of the CELESTIAL SPHERE through the ecliptic poles, and hence perpendicular to the plane of the ECLIPTIC. circle of position. The SMALL CIRCLE on the surface of the EARTH on which an OBSERVATION shows the observer to be. The expression is most frequently used to indicate the CIRCLE OF EQUAL ALTITUDE. Also called position circle. circle of right ascension. See HOUR CIRCLE. circle of uncertainty. A circle having as its centre a POSITION, however determined, and as its radius the maximum PROBABLE ERROR of the POSITION; a circle within which a craft is considered to be located. circle of visibility. That circle surrounding an AID TO NAVIGATION and in which the aid is visible. See RANGE OF VISIBILITY. circle sheet (U.S. terminology). A BOAT SHEET or a SMOOTH SHEET on which intersecting systems of curves are drawn, each curve corresponding to the LOCUS of some angle between two STATIONS. POSITIONS are plotted on circle sheets at the intersection of the LOCI of two observed angles, each LOCUS being found by INTERPOLATION between the curves drawn on the sheet. Circle sheets are prepared and employed in HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS for plotting FIXES without the use of PROTRACTOR. Also called standard circle sheet; formerly called sextant chart. See also FIXED ANGLE PLOT, and LATTICE. circular fix. See FIX. circular level. See LEVEL: SPIRIT.

781

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785 786 787 788 789

790 791

792 793

794

795

796 797

798

799

800 801

40

802

circular radiobeacon station. A RADIO STATION which needs not necessarily be manned, the emissions of which, radiated around the HORIZON, enable its BEARING to be determined by means of the RADIO DIRECTION FINDER of a ship. circum-meridian altitude. See ALTITUDE: EX-MERIDIAN. circumpolar (adj.). Revolving about the ELEVATED POLE without setting. A CELESTIAL BODY is circumpolar when its POLAR DISTANCE is approximately equal to or less than the LATITUDE of the observer. The actual limit is extended somewhat by the combined effect of REFRACTION, SEMIDIAMETER, PARALLAX, and the HEIGHT of the observer's eye above the HORIZON. cirrocumulus. See CLOUD GENERA. cirrostratus. See CLOUD GENERA. cirrus. See CLOUD GENERA. civil day. See DAY. civil time. See TIME. civil twilight. See TWILIGHT. civil year. See YEAR. clamping error. See ERROR. clamp (or clamping) screw. A screw for holding in place a moving part of an instrument as during an OBSERVATION or reading with a THEODOLITE or SEXTANT. clamshell snapper. See SNAPPER. clapotis. The French equivalent for a type of STANDING WAVE. Clarke's spheroid. See REFERENCE SPHEROID. clay. Mineralogically, a hydrous aluminium silicate material with plastic properties and a crystal structure. As a size term, refers to sediment particles ranging from 0.0039 to 0.00024 millimeter, in which case it includes rock flour, calcareous muds, aragonite, etc. clean (adj.). Free from OBSTRUCTIONS, unevenness, imperfections, as a clean ANCHORAGE. clear (v.t.). To make such distance from an object as to have open sea-room. clearance. In NAVIGATION, a safe distance off a danger. In METEOROLOGY: a) decrease of total CLOUD AMOUNT when the latter is large; b) TIME at which this decrease takes place; c) gap in a cloud layer covering the entire sky. Also called clearing. clearance: bridge. Minimum vertical or horizontal space available for passage. clearance: overhead pipeline. Minimum vertical or horizontal space available for passage. clearance: safe overhead. The HEIGHT above the VERTICAL CONTROL DATUM at which the highest points of a ship can pass under an overhead power CABLE without risk of electrical discharge from the cable to the ship or without making contact with a BRIDGE. cleared depth. The effective depth over a feature, obtained by a wire drag survey. clearing. See CLEARANCE. clearing line. A straight line, on a CHART, that marks the BOUNDARY between a safe and a dangerous area; or that passes clear of a navigational danger. Sectors of lighthouse lights are usually bounded by them. clearing marks. Selected MARKS, natural or otherwise, used to help vessels keep clear of dangers.

803 804

805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813

814 815 816 817

818 819 820

821 822 823

824 825 826

827

41

828

clear sweeping. A form of BAR SWEEPING. A sweep, set at a predetermined depth, and passed over an area to ensure that no obstructions have been missed. cliff. LAND rising abruptly for a considerable distance above the water or surrounding LAND. climate. Fluctuating aggregate of atmospheric conditions characterized by the states and developments of the WEATHER of a given area. climatology. Study of CLIMATES (causes, variations, distributions, types, etc.). clinometer. An instrument for indicating the degree of SLOPE or the angle of ROLL or PITCH of a vessel, according to the plane in which it is mounted. clock. Instrument for measuring TIME and recording HOURS. clock: atomic. A precision clock that depends for its operation on an electrical OSCILLATOR regulated by the natural vibrational FREQUENCY of an atomic system (such as a beam). The combination of two (or more) radionuclides whose activities can be utilized to ascertain time intervals. clock: cesium. An atomic clock using the properties of cesium. clock: crystal. A precision clock essentially consisting of a generator of constant FREQUENCY controlled by a resonator made of quartz crystal with suitable methods for producing continuous ROTATION to operate time-indicating and related mechanisms. Also called quartz clock. clock: quartz. See CLOCK: CRYSTAL. closed traverse. See TRAVERSE. close pack ice. PACK ICE composed of FLOES mostly in contact, such that NAVIGATION becomes difficult even for specially constructed vessels. ICE CONCENTRATION 7/10th to 9/10th. closing error. See ERROR OF CLOSURE. closing line. A line that divides the internal waters and territorial seas of a coastal State or the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State. closing the horizon. See HORIZON. closure: error of. See ERROR OF CLOSURE. closure of triangle. See ERROR OF CLOSURE OF TRIANGLE. cloud. Visible aggregate of minute particles of liquid water or ICE, or of both together, in suspension in the ATMOSPHERE. This aggregate may include larger particles of liquid water or ICE, non-aqueous particles or solid particles, originating for example from industrial gases, smoke or DUST. cloud amount. The fraction of the sky covered by the CLOUDS of a certain genus, certain species, certain variety, certain layer, or of a certain combination of CLOUDS. Also called 'partial cloud amount'. See CLOUD GENERA. cloud classification. System of distinguishing and grouping CLOUDS according to one or more of the following criteria: a) appearance, b) process of formation, c) common HEIGHT, d) particulate composition. cloud genera. Main characteristic mutually exclusive forms of CLOUDS, constituting the basis of the CLOUD CLASSIFICATION included in the International Cloud Atlas, 1956. The cloud genera are ten in number: cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, altocumulus, altostratus, nimbostratus, stratocumulus, stratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus. clutter. Confused unwanted ECHOES on a radar display. coast. The edge or margin of the LAND next to the SEA; the SEASHORE. Sometimes defined as the meeting of the LAND and SEA considered as the BOUNDARY of the LAND. coast (v.t.). To sail along or near a COAST. coastal chart. See CHART: COAST.

829 830

831 832

833 834

835 836

837 838 839

840 841

842 843 844 845

846

847

848

849 850

851 852

42

853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860

coastal current. See CURRENT. coastal refraction. See REFRACTION. coastal survey. See SURVEY. coast chart. See CHART. Coast Guard station. See LIFE-SAVING STATION. coastline. See SHORELINE. coastlining. The process of obtaining DATA from which the COASTLINE can be drawn on a CHART. coast pilot (U.S.A.). A descriptive book for the use of mariners, containing detailed information of coastal waters, harbour facilities, etc., of an area. Such books are prepared by the National Ocean Service for waters of the U.S.A. and its possessions. See also SAILING DIRECTIONS. coastwise navigation. See NAVIGATION. coaxial cable. See CABLE. cobble. A naturally rounded STONE larger than a PEBBLE. cocked hat. Triangle on CHART, formed by three POSITION LINES that do not cross at one point. Also called triangle of error. NOTE. This expression is seldom used by American navigators. cocurrent line. A line through places having the same tidal current hour. code. A method of information representation by mapping it into a machine-readable alphabet; e.g. textual information may be represented in computer memory by the ASCII or the EBCDIC alphabet. codeclination. 90minus the DECLINATION. See POLAR DISTANCE. coding delay. An arbitrary time delay in the transmission of pulse signals. In the LORAN system this is inserted between the transmission of master and slave signals to prevent zero or small readings, and aid in distinguishing between master and slave station signals. coefficient of refraction. See REFRACTION: COEFFICIENT OF. coelenterate. One of a phylum of two-staged (sessile and free-floating) organisms. The sessile stage basically is cylindrical and is called a polyp; the free-swimming stage is disc or bell shaped and is called a medusa or JELLYFISH. coherent electromagnetic wave. See WAVE: ELECTROMAGNETIC. col. A marked DEPRESSION in the summit line of a MOUNTAIN CHAIN, generally affording a PASS from one SLOPE to the other. In METEOROLOGY, a saddle-backed region of almost uniform pressure which appears between two DEPRESSIONS and two ANTICYCLONES arranged alternately in a cross. colatitude. The complement of the LATITUDE, or 90minus the LATITUDE. cold front. Any non-occluded FRONT which moves in such a way that colder air replaces warmer air. cold wave. Marked cooling of the air, or the invasion of very cold air, over a large area. collector tracing. A comprehensive record of the work compiled while the HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY is in progress. collimate (v.t.). In physics and ASTRONOMY, to render parallel to a certain line or direction; to render parallel, as RAYS of light; to adjust the LINE OF SIGHT of an optical instrument so that it is in the proper position relative to the other parts of the instruments. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, to adjust the FIDUCIAL MARKS of a CAMERA so that they define the PRINCIPAL POINT.

861 862 863 864

865 866

867 868

869 870

871 872

873 874 875 876

877

43

878

collimation: line of. The line through the OPTICAL CENTRE of the OBJECTIVE LENS of a TELESCOPE and the centre of the RETICLE. Also called LINE OF SIGHT, sight line, pointing line or aiming line of the instrument. collimation adjustment. The process of bringing the LINE OF COLLIMATION of a TELESCOPE into close agreement with the COLLIMATION AXIS. collimation axis. The line through the OPTICAL CENTRE of the OBJECTIVE LENS perpendicular to the AXIS of ROTATION of the TELESCOPE. Also called axis of collimation. collimation error. See ERROR OF COLLIMATION. collimator. An optical device for artificially creating a TARGET at infinite distance (a BEAM of parallel RAYS of light) used in testing and adjusting certain optical instruments. It usually consists of a converging LENS and a TARGET (a system or arrangement of CROSS HAIRS) placed at the principal FOCUS of the LENS. collimator: auto. A COLLIMATOR provided with a means of illuminating its CROSS HAIRS so that, when a reflecting plane is placed normal to the emergent LIGHT BEAM, the reflected IMAGE of the CROSS HAIRS appears to be coincident with the CROSS HAIRS themselves. This device is used in calibrating optical and mechanical instruments. collimator: vertical. A TELESCOPE so mounted that its COLLIMATION AXIS can be made to coincide with the VERTICAL (or direction of PLUMB-LINE). The vertical collimator serves as an optical PLUMB-LINE, and may be designed for use in placing a MARK on the GROUND directly under an instrument or in centering an instrument directly over a MARK on the GROUND. colour of sea water. See SEA WATER. colour proof. The final proof for checking before printing utilizing all of the negatives involved to produce a copy of the final product with all of the required colours. See also PROOF. colour plate. A general term for a pressplate from which any given colour is printed. colour separation. Either the process of preparing a separate drawing, engraving or negative for each colour required in the production of a chart or a photographic process or electronic scanning procedure using colour filters to separate a multi-coloured copy into separate images of each of the three primary colours. colure: equinoctial. The HOUR CIRCLE through the EQUINOXES. colure: solsticial. The HOUR CIRCLE through the SOLSTICES. coma. An aberration affecting the sharpness of IMAGES off the AXIS, in which RAYS from a point object off the AXIS passing through a given circular zone of the LENS, come to a FOCUS in a circle rather than a point, and the circles formed by RAYS through different zones are of different sizes and are located at different distances from the AXIS. Therefore, the IMAGE of a point object is comet-shaped. The foggy envelope surrounding the nucleus of a COMET. comb: micrometer. See MICROMETER. comber. A deep water WAVE whose crest is pushed forward by a strong WIND and is much larger than a WHITECAP. Also called beachcomber. A long-period SPILLING BREAKER. See also ROLLER. comet. A HEAVENLY BODY having a starlike nucleus with a luminous foggy envelope (see COMA), and usually developing a long luminous tail when near the SUN. common (or vulgar) establishment. See ESTABLISHMENT. compact pack ice. Pack ice in which the concentration is 10/10 (8/8) and no water is visible. compacted ice edge. A close, clear-cut ice edge compacted by wind or current. It is usually on the windward side of an area of pack ice. compacting. Pieces of sea ice are said to be compacting when they are subjected to a converging motion, which increases ice concentration and/or produces stresses which may result in ice deformations.

879

880

881 882

883

884

885 886

887 888

889 890 891

892 893

894

895 896 897

898

44

899

comparator. An instrument for measuring a dimension in terms of a STANDARD. An optical instrument for measuring RECTANGULAR or POLAR COORDINATES of points on any plane surface, such as a photographic PLATE. comparing watch. See WATCH. compass. An instrument consisting of two legs jointed by a PIVOT used for describing circles or transferring measurements. Also referred to as pair of compasses. An instrument for indicating a horizontal REFERENCE DIRECTION relative to the EARTH. compass: astro. An instrument which, when oriented to the horizontal and to the CELESTIAL SPHERE, indicates a horizontal REFERENCE DIRECTION relative to the EARTH. This COMPASS is designed primarily for the OBSERVATION of CELESTIAL BODIES to determine the ORIENTATION of an aircraft relative to the AZIMUTH of a CELESTIAL BODY. compass: boat. A small portable COMPASS mounted in a box for convenient use in small water craft. compass: box. See DECLINATOIRE. compass: deadbeat. An aperiodic COMPASS; one that, when deflected, returns by one direct movement to its proper reading. compass: dipping. See DIP CIRCLE. compass: dry (or dry card). A COMPASS without a liquid-filled bowl, particularly a MAGNETIC COMPASS having a very light COMPASS CARD. Such a MAGNETIC COMPASS is seldom used in modern practice. See COMPASS: LIQUID. compass: dumb. See PELORUS. compass: gyroscopic. A COMPASS having one or more GYROSCOPES as the directive element, and tending to indicate TRUE NORTH. Also called gyro compass. compass: hanging. A COMPASS having its BINNACLE overhead and its graduated card facing downward. Also referred to as overhead compass, or inverted compass. compass: inverted. See COMPASS: HANGING. compass: liquid. A MAGNETIC COMPASS having a bowl completely filled with liquid in order to damp the swinging of the card. Sometimes called spirit compass, or wet compass. compass: magnetic. A COMPASS depending for its directive force upon the attraction of the MAGNETISM of the EARTH for a MAGNET free to turn in an horizontal direction. compass: master. A COMPASS controlling one or several REPEATERS. compass: master gyro. A GYROSCOPIC COMPASS for controlling one or several remote indicators, called GYRO REPEATERS. compass: overhead. See COMPASS: HANGING. compass: pocket. A portable COMPASS (employed in COASTLINING or RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY). compass: sky. A type of ASTRO COMPASS which utilizes the POLARIZATION of sunlight in the sky, designed for use in the arctic during long periods of TWILIGHT. It operates whenever the ZENITH is clear whether or not the SUN is visible, but when the SUN is more than about 6.5below or 10above the HORIZON, readings are uncertain. compass: spirit. See COMPASS: LIQUID. compass: standard. A COMPASS designated as the STANDARD for a vessel. It is located in a favourable position and is accurately calibrated. compass: steering. The COMPASS placed next to the steering wheel, by which the COURSE is steered. See also STEERING REPEATER.

900 901

902

903 904 905

906 907

908 909

910

911 912

913

914 915

916 917 918

919 920

921

45

922 923

compass: sun. A form of ASTRO COMPASS utilizing the shadow of a GNOMON. compass: surveyor's. An instrument for determining a MAGNETIC BEARING of a LINE OF SIGHT by the use of a sighting device, a graduated HORIZONTAL CIRCLE and a pivoted NEEDLE. compass: trough. See DECLINATOIRE. compass: tubular. A COMPASS supplied for attachment to certain types of LEVELS and THEODOLITES. compass: wet. See COMPASS: LIQUID. compass adjustment. See COMPENSATION OF MAGNETIC COMPASS. compass adjustment buoy. A BUOY placed at a favourable location to assist a vessel to adjust its COMPASS or swing ship. Also called swinging buoy. See also SWINGING SHIP. compass bearing. See BEARING. compass bowl. That part of a COMPASS in which the COMPASS CARD is mounted. A magnetic compass bowl is usually filled with liquid. The compass bowl turns with the craft while the COMPASS CARD remains essentially in a north-south direction. compass calibration. See SWINGING SHIP. compass card. That part of a COMPASS on which the direction graduations are placed. Also referred to as card. compass compensation. See COMPENSATION OF MAGNETIC COMPASS. compass corrector. See COMPENSATOR: MAGNETIC. compass course. See COURSE. compasses: pair of. See COMPASS. compass meridian. See MERIDIAN. compass needle(s). Magnetized steel needle(s) of high RETENTIVITY that tends to keep north-south line of COMPASS CARD in MAGNETIC MERIDIAN. compass north. See NORTH: COMPASS. compass points. The 32 divisions of a COMPASS, at intervals of 11 1/4. compass repeater. A device for repeating at a distance the indications of the MASTER COMPASS. compass rose. A circle graduated in DEGREES clockwise from 0(north) to 360printed on a CHART for use as a PROTRACTOR. Compass roses are also placed at other convenient locations to facilitate measurements of directions. They may be oriented to the TRUE or the MAGNETIC NORTH. compensate (v.t.). To counteract an ERROR, as in an instrument; to counterbalance. compensating coils. The coils placed near a MAGNETIC COMPASS to neutralize the effect of the vessel's degaussing system on the COMPASS. compensation depth. See DEPTH. compensation of magnetic compass. The process of neutralizing or reducing to a minimum the magnetic effects the vessel itself exerts on a MAGNETIC COMPASS. It is based on the principle that the magnetic effect of the iron and steel of the vessel can be counterbalanced by means of MAGNETS and SOFT IRON placed near the COMPASS. Also called compass adjustment, compass compensation, or magnetic compensation. See also COMPASS ADJUSTMENT. compensator: magnetic. A MAGNET, piece of SOFT IRON such as a sphere or iron bar, placed in a BINNACLE or in vicinity of a MAGNETIC COMPASS for reducing MAGNETIC DEVIATION to a minimum. Also called compass corrector or corrector magnet. See FLINDERS BAR, HEELING MAGNET, QUADRANTAL CORRECTORS.

924 925 926 927 928

929 930

931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938

939 940 941 942

943 944

945 946

947

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compilation. In CARTOGRAPHY, the production of a new or improved MAP or CHART (or portion thereof) from existing MAPS or CHARTS, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS, SURVEYS, new DATA, and other sources. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the production of a MAP (or portion of a MAP) from AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS and geodetic control data, by means of photogrammetric instruments. Sometimes called stereocompilation. compilation diagram. See SOURCE DIAGRAM. compiler. A program that translates programs from one programming language (source program) into another programming language (object program). Typically the compiler translates from a higher, user understandable language to a lower, machine interpretable language. component. See HARMONIC CONSTITUENT. composite electronic navigational system. One contrived in such a way that the POSITION is determined by lines of different types, for instance, by a LATTICE of circles and a LATTICE of HYPERBOLAE. composite path. A wave track which lies partly over LAND and partly over water. composite photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH. composite sailing. See SAILING. compound tide. See TIDE. compression (of the earth). See FLATTENING OF THE EARTH. compression ratios. See FLATTENING OF THE EARTH. compressional wave. See WAVE. computer. A person who performs calculations. A device capable of accepting DATA, processing it according to stored instruction that are followed in automatic sequence, and supplying the results in some form. It usually consists of input and output devices, STORAGE, arithmetic and logical units, and a control unit. computer: analogue. A physical device or system which behaves in a manner analogous to some system under study, simulating the processes and producing results which are measured in terms of physical quantities. Often an electrical system. computer: digital. A machine for carrying out mathematical processes by operations based on counting, as distinct from an ANALOGUE COMPUTER. computer-assisted (computer-aided) cartography. A system which is used to perform specific cartographic function by means of computer hardware and software which aids humans to make decisions and/or perform their functions. Because of the graphic nature of cartography, such a system always contains, or makes use of, a computer graphics system. computer graphics. All methods and techniques used in computer sciences to represent data in graphical form and to process images. concentration: ice. See ICE. concluded angle. See ANGLE. condenser. In optics, a LENS or LENS SYSTEM designed to concentrate the ILLUMINATION from a light source on a limited area. In electricity, a device for receiving and storing an electric charge. Also called a capacitor. condition equation. See EQUATION. conductivity. The ability to transmit, as electricity, heat, sound etc. cone. See FAN. configuration of terrain. The TOPOGRAPHY of a region.

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confluence. Flowing together. The place where two or more RIVERS, STREAMS, etc. unite. In METEOROLOGY, progressive drawing together of the STREAMLINES in the direction of FLOW. conformality. The special property of CONFORMAL PROJECTION, i.e. that of having correct relationship about a point. conformal projection. See PROJECTION. conic (or conical) projection. See PROJECTION. conical buoy. A BUOY the above water part of which is in the shape of a cone. conical projections. The map projections produced by projecting the geographic meridians and parallels onto a cone which is tangent to or intersects the surface of a sphere, and then developing the cone into a plane. conjunction. In ASTRONOMY, the situation of two CELESTIAL BODIES having the same CELESTIAL LONGITUDE or the same sidereal HOUR ANGLE. For a SUPERIOR PLANET, it occurs when the SUN is between the EARTH and the PLANET. conjunction: inferior. The CONJUNCTION of an INFERIOR PLANET and the SUN when the PLANET is between the EARTH and the SUN. conjunction: superior. The CONJUNCTION of an INFERIOR PLANET and the SUN when the SUN is between the EARTH and the PLANET. connection: geodetic. OBSERVATIONS on one or more STATIONS common to the two different geodetic schemes of TRIANGULATION to be incorporated. console. The housing of the main operating unit of electronic equipment, in which INDICATORS and general CONTROLS are located. A portion of a COMPUTER used to control the machine manually. consolidated pack ice. Pack ice in which the concentration is 10/10 (8/8) and the floes are frozen together. conspicuous (adj.). Term applied to an object either natural or artificial which is distinctly and notably visible from seaward. constant deviation. See DEVIATION. constant error. See ERROR. constellation. Formerly a number of FIXED STARS grouped within an imaginary outline. Now, a region of the CELESTIAL SPHERE marked by arbitrary boundary lines. constituent. See HARMONIC CONSTITUENT. constituent day. See DAY. contact glass. See FOCAL PLANE PLATE. contact plate. See FOCAL PLANE PLATE. contact print. See PRINT. contiguous zone. A zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, which may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. The coastal state may exercise certain control in this zone subject to the provisions of International Law. continent. One of the main continuous bodies of LAND on the EARTH's surface. The main LAND, as distinguished from outlying ISLANDS; MAINLAND. continental borderland. A region adjacent to a CONTINENT, normally occupied by or bordering a CONTINENTAL SHELF, highly irregular, with DEPTHS well in excess of those typical of a CONTINENTAL SHELF.

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continental margin. The zone, generally consisting of SHELF, SLOPE and RISE, separating the CONTINENT from the ABYSSAL PLAIN or DEEP OCEAN FLOOR. continental rise. A gentle RISE with a generally smooth surface lying between the CONTINENTAL SLOPE and the DEEP OCEAN FLOOR. continental (or island) shelf. A zone adjacent to a CONTINENT (or around an ISLAND), extending from the LOW WATER LINE to the DEPTH at which there is usually a marked increase of SLOPE to greater DEPTH. See SHELF. continental shelf limit. The limit of the continental shelf or continental margin determined in accordance with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. continental (or island) slope. The zone of DECLIVITY from the outer EDGE of a CONTINENTAL (or ISLAND) SHELF into greater DEPTH. See SLOPE. continuous strip camera. See CAMERA. continuous wave. See WAVE. contour (or contour line). A line connecting points of equal ELEVATION or equal DEPTH. See also FORM LINE, HACHURES, ILLUMINATED CONTOURS, INDEX CONTOURS. contour: depression. A closed CONTOUR inside of which the GROUND is at lower ELEVATION than outside. See also FORM LINE. contour: depth. See DEPTH CURVE. contouring. The process of establishing lines representing equal values of a quantity on a map or chart. contour interval. The difference in ELEVATION between adjacent CONTOURS. contour line. See CONTOUR. contour map. See MAP. contour sweeping. A form of BAR SWEEPING. A sweep, set at a predetermined depth, and passed over the bottom at right angles to the depth contours. When contact is made the position is recorded. contrast. In PHOTOGRAPHY, the actual difference in DENSITY between the highlights and the shadows on a NEGATIVE or POSITIVE. Contrast is not concerned with the magnitude of DENSITY but only with the difference in DENSITIES. Also the rating of a photographic material corresponding to the relative density difference which it exhibits. control. A system of points with established POSITIONS or ELEVATIONS, or both, which are used as fixed references in positioning and correlating map features. Control is generally classified in four orders (with first order denoting highest quality) according to the PRECISION of the methods and instruments used in establishing it, and the ACCURACY of the resultant POSITIONS and ELEVATIONS. Often called basic control. Regulation or direction of a machine, electronic equipment, etc.; or the DIAL, knob, switch, etc. for performing this function. The exercise of directing influence over the movements of a craft or missile, with particular reference to changes in direction and SPEED. control: astronomical. CONTROL determined from ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. control: basic. See CONTROL. control: geodetic. A system of CONTROL STATIONS established by geodetic methods. See SURVEY: GEODETIC. control: ground. CONTROL established by GROUND SURVEYS, as distinguished from CONTROL established by photogrammetric methods. control: horizontal. CONTROL that is determined in horizontal POSITION. The POSITION may be referred to any recognized geographic or plane coordinate system. control: minor. See CONTROL: PHOTOGRAMMETRIC.

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control: photogrammetric. CONTROL established by photogrammetric methods, as distinguished from CONTROL established by ground methods. Also called minor control. control: supplemental. Points established by subordinate SURVEYS, to relate AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS used in mapping with the system of GEODETIC CONTROL. The points must be positively photoidentified, that is, the points on the GROUND must be positively correlated with their IMAGES on the PHOTOGRAPHS. control: vertical. CONTROL determined in ELEVATION relative to a DATUM PLANE. controlled mosaic. See MOSAIC. controlling depth. See DEPTH. control mark. A specific object on the ground whose position and/or elevation has been determined or is to be determined. control point. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, any STATION in a horizontal and vertical control system that is identified on a PHOTOGRAPH and used for correlating the DATA shown on that PHOTOGRAPH. More specific terms are photo-control point, picture control point and ground control point. A CONTROL STATION. control station. A point on the GROUND whose POSITION (horizontal and vertical) is used as a base for a dependent SURVEY. Also referred to as CONTROL POINT. convection. In general, mass motions within a fluid resulting in TRANSPORT and mixing of the properties of that fluid. In the ATMOSPHERE, organized internal motions within a LAYER of air, leading to vertical transport of heat, momentum, etc. convection: forced. In the ATMOSPHERE, CONVECTION caused by mechanical forces, such as those arising from air motion over a rough or sloping surface. convection: free. In the ATMOSPHERE, CONVECTION caused by density differences within the air. convergence. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a situation whereby waters of different origins come together at a point or, more commonly, along a line known as a convergence line. Along such a line the denser water from one side sinks under the lighter water from the other side. See SINKING. convergence of the meridians. The angular drawing together of the GEOGRAPHIC MERIDIANS in passing from the EQUATOR to the POLES. The difference between the two angles formed by the intersection of a GREAT CIRCLE with two MERIDIANS. The difference between the RECIPROCAL BEARINGS of two points. At any point of a cartographic PROJECTION, the angle between the MERIDIAN, as represented on the plane of the PROJECTION and GRID in use, and the GRID NORTH line. convergence zone. In OCEANOGRAPHY, region of CONVERGENCE. The region in the deep OCEAN where SOUND RAYS, refracted from the DEPTHS, arrive at the surface in successive intervals of 30 to 35 NAUTICAL MILES. conversion. Determination of the rhumb line direction of one point from another when the initial great circle direction is known, or vice versa. conversion angle. See ARC TO CHORD CORRECTION. conversion factor. That factor by which the numerical value made in one system of units must be multiplied to arrive at the numerical value in another system of units. conversion scale. A SCALE for the conversion of units of one measurement to equivalent units of another measurement. See NOMOGRAM. conversion table. A TABLE for the conversion of units of one measurement to equivalent units of another measurement. See NOMOGRAM. coordinate axes. See COORDINATES: PLANE RECTANGULAR. coordinated universal time (UTC). See UNIVERSAL TIME COORDINATED.

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coordinates. Linear or angular quantities which designate the POSITION of a point in relation to a given reference system. coordinates: celestial. Any set of COORDINATES used to define a point on the CELESTIAL SPHERE. The HORIZON, CELESTIAL EQUATOR and ECLIPTIC SYSTEMS of celestial coordinates are based on the CELESTIAL HORIZON, CELESTIAL EQUATOR and ECLIPTIC respectively, as the PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE. coordinates: false. GRID COORDINATES obtained by adding fixed numerical quantities to all grid values. These quantities are so large that none of the resultant false coordinates are negative. Such a procedure introduces a false origin to the south and west of the true ORIGIN. See COORDINATES: ORIGIN OF. coordinates: geocentric. COORDINATES that define the POSITION of a point with respect to the centre of the EARTH. See LATITUDE: GEOCENTRIC. The term 'geocentric longitude' is never used, as the quantity which it would designate is the same as GEODETIC LONGITUDE. coordinates: geodetic. Quantities which define the horizontal POSITION of a point on the SPHEROID OF REFERENCE with respect to the planes of GEODETIC EQUATOR and of a selected GEODETIC MERIDIAN. See LATITUDE: GEODETIC and LONGITUDE: GEODETIC. coordinates: geographic(al). A system of SPHERICAL COORDINATES for defining the POSITIONS of points on the EARTH. coordinates: grid. A plane rectangular coordinate system based on, and mathematically adjusted to, a MAP PROJECTION, so that GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS in terms of LATITUDE and LONGITUDE can be readily transformed into PLANE COORDINATES, and the computation relating to them made by the ordinary methods of PLANE SURVEYING. coordinates: origin of. The point of intersection of the COORDINATE AXES, from which the COORDINATES are reckoned. In mathematical treaties, this ORIGIN is usually given the COORDINATES 0,0; in SURVEYING, however, it is standard practice to give this ORIGIN, COORDINATES having large positive numerical values, thereby avoiding the use of negative COORDINATES. Also called point of origin. See COORDINATES: FALSE. coordinates: photograph. A system of COORDINATES, either RECTANGULAR or POLAR, to define the POSITION of a point on a PHOTOGRAPH. coordinates: plane. See COORDINATES: PLANE RECTANGULAR. coordinates: plane polar. The distance and DIRECTION from a central point of reference to a point whose POSITION is being defined. The point of reference is termed the POLE or ORIGIN; the line (distance) connecting the ORIGIN with the point whose POSITION is being defined is the radius vector; and the angle between the fixed line (POLAR AXIS) which the DIRECTION is referred to and the radius vector is the vectorial angle. coordinates: plane rectangular. A system of COORDINATES in a HORIZONTAL PLANE used to describe the POSITIONS of points with respect to an arbitrary ORIGIN by means of two distances perpendicular to each other. The two REFERENCE LINES at right angles to each other passing through the ORIGIN are called the coordinate axes. The distances parallel to the true (or arbitrarily assigned) north-south axis are called the ordinates, or the y coordinates. The distances parallel to the true (or arbitrarily assigned) east-west axis are called the abscissae, or the x coordinates. The north and east directions are usually taken as positive, and the south and west directions are usually taken as negative. Also referred to as plane coordinates. coordinates: polar. A system of COORDINATES used to describe the POSITION of a point in space with respect to an arbitrarily chosen ORIGIN by means of two DIRECTIONS and one distance; i.e., the vectorial angles and radius vector magnitude. coordinates: rectangular. COORDINATES on any system in which the axes of reference intersect at right angles. coordinates: space. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY the term may refer to any general three-dimensional coordinate system used to define the POSITION of a point in the object space, as distinguished from the IMAGE of the same point on a PHOTOGRAPH. coordinates: spherical. A system of POLAR COORDINATES in which the ORIGIN is the centre of a sphere and the points all lie on the surface of a sphere. The POLAR AXIS of such a system cuts the sphere at its two POLES. coordinates: strip. The COORDINATES of any point in a strip, whether on the GROUND or actually an AIR STATION, referred to the ORIGIN and axes of the air coordinate system of the first OVERLAP.

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coordinate system. A fixed system of lines used to define the position of a point, line, or plane. coordinatograph. An instrument used to plot in terms of PLANE RECTANGULAR COORDINATES. It may be an integral part of a STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTING INSTRUMENT whereby the planimetric motions (x and y) of the FLOATING MARK are plotted directly. coplane: basal. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the condition of EXPOSURE of a pair of PHOTOGRAPHS in which the two PHOTOGRAPHS lie in a common plane parallel to the AIR BASE. If the AIR BASE is horizontal, the PHOTOGRAPHS are said to be exposed in horizontal coplane. copper plate. Polished PLATE on which manuscript drawings were formerly engraved for the printing of CHARTS. coral. Hard calcareous skeletons of many tribes of marine polyps. coral head. A massive mushroom or pillar shaped coral growth. coral reef. A REEF, often of large extent, composed chiefly of CORAL and its derivatives. co-range line. A line through points of equal TIDE RANGE. cordillera. A RANGE or system of MOUNTAINS. core. The central or innermost part of anything. See CENTROSPHERE. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a vertical, cylindrical sample of the BOTTOM SEDIMENTS from which the nature and stratification of the BOTTOM may be determined. Also called core sample or sediment core. core barrel. The tubular section of a core sampling device. Bottom sediment samples are collected either directly in the core barrel or in a plastic liner placed inside it. Also called coring (or core) tube. core catcher. A mechanical device located at the bottom of a CORE BARREL to retain a BOTTOM SAMPLE. corer. A device for obtaining a CORE; a hollow tube that is driven into the ocean floor. Also called coring instrument or coring device. See CORER: HYDROPLASTIC, CORER: PISTON, PIGGOT GUN and VACUUM LEAD. corer: hydroplastic. A deep sea coring device, developed at the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, to obtain 3 1/2-inch diameter cores up to 12 FEET in length. The barrel is constructed of high-impact grade polyvinyl chloride plastic without an inner liner. Also called polyvinyl corer. corer: piston. A CORER equipped with a piston inside the core tube that is connected to the lowering cable. When the CORER penetrates the ocean bottom the stopped cable and piston, in effect, provides a suction which overcomes the frictional forces acting between the SEDIMENT and the interior wall of the coring tube. corer: polyvinyl. See CORER: HYDROPLASTIC. core sample. See CORE. coring instrument (or device). See CORER. coring (or core) tube. See CORE BARREL. Coriolis force. Composite CENTRIFUGAL FORCE, due to the ROTATION of the EARTH, which acts on moving particles, whose motion is considered relative to that of the EARTH. corona. PHOTOMETEOR formed by one or more sequences (seldom more than three) of coloured rings of relatively small radius, centred on the SUN or MOON. corrected establishment. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL.

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correction. A quantity which is applied to an OBSERVATION or function thereof, to diminish or eliminate the effects of ERRORS and obtain an improved value of the OBSERVATION or function. It is also applied to reduce an OBSERVATION to some arbitrary STANDARD. The correction corresponding to a given ERROR is of the same magnitude but of opposite sign. See CHRONOMETER CORRECTION, DIP CORRECTION, INDEX CORRECTION, INSTRUMENTAL CORRECTION, LEAD LINE CORRECTION, PARALLAX CORRECTION, PERSONAL CORRECTION, POLARIS CORRECTION, REFRACTION CORRECTION, SEMIDIAMETER CORRECTION, SEXTANT ALTITUDE CORRECTION, SKY WAVE CORRECTION, ORTHOMETRIC CORRECTION, TIDAL DIFFERENCE. correction: atmospheric. The statistical removal of meteorological effects from mean sea level changes. correction: ionospheric. A correction for errors introduced by ionospheric refraction occuring when signals travel through the ionosphere. correction: relativistic. A correction for errors introduced by relativistic effects of the clock rates of positioning systems. correction: sky-wave. The correction to be applied to the signals received via the ionosphere to convert them to their groundwave equivalent. correction(s): tape. See TAPE CORRECTION(S). correction of soundings. The CORRECTION of the observed DEPTHS for any departure from true DEPTH due to the method of SOUNDING or to a fault in the measuring apparatus. See also REDUCTION OF SOUNDINGS. corrector magnet. See COMPENSATOR: MAGNETIC. correlate equation. See EQUATION: CORRELATE. correlation. The removal of discrepancies that may exist among survey data, so that all parts are interrelated without apparent error. correspondence. In STEREOSCOPY, the condition that exists when corresponding IMAGES on a pair of PHOTOGRAPHS lie in the same EPIPOLAR PLANE; the absence of Y-PARALLAX. cosmic dust. Very fine particles of solid matter in any part of the universe, including METEORIC DUST and zodiacal light particles in the SOLAR SYSTEM, interstellar matter of uncertain origin in the Milky Way Galaxy, and accumulation of dark matter in other galaxies. cosmic radiation. RADIATION, of very high energy and great penetrative power, which emanates from cosmic regions. cotidal chart. See CHART. cotidal line. A line on a CHART passing through all points where HIGH WATER occurs at the same TIME. coulomb. The unit of electric charge in the SI SYSTEM. counter. An indicator on a machine, for keeping count of turns, strokes, etc., of the machine or its parts. counter current. A secondary CURRENT setting in a direction opposite to that of a main CURRENT. course. The intended horizontal direction of travel. It is measured from 0at the REFERENCE DIRECTION clockwise through 360 ; strictly for MARINE NAVIGATION, the term applies to the direction to be steered, which sometimes differs from the direction intended to be made good over the GROUND (see DRIFT ANGLE). The course is designated as true, magnetic, compass, or grid as the REFERENCE DIRECTION is TRUE, MAGNETIC, COMPASS or GRID NORTH respectively. See COURSE MADE GOOD and TRACK. The channel in which water flows. See also WATERCOURSE. course: compass. See COURSE. course: great circle. The direction of the GREAT CIRCLE through the point of departure and the destination, expressed as the ANGULAR DISTANCE from a REFERENCE DIRECTION, usually north, to the direction of the GREAT CIRCLE. The angle varies from point to point along the GREAT CIRCLE. At the point of departure it is called Initial Great-Circle Course; at the destination it is called Final Great-Circle Course.

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course: grid. See COURSE. course: magnetic. See COURSE. course: recommended. See TRACK: RECOMMENDED. course: true. See COURSE. course line. A LINE OF POSITION approximately parallel to the COURSE. course made good. The actual TRACK MADE GOOD over the ground (seabed); the direction of the point of arrival from the point of departure. Course made good is the direction component of the resultant ship's velocity and the water current. Course made good should not be confused with HEADING, or ship's head. course over ground. The direction of the path over the ground actually followed by a vessel. It is normally a somewhat irregular line. This is a misnomer in that courses are directions steered or intended to be steered through the water with respect to a reference meridian. Also called track over ground. course recorder. A device which makes an automatic record of the HEADINGS of a vessel. See DEAD RECKONING TRACER. cove. A small BAY. coverage. The actual area covered (by CHARTS, PHOTOGRAPHS, etc.). The area controlled by a radiolocation system. covariance. The arithmetic mean or expected value of the product of the deviations of corresponding values of two variables from their respective mean values. covers and uncovers (or discovers). Expression intended to indicate an area of a REEF or other projection from the BOTTOM of a body of water which periodically extends above and is submerged below the surface. Also referred to as dries or uncovers. crab. The condition caused by failure to orient a CAMERA with respect to the TRACK of the airplane. In vertical PHOTOGRAPHY, crab is indicated by the edges of the PHOTOGRAPHS not being parallel to the airbase lines. crack. Any fracture or RIFT in SEA ICE not sufficiently wide to be described as a LEAD. crag. A steep or precipitous rugged ROCK. crater. Bowl-shaped cavity, at the SUMMIT or on the side of a volcano. creek. A comparatively narrow INLET, of fresh or salt water, which is tidal throughout its whole course. A small TRIBUTARY. A small, narrow BAY which extends farther inland than a COVE. crescent (adj.). See PHASES OF THE MOON. crest. The highest part of a WAVE, SWELL, RIDGE, etc. crib. A permanent marine structure usually designed to support or elevate pipelines; especially a structure enclosing a screening device at the offshore end of a potable water intake pipe. The structure is commonly a heavy timber enclosure that has been sunken with rocks or other debris. critical sounding. The least depth in proximity to a known or potential navigational route. cross bearings. Two or more BEARINGS used as intersecting LINES OF POSITION for fixing the POSITION of a craft. cross hairs. See CROSS WIRES. crossing angle. See ANGLE. crosslines. Sounding lines that cross the main system of lines at either right angles or at an oblique angle to serve as a check on the accuracy of the work.

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cross lines of sounding. SOUNDING LINES run approximately at right angles to those of normal direction, frequently useful when examining SHOALS. Cross lines are also run after completing the main system of SOUNDING LINES, with the purpose of checking them. cross sea. A series of WAVES or SWELL crossing another wave system at an angle. cross section lines of soundings. SOUNDING LINES run in a SURVEY perpendicular to the FLOW of a STREAM and from BANK to BANK in a RIVER. cross wind. WIND which blows in a direction perpendicular to that of the motion of a moving object, relative to the EARTH's surface. cross wires (or hairs). Wires or etched lines, at right angles, held at the FOCAL PLANE of an astronomical or sighting TELESCOPE. See also RETICLE. cruise line of sounding. See TRACK LINE OF SOUNDING. cruising radius (or range). The distance a craft can travel at a given SPEED without refueling. crust. In GEOLOGY, the outer LAYER of the solid EARTH; the LITHOSPHERE. Also called earth's crust. crystal clock. See CLOCK. ctd probe. Instrument for measuring electrical CONDUCTIVITY, TEMPERATURE and DEPTH of the SEA WATER. See PROBE. culmination. The position of a HEAVENLY BODY when at highest APPARENT ALTITUDE. Also, for a HEAVENLY BODY which is continually above the HORIZON, the position of lowest APPARENT ALTITUDE. Culmination occurs when the body transits the LOCAL MERIDIAN. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT. culture. All features constructed on the surface of the EARTH by man, such as cities, railways, CANALS, etc. cumulonimbus. See CLOUD GENERA. cumulus. See CLOUD GENERA. cupola. A small dome-shaped tower or turret rising from a building. current. Water or other fluid in essentially horizontal motion. In British terminology, a non-periodical movement of water, generally horizontally, due to many causes such as different temperatures and prevalent WINDS. Some may be temporary, others permanent. current: backrush. A GRADIENT CURRENT caused by the rise of water level near shores and in SEA REACHES. current: coastal. A relatively uniform DRIFT usually flowing parallel to the SHORE in the deeper water adjacent to the SURF ZONE. current: density. A GRADIENT CURRENT caused by the horizontal gradient of water density. current: diurnal. The type of TIDAL CURRENT having only one FLOOD and one EBB period in a TIDAL DAY. current: drift. A wide, slow-moving OCEAN CURRENT principally caused by WINDS. current: drift angle. The angle between the true heading and the track of a vessel caused by the action of current. current: earth. See CURRENT(S): TELLURIC. current: ebb. See EBB STREAM. current: flood. See FLOOD STREAM. current: geostrophic. A current existing when the horizontal pressure gradient and the Coriolis force are in balance. current: gradient. A current due to the horizontal component of the hydrostatic pressure gradient.

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current: mixed. The type of TIDAL CURRENT characterized by a conspicuous difference in SPEED and duration between the two FLOOD CURRENTS or two EBB CURRENTS occurring each TIDAL DAY. current: nontidal. Any CURRENT that is caused by other than TIDE PRODUCING FORCES. See also STREAM. current: ocean/sea. A movement of ocean water characterized by regularity, either of a cyclic nature or as a continuous STREAM flowing along a definable PATH. current: periodic. An oscillating CURRENT the values of which recur at somewhat regular intervals. current: permanent. A CURRENT which continues with relatively little periodic or seasonal change. current: rectilinear. See CURRENT: REVERSING. current: residual. The mean CURRENT without periodic components. current: reversing. A TIDAL CURRENT which flows alternately in approximately opposite directions, with SLACK WATER at each reversal. Such CURRENTS occur principally in areas where motion is largely restricted to relatively narrow CHANNELS. Also called rectilinear current or rectilinear stream. current: rip. The return flow of water piled up on SHORE by incoming WAVES and WIND. current: rotary. A TIDAL CURRENT that flows continually, with the direction of FLOW changing through 360 during a TIDAL CYCLE. Called rotary stream in British terminology. current: seasonal. A CURRENT which has large changes in SPEED or direction due to seasonal WINDS. current: semidiurnal. The type of TIDAL CURRENT having two flood and two ebb periods of nearly the same duration during a TIDAL DAY. current: stream. A narrow, deep, and fast-moving CURRENT as opposed to a relatively wide and weak DRIFT CURRENT. current: subsurface. A CURRENT usually flowing below the THERMOCLINE generally at slower SPEEDS and frequently in a different direction from the CURRENTS near the surface. current: surface. A CURRENT that does not extend more than a few (2-3) METRES below the surface. current: surge. The coastal CURRENT influenced by remote waves. current(s): telluric. Natural electric currents that flow on or near the EARTH's surface in large sheets. Also called earth current. current: tidal. The alternating horizontal movement of water associated with the RISE and fall of the TIDE caused by TIDE-PRODUCING FORCES. Also called tidal stream. current: turbidity. A highly turbid, relatively dense CURRENT carrying large quantities of CLAY, SILT and SAND in suspension which flows down a submarine SLOPE through less dense SEA WATER. current: wind driven. A CURRENT formed by the force of the WIND. current chart. See CHART. current cycle. A complete set of tidal current conditions, as those occurring during a tidal day, lunar month, or Metonic cycle. current difference. The difference between the TIME of SLACK WATER or STRENGTH OF CURRENT at a SUBORDINATE STATION and at its REFERENCE STATION. current direction. See DIRECTION OF CURRENT. current line. See CURRENT POLE.

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current meter. An instrument for the measurement of either SPEED alone or of both direction and SPEED of a CURRENT. See CURRENT POLE, EKMAN CURRENT METER, PRICE-GURLEY CURRENT METER, ROBERTS RADIO CURRENT METER, SWALLOW FLOAT, SAVONIUS ROTOR CURRENT METER, WOLLASTON CURRENT METER. current pole. A pole used to determine the direction and SPEED of a SURFACE CURRENT. The direction is determined by the direction of motion of the pole, and the SPEED by the amount of an attached graduated line (called current line or log line) paid out in a specified TIME. current station. The geographic location at which current observations are conducted. Also, the facilities used to make current observations. These may include a buoy, ground tackle, current meters, recording mechanism, and radio transmitter. See CONTROL current STATION and SUBORDINATE current STATION. current tables. TABLES listing predictions of the TIMES and SPEEDS of TIDAL CURRENTS at various places, and other pertinent information. Also called tidal current tables. cursor. A device used with an instrument, to provide a movable reference, as the runner of a SLIDE RULE, or the rotatable bearing indicator on a radar scope. In computer systems, a highlighted point on the DISPLAY which indicates the actual working position. For graphical editing special cursors (e.g. crosses, cross-hairs) can be selected. On output the cursor is moved automatically by the computer; on input it is under user control by means of a manual controlling device. A cursor may also be a manually positionable device, sometimes magnifying lens and a reticula to be used in connection with a DIGITIZER. curvature correction. In ASTRONOMY, a CORRECTION applied to the mean of a series of OBSERVATIONS on a STAR or PLANET to take account of the divergence of the apparent PATH of the STAR or PLANET from a straight line. In GEODESY, the CORRECTION applied in some geodetic work to take account of the divergence of the surface of the EARTH (SPHEROID) from a plane. curve: depth. See DEPTH CURVE. customhouse. The office, especially in harbours, at which customs are collected. Cust protractor. See PROTRACTOR. cut: angle of. See ANGLE: CROSSING. cutter. A boat belonging to a warship. cycle. One complete series of events or PHENOMENA that recur regularly in the same sequence. See also FREQUENCY, HERTZ, PERIOD. cycle per second. A unit of FREQUENCY more and more superseded by the HERTZ. cycloidal wave. See WAVE. cyclone. See DEPRESSION. cylindrical buoy. See CAN BUOY. cylindrical projection. See PROJECTION.

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1194 1195 daily rate. See CHRONOMETER RATE. daily retardation. The amount of time by which corresponding tidal PHASES grow later day by day (averages approximately 50 MINUTES). dam. A barrier to check or confine anything in motion; particularly one constructed to hold back water and raise its level to form a RESERVOIR, or to prevent flooding. damped wave(s). See WAVE. damping. The dissipation of energy with TIME or distance. The progressive reduction of AMPLITUDE of OSCILLATIONS, WAVES, etc. dan buoy. A BUOY consisting of a ballasted FLOAT carrying a staff which supports a flag or LIGHT. danger angle. The maximum (or minimum) angle between two points, as observed from a craft, indicating the limit of safe approach to an offlying danger. danger area. An area designated by a proper authority, in which a danger to craft exists. Also called danger zone. danger bearing. See BEARING. danger buoy. See ISOLATED DANGER MARK. danger line. A line drawn on a CHART, to indicate the limits of safe NAVIGATION for a vessel of specific DRAFT. A dotted line on a CHART to emphasize the presence of an OBSTRUCTION. dangerous rock. A SUNKEN ROCK of a small area (PINNACLE), at such a DEPTH as to be considered dangerous to SURFACE NAVIGATION. dangerous semicircle. Region of a TROPICAL CYCLONE, situated to the right of its PATH in the northern hemisphere and to the left of its PATH in the southern hemisphere, in which the SEAS are higher and the WINDS more violent and tend also to carry shipping forward on to the CYCLONE's PATH. The other half of the CYCLONE is termed the navigable semicircle. dangerous wreck. A WRECK submerged at such a DEPTH as to be considered dangerous to SURFACE NAVIGATION. danger sounding. See SOUNDING. danger to navigation. Any feature or condition that might hinder, obstruct, endanger or otherwise constitute danger to safe navigation. danger zone. See DANGER AREA. dark slide. See SLIDE: DARK. data. A representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalised manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing. data bank. A collection of DATA in a common location, relating to a given set of subjects. Usually comprised of several DATA BASES considered as an entity. data base. An organised collection of DATA stored so as to be capable of use by relevant applications with the DATA being accessed by different logical paths. It should be application independent. data base management system. A set of software for creating, maintaining and accessing the DATA of a DATA BASE. data processing. Any operation carried out with data usually with the help of a computer.

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data retrieval. The extraction of data which meet certain criteria from a FILE or DATA BANK. data set. A logical entity of data consisting of several elements (fields) grouped under one criterion. data telemetry. Measuring a quantity, and transmitting the measured value to a distant station where further processing takes place. date line. The line coinciding approximately with the 180th MERIDIAN, at which each calendar day first begins, the BOUNDARY between the -12 and +12 TIME ZONES. The date on each side of this line differs by one DAY, but the TIME is the same in these two ZONES. Sometimes called calendar line or international date line. datum. Any numerical or geometrical quantity or set of such quantities which may serve as a reference or base for other quantities. In geodesy a datum is defined by a set of parameters specifying the reference surface or the reference coordinate system. Therefore two types of datums are required: a horizontal datum which forms the basis for computations of horizontal control surveys in which the curvature of the earth is considered, and a vertical datum to which elevations are referred. datum: chart. A permanently established surface from which SOUNDINGS or tide heights are referenced, usually LOW WATER. Also called DATUM, datum level, DATUM PLANE, hydrographic datum, reference level, reference plane. See DATUM: TIDAL. datum: geodetic. A set of parameters specifying the reference surface or the reference coordinate system used for geodetic control in the calculation of coordinates of points on the earth. Commonly datums are defined as horizontal and vertical datums separately. For a local geodetic datum the reference surface is defined by five parameters: the LATITUDE and LONGITUDE of an INITIAL POINT, the AZIMUTH of a line from this point, and the parameters of the REFERENCE SPHEROID. Absolute datums specify the INITIAL POINT of the REFERENCE ELLIPSOID to be (ideally) located at the earth's centre of mass. For modern reference systems using datum information given by satellites additional parameters are defined, e.g. gravity models. See also HORIZONTAL CONTROL DATUM. datum: levelling. See DATUM: VERTICAL CONTROL. datum: sounding. The horizontal plane or TIDAL DATUM to which the SOUNDINGS on a HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY are reduced. Also called datum for sounding reduction. datum: tidal. A LEVEL of the SEA defined by some PHASE of the TIDE, from which water depths and HEIGHTS OF TIDE are reckoned. datum: vertical control. Any LEVEL SURFACE (e.g., MEAN SEA LEVEL) taken as a surface of reference from which to reckon ELEVATIONS. Also called datum level, reference level, reference plane, levelling datum, datum for heights. See also DATUM PLANE. datum for heights. See DATUM: VERTICAL CONTROL. datum for sounding. See DATUM: SOUNDING. datum for sounding reduction. See DATUM: SOUNDING. datum level. See DATUM: VERTICAL CONTROL and DATUM: CHART. datum line. See REFERENCE LINE. datum of tide predictions. The LEVEL from which the HEIGHTS OF TIDE are referenced in the TIDE TABLES. See also DATUM: CHART. datum plane. A VERTICAL CONTROL DATUM. Although a LEVEL SURFACE is not a plane, the VERTICAL CONTROL DATUM is frequently referred to as the datum plane. datum point. See REFERENCE POINT.

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day. The duration of one ROTATION of the EARTH, or occasionally another CELESTIAL BODY, on its AXIS. It is measured by successive TRANSITS of a reference point on the CELESTIAL SPHERE over the MERIDIAN, and each type takes its name from the reference used. The period of daylight, as distinguished from night. day: apparent solar. See DAY: SOLAR. day: astronomical. A MEAN SOLAR DAY beginning at NOON. day: civil. A MEAN SOLAR DAY beginning at MIDNIGHT. day: constituent. The duration of one ROTATION of the EARTH on its AXIS, with respect to a fictitious STAR representing one of the periodic elements in the tidal forces. It approximates the length of a LUNAR or SOLAR DAY. The expression is not applicable to a long-period constituent. day: lunar. The duration of one ROTATION of the EARTH on its AXIS, with respect to the MOON. Its average length h m is about 24 50 of MEAN SOLAR TIME. Also called TIDAL DAY. The duration of one ROTATION of the MOON on its AXIS, with respect to the SUN. day: mean solar. See DAY: SOLAR. day: sidereal. The duration of one ROTATION of the EARTH on its AXIS, with respect to the VERNAL EQUINOX over the UPPER BRANCH of a MERIDIAN. Because of the PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOXES, the sidereal day thus defined is slightly less than the PERIOD of ROTATION with respect to the STARS, but the difference is less than h m s 0.01 SECOND. The length of the sidereal day is 24 HOURS of SIDEREAL TIME or 23 56 04.091 of MEAN SOLAR TIME. day: solar. The duration of one ROTATION of the EARTH on its AXIS, with respect to the SUN. This may be either a mean solar day, or an apparent solar day, as the reference is the MEAN or APPARENT SUN, respectively. The duration of one apparent ROTATION of the SUN. day: tidal. See DAY: LUNAR and TIDAL DAY. daybeacon. An unlighted BEACON. A daybeacon is identified by its colour, shape, and number of its daymark. The simplest form of daybeacon consists of a single pile with a daymark affixed at or near its top. daylight saving time. See TIME. daymark. 1. The identifying characteristics of an aid to navigation which serve to facilitate its recognition against a daylight viewing background. On those structures that do not by themselves present an adequate viewing area to be seen at the required distance, the aid is made more visible by affixing a daymark to the structure. A daymark so affixed has a distinctive colour and shape depending upon the purpose of the aid. 2. An unlighted navigational mark. day number. The sequentially numbered day of the year, usually starting with day number 1 on 1st January. dead ahead. Bearing 000relative. If the bearing is approximate, the term ahead should be used. dead astern. Bearing 180relative. If the bearing is approximate, the term astern should be used. Also called right astern. deadbeat (adj.). Aperiodic, or without a PERIOD. deadbeat compass. See COMPASS. deadhead. 1. A block of wood used as anchor buoy. 2. A BOLLARD. dead reckoning. A method of NAVIGATION utilizing only the SPEED and HEADING of the craft, without reference to external aids. In AIR NAVIGATION, the best estimate of COURSE and SPEED over the GROUND is used, i.e., dead reckoning incorporates wind vector. dead reckoning position. See POSITION.

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dead reckoning tracer. A device that automatically provides a graphical record of the DEAD RECKONING TRACK. See COURSE RECORDER. dead reckoning track. See TRACK. dead water. The PHENOMENON which occurs when a ship of low propulsive power negotiates water which has a thin LAYER of fresher water over a deeper LAYER of more saline water. As the ship moves, part of its energy goes into generation of an INTERNAL WAVE which causes a noticeable drop in efficiency of propulsion. debris. See DETRITUS. deceleration. Negative ACCELERATION. decibar. One-tenth of a BAR. decibel. See BEL. decimetre. One-tenth of a METRE. declination. In ASTRONOMY, the angle at the centre of the CELESTIAL SPHERE between the radius passing through a CELESTIAL BODY and the plane of the CELESTIAL EQUATOR. Declination is measured by the arc of the HOUR CIRCLE between the CELESTIAL BODY and the CELESTIAL EQUATOR. It is plus when the body is north of the EQUATOR, and minus when south of it. declination: grid. See GRID. declination: magnetic. See VARIATION. declinational inequality. See DIURNAL INEQUALITY. declination circle. See HOUR CIRCLE. declinatoire. A combined MAGNETIC COMPASS and STRAIGHT EDGE, suitable for use on a PLANE TABLE to mark the MAGNETIC MERIDIAN. Also known as a box compass or trough compass. See also COMPASS: TUBULAR. declinometer. A magnetic instrument similar to a SURVEYOR'S COMPASS, but arranged so that the LINE OF SIGHT can be rotated to conform with the NEEDLE or to any desired setting on the HORIZONTAL CIRCLE. Used in determining the magnetic declination. See VARIATION. declivity. A downward SLOPE or sloping of a HILL; as opposed to ACCLIVITY. deep. In OCEANOGRAPHY, an obsolete term which was generally restricted to DEPTHS greater than 6,000 m. An unmarked fathom point on a LEAD LINE. deep-draught route. A route which is primarily selected for use by ships which, because of their deep DRAUGHT, may not be able to navigate safely outside such route. deep ocean floor. The surface lying at the bottom of the deep ocean. deep scattering layer (DSL). See PHANTOM BOTTOM. deep-sea camera. See CAMERA. deep-sea lead. See LEAD. deep-sea thermometer. See THERMOMETER. deep water route. A route in a designated area within defined limits which has been accurately surveyed for clearance of sea bottom and submerged obstacles to a minimum indicated depth of water. defile. A narrow PASS or GORGE between MOUNTAINS. definition. In PHOTOGRAPHY, and electronic equipment, the degree of clarity and sharpness of an IMAGE. See RESOLUTION and RESOLVING POWER.

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deflection of the plumb line. See DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL. deflection of the vertical. The angle at a point on the EARTH (GEOID) between the VERTICAL (direction of the PLUMB LINE) and the direction of the NORMAL to the SPHEROID OF REFERENCE through the point. Also called deflection of the plumb line, deviation of the vertical, or station error. deflector. An instrument for measuring the directive force acting on a MAGNETIC COMPASS on different HEADINGS, for use in COMPASS ADJUSTMENT. degaussing. Neutralization of the strength of the MAGNETIC FIELD of a vessel, by means of suitably arranged electric coils permanently installed in the vessel. See also CABLE: DEGAUSSING. degaussing cable. See CABLE. degree. A unit of angular or circular-arc measurement, equal to 1/360 of a circle. A unit of measurement of temperature in any SCALE. Delambre's spheroid. See REFERENCE SPHEROID. delimitation. The process of establishing the LINE(S) OF DELIMITATION in the context of the United Nations' Law of the Sea Convention. delineation. In CARTOGRAPHY, the visual selection and distinguishing of mapworthy features on various possible source materials by outlining the features on the source material, or on a map manuscript (as when operating a STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTING INSTRUMENT); also a preliminary step in COMPILATION. delta. An area of alluvial DEPOSIT, usually triangular in outline, near the MOUTH of a RIVER. demagnetize (v.t.). To remove MAGNETISM. The opposite is MAGNETIZE. densitometer. An electric instrument designed to accurately measure optical DENSITY or tone values and used in place of the human eye for such purposes. density. In PHOTOGRAPHY, a measure of the degree of blackening of an exposed film, PLATE or paper after development, or the direct IMAGE (in the case of a print-out material). It is defined strictly as the logarithm of the optical OPACITY. In OCEANOGRAPHY, density is equivalent to SPECIFIC GRAVITY and represents the ratio, at ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, of the WEIGHT of a given volume of SEA WATER to that of an equal volume of distilled water at 4.0 C. density layer. A LAYER of water in which DENSITY increases with DEPTH enough to increase the BUOYANCY of a submarine. density of soundings. Intervals between LINES OF SOUNDING and SOUNDINGS in the same line. Density of soundings mostly depends on the SCALE and nature of the SURVEY. Also called frequency of soundings. departure. The distance between two MERIDIANS at any given PARALLEL OF LATITUDE expressed in linear units, usually NAUTICAL MILES. The distance to the east or west made good by a vessel in proceeding from one point to another. departure: point of. The point from which the initial COURSE to reach the point of destination begins. deposit. Accumulations of solid material (of any type or from any source) on the sea bottom which eventually may become compacted and consolidated and form sedimentary ROCK. depressed pole. See POLE. depressor. A device to maintain a towfish at a given depth. depression. Any HOLLOW or relatively sunken area. In METEOROLOGY, a region of the ATMOSPHERE in which the pressure is low relative to the surrounding region at the same level. It is represented on a WEATHER CHART by a system of ISOBARS at a specified level or of CONTOURS at a specified pressure which enclose relatively low values of pressure or level. Also called low or cyclone.

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depression: angle of. See ANGLE OF DEPRESSION. depression contour. See CONTOUR. depression of the horizon. See DIP. depth. The vertical distance from a given water level to the BOTTOM. depth: charted. The vertical distance from the CHART DATUM to the BOTTOM. depth: compensation. The DEPTH at which the light intensity is just sufficient to bring about a balance between the oxygen produced by ALGAE through PHOTOSYNTHESIS and that consumed by them through respiration. depth: controlling. The least DEPTH in the approach or CHANNEL to an area, such as a PORT or ANCHORAGE, governing the maximum DRAFT of vessels that can enter. depth: standard. A DEPTH below the sea surface at which water properties should be measured and reported, according to the proposal by the International Association of Physical Oceanography in 1936. depth: thermometric. The DEPTH, in METRES, at which paired protected and unprotected THERMOMETERS attached to a NANSEN BOTTLE are reversed. The difference between the corrected readings of the 2 THERMOMETERS represents the effect of the HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE at the DEPTH of reversal. This DEPTH may then be determined by formula or from a DEPTH ANOMALY GRAPH. DEPTHS obtained by this means are of greatest value when a WIRE ANGLE occurs. depth anomaly graph. A graph constructed to determine the difference between the computed or THERMOMETRIC DEPTH and the ideal or assumed DEPTH of reversal of THERMOMETERS attached to a NANSEN BOTTLE. depth contour. See DEPTH CURVE. depth curve. A depth curve is a line connecting points of equal water depth which is sometimes significantly displaced outside of soundings, symbols, and other chart detail for clarity as well as generalization. Depth curves therefore often represent an approximate location of the line of equal depth as related to the surveyed line delineated on the source. depth differences. Those differences in DEPTH which may be encountered in HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS at crossing of CROSS LINES and principal LINES OF SOUNDINGS. depth finder. An instrument for the measurement of the DEPTH of water, particularly an ECHO SOUNDER. depth gauge. See GAUGE. depth ice. See ANCHOR ICE. depth of the sea. The vertical distance from the water surface to the sea bottom. derelict. Any property abandoned at SEA, often of sufficient size as to constitute a menace to NAVIGATION; especially an abandoned vessel. See WRECK. derrick. A tall pyramid of latticed steel mounted over a borehole. descending node. See NODE. detached position. See POSITION. detached sounding. See SOUNDING. detail(s). In CARTOGRAPHY, the items or particulars of information (shown on a MAP by lines, SYMBOLS, and lettering) which, when considered as a whole, furnish the comprehensive representation of the physical and cultural features of the EARTH's surface. detection threshold. The lowest or highest level of a parameter above or below which sensing equipment can detect the parameter.

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detritus. In GEOLOGY, material removed by disintegration and other processes from the surface of ROCKS. There is a general tendence to use debris. In MARINE BIOLOGY, suspended matter of organic origin permanently incapable of reproduction organic detritus may often 'collect' a considerable amount of inorganic material. deviation. See DEVIATION: MAGNETIC. deviation: constant. DEVIATION which is the same on any HEADING, which may result from certain arrangements of asymmetrical horizontal SOFT IRON. deviation: magnetic. The angle between the COMPASS NEEDLE and the MAGNETIC MERIDIAN, expressed in degrees east or west of MAGNETIC MERIDIAN. Also called deviation. deviation: quadrantal. DEVIATION which changes its sign (E or W) approximately each 90change of HEADING. It is caused by INDUCED MAGNETISM in horizontal SOFT IRON. deviation: residual. DEVIATION of a MAGNETIC COMPASS after COMPENSATION. deviation: semicircular. DEVIATION which changes sign (E or W) approximately each 180change of HEADING. deviation: standard. See ERROR: STANDARD. deviation of the vertical. See DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL. deviation table. A TABLE of the DEVIATION of a MAGNETIC COMPASS on various HEADINGS, magnetic or compass. dew. Deposit of water drops on objects at or near the GROUND, produced by the condensation of water vapour from the surrounding clear air. dew-point. The temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure and constant water vapour content to reach saturation. diagenesis. The chemical and physical changes that SEDIMENTS undergo after their deposition, by LITHIFICATION. diagram. A graphic representation of certain DATA. dial. The face of a WATCH or CLOCK. The clockwise face of an instrument for indicating, as by a moving pointer, the amount of something; face of a COMPASS, GAUGE or METER. A SUNDIAL. diaphone. A device operated by compressed air for producing a distinctive FOG SIGNAL. diaphragm. In a TELESCOPE, a thin glass disk on which etched lines forming a RETICLE are placed. See also RETICLE, and APERTURE STOP. diapositive. A positive PHOTOGRAPH on a transparent medium. One which has a right reading image when viewed through the base support. difference: tidal. See TIDAL DIFFERENCE. difference of latitude. The ANGULAR DISTANCE between the PARALLELS of two places measured on a MERIDIAN. difference of longitude. The angle at the POLE or intercepted arc of EQUATOR between the MERIDIANS of two places. differential GPS. Differential GPS is implemented by placing a GPS monitor receiver at a precisely known location. Instead of computing a navigation fix, the monitor determines the range error to every GPS satellite it can track. These ranging errors are then transmitted to local users where they are applied as corrections before computing the navigation result. differential levelling. See LEVELLING.

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differential mode. A method of accurate positioning; transmissions of an electromagnetic position fixing system are received at known positions ashore and the offsets between absolute known positions and system positions are transmitted to the ship in the vicinity. The offsets are applied to the measurements of the ship's receiver. differential shrinkage. In mapping, the difference in unit contraction along the grain structure of the material as compared to the unit contraction across the grain structure; frequently refers to photographic film and papers and to map materials in general. diffraction. The bending of the RAYS of RADIANT ENERGY around the edges of an obstacle, or when passing near the edges of an opening, or through a small hole or slit, resulting in the formation of a SPECTRUM, or arrangement by WAVE LENGTH of component WAVES, producing, for visible WAVE LENGTHS, the chromatic SPECTRUM. The bending of a WAVE as it passes an obstruction. digital. A method of representing information by combinations of discrete and discontinuous data. digital chart. See ELECTRONIC CHART. digital computer. See COMPUTER. digital imagery processing system. A system which processes images which are stored in digital form. digital terrain model (DTM). A model representing the terrain surface by a collection of digital data, mainly coordinates in three dimensions, x, y, and z, and a digitally defined method to interpolate arbitrary terrain heights in between the stored values. Not to be confused with digital cartographic model which may also contain digital data representing terrain, but in a form suitable for the drawing of a particular kind of map. digitization (or digitisation). The process of converting analog data to digital data. digitizer. A computer aided device equipped with a digitizing table and a CURSOR for digitally capturing graphical data (pictures, charts), usually based on vector-techniques (as opposed to a SCANNER). The digitizing table consists of a gridded electrical network under the table's surface which allows an automatic computation of the planar x/y coordinates of a cursor's position. Lines are sequentially scanned by moving the cursor along the position and identifying the appropriate symbol on a menu. dike (or dyke). An artificial ditch to hold, or control the FLOW of water. An artificial EMBANKMENT to contain or hold back water. In GEOLOGY, a tabular body of IGNEOUS ROCK molded from molten ROCK within a fissure. dilution of precision (DOP). A parameter relating the precision of the position (and/or an unknown auxiliary) provided by a positioning system to that of the "observed quantities" directly measured by the system. DOP is a measure of the influence of the geometry of loci on the precision of position fixing. DOP is frequently used with a qualifying term such as geometric (GDOP), horizontal (HDOP), vertical (VDOP) etc. to indicate that DOP is related to all or some unknown quantities. diopter. A unit of refractive power of an optical system in the SI system. dioptric light. See LIGHT. dip. The vertical angle, at the eye of an observer between the horizontal and the LINE OF SIGHT to the APPARENT HORIZON. Also called dip of the horizon or depression of the horizon. The angle between the horizontal and the LINES OF FORCES of the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD at any point. Also called magnetic dip or magnetic inclination. dip circle. An instrument for measuring MAGNETIC DIP. It consists essentially of a DIP NEEDLE or MAGNETIC NEEDLE, suspended in such manner as to be free to rotate about a horizontal AXIS. Also called INCLINOMETER, or dipping compass. See also EARTH INDUCTOR. dip correction. That CORRECTION to SEXTANT ALTITUDE due to the DIP OF THE HORIZON. Also called height of eye correction. dip (or dipping) needle. A MAGNETIC NEEDLE suspended in such a manner as to be free to rotate about a horizontal AXIS. See DIP CIRCLE.

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dip of a sea horizon. The vertical angle, at the eye of an observer, between the horizontal and the line of sight to the sea horizon. dip of the horizon. See DIP. dipping compass. See DIP CIRCLE. dipsey lead. See LEAD: DEEP SEA. direction. In SURVEYING and mapping, the angle between a line or plane and an arbitrarily chosen REFERENCE LINE or PLANE. direction: base. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the DIRECTION of the vertical plane containing the AIR BASE which might be expressed as a BEARING or an AZIMUTH. direction: grid. Horizontal DIRECTION expressed as ANGULAR DISTANCE from GRID NORTH. directional antenna. See ANTENNA. directional gyroscope. See GYROSCOPE. directional (or directed) radiobeacon station. A special type of radiobeacon station the emissions of which are intended to provide a definite TRACK for GUIDANCE. direction finder. See RADIO DIRECTION FINDER. direction (or directional) light. See LIGHT. direction method of observation. A method of observing angular relationships wherein the graduated CIRCLE is held in a fixed position, and the DIRECTIONS of the various SIGNALS are observed around the HORIZON. Thus, DIRECTIONS are pointings whereby angles are found by the differences in DIRECTION. direction of current. The direction toward which a CURRENT is flowing, called the SET of the CURRENT. Also called current direction. direction of gravity. See GRAVITY. direction of movement of the waves. Direction from which the WAVES arrive at a fixed point. direction of relative movement. See RELATIVE MOTION. direction of the force of gravity. See GRAVITY: DIRECTION OF. direction of tilt. The DIRECTION (AZIMUTH) of the PRINCIPAL PLANE of a PHOTOGRAPH. Also, the DIRECTION of the PRINCIPAL LINE on a PHOTOGRAPH. direction of traffic flow: established. A traffic flow pattern indicating the directional movement of traffic as established within a traffic separation scheme. direction of traffic flow: recommended. A traffic flow pattern indicating a recommended directional movement of traffic where it is impractical or unnecessary to adopt an established direction of traffic flow. direction of wind. Direction from which the WIND blows. Also called wind direction. direction theodolite. See THEODOLITE. direct levelling. See LEVELLING. direct wave. See WAVE. disc (U.S. disk). Rotating storage medium composed of one or two usable surfaces or a vertical assembly of such discs with a common axis. Typically discs combine high storage volumes and short access time allowing fast access to data which is distributed randomly over the medium.

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discoloured water. Unnatural coloured areas in the SEA due to the existence of SHOALS. SEA WATER having a colour other than the blues and greens normally seen. Variations of the colours red, yellow, green and brown, as well as black and white, have been reported. Discolorations may appear in patches, streaks, or large areas and may be caused by concentrations of inorganic or organic particles or PLANKTON. See RED TIDE. discontinuity layer. See THERMOCLINE. discrepancy. A difference between results of duplicate or comparable measures of a quantity. The difference in computed values of a quantity obtained by different processes using DATA from the same SURVEY. discrepancy in position. The difference between a reckoned and an observed position at the same time. discriminator. A radar circuit that produces a RESPONSE which depends upon the FREQUENCY of the input signal. A transponder beacon circuit which accepts PULSES of proper duration and rejects others. That part of a frequency modulation receiver which converts the modulated SIGNALS directly into audiofrequency signals. dish aerial. A parabolic aerial for the receipt and transmission of high frequency radio signals. dispersion. The separation of RADIANT ENERGY into its various components. In optics, the separation of light into its component colours by its passage through a diffraction grating or by REFRACTION such as that provided by a prism. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the separation of a complex surface gravity wave disturbance into its component parts. displacement. In RADIOLOCATION, the half of the band of uncertainty having as its centre line an ELECTRONIC LINE OF POSITION. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, any shift in the position of an IMAGE on a PHOTOGRAPH which does not alter the perspective characteristics of the PHOTOGRAPH (i.e. shift due to TILT of the PHOTOGRAPH, scale change in the PHOTOGRAPH, and RELIEF of the objects photographed). displacement drafts. See DRAFT. display. A visual presentation of data. distance finding station. A RADIOBEACON equipped with a synchronized SOUND SIGNAL to provide a means of determining distances from the source of the SOUND, by measuring the difference in the time of reception of the SIGNALS. distance measuring equipment (DME). See ELECTRONIC DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT. distance reduction. See REDUCTION TO SEA LEVEL. distortion. An undesired change in WAVEFORM. In optics, an aberration affecting the position of the IMAGES off the AXIS, in which objects at different ANGULAR DISTANCES from the AXIS undergo different MAGNIFICATIONS. Also called lens distortion. In PHOTOGRAPHY, any shift in the position of an IMAGE on a PHOTOGRAPH which alters the perspective characteristics of the PHOTOGRAPH. Causes of image distortion include lens aberration, DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE of film or paper, and motion of the film or CAMERA. distortion: angular. In CARTOGRAPHY, DISTORTION in a PROJECTION because of non-conformality. See CONFORMALITY. distortion: lens. See DISTORTION. distortion: radial. A lens aberration that is corrected on the PHOTOGRAPH by displacing the IMAGE along a radial line from the PRINCIPAL POINT. distortion of medium. Changes in the dimensions of SURVEYS or CHARTS due to expansion or contraction of the paper on which the SURVEY or CHART is drawn or printed. See also DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE. distributary. A river branch which flows away from the main STREAM without returning to it, as in a DELTA. diurnal aberration. See ABERRATION OF LIGHT.

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diurnal arc. See ARC: ASTRONOMICAL. diurnal current. See CURRENT. diurnal inequality. The difference between the HEIGHTS of the two HIGH TIDES (high water inequality) or the two LOW TIDES (low water inequality) during a TIDAL DAY, or the difference in SPEED between the two FLOOD or the two EBB CURRENTS during a TIDAL DAY. The average diurnal inequality is called tropic high water inequality and tropic low water inequality when referred to the HIGH WATERS and LOW WATERS, respectively, of TROPIC TIDES. Mean diurnal high water inequality is half the average difference between the HEIGHTS of the two HIGH WATERS of each TIDAL DAY over a 19-year period. Mean diurnal low water inequality is half the average difference between the HEIGHTS of the two LOW WATERS for a similar period. Also called declinational inequality. diurnal motion. The apparent daily motion of a celestial body. diurnal parallax. See PARALLAX. diurnal range. See RANGE. diurnal tide. See TIDE. diver. A person skilled in the practice of diving. divergence. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a horizontal FLOW of water, in different directions, from a common centre or zone; often associated with UPWELLING. divider(s). Measuring COMPASSES having both legs pointed, used principally for measuring distances and COORDINATES. dock. The space between two PIERS. Also called slip. dock: dry. An artificial BASIN fitted with a gate or CAISSON, into which vessels can be floated and the water pumped out to expose the vessel's bottom. Also called graving dock. dock: floating. A form of DRY DOCK consisting of a floating structure of one or more sections which can be partly submerged by controlled flooding to receive a vessel, then raised by pumping out the water so that the vessel's bottom can be exposed. dock: graving. See DOCK: DRY. dock: wet. A DOCK in which water can be maintained at any level by closing a gate when the water is at the desired level. dock sill. The foundation at the bottom of the entrance to a dry dock or lock against which the caisson or gates close. The depth of water controlling the use of the dock or lock is measured from the sill to the surface. dog leg. A LEG which does not lead directly to the destination or way point. doldrums. Zone of calm or light variable WINDS, in the lower atmospheric LAYERS, situated near the THERMAL EQUATOR; the zone follows, with slight time lag, the annual meridional fluctuation of the THERMAL EQUATOR. dolphin. A post or group of posts, used for mooring or warping a vessel, or as an AID TO NAVIGATION. The dolphin may be in the water, on a WHARF or on the BEACH. dolphin beacon. A minor light structure consisting of a number of piles driven into the bottom in a geometric or random pattern and drawn together, with a light mounted at the top. Doppler effect. The apparent change in WAVE LENGTH, and therefore in FREQUENCY of RADIANT ENERGY, when the distance between the source and the observer or RECEIVER is changing. This effect is exploited in underwater acoustics and satellite positioning. Doppler navigation. See NAVIGATION. double high water. See HIGH WATER.

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double low water. See LOW WATER. double meridian distance. See MERIDIAN DISTANCE. double tide. See TIDE. double zenith distance. See ZENITH DISTANCE. doubtful sounding. See SOUNDING. Dove prism. A prism which reverts the IMAGE but does not deviate nor displace the BEAM. A given angular ROTATION of the prism about its longitudinal AXIS causes the IMAGE to rotate through twice the angle. Also called a rotating prism. down. An area of high, treeless GROUND, usually undulating and covered with grass. See also DUNE. downstream (adj. and adv.). In the direction of FLOW of a CURRENT or STREAM. The opposite is UPSTREAM. downwind(adj. and adv.). In the direction toward which the WIND is blowing. The opposite is UPWIND. dracontic month. See MONTH: NODICAL. draft (or draught). The vertical distance, at any section of a vessel from the surface of the water to the bottom of the keel. When measured at or near the bow, it is referred to as draft forward and when measured at or near the stern as draft aft. The mean draft is the mean of the drafts forward and aft. These drafts are more specifically described as displacement drafts as opposed to navigational drafts which are measured to the lowest appendage to the hull as opposed to the keel. draft aft. See DRAFT. drafted original. A scribed or drafted CHART or portion of a CHART on stable base material, which may be processed for final REPRODUCTION. draft forward. See DRAFT. drafting. The art of drawing from given specifications. draft marks. Numerals at the bow and stern of a vessel that indicate the depth to which the vessel is submerged. draftsman (or draughtsman). A person who makes drawings. drag (v.t.). To tow a line or object below the surface to determine the least DEPTH in an area or to ensure that a given area is free from navigational dangers to a certain DEPTH. See also SWEEP. To pull along the BOTTOM, as an anchor. drag (of theodolite). A slight movement of the graduated CIRCLE produced by the rotation of the ALIDADE. draught. See DRAFT. draughtsman. See DRAFTSMAN. drawing. The graphic representation of data on a non-volatile medium. (U.S. terminology). An impression following the printing of a NAUTICAL CHART of either its black or its magenta detail on matte finish transparent plastic, used in revising subsequent printings of the CHART. dredge. An apparatus for bringing up solid material from the bottom of a water area, gathering deep water organisms, etc. A DREDGER. dredge (v.t.). To remove solid matter from the BOTTOM of a water area. dredged area. An area of the BOTTOM of a body of water which has been deepened by dredging.

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dredger. A vessel or floating structure equipped with machinery for excavating ditches or CANALS, deepening CHANNELS and HARBOURS, and removing solid matter from the BOTTOM of a water area. Also called a DREDGE. dredging buoy. A BUOY marking the limit of an area where dredging is being performed. 'dries'. See COVERS and UNCOVERS. drift. The SPEED of the water due to OCEAN or TIDAL CURRENTS. A wide, slow-moving CURRENT principally caused by WINDS. The distance a craft is moved by CURRENT and WIND. DRIFT ANGLE or LEEWAY. The term is also applied to any superficial deposit caused by a CURRENT of water or air. drift (v.i.). To move by action of WIND or CURRENT without control. drift angle. The difference between COURSE steered and COURSE MADE GOOD when due to action of CURRENT and WIND. The angle between the tangent to the turning circle and the centerline of the ship. drift bottle. An identifiable sealed bottle which is released into the SEA for use in studying CURRENTS. drift buoy. A DATA collection BUOY which is not moored to the sea bottom, but drifting freely in response to currents, tides, and wind. drift current. See CURRENT. drift ice foot. See RAMP. drifting logship. A LOGSHIP employed for the measurement of TIDAL STREAMS and CURRENTS. It is allowed to drift freely while its POSITIONS are fixed, during the PERIOD of OBSERVATION, by an accompanying boat, or from STATIONS ashore. drift lead. See LEAD. drift sounding. See SOUNDING. drift station. A scientific station established on the ICE of the Arctic Ocean. A term sometimes used in shoran operations to designate the ground station about which the aircraft flies. The second station is then referred to as rate station. driver rod. A device employed together with a SINKER to obtain BOTTOM SAMPLES when WIRE SOUNDING. It consists, essentially, of a galvanized iron tube the lower part of which contains a flap valve for retaining a bottom specimen. The tube releases the SINKER when it strikes the BOTTOM. Also called driver tube. driver tube. See DRIVER ROD. drizzle. Fairly uniform PRECIPITATION composed exclusively of fine drops of water (diameter less than 0.5 mm), very close to one another. drogue. A current measuring assembly consisting of a weighted parachute and an attached surface buoy. Also called parachute drogue. drum. A rotating cylinder on which is set a registering card or paper for recording purposes. Cylinder around which CABLE is wound in a winch. drum plotter. A plotter which uses a rotating drum or cylinder to move the drawing base in the direction of one coordinate axis while the plotting head only moves along the other coordinate axis. dry bulb thermometer. See THERMOMETER. dry (or dry card) compass. See COMPASS. dry dock. See DOCK.

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drying heights. HEIGHTS above SOUNDING DATUM, of any areas (BANKS, FORESHORES, ROCKS, etc.) which dry at LOW WATER. drying line. The line marking the transit from water to land; usually the low-water line. drying reef. A reef or part thereof which dries at low water. dry proof. An impression of a CHART pulled from the engraved PLATE onto a dry sheet of paper. This impression is fainter than a damp-pulled copy and unsuitable for ordinary use but is free from DISTORTION. duck blinds. Nonfloating structures used for concealing waterfowl hunters. They usually consist of a wooden framework covered with brush. They are essentially unreported to any charting authority when built. They are unlighted and often constructed in navigable water without regard to the possible hazard they pose, especially to the small craft operator. Many are substantial structures built on piles. Even after they are eventually reduced to ruins the pilings may persist for years. duct. A LAYER in the OCEAN or ATMOSPHERE where REFRACTION and, probably, REFLECTION result in the trapping and propagation within the LAYER of SOUND WAVES or ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. due publicity. Notification of a given action for general information through appropriate authorities within a reasonable amount of time in a suitable manner. Used in the context of the United Nations' Law of the Sea Convention. dumb compass. See PELORUS. dumping ground. See SPOIL GROUND. dumpy level. See LEVELLING INSTRUMENT: DUMPY LEVEL. dune. A mound, RIDGE or HILL of drifted SAND on the sea coast or in a desert. See SAND DUNE and DOWN. duplex. A method in which TELECOMMUNICATION between two STATIONS can take place in both directions simultaneously. duplexer. A switching device used to connect a TRANSMITTER and a RECEIVER to the same ANTENNA. duration of fall. See DURATION OF RISE AND FALL. duration of flood and duration of ebb. Duration of flood is the interval of time in which a tidal current is flooding, and the duration of ebb is the interval in which it is ebbing; these intervals being reckoned from the middle of the intervening slack waters or minimum currents. Together they cover, on an average, a period of 12.42 hours for a semidiurnal tidal current or a period of 24.84 hours for a diurnal current. In a normal semidiurnal tidal current, the duration of flood and duration of ebb will each be approximately equal to 6.21 hours, but the times may be modified greatly by the presence of a non-tidal flow. In a river the duration of ebb is usually longer than the duration of flood because of the fresh water discharge, especially during the spring months when snow and ice melt are the predominant influences. duration of rise and duration of fall. Duration of rise is the interval from low water to high water, and duration of fall is the interval from high water to low water. Together they cover, on an average, a period of 12.42 hours for a semidiurnal tide or a period of 24.84 hours for a diurnal tide. In a normal semidiurnal tide, the duration of rise and duration of fall will each be approximately equal to 6.21 hours, but in shallow waters and in rivers there is a tendency for a decrease in the duration of rise and a corresponding increase in the duration of fall. duration of tide. The time interval between LOW WATER and the following HIGH WATER or between HIGH WATER and the following LOW WATER. dust. Any substance comminuted or pulverized, especially EARTH or other solid matter in a minute and fine state of subdivision, so that the particles are small and light enough to be easily raised and carried in a CLOUD by the WIND. duststorm. Ensemble of particles of DUST or SAND energetically lifted to great HEIGHTS by a strong and turbulent WIND. Also called sandstorm. Also written as two words. Dutchman's log. See LOG.

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DX90-Format. Format for supply or interchange of digital cartographic data. DX90 provides two modes: the sequential, and the chain mode. dyke. See DIKE. dynameter. An instrument for measuring the MAGNIFYING POWER of a TELESCOPE. dynamic positioning. Manoeuvring of a vessel to keep a position relative to a seabed feature; normally underwater acoustic position fixing systems are used for this purpose. dynamometer. An apparatus for measuring force or energy. dyne. The unit of force in the CGS SYSTEM.

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1512 1513 eagre (or eager). See BORE. earth. The PLANET which we inhabit. The solid matter of the GLOBE in distinction from water and air. The GROUND. earth current. See CURRENT(S): TELLURIC. earth inductor. An electric instrument used to measure the INCLINATION of the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD. earth light. Feeble light of the dark part of the MOON's disc produced by the solar light reflected by the EARTH including the ATMOSPHERE. Also written as one word. Also called Earthshine. earthquake. A shaking or trembling of the CRUST of the EARTH caused by underground volcanic forces or by breaking and shifting of ROCK beneath the surface. Also written as one word. earth's crust. See CRUST. earth's magnetic field. See GEOMAGNETIC FIELD. earth's mantle. The relatively plastic region between the CRUST and core of the EARTH. Also called Asthenosphere. earthshine. See EARTH LIGHT. Also written as two words. earth tide. See TIDE. easting. The distance a craft makes good to the east. The opposite is WESTING. In a cartesian reference system the value of one coordinate, usually expressed in metres, measured from the CENTRAL MERIDIAN in east-west direction; used e.g. in the UTM system. ebb. The EBB STREAM. Sometimes the term 'ebb' is also used with reference to vertical tidal movement. The opposite is FLOOD. ebb current. See EBB STREAM. ebb interval. Short for strength of ebb interval. The interval between the transit of the moon over the meridian of a place and the time of the following strength of ebb. ebb stream. The horizontal movement of water associated with FALLING TIDE. Ebb streams generally set seaward, or in the opposite direction to the tide progression. Also called EBB, ebb current or outgoing stream. ebb strength. Phase of the ebb tidal current at the time of maximum velocity. Also, the velocity at this time. Also called strength of ebb. ebb tide. See TIDE: FALLING. eccentric angle. See LATITUDE: PARAMETRIC. eccentricity. The amount of deviation from a centre. eccentricity of alidade. The distance between the centre of figure of the index points of an ALIDADE and the centre of figure of the graduated CIRCLE. eccentricity of circle. The distance between the centre of figure of a graduated CIRCLE of an instrument and its centre of ROTATION. eccentricity of ellipse. The ratio of the distance between the centre and a focus of an ellipse to the length of its semimajor axis. eccentricity of instrument. The combination of ECCENTRICITY OF CIRCLE and ECCENTRICITY OF ALIDADE. The effect of eccentricity of instruments on an observed DIRECTION is eliminated by having the VERNIERS or MICROMETER MICROSCOPES, with which the CIRCLE is read, spaced at equal distances around the CIRCLE.

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eccentric reduction. In TRIANGULATION, the CORRECTION which must be applied to a DIRECTION observed by an instrument with either the instrument or SIGNAL, or both, eccentric, to reduce the observed value to what it would have been if there had been no ECCENTRICITY. eccentric signal. A SIGNAL which is not in the same vertical line with the STATION it represents. eccentric station. A survey point over which an instrument is centred and OBSERVATIONS are made, which is not in the same vertical line with the STATION it represents, and to which the OBSERVATIONS will be reduced before being combined with OBSERVATIONS at other STATIONS. Also called false station or satellite station. See ECCENTRIC REDUCTION. echo. Reflected RADIANT ENERGY. echo(es): false. In ECHO SOUNDING, ECHOES caused by a foreign matter such as KELP or fish, or by LAYERS of water differentiated by sudden changes of temperature or SALINITY (or both). False echoes are occasionally recorded by ECHO SOUNDERS, and might be interpreted erroneously as the correct DEPTH. Also called side echo(es) or false target. See PHANTOM BOTTOM. echo(es): multiple. In ECHO SOUNDING, any of the ECHOES received subsequent to the first one and due to a multiplicity of REFLECTIONS back and forth between the BOTTOM and surface. These REFLECTIONS often register on the DIAL of a usual indicator, or on the FATHOGRAM of a graphic recorder, at multiplies of the true DEPTH. Such ECHOES are sometimes mistaken for the first ECHO. echo(es): side. See ECHO(ES): FALSE. echogram. A graphic record of depth measurements obtained by an ECHO SOUNDER. See FATHOGRAM. echometer (France). An ultrasonic ECHO SOUNDER with a visual depth-indicating device. The SIGNALS are produced and received by quartz-crystal transmitting and receiving units. Its RANGE is from 6 to 660 METRES. echo ranging. The determination of distance by measuring the time interval between transmission of a radiant energy signal, usually SOUND, and the return of its ECHO. echoscope (France). An ultrasonic ECHO SOUNDER similar to ECHOMETER. The echoscope is portable, intended for shoal-water sounding from small boats. Its RANGE is from 1 to 60 METRES. echo sounder. An instrument for determining the DEPTH of water by measuring the time interval between the emission of a sonic or ultrasonic SIGNAL and the return of its ECHO from the BOTTOM. Also called echo sounding instrument (or apparatus), sonic depth finder, or ultrasonic depth finder, as appropriate. See also SUB-BOTTOM PROFILER, SWATH(E) SOUNDING SYSTEM. echo sounding. Determination of the DEPTH of water by measuring the time interval between emission of a sonic or ultrasonic SIGNAL and return of its ECHO from the BOTTOM. Also called acoustic sounding. See also ECHO SOUNDER. echo sounding instrument (or apparatus). See ECHO SOUNDER. eclipse. The obscuration of a source of light by the intervention of an object. Whole or partial obscuration of a HEAVENLY BODY by the interposition of another, or by the passing of one luminous HEAVENLY BODY into the shadow of another. eclipse: annular. An ECLIPSE in which a thin ring of the source of light appears around the obscuring body. Annular SOLAR ECLIPSES occur, but never annular LUNAR ECLIPSES. eclipse: lunar. An ECLIPSE of the MOON. When the MOON enters the shadow of the EARTH, it appears eclipsed to an observer on the EARTH. eclipse: partial. An ECLIPSE in which only part of the source of light is obscured. eclipse: solar. An ECLIPSE of the SUN. When the MOON passes between the SUN and the EARTH, the SUN appears eclipsed to an observer in the MOON's shadow. eclipse: total. An ECLIPSE in which the entire source of light is obscured.

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ecliptic. The GREAT CIRCLE formed by the intersection of the plane of the EARTH's ORBIT around the SUN (or apparent ORBIT of the SUN around the EARTH) and the CELESTIAL SPHERE. ecliptic latitude. See LATITUDE: CELESTIAL. ecliptic system of coordinates. A set of CELESTIAL COORDINATES based on the ECLIPTIC as the PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE; CELESTIAL LATITUDE and CELESTIAL LONGITUDE. ecology. The science of the economy of animals and plants dealing with the relations of living organism to their surroundings. eddy. A circular movement of water usually formed, where CURRENTS pass OBSTRUCTIONS, between two adjacent CURRENTS flowing counter to each other, or along the edge of a PERMANENT CURRENT. eddy viscosity. The turbulent transfer of momentum by EDDIES giving rise to an internal fluid friction, in a manner analogous to the action of molecular viscosity in LAMINAR FLOW, but taking place on a much larger scale. 4 The value of the coefficient of eddy viscosity is of the order 10 square centimetres per SECOND. edge. In TOPOGRAPHY, the CREST of a sharply pointed RIDGE. edge wave. See WAVE. eelgrass. See SEAGRASS. Ekman bottle. A REVERSING WATER BOTTLE which can be closed watertight by means of plates seated in rubber. When at the desired DEPTH, the reversing mechanism is tripped by a MESSENGER. Ekman current meter. A widely used instrument for measuring the SPEED and direction of the CURRENT at any DEPTH. It is designed for use from a ship or boat at anchor when the STREAM does not attain a rate of more than 3 to 3 1/2 KNOTS. Ekman spiral. Spiral, polar DIAGRAM of the extremities of the wind vectors at different HEIGHTS, representing the variation of the WIND with HEIGHT in the FRICTION LAYER on the basis of various simplifying assumptions. The Ekman spiral is also applied to the variation of wind-driven OCEAN CURRENTS with DEPTH below the surface. elbow. A sudden turn in a CHANNEL, RIVER, or SHORELINE. electric log. See LOG. electric submerged log. See LOG. electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM). Any process or technique of distance measurement which depends on a comparison of SIGNALS by electromagnetic means. electromagnetic log. See LOG. electromagnetic position fixing. Any process or technique of fixing which employs the properties of electromagnetic waves. electromagnetic wave. See WAVE. electrometeor. Visible or audible manifestation of atmospheric electricity, either corresponding to discontinuous electrical discharges (LIGHTNING, THUNDER) or occurring as more or less continuous PHENOMENA (SAINT ELMO'S FIRE, POLAR AURORA). electronic chart. An integrated, interactive, navigation information system, with which the user can display the hydrographic and positional information that is required to conduct the safe navigation of his vessel. It comprises hydrographic and cartographic databases containing information useful for navigation. Electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS). The navigation information system which is considered the legal equivalent of the nautical chart, displaying selected information from an electronic navigation chart (ENC) integrated with data from positional and, optionally, other sensors.

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electronic data processing. In a COMPUTER, data processing performed largely or exclusively on electronic equipment. electronic distance-measuring equipment (EDM). Devices that measure the phase difference between transmitted and returned (i.e. reflected or retransmitted) ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, of known FREQUENCY and SPEED, or the round-trip transit time of a pulsed SIGNAL, from which distance is computed. A wide range of such equipment is available for surveying and navigational use. Also called distance measuring equipment (DME). electronic line of position. A LINE OF POSITION established by means of electronic equipment. electronic navigation. See NAVIGATION. electronic navigation station. See STATION. electronic navigational chart (ENC). 1. An electronic navigational chart is a subset of the electronic chart data base held on the vessel. It contains information on features useful for navigation such as coastline, obstructions, beacons etc. 2. The digital data base that is intended to be used in conjunction with ECDIS. Standardized as to content, structure and format the ENC may contain supplementary nautical information useful for safe navigation. The ENC is a subset of the master data base of chart information. electronic plotting sheet. See PLOTTING SHEET. electronic telemeter. See TELEMETER. electro-optical distance measurement (EODM). Any method of electromagnetic distance measurement based on a comparison of light signals. electrostriction. Term applied to the creation of elastic tension and changes of shape and volume of an uncharged isolator by an electrical field. electrotape. A trade name for a precise electronic distance measuring device operating on the same principle as the Tellurometer. Originally designated as micro-dist. elevated pole. See POLE. elevation. The vertical distance of a point or a LEVEL, on or affixed to the surface of the EARTH, measured from MEAN SEA LEVEL. The term elevation is sometimes used synonymously with ALTITUDE which in modern use refers particularly to the distance of points or objects above the EARTH's surface. An area higher than its surroundings, as a HILL. elevation: angle of. See ANGLE OF ELEVATION. elevation: barometric. An ELEVATION determined with a BAROMETER. elevation of sight. Also called height of eye. The visibility distances are relevant with the elevation of the observer's sight. When measuring a long distance by optics a line of sight should be maintained over the convex curvature of the earth and all obstacles between the measuring points. elevation tints. See HYPSOMETRIC TINTS. ellipse. A plane curve constituting the locus of all points the sum of whose distances from two fixed points, called foci, is constant. Also used to characterize errors in positions and measurements. ellipsoid of reference. See REFERENCE SPHEROID. ellipsoid of revolution (or rotation). A simple mathematical surface which best approximates the shape of the EARTH. It is the surface generated by an ellipse revolving about one of its AXES. See also SPHEROID: OBLATE, SPHEROID: PROLATE and REFERENCE SPHEROID. ellipticity of an ellipse. The ratio between the difference in length of the semi-axes of an ellipse and its semi-major axis. ellipticity of the spheroid. See FLATTENING OF THE EARTH.

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elongation. The ANGULAR DISTANCE of a body of the SOLAR SYSTEM from the SUN. The angle at the EARTH between lines to the SUN and another CELESTIAL BODY of the SOLAR SYSTEM. The term is usually used in connection with INFERIOR PLANETS. The greatest elongation of such a body is its maximum ANGULAR DISTANCE from the SUN, as observed from the EARTH. The position of a STAR when its AZIMUTH east or west of the MERIDIAN is greatest. embankment. An artificial ELEVATION composed of EARTH, STONE, etc. to hold back water. embayment. An INDENTATION in a SHORELINE forming an open BAY. emergent nodal point. See NODAL POINT. emulsion. In PHOTOGRAPHY, a suspension of a salt of silver in gelatine or collodion, used to coat PLATES, films, or papers. enamelled plate. In CARTOGRAPHY, enamelled working surface (normally white), on aluminium, zinc or other dimensionally stable medium. Used to prepare colour separation originals. enclosed sea. A gulf, basin, or sea surrounded by two or more States and connected to another sea or the ocean. end lap. See OVERLAP. energy: radiant. Energy transmitted by RADIATION. engraving. The act, process or art of cutting or etching designs or letters on metal plates, wooden blocks, etc. for printing. Any printed impression made from an engraved surface. entrance. The SEAWARD end of a CHANNEL, HARBOUR, DOCK, etc. entrance pupil. The IMAGE of the APERTURE STOP formed by all the LENS ELEMENTS on the object side of the APERTURE STOP. entrance window. The IMAGE of the FIELD STOP formed by all the LENS ELEMENTS on the object side of the FIELD STOP. envelope. In electronics, a graph defining the variations in AMPLITUDE of successive OSCILLATIONS in an amplitude-modulated wave. envelope edge. The fore part of an ENVELOPE. environment. The sum total of all external conditions which may affect an organism, community, material, or energy if brought under the influence of these external conditions. Eotvos balance. See TORSION BALANCE. Eotvos correction. A correction applied to gravity measurements to balance the effect of the vertical force experienced by a body moving in an east-west direction on the rotating earth. Eotvos effect. The east-west component of the movement of a ship, including the effect of marine currents, modifies the centrifugal force of the earth's rotation. It is a vertical force experienced by a body moving in an east-west direction on the rotating earth. epact (of the year). The AGE OF THE MOON at 00 HOUR on January 1. ephemeris. A statement presenting POSITIONS and related DATA for a CELESTIAL BODY for given EPOCHS (dates) at uniform intervals of time. Also a publication containing such DATA for a number of CELESTIAL BODIES. See also ALMANAC: AIR and ALMANAC: NAUTICAL. epicentre (or epicenter, epicentrum). The point of the EARTH's surface directly above the FOCUS of an EARTHQUAKE. epipolar plane. Any plane which contains the EPIPOLES; therefore any plane containing the AIR BASE. Also called basal plane.

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epipolar ray. The line on the plane of a PHOTOGRAPH joining the EPIPOLE and the IMAGE of an object. Also expressed as the trace of an EPIPOLAR PLANE on a PHOTOGRAPH. epipoles. In the perspective set-up of two PHOTOGRAPHS, (two perspective projections), the points on the planes of the PHOTOGRAPHS where they are cut by the AIR BASE. epoch. A given period of time during which a series of related acts or events takes place. In ASTRONOMY, a particular instant for which certain DATA are given or at which an OBSERVATION is made, and which then is usable as a REFERENCE POINT. equal altitudes. Two ALTITUDES of the same CELESTIAL BODY observed east and then west of the MERIDIAN, when it has reached the same value. The expression also applies to the practice, essentially obsolete, of determining the instant of local APPARENT NOON by observing equal ALTITUDES of the SUN. equal area projection.See PROJECTION. equation: condition. An equation which expresses exactly certain relationships that must exist among related quantities, which are not independent of one another, exist a priori, and are separate from relationships demanded by OBSERVATION. equation: correlate. An equation derived from an OBSERVATION or CONDITION EQUATION, using undetermined multipliers, and expressing the condition that the sum of the squares of the RESIDUAL ERRORS resulting from the application of these multipliers to the OBSERVATION or CONDITION EQUATIONS shall be a minimum. equation: error. The probability equation which expresses the laws of the occurrence of ACCIDENTAL ERRORS. The error equation is the basis of the method of LEAST SQUARES, used in the ADJUSTMENT of OBSERVATIONS for determining the most probable value of a result from those OBSERVATIONS. equation: Laplace. An equation which expresses the relationships between ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH, GEODETIC AZIMUTH, and the ASTRONOMIC LONGITUDE and GEODETIC LONGITUDE. equation: normal. One of a set of simultaneous equations derived from OBSERVATION, CONDITION or CORRELATE EQUATIONS. In a least-squares adjustment, values obtained from the solution of normal equations (either directly or through the CORRELATE EQUATIONS) are applied to the OBSERVATION or CONDITION EQUATIONS to obtain the desired CORRECTIONS. equation: observation. A CONDITION EQUATION which connects interrelated unknowns by means of an observed function. equation: personal. See PERSONAL EQUATION. equation method. In tidal terminology, an elaborate non-harmonic method for the prediction of TIDES. equation of time. The CORRECTION to be applied to 12 hours plus UNIVERSAL TIME to obtain the Greenwich HOUR ANGLE of the SUN, or more generally the CORRECTION to be applied to 12 hours plus LOCAL MEAN TIME to obtain the LOCAL HOUR ANGLE of the SUN. equator. The PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE of a sphere or SPHEROID such as the EARTH, perpendicular to the polar AXIS. equator: astronomical. A line connecting points having 0ASTRONOMICAL LATITUDE. equator: celestial. The GREAT CIRCLE on the CELESTIAL SPHERE whose plane is perpendicular to the AXIS of the EARTH. Also called equinoctial. equator: geodetic. The line on the SPHEROID connecting points of 0GEODETIC LATITUDE. equator: heat. See EQUATOR: THERMAL. equator: magnetic. That line on the surface of the EARTH connecting all points at which the magnetic DIP is zero. Also called aclinic line. equator: terrestrial. A GREAT CIRCLE of the EARTH in the plane of the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, and equidistant from the two POLES.

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equator: thermal. Line which circumscribes the EARTH and connects all points of highest mean annual temperature on each MERIDIAN. Also called heat equator. equatorial calms. Zone of calm or light variable WINDS encountered, in certain regions, between the TRADE WINDS of the two hemispheres. equatorial horizontal parallax. See PARALLAX. equatorial tide(s). See TIDE. equidistance line. See MEDIAN LINE. equilibrium. A state of balance between forces. equilibrium argument. The theoretical PHASE of a CONSTITUENT of the EQUILIBRIUM TIDE. equilibrium tide. See TIDE. equinoctial. See EQUATOR: CELESTIAL. equinoctial colure. See COLURE. equinoctial point. See EQUINOX. equinoctial spring tide(s). See TIDE. equinoctial system of coordinates. See CELESTIAL EQUATOR SYSTEM OF COORDINATES. equinoctial year. See YEAR: TROPICAL. equinox. One of the two points of intersection of the ECLIPTIC and the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, occupied by the SUN when its DECLINATION is zero. That point occupied on or about March 21, when the SUN's DECLINATION changes from south to north, is called vernal equinox or first point of Aries; that point occupied on or about September 23, when the DECLINATION changes from north to south, is called autumnal equinox or first point of Libra. Also called equinoctial point. equinoxes: precession of. See PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOXES. equiphase zone. See ZONE. equipotential surface. A surface having the same potential of GRAVITY at every point. equisignal zone. See ZONE. equivalent focal length. See FOCAL LENGTH. equivalent projection. See PROJECTION: EQUAL AREA. equivalent scale. See SCALE. era. In GEOLOGY, any of the main divisions of GEOLOGICAL TIME. erect image. See IMAGE. erecting eyepiece. See EYEPIECE. erg. The unit of energy or work in the CGS SYSTEM. erosion. The general process of the wearing away of ROCKS and SOIL at the EARTH's surface by natural agencies. error. The difference between an observed or computed value of a quantity and the ideal or true value of that quantity. error: absolute. Absolute deviation (the value taken without regard to sign) from the corresponding true value.

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error: accidental. An ERROR whose occurrence depends on the law of chance only. Also called random error or irregular error. error: clamping. A SYSTEMATIC ERROR in OBSERVATIONS made with a REPEATING THEODOLITE caused by strains set up by the clamping devices of the instrument. error: closing. See ERROR OF CLOSURE. error: constant. A SYSTEMATIC ERROR which is the same in both magnitude and sign through a given series of OBSERVATIONS. error: external. See ERROR: THEORETICAL. error: Gaussin. DEVIATION of a MAGNETIC COMPASS due to TRANSIENT MAGNETISM which remains in a vessel's structure for short periods after the inducing force has been removed. This ERROR usually appears after a vessel has been on the same HEADING for a considerable time. error: gross. The result of carelessness or a mistake; may be detected through repetition of the measurement. Also called blunder. error: heeling. The change in the DEVIATION of a MAGNETIC COMPASS when a craft heels, due to the change in the position of the magnetic influences of the craft relative to the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD and to the COMPASS. error: index. The INSTRUMENTAL ERROR which is constant and attributable to displacement of a VERNIER or some analogous effect. error: instrumental (or instrument). A SYSTEMATIC ERROR resulting from imperfections in, or faulty ADJUSTMENT of, instruments or devices used. error: irregular. See ERROR: ACCIDENTAL. error: mean square. The quantity whose square is equal to the sum of the squares of the individual ERRORS divided by the number of those ERRORS. error: parallactic. An ERROR caused by personal or instrumental PARALLAX. error: periodic. An ERROR whose AMPLITUDE and direction vary systematically with time. error: personal. The result of the inability of an observer to perceive dimensional values exactly. Personal errors may be either random or systematic in behaviour. See also PERSONAL EQUATION. error: polarization. ERROR in a RADIO BEARING or the COURSE indicated by a RADIOBEACON, due to horizontally-polarized components of the electric field under certain transmission conditions. The terms night error or night effect have become obsolete. error: probable. An ERROR (or deviation from the mean) of such magnitude that the likelihood of its being exceeded in a set of OBSERVATIONS is equal to the likelihood of its not being exceeded; its value is that of the STANDARD ERROR multiplied by 0.6745. The use of STANDARD ERROR is sometimes preferred in statistical studies. error: random. See ERROR: ACCIDENTAL. error: regular. See ERROR: SYSTEMATIC. error: residual. The difference between any value of a quantity in a series of OBSERVATIONS, corrected for known SYSTEMATIC ERRORS, and the value of the quantity obtained from the ADJUSTMENT of that series. Sometimes termed as residual. error: root mean square. See ERROR: STANDARD. error: sextant. The ERROR in the reading of a SEXTANT, due either to lack of proper ADJUSTMENT or to imperfection of manufacture.

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error: standard. The square root of the arithmetic mean of squared deviations from the mean. Also called standard deviation, when the deviations do not represent ERRORS, or root mean square error. error: station. See DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL. error: swirl. The additional ERROR in the reading of a MAGNETIC COMPASS during a turn, due to friction in the compass liquid. error: systematic. An ERROR whose magnitude changes in proportion to known changes in observational conditions. Also called regular error. error: theoretical. A SYSTEMATIC ERROR arising from natural physical conditions, beyond the control of the observer. Also called external error. error equation. See EQUATION. error of closure. The amount by which a quantity obtained by a series of related measurements differs from the true or fixed value of the same quantity. Also called closing error. error of closure of horizon. The amount by which the sum of a series of adjacent measured horizontal angels around a point fails to equal exactly 360 . error of closure of triangle. The amount by which the sum of the three observed angles of a triangle fails to equal exactly 180plus the SPHERICAL EXCESS of the triangle. Also referred to as closure of triangle. error of collimation. The angle between the LINE OF COLLIMATION (LINE OF SIGHT) of a TELESCOPE and its COLLIMATION AXIS; i.e., the angle by which the LINE OF SIGHT of an optical instrument differs from what it should be. Also called collimation error. error of graduation. Inaccuracy in the GRADUATIONS of the SCALE of an instrument. Also called graduation error. error of magnetic compass. The angle by which a compass direction differs from the true direction; the algebraic sum of VARIATION and DEVIATION. error of run (micrometer). The difference in SECONDS of arc, between the intended value of one turn of the MICROMETER SCREW and its actual value as determined by measuring the space between two adjacent graduation marks of the CIRCLE with the MICROMETER. Also called run of micrometer. escarpment. A general term for a continuous scarp face. An elongated and comparatively steep SLOPE of the SEA FLOOR, separating flat or gently sloping areas. Also called sea scarp. establishment. The interval of time between the transit (upper or lower) of the moon and the next high water at a place. The average establishment at the time of full or new moon is called vulgar or common establishment, or high water full and change. Also called high water lunitidal interval, or establishment of the port. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. establishment of the port. See ESTABLISHMENT. estimated position (EP). See POSITION. estuary. That portion of a STREAM influenced by the TIDE of the body of water into which it flows. A BAY, as the MOUTH of a RIVER, where the TIDE meets the river current. estimated time of arrival (ETA). The predicted time of reaching a destination or waypoint. estimated time of departure (ETD). The predicted time of leaving a place. etch (v.t.). To form an IMAGE within the surface of a printing or drawing material by the use of solvents. Eulerian current observations. A method to monitor the current at a fixed point by means of current metres. European Datum. Constituted by the International Spheroid located at the Potsdam origin.

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evaluation report. A report which summarizes pertinent facts relating to a given hydrographic survey. Included in the report are sections which address the quality of the hydrographic survey and detailed comparisons made with prior hydrographic surveys and the appropriate nautical chart. Specific evaluations and recommendations regarding the adequacy of the survey to supersede prior survey data and charted information are made. evaporimeter. Instrument for measuring the amount of water evaporated into the ATMOSPHERE during a given time interval. Also called atmometer, atmidometer. evection. A perturbation of the MOON in its ORBIT due to the attraction of the SUN. See also LUNAR INEQUALITY. Everest spheroid. See REFERENCE SPHEROID. exercise area. An area shown on CHARTS within which naval, military or aerial exercises are carried out. Also called military practice area. exclusive economic zone. The exclusive economic zone is an area, not exceeding 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, subject to a specific legal regime established in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea under which the coastal state has certain rights and jurisdiction. existence doubtful. Of uncertain existence. The expression is used principally on CHARTS to indicate the possible existence of a ROCK, SHOAL, etc., the actual existence of which has not been established. Usually shown by the abbreviation 'ED'. exit pupil. The IMAGE of APERTURE STOP formed by all the LENS ELEMENTS on the IMAGE side of the APERTURE STOP. exit window. The IMAGE of the FIELD STOP formed by all the LENS ELEMENTS on the image side of the FIELD STOP. ex-meridian altitude. See ALTITUDE. expansion factor. In RADIOLOCATION, factor representing the degree to which the hyperbolae belonging to a given group of HYPERBOLIC LINES OF POSITION move apart as the distance from the BASE LINE increases. expert system. A knowledge-based computer system which utilizes artificial intelligence to do some of the inferential computation/decision making. exploration drilling. Drilling operations aimed at the exploration of resources. exploratory survey. See SURVEY. explosive anchorage area. An area set apart for anchored ships discharging or receiving explosives. explosive fog signal. See FOG SIGNAL. exposure. In PHOTOGRAPHY, the act of exposing a light-sensitive material to a light source. The total quantity of light received per unit area on a sensitized PLATE or film; may be expressed as the product of the light intensity and the EXPOSURE TIME. exposure interval. The time interval between the taking of successive PHOTOGRAPHS. exposure station. See AIR STATION. exposure time. The time during which a light-sensitive material is subjected to the action of light. exterior orientation. See ORIENTATION. exterior perspective centre. See PERSPECTIVE CENTRE. external error. See ERROR: THEORETICAL. extinction coefficient. A measure of the space rate of diminution or extinction, of any transmitted light. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the measure of ATTENUATION of downward directed light radiation in the SEA.

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extrapolation. The process of estimating the value of a quantity beyond the limits of known values by assuming that the rate or system of change between the last few known values continues. extremely high frequency (EHF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. extrusion. In CARTOGRAPHY, the extension of detail outside the NEAT LINE. eye base. See INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE. eye of the storm. See TROPICAL CYCLONE. eyepiece. In an optical device, the lens group which is nearest the eye and with which the IMAGE formed by the preceding elements is viewed. eyepiece: erecting. An EYEPIECE containing an auxiliary re-imagining system of one or two LENSES which inverts the primary IMAGE before it reaches the EYEPIECE proper. The device is now obsolescent, the inversion being performed by prism systems. Also called inverting eyepiece. eyepiece micrometer. See MICROMETER: OCULAR.

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1750 face(s) of theodolite. Either of the two positions, 'face left' (F.L.) and 'face right' (F.R.) of the THEODOLITE, when OBSERVATIONS are made with the VERTICAL CIRCLE on the left or on the right of the TELESCOPE respectively. facility (navigational). See AID TO NAVIGATION. facility (port). See HARBOUR WORKS. facsimile. An exact reproduction or copy. fading. Loss of strength in received SIGNALS due to temporary variations in the conditions of propagation. Fahrenheit temperature scale. A temperature scale defined by the relationship t F = 1.8 t C + 32; developed by Gabriel D. Fahrenheit (1686-1736), German physicist. fair chart (British terminology). The final, carefully made plot of a HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY. In contrast to the FIELD BOARD (BOAT SHEET in U.S. terminology) which is a work sheet plotted during field operations from preliminary field data, the fair chart is plotted from corrected DATA and represents the official permanent record of that particular SURVEY. Also called fair sheet. It is called smooth sheet in U.S. terminology. fair sheet. See FAIR CHART. fair tracing (British terminology). A paper tracing of moderate size for transferring the work from the FIELD BOARDS to the FAIR CHARTS. fairway. The main travelled part of a WATERWAY. fairway buoy. A BUOY marking a FAIRWAY, with safe water on both sides. falling tide. See TIDE. false bottom. See PHANTOM BOTTOM. false coordinates. See COORDINATES. false echo. See ECHO. false horizon. See HORIZON. false origin. See COORDINATES: FALSE. false station. See ECCENTRIC STATION. false target. See ECHO: FALSE. fan. A relatively smooth, fan-like depositional feature normally sloping away from the outer termination of a CANYON. farad. The unit of electrical capacitance, in the SI SYSTEM. farewell buoy. The outermost BUOY marking the ENTRANCE to a CHANNEL or HARBOUR. Also called sea buoy. Known as landfall buoy in British terminology. fast ice. SEA ICE which remains fast, generally in the position where originally formed, and which may attain a considerable thickness. It is found along COASTS, where it is attached to the SHORE, or over SHOALS, where it may be held in position by ISLANDS, grounded ICEBERGS or grounded polar ice. fata morgana. The name originally given to a multiple mirage phenomenon often observed over the Straits of Messina, and supposed to be the work of the faity (in Italian: fata) Morgana; later, it was applied to any impressive multiple MIRAGE.

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fathogram. A graphic record of depth measurements obtained by a fathometer (erroneously applied to any ECHOGRAM). fathom. A unit of length equal to 6 FEET or 1.83 METRES. fathom curve. See FATHOM LINE, DEPTH CURVE. fathom line. A DEPTH CURVE with DEPTH expressed in FATHOMS. Also called fathom curve, isobath. fault. In GEOLOGY, a break of shear in the EARTH's CRUST with an observable displacement between the two sides of the break, and parallel to the plane of the break. Faye anomaly. See FREE-AIR ANOMALY. feature code. An alphanumeric code (label) attached to all point, line or area data describing a cartographic feature of particular quality. Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services (FAGS). Facilitates and promotes the collection of observations, information and statistics in the field of astronomical and geophysical sciences. The International Time Bureau is one of the services. fender. A device let down between the side of a ship or a WHARF or other ship to protect from chafing when ships are lying alongside or to take the shock of a bump when going alongside. fetch. An area of the sea surface over which SEAS are generated by a WIND having a constant direction and SPEED. The length of the generating area, measured in the direction of the WIND in which the SEAS are generated. fiducial axes. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the lines joining opposite FIDUCIAL MARKS on a PHOTOGRAPH. Also called photograph axes. fiducial marks. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, INDEX MARKS, usually four, which are rigidly connected with the camera lens through the camera body and which form IMAGES on the NEGATIVE and usually define the PRINCIPAL POINT of the PHOTOGRAPH. Also marks, usually four in number, in any instrument, which define the axes whose intersection fixes the PRINCIPAL POINT of a PHOTOGRAPH and fulfills the requirements of INTERIOR ORIENTATION. In SURVEYING, an index line or point. A line or point used as a basis of reference. field board (British terminology). Wooden board, or zinc or plastic sheet, used by HYDROGRAPHERS and land surveyors for plotting and recording the details of the SURVEY in the field. Separate boards are usually prepared for TOPOGRAPHY and SOUNDING respectively. The former are referred to as topography boards; the latter as sounding boards. See also BOAT SHEET, and PLANE TABLE. field chart. See CHART. field examination. A special purpose hydrographic, wire drag, or side scan sonar survey of very limited area; i.e., usually an investigation of one or more individual and scattered items. field inspection. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the process of comparing AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS with conditions as they exist on the GROUND, and of obtaining information to supplement or clarify that not readily discernible on the PHOTOGRAPHS themselves. field position. See POSITION. field sheet. The hydrographer's or topographer's work sheet; it presents a graphic display of all surface and subsurface features in the area being surveyed. See also BOAT SHEET. field stop. The physical element (such as an APERTURE STOP, DIAPHRAGM or lens periphery) of an OPTICAL SYSTEM which limits the field of view covered by the system. field work. All activities in the field required for a hydrographic survey. figure of the earth. The defining elements of the mathematical surface which approximates the surface of the GEOID. The figure of the earth has been proved to be approximately an OBLATE SPHEROID. See also GEOID and SPHEROID.

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file. An entity of data for a specific task or purpose stored on a mass storage device. filter. In optics, any transparent material which, by absorption, selectively modifies the light transmitted through an OPTICAL SYSTEM. In ocean-wave forecasting, a set of formulas that define the particular wave frequencies and directions in the fetch area which are of significance at the point of forecast. filtering. The process of selecting specific data from a specific source in accordance with certain rules, formulae, or algorithms. final great circle course. See COURSE: GREAT CIRCLE. fiord (or fjord). A long narrow ARM OF THE SEA, running up between high BANKS or CLIFFS, as on the COAST of Norway. Often has a relatively shallow SILL across its ENTRANCE. firn. Old SNOW which has become granular and dense under the action of various processes of melting and refreezing, also including sublimation. first nodal point. See NODAL POINT. first order triangulation. See TRIANGULATION CLASSIFICATION. first point of Aries. See EQUINOX. first point of Cancer. See SOLSTICE. first point of Capricorn. See SOLSTICE. first point of Libra. See EQUINOX. first quarter. See PHASES OF THE MOON. firth. A Scottish word: an ARM OF THE SEA; an ESTUARY of a RIVER. fish aggregating device (FAD). See FISH HAVEN. fishery conservation zone. See FISHING ZONE. fish farm. An assemblage of cages, nets, rafts and floats or posts where fish, including shellfish, are artificially cultivated. fish haven. Areas established by private interests, usually sport fishermen, to simulate natural reefs and wrecks that attract fish. The reefs are constructed by dumping assorted junk in areas which may be of very small extent or may stretch a considerable distance along a depth contour. Fish havens are outlined and labeled on charts. Also called fishery reefs. fishing area. See FISHING GROUND. fishing ground. A water area in which fishing is frequently carried on. Also called fishing area or fishing zone. fishing reef. See FISH HAVEN. fishing zone. The offshore zone in which exclusive fishing rights and management are held by the coastal nation. fish lead. See LEAD. fish (or fishing) stakes. Poles or stakes placed in SHALLOW WATER to outline FISHING GROUNDS or to catch fish. fish trap (or weir). A structure for catching fish. See also TUNNY NET. fish trap buoy. A BUOY marking the limits of a fish trap area. fish weir. See FISH TRAP.

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fix. In NAVIGATION, a relatively accurate POSITION determined without reference to any former POSITION. It may be classed as visual, celestial, electronic, etc., depending upon the means of establishing it. fix (v.t.). In hydrographic SURVEYING, to determine, at regular intervals, the POSITION of ships or boats, while sailing along a LINE OF SOUNDING. The usual method of fixing HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS within sight of LAND is the THREE-POINT FIX METHOD. fix: circular. A useless FIX resulting from the OBSERVATIONS of two angles establishing as LOCI three coinciding CIRCLES OF POSITION. Also called revolver, or swinger. fix: running. A POSITION determined by crossing LINES OF POSITION obtained at different TIMES and advanced or retired to a common TIME, the expression being applied to a POSITION determined by advancing and retiring a line over a considerable period of time. fix: split. A FIX obtained by measuring two angles to four objects whose POSITIONS are known, i.e. with no common centre object. fix: three-point. A FIX obtained by simultaneously observing, with SEXTANTS, the two adjacent angles between three suitably disposed objects whose POSITIONS are known, and plotting the POSITION by a STATION POINTER. See also RESECTION and THREE-POINT PROBLEM. fixed angle plot (British terminology). Plot prepared in advance for use in normal SOUNDING in lieu of a STATION POINTER. The arcs of equal angle subtended by selected MARKS are drawn on the SOUNDING BOARD at convenient intervals depending on the SCALE. The observed sextant angles can then be plotted in the field by visual inspection. See also CIRCLE SHEET, and SOUNDING: FIXED ANGLE. fixed angle sounding. See SOUNDING. fixed platform. See FIXED STATION. fixed star. A STAR. The expression is used particularly to distinguish STARS from other HEAVENLY BODIES; so called by ancients to distinguish STARS from the wandering PLANETS. fixed station. A radiolocation station which is situated in one particular spot throughout the period of its operation. As opposed to MOBILE STATION. Also called shore station. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a platform from which repeated OBSERVATIONS are taken. These include coastal and island stations, LIGHT VESSELS, WEATHER SHIPS, AUTOMATIC FLOATING STATIONS and ICE ISLANDS. Also called fixed platform. fixing. The process of rendering a developed photographic image permanent by removing the unaffected light-sensitive material. fixing interval. The time or distance elapsed between two subsequent fixes. fjord. See FIORD. flare stack. A tall structure used for burning-off waste oil or gas. flare triangulation. See TRIANGULATION. flat. A level tract of LAND, as the BED of a dry LAKE or an area frequently uncovered at LOW TIDE. Usually in plural. flat-bed plotter. A plotter which uses a flat surface to mount the drawing base. flattening of the earth. The ratio of the difference between the equatorial and polar radii of the EARTH (major and minor semi-axes of the SPHEROID) and its equatorial radius (major semi-axis). The flattening of the earth is the ellipticity of the spheroid. Also called compression. flight altitude. See ALTITUDE. flight strip. A succession of overlapping AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS taken along a single COURSE. Flinders bar. A bar of soft unmagnetized iron placed vertically near a MAGNETIC COMPASS to counteract DEVIATION caused by MAGNETIC INDUCTION in vertical SOFT IRON of the craft.

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float. Any buoyant object attached to nets or fishing lines: term also used for the small buoys used for current observations. float gauge. See GAUGE. floating breakwater. A contrivance consisting of a series of square frames of timber connected by mooring chains or CABLES attached to anchors or stone blocks in such a manner as to form a BASIN within which vessels riding to anchor may be protected from the violence of the WAVES. floating dock. See DOCK. floating ice. Any form of ICE found floating in water. floating mark. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a mark seen as occupying a position in the three-dimensional space formed by the STEREOSCOPIC FUSION of a pair of PHOTOGRAPHS and used as a reference mark in examining or measuring the STEREOSCOPIC MODEL. floating point. In computer systems the type of numeric data approximately representing real numbers. A floating point number is composed of an exponent and a mantissa specifying the numerical value relative to the exponent. Owing to the limited length of a computer WORD, the floating point representation may cause a loss of precision. floating triangulation. See TRIANGULATION. float-off (British terminology). The paper of a FIELD BOARD when detached from the board on completion of the work for which the FIELD BOARD was prepared. float well. A vertical pipe or box with a relatively small opening in the bottom, used to enclose the float of a tide gauge so the float will be little affected by nontidal motions of the water. Synonymous with stilling well. floe (or ice floe). A piece of SEA ICE other than FAST ICE. Floes over 10 km across are described as vast; those between 1 and 10 km across as big; those between 200 and 1,000 m across as medium; those between 10 and 200 m across as small. Floes less than 10 m across are called ICE CAKES. flood. The FLOOD STREAM. Sometimes the term 'flood' is also used with reference to vertical tidal movement. The opposite is EBB. An overflowing of water on LAND usually dry; inundation. flood current. See FLOOD STREAM. flood stream. The horizontal movement of water associated with the RISING TIDE. Flood streams generally set toward the SHORE, or in the direction of the tide progression. Also called FLOOD, flood current or ingoing stream. flood tide. See TIDE: RISING. flotsam. See JETTISON. flow. The motion characteristic of a fluid. flume. An inclined CHANNEL for conveying water from a distance to be utilized for power, transportation, irrigation, etc. fluorescence. Emission of light or other RADIANT ENERGY as a result of and only during absorption of RADIATION from some other source. See LUMINESCENCE and PHOSPHORESCENCE. flux: luminous. Quantity, characteristic of RADIANT FLUX which expresses its capacity to produce a luminous sensation. flux: radiant. Power emitted, transferred or received in the form of RADIATION. flux-gate magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. f-number. See APERTURE: RELATIVE. foam line. The front of a WAVE as it advances shoreward, after it has broken.

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focal distance. See FOCAL LENGTH. focal length. The distance from the rear NODAL POINT of a LENS to the FOCAL PLANE for an object at infinity. The distance from the surface of a MIRROR to its FOCUS. Also called focal distance. focal length: calibrated. An adjusted value of the EQUIVALENT FOCAL LENGTH computed to distribute the effect of lens DISTORTION over the entire field used in an AERIAL CAMERA. focal length: equivalent. The distance measured along the AXIS OF LENS from the rear NODAL POINT to the plane of best average DEFINITION over the entire field used in an AERIAL CAMERA. focal plane. A plane parallel to the plane of a LENS or MIRROR and passing through the FOCUS. In PHOTOGRAPHY, the plane (perpendicular to the axis of the LENS) in which IMAGES of points in the object field of the LENS are focused. focal-plane plate. A glass plate set in the CAMERA so that the surface away from the LENS coincides with the FOCAL PLANE. Its purpose is to position the EMULSION of the film in the FOCAL PLANE when the film is physically pressed into contact with the glass plate. Also called contact glass or contact plate. focal-plane shutter. See SHUTTER. focal point. See FOCUS. focus (pl. foci). That point at which parallel RAYS of light meet after being refracted by a LENS or reflected by a MIRROR. Also called focal point. In SEISMOLOGY, the source of a given set of elastic WAVES. The true centre of an EARTHQUAKE, within which the strain energy is first converted to elastic wave energy. focus (v.t.). The process of adjusting an optical instrument, PROJECTOR, CATHODE-RAY TUBE, etc., to produce a clear and well-defined IMAGE. fog. Suspension of very small water droplets in the air, generally reducing the horizontal VISIBILITY at the EARTH's surface to less than 1 kilometre. fog: advection. FOG which forms in the lower part of a moist AIR MASS which moves over a colder surface. fog: ice. Suspension of numerous minute ice crystals in the air, reducing the VISIBILITY at the EARTH's surface. fog: sea. ADVECTION FOG which forms over the SEA. fog: wet. FOG formed of droplets sufficiently large to deposit water on objects. fog bank. FOG, generally caused by local conditions, which extends over a small area some hundreds of METRES wide. fog bell. A bell used as a FOG SIGNAL. fog detector light. A light used to automatically determine conditions of visibility which warrant the turning on or off of a sound signal. fog gong. A gong used as a FOG SIGNAL. fog gun. A gun used as a FOG SIGNAL. fog horn. A HORN used as a FOG SIGNAL. fog patches. FOG in banks irregularly distributed. fog signal. A warning SIGNAL transmitted by a vessel or AID TO NAVIGATION during period of low VISIBILITY. Also the device producing such a SIGNAL. fog signal: explosive. Detonation of an explosive used as a navigational warning during low VISIBILITY. fog signal: radio. A regularly recurring distinctive SIGNAL sent out by a RADIOBEACON during thick WEATHER.

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fog siren. A siren used as a FOG SIGNAL. fog trumpet. A trumpet used as a FOG SIGNAL. fog whistle. A whistle used as a FOG SIGNAL. following sea. A SEA in which the WAVES move in the general direction of the HEADING. following wind. WIND blowing in the general direction of a vessel's COURSE. font. Complete assortment of all the different characters of a particular size and style of type. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Aims at the improvement of the standard of living, especially of the rural population of third world countries, by increasing the production and improving the distribution of agricultural products. foot (pl. feet). A unit of length equal to 12 INCHES, 1/6 of a FATHOM, or 30.480 centimetres. foot of the continental slope. The point of maximum change of gradient at the base of the CONTINENTAL SLOPE. footscrew. See LEVELLING SCREW. forced convection. See CONVECTION. forced wave. See WAVE. foreland. A CAPE or PROMONTORY. Forel scale. A colour scale employed as a means of determining the COLOUR OF SEA WATER. foreshore. That part of SHORE which lies between HIGH and LOW WATER MARK at ordinary TIDE. foresight. In LEVELLING, a reading on a LEVELLING ROD held on a point whose ELEVATION is to be determined. See also BACKSIGHT. format. The general plan or arrangement of a product. Specification of succession and type of representation of elements of information (numbers, text) on a medium. A fixed format is equivalent to a table, while free formats use delimiters to separate individual elements or "tags" (based on a directory) to identify elements. A set of formats or a complex format determines the structure of how information is represented on a medium. formation sounding. See SOUNDING. form lines. Lines drawn to represent the shape of TERRAIN; unlike CONTOUR LINES, these are drawn without regard to a true vertical DATUM or regular vertical interval. forward azimuth. See AZIMUTH: GEODETIC. forward lap. See OVERLAP. foul. 1. To entangle or become entangled; e.g. as a propeller becoming entangled in cables, nets, or seaweed. 2. To attach or come to lie on the surface of submerged objects, usually in large numbers or amounts as barnacles on the hull of a ship. foul area. An area of numerous uncharted dangers to navigation. The area charted serves as a warning to the mariner that all dangers are not charted individually and that navigation through the area may be hazardous. The term "foul" should not be applied to a soft continuum with indefinite boundaries such as mud or sand; to areas congested with marine vegetation such as kelp or grass in water; or to materials not likely to cause damage to a vessel. foul berth. A berth in which a vessel cannot swing to her anchor or moorings without fouling another vessel or striking an obstruction.

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foul bottom. A hard, uneven, rocky or obstructed BOTTOM having poor holding qualities for anchors, or one having ROCKS or WRECKAGE that would endanger an anchored vessel. foul ground. An area where the holding qualities for an anchor are poor, or where danger of striking or fouling the GROUND or other OBSTRUCTIONS exists. fouling. The mass of living and non-living bodies and particles attached to or lying on the surface of a submerged manmade or introduced object; more commonly considered to be only the living or attached bodies. fractional scale. See SCALE: NATURAL. fracture zone. An extensive linear zone of unusually irregular TOPOGRAPHY of the SEA FLOOR, characterized by large SEAMOUNTS, steep-sided or asymmetrical RIDGES, TROUGHS, or ESCARPMENTS. frazil ice. Fine spicules or plates of ICE in suspension in water. free-air anomaly. The difference between observed GRAVITY and theoretical GRAVITY which has been computed for LATITUDE and corrected for ELEVATION of the STATION above or below the GEOID, by application of the normal rate of change of GRAVITY for change of ELEVATION, as in free air. Also called Faye anomaly. free atmosphere. See ATMOSPHERE. free convection. See CONVECTION. free gyroscope. See GYRO: FREE. free port. A port where certain import and export duties are waived (unless goods pass into the country) to facilitate reshipment to other countries. free wave. See WAVE. freezing. See FROST. freezing point. Temperature of solidification of a liquid in given conditions. frequency. The number of VIBRATIONS or CYCLES in unit time. frequency: extremely high (EHF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. frequency: high (HF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. frequency: low (LF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. frequency: medium (MF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. frequency: natural. The lowest resonant FREQUENCY of a body or system. frequency: radio. Any FREQUENCY at which electromagnetic RADIATION of energy is useful for communication. Radio frequencies are usually classed as very low, below 30 kilohertz; low, 30-300 kilohertz; medium, 300-3,000 kilohertz; high, 3-30 MEGAHERTZ: very high, 30-300 MEGAHERTZ; ultra high, 300-3,000 MEGAHERTZ; super high, 3,000-30,000 MEGAHERTZ; extremely high, 30,000-300,000 MEGAHERTZ. frequency: resonant. Any FREQUENCY at which a body or system vibrates more readily. frequency: super high (SHF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. frequency: ultra high (UHF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. frequency: very high (VHF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. frequency: very low (VLF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. frequency band. See BAND OF FREQUENCY. frequency channel. See CHANNEL.

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frequency modulation. See MODULATION. frequency of soundings. See DENSITY OF SOUNDINGS. freshet. An area of comparatively fresh water at or near the MOUTH of a STREAM flowing into the SEA. A FLOOD or overflowing of a RIVER caused by heavy RAINS or melted SNOW. friction layer. Atmospheric LAYER extending from the EARTH's surface and of depth about 600 to 800 m, within which air motion is affected significantly by surface friction. Above this LAYER lies the 'FREE ATMOSPHERE'. fringing reef. A REEF closely attached to a SHORE, as contrasted with a BARRIER REEF which is separated from the SHORE by a LAGOON. front. In METEOROLOGY: a) surface of separation of two AIR MASSES (frontal surface); b) line of intersection of the surface of separation of two AIR MASSES with another surface or with the GROUND. frontal surface. See FRONT. front light. See LIGHT(S): RANGE. front nodal point. See NODAL POINT. frost (or freezing). Lowering of air temperature to a value equal to or less than the FREEZING POINT of water (0 C). frost point. The temperature to which atmospheric moisture must be cooled to reach the point of saturation with respect to ice. frost smoke. Fog-like CLOUDS, due to the contact of cold air with relatively warm SEA WATER, which appear over newly formed LEADS and POOLS, or leeward, of the ICE EDGE, and which may persist while SLUSH or SLUDGE and YOUNG ICE are forming. f-stop. See APERTURE: RELATIVE. fucus. See ROCKWEED. full moon. See PHASES OF THE MOON. function key. A special key on a computer which performs a preprogrammed function. fundamental circle. See PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE. furrow. On the sea floor, a closed, linear, narrow, shallow depression. fusion: stereoscopic. See STEREOSCOPIC FUSION.

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1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 gage. See GAUGE: TIDE. gain. The ration of output voltage, current or power to input voltage, current, or power in electronic instruments. gal (derived from Galileo). The unit of ACCELERATION in the CGS SYSTEM. See MILLIGAL. gale. WIND with a SPEED between 32 and 37 KNOTS (Beaufort scale wind force 8). gale warning. See WARNING. Galton's sun signal. See HELIOSTAT. galvanometer. An instrument for detecting and determining the intensity and direction of an electric current. galvanoplasty (or galvanoplastics). The process of coating things with metal by means of electrolysis. gamma. Photographic term for negative contrast resulting from development, and not the contrast of the subject itself; a numerical measure of CONTRAST in the development of a NEGATIVE. A small unit of MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY generally used in describing the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD. -5 It is defined as being equal to 10 OERSTED. gamma ray. See X-RAYS. gap. In nomenclature of undersea features, a break in a RIDGE or RISE. Any space where survey data fail to meet minimum coverage requirements. This may be a space not covered by any data or a space where the minimum specified OVERLAP was not obtained. A NOTCH. gas chromatography. An analysis method used to determine dissolved oxygen and nitrogen content of SEA WATER. gas field. An area in which natural gas occurs in quantities worthy of exploitation. gat. A natural or artificial PASSAGE or CHANNEL through SHOALS or steep BANKS, or across a line of BANKS lying between two CHANNELS. gate: hydraulic. A form of valve used to regulate the FLOW of a liquid in a pipeline, RIVER or DAM. gauge. An instrument for measuring the size or state of anything. gauge: depth. A general term for an instrument made to indicate DEPTH of water, especially one in which sea depths are indicated by pressure of water against a spring, or by degree of compression of air in a tube. gauge: float. A TIDE GAUGE that is operated by a float in a long, vertical stationary box to which the TIDE is admitted through an opening in the bottom. Also called box gauge. gauge: pressure. An instrument for measuring pressure. A TIDE GAUGE operated by the change in pressure at the BOTTOM of a body of water, due to the RISE and fall of the TIDE. gauge: rain. Instrument for measuring the depth of water from PRECIPITATION supposed distributed over a horizontal impervious surface and not subject to evaporation. Also written as one word. gauge: tide. A device for measuring the HEIGHT OF TIDE. A graduated staff in a sheltered area where visual observations can be made; or it may consist of an elaborate recording instrument making a continuous graphic record of tide height against time. Such an instrument is usually actuated by a float in a pipe communicating with the sea through a small hole which filters out shorter waves. gauss. The CGS unit of MAGNETIC INDUCTION. Gaussin error. See ERROR.

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gelbstoff. Yellowish organic material suspended in sea water which causes greenish colour of the sea water in coastal areas; usually transported into the sea by rivers. General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). A global series of small scale bathymetric charts. Edited through international cooperation by IHO and IOC. general chart. See CHART. general notices. All information and instructions that hydrographic offices may wish to bring to the attention of mariners but the nature of which is such that they may not properly refer to any specific nautical document. generalisation. The omission of less important detail when compiling a chart. Its purpose is to avoid overloading charts where space is limited. geocentric coordinates. See COORDINATES. geocentric latitude. See LATITUDE. geocentric parallax. See PARALLAX: DIURNAL. geodesic. See GEODESIC LINE. geodesic line. The shortest line on a mathematically derived surface, between two points on that surface. A geodesic line on a REFERENCE SPHEROID is called a GEODETIC LINE. Also termed a geodesic. geodesy. The science which treats of the determination of the size and figure of the EARTH (GEOID) by such direct measurements as TRIANGULATION, LEVELLING and gravimetric OBSERVATIONS. geodesy: satellite. The discipline which employs OBSERVATIONS of an earth satellite to extract geodetic information. geodetic azimuth. See AZIMUTH. geodetic connection. See CONNECTION. geodetic control. See CONTROL. geodetic coordinates. See COORDINATES. geodetic data. Information concerning points established by a geodetic survey, such as descriptions for recovery, coordinate values, height above sea level, and orientation. geodetic datum. See DATUM. geodetic equator. See EQUATOR. geodetic latitude. See LATITUDE. geodetic levelling. See LEVELLING. geodetic line. See GEODESIC LINE. geodetic longitude. See LONGITUDE. geodetic meridian. See MERIDIAN. geodetic parallel. See PARALLEL. geodetic position. See POSITION. geodetic survey. See SURVEY. geographic(al) coordinates. See COORDINATES.

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geographic information system. A computer based system for handling and integrating data from a variety of sources which is directly or indirectly spatially referenced to Earth. geographic(al) latitude. See LATITUDE. geographic(al) longitude. See LONGITUDE. geographic(al) meridian. See MERIDIAN. geographic(al) parallel. See PARALLEL. geographic(al) pole. See POLE. geographic(al) position. See POSITION. geographic(al) range. See RANGE. geoid. The FIGURE OF THE EARTH considered as a mean sea level surface extended continuously through the CONTINENTS. The actual geoid is an EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACE to which, at every point, the PLUMB LINE (direction in which GRAVITY acts) is perpendicular. It is the geoid which is obtained from observed DEFLECTIONS OF THE VERTICAL and is the surface of reference for ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS and for GEODETIC LEVELLING. See REFERENCE SPHEROID. geologic(al) survey. See SURVEY. geologic(al) time. See TIME. geology. The science which has for its object the investigation of the EARTH's CRUST, of the STRATA which enter into its composition with their mutual relations, and of the successive changes to which their present condition and position are due. geology: submarine. A field of study which applies the science of GEOLOGY to the earth beneath the SEA. geomagnetic field. The MAGNETIC FIELD of the EARTH. Also called terrestrial magnetic field or earth's magnetic field. geomagnetism. The MAGNETISM of the EARTH. Also called terrestrial magnetism. geomatics. The science and technology of spatial information management, including the acquisition, storage, analysis and processing, display and dissemination of geo-referenced information. geometric dilution of precision. See DILUTION OF PRECISION. geometric latitude. See LATITUDE: PARAMETRIC. geometric projection. See PROJECTION: PERSPECTIVE. geomorphology. A branch of both geography and geology that deals with the form of the earth, the general configuration of its surface, and the changes that take place in the evolution of land forms. geophysics. The study of the physical characteristics and properties of the EARTH. geosphere. The solid and liquid portions of the EARTH; the LITHOSPHERE plus the HYDROSPHERE. geostationary satellite. An earth satellite moving eastward in an equatorial, circular orbit at an altitude (approximately 35,900 kilometers) such that its period of revolution is exactly equal to (synchronous with) the rotational period of the earth. Such a satellite will remain fixed over a point on the earth's equator. Although geostationary satellites are frequently called geosynchronous or synchronous satellites, the orbit of an eastward moving synchronous satellite must be equatorial if the satellite is to remain fixed over a point on the equator. Otherwise, the satellite moves daily in a figureeight pattern relative to the earth. Also called fixed satellite. geostrophic wind. That horizontal wind velocity for which the Coriolis force exactly balances the horizontal pressure force. gibbous (adj.). See PHASES OF THE MOON.

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gimbals. A device consisting of two rings pivoted at right angles to each other, for supporting anything, such as an instrument, in such a manner that it will remain essentially horizontal when the support tilts. Also called cardanic suspension. glacier. A mass of SNOW and ICE continuously moving from higher to lower GROUND or, if afloat, continuously spreading. The principal forms of glaciers are: ICE SHEETS, ICE SHELVES, ICE CAPS, ICE PIEDMONTS, and various types of mountain glaciers. glacier ice. Any ICE floating on the SEA as an ICEBERG, which originates from a land GLACIER. Also called land ice. glacier tongue. Projecting seaward extension of GLACIER, usually afloat. glaciology. The study of SNOW and ICE on the EARTH's surface, with specific concentration on the regime of active GLACIERS. glen. A narrow, secluded VALLEY. glitter. The spots of light reflected from a point source by the surface of the SEA. global positioning system (GPS). A satellite navigation system intended to provide highly accurate position and velocity information in three dimensions and precise time and time interval on a global basis continuously. Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS). The GMDSS is a global communications service based upon automated systems, both satellite based and terrestrial, to provide distress alerting and promulgation of MARITIME SAFETY INFORMATION for mariners. globe. The EARTH; the world. A spherical structure on whose surface is depicted the geographical configuration of the EARTH (terrestrial globe). gnomon. Any object the shadow of which serves as an indicator, as the SHADOW PIN of a SUN COMPASS. gnomonic chart. See CHART. gnomonic projection. See PROJECTION. Gold slide. An adjustable attachment to a MERCURIAL BAROMETER for giving resultant of CORRECTIONS for INDEX ERROR, HEIGHT of instrument above SEA LEVEL, variation in GRAVITY due to LATITUDE, temperature. Invented by Col. E. Gold. gong buoy. See BUOY: SOUND. goniometer. An instrument for measuring angles. A pick-up coil which eliminates the necessity of having to rotate a radio direction finder antenna to determine direction. gorge. A narrow opening, between HILLS, usually with precipitous sides. grab. A kind of closing scoop or bucket used in dredging or for bringing up BOTTOM SAMPLES. grab sampling. A random mode of collecting samples. grad (or grade). A unit of angle measurement, equal to the angle at the centre of a circle, subtended by one fourhundredth part of its circumference. grade. Rate of SLOPE or degree of INCLINATION, as a 2% grade. See also GRADIENT and GRAD. grade correction (tape). See TAPE: GRADE CORRECTION. gradient. The change of any quantity with distance in any given direction. See PRESSURE GRADIENT, TEMPERATURE LAPSE RATE. The amount of SLOPE, INCLINATION to the HORIZONTAL, in road, railway, etc. gradient tints. See HYPSOMETRIC TINTS.

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graduation. The placing of marks on an instrument or device to represent standard values thereon. Also the marks so placed. The division and subdivision of LATITUDE and LONGITUDE shown on the borders of a CHART. See also SCALE. graduation error. See ERROR OF GRADUATION. gram(me). A CGS unit of mass equal to one one-thousandth of a KILOGRAMME. granite. Light-coloured, acidic IGNEOUS ROCK mineralogically composed primarily of QUARTZ and potassiumsodium rich feldspars in which the mineral grains are visible to the naked eye (phaneritic texture). graphic control survey. See SURVEY. graphic scale. See SCALE: BAR. graticule. The network of lines representing MERIDIANS and PARALLELS on a MAP, CHART, or PLOTTING SHEET. See also GRID. A SCALE at the FOCAL PLANE of an optical instrument to aid in the measurement of objects. See also RETICLE. graticule adjustment. The transportation or movement of the GRATICULE in order to change the ORIGIN of reference. gravel. Loose detrital material ranging in size from 2 to 256 mm. gravimeter. A weighing device or instrument of sufficient sensitivity to register variations in the WEIGHT of a constant mass when the mass is moved from place to place on the EARTH and thereby subjected to the influence of GRAVITY at those places. Also called gravity meter. gravimetric survey. See SURVEY. graving dock. See DOCK: DRY. gravitation. In general, the mutual attraction between masses of matter (bodies). Gravitation is the component of GRAVITY which acts towards the EARTH. gravity. That force which tends to pull bodies towards the EARTH; that is to give bodies WEIGHT. Gravity is the resultant of two opposing forces: GRAVITATION and CENTRIFUGAL FORCE due to the ROTATION of the EARTH. gravity: centre of. A point at which the mass of the entire body may be regarded as being concentrated. gravity: direction of. The DIRECTION indicated by a PLUMB LINE. It is perpendicular to the surface of the GEOID. Also called direction of the force of gravity. gravity: intensity of. The magnitude with which GRAVITY acts, expressed in suitable units, usually as an ACCELERATION, in GALS; as a force, in DYNES. gravity anomaly. The difference between the observed gravity value properly reduced to SEA LEVEL and the theoretical GRAVITY obtained from gravity formula. See BOUGUER ANOMALY, FREE-AIR ANOMALY, ISOSTATIC ANOMALY. gravity anomaly chart. See CHART. gravity coring. A method to obtain cores by bottom penetration solely as a result of gravity. gravity meter. See GRAVIMETER. gravity wave. See WAVE. grease ice. A later stage of freezing than frazil ice when the crystals have coagulated to form a soupy layer on the surface. Grease ice reflects little light, giving the sea a matt appearance. great circle. See CIRCLE.

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great circle: primary. See PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE. great circle bearing. See BEARING. great circle chart. See CHART: GNOMONIC. great circle course. See COURSE. great circle sailing. See SAILING. great circle track. See TRACK. great diurnal range. See RANGE: DIURNAL. greatest elongation. See ELONGATION. great tropic range. See RANGE. Greenwich civil time. See TIME: GREENWICH MEAN. Greenwich hour angle. See HOUR ANGLE. Greenwich mean time (GMT). See TIME. Greenwich meridian. See MERIDIAN. Greenwich time. See TIME. grid. A series of lines, usually straight and parallel, superimposed on a CHART or PLOTTING SHEET to serve as a directional reference for NAVIGATION. See also GRATICULE. Two sets of mutually perpendicular lines dividing a MAP, CHART, or other representation of the EARTH's surface, into squares or rectangles to permit location of any point by a system of RECTANGULAR COORDINATES. In electronics, an electrode with one or more openings to permit passage of electrons or ions. grid: parallactic. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a uniform pattern of rectangular lines drawn or engraved on some transparent material, usually glass, and placed either over the PHOTOGRAPHS of a STEREOSCOPIC PAIR or in the OPTICAL SYSTEM of a STEREOSCOPE, in order to provide a continuous floating-mark system. grid: perspective. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a network of lines, drawn or superimposed on a PHOTOGRAPH, to represent the perspective of a systematic network of lines on the GROUND or DATUM PLANE. See also GRID METHOD. grid: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). A grid system in which a grid network is applied to TRANSVERSE o MERCATOR PROJECTIONS of zones of the EARTH's surface extending to 80 N. and S. LATITUDES. grid azimuth. See AZIMUTH. grid bearing. See BEARING. grid coordinates. See COORDINATES. grid course. See COURSE. grid declination. The angular difference in DIRECTION between GRID NORTH and TRUE NORTH. It is measured east or west from TRUE NORTH. grid direction. See DIRECTION. gridiron. See CAREENING GRID. grid magnetic angle. See VARIATION: GRID. grid meridian. See MERIDIAN.

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grid method. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a method of plotting detail from OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPHS by superimposing a perspective of a map grid on a PHOTOGRAPH and transferring the detail by eye, that is, by using the corresponding lines of the map grid and its perspective as placement guides. See also GRID: PERSPECTIVE. grid navigation. See NAVIGATION. grid north. See NORTH. grid ticks. Short lines indicating where selected grid lines intersect the NEAT LINE. grid variation. See VARIATION. grivation. See VARIATION: GRID. groin (or groyne). A low artificial wall-like structure of durable material extending from the LAND to seaward for a particular purpose, such as to protect the COAST or to force a CURRENT to scour a CHANNEL. Sometimes called a rip-rap in New England waters. gross error. See ERROR. ground. The BOTTOM of the SEA. The solid surface of the EARTH. ground (v.t. and i.). To touch BOTTOM or run aground. See STRAND. ground control. See CONTROL. ground control point. See CONTROL POINT. ground distance. The great-circle distance between two ground positions, as contrasted with SLANT DISTANCE. Also called ground range. ground effects. Influence exerted by the GROUND on the propagation of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. ground ice. See ANCHOR ICE. ground layer. Thin layer of air adjacent to the EARTH's surface and of a depth which has been variously given as 10 m to 100 m. Also called surface boundary layer. ground log. See LOG. ground nadir. See NADIR. ground parallel. See PARALLEL. ground photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH: TERRESTRIAL. ground plane. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the horizontal plane passing through the GROUND NADIR of a CAMERA STATION. ground range. See GROUND DISTANCE. ground resolution. See RESOLUTION. ground speed. In AIR NAVIGATION, the rate of motion of an aircraft along its TRACK with relation to the GROUND. See also AIR SPEED. ground survey. See SURVEY. ground swell. A long high ocean swell; also, this SWELL as it rises to prominent HEIGHT in SHALLOW WATER, however, usually not so high or dangerous as BLIND ROLLERS. ground truth. The information acquired by a field study to calibrate or verify geographical data acquired by remote sensing.

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ground wave. See WAVE. group. A term distinguishing a LIGHT exhibiting two or more flashes or OCCULTATIONS from one exhibiting a single flash or single OCCULTATION. group velocity. The VELOCITY of a wave disturbance as a whole, i.e., of an entire group of component simple harmonic waves. growler. A piece of ICE almost awash, smaller than a BERGY BIT. guard lock. See TIDE LOCK. guidance. The exercise of directing influence over the movements of a craft or missile with particular reference to the selection of a flight PATH. gulf. A part of the SEA extending into the LAND, usually larger than a BAY. gully. Small VALLEY cut into soft SEDIMENTS on the CONTINENTAL SHELF or CONTINENTAL SLOPE. gust. A sudden brief increase in the SPEED of the WIND. gut. A narrow PASSAGE such as a STRAIT or INLET. A CHANNEL in otherwise less deep water, generally formed by water in motion. guyot. See TABLEMOUNT. gyre. A closed circulatory system, but larger than a WHIRLPOOL or EDDY. gyro. See GYROSCOPE. gyro: free. A two-degree-of-freedom GYRO or a GYRO the spin axis of which may be oriented in any specified attitude. Also called free gyroscope. gyro compass. See COMPASS: GYROSCOPIC. gyro pilot. An automatic pilot controlled by GYROSCOPES. An automatic device for steering a vessel by means of control signals from a GYROSCOPIC COMPASS. gyro repeater. An electrically operated DIAL repeating at a distance the indications of the MASTER GYRO COMPASS. gyroscope. A rapidly rotating mass free to move about one or both AXES perpendicular to the AXIS of ROTATION and to each other. It is characterized by GYROSCOPIC INERTIA and PRECESSION. Sometimes shortened to gyro. gyroscope: directional. A gyroscopic device used to indicate a selected horizontal DIRECTION for a limited time. It requires periodic resetting dependent upon the gyro precession rate or change in the desired HEADING or horizontal DIRECTION. gyroscope: free. See GYRO: FREE. gyroscopic compass. See COMPASS. gyroscopic inertia. The property of a GYROSCOPE of resisting any force which tends to change its AXIS of ROTATION. A GYROSCOPE tends to maintain the DIRECTION of its AXIS of ROTATION in space. gyroscopic stabilization. EQUILIBRIUM in the attitude and/or COURSE of a ship or airborne vehicle maintained by the use of GYROSCOPES. Also, the maintenance (by the use of GYROSCOPES) of a CAMERA in a desired attitude within an airborne vehicle. gyro sextant. See SEXTANT.

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H
2166 hachures. Short lines drawn on a CHART or MAP for representing RELIEF. These lines are drawn in the direction of the SLOPE and intensified on the shaded side of the feature assuming the area is illuminated from the north-west. Unlike the CONTOUR LINES. they give no indication of the actual HEIGHT of LAND above SEA LEVEL. See also HILL SHADING. hack watch. See WATCH. hail. PRECIPITATION of small balls or pieces of ICE (HAILSTONES) with a diameter ranging from 5 to 50 mm (0.2 to 2.0 in) or sometimes more, falling either separately or agglomerated into irregular lumps. hailstone. Globule or piece of ICE, with a diameter varying between 5 and 50 mm or even more, the fall of which constitutes HAIL. Hailstones consist almost entirely of transparent ICE, or of a series of LAYERS of transparent ICE with a thickness of at least 1 mm, alternating with translucent LAYERS. halation. In PHOTOGRAPHY, a spreading of a photographic IMAGE beyond its proper boundaries, due especially to REFLECTION from the side of the film or plate support opposite to that on which the EMULSION is coated. Particularly noticeable in PHOTOGRAPHS of bright objects against a darker background. half byte. 4 bits of a 8 BIT BYTE; usually used to encode the figures 0....9. half convergency. See ARC TO CHORD CORRECTION. half tide. See TIDE. half tide level. The LEVEL midway between MEAN HIGH WATER and MEAN LOW WATER. It may differ slightly from MEAN SEA LEVEL. Also called mean tide level. halftone. In PHOTOGRAPHY or printing, a technique in which the solid IMAGE is broken up by the use of a screen into evenly spaced dots of equal density but of varying size. This gives an illusion of continuous tone. halo (solar, lunar). Group of optical PHENOMENA, in the form of rings, arcs, pillars or bright spots, produced by the REFRACTION or REFLECTION of light by ice crystals suspended in the ATMOSPHERE (cirriform CLOUDS, ICE FOG, etc.). halo: large (halo of 46 ). HALO much less frequent and always less luminous than the SMALL HALO. It comprises a o faintly luminous ring centered on the SUN or MOON and has an apparent radius of 46 . halo: small (halo of 22 ). White, or mostly white, luminous ring of 22 radius with the luminary at its centre. The small halo shows a faint red fringe on the inside and, in some rare cases, a violet fringe on the outside. The portion of the sky inside the ring is conspicuously darker than the rest of the sky. halocline. A vertical GRADIENT of salinity (which is usually positive) in some LAYER of the body of water, which is appreciably greater than the GRADIENTS above and below it. hand lead. See LEAD. hand lead sounding. See SOUNDING. hanging compass. See COMPASS. hanging traverse. See TRAVERSE: OPEN. harbour (or harbor). A natural or artificially improved body of water providing protection for vessels, and generally ANCHORAGE and docking facilities. See also PORT. harbour: inner. The part of a HARBOUR more remote from the SEA, as contrasted with the OUTER HARBOUR. These expressions are usually used only in a HARBOUR that is clearly divided into two parts, as by a narrow passageway or man-made structures. The inner harbour generally has additional protection and is often the principal berthing area. harbour: island. A HARBOUR formed, or mainly protected, by ISLANDS.
o o o

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harbour: outer. The part of a HARBOUR towards the SEA, through which a vessel enters the INNER HARBOUR. harbour: tidal. A HARBOUR affected by the TIDES, in distinction from a HARBOUR in which the water level is maintained by CAISSONS or gates. harbour chart. See CHART. harbour line. The line beyond which wharves and other structures cannot be extended. harbour master. A local official who has charge of mooring and berthing of vessels, collecting harbour fees, etc. harbour reach. The reach of a winding RIVER or ESTUARY which leads directly to the HARBOUR. harbour works. Permanent manmade structures built along the coast which form an integral part of the harbour system such as jetties, moles, quays or other port facilities, coastal terminals, wharves, breakwaters, sea walls, etc. hard bottom. The sea floor not covered by unconsolidated SEDIMENT. hard iron. Iron or steel which is not readily magnetized by induction, but which retains a high percentage of the MAGNETISM acquired. The opposite is SOFT IRON. hardware. All physical material components of a computer system as e.g. central processing unit (CPU), peripheral devices etc.. May also include individual chips. harmonic. A sinusoidal quantity having a FREQUENCY that is an integral multiple of the FREQUENCY of a periodic quantity to which it is related. harmonic analysis of tide. The mathematical process by which the observed TIDE at a place is analyzed by breaking it down into a number of constituent tides of simple periodic forces, each having a fixed PERIOD. In this process the SUN and MOON are replaced by a number of hypothetical tide-producing bodies which move in circular ORBITS around the EARTH in the plane of the EQUATOR. See HARMONIC CONSTANTS, HARMONIC CONSTITUENT. harmonic constants. The AMPLITUDE and EPOCHS of the HARMONIC CONSTITUENT of the TIDE, or TIDAL CURRENT at any place. harmonic constituent. One of the harmonic elements in a mathematical expression for the TIDE-PRODUCING FORCE, and in corresponding formulae for the TIDE or TIDAL CURRENT. Each constituent represents a periodic change or variation in the RELATIVE POSITIONS of the EARTH, SUN and MOON. Also called tidal constituent or component. harmonic prediction. In tidal terminology, the method of predicting TIDES and TIDAL CURRENTS by combining the HARMONIC CONSTITUENTS into a single curve. The work was usually done mechanically by a machine designed for this purpose, called a TIDE PREDICTING MACHINE; nowadays the work is done by COMPUTERS. hatching. The drawing or engraving of fine, parallel or crossed lines to show SHADING. haven. An enclosed and protected HARBOUR. Hayford's spheroid. The SPHEROID based upon an investigation made in 1909 by Hayford, a geodesist of U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, using the large TRIANGULATION NET then existing in the U.S.A., and taking into account the inequal density of the EARTH's CRUST. The Geodetic and Geophysical Union (now the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) adopted in 1924 the Hayford's spheroid (with some slight modifications) as the INTERNATIONAL ELLIPSOID OF REFERENCE. hazard beacon. See BEACON. haze. Suspension in the ATMOSPHERE of extremely small, dry particles which are invisible to the naked eye but are numerous enough to give the sky an appearance of OPALESCENCE. head. A precipitous CAPE, or PROMONTORY. See also HEADLAND. That part of a RIP CURRENT that has widened out seaward of the BREAKERS. heading. The direction in which the longitudinal axis of a craft is pointed, usually expressed in DEGREES from NORTH (TRUE, MAGNETIC or COMPASS).

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headland. A high steep PROMONTORY. Usually called HEAD when coupled with a specific name. head sea. A SEA in which the WAVES move in a direction approximately opposite to the HEADING. headwater(s). The STREAMS from the sources and upper parts of a RIVER. headway. Motion in a forward direction. Also called SEAWAY. head wind. WIND which blows in a direction opposite to that in which an object is moving, with respect to the EARTH's surface. heat equator. See EQUATOR: THERMAL. heat lightning. Lightning flash at a distance which may be observed as a short illumination of the sky or of a CLOUD, close to the HORIZON. heat wave. Marked warming of the air, or the invasion of very warm air, over a large area. heave. The oscillatory rise and fall of a ship due to the entire hull being lifted by the force of the sea. heave compensation. The removal of the effect of wave motion from the recorded seabed profile. heavenly body. See CELESTIAL BODY. heel. Transverse INCLINATION of a vessel due to the action of WAVES, WIND, a greater WEIGHT on one side, etc. See also LIST. heeling error. See ERROR. heeling magnet. A permanent MAGNET placed vertically in a tube under the centre of a marine MAGNETIC COMPASS, to correct for HEELING ERROR. height. The vertical distance of a LEVEL, a point, or an object considered as a point, measured from a specified DATUM. The vertical dimension of an object. height finder. A stereoscopic RANGE FINDER so constructed as to indicate vertical HEIGHTS rather than SLANT RANGE. height of cloud base. HEIGHT above the EARTH's surface, at a given point, of the base of the lowest CLOUD whose CLOUD AMOUNT exceeds a given value. Called ceiling in U.S. terminology. height of eye correction. See DIP CORRECTION. height of tide. The vertical distance from the CHART DATUM to the level of the water at any TIME. heliocentric parallax. See PARALLAX: ANNUAL. heliograph. A device for reflecting the SUN's RAYS from one point to another for sending messages. In METEOROLOGY, instrument which records the time interval during which solar RADIATION reaches sufficient intensity to cast distinct shadows. Also called sunshine recorder. heliostat. An instrument composed of one or more plane MIRRORS, so mounted and arranged that a BEAM of sunlight may be reflected by it in any desired direction and kept there by continuous adjustment. It is used in geodetic SURVEYING for reflecting a BEAM of sunlight from a STATION towards another distant STATION, where it can be observed with a THEODOLITE. Also called heliotrope, or Galton's sun signal. heliotrope. See HELIOSTAT. heli pad. A site on which helicopters may land and take off. helium magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. Helmert spheroid. See REFERENCE SPHEROID.

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hemispherical map. See MAP. henry. The unit of electrical inductance in the SI SYSTEM. hertz. A unit of FREQUENCY in the SI SYSTEM. See also CYCLE PER SECOND. hertzian waves. See WAVE(S): RADIO. high. See ANTICYCLONE. higher high water (H.H.W.). The higher of two HIGH WATERS occurring during a TIDAL DAY if the DIURNAL INEQUALITY prevails. higher high water interval. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. higher low water (H.L.W.). The higher of two LOW WATERS occurring during a TIDAL DAY if DIURNAL INEQUALITY prevails. higher low water interval. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. highest astronomical tide. The highest tidal level which can be predicted to occur under average meteorological conditions and under any combination of astronomical conditions. high frequency (HF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. highland (or highlands). High or elevated LAND; a lofty HEADLAND or CLIFF. The mountainous or elevated part of any country; occasionally also in the names of geographical districts. high noon. See NOON: LOCAL APPARENT. high oblique photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH. high seas. The open sea beyond the exclusive economic zone, the territorial sea or the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic state. high tide. See HIGH WATER. high water (H.W.). The highest LEVEL reached at a place by the water surface in one OSCILLATION. Also called high tide. high water: double. A HIGH WATER consisting of two maxima of nearly the same HEIGHT separated by a relatively small depression. See also TIDE: DOUBLE. high water: storm. The highest LEVEL to which the SEA rises during a STORM and usually marked by a line of DEBRIS high up on the BEACH. high water full and change (H.W.F. and C.). See ESTABLISHMENT. high water inequality. See DIURNAL INEQUALITY. high water interval. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. high water line. See HIGH WATER MARK. high water lunitidal interval (H.W.I.). See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. high water mark. The mark left by the TIDE at HIGH WATER. The line or LEVEL reached, especially the highest line ever reached. Also called high water line. A permanent MARK which indicates the maximum observed stage of TIDE. high water quadrature (H.W.Q.). The average HIGH WATER INTERVAL when the MOON is at QUADRATURE. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. high water stand. See STAND OF TIDE.

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hill. A small isolated ELEVATION, smaller than a MOUNTAIN. See also KNOLL. hillock. A small HILL. hill shading. A method of indicating RELIEF on MAPS by shading normally the SLOPES facing south and east, i.e. it is assumed that the area mapped is illuminated from the north-west. The method is often used in association with CONTOURS. hinterland. The district behind that lying along the COAST; the back country. historic bay. Historic bays are those over which the coastal state has publicly claimed and exercised jurisdiction and this jurisdiction has been accepted by other states. Historic bays need not match the definition of "bay" contained in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. hoarfrost. Deposit of ICE, having a crystalline appearance, generally assuming the form of scales, needles, feathers or fans. Hoarfrost is produced in a manner similar to DEW but at a temperature below O C. Also written as two words. hodograph. Used in oceanography. The tidal current vector hodograph is the figure traced out by the tip of a vector representing the current over the tidal cycle. hodometer. See ODOMETER. holding ground. An expression usually used with a modifying adjective to indicate the quality of the holding power of the material constituting the BOTTOM of an ANCHORAGE; e.g., of good (or poor) holding ground. hole. An abrupt HOLLOW in the GROUND or ocean floor. See also PASSAGE. holiday. An unintentional unsurveyed area within a given hydrographic survey where the spacing between sounding lines or surveys exceeds the maximum allowable limits. hollow. TROUGH or depression between CRESTS of sea-waves. A cavity or HOLE. homing. NAVIGATION toward a point by maintaining constant some navigational COORDINATE(S), usually BEARING. The procedure of using the direction-finding equipment of one RADIO STATION with the emission of another RADIO STATION, where at least one of the STATIONS is mobile, and whereby the MOBILE STATION proceeds continuously towards the other STATION. hook. A sharp bend or angle in the course or length of anything; especially a bend in a RIVER. A projecting corner, POINT or SPIT of LAND. horizon. In general, the apparent or visible junction of the EARTH and sky, as seen from any specific position. horizon: apparent. The irregular line along which rays from the point of observation are tangent to the surface of the EARTH. Also called visible (or local) horizon. horizon: artificial. A device for indicating the HORIZONTAL, as a bubble, GYROSCOPE, PENDULUM, or the flat reflecting surface of a liquid. horizon: celestial. That circle of the CELESTIAL SPHERE, formed by the intersection of the CELESTIAL SPHERE and a plane through the centre of the EARTH, and perpendicular to the zenith-nadir line. Also called rational horizon. horizon: closing the. Measuring the last of a series of horizontal angles at a STATION required to make the series complete around the HORIZON. See also ERROR OF CLOSURE OF HORIZON. horizon: dip of the. See DIP. horizon: false. A line resembling the APPARENT HORIZON but above or below it. horizon: radio. See RADIO. horizon: rational. See HORIZON: CELESTIAL.

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horizon: sensible. That circle of the CELESTIAL SPHERE formed by the intersection of the CELESTIAL SPHERE and a plane through any point, such as the eye of an observer, and perpendicular to the zenith-nadir line. horizon: true. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a horizontal plane passing through a point of vision or PERSPECTIVE CENTRE. The APPARENT HORIZON approximates the true horizon only when the point of vision is very close to SEA LEVEL. horizon: visible (or local). See HORIZON: APPARENT. horizon glass. That glass of a MARINE SEXTANT, attached to the frame, through which the HORIZON is observed. That half of this glass nearer the frame is silvered to form the HORIZON MIRROR for reflecting the IMAGE of a CELESTIAL BODY; the other half is clear. horizon line. See HORIZON TRACE. horizon mirror. The mirror part of the HORIZON GLASS. The expression is sometimes used somewhat loosely to refer to the HORIZON GLASS. horizon photograph. In AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, a PHOTOGRAPH of the HORIZON, taken simultaneously with a VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPH and used to determine the RELATIVE TILT between adjacent VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. horizon shade. One of the pivoted coloured glasses which can be swung before the HORIZON GLASS of a SEXTANT to regulate the intensity of light. horizon system of coordinates. A set of CELESTIAL COORDINATES based on the CELESTIAL HORIZON as the PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE; usually ALTITUDE and AZIMUTH or AZIMUTH ANGLE. horizontal (adj). Parallel to the plane of the HORIZON; perpendicular to the DIRECTION OF GRAVITY. horizontal axis. See AXIS. horizontal circle. See CIRCLE. horizontal control. See CONTROL. horizontal control datum. The position on the SPHEROID OF REFERENCE assigned to the HORIZONTAL CONTROL (TRIANGULATION and TRAVERSE) of an area and defined by (1) the POSITION (LATITUDE and LONGITUDE) of one selected STATION in the area, and (2) the AZIMUTH from the selected STATION to an adjoining STATION. See also DATUM: GEODETIC. horizontal coplane. See COPLANE: BASAL. horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP). See DILUTION OF PRECISION. horizontal force instrument. See VIBRATING NEEDLE. horizontal intensity of the earth's magnetic field. The strength of the horizontal component of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD. horizontal parallax. See PARALLAX. horizontal photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH. horizontal plane. See PLANE. horizon trace. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, an imaginary line, in the plane of a PHOTOGRAPH, which represents the IMAGE of the TRUE HORIZON; it corresponds to the intersection of the plane of a PHOTOGRAPH and the horizontal plane containing the internal PERSPECTIVE CENTRE or rear NODAL POINT of the LENS. Also called horizon line. horn. FOG SIGNAL using compressed air or electricity to vibrate a diaphragm. Horns exist in a variety of types which differ greatly in their SOUND and power. Further to the recent action taken by the HYDROGRAPHER of the U.K. such terms as NAUTOPHONE, TYPHON and others are gradually being embraced by the general term 'Horn'.

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horn buoy. See BUOY: SOUND. hour. A 24th part of a DAY. hour angle. ANGULAR DISTANCE west of a CELESTIAL MERIDIAN, the arc of the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, or the angle at the CELESTIAL POLE, between the UPPER BRANCH of a CELESTIAL MERIDIAN and the HOUR o CIRCLE of a CELESTIAL BODY or the VERNAL EQUINOX, measured westward through 24 HOURS (360 ). It is usually further designated as local, Greenwich, or sidereal, as the origin of measurement is the LOCAL or GREENWICH MERIDIAN, or the HOUR CIRCLE of the VERNAL EQUINOX. hour circle. A GREAT CIRCLE on the CELESTIAL SPHERE passing through the CELESTIAL POLES. Also called declination circle, circle of declination, or circle of right ascension. hulk. Usually refers to an unrigged hull of a wrecked or condemned ship. humidity. Atmospheric water vapour content, expressed in any of several measures, such as relative humidity. humidity of the air. Water vapour content of the air. hummock. A natural ELEVATION of the EARTH's surface resembling a HILLOCK, but smaller and lower. In ice terminology, a mound of ICE raised by pressure. May be fresh or weathered. hummocked ice. SEA ICE piled haphazardly one piece over another, and which may be weathered. hummocking. Pressure process by which LEVEL ICE becomes broken up into HUMMOCKS. Hunter short base apparatus. A BASE APPARATUS designed for measuring short BASES by the subtended method. It consists of a jointed STEEL TAPE made up of four sections suspended in CATENARY between regularly spaced supports. The Hunter short base apparatus may be used over rough GROUND which is unsuitable for ground TAPING. hunting. Fluctuation about a midpoint due to INSTABILITY, as OSCILLATIONS of the needle of an instrument about the zero point, or alternate LEAD and LAG of a synchronous motor with respect to the alternating current. hurricane. Term, derived from a Caribbean word, first applied to TROPICAL CYCLONES of the Caribbean Sea. WIND with a speed equal to or greater than 58 KNOTS. (Beaufort scale wind force 12.) hurricane warning. See WARNING. hydrograph. Used in oceanography. The tidal current vector hydrograph is the figure traced out by the tip of a vector representing the current over the tidal cycle. hydrographer. A person who studies and practices the science of HYDROGRAPHY; the term is often applied to the person in charge of a hydrographic department or office of a country. hydrographic airborne laser sounder. A system for measuring the depth of water by sending a LASER pulse from an aircraft and recording the time difference between the sea surface and the bottom reflection. hydrographic chart. See CHART: NAUTICAL. hydrographic circle. See CIRCLE. hydrographic data acquisition. All on-site measurements to collect hydrographic data. hydrographic data processing system. A system for verification, selection, and calculation of hydrographic survey data. hydrographic datum. See DATUM: CHART. hydrographic sextant. See SEXTANT: SOUNDING. hydrographic signal. See SIGNAL. hydrographic survey. See SURVEY.

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hydrographic survey examination. Review of a hydrographic survey that is directed toward evaluating compliance with, and the adequacy of, standards, rather than a careful examination of the data and their quality. The survey is carefully examined for adequacy with respect to data acquisition and conformance with applicable standards and project instructions. In addition, the overall condition of the records and the Descriptive Report are examined. The digital data representing the survey is plotted and subjected to a cursory examination (spot check) to ensure that digital data standards are being adhered to. The examination of the survey data is limited only to that necessary to evaluate the acquisition and processing procedures. hydrographic survey sheet. An inclusive term used to designate both BOAT SHEETS and SMOOTH SHEETS. Also called survey sheet. hydrography. That branch of applied science which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of the navigable portion of the EARTH's surface and adjoining coastal areas, with special reference to their use for the purpose of NAVIGATION. hydrologic front. A relatively narrow transition zone separating two water masses in the ocean. hydrologic series. Simultaneous observations carried out to obtain oceanographic data at specified levels. hydrology. The scientific study of the waters of the EARTH, especially with relation to the effects of PRECIPITATION and evaporation upon the occurrence and character of water in STREAMS, LAKES, and on or below the land surfaces. hydrometeor. METEOR consisting of an ensemble of liquid or solid water particles falling through or suspended in the ATMOSPHERE, blown by the WIND from the EARTH'S surface or deposited on objects on the ground or in the free air. hydrometer. An instrument for determining the SPECIFIC GRAVITY of liquids. hydrophone. An electroacoustic TRANSDUCER that responds to water-borne SOUND WAVES and delivers essentially equivalent electric WAVES. See also PRESSURE HYDROPHONE. hydrophone streamer. A chain of separate receivers for seismic sound sources towed by a ship. The streamer contains many individual hydrophone elements and is divided electronically into a number of discrete sections or channels. hydrophotometer. An instrument used to measure the EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT of transmission of light in water. It consists of a constant light source placed at a specific distance from a photocell. When placed in water, the electrical OUTPUT of the photocell is proportional to the amount of light striking the cell which, in turn, depends upon the transparency of the water. The instrument is calibrated to read 100 percent light transmission in air. hydroplastic corer. See CORER. hydrosphere. The waters of the EARTH's surface collectively. The 'water sphere' in comparison and contrast with LITHOSPHERE and ATMOSPHERE. hydrostatic instability. See INSTABILITY: STATIC. hydrostatic levelling. The transfer of level between two points by the use of a pipe filled with water laid on the sea bed with vertical sections at each end. hydrostatic pressure. See PRESSURE. hydrostatic stability. See STABILITY: STATIC. hygrograph. HYGROMETER which includes an arrangement for the time recording of atmosphere humidity. hygrometer. An instrument for measuring the HUMIDITY OF THE AIR. See also PSYCHROMETER. hygrothermograph. Instrument resulting from the combination of a THERMOGRAPH and a HYGROGRAPH and furnishing, on the same DIAGRAM, simultaneous time recording of atmospheric temperature and humidity. Also called thermohygrograph.

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hyperbola. An open curve with two parts, all points of which have a constant difference in distance from two fixed points called foci. hyperbolic line of position. A LINE OF POSITION in the shape of a hyperbola, determined by measuring the difference in distance to two fixed points. hyperbolic navigation. See NAVIGATION. hyperbolic number(s). Numerical figures characterizing the hyperbolae of a pattern or LATTICE in a HYPERBOLIC SYSTEM of RADIOLOCATION. hyperbolic system. Radiolocation system supplying HYPERBOLIC LINES OF POSITION. hypsograph. A circular instrument of the slide-rule type used to compute ELEVATIONS from vertical angles and horizontal distances. hypsographic (or hypsometric) curve. A curve used to indicate the proportion of the area of the surface at various ELEVATIONS above or DEPTHS below a given DATUM. hypsometer. A device for measuring HEIGHTS of land surfaces by the boiling point of water. hypsometric curve. See HYPSOGRAPHIC CURVE. hypsometric tints. A succession of shades or colour graduations used to depict ranges of ELEVATIONS. Also called gradient tints or elevation tints. hypsometry. The determination of ELEVATIONS above SEA LEVEL. Generally applied to the determination of ELEVATIONS through the measurement of air pressure by observing the boiling point of a liquid. hysteresis. Retardation or LAG in the effect of changing forces, as in ship's MAGNETISM induced by the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD.

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2365 2366 ice. The solid form of water. iceberg. A large mass of floating or stranded ICE broken away from a GLACIER or from an ICE SHELF. Often of considerable HEIGHT (in any case more than 5 m above the LEVEL of the SEA). ice blink. A typical whitish glare on low CLOUDS above an accumulation of distant ICE. It is especially glowing when observed on the HORIZON. icebound (adj.). Said of a HARBOUR, INLET, etc. when NAVIGATION by ships is prevented due to ICE, except possibly with the assistance of an icebreaker. Of a ship, surrounded so closely by ICE as to be incapable of proceeding. ice cake. A FLOE smaller than 10 m across. If less than 2 m, it is termed BRASH ICE or small ice cake. ice cap. See ICE SHEET. ice cluster. A concentration of SEA ICE covering hundreds of square kilometres, which is found in the same region every summer. ice concentration. In SEA ICE reporting, the ratio of the areal extent of ICE present to the total areal extent of ICE and water. Concentration is usually reported in tenths. Also called ice cover. ice cover. See ICE CONCENTRATION. ice edge. The BOUNDARY at any given time between the open sea and SEA ICE of any kind, whether drifting or fast. ice field. Area of PACK ICE consisting of any size FLOES, which is greater than 10 km across. ice floe. See FLOE. ice fog. See FOG. icefoot. A narrow strip of ICE attached to the COAST, unmoved by TIDES and remaining after the FAST ICE has broken free. ice free. Water surface completely free of ICE. ice front. The vertical CLIFF forming the seaward face of an ICE SHELF. See ICE WALL. ice island. A form of tabular BERG found in the Arctic Ocean, with a thickness of 30 to 50 m and from a few thousand square metres to 500 sq. km in area. Ice islands are characterized by a regularly undulating surface, which gives them a ribbed appearance from the air. ice limit. The average position of the ICE EDGE in any given month or period based on OBSERVATIONS over a number of years. ice piedmont. ICE covering a coastal strip of low-lying LAND backed by MOUNTAINS. The surface of an ice piedmont slopes gently seawards and may be anything from 50 m to 50 km wide, fringing long stretches of COASTLINE with ice cliffs. Ice piedmonts frequently merge into ICE SHELVES. ice rind. A thin, elastic, shining crust of ICE, formed by the freezing of SLUDGE on a quiet sea surface. Thickness less than 5 cm. ice rise. A mass of ICE resting on ROCK and surrounded either by an ICE SHELF or partly by an ICE SHELF and partly by SEA. No ROCK is exposed and there may be none above SEA LEVEL. Ice rises often have a dome-shaped surface. The largest known is about 100 km across. ice sheet. A continuous mass of ICE and SNOW of considerable thickness and large area. Ice sheets may be resting on ROCK (see INLAND ICE SHEET) or floating (see ICE SHELF). Ice sheets of less than 40,000 sq. km resting on ROCK are called ice caps.

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ice shelf. A floating ICE SHEET of considerable thickness. Ice shelves are usually of great horizontal extent and have a level or gently undulating surface. They are nourished by local snow accumulation and often also by the seaward extension of land glaciers. Limited areas may be aground. The initial stage is called BAY ICE until the surface is more than about 2 m above SEA LEVEL. The seaward edge is termed an ICE FRONT. ice storm. Intense formation of ICE on objects by the freezing, on impact, of drops of RAIN or DRIZZLE. ice wall. An ice cliff forming the seaward margin of an INLAND ICE SHEET, ICE PIEDMONT or ICE RISE. The rock basement may be at or below SEA LEVEL. See ICE FRONT. identification beacon. See BEACON. igneous rock. ROCK formed by solidification of molten material or MAGMA. illuminated contours. An application of ILLUMINATED RELIEF in which CONTOURS appear lighter on illuminated SLOPES and darker on the shadow SLOPES. illuminated relief. The representation of RELIEF with the appearance of lighting from one or more directions, giving a three-dimensional impression. Also called shaded relief. illumination (at a point of a surface). Quotient of the LUMINOUS FLUX incident on an infinitesimal element of the surface containing the point under consideration, by the area of that element. image. The optical counterpart of an object. image: erect. An IMAGE that appears upright or in the same relative position as the object. image: inverted. An IMAGE that appears upside down in relation to the object. image: real. An IMAGE actually produced and capable of being shown on a surface, as in a CAMERA. image: virtual. An IMAGE that cannot be shown on a surface but is visible, as in a MIRROR. image point. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the IMAGE on a PHOTOGRAPH corresponding to a definite object on the GROUND. imagery. Techniques to obtain, process or interpret images created by different types of radiation, e.g. light, infrared, xrays. impedance. The total opposition offered to an alternating current. It may consist of any combination of resistance, inductive reactance, or capacitive reactance. impersonal micrometer. See MICROMETER: TRANSIT. impulse. See PULSE. inch. A unit of length equal to 1/12 of a FOOT or 2.54 cm. incidence: angle of. See ANGLE OF INCIDENCE. incident nodal point. See NODAL POINT. incineration areas (at sea). An offshore area officially designated as suitable for the burning of chemical waste by specially equipped ships. inclination. The angle which a line or surface makes with the VERTICAL, horizontal or with another line or surface. inclination: magnetic. See DIP. inclination of the horizontal axis. The vertical angle between the HORIZONTAL AXIS of a surveying or astronomical instrument and the plane of the HORIZON.

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inclinometer. An instrument for measuring the INCLINATION to the horizontal of the longitudinal axis of an aircraft. See DIP CIRCLE, WIRE ANGLE INDICATOR. indelta. Inland area where a RIVER subdivides (now in common use, especially in Australia). indentation. A recess in a COASTLINE. index arm. A slender bar carrying an index; particularly that bar which pivots at the centre of curvature of the arc of a MARINE SEXTANT and carries the index and the VERNIER or MICROMETER. Also called index bar. index bar. See INDEX ARM. index chart. See CHART. index contours. Certain CONTOUR LINES (usually every fifth) accentuated by use of a line heavier than the intervening ones. index correction. That CORRECTION due to INDEX ERROR. index error. See ERROR. index glass. See INDEX MIRROR. index mark. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a real mark (such as a cross or dot) lying in the plane or the object space of a PHOTOGRAPH and used singly as a reference mark in certain types of monocular instruments, or as one of a pair to form a FLOATING MARK (as in certain types of STEREOSCOPES). index map. See MAP. index mirror. The MIRROR attached to the INDEX ARM of a MARINE SEXTANT. Also called index glass. index of refraction. See REFRACTION: INDEX OF. index shade. On a SEXTANT, one of the pivoting coloured glasses which can be swung before the INDEX MIRROR for reducing the glare of the SUN. Indian spring low water. An arbitrary TIDAL DATUM approximating the LEVEL of the mean of the LOWER LOW WATER at SPRING TIDES. It was first used in waters surrounding India. Also called Indian tide plane. Indian tide plane. See INDIAN SPRING LOW WATER. indicator. That part of electronic equipment in which the DATA obtained by the RECEIVER is presented for visual OBSERVATION. This is usually in the form of a SCOPE or DIAL. indirect levelling. See LEVELLING. indirect wave. See WAVE. induced magnetism. See MAGNETISM. inequality. A systematic departure from the mean value of a quantity. See ANNUAL INEQUALITY, DIURNAL INEQUALITY, LUNAR INEQUALITY, PARALLAX INEQUALITY, PHASE INEQUALITY. inertia: gyroscopic. See GYROSCOPIC INERTIA. inertial navigation. See NAVIGATION. inferior conjunction. See CONJUNCTION. inferior mirage. See MIRAGE. inferior planet (s). See PLANET (S): INFERIOR. inferior transit. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT.

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infrared (adj.). Having a FREQUENCY immediately beyond the red end of the visible SPECTRUM said of RAYS of longer WAVE LENGTH than visible light, but shorter than RADIO WAVES. infrasonic (adj.). Having a FREQUENCY below the audible RANGE. ingoing stream. See FLOOD STREAM. initial great circle course. See COURSE: GREAT CIRCLE. initial great circle direction. INITIAL GREAT CIRCLE COURSE. initial meridian. See MERIDIAN. initial point. The ORIGIN of a system in the rectangular system of SURVEYS of which a PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN and a BASE LINE constitute the axes for a given area. Also called fundamental point. inland ice sheet. An ICE SHEET of considerable thickness and more than about 50,000 sq. km in area, resting on ROCK. Inland ice sheets near SEA LEVEL may merge into ICE SHELVES. inlet. A narrow opening by which the water penetrates into the LAND. inner harbour. See under HARBOUR. inner neat line. See NEAT LINE. innocent passage. Navigation through certain sea areas of a coastal State without being prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of that State. See also TRANSIT PASSAGE. inogen light. Leading mark based on the interference effect of 3 separately placed rasterboards. An arrow pointing in the direction of the line is displayed when not sailing along the leading line. input. What is put in, as electric current or other power put into a machine. DATA to be transferred from an external storage medium, such as punched cards, into the internal STORAGE of a COMPUTER. input impedance. The complex opposition to alternating current between the input terminals of any device. inset. In CARTOGRAPHY: a) a small area outside the NEAT LINES of a MAP or CHART included within the NEAT LINES or borders to avoid publishing a separate graphic of the small area alone; b) a representation of a small area on a larger SCALE (e.g., town-plan inset), or of a large area at a smaller SCALE (e.g., orientation inset); c) any information, not normally appearing within the geographic limits of a MAP, which has been enclosed by border lines and included within the map neat lines. Insets are always placed in areas where important features will not be obscured. inshore (adj. and adv.). Near or towards the SHORE. inshore traffic zone. A routeing measure comprising a designated area between the landward boundary of a traffic separation scheme and the adjacent coast, to be used in accordance with the provisions of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. insolation. Amount of direct solar RADIATION incident per unit horizontal area at a given level. Downward-directed solar RADIATION (global RADIATION). instability. Property of the state of rest or continuous movement of a system such that any disturbance introduced into this state grows. In METEOROLOGY, the term is often used as a synonym of STATIC INSTABILITY. instability: static. State of hydrostatic equilibrium of the ATMOSPHERE in which a particle of air moved from its initial level undergoes a hydrostatic force which tends to remove it further from this level. Also called hydrostatic instability. installation: offshore. Manmade structure usually built for the exploration or exploitation of marine resources, marine scientific research, tide observations, etc. instrumental (or instrument) correction. That CORRECTION due to INSTRUMENTAL ERROR.

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instrumental (or instrument) error. See ERROR. instrumental (or instrument) parallax. See PARALLAX. insular. Of or pertaining to an island or islands. insular shelf. A zone around an island that extends from the low water line to a depth at which there is usually a marked increase of slope towards oceanic depths. insulated (or insulating) water bottle. See WATER BOTTLE. intake. The place where water is taken into a channel or pipe from a RIVER or other body of water, to drive a mill, or supply a CANAL, waterworks, etc. intended track. See TRACK. intensity: luminous (in a direction). Quotient of the LUMINOUS FLUX emitted by a source, or by an element of a source in an infinitesimal cone containing the given direction, by the solid angle of that cone. intensity: magnetic. See MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY. intensity: sound. At a point, the average rate of sound energy transmitted in a specified direction through a unit area normal to this direction at the point considered. The square of the SOUND PRESSURE. intensity of gravity. See GRAVITY. intensity of magnetization. See MAGNETIZATION. intercardinal point. Any of the four directions midway between the CARDINAL POINTS: north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west. intercept. The name given in MARCQ ST. HILAIRE METHOD to the difference between the calculated ALTITUDE and the TRUE ALTITUDE of a CELESTIAL BODY. Also called altitude difference. intercept method. See MARCQ ST. HILAIRE METHOD. interface. A surface, usually plane, forming the BOUNDARY between adjacent solids, spaces or immiscible liquids. In data processing it describes all information (signals, data) and the specifications ("protocol") required for exchanging data between two units of a system. Interfaces exist between hardware and software units but also between computer and human user. interference. Extraneous SIGNALS, NOISES, etc., that hinder proper reception of the desired SIGNAL in electronic equipment. See WAVE INTERFERENCE. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Established within UNESCO to promote the scientific investigation of the oceans through the concerted action of Member States. interior orientation. See ORIENTATION. interior perspective centre. See PERSPECTIVE CENTRE. interlines (of sounding). Those SOUNDING LINES running between the normally spaced lines usually when the BOTTOM is known or suspected to be irregular or if more detailed information about the sea bottom relief is required. internal waters. Waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea and landlocked waters within the state. internal wave. See WAVE. International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO). Promotes the study of scientific problems relating to the ocean and interactions at its boundaries. International Association of Geodesy (IAG). One association of IUGG.

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International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). Promotes international coordination of efforts to further the sciences of geomagnetism and aeronomy. International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR). Stimulates and promotes hydraulic research, both basic and applied, in all its aspects. International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Association of authorities responsible for the provision or maintenance of lighthouses and other aids to marine navigation. International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP). Promotes meteorological research and investigation including all aspects of atmospheric physics, particularly in those fields which require international cooperation. International Association of Scientific Hydrology (IASH). Promotes and develops the study of hydrology; initiates, facilitates and coordinates research on such hydrological problems requiring international cooperation. International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI). Develops the study of seismology and physics of the earth's interior in the economic, social and scientific aspects. International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology (IAL). Furthers the progress of theoretical and applied limnology by holding congresses, by publishing the proceedings of the congresses, and by providing a sound foundation of methods and techniques of limnological investigations. International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAV). Promotes research in all matters relating to volcanic activity; coordinates research in mineralogy, chemistry and physical chemistry for the benefit of volcanologists. International Atomic Time. See ATOMIC TIME: INTERNATIONAL. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (IBWM). Establishment of international standards and of measurement scales of physical sizes; determination of fundamental physical constants. International Cartographic Association (ICA). Advances the study of cartographic problems; instigates cartographic research involving cooperation between nations. International (INT) Chart. A nautical chart with limits and scale in conformity with an internationally agreed scheme of such charts; carries the INT number of that sheet; conforms to the Chart Specifications of the IHO. International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (ICSEM). Serves as liaison for research in Mediterranean laboratories; promotes international activities on behalf of countries bordering the Mediterranean. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Promotes research and investigations for the study of the sea, particularly programs related to living resources. International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Coordinates and facilitates activities of International Scientific Unions in the field of exact and natural sciences; maintains relations with the specialized and related agencies of the UN. International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic (ICITA). An international expedition coordinated by the IOC. international date line. See DATE LINE. International Ellipsoid of Reference. A reference ellipsoid having the following approximate dimensions: semimajor axis 6378388.0 METRES; semiminor axis 6356911.9 METRES; and the flattening or ellipticity 1/297. See also HAYFORD'S SPHEROID and FLATTENING OF THE EARTH. International Federation of Surveyors (FIG). Brings together the leading national associations to exchange views of general interest to the profession and organizes the liaison between the various affiliated associations. International Geological Congress (IGC). Congresses held by IUGS. International Geographical Union (IGU). Founded in 1922 to promote the study of geographical problems, IGU initiates and coordinates research and provides for scientific discussion and publication.

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International Geophysical Year (IGY). By international agreement, a period during which greatly increased OBSERVATION of world-wide geophysical PHENOMENA is undertaken through the cooperation effort of participating nations. International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB). Founded in 1921 in the Principality of Monaco, to establish a close and permanent association among the hydrographic offices of its Member States; since 1970 the headquarters of the INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION. International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). Coordinates the activities of national hydrographic offices; promotes standards and provides advice to developing countries in the fields of hydrographic surveying and production of nautical charts and publications. International Ice Patrol (IIP). Activities of the International Ice Patrol include collecting and analyzing data concerning iceberg detection and movement. The Patrol's mission is to provide the latest information on iceberg positions and computer prediction of the extent of the iceberg danger zone to North Atlantic Mariners. Areas of study include iceberg detection, drift and deterioration, surface object drift, and currents in the Grand Banks Region. International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE or IOE). An international expedition between 1959 and 1965 under the general coordination of the IOC. International Map of the World (IMW). The Map of the World on the SCALE of 1/1 000 000 which was planned under the auspices of the International Geographical Union and carried out by very many of the countries of the world. International Maritime Organization (IMO). Formerly called IMCO, the IMO is the specialized agency of the UNITED NATIONS responsible for maritime safety and efficiency of navigation. International nautical mile. A unit of length equal to 1,852 METRES. This value was approved by the International Hydrographic Conference of 1929 and has been adopted by nearly all maritime states. International Scientific Radio Union (ISRU). Promotes and organizes international cooperative research in radio science. International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Maintains and extends international cooperation for the improvement and rational use of telecommunications. International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). Promotes the study of all problems relating to the configuration and physics of the earth, its oceans and atmosphere; comprises a number of international associations. International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). Contributes to the advancement of investigations relating to the study of the Earth. International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). Creates and encourages international cooperation in physics; secures international agreement on symbols, units, nomenclature, and standards. International waters. A nonlegal term that refers to those waters subject to the high seas freedom of navigation and overflight, i.e., contiguous zone, EEZ, and high seas. interocular distance. See INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE. interpolation. The process of determining intermediate values between given values in accordance with some known or assumed rate or system of variation. interpupillary distance. The distance between centres of the eye pupils of an individual. Also called eye base, and used interchangeable with interocular distance. interrogator. A radar transmitter which sends out a PULSE that triggers a TRANSPONDER. An interrogator is usually combined in a single unit with a RESPONSOR, which receives the reply from a TRANSPONDER and produces an OUTPUT suitable for feeding to a display system, the combined unit being called an interrogator-responsor. Short for interrogator-responsor. Also called challenger. interrogator-responsor. See INTERROGATOR and RESPONSOR.

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intersected point. See STATION: INTERSECTION. intersection. In SURVEYING, the procedure of determining the horizontal POSITION of an unoccupied point (INTERSECTION STATION) by direction observations from two or more known POSITIONS. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the procedure of determining the horizontal POSITION of a point by intersecting lines of direction obtained photogrammetrically. The lines of direction may be obtained directly from VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPHS or by graphic or mathematical rectification of tilted PHOTOGRAPHS. intersection station. See STATION. intertidal zone. The zone generally considered to be between MEAN HIGH WATER and MEAN LOW WATER levels. intertropical convergence zone. The zone which separates the trade winds. intervalometer. A timing device for automatically operating the SHUTTER of a CAMERA at selected intervals. invar. An alloy of nickel and steel which has a low coefficient of expansion. invar tape. See TAPE. invar wire. See WIRE. inverse Mercator projection. See PROJECTION. inversion layer. Atmospheric LAYER, horizontal or approximately so, in which the temperature increases with increasing HEIGHT. See TEMPERATURE INVERSION. inverted compass. See COMPASS: HANGING. inverted image. See IMAGE. inverting eyepiece. See EYEPIECE: ERECTING. ionosphere. That part of the ATMOSPHERE, extending from about 70 to 500 km, in which ions and free electrons exist in sufficient quantities to reflect ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. ionospheric disturbance. A sudden outburst of ultraviolet light on the sun, known as a Solar Flare, which produces abnormally high ionization in the region of the D-layer. The result is a sudden increase in radio wave absorption, with particular severity in the upper medium and lower high frequencies. It has negligible effects on the heights of the reflecting/refracting layers and, consequently, upon critical frequencies, but enormous transmission may occur. ionospheric storm. Violent changes in the state of the IONOSPHERE. ionospheric wave. See WAVE: SKY. ironbound (adj.). Said of a rugged, rocky COAST which affords no ANCHORAGE. irradiance (at a point of a surface). Quotient of the FLUX of RADIATION incident on an infinitesimal element of surface containing the point under consideration, by the area of that element. irradiation (at a point of a surface). Product of an IRRADIANCE and its duration. irregular error. See ERROR: ACCIDENTAL. island. A piece of LAND completely surrounded by water. island harbour. See under HARBOUR. island shelf. See CONTINENTAL SHELF. island slope. See CONTINENTAL SLOPE.

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isle. An ISLAND. Now more usually applied to an ISLAND of smaller size, except in established appellation, as the 'British Isles'. islet. A small ISLAND. isobar. Line joining points of equal pressure on a given surface (level surface, vertical cross section, etc.). isobath. See DEPTH CURVE, FATHOM LINE. isobathytherm. A line or surface showing the DEPTHS in OCEANS or LAKES at which points have the same temperature. Isobathytherms are usually drawn to show cross sections of the water mass. isobront. Line joining, on a CHART, places on the EARTH's surface where, on a given day, the first clap of THUNDER has been heard simultaneously. In CLIMATOLOGY, line drawn on a CHART through places which have the same average number of days on which THUNDER is heard in a given period. isocentre. The unique point common to the plane of a PHOTOGRAPH, its PRINCIPAL PLANE, and the plane of an assumed truly VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPH taken from the same CAMERA STATION and having an equal PRINCIPAL DISTANCE. The point of intersection on a PHOTOGRAPH of the true PRINCIPAL LINE and the ISOMETRIC PARALLEL. The point on a PHOTOGRAPH intersected by the bisector of the angle between the PLUMB LINE and the photograph perpendicular. The isocentre is significant because it is the centre of radiation for DISPLACEMENTS of IMAGES caused by TILT. isoclinal (or isoclinic) (adj.). Of or pertaining to equal MAGNETIC DIP. isoclinal (n.). See ISOCLINAL LINE. isoclinal (or isoclinic) line. A line connecting points of equal MAGNETIC DIP. Also called isoclinal. isodynamic (adj.). Of or pertaining to equality of force. isodynamic line. A line connecting points of equal MAGNETIC INTENSITY, either the total or any component. isogon. Line which is the locus of points at which the DIRECTION OF WIND is the same. isogonal (or isogonic) (adj.). Having equal angles. isogonal (or isogonic) (n.). See ISOGONIC LINE. isogonic line. A line connecting points of equal magnetic VARIATION. Also called isogonal (or isogonic). isogram. That line on a CHART or DIAGRAM connecting points having equal values of same PHENOMENON. isogriv. A line connecting points of equal GRID VARIATION. isohaline (or isohalsine). A line connecting points of equal SALINITY in the OCEAN. isohalsine. See ISOHALINE. isolated danger mark. A navigation mark used alone to indicate a danger, e.g. a reef or shoal. isoline. A line representing the intersection of the plane of a VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPH with the plane of an overlapping OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH. If the VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPH were tilt-free, the isoline would be the ISOMETRIC PARALLEL of the OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH. isomagnetic (adj.). Of or pertaining to lines connecting points of equality in some MAGNETIC ELEMENT. isomagnetic (n.). See ISOMAGNETIC LINE. isomagnetic line. A line connecting points of equality in some MAGNETIC ELEMENT. isometric (adj.). Of or pertaining to equal measure.

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isometric latitude. See LATITUDE. isometric parallel. See PARALLEL. isopleth. An ISOGRAM of equal or constant value of a given quantity, with respect to either time or space. isopor. See ISOPORIC LINE. isoporic line. A line connecting points of equal annual rate of change of a MAGNETIC ELEMENT. Also called isopor. isopycnic (adj.). Of or pertaining to equal density. isopycnic (n.). See ISOPYCNIC LINE. isopycnic line. A line connecting points of equal density. Also called isopycnic. isoradial. A RADIAL from the ISOCENTRE. isostasy. A condition of approximate EQUILIBRIUM in the outer part of the EARTH, such that the gravitational effect of masses extending above the surface of the GEOID in continental areas is approximately counterbalanced by a deficiency of density in the material beneath those masses while the effect of deficiency of density in the ocean waters is counterbalanced by an excess of density in the material under the OCEANS. isostatic anomaly. The difference between an observed value of GRAVITY and a theoretical value at the point of OBSERVATION which has been corrected for ELEVATION of the STATION above the GEOID and for the effect of TOPOGRAPHY over the whole EARTH, and for its isostatic compensation. isotherm. In METEOROLOGY, the line which is the locus of points which have the same value of air temperature. isothermal (or isothermic) (adj.). Of or relating to equal temperature. isotope. Two or more nuclides having the same atomic number, hence constituting the same element, but differing in mass number. isotropic (or isotropus) (adj.). Having the same physical properties in all directions. isthmus. A narrow strip of LAND connecting two larger bodies of LAND.

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2596 jack-up rig. A rig which provides a stable drilling structure in shallow waters by extending supporting legs onto the seabed. The legs are retracted when the rig is under tow. jellyfish. Any of various free-swimming COELENTERATES having a disc- or bell-shaped body of jellylike consistency. Many have long tentacles with nematocysts (stinging cells). Some are capable of producing glowing ball LUMINESCENCE. Any jellylike free-floating organism. The term 'jellyfish' often is applied to the ctenophores and may be applied to certain tunicates. Also called medusa. jetsam. See JETTISON. jettison. The throwing overboard of objects, especially to lighten a craft in distress. Jettisoned objects that float are termed flotsam; those that sink, jetsam; and heavy articles that are buoyed for future recovery, lagan. See DERELICT. jetty. In U.S. terminology, a structure, such as a WHARF or PIER, so located as to influence CURRENT or protect the ENTRANCE to a HARBOUR or RIVER. In British terminology, a PIER, usually of solid construction, intended as a berthing place for vessels. See DOCK, LANDING, WHARF. joule. The unit of work or energy in the SI SYSTEM. joystick. In computer systems, a pointing device operated by pressing a stick in a desired direction. Julian day. The number of each day, as reckoned consecutively since the beginning of the present Julian period on January 1, 4713 BC. The Julian day begins at noon, 12 hours later than the corresponding civil day. junction. Place of meeting or joining, as that of a TRIBUTARY with a main RIVER, or of two CHANNELS in a WATERWAY. In LEVELLING, the place where two or more LINES OF LEVELS are connected together. In HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY, the joining of two adjacent survey sheets. See OVERLAP. junction buoy. A BUOY marking the inner end of a MIDDLE GROUND. Usually called a MIDDLE GROUND BUOY in British terminology, without regard to direction of travel.

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2606 Kalman filter. In electronics, a mathematical-statistical method for predicting a time-variable signal in the presence of disturbances. The method exploits the fact that certain characteristic parameters of the process vary slowly with time, so that a best estimate of the signal can be obtained as a function of time. katabatic wind. An offshore wind produced by cold air draining from high ground by convection. The cold air replaces the lighter warm air which is rising over the sea. kay. See CAY. kedging. Moving a vessel by laying out an anchor and then hauling the vessel up to the anchor. keg buoy. A BUOY consisting of a keg to which is attached a small pole with a flag, used by fishermen to mark the position of a trawl line. See DAN BUOY. kelp. One of an order of usually large blade-shaped or vinelike brown ALGAE. Kelvin temperature scale. Thermodynamic scale of temperature (T K) defined by assigning to the triple point of pure o water, considered as a fundamental fixed point, the temperature of 273.16 K. Also called absolute temperature scale. Kelvin wave. A long ocean wave whose amplitude decreases from right to left along the wave crest when viewed in the direction of travel in the northern hemisphere and from left to right in the southern hemisphere. The component of gravity acting down the slope is exactly balanced by the deflecting force of the earth's rotation, the CORIOLIS FORCE. key. See CAY. kilogram(me). The unit of mass in the SI system. kite. A mechanical contrivance towed beneath the surface to warn of arrival in water of a certain DEPTH. See SUBMARINE SENTRY. A contrivance for holding the inner end of an OROPESA SWEEP to the required DEPTH. kite otter. A multi-plane device which can be used either as a KITE or as an OTTER depending on the way it is slung. See OROPESA SWEEP. klaxon. A small power FOG SIGNAL sometimes operated by hand. knoll. A relatively small isolated ELEVATION of a rounded shape. An ELEVATION rising less than 1,000 METRES from the SEA FLOOR and of limited extent across the SUMMIT. Also called HILL. knot. A division of the LOG LINE, by which the ship's SPEED is measured. A nautical unit of SPEED. One knot is one NAUTICAL MILE per HOUR. The name is derived from the knots in the LOG LINE. kymatology. The science of WAVES and wave motion.
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2622 labour (or labor) (v.i.). To pitch and roll heavily under conditions which subject the ship to unusually heavy stresses caused by confused or turbulent seas or unstable stowage or cargo. lag. The delay between change of condition and the indication of the change on an instrument. Delay in human reaction. The amount one cyclic motion is behind another, expressed in DEGREES. The opposite is LEAD. lagging of the tide(s). The periodic retardation in the time of occurrence of high and low water due to changes in the relative positions of the moon and the sun. lagan. See JETTISON. lagging of the tide(s). The retardation in the TIME of occurrence of HIGH and LOW WATER due to changes in the relative positions of the MOON and the SUN. The opposite effect is called PRIMING OF THE TIDE(S). See also DAILY RETARDATION. lagoon. An enclosed area of salt or brackish water separated from the OPEN SEA by some more or less effective, but not complete, obstacle such as low sand bank. The name most commonly used for the area of water enclosed by a BARRIER REEF or ATOLL. Lagrangian current observations. The method for observing ocean currents by tracking the movement of drifting floats, buoys, tracers etc. The rate and direction of movement of a particular sample of water is measured. This is the opposite to EULARIAN CURRENT OBSERVATIONS where the movement of water past a fixed point is measured by a current meter. lake. A large body of water entirely surrounded by LAND. lake breeze. See SEA BREEZE. lake ice. ICE formed in LAKES. Lambert conformal conic projection. See PROJECTION. laminar flow. FLOW in which the fluid moves smoothly along STREAMLINES which are arranged in parallel LAYERS or sheets; opposite of TURBULENT FLOW. Also called streamline flow. lamp: signal. A compact, portable battery-operated electric lamp used as a TARGET for OBSERVATIONS or SURVEYS of high PRECISION. The parabolical reflector is mounted in a special case so as to facilitate pointing and adjusting. land. The solid portion of the EARTH's surface, as opposed to SEA, water. A part of the EARTH's surface marked off by natural or political BOUNDARIES. land breeze. WIND of coastal regions blowing at night from the LAND towards a large water surface as a result of nocturnal cooling of the land surface. landfall. The first sighting of LAND when approached from seaward. By extension, the term is sometimes used to refer to the first contact with LAND by any means, as by RADAR. landfall buoy. See FAREWELL BUOY. land ice. See GLACIER ICE. landing. A place where boats receive or discharge passengers, freight, etc. landing area. In aeronautical terminology, the part of the movement area intended for the landing or take-off run of aircraft. landlocked (adj.). Almost or quite enclosed by LAND. Said of an area of water, as a BAY, HARBOUR, etc., entirely protected from the SEA.

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landmark. Any MONUMENT or fixed object used to mark a BOUNDARY on the GROUND. Any prominent object on LAND which can be used in determining a location or a DIRECTION. See also MARK. land mile. See STATUTE MILE. land navigation. See NAVIGATION. landslide (or landslip). The sliding down of a mass of land on a MOUNTAIN or cliff-side; land which has so fallen. land survey. See SURVEY: CADASTRAL. land territory. Continental or insular land masses that are above water at high tide. lane. An established route as an air lane or shipping lane. In an electronic radiolocation lattice, the zone between two lines on which measured values, expressed in terms of the system's electronic unit (WAVE LENGTH or MICROSECOND), are whole numbers and are one unit apart. See LATTICE. A LEAD. Laplace azimuth. See AZIMUTH. Laplace equation. See EQUATION. Laplace station. See STATION. lappened ice. See ANCHOR ICE. large correction (British terminology). A new printing of a CHART corrected from important information which is too comprehensive to promulgate by Admiralty NOTICES TO MARINERS or to insert conveniently by hand on existing copies of the CHART. When large corrections are made, the CHART is not revised throughout but all copies in circulation are cancelled. large halo. See HALO. Large Automatic Navigation Buoy (lanby). A large buoy designed to take the place of a lightship where construction of an offshore light station is not feasible. See also BUOY: SUPER. large scale. See SCALE. large scale survey. See SURVEY. LASH. See LIGHTER ABOARD SHIP. laser. Light amplification by stimulated emission of RADIATION. A device that produces an intense BEAM of monochromatic, spatially coherent light. last quarter. See PHASES OF THE MOON. lateral system. A buoyage system generally used for well defined CHANNELS; buoyage marks indicate the POSITION of dangers in relation to the route to be followed by mariners in their vicinity. latitude. ANGULAR DISTANCE from a PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE or plane. One of the COORDINATES used to describe a POSITION, the other being LONGITUDE. latitude: astronomical. ANGULAR DISTANCE between the DIRECTION OF GRAVITY and the plane of the EQUATOR. Astronomical latitude is the LATITUDE which results directly from OBSERVATIONS on CELESTIAL BODIES, uncorrected for DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL. latitude: celestial. ANGULAR DISTANCE north or south of the ECLIPTIC; the arc of a CIRCLE OF LATITUDE between the ECLIPTIC and a point on the CELESTIAL SPHERE, measured northward or southward from the ECLIPTIC through 90 , and labelled N or S to indicate the direction of measurement. Also called ecliptic latitude.

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latitude: geocentric. The angle at the centre of the EARTH between the plane of the EQUATOR and a line to a point on the surface of the EARTH. latitude: geodetic. The angle which the NORMAL at a point on the SPHEROID makes with the plane of the GEODETIC EQUATOR. latitude: geographic(al). A general term, applying alike to ASTRONOMICAL and GEODETIC LATITUDES. latitude: geometric. See LATITUDE: PARAMETRIC. latitude: isometric. An auxiliary LATITUDE used in the conformal mapping of the SPHEROID on a sphere. latitude: magnetic. The angle whose tangent is one half the tangent of the magnetic inclination or DIP. latitude: parametric. The angle at the centre of a sphere which is tangent to the SPHEROID along the GEODETIC EQUATOR, between the plane of the EQUATOR and the radius to the point intersected on the sphere by a straight line perpendicular to the plane of the EQUATOR and passing through the point on the SPHEROID whose parametric latitude is defined. Parametric latitude is an auxiliary LATITUDE used in problems of GEODESY and CARTOGRAPHY. Also called reduced latitude, geometric latitude or eccentric angle. latitude: reduced. See LATITUDE: PARAMETRIC. latitude: terrestrial. ANGULAR DISTANCE from the EQUATOR, measured northward or southward through 90 and labelled N or S to indicate the direction of measurement. latitude factor. The change in LATITUDE along a CELESTIAL LINE OF POSITION per 1' change in LONGITUDE. latitude line. A LINE OF POSITION extending in a generally east-west direction. latitude scale. See SCALE. lattice. A pattern formed by two or more families of intersecting lines, such as HYPERBOLIC LINES OF POSITION or parts of circles, drawn on CHARTS, PLOTTING SHEETS or SOUNDING BOARDS. launch. Large open or half decked boat. lava. The fluid or semi-fluid matter flowing from a volcano. The substance that results from the cooling of the molten ROCK. Part of the ocean bed is composed of lava. layer. A single thickness, coat, fold or STRATUM. layer depth. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the thickness of the MIXED LAYER; or the DEPTH to the top of the THERMOCLINE. layer depth prediction. Predetermining the DEPTH to the top of the THERMOCLINE over a given ocean area. layering. A method of emphasizing on a CHART differences in HEIGHT or DEPTH by use of varying tints. Also referred to as layer tinting. layer of no motion. A LAYER, assumed to be at rest at some DEPTH in the OCEAN. layer tinting. See LAYERING. lead (ld). A heavy, soft, malleable, bluish-grey metallic chemical element. Anything made of this metal, such as a WEIGHT for sounding DEPTHS of water. lead (led). A navigable PASSAGE through ICE. The amount one cyclic motion is ahead of another, expressed in DEGREES. lead: deep sea. A heavy SOUNDING LEAD the WEIGHT of which may be varied from about 15 to over 50 kilos depending on the DEPTHS to be sounded. Also called dipsey lead. lead: drift. SOUNDING LEAD dropped to BOTTOM, to indicate movement of a vessel.

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lead: fish. A fish-shaped SOUNDING LEAD which reduces to a minimum the INCLINATION of the wire when trailed, making unnecessary its removal from the water between SOUNDINGS. lead: hand. A light SOUNDING LEAD (3 to 5 kilos) having usually a line of not more than 40 to 50 METRES. lead: sounding. A LEAD attached to a line used for measuring the DEPTH of water. Also called plummet. leader cable. See CABLE. leading light(s). See LIGHT. leading line (British terminology). A line passing through two or more clearly defined charted objects, and along which a vessel can approach safely. leading marks. (British terminology). AIDS TO NAVIGATION or other indicators so located as to indicate the path to be followed. Leading marks identify a LEADING LINE when they are in TRANSIT. See also RANGE. lead line. A line, graduated with attached MARKS and fastened to a SOUNDING LEAD, used for determining the DEPTH of water when making SOUNDINGS by hand. Generally used in DEPTHS of less than 45 METRES (25 FATHOMS). Lead lines are braided or left-laid. Also called sounding line. lead line correction. A CORRECTION to be applied to the DEPTHS taken with a rope LEAD LINE to take into account the shrinking and stretching. This difficulty has been overcome by inserting a wire heart in the rope. leadsman. A person using a SOUNDING LEAD to determine DEPTH of water. league. A varying measure of distance, usually about three MILES. leaper. See LIPPER. leap year. See YEAR: CIVIL. least count. The finest reading that can be made directly (without estimation) from a VERNIER or MICROMETER. least depth. The shoalest sounding value obtained on a feature. least squares. A method of adjusting OBSERVATIONS in which the sum of the squares of all the deviations or residuals derived in fitting the OBSERVATIONS to a mathematical model, is made a minimum. Least squares have also been designated as minimum squares. ledge. A shelf-like projection, on the side of a ROCK or MOUNTAIN. A rocky formation continuous with and fringing the SHORE. lee. That side towards which the WIND blows; the sheltered side. lee shore. SHORE that is to leeward of a vessel. See WEATHER SHORE. lee tide. See TIDE: LEEWARD. leeward (adj. and adv.). Toward the LEE, or in the general direction toward which the WIND is blowing. The opposite is WINDWARD. leeward tidal current. See TIDE: LEEWARD. leeward tide. See TIDE. leeway. The leeward motion of a vessel due to WIND. It may be expressed as distance, SPEED, or angular difference between COURSE steered and COURSE through the water. DRIFT ANGLE. Also called drift. leeway angle. The angle between true heading and track of a vessel caused by wind action. left bank. Of a RIVER, the BANK of the left-hand side as one proceeds downstream. left-right indicator. An instrument indicating the orthogonal distance of a position from a pre-defined track.

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leg. Each straight section of a TRAVERSE. One part of a craft's TRACK consisting of a single COURSE line. legend. A description, explanation, table of SYMBOLS, and other information, printed on a MAP or CHART to provide a better understanding and interpretation of it. The TITLE of a MAP or CHART formerly was considered part of the legend, but this usage is obsolete. length correction (tape). See TAPE: LENGTH CORRECTION. lens. A plane, convex, or concave combination of glass or transparent material surfaces adapted for changing the direction of LIGHT RAYS to enlarge or reduce the apparent size of objects. See ACHROMATIC LENS, APOCHROMATIC LENS, ANALLACTIC LENS, OBJECTIVE LENS, EYEPIECE, LENS ELEMENT, LENS SYSTEM, MAGNIFYING GLASS. lens axis. See AXIS OF LENS. lens distortion. See DISTORTION. lens element. One LENS of a complex LENS SYSTEM. lens system. The combination of two or more LENSES placed in series on the same PRINCIPAL AXIS. levee. An EMBANKMENT to prevent the overflow of a RIVER. A landing place, PIER, QUAY. A depositional EMBANKMENT bordering a CANYON, VALLEY or deep-sea channel. level. A horizontal plane or line; especially, such a plane taken as a basis for the measurement of ELEVATION. See SEA LEVEL, MEAN SEA LEVEL, HALF TIDE LEVEL, STILL WATER LEVEL. A level tract of land; a stretch of country approximately horizontal and unbroken by ELEVATIONS. In SURVEYING and LEVELLING, either a SPIRIT LEVEL or a LEVELLING INSTRUMENT. level (v.t.). To make perfectly horizontal by means of a LEVEL. level: bull's eye. See LEVEL: SPIRIT. level: circular. See LEVEL: SPIRIT. level: dumpy. See LEVELLING INSTRUMENT: DUMPY LEVEL. level: plate. A SPIRIT LEVEL attached to the plate of a surveying instrument for the purpose of levelling the graduated CIRCLE or, indirectly, making the VERTICAL AXIS truly vertical. level: self aligning.See LEVELLING INSTRUMENT: SELF ALIGNING LEVEL. level: spirit. A small closed vessel of glass (vial), having the inside surface of its upper part curved in form; the vessel is nearly filled with a fluid of low viscosity (alcohol or ether), enough free space being left for the formation of a bubble of air and gas, which will always assume a position at the top of the vessel. There are two types of spirit levels used in SURVEYING: one has the curved surface spherical in form, producing a bubble of circular outline; and is properly called a circular level (also universal level or bull's eye level). The other and much more generally used type has a vessel in the form of circular tube, the longitudinal axis of which is also circular in form. It is the type usually referred to when the term 'spirit level' is used. The spirit level is also called spirit bubble or sensitive bubble. level: striding. A SPIRIT LEVEL so mounted that it can be placed above and parallel with the HORIZONTAL AXIS of a surveying or astronomical instrument, and so supported that it can be used to measure the INCLINATION OF THE HORIZONTAL AXIS to the plane of the HORIZON. Generally, its mounting has supports in the form of inverted eyes which rest directly upon the pivots on which the TELESCOPE of the instrument rotates. level: tilting. See LEVELLING INSTRUMENT: TILTING LEVEL. level: universal. See LEVEL: SPIRIT. level: Y. See LEVELLING INSTRUMENT: Y LEVEL.

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level axis. See AXIS OF SPIRIT LEVEL. level ice. SEA ICE with a flat surface which has never been hummocked. levelling (or leveling). The operation of determining differences of ELEVATION between points on the surface of the EARTH; the determination of the ELEVATION of points relative to some arbitrary or natural LEVEL SURFACE called a DATUM. Also called differential levelling. levelling: barometric. A method of determining differences of ELEVATION from differences of ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE observed with a BAROMETER. levelling: direct. The determination of differences of ELEVATION by a continuous series of short horizontal lines. Vertical distances from these lines to adjacent ground marks are determined by direct OBSERVATIONS on graduated rods with a LEVELLING INSTRUMENT equipped with a SPIRIT LEVEL. levelling: geodetic. SPIRIT LEVELLING of a high order of ACCURACY, usually extended over large areas, to furnish accurate VERTICAL CONTROL as a basis for the CONTROL in the vertical dimension for all surveying and mapping operations. levelling: indirect. The determination of differences of ELEVATION from (a) vertical angles and horizontal distances, as in TRIGONOMETRIC LEVELLING; (b) comparative ELEVATIONS derived from values of ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE determined with a BAROMETER, as in BAROMETRIC LEVELLING; and (c) ELEVATIONS derived from values of the boiling point of water determined with a HYPSOMETER, as in THERMOMETRIC LEVELLING. levelling: reciprocal. TRIGONOMETRIC LEVELLING wherein vertical angles have been observed at both ends of the line to eliminate ERRORS. levelling: spirit. The determination of ELEVATIONS of points with respect to each other or with respect to a common DATUM, by use of a LEVELLING ROD and an instrument using a SPIRIT LEVEL to establish a horizontal LINE OF SIGHT. levelling: thermometric. The determination of ELEVATIONS above SEA LEVEL from observed values of the boiling point of water. See HYPSOMETER. levelling: trigonometric. The determination of differences of ELEVATIONS by means of observed vertical angles, combined with lengths of lines. levelling: water. A method of obtaining relative ELEVATIONS by observing HEIGHTS with respect to the surface of a body of still water, such as a LAKE. The relative ELEVATIONS of objects along its SHORES are obtained by taking the differences of their HEIGHTS with respect to the surface of the water. levelling instrument. An instrument designed for the accurate measurement of height differences by the process of LEVELLING. Its essential parts are a TELESCOPE and a SPIRIT LEVEL. Also called a LEVEL. levelling instrument: dumpy level. A LEVELLING INSTRUMENT which has its TELESCOPE permanently attached to the levelling base, either rigidly or by a hinge that can be manipulated by a MICROMETER SCREW. levelling instrument: self-aligning level. A LEVEL in which a sensitive prism element inside the TELESCOPE acts on the principle of the PENDULUM and ensures that the LINE OF SIGHT is horizontal, even if the axis of the TELESCOPE is several MINUTES out of the HORIZONTAL. levelling instrument: tilting level. A LEVELLING INSTRUMENT in which the final LEVELLING of the instrument is obtained by small controlled amounts of rotation of the TELESCOPE about a HORIZONTAL AXIS. levelling instrument: Y level. A LEVELLING INSTRUMENT having the TELESCOPE, with attached SPIRIT LEVEL, supported in Y's. The TELESCOPE can be rotated about its longitudinal axis in the Y's and it can be lifted and reversed, end for end. levelling plate. A plate designed to support the LEVELLING ROD as an aid to ACCURACY in LEVELLING. levelling rod. A straight rod or bar, designed for use in measuring a vertical distance between a point on the ground and the LINE OF COLLIMATION of a LEVELLING INSTRUMENT which has been adjusted to horizontal position. Also called levelling staff.

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levelling screw. One of the three screws of surveying and astronomic instruments used for levelling same. Also called footscrew. levelling staff. See LEVELLING ROD. level net. Lines of SPIRIT LEVELLING connected together to form a system of loops and circuits extending over an area. Also called survey net. level surface. A surface which, at every point, is perpendicular to the DIRECTION OF GRAVITY. A level surface is an EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACE. The GEOID or, in general, any surface parallel to it, is a level surface. If changes in ELEVATION due to TIDES, WINDS, etc. are neglected, the surface of the SEA is a level surface. A level surface is not a plane surface, but it is sometimes so regarded in SURVEYS of limited areas. librations of moon. Motions of the MOON due to which certain margins round the MOON's LIMB occasionally pass out of view while a corresponding margin on the other side comes into view. The librations enable 59 per cent of the MOON's surface to be seen at one time or another. lidar. An instrument that measures distance to a reflecting object by emitting timed pulses of light and measuring the time between emission and reception of reflected pulses. The measured time interval is converted to distance. life buoy. See BUOY. life saving station. A place where equipment for saving life at SEA is maintained. Also called Coast Guard station. light. A luminous or lighted AID TO NAVIGATION. For internationally agreed abbreviations of light characteristics see the International Chart Specifications. light: aerial obstruction. LIGHT marking an obstacle which constitutes a danger to AIR NAVIGATION. light: aeromarine. A marine-type LIGHT in which a proportion of the BEAM is deflected to an angle of 10 -15 above the HORIZON for the use of aircraft. light: aeronautical ground. Any LIGHT specially provided as an AID TO NAVIGATION, other than a LIGHT displayed on an aircraft. light: alternating. A signal LIGHT that shows, in any given direction, two or more colours in a regularly repeated sequence with a regular periodicity. light(s): boundary. LIGHTS marking the BOUNDARY of a LANDING AREA. light: catoptric. A LIGHT concentrated into a narrow BEAM by means of one or more REFLECTORS (as opposed to DIOPTRIC). light: composite group-flashing. A flashing light in which a sequence of groups of one or more flashes, which are specified in number, is regularly repeated, and the groups comprise different numbers of flashes. light: composite group-occulting. An occulting light in which a sequence of groups of one or more eclipses, which are specified in number, is regularly repeated, and the groups comprise different numbers of eclipses. light: continuous ultra quick. A light showing 160 or more, usually 240 to 300, flashes per minute. light: continuous very quick. A light showing 80 to 159, usually either 100 or 120, flashes per minute. light: dioptric. A LIGHT concentrated into a parallel BEAM by means of refracting LENSES and prisms (as opposed to CATOPTRIC). light: direction (or directional). A LIGHT illuminating a sector of very narrow angle and intended to mark a DIRECTION to be followed. light: equal-interval. A LIGHT with all durations of light and darkness equal. The term 'equal-interval light' has been replaced by isophase light in many countries. light: fixed. A signal light that shows continuously, in any given direction, with constant luminous intensity and colour.

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light: fixed and flashing. A rhythmic light in which a fixed light is combined with a flashing light of higher luminous intensity. light: fixed and group-flashing. A FIXED LIGHT varied at regular intervals by a GROUP of two or more flashes of greater brilliance. This CHARACTER is being gradually suppressed. light: flashing. A rhythmic LIGHT in which the total duration of light in a PERIOD is clearly shorter than the total duration of darkness and all the appearances of light are of equal duration. light: front. See LIGHT(S): RANGE. light: group-flashing. A flashing LIGHT in which a group of two or more flashes, which are specified in number, is regularly repeated. light: group-occulting. An occulting LIGHT in which a group of two or more eclipses, which are specified in number, is regularly repeated. light: group quick. A light in which flashes are combined in groups including the same number of quick flashes (repetition rate : 50-79 per minute) and in which groups are repeated at regular intervals. light: group very quick. A light in which very quick flashes are combined in groups including the same number of flashes (repetition rate : 80-159 per minute) and in which groups are repeated at regular intervals. light: intermittent. See LIGHT: RHYTHMIC. light: interrupted quick-flashing. A quick LIGHT in which the sequence of flashes is interrupted by regularly repeated ECLIPSES of constant and long duration. light: interrupted ultra quick. A light in which the ultra quick flashes (160 or more per minute) are interrupted at regular intervals by eclipses of long duration. light: interrupted very quick. A light in which the very rapid alterations of light and darkness are interrupted at regular intervals by eclipses of long duration. light: isophase. See LIGHT: EQUAL-INTERVAL. light(s): leading. Two or more LIGHTS associated so as to form a LEADING LINE to be followed. light: linear. A luminous SIGNAL having perceptible length, as contrasted with a POINT LIGHT. light: long-flashing. A FLASHING LIGHT in which a single flash of not less than two SECONDS duration is regularly repeated. light: marine. A LIGHT intended primarily for MARINE NAVIGATION. light: Morse code. A rhythmic LIGHT in which appearances of light of two clearly different durations are grouped to represent a character or characters in the Morse code. light: obstruction. LIGHT indicating the presence of an OBSTRUCTION. light: occasional. A LIGHT not regularly exhibited. light: occulting. A rhythmic LIGHT in which the total duration of light in a PERIOD is clearly longer than the total duration of darkness and all the eclipses are of equal duration. light: point. A luminous SIGNAL appearing without perceptible length, as contrasted with a LINEAR LIGHT. light: quick-flashing. A LIGHT exhibiting without interruption very rapid regular alternations of light and darkness. light(s): range. Two or more LIGHTS in the same horizontal DIRECTION, particularly those LIGHTS so placed as NAVIGATIONAL AIDS to mark any line of importance to vessels, as a CHANNEL. The one nearest the observer is the front light and the one farthest from the observer is the rear light. See LIGHT(S): LEADING. light: rear. See LIGHT(S): RANGE.

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light: revolving. See LIGHT: ROTATING. light: rhythmic. A signal LIGHT that shows intermittently, in any given direction, with a regular periodicity. Also referred to as intermittent light. light: rotating (or revolving). A LIGHT which has one or more BEAMS which rotate. light(s): runway. LIGHTS marking a RUNWAY. light: sector (or sectored). A LIGHT presenting different appearances (in particular, different colours) over various parts of the HORIZON of interest to maritime NAVIGATION. light: short-flashing. A FLASHING LIGHT having individual flashes of less than two seconds duration. light(s): tidal. LIGHTS shown at the ENTRANCE of a HARBOUR to indicate TIDE and TIDAL CURRENT conditions within the HARBOUR. light: undulating. A continuously luminous LIGHT which alternatively increases and decreases in brightness in cyclic sequence. light: unwatched. A navigational LIGHT, usually automatic in operation, without any permanently-stationed personnel to superintend it. light(s): vertical. Two or more LIGHTS disposed vertically to give a different CHARACTER or appearance. light (or lighted) beacon. See BEACON. light beam. A group of PENCILS of light, as those originating at the many points of an illuminated surface. A BEAM of parallel LIGHT RAYS is a special case in which each PENCIL is of such small cross-section that it may be regarded as a RAY. light (or lighted) buoy. See BUOY. light characteristics. See CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHT. lighted sound buoy. See BUOY. light float. A boat-like structure used instead of a light buoy in waters where strong streams or currents are experienced, or when a greater elevation than that of a light buoy is necessary. lighthouse. A distinctive structure on or off a COAST exhibiting a major LIGHT designed to serve as an AID TO NAVIGATION. light list. See LIST OF LIGHTS. lightning. Luminous manifestations accompanying a sudden electrical discharge which takes place from or inside a CLOUD or, less often, from high structures on the GROUND or from MOUNTAINS. light pencil. A bundle of LIGHT RAYS originating at, or directed to, a single point. light ray. The geometrical concept of a single element of light propagated in a straight line and of infinitesimal crosssection; used in analytically tracing the path of light through an OPTICAL SYSTEM. light sector. A sector in which a navigational LIGHT is visible. See ARC OF VISIBILITY. lightship. A distinctively marked vessel anchored or moored at a charted point, to serve as an AID TO NAVIGATION. By night it displays a characteristic LIGHT(S), and is usually equipped with other devices, such as a FOG SIGNAL, SUBMARINE SOUND SIGNAL, and RADIOBEACON, to assist NAVIGATION. Also called light vessel. light vessel. See LIGHTSHIP. light-year. A unit of length equal to the distance light travels in one YEAR. This unit is used as a measure of stellar distance.

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Lighter Aboard Ship (LASH). A cargo carrying system using specially built ships and lighters. Cargoes are loaded into LASH lighters which are towed to a LASH ship where they are embarked. At their destination the LASH lighters are disembarked and towed away to their unloading berths. Special berths or anchorages are sometimes designated for LASH ships. limb. The graduated curved part of an instrument for measuring angles, as that part of a MARINE SEXTANT carrying the altitude scale, or arc. The circular outer edge of a CELESTIAL BODY. The half with the greatest ALTITUDE is called the upper limb and the half with the least ALTITUDE, the lower limb. limestone. A ROCK which consists chiefly of calcium carbonate. limnology. The scientific study of the biological, chemical, geographical, and physical features of fresh waters, especially of LAKES and PONDS. linear light. See LIGHT. linear parallax. See PARALLAX: ABSOLUTE STEREOSCOPIC. linear scale. See SCALE: BAR. linear speed. See SPEED. line of apsides. The line connecting the two orbital points (called apsides) that are nearest and farthest from the centre of attraction, as the PERIGEE and the APOGEE in the case of an ORBIT about the EARTH, and the PERIHELION and the APHELION in the case of an ORBIT about the SUN. line of collimation. See COLLIMATION. line of constant scale. Any line on a PHOTOGRAPH which is parallel to the TRUE HORIZON or to the ISOMETRIC PARALLEL. line of delimitation. A line drawn on a map or chart depicting the separation of any type of maritime jurisdiction. line of equidistance. See MEDIAN LINE. line of flow. The vector line showing the DIRECTION OF CURRENT at a given TIME. Also called STREAMLINE. line of force. A line indicating the direction in which a force acts, as in a MAGNETIC FIELD. See MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE. line of levels. A continuous series of measured differences of ELEVATION. line of nodes. The straight line connecting the two points of intersection of the ORBIT of a PLANET, PLANETOID, or COMET and the ECLIPTIC, or the line of intersection of the planes of the ORBITS of a SATELLITE and its primary. See NODE. line of position. A line indicating a series of possible POSITIONS of a craft, determined by OBSERVATION or measurement. Also called position line. See CELESTIAL LINE OF POSITION, CIRCLE OF POSITION, COURSE LINE, ELECTRONIC LINE OF POSITION, FIX, HYPERBOLIC LINE OF POSITION, LATITUDE LINE, LEADING LINE, LONGITUDE LINE, RETIRED LINE OF POSITION, SONIC LINE OF POSITION, SPEED LINE, SUMNER LINE, SURFACE OF POSITION, VISUAL LINE OF POSITION. line of sight. The straight line between two points. This line is in the direction of a GREAT CIRCLE, but does not follow the curvature of the EARTH. See also COLLIMATION: LINE OF. line of sounding. A series of SOUNDINGS along a predetermined line, and at stated intervals, when SURVEYING. Also referred to as sounding line. See CHECK LINES, CROSS LINES, CROSS-SECTION LINES, INTER LINE, SPLIT LINE, STARRED LINES, TRACK LINE OF SOUNDING, SYSTEMS OF SOUNDING LINES. line spacing. Distance between sounding lines. Spacing usually depends on the type of survey, the instruments used, and the demanded accuracy. line squall. SQUALL which occurs along a SQUALL LINE.

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lipper. Slight ruffling or roughness on a water surface. Light spray from small WAVES. Also called leaper. liquid compass. See COMPASS. list. INCLINATION to one side, as of a vessel until she has found EQUILIBRIUM in an inclined position. Listing is a static condition, as distinguished from heeling which is dynamic. See HEEL. list of lights. A publication tabulating navigational LIGHTS, with their locations, CANDLE POWERS, CHARACTERISTICS, etc. to assist in their identification, and details of any accompanying FOG SIGNAL. A list of lights may contain other information useful to a navigator. Also called light list. list of radio signals. A publication tabulating and combining particulars of: coast radio stations, port radio stations, RADIO DIRECTION FINDING STATIONS, RADIOBEACONS, etc., as well as other information on radio services useful to a navigator. lithification. The process of induration, cementation, petrification, consolidation, and crystallization which convert MAGMA and newly deposited SEDIMENTS into ROCK. lithographic image. An ink-receptive image on the lithographic press plate, either photographic or direct hand or transfer image. The design or drawing on stone or metal plate. lithographic transfer. A PROOF of design or type matter pulled with special transfer ink on transfer paper from a LITHOGRAPHIC IMAGE or a relief image. Such PROOFS are used to transfer an IMAGE to the PLATE or stone. lithography. The art or process of printing from a flat stone or metal PLATE by a method based on the repulsion between grease and water. The original lithographic material was Bavarian LIMESTONE; but zinc and aluminium are now used. lithology. The scientific study of ROCKS. Literally, the science of STONES. lithosphere. The solid, rocky part of the EARTH; EARTH's CRUST distinguished from ATMOSPHERE, HYDROSPHERE. litre (or liter). The basic unit of capacity in the METRIC SYSTEM. It is equal to one cubic decimetre. littoral (adj.). Of or pertaining to a SHORE, especially of the SEA. littoral (n.). A coastal region. INTERTIDAL ZONE. local apparent noon. See NOON. local apparent time. See TIME. local attraction. LOCAL MAGNETIC DISTURBANCE. Also deflection of the PLUMB LINE due to a MOUNTAIN or other irregularity in EARTH's CRUST. local frequency oscillator. An oscillator used to derive an intermediate frequency by beating with the signal carrying frequency in Superheterodyne reception. local horizon. See HORIZON: APPARENT. local hour angle. See HOUR ANGLE. localizer. A radio facility which provides SIGNALS for lateral GUIDANCE of aircraft with respect to a RUNWAY centre line. local magnetic disturbance. An ANOMALY of the MAGNETIC FIELD of the EARTH, extending over a relatively small area, due to local magnetic influences. Also called local attraction or magnetic anomaly. local mean time. See TIME. local meridian. See MERIDIAN.

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local sidereal time. See TIME. local time. See TIME. local transit. See TRANSIT. loch. The Scottish term for (1) a LAKE, and (2) a FIORD. lock. A WET DOCK in a WATERWAY, permitting a ship to pass from one level to another. See TIDE LOCK. lock gate(s). Pair of massive hinged doors at each end of a LOCK. locking. In ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION, a term describing the condition of two TRANSMITTERS when their SIGNALS maintain a stable phase relationship. One STATION is then said to be locked to the other. locus (pl. loci). All possible positions of a point or curve satisfying stated conditions. log. An instrument for measuring the SPEED or distance or both travelled by a vessel. log (v.t.). Said of a ship moving at a specified SPEED according to the indications given by the LOG. log: chip. A LOG consisting essentially of a weighted wooden quadrant attached to a bridle in such a manner that it will float in a vertical position, and a LOG LINE, SPEED being measured by casting the quadrant overboard and counting the KNOTS in the line paid out in unit time. log: Dutchman's. A buoyant object thrown overboard to determine the SPEED of a vessel by timing its passage between two marks, of known distance apart, on the vessel. log: electric. A graphic recording of the various electrical properties of a SEDIMENT or ROCK through which a hole has been drilled. log: electric submerged. An electrically-operated LOG installed inside the hull of the vessel with a tube extending through the hull into the water. log: electromagnetic. A LOG consisting of a pulsating MAGNET mounted on a probe pointing downwards with two contacts on the sides of the probe. The movement of the water through the MAGNETIC FIELD is reflected by the contacts and the ripple of voltage thus induced can be converted to measure the SPEED of the craft. log: ground. A device for determining the COURSE and SPEED made good over the GROUND in SHALLOW WATER, consisting of a LEAD attached to a line. The LEAD is thrown overboard and allowed to rest on the BOTTOM. The COURSE being made good is indicated by the direction the line tends and the SPEED by the amount of line paid out in unit time. log: patent. Former name for a towed LOG. Any mechanical LOG, particularly a TAFFRAIL LOG. log: taffrail. A LOG consisting essentially of a rotator towed through the water by a braided LOG LINE attached to a distance registering device usually secured at the TAFFRAIL, the railing at the stern. Also called PATENT LOG. logarithmic scale. See SCALE. log book. Book in which events connected with the ship are entered. Also written as one word. log boom. Heavy logs chained or lashed together and moored or anchored so as to enclose and contain rafted logs. See also BOOM. log chip. The wooden quadrant forming part of a CHIP LOG. Also called log ship. log factor. The ratio represented by the true distance divided by the LOG distance. log factor scale. See SCALE. logging. 1. Gauging ship's speed with a log. 2. Record events.

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log line. A graduated line used to measure the SPEED of a vessel through the water or to measure the SPEED of a CURRENT from a vessel at anchor. The line secured to a LOG. See CURRENT POLE. log ship. See LOG CHIP. Also written as one word. long baseline acoustic system. An underwater position fixing system which consists of an array of seabed transponders with baselines of several kilometres. longitude. ANGULAR DISTANCE, along a PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE, from the adopted REFERENCE POINT. One of COORDINATES used to describe a POSITION the other being LATITUDE. longitude: astronomical. The angle between the plane of the CELESTIAL MERIDIAN and the plane of an INITIAL MERIDIAN, arbitrarily chosen. Astronomical longitude is the LONGITUDE which results directly from OBSERVATIONS on CELESTIAL BODIES, uncorrected for DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL. longitude: celestial. ANGULAR DISTANCE east of the VERNAL EQUINOX, along the ECLIPTIC; the arc of the ECLIPTIC or the angle at the ecliptic pole between the CIRCLE OF LATITUDE of the VERNAL EQUINOX and the CIRCLE OF LATITUDE of a point on the CELESTIAL SPHERE, measured eastward from the CIRCLE OF LATITUDE of the VERNAL EQUINOX, through 360 . longitude: geodetic. The angle between the plane of the GEODETIC MERIDIAN and the plane of an INITIAL MERIDIAN, arbitrarily chosen. longitude: geographic(al). A general term, applying alike to ASTRONOMICAL and GEODETIC LONGITUDE. longitude: terrestrial. The intercepted arc of EQUATOR, or the angle at the POLE, between the MERIDIAN of a point on the EARTH, and the PRIME MERIDIAN, measured eastward or westward from the PRIME MERIDIAN through 180and labelled E or W to indicate the direction of measurement. longitude factor. The change in LONGITUDE along a CELESTIAL LINE OF POSITION per 1' change in LATITUDE. longitude line. A LINE OF POSITION extending in a generally north-south direction. longitude signal. See SIGNAL. longitudinal wave. See WAVE. long range navigation. See NAVIGATION. longshore current. A current paralleling the shore largely within the surf zone. It is caused by the excess water brought to the zone by the small net mass transport of wind waves. Longshore currents feed into rip currents. lookout station. A distinctive structure or place on SHORE from which personnel keep watch upon events at SEA or along the COAST. lookout tower. Any tower surmounted by a small house in which a watch is habitually kept, as distinguished from an OBSERVATION TOWER in which no watch is kept. loom. The glow of a light which is below the HORIZON, caused by REFLECTION by solid particles in the air. Vague first appearance of LAND at SEA. looming. An apparent ELEVATION of distant terrestrial objects by abnormal ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION. Because of looming, objects below the HORIZON are sometimes visible. The opposite is SINKING. The appearance indistinctly of an object during a period of low VISIBILITY. loop. In OCEANOGRAPHY, that part of a STANDING WAVE where the vertical motion is greatest and the horizontal VELOCITIES are least. Loops (sometimes called antinodes) are associated with CLAPOTIS and with SEICHE action resultant from resonant wave reflecting in a HARBOUR or BAY. loop antenna. A DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA consisting essentially of one or more complete turns of wire. 'lost' station. See STATION: UNRECOVERABLE. lough. Irish equivalent of the Scottish LOCH.

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louver shutter. See SHUTTER. love wave (or Q-wave). See WAVE. low. See DEPRESSION. lower branch. That half of a MERIDIAN or CELESTIAL MERIDIAN from POLE to POLE which passes through the ANTIPODE or NADIR of a place. lower culmination. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT. lower high water (L.H.W.). The lower of two HIGH WATERS occurring during a TIDAL DAY if the DIURNAL INEQUALITY prevails. lower high water interval. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. lower limb. See LIMB. lower low water (L.L.W.). The lower of two LOW WATERS occurring during a TIDAL DAY if the DIURNAL INEQUALITY prevails. lower low water interval. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. lower transit. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT. lowest astronomical tide. The lowest tide level which can be predicted to occur under average meteorological conditions and under any combination of astronomical conditions. lowest low water. An arbitrary LEVEL conforming to the lowest TIDE observed at a place, or somewhat lower. low frequency (LF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. lowland. Low and relatively level LAND at a lower ELEVATION than adjoining districts. low oblique photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH. low tide. See LOW WATER. low-tide elevation. A naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide, but submerged at high tide. low velocity layer. Any LAYER in which the VELOCITY of compressional wave propagation is lower than in the adjacent LAYERS. Such a LAYER can act as an efficient channel for the propagation of elastic WAVES for great distances. low water (L.W.). The lowest LEVEL reached at a place by the water surface in one OSCILLATION. Also called low tide. low water: double. A LOW WATER consisting of two minima separated by a relatively small elevation. See TIDE: DOUBLE. low water full and change (L.W.F. and C.). The average interval of time between the TRANSIT (upper or lower) of the full or new MOON and the next LOW WATER. low water inequality. See DIURNAL INEQUALITY. low water interval. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. low water line. See LOW WATER MARK. low water lunitidal interval (L.W.I.). Low water interval. See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. low water mark. The intersection of the plane of LOW WATER with the SHORE. The line along a COAST, or BEACH, to which the SEA recedes at LOW WATER. Also called low water line.

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low water quadrature (L.W.Q.). The average low water interval when the MOON is at QUADRATURE. low water stand. See STAND OF TIDE. loxodrome. A curve, on the surface of a sphere, intersecting all GREAT CIRCLES of the sphere at a constant oblique angle, theoretically never reaching the POLE while closely approaching it. See RHUMB LINE. loxodromic curve. A LOXODROME. A RHUMB LINE. lubber (or lubber's) line. A REFERENCE LINE on any direction-indicating instrument, marking the reading which coincides with the HEADING. lull. A momentary decrease in the SPEED of the WIND. lumen. The unit of LUMINOUS FLUX in the SI SYSTEM. luminance (at a point of surface, in a direction). Quotient of the LUMINOUS INTENSITY, in a given direction, of an infinitesimal element of the surface containing the point under consideration, by the orthogonally projected area of the element on a plane perpendicular to the given direction. luminescence. Any emission of light at temperatures below that required for incandescence. See BIOLUMINESCENCE, FLUORESCENCE, PHOSPHORESCENCE. luminous flux. See FLUX. luminous intensity. See INTENSITY. luminous range. See RANGE. luminous signal. See SIGNAL. lunar day. See DAY. lunar distance. The angle, at an observer on the EARTH, between the MOON and another CELESTIAL BODY. This was the basis of a method formerly used to determine LONGITUDE at SEA. lunar eclipse. See ECLIPSE. lunar inequality. Variation in the MOON's motion in its ORBIT, due to attraction by other bodies of the SOLAR SYSTEM. See EVECTION, PERTURBATION. A minute fluctuation of a MAGNETIC NEEDLE from its mean position, caused by the MOON. lunar month. See MONTH: SYNODICAL. lunar rainbow. See MOONBOW. lunar tide. See under TIDE. lunation. See MONTH: SYNODICAL. lunicurrent interval. The interval between the moon's transit (upper or lower) over the local or Greenwich meridian and a specified phase of the tidal current following the transit. Examples are strength of flood interval and strength of ebb interval, which may be abbreviated to flood interval and ebb interval, respectively. The interval is described as local or Greenwich according to whether the reference is to the moon's transit over the local or Greenwich meridian. When not otherwise specified, the reference is assumed to be local. lunitidal interval. The interval of time between the TRANSIT (upper or lower) of the MOON over the LOCAL or GREENWICH MERIDIAN and the next HIGH WATER or LOW WATER at a place. The interval is assumed to be local unless otherwise specified. The average of all high water intervals is called mean high water lunitidal interval, high water interval, or corrected establishment. The average of all low water intervals is called mean low water lunitidal interval, or low water interval. The expressions higher high water interval, lower high water interval, higher low water interval, and lower low water interval are used when there is considerable DIURNAL INEQUALITY. See ESTABLISHMENT. lurch. A sudden ROLL to one side. See LIST.

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lux. Unit of ILLUMINATION in the SI SYSTEM. L-Z graph. A graph used to determine 'in situ' DEPTHS of oceanographic OBSERVATIONS by the wire depths minus THERMOMETRIC DEPTH method.

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2978 2979 2980 madrepore. A branching or stag-horn CORAL, also any perforated stone coral. magenta (adj.). A mixture of red and blue in equal parts. magma. The molten material in a state of fusion under the CRUST of the EARTH from which IGNEOUS ROCKS are formed. magnet. A body which produces a MAGNETIC FIELD around itself. It has the property of attracting certain materials capable of being magnetized. See HEELING MAGNET. magnetic annual change. The amount of SECULAR CHANGE in the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD which occurs in one YEAR. Also referred to as annual change. magnetic annual variation. The small systematic TEMPORAL VARIATION in the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD which occurs after the trend for SECULAR CHANGE has been removed from the average monthly values. Also referred to as annual variation. magnetic anomaly. See LOCAL MAGNETIC DISTURBANCE. magnetic azimuth. See AZIMUTH. magnetic bearing. See BEARING. magnetic chart. See CHART. magnetic compass. See COMPASS. magnetic compensation. See COMPENSATION OF MAGNETIC COMPASS. magnetic compensator. See COMPENSATOR. magnetic course. See COURSE. magnetic daily (or diurnal) variation. OSCILLATIONS of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD which have a periodicity of about a day and that depend to a close approximation only on LOCAL TIME and GEOGRAPHIC LATITUDE. magnetic declination. See VARIATION. magnetic deviation. See DEVIATION. magnetic dip. See DIP. magnetic element. VARIATION, DIP, or MAGNETIC INTENSITY. magnetic equator. See EQUATOR. magnetic field. The space in which a magnetic influence exists. magnetic field intensity. The magnetic force exerted on a UNIT MAGNETIC POLE placed at any specified point of space. It is a vector quantity. Its direction is taken as the direction toward which a north MAGNETIC POLE would tend to move under the influence of the field. Also called magnetic intensity, magnetic field strength. magnetic field strength. See MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY. magnetic inclination. See DIP. magnetic induction. The act or process by which material becomes magnetized when placed in a MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetic intensity. See MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY.

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magnetic latitude. See LATITUDE. magnetic lines of force. Closed lines indicating by their direction the direction of magnetic influence. magnetic meridian. See MERIDIAN. magnetic moment. The quantity obtained by multiplying the distance between two MAGNETIC POLES by the average strength of the poles. magnetic needle. A small, slender magnetized bar which tends to align itself with MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE. magnetic north. See NORTH. magnetic observation(s). See OBSERVATION. magnetic observatory. A place where buildings are equipped for observing temporal changes in the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetic permeability. The property of a magnetizable substance that determines the degree in which it modifies the magnetic flux in the region occupied by it. magnetic pole. Either of the two places on the surface of the EARTH where the magnetic DIP is 90 , that in the northern hemisphere being designated north magnetic pole, and that in the southern hemisphere being designated south magnetic pole. The magnetic poles are not fixed and do not coincide with the GEOGRAPHICAL POLES. Either of those two points of a MAGNET where the magnetic force is greatest. magnetic range. See RANGE. magnetic retentivity. The ability to retain MAGNETISM after removal of the magnetizing force. Also called remanence. magnetic secular change. The temporal variation in the value of a MAGNETIC ELEMENT which occurs over a period of years. magnetic station. See STATION. magnetic storm. A disturbance in the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD, associated with abnormal solar activity, and capable of seriously affecting both radio and wire transmission. magnetic survey. See SURVEY. magnetic temporal variation. Any change in the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD which is a function of time. Also referred to as temporal variation. magnetic variation. See VARIATION. magnetism. The ability to attract magnetic material, notably iron and steel. magnetism: induced. MAGNETISM acquired by a piece of magnetic material while it is in a MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetism: permanent. MAGNETISM which is retained for long periods without appreciable reduction, unless the MAGNET is subjected to a demagnetizing force. Because of the slow dissipation of such MAGNETISM, it is sometimes called subpermanent magnetism. magnetism: residual. MAGNETISM which remains after removal of the magnetizing force. magnetism: subpermanent. See MAGNETISM: PERMANENT. magnetism: temporary. MAGNETISM of craft which changes in amount with every change of HEADING. Also called transient magnetism. magnetism: terrestrial. See GEOMAGNETISM. magnetism: transient. See MAGNETISM: TEMPORARY.

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magnetization. The degree to which a body is magnetized. The MAGNETIC MOMENT per unit volume. Also called intensity of magnetization. magnetize (v.t.). To produce magnetic properties. The opposite is DEMAGNETIZE. magnetogram. An analogue time record of the temporal variations in a MAGNETIC ELEMENT measured at a MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. magnetograph. A MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY instrument consisting of one or more (usually 3) VARIOMETERS, one for each MAGNETIC ELEMENT recorded, and a recorder. magnetometer. An instrument for measuring the intensity and/or the direction of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetometer: cesium. An OPTICAL PUMPING MAGNETOMETER which employs a cesium absorption cell. magnetometer: flux-gate. An instrument which uses a wire wound saturable core inductor to measure the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetometer: helium. An OPTICAL PUMPING MAGNETOMETER which employs a helium absorption cell. magnetometer: nuclear precession. A MAGNETOMETER that utilizes the precessional characteristics of hydrogen nuclei when in an ambient MAGNETIC FIELD. Also known as proton precession magnetometer. magnetometer: optical pumping. A highly sensitive MAGNETOMETER which employs a metastable helium or alkali metal absorption cell whose ATOMS absorb maximum energy from an infrared BEAM when a frequency modulation oscillator is tuned to its resonant FREQUENCY. The resonant FREQUENCY is proportional to the strength of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetometer: proton precession. See MAGNETOMETER: NUCLEAR PRECESSION. magnetometer: quartz horizontal. A MAGNETOMETER in which the torque exerted on a suspended MAGNET by the EARTH's horizontal MAGNETIC FIELD is balanced against the torque exerted by the quartz suspension fibre when o twisted through 360 . magnetometer: rubidium vapour. An OPTICAL PUMPING MAGNETOMETER which employs a rubidium vapour absorption cell. magnetometer: transit. An instrument used primarily for observing the declination of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetometer: unifilar. A MAGNETOMETER, designed for use on SHORE, employed to measure the horizontal intensity of the EARTH's MAGNETISM; it can also be used to determine VARIATION. magnetometer: vector airbone. A FLUX-GATE MAGNETOMETER which measures the intensity and direction of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD from an aircraft. magnetometer survey. See SURVEY. magnetometric zero balance. A MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY instrument used for accurate measurement of the vertical component of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD. magnetostriction. The PHENOMENON wherein ferromagnetic material experience an elastic strain when subjected to an external MAGNETIC FIELD. Also, the converse PHENOMENON in which mechanical stresses cause a change in the MAGNETIC INDUCTION of a ferromagnetic material. magnetostriction transducer. See TRANSDUCER. magnetron. An electron tube for converting direct-current energy into radio-frequency energy by means of a MAGNETIC FIELD. magnification. The apparent enlargement of anything. In optics, the term relates to the properties of LENSES and LENS SYSTEMS to produce an IMAGE which differs in dimension from the related object.

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magnifying glass. A LENS or combination of LENSES that increases the apparent size of an object seen through it. magnifying power. The ratio of the apparent length of a linear dimension as seen through an optical instrument to that seen by the unaided eye. Sometimes shortened to power. magnitude. The importance, quality or size of something. In ASTRONOMY, relative brightness of a CELESTIAL BODY. According to the accepted classification, a STAR of the 1st magnitude is a hundred times as bright as a STAR of the 6th magnitude (the faintest STAR that can be seen with the unaided eye) and the distribution of magnitudes is logarithmic in terms of brightness. Thus each reduction in magnitude means an increase of brightness of about 2 1/2. mainland. The principal LAND or largest part of a CONTINENT, as distinguished from a relatively small ISLAND or PENINSULA. main scheme station. See STATION. maintained depth. The depth at which a channel is kept by human influence, usually by dredging. maintenance. All procedures and activities required to keep equipment operational. major planet. See PLANET. make the land. To sight and approach or reach LAND from seaward. make way. To progress through the water. making way. Progressing through the water. manoeuvre. Planned and controlled movement of a vehicle. mangrove. One of several genera of tropical trees or shrubs which produce many prop roots and grow along low-lying COASTS into SHALLOW WATER. manometer. An instrument for measuring pressure of gases and vapours. mantle. The relatively plastic region between the CRUST and CORE of the EARTH. Also called asthenosphere. manuscript map. See MAP. map. A representation (usually on a flat medium) of all or a portion of the EARTH or other CELESTIAL BODY, showing the relative size and position of features to some given SCALE or PROJECTION; also, a representation of all or part of the CELESTIAL SPHERE. A map may emphasize, generalize, or omit the representation of certain features to satisfy specific requirements. Maps are frequently categorized and referred to according to the type of information which they are primarily designed to convey, to distinguish them from maps of other types. map (v.t.). To prepare a MAP or engage in a mapping operation. map: anaglyphic. A MAP specially printed in two complementary colours in such a way that, when viewed through a twin EYEPIECE of the same colours, a three-dimensional impression of RELIEF is seen. map: base. A MAP showing certain fundamental information, used as a base upon which additional data of specialized nature are compiled. Also, a MAP containing all the information from which MAPS showing specialized information can be prepared; a source map. map: cadastral. A MAP showing the BOUNDARIES of subdivision of LAND, usually with the BEARINGS and lengths thereof and the area of individual tracts, for purposes of describing and recording ownership. A cadastral map may also show culture, drainage, and other features relating to the value and use of LAND. See also PLAT. map: contour. A TOPOGRAPHIC MAP which portrays RELIEF by means of CONTOURS. map: hemispherical. A MAP of one half of the EARTH's surface, bounded by the EQUATOR, or by MERIDIANS. map: index. In AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, a MAP showing the location and numbers of FLIGHT STRIPS and PHOTOGRAPHS.

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map: manuscript. The original drawing of a MAP as compiled or constructed from various DATA, such as GROUND SURVEYS, PHOTOGRAPHS, etc. map: planimetric. A MAP which presents only the horizontal positions for the features represented; distinguished from a TOPOGRAPHIC MAP by the omission of RELIEF in measurable form. map: reconnaissance. The plotted result of a RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY. map: relief. A MAP emphasizing RELIEF or relative ELEVATIONS. See RELIEF MODEL. map: sketch. A MAP drawn freehand and greatly simplified which, although preserving the essential space relationships, does not truly preserve SCALE or ORIENTATION. map: special purpose. Any MAP designed primarily to meet specific requirements. map: substitute. A hasty reproduction of wide-coverage AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS, PHOTOMAPS, or MOSAICS, or of provisional MAPS, or any document used in place of a MAP, when the precise requirements of a MAP cannot be met. map: thematic. A MAP designed to demonstrate particular features or concepts. In conventional use, this term excludes TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. map: topographic. A MAP which represents the horizontal and vertical positions of the features represented; distinguished from a PLANIMETRIC MAP by the addition of RELIEF in measurable form. A topographic map uses CONTOURS or comparable SYMBOLS to show MOUNTAINS, VALLEYS and PLAINS. map nadir. See NADIR. map parallel. See AXIS OF HOMOLOGY. map projection. See PROJECTION. map scale. See SCALE. Marcq St. Hilaire method. The establishing of a LINE OF POSITION from the OBSERVATION of the ALTITUDE of a CELESTIAL BODY, and the calculation of its ALTITUDE and AZIMUTH by the use of an ASSUMED POSITION. First introduced by Commandant Marcq St. Hilaire of the French Navy. See INTERCEPT, SUB-POINT. Also referred to as Saint Hilaire method or intercept method. maregraph plongeur. An instrument for measuring changes in SEA LEVEL by automatically recording changes in pressure at sea bottom. Two BOURDON TUBES are open to pressure and a mechanism records the resultant movements of their free ends. margin. In CARTOGRAPHY, that area of a MAP or CHART lying outside the border. 'Margin' is preferred to the term 'surround'. marginal information (or data). The notations printed in the MARGINS or borders of MOSAICS, PLANS, or MAPS. marigram. See TIDE CURVE. marigraph. A recording TIDE GAUGE. marina. A harbour facility for small boats, yachts, etc., where supplies, repairs, and various services are available. marine. An adjective meaning relating to navigation or shipping; relating to or connected with the sea; used, or adopted for use at sea. Sometimes called maritime, but maritime is more frequently applied to that which borders on the sea. marine barometer. See BAROMETER. marine biology. See BIOLOGY. marine borer. Any marine invertebrate that excavates tunnels, holes, or depressions in one or more of a variety of materials by abrasive, chewing, or chemical action.

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marine chart. See CHART: NAUTICAL. marine farm. See FISH FARM. marine light. See LIGHT. marine navigation. See NAVIGATION. marine nature reserve (U.S. marine sanctuary). An officially designated area in which there may be restrictions on entry, fishing, anchoring, and other activities in order to protect the marine environment. marine railway. A track, cradle, and winding mechanism for hauling vessels out of the water so that the hull can be exposed as in a dry dock. This is also called a patent slip in British terminology. marine sextant. See SEXTANT. marine stabilizer. See STABILIZER. maritime. Bordering on, concerned with, or related to the sea. maritime boundary delimitation. The process of establishing LINE(S) OF DELIMITATION at sea. maritime meteorology. Branch of the METEOROLOGY which is concerned with the interaction between the SEA and ATMOSPHERE. Maritime Safety Information (MSI). Navigational and meteorological warnings, meteorological forecasts, distress alerts and other urgent safety related messages broadcast to ships. mark. One of the bits of leather, cloth, etc. indicating a specified length of a LEAD LINE. A charted conspicuous object, structure, or LIGHT serving as an indicator for guidance or warning of a craft; a BEACON. A definite object ,such as an imprinted metal disk, used to designate a survey point and sometimes refers to the entire survey monument. Mark is used with a qualifying term such as station, reference, azimuth, or bench. See also BENCH MARK and REFERENCE MARK. mark: geodetic. See MARK. mark boat. A temporary SOUNDING MARK consisting of a whaler moored head and stern, with a SIGNAL on board. marker. That which marks something. A MARKER BEACON. See also RADIOBEACON. marker beacon. A RADIOBEACON which radiates a SIGNAL to define an area, as an AID TO NAVIGATION. Usually called marker radiobeacon or marker. marker buoy. A temporary BUOY used in SURVEYING to mark a location of particular interest such as a SHOAL or REEF. See also STATION BUOY. marker radiobeacon. See MARKER BEACON. marks and deeps. The divisions used in marking a hand LEAD LINE. marl. A crumbling, earthy DEPOSIT, particularly one of CLAY mixed with SAND, lime, decomposed SHELLS, etc. Sometimes a LAYER of marl becomes quite compact. Part of the ocean bed is composed of marl. Marsden chart. A system introduced by Marsden early in the nineteenth century for showing the distribution of meteorological DATA on a CHART especially over the OCEANS. A Mercator map projection is used; the world o o between 90 N and 80 S being divided into Marsden 'squares' each of 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude. These squares are systematically numbered to indicate position. Each square may be divided into quarter squares, or into 100 one-degree subsquares numbered from 00 to 99 to give the position to the nearest degree. marsh. A tract of low-lying LAND flooded at times and generally swampy.

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massif. A large mountain-mass; the central mass of a MOUNTAIN; a compact and more or less independent portion of a RANGE. mass transport. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the voluminous transfer of water from one region to another. master. An instrument which controls another similar instrument called a REPEATER. A MASTER STATION. master compass. See COMPASS. master gyro compass. See COMPASS. master station. The governing station of two or more synchronized transmitting stations. Often shortened to MASTER. See SLAVE STATION. masthead. The top of a mast. masthead angle. The vertical angle subtended by a ship's mast. mathematical model. A mathematical representation, usually of a process, device, or concept, which permits mathematical manipulation of variables as a means to determine how the process, device, or concept would behave in various situations as e.g. the application of a specific simulation. Matthews table. An echo sounding correction table. matrix. In OCEANOGRAPHY, ROCK or SEDIMENT in which larger grains are imbedded in a mass of smaller grains. In printing, a metal plate, usually of copper, for moulding the face of a type. In graphic arts, a mold in which type characters are cast in line-casting machines and foundry type. matte. Conglomerate of SAND, MUD and SEAWEED forming a SHOAL or REEF. maximum thermometer. See THERMOMETER. meander (Often in plural). A winding, convolution or winding COURSE, as of a STREAM. A deviation of the flow pattern of a CURRENT. mean diurnal high water inequality. See DIURNAL INEQUALITY. mean diurnal low water inequality. See DIURNAL INEQUALITY. mean draft. See DRAFT. mean higher high water (M.H.H.W.). The average HEIGHT or HIGHER HIGH WATERS at a place over a 19-year period. mean high water (M.H.W.). The average HEIGHT of all HIGH WATERS at a place over a 19-year period. mean high water lunitidal interval (M.H.W.I.). See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL. mean high water neaps (M.H.W.N.). The average HEIGHT of the HIGH WATERS of NEAP TIDES. Also called neap high water. mean high water springs (M.H.W.S.). The average HEIGHT of the HIGH WATERS of SPRING TIDES. Also called spring high water. mean lower low water (M.L.L.W.). The average HEIGHT of the LOWER LOW WATERS at a place over a 19-year period. mean lower low water springs (M.L.L.W.S.). The average HEIGHT of lower low water springs at a place. mean low water (M.L.W.). The average HEIGHT of all LOW WATERS at a place over a 19-year period. mean low water lunitidal interval (M.L.W.I.). See LUNITIDAL INTERVAL.

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mean low water neaps (M.L.W.N.). The average HEIGHT of the LOW WATERS of NEAP TIDES. Also called neap low water. mean low water springs (M.L.W.S.). The average HEIGHT of the LOW WATERS of SPRING TIDES. This LEVEL is used as a TIDAL DATUM in some areas. Also called spring low water. mean neap range. See NEAP RANGE. mean neap rise. The HEIGHT of MEAN HIGH WATERS NEAPS above the CHART DATUM. Also called neap rise. mean noon. See NOON. mean range (of tide). The difference in the HEIGHT between MEAN HIGH WATER and MEAN LOW WATER. mean rise (of tide). The HEIGHT of MEAN HIGH WATER above the CHART DATUM. mean sea level. The average HEIGHT of the surface of the SEA at a TIDE STATION for all stages of the TIDE over a 19-year period, usually determined from hourly height readings measured from a fixed predetermined reference level (CHART DATUM). mean solar day. See DAY: SOLAR. mean solar time. See TIME. mean sounding velocity. Mean values for VELOCITY OF SOUND through the vertical water column of specific DEPTHS based on different VELOCITIES OF SOUND in different sections of the column. These values yield more nearly correct DEPTHS when sonic DEPTH FINDERS are used. The VELOCITY OF SOUND at any specific DEPTH may differ considerably from the mean. mean sphere depth. The uniform DEPTH to which the water would cover the EARTH if the solid surface were smoothed off and were parallel to the surface of the GEOID. The accepted figure for this DEPTH is 2,440 METRES. The mean DEPTH of the SEA is 3,800 METRES. mean spring range. See SPRING RANGE. mean spring rise. The HEIGHT of MEAN HIGH WATER SPRINGS above the CHART DATUM. Also called spring rise. mean square error. See ERROR. mean sun. See SUN. mean tide level. See HALF TIDE LEVEL. mean time. See TIME: MEAN SOLAR. mean water level. The average surface level of a body of water. measured distance. A COURSE at SEA, whose ends are indicated by RANGES ashore, and whose length has been accurately measured for determining the SPEED of vessels. measured mile. A MEASURED DISTANCE of one NAUTICAL MILE. measurement. The (detailed) dimensions of a physical quantity. median line. A line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines of two or more states between which it lies. median valley. The axial DEPRESSION of the mid-oceanic RIDGE system. See RIFT. medimarimeter. An apparatus for recording the MEAN SEA LEVEL. medium frequency (MF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO.

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medusa. See COELENTERATE and JELLYFISH. megacycle. One million CYCLES; one thousand KILOCYCLES. The term is often used incorrectly as the equivalent of one million CYCLES PER SECOND. megahertz. One million HERTZ; one thousand KILOHERTZ. The term is used as the equivalent of one million CYCLES PER SECOND. melting point. Temperature of change from the solid to the liquid phase of a substance. It is a function of pressure. menu. A list of commands and/or options. The user selects the desired command by moving the CURSOR to the respective position on the menu or by entering an appropriate code at the command entry line of the DISPLAY. Mercator: transverse. See PROJECTION: TRANSVERSE MERCATOR. Mercator chart. See CHART. Mercator projection. See PROJECTION. Mercator sailing. See SAILING. mercurial (or mercury) barometer. See BAROMETER. meridian. A north-south reference line, particularly a GREAT CIRCLE through the GEOGRAPHICAL POLES of the EARTH, from which LONGITUDES (or DEPARTURES) and AZIMUTHS are reckoned; or a plane normal to the GEOID or SPHEROID defining such a line. The term usually refers to the UPPER BRANCH. meridian: astronomical. A line on the surface of the EARTH connecting points having the same ASTRONOMICAL LONGITUDE. Because the DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL is not the same at all points, an astronomical meridian is an irregular line, not lying in a single plane. Also called terrestrial meridian. meridian: celestial. A GREAT CIRCLE of the CELESTIAL SPHERE through the CELESTIAL POLES and the ZENITH. The expression usually refers to the UPPER BRANCH. meridian: central. See MERIDIAN: INITIAL. meridian: compass. A line through the north-south points of a MAGNETIC COMPASS. The compass card axis lies in the compass meridian. meridian: geodetic. A line on a SPHEROID which has the same GEODETIC LONGITUDE at every point. meridian: geographic(al). A general term, applying alike to an ASTRONOMICAL or a GEODETIC MERIDIAN. meridian: Greenwich. The ASTRONOMICAL MERIDIAN through the centre of the TRANSIT instrument of the observatory of Greenwich, England, serving as the reference for GREENWICH TIME, in contrast with LOCAL MERIDIAN. meridian: grid. One of the GRID lines extending in a grid north-south direction. meridian: initial. A MERIDIAN through the ORIGIN of a system of GRID COORDINATES and used as y-AXIS of the system. Also called central meridian. meridian: local. The MERIDIAN through any particular place or observer, serving as the reference for LOCAL TIME, in contrast with GREENWICH MERIDIAN. meridian: magnetic. A line of horizontal magnetic force of the EARTH. The vertical plane in which a freely suspended, symmetrically magnetized NEEDLE, influenced by no transient, artificial, magnetic disturbance, will come to rest. meridian: photograph. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the IMAGE on a PHOTOGRAPH of any horizontal line in the object space which is parallel to the PRINCIPAL PLANE. Since all such lines meet at infinity, the IMAGE of the meeting point is at the intersection of the PRINCIPAL LINE and the HORIZON TRACE, and all photograph meridians pass through that point.

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meridian: prime. The MERIDIAN of LONGITUDE 0 , used as the origin for measurement of LONGITUDE. The MERIDIAN of Greenwich, England, is almost universally used for this purpose. meridian: principal (U.S. terminology). A true north-south line (a MERIDIAN) extending both north and south of the INITIAL POINT in the rectangular system of SURVEYS. Together with the BASE LINE they constitute the axes of a system and the INITIAL POINT the ORIGIN of that system. See PRINCIPAL LINE. meridian: standard. The MERIDIAN used for reckoning STANDARD TIME. A MERIDIAN of a map projection, along which the SCALE is as stated. meridian: terrestrial. See MERIDIAN: ASTRONOMICAL. meridian: true. A MERIDIAN. The expression is used to distinguish the GREAT CIRCLE through the GEOGRAPHICAL POLES from MAGNETIC MERIDIAN, COMPASS MERIDIAN, or GRID MERIDIAN. meridian: zone. The MERIDIAN used for reckoning ZONE TIME. meridian altitude. See ALTITUDE. meridian angle. ANGULAR DISTANCE east or west of the local CELESTIAL MERIDIAN; the arc of the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, or the angle at the CELESTIAL POLE, between the UPPER BRANCH of the local CELESTIAL MERIDIAN and the HOUR CIRCLE of a CELESTIAL BODY, measured eastward or westward from the o local CELESTIAL MERIDIAN through 180 , and labelled E or W to indicate the direction of measurement. See HOUR ANGLE. meridian-arc method. A method of determining the dimensions of the ELLIPSOID by measuring (by TRIANGULATION) the linear distances between three points on a MERIDIAN and the ANGULAR DISTANCES between them from observed differences in their ASTRONOMICAL LATITUDES. meridian distance. In ASTRONOMY, the HOUR ANGLE of a CELESTIAL BODY when close to but not exactly on the ASTRONOMICAL MERIDIAN. In PLANE SURVEYING, the perpendicular distance in a horizontal plane of a point from a MERIDIAN of reference. meridian distance: double. The algebraic sum of the perpendicular distances from the two ends of any line of a TRAVERSE to the initial, or reference, meridian. meridian passage. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT. meridian sailing. See SAILING. meridian telescope. See TELESCOPE. meridian transit. The apparent passage of a CELESTIAL BODY across a CELESTIAL MERIDIAN. Upper or superior transit is the passage across the UPPER BRANCH of the CELESTIAL MERIDIAN. Lower or inferior transit is the passage across the LOWER BRANCH. The lower transit may take place either above the HORIZON as is the case of CIRCUMPOLAR CELESTIAL BODIES, or across that branch of the MERIDIAN lying below the observer's HORIZON. Also called TRANSIT, meridian passage, CULMINATION. meridional difference. The difference between the MERIDIONAL PARTS of any two given PARALLELS. meridional distance. The difference of LATITUDE between two points on a map PROJECTION's GRATICULE converted to suitable linear units. meridional orthographic projection. See PROJECTION. meridional parts. The length of the arc of a MERIDIAN between the EQUATOR and a given PARALLEL on a MERCATOR CHART, expressed in units of 1 MINUTE of LONGITUDE at the EQUATOR. meridional plane. Any plane containing the polar AXIS of the EARTH. meroplankton. Chiefly the floating development stages (eggs and larvae) of the BENTHOS and NEKTON. mesa. A high TABLELAND (S.W. and W. United States).

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messenger. In oceanographic terminology, a cylindrical metal WEIGHT, usually hinged and with a latch so that it can be fastened around a wire, and sent down to actuate WATER BOTTLES and CURRENT METERS after they have been lowered to the desired DEPTH. metacentre (or metacenter). That point in a floating body at which a vertical line drawn through its CENTRE OF BUOYANCY when it is upright meets the vertical line drawn through its CENTRE OF BUOYANCY when it is tipped. CENTRE OF GRAVITY of the unsubmerged part of a floating body; for stable EQUILIBRIUM the metacentre must be above the CENTRE OF GRAVITY. meteor. PHENOMENON other than a CLOUD, observed in the ATMOSPHERE or on the surface of the EARTH, which consists of a precipitation, a suspension or a deposit of aqueous or non-aqueous liquid or solid particles, or a PHENOMENON of the nature of an optical or electrical manifestation. meteoric dust. Atmospheric dust originating from METEORS. meteorite. A METEOR that reaches the surface of the EARTH as a solid particle. meteorological element. Atmospheric variable or PHENOMENON which characterize the state of the WEATHER at a specific place at a given time: air temperature, ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, WIND, HUMIDITY, THUNDERSTORM, FOG, PRECIPITATION, etc. meteorological observations. See OBSERVATION. meteorological optical range table. A table from the International Visibility Code which gives the code number of meteorological visibility and the meteorological visibility for several weather conditions such as thin fog (Code No. 4meteorological visibility 1/2-1 nautical mile); clear (Code No. 7-meteorological visibility 5 1/2-11 nautical miles). meteorological tide. See TIDE. meteorological visibility. See VISIBILITY. meteorology. Science of the ATMOSPHERE. meter. (1) A person who measures. (2) An instrument or apparatus for measuring. (3) A device for measuring a specified thing as in THERMOMETER or BAROMETER. See also METRE. meter wheel. A special block used to measure payed out sampling line at OCEANOGRAPHIC STATIONS. method of squares. See SQUARES: METHOD OF. metonic cycle. A PERIOD of 19 YEARS, after which the various PHASES OF THE MOON fall on approximately the same DAYS of the YEAR as in the previous CYCLE. metre (or meter). The basic unit of length in the SI SYSTEM. metric system. A system of weights and measures, based upon the metre. metrology. The science of weights and measures. micrometer. An auxiliary device to provide measurement of very small angles or dimensions, by an instrument such as a TELESCOPE. See MICROMETER: FILAR, MICROMETER: TRANSIT. micrometer: filar. A device attached to a TELESCOPE or microscope, consisting of a wire thread (filament) connected with a screw in such manner that as the screw is turned, the wire moves through a continuous succession of parallel positions, all in the FOCAL PLANE of the instrument. Any small angle may be measured by noting the number of turns and fractions of a turn of the screw which are made in moving the wire from one bisection to another, and multiplying this by the value of one turn. See MICROMETER: OCULAR, MICROMETER MICROSCOPE, and MICROMETER COMB. micrometer: impersonal. See MICROMETER: TRANSIT.

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micrometer: ocular. A FILAR MICROMETER so placed that its wire moves in the principal FOCAL PLANE of a TELESCOPE. Also called an eyepiece micrometer. micrometer: run of. See ERROR OF RUN. micrometer: transit. A form of registering MICROMETER with its movable wire placed in the FOCAL PLANE of an astronomic TRANSIT and at right angles to the direction of motion of the IMAGE of a STAR which is observed at or near CULMINATION. The transit micrometer is also termed an impersonal micrometer, because it almost completely eliminates the effect of the PERSONAL EQUATION on time observations made with it. micrometer comb. A notched SCALE placed at right angles to the movable wire of a MICROMETER and so designed that one turn of the MICROMETER SCREW will move the micrometer wire across one notch of the comb; the central notch of the comb in conjunction with the zero of the micrometer head furnishes a fiducial point from which all micrometer readings are reckoned. The comb is used for keeping count of whole turns of the MICROMETER SCREW, parts of turns being read on the graduated micrometer head. micrometer drum. A graduated drum by which the motion of a traveling wire in a microscope can be measured. micrometer microscope. A FILAR MICROMETER so placed that its wire moves in the FOCAL PLANE of a microscope. micrometer screw. A finely-threaded screw of definite PITCH, with a head graduated to show how much the screw has been moved in or out; used in MICROMETERS. micron. One millionth of a METRE; one thousandth of a millimetre. microphone. An electroacoustic device containing a TRANSDUCER which is actuated by SOUND WAVES and delivers essentially equivalent electric WAVES. microprocessor. Component of a data processing device made up of microcircuits integrated on a single chip. microsecond. One millionth of a SECOND. microseisms. More or less persistent feeble earth tremours caused by natural sources such as atmospheric pressure systems or waves. microwave. A very short RADIO WAVE, usually 30 cm to 0.3 mm. microwave distance measurement. Any method of ELECTROMAGNETIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT based on a comparison of radio microwave signals. mid-channel buoy. A BUOY for marking the middle of a CHANNEL. middle ground. A shallow area in otherwise deeper water with CHANNELS on both sides of it. middle ground buoy. A BUOY marking a SHOAL with CHANNELS on both sides. See BIFURCATION BUOY, JUNCTION BUOY. middle latitude. Half the arithmetical sum of the LATITUDES of two places on the same side of the EQUATOR. middle latitude sailing. See SAILING. mid-extreme tide. See TIDE. midnight. Twelve HOURS from NOON, or the instant the time reference crosses the LOWER BRANCH of the reference CELESTIAL MERIDIAN. mil. 1. 1/6400 of the circumference of a circle. Approximately 1/1000 radian. 2. 1/1000 of an inch. mile. A unit of distance. See INTERNATIONAL NAUTICAL MILE, SEA MILE, STATUTE MILE. military practice area. See EXERCISE AREA.

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Milky Way. A broad, faintly luminous band seen across the sky at night, consisting of innumerable STARS and nebulae, so distant as to be indistinguishable without a TELESCOPE. millibar. A unit of pressure equal to 1/1,000 of a BAR. The millibar is much used in METEOROLOGY. milligal. A unit of ACCELERATION equal to 1/1,000 of a GAL, or 1/1,000 centimetre per SECOND, per SECOND. This unit is used in gravity measurement, being approximately one-millionth of the average GRAVITY at the EARTH's surface. mineral development platform. See PLATFORM: MINERAL DEVELOPMENT. minimum squares. See LEAST SQUARES. minimum thermometer. See THERMOMETER. minor control. See CONTROL: PHOTOGRAMMETRIC. minor control plot. See RADIAL TRIANGULATION. minor planet. An ASTEROID. minus soundings. See SOUNDING. minute. The sixtieth part of an HOUR; sixty SECONDS. The sixtieth part of a DEGREE of arc; sixty SECONDS. mirage. Optical PHENOMENON consisting essentially of steady or wavering, single or multiple, upright or inverted, vertically enlarged or reduced, IMAGES of distant objects. mirage: inferior. Particular case of MIRAGE, occurring over stretches of water, land, SHORES, roads, etc. strongly heated by INSOLATION, and in which the virtual IMAGE is found below the actual object. The case in which objects situated on or slightly above the normal HORIZON become invisible is popularly termed SINKING. mirage: superior. Special case of MIRAGE, observable over snow-fields, cold SEAS, etc., in which the virtual IMAGE is above the actual object. The case in which objects below and beyond the normal HORIZON become visible is popularly termed LOOMING. mire. A piece of wet swampy GROUND. mirror. Any surface which produces IMAGES by REFLECTION of LIGHT RAYS. mist. Suspension in the air of microscopic water droplets or wet hygroscopic particles, reducing the VISIBILITY at the EARTH's surface. mixed current. See CURRENT. mixed layer. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the surface layer of virtually isothermal water, which frequently exists above the THERMOCLINE. The thickness of the layer is dependent on the temperature gradient. mixed seas. The state of the sea resulting from the interaction of wind, waves, and swell. mixed tide. See TIDE. moat (or sea moat). An annular depression that may not be continuous, located at the base of many SEAMOUNTS or ISLANDS. mobile rig. See RIG. mobile station. A radiolocation station intended to be used at unspecified points. As opposed to FIXED STATION. mock moons. Name given sometimes to PARASELENAE, PARANTISELENAE and ANTISELENAE when they are bright. mock suns. Name often given to PARHELIA, PARANTHELIA and ANTHELIA when they are particularly bright.

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mock-up. A model of something to be used for testing or study modulated wave. See WAVE. modulating wave. See WAVE. modulation. VARIATION of some characteristic of a WAVE, called the CARRIER WAVE, in accordance with instantaneous values of another WAVE, called the MODULATING WAVE. Variation of AMPLITUDE is amplitude modulation, variation of FREQUENCY is frequency modulation, and variation of PHASE is phase modulation. See MODULATION: PULSE and MODULATION: SPACE. modulation: amplitude. The process of changing the amplitude of a carrier wave in accordance with the variations of a modulating wave. modulation: frequency. Angle modulation of a sine-wave carrier in which the instantaneous frequency of the modulated wave differs from the carrier frequency by an amount proportional to the instantaneous value of the modulating wave. modulation: pulse. The process of forming very short bursts of a CARRIER WAVE, separated by relatively long periods during which no CARRIER WAVE is transmitted. modulation: sideband. A particular kind of amplitude modulation in which one of the two frequency bands on both sides of the carrier (and possibly the carrier itself) is suppressed, allowing a considerable reduction of the spectral width of the signal. modulation: space. The combining of SIGNALS in space to form a SIGNAL of desired characteristics. moire. Undesirable patterns occurring when REPRODUCTIONS are made from halftone PROOFS or steel ENGRAVINGS, caused by conflict between the RULING of the HALFTONE screen and the dots or lines of the original; a similar pattern occurring in multicolour halftone reproductions and usually due either to incorrect screen angles or misregister of the colour impressions during printing. moir effect. The effect created by transmitting light through two separate, overlapping families of parallel lines. See also INOGEN LIGHT. mole. A massive structure of masonry or large stones serving as a PIER or BREAKWATER, or both. Unit of quantity of matter in the SI system. moment. The tendency or degree of tendency to produce motion about an AXIS. Numerically it is the quantity obtained by multiplying the force, SPEED, or mass, by the distance from the point of application or CENTRE OF GRAVITY to the AXIS. See MAGNETIC MOMENT. moment of inertia. The quantity obtained by multiplying the mass of each small part of a body by the square of its distance from an AXIS, and adding all the results. momentum. Quantity of motion. That property of a particle which is given by the product of its mass with its VELOCITY. monitoring. Checking of the operation and performance of an electronic system through reception of its SIGNALS. monochromatic (adj.). Of, or having one colour. Of, or producing light of one WAVE LENGTH. monsoon. WIND of the general circulation of the ATMOSPHERE, typified by the seasonal persistence of a given wind direction and by a pronounced change in this direction from one season to another. The term is generally confined to those cases in which the primary cause is the differential heating (changing in nature from summer to winter) of a CONTINENT relative to a neighbouring OCEAN. montage. A series of related pieces of copy appearing as one to tell a complete story. month. A measure of TIME based on the motion of the MOON in its ORBIT. month: anomalistic. The interval of time between two successive passages of the MOON in its ORBIT through PERIGEE. The length of the anomalistic month is 27.55455 mean SOLAR DAYS.

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month: dracontic. See MONTH: NODICAL. month: lunar. See MONTH: SYNODICAL. month: nodical. The interval of time between two successive passages of the MOON through the same NODE of its ORBIT. The length of the nodical month averages 27.21222 mean SOLAR DAYS. Also called dracontic month. month: sidereal. The interval of time between two successive passages of the MOON past as FIXED STAR. The length of the sidereal month averages 27.321661 mean SOLAR DAYS. month: synodical. The interval of time between two successive CONJUNCTIONS or OPPOSITIONS of the MOON. The length of the synodical month is 29.5305888 mean SOLAR DAYS. Also called lunation or lunar month. month: tropical. The average period of REVOLUTION of the MOON about the EARTH with respect to the VERNAL EQUINOX. The length of the tropical month averages 27.321582 mean SOLAR DAYS. monument (U.S. terminology). In SURVEYING, a structure used or erected to mark the POSITION of a STATION; permanence is implied. moon. The SATELLITE of the EARTH. See LIBRATIONS OF MOON and PHASES OF THE MOON. moonbow. RAINBOW whose formation is the same as that of the ordinary RAINBOW, but whose light comes from the MOON and not from the SUN. Also called lunar rainbow. moor (v.t.). To secure a boat or other floating thing to a fixed object or the seabottom. mooring. A place where a vessel may be secured. (Usually in pl.) The equipment used to secure a vessel. The process of securing a vessel or oceanographic instruments other than anchoring with a single anchor. mooring buoy. See BUOY. morse code light. See LIGHT. mosaic. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, as assembly of AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS whose edges usually have been torn, or cut, and matched to form a continuous photographic representation of a portion of the EARTH's surface. mosaic: controlled. A MOSAIC oriented and scaled to horizontal GROUND CONTROL; usually assembled from rectified PHOTOGRAPHS. See also ORTHOPHOTOMOSAIC, UNCONTROLLED MOSAIC. most probable value. That value of a quantity which is mathematically determined from a series of observations and is more probably free of the effects of blunders and errors than any other value that might stem from the same series of observations. mother vessel. The lead vessel when surveying with several vessels. mount. A large HILL or MOUNTAIN, usually a detached, characteristically conical mass of earth. The term 'mount' is always used instead of MOUNTAIN when it precedes a proper name. mountain. A natural ELEVATION of the EARTH's surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding LEVEL, and attaining an ALTITUDE which, relatively to adjacent ELEVATIONS, is impressive or notable. mountains. On the sea floor, a well-delineated subdivision of a large and complex positive feature. See CORDILLERA. mountain chain. A complexity of several MOUNTAIN RANGES. mountain range. A line of MOUNTAINS. Also referred to as range of mountains. mouse. In computer systems, a pointing device operated by moving on a flat surface. See also CURSOR, JOYSTICK. mouth. The place of discharge of a STREAM into the OCEAN or ENTRANCE to a BAY from the OCEAN.

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mud. Pelagic or terrigenous detrital material consisting mostly of silt and clay-sized particles (less than 0.06 millimetre) but often containing varying amount of SAND and/or organic materials. It is a general term applied to any sticky finegrained SEDIMENT whose exact size classification has not been determined. mud: red. A reddish-brown terrigenous deep-sea MUD which accumulates on the SEA FLOOR in the neighbourhood of deserts and off the MOUTHS of great RIVERS; contains calcium carbonate up to 25 per cent. mud snapper. See SNAPPER. multi-beam echo sounder. Wide swath echo sounder for use in seabed mapping and surveying using the multi-beam principle. Depths are measured directly below and transverse to the ship's track. The width of the swath is a function of the number of beams and their aperture. multiple echo(es). See ECHO. multiple lens camera. See CAMERA. multiple lens photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH. multiple sea sampler. An instrument which comprises six WATER BOTTLES arranged so that they trip and take WATER SAMPLES at different selected DEPTHS from a vessel under way. multiple tide staff. See TIDE STAFF. multiplex. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, an instrument for making a TOPOGRAPHIC MAP from AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS. A three-dimensional optical model of the TERRAIN to be mapped is produced, in miniature, by direct optical PROJECTION from a pair of overlapping PHOTOGRAPHS. This instrument uses the ANAGLYPH principle. multispectral imagery. Images obtained simultaneously in a number of discrete bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. multispectral scanner. A remote-sensing device which is capable of recording data in the ultraviolet and visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, as well as the infrared.

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3348 3349 3350 3351 nadir. That point on the CELESTIAL SPHERE directly beneath the observer, and directly opposite to the ZENITH. nadir: ground. The point on the GROUND vertically beneath the PERSPECTIVE CENTRE of the camera lens. nadir: map. The map position for the GROUND NADIR. nadir: photograph. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the point at which a vertical line through the PERSPECTIVE CENTRE of the camera lens pierces the plane of the PHOTOGRAPH. Also called nadir point, or plumb point. nadir point. See NADIR: PHOTOGRAPH. nadir radial. See RADIAL. name. The label of a numerical value used particularly to refer to the N (north) or S (south) label of LATITUDE and DECLINATION. When LATITUDE and DECLINATION are both N or both S, they are said to be of the same name, but if one is N and the other S, they are said to be of contrary name. nanosecond. A thousand millionth of a SECOND. Nansen bottle. A device used by oceanographers to obtain subsurface samples of SEA WATER. The bottle is lowered by wire; its valves are open at both ends. It is then closed 'in situ' by allowing a weight (called a MESSENGER) to slide down the wire and strike the reversing mechanism. This causes the bottle to turn upside down, closing the valves and reversing the REVERSING THERMOMETERS which are mounted in a special thermometer case on it. If, as is usually done, a series of bottles is lowered, then the reversal of each bottle releases another MESSENGER to actuate the bottle beneath it. Napier's (or Napier) diagram. A DIAGRAM on which compass deviation is plotted for various HEADINGS, and the points connected by a smooth curve, permitting a ready conversion of deviations from compass to magnetic HEADINGS, or vice versa. narrow-beam echo sounder. A sounder with a transducer of small aperture (typically 2 to 5 ) required for high resolution mapping. narrows. A NAVIGABLE narrow part of a BAY, STRAIT, RIVER, etc. natural frequency. See FREQUENCY. natural scale. See SCALE. natural year. See YEAR: TROPICAL. nature of the bottom. See BOTTOM: NATURE OF. nautical (adj.). Of or pertaining to ships, NAVIGATION (chiefly marine) or seamen. In contrast, navigational refers to NAVIGATION only. nautical almanac. See ALMANAC. nautical astronomy. See ASTRONOMY. nautical chart. See CHART. nautical mile. A unit of length used principally in NAVIGATION. See INTERNATIONAL NAUTICAL MILE. nautical plan. A large scale nautical chart or a large scale inset of a nautical chart. nautical twilight. See TWILIGHT. nautophone. A HORN having a diaphragm oscillated by electricity. NAVAREA. The short title of an area in the WORLD-WIDE NAVIGATIONAL WARNING SERVICE.

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navigability. Of a vessel: capability of being controlled and steered. Of a water area: capability of being navigated. navigable (adj.). Affording passage to a craft; capable of being navigated. navigable area surveys (NAS). Navigable Area Surveys are basic hydrographic surveys with restricted area coverage. The coverage is reduced by omitting requirements for: 1. Development of the 0-foot depth curve and foul, nearshore areas not considered navigable; 2. Complete field edit of the survey area. Navigable Area Surveys may also be restricted to the main navigable channel or corridor. navigable semicircle. See DANGEROUS SEMICIRCLE. navigable waters. Waters usable, with or without improvements, as routes for commerce in the customary means of travel on water. navigation. The process of directing the movement of a craft from one point to another. navigation: acoustic. See NAVIGATION: SONIC. navigation: aerial. See NAVIGATION: AIR. navigation: air. The NAVIGATION of aircraft. Occasionally called aerial navigation or navigation. See NAVIGATION: SURFACE. navigation: astro. See NAVIGATION: CELESTIAL. navigation: celestial. NAVIGATION with the aid of CELESTIAL BODIES. Also called astro-navigation. navigation: coastwise. NAVIGATION in the vicinity of a COAST, in contrast with OFFSHORE NAVIGATION. navigation: Doppler. NAVIGATION using equipment employing Doppler shift measurement techniques with respect to transmitted and reflected SIGNALS to automatically compute DRIFT ANGLE and GROUND SPEED. DRIFT ANGLE and GROUND SPEED are used in DEAD RECKONING performed either manually or, as in many installations, by dead reckoning COMPUTERS. In either case, craft HEADING is a necessary INPUT. navigation: electronic. NAVIGATION by means of electronic equipment. The expression 'electronic navigation' is more inclusive than radio navigation, since it includes navigation involving any electronic device or instrument. navigation: grid. NAVIGATION by the use of GRID DIRECTIONS. navigation: hyperbolic. NAVIGATION by the use of HYPERBOLIC LINES OF POSITION. navigation: inertial. DEAD RECKONING performed automatically by a device which gives a continuous indication of POSITION by double integration of ACCELERATION since leaving a starting point. navigation: land. NAVIGATION of vehicles across LAND or ICE. The expression is generally used in connection with the crossing of a region devoid of roads or LANDMARKS, so that methods similar to those employed in AIR or MARINE NAVIGATION must be employed. navigation: long range. NAVIGATION requiring only aids usable at long RANGE, relatively few of which could provide world coverage. The opposite is SHORT RANGE NAVIGATION. navigation: marine. NAVIGATION of water craft. navigation: offshore. NAVIGATION at distance from a COAST, in contrast with COASTWISE NAVIGATION. navigation: radio. See NAVIGATION: ELECTRONIC. navigation: short range. NAVIGATION employing only aids usable at short RANGES. The opposite is LONG RANGE NAVIGATION. navigation: sonic. NAVIGATION by means of SOUND WAVES whether or not they are within the audible RANGE. Also called acoustic navigation.

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navigation: submarine. NAVIGATION of a submarine, whether submerged or surfaced. navigation: surface. NAVIGATION of a craft on the surface of the EARTH. The expression is used particularly with reference to NAVIGATION of vessels on the surface of water. See NAVIGATION: LAND and NAVIGATION: UNDERWATER. navigation: underwater. The NAVIGATION of a submerged vessel. Occasionally called SUBMARINE NAVIGATION. navigational(adj.). See NAUTICAL. navigational aid (U.S. terminology). An instrument, device, CHART, method, etc., intended to assist in the NAVIGATION of a craft. An AID TO NAVIGATION is a navigational aid but the latter expression should not be confused with the former which refers only to devices external to a craft. navigational astronomy. See ASTRONOMY: NAUTICAL. navigational drafts. See DRAFT. navigational observation. Observations necessary to fix the position of a vessel. navigational parameters. All data characterising the position and motion of a vessel in a system of coordinates. navigational planet(s). See PLANET(S): NAVIGATIONAL. navigational (or navigation) satellite. An artificial earth-orbiting SATELLITE designed for navigational purposes. navigational stars. Selected bright STARS whose POSITIONS are precisely tabulated in NAUTICAL ALMANACS for navigational purposes. navigational triangle. See ASTRONOMICAL TRIANGLE. navigational warning. A broadcast message containing urgent information relevant to safe navigation. navstar global positioning system. A satellite navigation system. NAVTEX. Narrow-band INFORMATION. neaped. See BENEAPED. neap high water. See MEAN HIGH WATER NEAPS. neap low water. See MEAN LOW WATER NEAPS. neap range. The mean semidiurnal RANGE OF TIDE when NEAP TIDES are occurring; the mean difference in HEIGHT between neap high water and neap low water. Sometimes called mean neap range. neap rise. See MEAN NEAP RISE. neap tide(s). See TIDE. nearshore. Close to the SHORE. neat line. Line, usually grid or graticule, bounding the detail of a MAP. Also referred to as inner neat line to differentiate from border drawn outside of neat line. Also written as one word. nebula (pl. nebulae). An aggregation of matter outside the SOLAR SYSTEM, large enough to occupy a perceptible area but which has not been resolved into individual STARS. neck. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the narrow band of water flowing swiftly seaward through the SURF. See CURRENT: RIP. In geography, a narrow piece of LAND with water on each side; an ISTHMUS. needle. Short for MAGNETIC NEEDLE. direct-printing telegraphy system for transmission of MARITIME SAFETY

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negative. A photographic IMAGE on film, PLATE, or paper, in which the subject tones to which the EMULSION is sensitive are reversed or complementary. negative altitude. See ANGLE OF DEPRESSION. negative engraving. A chart reproduction process in which the compilation manuscript, or other data, is photographed onto a plastic or glass negative. The art of creating FACSIMILE images on a reproduction media by utilizing hand engraving techniques. negative gradient. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a LAYER of water where temperature decreases with DEPTH. nekton. Those animals of the PELAGIC DIVISION that are active swimmers, such as most of the adult squids, fishes, and marine mammals. neritic province. See PELAGIC DIVISION. network. In SURVEYING, a pattern or configuration of STATIONS called geodetic network. In geography, a complex system of RIVERS, CANALS, etc. In RADIO, a CHAIN of transmitting RADIO STATIONS owned and operated as a unit. new chart. See CHART. new edition (of chart). In British terminology, a new printing of an existing CHART embodying the latest information received in the Hydrographic Department. The CHART is entirely revised throughout and modernized in style, all copies of the CHART in circulation being cancelled. When a new edition is published the LARGE and SMALL CORRECTIONS dates are removed (these corrections being embodied in the new edition). In U.S. terminology, a new printing of an existing CHART embodying corrections that have become so extensive or of such importance to NAVIGATION as to render all previous printings obsolete. new ice. A general term which includes FRAZIL ICE, SLUSH, SLUDGE, PANCAKE ICE and ICE RIND. new moon. See PHASES OF THE MOON. new print (of chart). In U.S. terminology, a new issue of a CHART embodying only minor corrections. Such corrections are applied to the NEGATIVES and a new printing plate made. New prints do not render previous printings of the current edition obsolete. new print date (of chart). In U.S. terminology, the date when a NEW PRINT of a CHART is issued which embodies changes or corrections of a relatively minor character. The new print date is added to the right of the edition date in the lower left-hand corner of the CHART. new survey. See RESURVEY. newton. The unit of force in the SI SYSTEM. niggerhead. Large blocks of CORAL torn loose from the outer face of a REEF and tossed on to the REEF FLAT by STORM WAVES or TSUNAMIS. The blocks are blackened by a crust of lichens after detachment from the REEF. night effect (or error). See ERROR: POLARIZATION. nimbostratus. See CLOUD GENERA. nipped (adj. and adv.). Said of a ship which is BESET when ICE forcibly presses against it. See BESET, ICEBOUND. nipping. The closing of ICE around a ship so that the ship is BESET and subjected to pressure from the ICE. no-bottom sounding(s). See SOUNDING. no-check position. See STATION: INTERSECTION. noctiluca. A genus of usually pale pink luminescent dinoflagellates large enough to be seen by the unaided eye. This particular organism is responsible for much of the sheet-type LUMINESCENCE noted in coastal waters of various parts of the world OCEAN.

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nocturnal arc. See ARC: ASTRONOMICAL. nodal point. In optics, one of the two points on the OPTICAL AXIS of a LENS (or a system of LENSES) such that a RAY emergent from the second point is parallel to the RAY incident at the first. The first nodal point is referred to as the front nodal point or incident nodal point, and the second nodal point as the rear nodal point or emergent nodal point. An AMPHIDROMIC POINT. In ASTRONOMY, a NODE. nodal point: emergent. See NODAL POINT. nodal point: front. See NODAL POINT. nodal point: incident. See NODAL POINT. nodal point: rear. See NODAL POINT. node. A point that is the start or end point of a line segment. In ASTRONOMY, one of the two points of intersection of the ORBIT of a PLANET, PLANETOID, or COMET with the ECLIPTIC, or of the ORBIT of a SATELLITE with the plane of the orbit of its primary. That point at which the body crosses to the north side of the reference plane is called the ascending node; the other, the descending node. The line connecting the nodes is called LINE OF NODES. Also called NODAL POINT. See REGRESSION OF THE NODES. In OCEANOGRAPHY, that part of a STANDING WAVE where the vertical motion is least and the horizontal VELOCITIES are greatest. See PARTIAL NODE. In optics, a NODAL POINT. nodical month. See MONTH. nodules. In OCEANOGRAPHY, concretionary lumps of manganese, cobalt, iron, and nickel found widely scattered on the ocean floor. ROCKS of various sizes and shapes often are encrusted with these metals. noise. Any undesired SOUND. By extension, noise is any unwanted disturbance within a useful FREQUENCY BAND, such as undesired electric WAVES in a transmission channel or device. nominal range. See RANGE. nomogram (or nomograph). A DIAGRAM showing, to SCALE, the relationship between several variables in such manner that the value of one which corresponds to known values of the others can be determined graphically. See CONVERSION SCALE, CONVERSION TABLE. nonharmonic constants. Tidal or tidal current constants such as LUNITIDAL INTERVALS, ranges, and inequalities, which can be derived directly from OBSERVATION without regard to the HARMONIC CONSTITUENTS. nonharmonic method. In TIDE PREDICTION, an approximate method based on the principle that 'the TIDE follows the MOON'. It makes use of the close relationship that exists between the TIME of TIDE at most places and the MOON's MERIDIAN TRANSIT. nontidal current. See CURRENT. noon. The instant at which a time reference is over the UPPER BRANCH of the reference MERIDIAN. noon: apparent. Twelve o'clock APPARENT TIME. noon: local apparent. Twelve o'clock LOCAL APPARENT TIME. Sometimes called high noon. noon: mean. Twelve o'clock MEAN TIME. normal. In general, a straight line perpendicular to a surface or to another line. In GEODESY, a straight line perpendicular to the surface of the SPHEROID. normal equation. See EQUATION.

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normal water. A standard SEA WATER preparation, the CHLORINITY of which lies between 19.30 and 19.50 per mille (0/00) and has been determined to within 0.001 per mille. Normal water is used as a convenient comparison standard for chlorinity measurements of sea water samples by TITRATION. It is prepared by the Hydrographical Laboratories, Copenhagen, Denmark. Also called standard sea water. north: compass. The direction north as indicated by a MAGNETIC COMPASS. north: grid. An arbitrary REFERENCE DIRECTION used with GRID NAVIGATION. The northerly or zero direction indicated by the grid datum of directional reference. north: magnetic. The direction indicated by the north seeking POLE of a freely suspended MAGNETIC NEEDLE influenced only by the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD. north: true. The DIRECTION of the north GEOGRAPHIC POLE. north celestial pole. See POLE: CELESTIAL. north geographical pole. See POLE: GEOGRAPHICAL. northing. The distance a craft makes good to the north. The opposite is SOUTHING. In a cartesian reference system the value of one coordinate, usually expressed in metres, measured from the origin in north-south direction; used e.g. in the UTM system. north magnetic pole. See MAGNETIC POLE. notch (or gap). A narrow passage between two ELEVATIONS, as MOUNTAINS; a deep close PASS; a DEFILE. Notice to Mariners. A periodical or casual notice issued by hydrographic offices, or other competent authorities, regarding changes in AIDS TO NAVIGATION, dangers to NAVIGATION, important new SOUNDINGS, and, in general, all such information as affects NAUTICAL CHARTS, SAILING DIRECTIONS, LIGHT LISTS and other nautical publications. nuclear precession magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. numerical scale. See SCALE: NATURAL. nunatak. An isolated hill or mountain peak of rock projecting above an INLAND ICE SHEET. nun buoy. A BUOY the above water part of which is in the shape of a cone or a truncated cone. nutation. Irregularities in the precessional motion of the EQUINOXES because of varying positions of the MOON, and, to a lesser extent, of other CELESTIAL BODIES, with respect to the ECLIPTIC. Because of nutation the EARTH's AXIS nods like a top, describing an irregular circle about the mean pole in a period of about 19 years. Nyquist frequency. The highest frequency that may be uniquely resolved in a time series from a given sampling interval. The Nyquist frequency is equal to twice the sampling interval. Analyzing frequencies for which the Nyquist criterion is not met leads to ALIASING.

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3485 3486 3487 object-glass. See OBJECTIVE LENS. objective. See OBJECTIVE LENS. objective lens. In TELESCOPES and microscopes,the optical component which receives light from the object and forms the first or primary IMAGE. In a CAMERA, the IMAGE formed by the objective lens is the final IMAGE. In a TELESCOPE or microscope used visually, the IMAGE formed by the objective lens is magnified by the EYEPIECE. Also called objective or object-glass. oblate spheroid. See SPHEROID. oblique photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH. oblique plotting instrument. An instrument (usually monocular) for plotting from OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPHS. obliquity of the ecliptic. The acute angle between the plane of the ECLIPTIC and the plane of the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, about 2327'. obscured(adj.). Said of the arc of a LIGHT SECTOR designated by its limiting BEARINGS in which the LIGHT is not visible from seaward. observation. The act or practice of noting and recording facts and events as for some scientific study. The measure of a quantity whose value is desired. The DATA so noted and recorded. A single measure, at a single setting of an apparatus. observation(s): astronomical. OBSERVATIONS of CELESTIAL BODIES, with appropriate instruments. In NAVIGATION, the measurement of ALTITUDE and AZIMUTH of CELESTIAL BODIES. observation(s): magnetic. Measurement of any of the MAGNETIC ELEMENTS. observation(s): meteorological. Evaluation or measurement of one or more meteorological elements. observation(s): tidal. A series of measurements taken in order to provide the information required for the REDUCTION OF SOUNDINGS, and the DATA for TIDAL PREDICTION and investigation. observation equation. See EQUATION. observation spot (or pillar). A position ashore determined from celestial observations. observation tower. A tower from which one's surroundings can be observed, but at which a watch is not habitually maintained, as at a LOOKOUT TOWER. Such towers are temporarily erected for observations in geodetic networks. observed altitude. See ALTITUDE. observed tide. Those data from tide observing equipment such as tide gauges, staffs, etc. "Actual tides" is an expression often used in referring to "observed tides". obstruction. In MARINE NAVIGATION, anything that hinders or prevents movement, particularly anything that endangers or prevents passage of a vessel. The term is usually used to refer to an isolated danger to NAVIGATION, such as a SUNKEN ROCK or PINNACLE. obstruction buoy. A BUOY marking an OBSTRUCTION. obstruction light. See LIGHT. occasional light. See LIGHT. occluded front. See OCCLUSION.

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occlusion. Process of progressive decrease of area of warm sector at the EARTH's surface, and its ultimate disappearance, by the junction of the cold AIR MASSES which initially precede the WARM FRONT and follow the COLD FRONT. FRONT between these two cold AIR MASSES, after their junction (also termed occluded front). occultation. The concealment or extinguishment of the light of an AID TO NAVIGATION during the dark periods of its CYCLE. In ASTRONOMY, the concealment of a CELESTIAL BODY by another which crosses the line of view. Thus, the MOON occults a STAR when it passes between the observer and the STAR. occupy (v.t.). In SURVEYING, to observe with a surveying instrument at a STATION; also to set a surveying instrument over a point for the purpose of making OBSERVATIONS. In OCEANOGRAPHY, to stop a ship at a selected location, an OCEANOGRAPHIC STATION, for the purpose of gathering oceanographic observations. ocean. The vast body of water on the surface of the GLOBE, which surrounds the LAND; the main or great SEA. One of the main areas into which this body of water is divided geographically. ocean acoustic tomography. A method to determine the ocean structure based on precise measurements of transit time of acoustic waves between a net of transmitters and receivers. ocean current. See CURRENT. ocean eddy. A moving or stationary local rotating formation where water predominantly moves along circular paths. ocean remote sensing. A kind of remote sensing especially for conducting investigations and surveys of the ocean and the sea. oceanic circulation. A unique interrelated system of major ocean currents within a large area; usually a closed circular pattern such as in the North Atlantic, Mediterranean, etc. oceanic plateau. A comparatively flat topped elevation of the sea-bed which rises steeply from the ocean floor on all sides, and is of considerable extent across the summit. oceanic province. See PELAGIC DIVISION. oceanic ridge. A long elevation of the ocean floor with either irregular or smooth topography and steep sides, often separating ocean basins. oceanographic cast. See CAST. oceanographic features. Physical qualities characterising the state of environment in water bodies of the World's Oceans. These features include temperature and salinity, electric conductivity, density, hydrostatic pressure, transparency, the range and character of tidal and other water level oscillations, the speed and direction of currents, the characteristics of waves and ice, etc. oceanographic slide rule. A specially designed SLIDE RULE used for calculating the CORRECTION of thermal expansion of a deep sea REVERSING THERMOMETER. oceanographic section. A successive series of oceanographic stations carried out in a specified direction. oceanographic station. See STATION. oceanographic survey. See SURVEY. oceanography. The study of the SEA, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the SEA's physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of SEA WATER, MARINE BIOLOGY, and SUBMARINE GEOLOGY. In strict usage oceanography is the description of the marine environment, whereas oceanology is the study of the OCEANS and related sciences. oceanology. See OCEANOGRAPHY.

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ocean station. As defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization, a specifically located area of ocean surface, roughly square and 200 NAUTICAL MILES on a side. An ocean station vessel on patrol is said to be 'on station' when it is within the perimeter of the area. ocean station vessel (OSV). Ship assigned to operate at the location of an OCEAN WEATHER STATION. Also called weather ship. ocean water. Water having the physical-chemical characteristics of the OPEN SEA, where continental influences are at a minimum. ocean weather station. STATION aboard a suitably equipped and staffed ship which tries to maintain a fixed maritime location and which observes and reports for international exchange the OBSERVATIONS of specified elements. octant. A double-reflecting instrument for measuring angles. It is similar to a SEXTANT but has an arc of only 45 . ocular micrometer. See MICROMETER. odograph. A mechanical instrument containing a distance-measuring element which is moved or turned by an amount proportional to the actual distance travelled; a compass element which provides a fixed-reference direction, and an integrator which provides for the resolution of the direction of motion into components and for the summation or integration of the distance components. Also an instrument for recording the distance travelled by a vehicle or pedestrian. odometer (or hodometer). An instrument for measuring the distance travelled by a craft. See also SPEEDOMETER. oersted. The CGS unit of MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY in the SI system. offing. That part of the visible SEA a considerable distance from the SHORE, or that part just beyond the limits of the area in which a pilot is needed. offset. In SURVEYING, a short line perpendicular to a surveyed line, measured to a line or point for which DATA are desired, thus locating the second line or point with reference to the first or surveyed line. An offset is also a jog in a SURVEY or other line, the line having approximately the same direction both before and after passing the jog. Offsets are measured from a surveyed line or lines to the edges of an irregular-shaped body of water, or to any irregular line which it is desired to locate. offset lithography. A method of printing in which an image is transferred from a printing PLATE on to a rubbersurfaced blanket and thence on the paper. The image on the plate is a RIGHT READING IMAGE. offshore(adj. and adv.). Away from the SHORE. offshore(n.). The comparatively flat zone of variable width which extends from the outer margin of the rather steeply sloping shoreface to the edge of the CONTINENTAL SHELF. offshore navigation. See NAVIGATION. offshore wind. WIND blowing from the LAND toward the SEA. See LAND BREEZE. off soundings. Said of a vessel navigating beyond the 100-FATHOM LINE. In earlier times, said of a vessel in water deeper than could be sounded with the HAND LEAD. ohm. The unit of electrical resistance in the SI system. oil field. An area in which oil occurs in quantities worthy of exploitation. old ice. Any SEA ICE more than 1 year old. omnibearing. The MAGNETIC BEARING of an OMNIRANGE. omnidirectional antenna. See ANTENNA. omnidirectional beacon. See OMNIRANGE.

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omnidirectional range. See OMNIRANGE. omnirange. A radio AID TO NAVIGATION providing direct indication of the MAGNETIC BEARING (OMNIBEARING) of that STATION from any direction. Also called omnidirectional range or omnidirectional beacon. one-way traffic lane. See TRAFFIC LANE. onshore wind. WIND blowing from SEA toward the LAND. See SEA BREEZE. on soundings. Said of a vessel navigating within the 100-FATHOM LINE. In earlier times, said of a vessel in water sufficiently shallow for sounding by HAND LEAD. on the beam. Bearing approximately 090relative (on the starboard beam) or 270relative (on the port beam). The expression is often used loosely for broad on the beam, or bearing exactly 090or 270relative. Also called abeam. See also BROAD ON THE BEAM. on the bow. Bearing approximately 045 relative (on the starboard bow) or 315 relative (on the port bow). The expression is often used loosely for broad on the bow, or bearing exactly 045or 315relative. See also BROAD ON THE BOW. on the quarter. Bearing approximately 135relative (on the starboard quarter) or 225relative (on the port quarter). The expression is often used loosely for broad on the quarter, or bearing exactly 135or 225relative. See also BROAD ON THE QUARTER. ooze. A soft MUD or SLIME. A fine-grained pelagic SEDIMENT containing undissolved SAND- or silt-sized, calcareous or siliceous skeletal remains of small marine organisms in proportion of 30 percent or more, the remainder being amorphous clay-sized material. opacity (optical). The ratio of the incident to the transmitted (or reflected) light. It varies with the use of scattered or specular light. opalescence. Whitish colour of the ATMOSPHERE and a slight change of the apparent colour of objects with respect to normal (for example, bluish colour of an object normally black or dark) produced by the SCATTERING of light by small particles held in suspension in the ATMOSPHERE. open coast. A COAST that is not sheltered from the SEA. open end traverse. See TRAVERSE: OPEN. opening. A break in a COASTLINE or a PASSAGE through a REEF, between SHOALS, etc. Any break in SEA ICE which reveals the water. open pack ice. FLOES seldom in contact with many LEADS and POOLS. ICE CONCENTRATION 4/10th to 9/10th. open port. A PORT which is not ICEBOUND during winter. open roadstead. A ROADSTEAD with relatively little protection from the SEA. open sea. That part of the OCEAN not enclosed by HEADLANDS, within narrow STRAITS, etc. See HIGH SEA. open sound. A BAY similar to a LAGOON but with large OPENINGS between the protecting ISLANDS. open traverse. See TRAVERSE. open water. A relatively large area of free navigable water in an ice-encumbered SEA. In U.S. terminology, an area of SEA with less than one-tenth ICE CONCENTRATION. operating system. System which controls and monitors the execution of programs in the COMPUTER. operative sheet. See FIELD BOARD.

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opisometer. A recording device designed to measure by revolutions of a small wheel, continuous linear distances on a MAP. Used in measuring the length of SHORELINE by closely following all the INDENTATIONS and sinuosities of the SHORE. opposite coasts. The geographical relationship of the coasts of two States facing each other. opposition. The situation of two periodic quantities differing by half a CYCLE. In ASTRONOMY, the situation of two CELESTIAL BODIES having either CELESTIAL LONGITUDES or sidereal HOUR ANGLES differing by 180 . The term is usually used only in relation to the position of a SUPERIOR PLANET or the MOON with reference to the SUN. optical axis. See AXIS OF LENS. optical centre. The point of intersection of lines which represent within the LENS those RAYS whose emergent directions are parallel to their respective incident directions. This point lies on the optical axis. optical flat. A surface, usually of glass, ground and polished plane within a fraction of a WAVE LENGTH of light. An optical element or glass blank with an optical flat is used to test the flatness of other surfaces. optical parallax. See PARALLAX: INSTRUMENTAL. optical path. The path followed by a RAY of light through an OPTICAL SYSTEM. optical pumping magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. optical square. A small hand instrument used to set off a right angle. optical system. A series of LENSES, APERTURES, prisms, MIRRORS, etc., so arranged as to perform a definite optical function. orange peel sampler. A bottom sediment sampling device capable of obtaining as much as 1/2 cubic foot of sample from the ocean floor. Named for its likeness to an orange that has its peel quartered. orbit. The path of a body or particle under the influence of a gravitational or other force. For instance, the orbit of a CELESTIAL BODY is its path relative to another body around which it revolves. In water waves, the path of a water particle affected by the wave motion. ordinate. See COORDINATES: PLANE RECTANGULAR. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Member States promote economic growth, employment, and improved standards of living for a sound and harmonious development of world economy. orientation. The act of establishing the correct relationship in direction with reference to the POINTS of the COMPASS. The state of being in correct relationship in direction with reference to the POINTS of the COMPASS. A MAP is in orientation when the map SYMBOLS are parallel with their corresponding ground features. A PHOTOGRAPH is in orientation when it correctly presents the perspective view of the ground or when IMAGES on the PHOTOGRAPH appear in the same direction from the point of observation as do the corresponding map symbols. See ORIENTATION OF PLANE TABLE, ORIENTATION OF SURVEYING INSTRUMENT, ORIENTATION: PHOTOGRAMMETRIC. orientation: absolute. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the scaling, levelling, and ORIENTATION to GROUND CONTROL (in a photogrammetric instrument) of a relatively oriented stereoscopic model or group of models. orientation: basal. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the establishment of the POSITION of both ends of an AIR BASE with respect to a ground system of COORDINATES. In all, six elements are required. These are essentially the threedimensional COORDINATES of each end of the BASE. orientation: exterior. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the determining (analytically or in a photogrammetric instrument) of the POSITION of the CAMERA STATION and the attitude of the taking CAMERA at the instant of EXPOSURE. In stereoscopic instrument practice, exterior orientation is divided into two parts, RELATIVE and ABSOLUTE ORIENTATION. Also called outer orientation. orientation: inner. See ORIENTATION: INTERIOR.

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orientation: interior. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the determining (analytically or in a photogrammetric instrument) of the interior perspective of the PHOTOGRAPH as it was at the instant of EXPOSURE. Elements of interior orientation are the CALIBRATED FOCAL LENGTH, location of the calibrated PRINCIPAL POINT, and the calibrated LENS DISTORTION. Also called inner orientation. orientation: outer. See ORIENTATION: EXTERIOR. orientation: photogrammetric. The recreation of natural terrain features at a miniature SCALE by the optical projection of overlapping PHOTOGRAPHS. The model is formed when all corresponding LIGHT RAYS from the two PROJECTORS intersect in space. See also ORIENTATION: ABSOLUTE, ORIENTATION: BASAL, ORIENTATION: EXTERIOR, ORIENTATION: INTERIOR. orientation: relative. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the determining (analytically or in a photogrammetric instrument) of the POSITION and attitude of one of a pair of overlapping PHOTOGRAPHS with respect to the other PHOTOGRAPH. orientation of plane table. Placing the PLANE TABLE in such a position that every line drawn on the SURVEY SHEET from the point which represents the POSITION of the table on the ground to any other point on the sheet, is parallel to the corresponding line in nature. orientation of surveying instrument. Placing the instrument in such position that the HORIZONTAL CIRCLE reads 0when the LINE OF COLLIMATION is parallel to the direction it had at an earlier (initial) position of the instrument, or to a standard line of reference. If the line of reference is a MERIDIAN, the CIRCLE will show AZIMUTHS referred to that MERIDIAN. origin. In SURVEYING, the reference position from which angles or distances are reckoned. See also COORDINATES: ORIGIN OF. origin: false. See COORDINATES: FALSE. original. See REPRODUCTION. original chart. See CHART. origin of coordinates. See COORDINATES: ORIGIN OF. orography. The branch of physical geography which deals with the formation and features of MOUNTAINS; the description of MOUNTAINS. oropesa sweep. Towed wire used for sweeping sea bottom when surveying SHOALS or WRECKS. It consists of a wire running from the stern of the vessel and held out on the water by an OTTER which also pulls down against a towed FLOAT. The amount of wire between FLOAT and OTTER determines the DEPTH of the outer end of the sweep. The inner end of the sweep is held to the required DEPTH and in line with the stern of the vessel by a KITE. orthochromatic(adj.). Said of photographic surfaces sensitive to ultra-violet, blue, yellow, green and orange RAYS. Insensitive to red RAYS. orthodrome. Any line on a CHART representing a GREAT CIRCLE TRACK between two points. orthogonal(adj.). At right angles; rectangularly meeting, crossing, or lying at right angles. orthographic projection. See PROJECTION. orthometric correction. The CORRECTION to ELEVATIONS which takes into account the spheroidal shape of the EARTH and brings the ELEVATIONS to their true HEIGHT above MEAN SEA LEVEL. orthomorphic(adj.). Preserving the correct shape; of a PROJECTION which gives no local DISTORTION. See PROJECTION: CONFORMAL. orthomorphic projection. See PROJECTION: CONFORMAL. orthophotograph. A photographic copy, prepared from a perspective PHOTOGRAPH, in which the DISPLACEMENTS of IMAGES due to TILT and RELIEF have been removed.

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orthophotomap. A PHOTOMAP made from an assembly of ORTHOPHOTOGRAPHS. It may incorporate special cartographic treatment, photographic edge enhancement, colour separation, or a combination of these. orthophotomosaic. An assembly of ORTHOPHOTOGRAPHS forming a uniform-scale mosaic. orthophotoscope. A photomechanical device, used in conjunction with a double-projection anaglyphic instrument, for producing ORTHOPHOTOGRAPHS. oscillation. The variation, usually with time, of the magnitude of a quantity with respect to a specified reference when the magnitude is alternately greater and smaller than the reference. Half an oscillatory CYCLE, consisting of a fluctuation or VIBRATION in one direction; half a VIBRATION. oscillator. A device for producing OSCILLATIONS, especially one of the non-rotating type, as the sound generator of a sonic DEPTH FINDER or a radio frequency generator. A submarine oscillator is a large, electrically-operated diaphragm horn which produces a SOUND for transmission through water. oscillatory wave. See WAVE. oscillograph. A device for recording or indicating OSCILLATIONS or changes in an electric current. oscilloscope. A type of OSCILLOGRAPH that visually records an electrical WAVE on a fluorescent SCREEN, as of a CATHODE-RAY TUBE. otter. Plane surface towed forward of its middle length so that it will incline and dive. Used in fishing, minesweeping or SURVEYING. See KITE, KITE OTTER, and OROPESA SWEEP. outcrop. Naturally protruding, or erosionally exposed or uncovered part of a ROCK, most of which is covered by overlying material. outer harbour. See HARBOUR. outer limit. The extent to which a coastal State claims or may claim a specific jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of International Law. outfall diffuser. A structure on an outfall through which liquids are discharged. The structure will usually project above the level of the outfall and can be an obstruction to navigation. outflow. The FLOW of water from the RIVER or its ESTUARY to the SEA. Total volume for any given period of time. outgoing stream. See EBB STREAM. output. The amount of power or energy produced by a machine. overfalls. Short, breaking WAVES occurring when a strong CURRENT passes over a SHOAL or other submarine OBSTRUCTION or meets a contrary CURRENT or WIND. See RIPS. overlap. In CARTOGRAPHY and SURVEYING, the amount by which one CHART or SURVEY SHEET extends also over an adjoining CHART or sheet. The amount by which different sets of survey data, obtained with the same system, cover the same area; customarily expressed as a percentage. overlapping pair. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, two PHOTOGRAPHS taken at different exposure stations in such a manner that a portion of one PHOTOGRAPH shows the same terrain as shown on a portion of the other PHOTOGRAPH. This term covers the general case and does not imply that the PHOTOGRAPHS were taken for stereoscopic examination. See also STEREOSCOPIC PAIR. overlay. In mapping, a record on a transparent medium to be superimposed on another record. overlay tracing. A plotting on TRACING CLOTH at the SCALE of the smooth sheet used in conjunction with the smooth sheet. See FAIR CHART.

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overprint. In CARTOGRAPHY, an additional PLATE, generally in a distinctive colour, printed down on a MAP or CHART which is already complete in itself. Overprints may be used to reproduce specialized information (e.g., to add aeronautical information to a TOPOGRAPHIC MAP) or to incorporate revision data without the amendment of existing PLATES. overtide. A shallow water harmonic tide constituent with a SPEED that is a multiple of the SPEED of one of the basic constituents of the TIDE-PRODUCING FORCE. See HARMONIC CONSTITUENT, and SHALLOW WATER CONSTITUENT. ozalid print. See PRINT: OZALID.

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3639 pack ice. Term used in a wide sense to include any area of SEA ICE, other than FAST ICE, no matter what form it takes or how it is disposed. Pack ice may be described as VERY OPEN PACK ICE (1/10ths-3/10ths), OPEN PACK ICE (4/10ths-6/10ths), CLOSE PACK ICE (7/10ths-9/10ths), VERY CLOSE PACK ICE (almost 10/10th with little if any water visible). pair of compasses. See COMPASS. paleomagnetism. Remanent MAGNETISM produced by the EARTH's field when a material was initially formed. Pan American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH). Develops, coordinates, and disseminates geographical, cartographic, historical, geophysical and related scientific studies. pancake ice. Pieces of NEW ICE, usually approximately circular, about 30 cm to 3 m across, and with raised rims, due to the pieces striking against each other as the result of WIND and SWELL. panchromatic (adj.). Sensitive to light of all colours, as a film or plate emulsion. panel. In cartography the completed assembly of pieces of film positives onto a grid or projection which is used as a base for compilation. In photogrammetry an element of a target used for control station identification on aerial photography. pantograph. An instrument for copying a CHART, drawing, etc., to any desired SCALE within the limits of the instrument. paper. For printing hydrographic charts, heavyweight, single layer paper is used. Such paper is generally made wholly or partly from rags and simulates hand-made paper. It is strong, moisture resistant and manufactured to withstand surface erasure. parabola. An open curve all points of which are equidistant from a fixed point, called the focus, and a straight line. parachute drogue. See DROGUE. parallactic angle. That angle of the ASTRONOMICAL TRIANGLE at the CELESTIAL BODY; the angle between a body's HOUR CIRCLE and its VERTICAL CIRCLE. Also called position angle. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the angle subtended by the eye of the observer at the object viewed. Also called angle of convergence or angular parallax. parallactic error. See ERROR. parallactic grid. See GRID. parallax. An apparent displacement of the position of a body with respect to a reference point or system, caused by a shift in the point of observation. parallax: absolute stereoscopic. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, considering a pair of AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS of equal PRINCIPAL DISTANCE, the algebraic difference of the distances of the two IMAGES from their respective PHOTOGRAPH NADIRS, measured in a horizontal plane and parallel to the AIR BASE. Also called horizontal parallax, linear parallax, or x-parallax. parallax: angular. See PARALLACTIC ANGLE. parallax: annual. The angle subtended at a CELESTIAL BODY by the radius of EARTH's ORBIT. Also called heliocentric parallax, or stellar parallax. parallax: diurnal. The difference in the apparent direction or position of a CELESTIAL BODY as observed from the centre of the EARTH and a point on its surface. This varies with the body's ALTITUDE and distance from the EARTH. Also called geocentric parallax. parallax: equatorial horizontal. HORIZONTAL PARALLAX as observed at the EQUATOR, as it attains its maximum value.

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parallax: geocentric. See PARALLAX: DIURNAL. parallax: heliocentric. See PARALLAX: ANNUAL. parallax: horizontal. In ASTRONOMY, the GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX of a body on the observer's HORIZON. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, PARALLAX: ABSOLUTE STEREOSCOPIC. parallax: instrumental (or instrument). That change which may result from the position in which an observer stands with respect to the FIDUCIAL MARKS on an instrument (personal parallax); or by the imperfect ADJUSTMENT of the optics of the instrument (optical parallax). parallax: linear. See PARALLAX: ABSOLUTE STEREOSCOPIC. parallax: optical. See PARALLAX: INSTRUMENTAL. parallax: personal. See PARALLAX: INSTRUMENTAL. parallax: solar. The EQUATORIAL HORIZONTAL PARALLAX of the SUN. parallax: vertical. See PARALLAX: Y-. parallax: X-. See PARALLAX: ABSOLUTE STEREOSCOPIC. parallax: Y-. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the difference between the perpendicular distances of the two IMAGES of a point on a pair of photographs from the vertical plane containing the AIR BASE. The existence of y-parallax is an indication of TILT in either or both PHOTOGRAPHS and/or a difference in flight heights, and interferes with stereoscopic examination of the pair. Also called vertical parallax or want of correspondence. parallax bar. See STEREOMETER. parallax correction. A CORRECTION due to PARALLAX, particularly that SEXTANT ALTITUDE correction due to the difference between the apparent direction from a point on the surface of the EARTH to a CELESTIAL BODY and the apparent direction from the centre of the EARTH to the same body. parallax difference. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the difference in the ABSOLUTE STEREOSCOPIC PARALLAXES of two points imaged on a pair of PHOTOGRAPHS. Customarily used in determination of the difference in ELEVATIONS of objects. parallax in altitude. GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX of a body at any ALTITUDE. The expression is used to distinguish the PARALLAX at the given ALTITUDE from the HORIZONTAL PARALLAX when the body is in the HORIZON. parallax inequality. The variation in the RANGE OF TIDE or in the SPEED of TIDAL CURRENTS due to the continual change in the distance of the MOON from the EARTH. parallel. A circle (or approximation of a circle) on the surface of the EARTH, parallel to the EQUATOR and connecting points of equal LATITUDE. Also called parallel of latitude. parallel: astronomical. A line on the surface of the EARTH which has the same ASTRONOMICAL LATITUDE at every point. Because the DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL is not the same at all points on the EARTH, an astronomical parallel is an irregular line, not lying in a single plane. parallel: celestial. See PARALLEL OF DECLINATION. parallel: geodetic. A line on the SPHEROID which has the same GEODETIC LATITUDE at every point. A geodetic parallel, other than the EQUATOR, is not a GEODETIC LINE. In form, it is a SMALL CIRCLE whose plane is parallel with the plane of the GEODETIC EQUATOR. parallel: geographic(al). A line on the EARTH having the same LATITUDE at every point. The term is applicable alike to an ASTRONOMICAL PARALLEL or to a GEODETIC PARALLEL. parallel: ground. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the intersection of the plane of the PHOTOGRAPH with the plane of reference of the GROUND. See also AXIS OF HOMOLOGY.

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parallel: isometric. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the intersecting line between the plane of a PHOTOGRAPH and a horizontal plane having an equal perpendicular distance from the same PERSPECTIVE CENTRE. parallel: photograph. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the IMAGE on a PHOTOGRAPH of any horizontal line in the object space which is perpendicular to the PRINCIPAL PLANE. All photograph parallels are perpendicular to the PRINCIPAL LINE. The photograph parallel passing through the PRINCIPAL POINT is the principal parallel and that passing through the ISOCENTRE is the ISOMETRIC PARALLEL. parallel: principal. See PARALLEL: PHOTOGRAPH. parallel: standard. A PARALLEL of latitude which is used as a control in the computation of a map PROJECTION. For a tangent cone, this is the PARALLEL of tangency. For a secant cone, the two PARALLELS of intersection are the standards. parallel motion protractor. See PROTRACTOR. parallel of altitude. See ALMUCANTAR. parallel of declination. A circle of the CELESTIAL SPHERE parallel to the CELESTIAL EQUATOR. Also called celestial parallel. parallel of latitude. See PARALLEL. parallel plate. An optical disk with optically flat, parallel surfaces; used especially in optical MICROMETERS. parallel rulers (or rule). An instrument for transferring a line parallel to itself. parallel sailing. See SAILING. parallel sounding. A system of surveying in which the MOTHER VESSEL takes soundings while following a given course; at the same time an array of satellite boats takes soundings along parallel courses at a fixed distance from the MOTHER VESSEL. The satellite boats determine their position relative to the MOTHER VESSEL. The term is also employed when a single vessel takes multiple lines of soundings with transducers arranged at regular intervals on outriggers. parameter. A quantity which remains constant within the limits of a given case or situation. parametric. Characterizing a quantity which is influenced by the behaviour of one or more parameters . parametric latitude. See LATITUDE. paranthelion. PHOTOMETEOR of the HALO family, consisting of white, round, luminous spots, having a diameter slightly greater than that of the SUN, which appears at 120from it in the case of ordinary paranthelia, and at 90in the case of extraordinary paranthelia. The HEIGHT of the spots above the HORIZON is that of the SUN. parantiselena. PHOTOMETEOR of the HALO family, analogous to the PARANTHELION, the luminary being the MOON. paraselene. Optical phenomenon of the HALO family, similar to but less brilliant than the PARHELION, the luminary being the MOON. paraselenic circle. PHOTOMETEOR of the HALO family, analogous to the PARHELIC CIRCLE, the luminary being the MOON. parhelia associated with the 22halo. PHOTOMETEOR of the HALO family, consisting of two luminous iridescent spots which appear on the PARHELIC CIRCLE close to the SMALL HALO. parhelia associated with the 46halo. PHOTOMETEOR of the HALO family consisting of two luminous, iridescent spots which appear on the PARHELIC CIRCLE close to the LARGE HALO. parhelic circle. PHOTOMETEOR of the HALO family, consisting of a white, horizontal circle, situated at the same angular height as the SUN. partial eclipse. See ECLIPSE.

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partial node. The point, line, or surface, in a STANDING WAVE system where some characteristic of the wave field has a minimum AMPLITUDE differing from zero. partial tide. See TIDE. particle velocity. In ocean wave studies, the instantaneous VELOCITY of a water particle undergoing orbital motion. At the CREST, its direction is the same as the direction of progress of the WAVE, and at the TROUGH it is in the opposite direction. particular scale. See SCALE. pascal. The unit of pressure in the SI SYSTEM. pass. A break in a MOUNTAIN RANGE, permitting easier passage from one side of the range to the other; also called a COL. A navigable CHANNEL leading to a HARBOUR or RIVER. Sometimes called PASSAGE. A narrow connecting CHANNEL between two bodies of water. passage. A narrow navigable CHANNEL, especially one through REEFS or ISLANDS. Sometimes called a PASS, or in New England waters a HOLE. passage: meridian. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT. passive system. A system which records energy emitted or reflected but does not produce or transmit energy of its own. passometer. A pocket-size instrument which registers the number of steps taken by the pedestrian carrying it. See PEDOMETER. pass point. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a point whose horizontal and/or vertical position is determined from PHOTOGRAPHS by photogrammetrical methods and which is intended for use (as in the manner of a SUPPLEMENTAL CONTROL POINT) in the ORIENTATION of other PHOTOGRAPHS. patch. In ice terminology, a collection of PACK ICE, less than 10 km across. patent log. See LOG. path. A line of movement; course taken, as the path of a METEOR. A line connecting a series of points in space and constituting a proposed or travelled route. pattern. See LATTICE. P-code. The Precise (or Protected) GPS code; a very long (about 1014 bit) sequence of pseudo-random binary biphase modulations on the GPS carrier at a chip rate of 10.23 Mhz which does not repeat itself for about 267 days. Each oneweek segment of the P-code is unique to one GPS satellite and is reset each week. See also C/A CODE. peak. A prominent elevation either pointed or of very limited extent across the SUMMIT. Also called pike. pebble. A small STONE worn smooth and rounded by the action of water, SAND, ICE, etc. ranging in diameter between 4 and 64 millimetres. pecked line. In CARTOGRAPHY, a SYMBOL consisting of a line broken at regular intervals. pedometer. A pocket-size instrument which registers in linear units the distance traversed by the pedestrian carrying it. See PASSOMETER. pelagic-abyssal sediments. Deep sea SEDIMENTS that are free of terrestrial material except for a small proportion of very fine CLAY. pelagic division. In the classification of the marine environment and its inhabitants, a primary division of the SEA which includes the whole mass of water. The division is made up of the neritic province which includes that water shallower than 200 METRES, and the oceanic province which includes that water deeper than 200 METRES. The other primary division of the SEA is the BENTHIC DIVISION.

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pelorus. A COMPASS CARD in the form of a metal plate mounted in GIMBALS to maintain a horizontal position and fitted with SIGHT-VANES for observing BEARINGS where direct use of the COMPASS for this purpose is impracticable. Also called dumb compass or bearing plate. See also ALIDADE. pencil. In optics, a set of RAYS coming to or spreading out from a point. See LIGHT PENCIL. pencil beam. A BEAM in which the RADIANT ENERGY is concentrated in an approximately conical or cylindrical portion of space of relatively small diameter. This type beam is used for many revolving navigational LIGHTS. pendulum. A body so suspended from a fixed point as to swing freely to and from under the combined forces of GRAVITY and MOMENTUM. A vertical bar so supported from below by a stiff spring as to vibrate to and for under the combined action of GRAVITY and the restoring force of the spring. pendulum: working. A PENDULUM which is used (swung) in a determination of the INTENSITY OF GRAVITY. pendulum sextant. See SEXTANT. peninsula. A piece of LAND that is almost an ISLAND, being nearly surrounded by water; by extension any piece of LAND projecting into the SEA, so that the greater part of its BOUNDARY is COASTLINE. peninsula: submarine. An elevated portion of the SUBMARINE RELIEF resembling a PENINSULA. The opposite is SAC. perch. A staff placed on top of a BUOY, ROCK, or SHOAL as a MARK for navigators. A ball or cage is sometimes placed at the top of the perch, as an identifying MARK. A unit of length equal to 5.5 YARDS or 16.5 FEET. Also called ROD, POLE. percolation. The process by which water is forced by wave action through the interstices of the bottom sediment and has a tendency to reduce WAVE HEIGHTS. perigean range (of tide). The average of all monthly TIDE RANGES occurring at the TIME of PERIGEE. It is larger than the MEAN RANGE, where the TYPE OF TIDE is either semidiurnal or mixed, and is of no practical significance where the TYPE OF TIDE is diurnal. perigean tides. See TIDE. perigee. That orbital point nearest the EARTH when the EARTH is the centre of attraction, as opposed to APOGEE. perihelion. That orbital point nearest the SUN, when the SUN is the centre of attraction, as opposed to APHELION. period. The interval needed to complete a CYCLE. Any specified duration of time. period (of a navigational light). The TIME taken to exhibit one complete sequence of intervals of light and darkness. periodic current. See CURRENT. periodic error. See ERROR. periodic wave(s). See WAVE. peripheral equipment. In computer systems, any unit of equipment, distinct from the central unit, which may provide the system with outside communication. permafrost. A LAYER of SOIL or BEDROCK at a variable depth beneath the surface of the EARTH in which the temperature has been below freezing continuously from a few to several thousands of years. Permafrost exists where the summer heating fails to descend to the base of the LAYER of frozen ground. permanent current. See CURRENT.

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Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC). Fosters progress of inland and maritime waterways, of ports and of coastal areas by research and information exchange. permanent magnetism. See MAGNETISM. permeability: magnetic. See MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY. personal correction. The CORRECTION due to PERSONAL ERROR. personal equation. The time interval between the sensory perception of a PHENOMENON and the motor reaction thereto. Personal equation may be either positive or negative, as an observer may anticipate the occurrence of an event, or wait until he actually sees it occur before making a record. This is a SYSTEMATIC ERROR, treated as of the constant type. It is a PERSONAL ERROR, for which the term personal equation is reserved. It is of special significance in OBSERVATIONS of TIME, made to determine CHRONOMETER CORRECTION. personal error. See ERROR. personal parallax. See PARALLAX: INSTRUMENTAL. perspective centre. The point of origin or termination of bundles of PERSPECTIVE RAYS. The two such points usually associated with a survey photograph are the interior perspective centre and the exterior perspective centre. In a perfect lens-camera system, PERSPECTIVE RAYS from the interior perspective centre to the photographic IMAGES enclose the same angles as the corresponding RAYS from the exterior perspective centre to the objects photographed. In a LENS having DISTORTION this is true only for a particular zone of the PHOTOGRAPH. In a perfectly adjusted lens-camera system the exterior and interior perspective centres correspond, respectively, to the front and rear NODAL POINTS of the camera lens. perspective grid. See GRID. perspective plane. Any plane containing the PERSPECTIVE CENTRE. The intersection of a perspective plane and the GROUND will always appear as a straight line on an AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH. perspective projection. See PROJECTION. perspective ray. A line joining a PERSPECTIVE CENTRE and a point object. perturbation. Disturbance in the orbital PATH of a CELESTIAL BODY, natural or artificial, due to attraction of another body. See LUNAR INEQUALITY. Ph. A SCALE used for expressing the acidity or ALKALINITY of solutions. phantom bottom. A false BOTTOM indicated by an ECHO SOUNDER, some distance above the actual BOTTOM. Such an indication, quite common in the deeper parts of the OCEAN,is due to large quantities of small organisms. Also called deep scattering layer (DSL) or false bottom. phase. The visible aspect of an object. The amount by which a CYCLE has progressed from a specified origin. In ASTRONOMY, any of the stages of variation in the illumination of the MOON or a PLANET. See PHASE(S) OF THE MOON. In physics, the state of aggregation of a substance, for example, solid (ICE), liquid (water), or gas (vapour). phase angle. The phase difference of two periodically recurring PHENOMENA of the same FREQUENCY, expressed in angular measure. The angle at a CELESTIAL BODY between the SUN and EARTH. phase inequality. Variations in the TIDES or TIDAL CURRENTS associated with changes in the PHASE OF THE MOON. phase lag. Angular retardation of the maximum of a constituent of the observed TIDE behind the corresponding maximum of the same constituent of the hypothetical EQUILIBRIUM TIDE. Also called tidal epoch. phase modulation. See MODULATION. phase of a navigational light. Each element of the sequence of intervals of light and darkness (e.g. a flash, an ECLIPSE).

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phase(s) of the moon. The various appearances of the MOON during different parts of the SYNODICAL MONTH. The CYCLE begins with new moon or change of the MOON at CONJUNCTION. The visible part of the waxing moon increases in size during the first half of the CYCLE until full moon appears at OPPOSITION, after which the visible part of the waning moon decreases for the remainder of the CYCLE. First quarter occurs when the waxing moon is at east QUADRATURE, last quarter when the waning moon is at west QUADRATURE. From last quarter to new and from new to first quarter the MOON is crescent; from first quarter to full and from full to last quarter it is gibbous. phase velocity. VELOCITY, measured over a short time period, at which a particular WAVE CREST is propagated a medium. phenomenon (pl. phenomena). Any fact, circumstance, or experience that is apparent to the senses and that can be scientifically described or appraised; as, an ECLIPSE is a PHENOMENON of ASTRONOMY. phonometer. An instrument for measuring the intensity or FREQUENCY of SOUNDS. phosphorescence. The production of light without sensible heat. Emission of electromagnetic RADIATION by a substance as a result of previous absorption of RADIATION of shorter WAVE LENGTH. In contrast to FLUORESCENCE, the emission may continue for a considerable time after cessation of the existing IRRADIATION. phot. The unit of ILLUMINATION in the CGS system. photic (adj.). Of SEA WATER, that is penetrated or influenced by sunlight. photoalidade. A photogrammetric instrument having a telescopic ALIDADE, a plateholder, and a hinged ruling arm mounted on a tripod frame. It is used for plotting lines of direction and measuring vertical angles to selected features appearing on OBLIQUE and TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHS. photo base. The length of the AIR BASE as represented on a PHOTOGRAPH. photocompose (v.t.). To combine distinct parts of chart original by photographic processes. photocontrol point. See CONTROL POINT. photodelineation. The DELINEATION of features on a PHOTOGRAPH. See also COMPILATION. photoelectric pilot. A device for automatic steering in conjunction with the MAGNETIC COMPASS. Its pinnacle unit, or directive element, consists of a high-grade MAGNETIC COMPASS of special construction, a simple light system, and a photoelectric cell, so arranged that the slightest deviation of the vessel from its COURSE is detected and relayed to the steering engine unit. photoengraving. A process by which PHOTOGRAPHS are reproduced on printing plates especially one in which the REPRODUCTION is in relief: opposed to PHOTOGRAVURE. A PLATE so made. A PRINT from such a PLATE. photogoniometer. An instrument for measuring angles from the true PERSPECTIVE CENTRE to points on a PHOTOGRAPH. photogram. A survey photograph. Either of a pair of stereoscopic PHOTOGRAPHS. photogrammetric camera. See CAMERA. photogrammetric control. See CONTROL. photogrammetric extension. See PHOTOTRIANGULATION. photogrammetric survey. See SURVEY. photogrammetry. The science or art of obtaining reliable measurements from PHOTOGRAPHS. photogrammetry: aerial. PHOTOGRAMMETRY utilizing AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS. photogrammetry: analytical (or analytic). PHOTOGRAMMETRY in which solutions are obtained by mathematical means.

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photogrammetry: terrestrial. PHOTOGRAMMETRY utilizing TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHS. photograph. A general term for a positive or negative picture made with a CAMERA on sensitized material, or PRINTS from such a camera original. photograph: aerial. Any PHOTOGRAPH taken from the air. Sometimes called air photograph. photograph: composite. In AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, a PHOTOGRAPH made by assembling the separate PHOTOGRAPHS, made by the several LENSES of a MULTIPLE LENS CAMERA in simultaneous EXPOSURE, into the equivalent of a PHOTOGRAPH taken with a single wide-angle lens. photograph: ground. See PHOTOGRAPH: TERRESTRIAL. photograph: high oblique. An OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH in which the APPARENT HORIZON is included within the field of view. photograph: horizontal. PHOTOGRAPH taken with the camera axis horizontal. photograph: low oblique. An OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH in which the APPARENT HORIZON is not included within the field of view. photograph: multiple lens. A PHOTOGRAPH made with a MULTIPLE LENS CAMERA. photograph: oblique. A PHOTOGRAPH taken with the camera axis intentionally directed between the HORIZONTAL and the VERTICAL. photograph: terrestrial. A PHOTOGRAPH taken by a CAMERA located on the ground. Sometimes called ground photograph. photograph: vertical. An AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH made with the camera axis vertical (or as nearly vertical as practicable in an aircraft). photograph axes. See FIDUCIAL AXES. photograph centre. The centre of a PHOTOGRAPH as indicated by the IMAGES of the FIDUCIAL MARK or MARKS of the CAMERA. In a perfectly adjusted CAMERA the photograph centre and the PRINCIPAL POINT are identical. photograph coordinates. See COORDINATES. photograph meridian. See MERIDIAN. photograph nadir. See NADIR. photograph parallel. See PARALLEL. photograph perpendicular. The perpendicular from the interior perspective centre to the plane of the photograph. photographic interpretation. The examination of photographic IMAGES for the purpose of identifying objects and deducing their significance. photography. The art or process of producing IMAGES on sensitized material through the action of light. photography: aerial. The art, science, or process of taking AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS. photogravure. A photoengraving process by which PHOTOGRAPHS or textual matters are reproduced on intaglio printing plate or rolls from which they may be transferred to paper. photohead plotter. A device used to plot information by exposure of a photographic film. photoindex. A MOSAIC made by assembling individual PHOTOGRAPHS, with accompanying designations, into their proper relative positions and copying the assembly photographically at a reduced SCALE. photolithograph. A lithograph produced by PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY. See LITHOGRAPHY.

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photolithography. That branch of lithographic printing in which PHOTOGRAPHY is employed for production of the IMAGE on the final printing surface. The original printing surface, lithographic stone, has been almost completely displaced by thin and flexible sheets of metal (zinc, aluminium, stainless steel, bimetallic PLATES, polymetallic PLATES). photomap. A photomosaic of a specified land area, which also contains marginal information, descriptive DATA, and a reference grid and/or projection. See also MOSAIC. photometeor. Optical phenomenon of the ATMOSPHERE. photometer. An instrument used in measuring the intensity of light, especially in determining the relative intensity of different lights. photosphere. The visible surface of the SUN and direct source of almost all its RADIATION. It is a gaseous LAYER some 400 km thick, below which the SUN becomes opaque. photosynthesis. The formation of carbohydrates in living plants from water and carbon dioxide, by the action of sunlight on the CHLOROPHYLL. phototheodolite. A ground-survey instrument combining a THEODOLITE and a SURVEYING CAMERA in which the relationship between the camera axis and the LINE OF COLLIMATION of the THEODOLITE can be measured. phototopography. The science of SURVEYING in which the detail is plotted entirely from PHOTOGRAPHS taken at suitable ground stations. phototriangulation. The process for the extension of HORIZONTAL and/or VERTICAL CONTROL whereby the measurements of angles and/or distances on overlapping PHOTOGRAPHS are related into a spatial solution using the perspective principles of the PHOTOGRAPHS. Generally, this process involves using AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS, and is called aerotriangulation, aerial triangulation, or photogrammetric extension. photozincography. The use of a zinc plate in PHOTOENGRAVING. pictomap. A map supplement on which the photographic imagery of a standard photomosaic has been converted into interpretable colours and symbols by means of tonal masking techniques. picture control point. See CONTROL POINT. picture plane. A plane upon which a system of lines or RAYS from an object to form an IMAGE or picture can be projected. In perspective drawing, the system of RAYS is understood to converge to a single point. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the PHOTOGRAPH is the picture plane. piedmont (adj.). Situated or formed at the base of MOUNTAINS. pie graph. Circular SYMBOL divided into sectors to indicate proportions of a total value. pier. A long, narrow structure extending into the water to afford a berthing place for vessels, to serve as a promenade, etc. See also JETTY. pierhead. The outer end of a PIER. Also called wharfhead. piezoelectric effect. The PHENOMENON, exhibited by certain crystals, in which mechanical compression produces a potential difference between opposite crystal faces, or, an applied electric field produces corresponding changes in dimensions. piezoelectricity. The property exhibited by some asymmetrical crystalline materials which when subjected to strain in suitable directions develop electric POLARIZATION proportional to the strain. Inverse piezoelectricity is the effect in which mechanical strain is produced in certain asymmetrical crystalline materials when subjected to an external electric field; the strain is proportional to the electric field. piggot gun. A coring instrument for obtaining deep-sea BOTTOM SAMPLES. This instrument uses an explosive charge to drive a metal bit into the BOTTOM at the instant the sharp end of the bit strikes the BOTTOM. pigmentation. A colouring of tissue by deposition of PIGMENTS.

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pigments. A colouring matter used as paint or dye or a natural colouring matter of a tissue. pile. A long heavy timber or section of steel, wood, concrete, etc., forced into the earth to serve as a support, as for a PIER, or to resist lateral pressure. piling. A group of piles set in a row. pillar buoy. A BUOY composed of a tall central structure on a broad flat base. pilot. 1. A person who directs the movements of a vessel through pilot waters, usually a person who has demonstrated extensive knowledge of channels, aids to navigation, dangers to navigation, etc., in a particular area and is licensed for that area. 2. A book of sailing directions. pilot chart. See CHART. pilot station. The office or headquarters of pilots; the place where the services of a pilot may be obtained. pilot waters. Areas in which the services of a marine pilot are available. Waters in which NAVIGATION is by piloting. More usually called pilotage waters in British terminology. pilotage waters. See PILOT WATERS. ping. An acoustic pulse signal projected by an underwater TRANSDUCER. pinger. A battery powered acoustic device equipped with a TRANSDUCER that transmits SOUND WAVES. When the pinger is attached to a wire and lowered into the water, the direct and bottom reflected sound can be monitored with a listening device. The difference between the arrival time of the DIRECT and REFLECTED WAVES is used to compute the distance of the pinger from the ocean bottom. pingo. Small conical hills having a large central core of ice formed from the encroachment of permafrost and the resulting hydrostatic pressure. pingo-like features (PLF). Small conical undersea features having the geomorphological appearance of pingos. pinnacle. Any high tower or spire-shaped pillar of rock or coral, alone or cresting a SUMMIT. It may extend above the surface of the water. It may or may not be a hazard to SURFACE NAVIGATION. pinnacled iceberg. An iceberg weathered in such manner as to produce spires or pinnacles. Also called pyramidal iceberg, irregular iceberg. pinpoint (v.t. and i.). To establish (POSITION) with great ACCURACY. pip. See BLIP. pipe. A hollow metal tube, of varying diameters and lengths, imbedded in the bottom in a manner similar to a pile. Pipes are often used as privately maintained aids to navigation and in the determination of beach or bottom sand migration (deposition or erosion). pipeline. A string of interconnected pipes used for the transport of matter, nowadays mainly oil or gas . pitch. The oscillations of a ship about the transverse axis, due to the bow and stern being raised or lowered on passing through successive crests and troughs of waves. Also called pitching. The distance along the axis of a screw or other helix between consecutive threads or ribs. The distance a propeller would advance longitudinally, in one revolution if there were no slip. pitching. See PITCH. pivot. A spindle or pin by which a movable part of an instrument is supported so as to be free to turn. The pivot of a COMPASS is usually a fixed point on which the NEEDLE hangs by a single jewelled cap. pivot point. After a ship has assumed its DRIFT ANGLE in a turn, the point on the centerline between the bow and the CENTRE OF GRAVITY at which the resultant of the velocities of rotation and transaction is directed along the centerline. To an observer on board, the ship appears to rotate about this point.

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pixel. Contraction for "picture element". The smallest element resolvable by electronic raster devices such as SCANNER, DISPLAY, and PLOTTER. See REMOTE SENSING. plain. Any LAND with a flat or very slightly undulating surface. A flat, gently sloping or nearly level region of the SEA FLOOR, for example, ABYSSAL PLAIN. plan. An orthographic drawing on a horizontal plane, as of an instrument, a horizontal section, or a layout. A large scale map or chart of a small area. plane: horizontal. A plane perpendicular to the DIRECTION OF GRAVITY; any plane tangent to the GEOID or parallel to such a plane. In SURVEYING, a plane perpendicular to the PLUMB LINE within which or on which angles and distances are observed. plane: vertical. Any plane passing through a point on the EARTH and containing the ZENITH and NADIR of that point. In SURVEYING, a plane at right angles to a HORIZONTAL PLANE and within which angles and distances are observed. plane coordinates. See COORDINATES: PLANE RECTANGULAR. plane rectangular coordinates. See COORDINATES. plane sailing. See SAILING. plane surveying. See SURVEYING. planet. A CELESTIAL BODY of the SOLAR SYSTEM, shining by reflected light and revolving around the SUN. planet(s): inferior. The PLANETS with ORBITS smaller than that of the EARTH: Mercury and Venus. planet(s): major. The four largest PLANETS (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune). planet(s): minor. See ASTEROID. planet(s): navigational. The four PLANETS commonly used for celestial observations: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. planet(s): superior. The PLANETS with ORBITS larger than that of the EARTH: Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. plane table. A field device for plotting the lines of a SURVEY directly from the OBSERVATIONS. It consists essentially of a drawing board mounted on a TRIPOD, with a ruler on which a TELESCOPE or other sighting device is mounted. See ALIDADE. Also written as one word. plane table traverse. See TRAVERSE. planetary (adj.). Of a PLANET or the PLANETS. Like a PLANET. Terrestrial. planetoid. See ASTEROID. planform. The outline or shape of a body of water as determined by the STILL WATER LEVEL. planimeter. A mechanical integrator for measuring the area of a plane surface. planimetric map. See MAP. planimetry. The measurement of plane surfaces. The plan details of a MAP. planisphere. A MAP or CHART that is the PROJECTION of all or part of a sphere on a plane. A representation, on a plane, of the CELESTIAL SPHERE, especially one on a polar PROJECTION, with means provided for making certain measurements such as ALTITUDE and AZIMUTH. See STAR FINDER. plankton. The passively drifting or weakly swimming organisms in marine and fresh waters.

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plan position indicator (PPI). A cathode-ray SCOPE on which SIGNALS appear in correct relation to each other, so that the scope face presents a maplike representation of the area about the transmitter, the direction of a TARGET being represented by the direction of its ECHO from a centre and range by its distance from that centre. planning chart. A chart designed for use in planning voyages or flight operations or investigating areas of marine or aviation activities. plat (U.S. terminology). A diagram drawn to SCALE showing land boundaries and subdivisions, and identification of the several units shown thereon, and including one or more certificates indicating due approval. A plat differs from a MAP in that it does not necessarily show additional cultural, drainage and relief features. See also MAP: CADASTRAL. plate. A thin, metal, plastic, or paper sheet, that carries the printing image and whose surface is treated to make only the image areas ink-receptive. plateau. A flat or nearly flat area of considerable extent, dropping off abruptly on one or more sides; a TABLELAND. plate level. See LEVEL. platform. In geographical literature, a natural or artificial TERRACE; a flat elevated piece of GROUND; a TABLELAND, a PLATEAU. In oceanographic terminology, any man-made structure (aircraft, ship, BUOY, or tower) from or on which oceanographic instruments are suspended or installed. Structures which are erected on or over the seabed and subsoil for the purpose of exploring for, developing, removing and transporting resources therefrom. platform: mineral development. A PLATFORM used in the exploitation of minerals. platform: offshore. A permanent offshore structure, either fixed or floating, used in the production of oil or natural gas. platform: piled. A platform with a steel jacket fixed by piles to the seabed. platform jacket. The section of a platform from base to deck level, on which deck modules are fitted. plot (v.t.). To draw lines and points to represent certain conditions graphically, as the various lines and points on a CHART or PLOTTING SHEET, representing the progress of a craft, a graphical solution of a problem, etc. plotter. An instrument used for plotting straight lines and measuring angles on a CHART or PLOTTING SHEET. See PROTRACTOR. In data processing it stands for a) Vector plotter : An electromechanical device for automatically drawing curves. The curves are generated by a sequence of linear incremental pieces ("vectors") depending on the resolution provided by the device. For cartographic purposes, high precision FLAT-BED PLOTTERS (drawing tables) are used. b) Raster or electrostatic plotter : A sophisticated electronic device for producing pictures by means of raster techniques. The picture is generated by lines of PIXELS drawn sequentially, typically with a resolution of 200-400 pixels per inch. Raster plotters can produce complete pictures in short time irrespective of the complexity of the picture's contents. plotting. See PLOT. plotting board. A stiff transparent polar coordinate plotting sheet for tracking other vessels and aircraft and solving problems involving RELATIVE MOVEMENT. plotting sheet. A blank CHART, usually on the MERCATOR PROJECTION, showing only the GRATICULE and a COMPASS ROSE, so that the plotting sheet can be used for any LONGITUDE. In hydrographic SURVEYING, a working sheet on which the main STATIONS of the SURVEY are plotted. It forms the framework of the SURVEY and provides the basis for accurately locating and plotting all the detail of the SURVEY. See also LATTICE. plotting sheet: electronic. A CHART showing time difference or phase difference curves of a circular or a hyperbolic navigational system. These LATTICE lines are used to accurately position the DATA collected during HYDROGRAPHIC or OCEANOGRAPHIC SURVEYS.

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plumb bob. A conical device, usually of brass and suspended by a cord, by means of which a point can be projected vertically into space over relative short distances. Also referred to as plummet. plumb line. The LINE OF FORCE in the geopotential field. The continuous curve to which the direction of the normal GRAVITY is everywhere tangential. plumb line: deflection of. See DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL. plumb point. See NADIR: PHOTOGRAPH. plummet. A SOUNDING LEAD. A PLUMB BOB. plunging breaker. See BREAKER. pluviograph. RAIN GAUGE which includes an arrangement for the time recording of the depth of water from PRECIPITATION. pocket compass. See COMPASS. Poincar wave. A long period gravity wave. The superposition of incident and reflected plane waves (Sverdrup Waves) such that the composite wave fronts are perpendicular to the coast with a set of nodal lines normal to the wave fronts. The term is used in tidal analysis to study ocean tides and tides in open seas and gulfs. point. One thirty-second of a circle, or 11 1/4 DEGREES. Also called COMPASS POINT when used in reference to COMPASS directions. The extreme end of a CAPE; or the outer end of any land area protruding into the water, usually less prominent than a CAPE. In digital cartography, the 0-dimensional geometric primitive of an object that specifies location. pointing line. See COLLIMATION: LINE OF. point of Aries. See EQUINOX. point of arrival. See ARRIVAL: POINT OF. point of destination. See DESTINATION: POINT OF. point of origin. See COORDINATES: ORIGIN OF. point of symmetry. The point in the FOCAL PLANE of a CAMERA about which all lens DISTORTIONS are symmetrical. If the LENS were perfectly mounted, the point of symmetry would coincide with the PRINCIPAL POINT. polar aurora. See AURORA. polar axis. See AXIS. polar bearing. See BEARING. polar chart. See CHART. polar circle. Either the ARCTIC CIRCLE (north polar circle) or the ANTARCTIC CIRCLE (south polar circle). polar coordinates. See COORDINATES. polar distance. ANGULAR DISTANCE from a CELESTIAL POLE; the arc of an HOUR CIRCLE between a CELESTIAL POLE, usually the ELEVATED POLE, and a point on the CELESTIAL SPHERE, measured from the CELESTIAL POLE through 180 . When the DECLINATION and LATITUDE are of the same name, CODECLINATION is the same as polar distance measured from the ELEVATED POLE. polar front. Quasi-permanent FRONT of great extent, of middle latitudes, which separates relatively cold polar air and relatively warm tropical air, and on which WAVES are produced. polar ice. SEA ICE that is more than one year old (in contrast to WINTER ICE). The WMO code defines polar ice as any SEA ICE more than one year old and more than 3 metres thick.

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Polaris correction. A CORRECTION to be applied to the OBSERVED ALTITUDE of Polaris to obtain the LATITUDE. polarization. A condition of RADIANT ENERGY in which the VIBRATIONS take place in a regular manner, as in a straight line, circle or ellipse, in a plane perpendicular to the path of travel. polarization error. See ERROR. polar orthographic projection. See PROJECTION. polder. LAND reclaimed from the SEA or other body of water by the construction of an EMBANKMENT to restrain the water. See DIKE. pole. Either of the two points of intersection of the surface of a sphere or SPHEROID and its AXIS. The origin of a system of POLAR COORDINATES. Either of the two MAGNETIC POLES of a MAGNET. A long slender rod, as of timer or metal. Such a rod used for SOUNDING is called SOUNDING POLE. pole: celestial. Either of the two points of intersection of the CELESTIAL SPHERE and the extended AXIS of the EARTH, labelled N or S to indicate either the north celestial pole or the south celestial pole. pole: depressed. The CELESTIAL POLE below the HORIZON, of opposite NAME to the LATITUDE. pole: elevated. The CELESTIAL POLE above the HORIZON, agreeing in NAME with the LATITUDE. pole: geographic(al). Either of the two points of intersection of the surface of the EARTH with its AXIS, labelled N or S to indicate either the north geographical pole or the south geographical pole. pole: magnetic. See MAGNETIC POLE. pole: terrestrial. One of the POLES of the EARTH. See POLE. pollution. The direct or indirect alteration of the physical, chemical, thermal, biological or radioactive properties of any part of the environment in such a way as to create a hazard or potential hazard to the health, safety or welfare of any living species. polyconic projection. See PROJECTION. polygon. A non-selfintersecting, closed chain defining the boundary of an area. polynia. A water area enclosed in ICE, generally fast; this water area remains constant and usually has an oblong shape; sometimes limited to one side by the COAST. Any enclosed sea water area in PACK ICE other than a LEAD, not large enough to be called OPEN WATER. If a polynia is found in the same region every year, for example, off the MOUTHS of big RIVERS, it is called a recurring polynia. A temporary small clearing in PACK ICE which consists of small ICE FLOES and BRASH ICE in continuous local movement is called an unstable polynia; an opening which is flanked by large FLOES and therefore appears to be relatively stable is called a stable polynia. When frozen over, a polynia becomes an ice skylight from the point of view of the submariner. polyvinyl corer. See CORER: HYDROPLASTIC. pond. A small body of still water of artificial formation, its BED being either hollowed out of the SOIL or formed by embanking and damming up a natural HOLLOW. pontoon. Floating structure, usually rectangular in shape which serves as landing, pierhead or bridge support. pool. A small body of still or standing water, permanent or temporary; chiefly one of natural formation. A deep or still place in a RIVER or STREAM. In ice terminology, any enclosed relatively small area in PACK ICE, drift ICE, other than a LEAD. See POLYNIA. porosity. The ratio of the aggregate volume of pore space in a ROCK or SEDIMENT to its total volume, usually expressed as a percentage.

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port. A place provided with terminal and transfer facilities for loading and discharging cargo or passengers, usually located in a HARBOUR. The left side of a craft, facing forward. The opposite is STARBOARD. port authority. The entity responsible for administration and maintenance of harbour facilities. port handbook. A handbook for a specific port. position. DATA which define the location of a point with respect to a reference system. The COORDINATES which define such a location. The place occupied by a point on the surface of the EARTH, or in space. position: adjusted. An adjusted value of the coordinate position of a point on the EARTH. position: apparent. In ASTRONOMY, the POSITION of a CELESTIAL BODY reduced to the centre of the EARTH. It differs from the position in which the object is observed as to the effects of REFRACTION, DIURNAL ABERRATION, and DIURNAL PARALLAX. position: assumed. A point at which a craft is assumed to be located, particularly one used as preliminary to establishing certain navigational DATA, as that point of the surface of the EARTH for which the computed ALTITUDE is determined in the solution of a celestial OBSERVATION. position: astronomical. A point on the EARTH whose COORDINATES have been determined as a result of OBSERVATION of CELESTIAL BODIES. The expression is usually used in connection with POSITIONS on LAND determined with great ACCURACY for SURVEY purposes. A point on the EARTH, defined in terms of ASTRONOMICAL LATITUDE and LONGITUDE. position: dead reckoning. The POSITION of a craft determined by DEAD RECKONING, or by advancing a previous POSITION for COURSES and distances. position: detached. In HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY, an expression indicating a POSITION taken, to locate ROCKS, floating AIDS TO NAVIGATION, least DEPTHS on SHOALS or other dangers or features of importance. position: estimated. The most probable POSITION of a craft determined from incomplete DATA or DATA of questionable ACCURACY. Such a POSITION might be determined by applying a correction to the DEAD RECKONING POSITION. position: field. A POSITION computed while field work is in progress to determine the acceptability of the OBSERVATIONS or to provide a preliminary POSITION for other purposes. position: geodetic. A point on the EARTH, the COORDINATES of which have been determined by TRIANGULATION from an initial STATION whose location has been established as a result of ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. The COORDINATES of such a POSITION depend upon the REFERENCE SPHEROID used. position: geographic(al). The POSITION of a point on the surface of the EARTH expressed in terms of LATITUDE and LONGITUDE, either ASTRONOMICAL or GEODETIC. A SUB-POINT. position: relative. A point defined with reference to another POSITION, either fixed or moving. position angle. See PARALLACTIC ANGLE. position angles. The two sextant angles observed on a SURVEY SHIP for determining its POSITION. position approximate. Of inexact POSITION. The expression is used principally on CHARTS to indicate that the POSITION of a WRECK, SHOAL, etc., has not been accurately determined or does not remain fixed. Usually shown by the abbreviation 'PA'. position circle. See CIRCLE OF POSITION. position dilution of precision (PDOP). See DILUTION OF PRECISION. position doubtful. Of uncertain POSITION. The expression is used principally on CHARTS to indicate that a WRECK, SHOAL, etc., has been reported in various POSITIONS and not definitely determined in any. Usually shown by the abbreviation 'PD'.

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positioning. The process of determination of a position. position line. See LINE OF POSITION. positive. In PHOTOGRAPHY, an IMAGE of the original object which corresponds to the same in the scheme of light and shade. positive altitude. See ANGLE OF ELEVATION. positive gradient. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a positive rate of change with DEPTH. post. A small BEACON, more substantial than a PERCH, used for marking CHANNELS. See also PILE. potable water intake (PWI). A structure designed for the intake of drinking water. The intake is usually elevated above the bottom, supported and protected by a debris-screening structure (CRIB), a separately charted feature. potential density. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the DENSITY that a parcel of water would have if raised adiabatically to the surface, that is, if determined from the parcel's 'in situ' SALINITY and POTENTIAL TEMPERATURE. potential temperature. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the temperature that a WATER SAMPLE would attain if raised adiabatically to the sea surface. For the deepest points of the OCEAN, which are just over 10 000 METRES, the adiabatic cooling would be less than 1.5C. pound. A unit of mass, equal to 0.45359237 KILOGRAMS. power. See MAGNIFYING POWER. precautionary area. A routeing measure comprising an area within defined limits where ships must navigate with particular caution and within which the direction of traffic flow may be recommended. precession. Change in the direction of the AXIS of ROTATION of a spinning body, as a GYROSCOPE, when acted upon by a torque. The direction of motion of the AXIS is such that it causes the direction of spin of the GYROSCOPE to tend to coincide with that of the impressed torque. precession of the equinoxes. The conical motion of the EARTH's AXIS about the vertical to the plane of the ECLIPTIC, caused by the attractive force of the SUN, MOON, and other PLANETS on the equatorial protuberance of the EARTH. precipitation. PHENOMENON made up of an aggregate of aqueous particles, liquid or solid, crystallized or amorphous, which fall from a CLOUD or group of CLOUDS and reach the ground. precipitation intensity. Amount of PRECIPITATION collected in unit time interval. See RAINFALL AMOUNT. precision. The degree of refinement of a value not to be confused with ACCURACY, which is the degree of conformance with the correct value. precision ephemeris. The ephemeris which describe the orbit of a navigational satellite precisely. They are of higher precision than the broadcast ephemeris but not available in real time. predicted tide(s). See TIDE. preferred channel mark. A distinctive lateral mark used to indicate both the point at which a channel divides and the channel that has been designated as preferred channel. preferred datum. A geodetic datum selected as a base for consolidation of local independent datums within a geographical area. Also called major datum. preliminary survey. See SURVEY: RECONNAISSANCE. press proof. A lithographed impression taken from among the first copies run on the press and used for cheking purposes. Also called press pull. pressure: atmospheric. Pressure (force per unit area) exerted by the ATMOSPHERE, on any surface, by virtue of its WEIGHT: it is numerically equal to the WEIGHT of a vertical column of air above the surface of unit base area, extending to the outer limit of the ATMOSPHERE.

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pressure: barometric. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE as indicated by a BAROMETER. pressure: hydrostatic. The pressure at a given DEPTH due to the WEIGHT of the water column above that DEPTH. pressure: sound. The instantaneous pressure at a point in a medium in the presence of a SOUND WAVE, minus the static pressure at that point. pressure-altitude. An ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE expressed in terms of ALTITUDE which corresponds to that pressure in the STANDARD ATMOSPHERE. pressure gauge. See GAUGE. pressure gradient. Vector, perpendicular to the isobaric line or surface, directed towards low pressure and of intensity equal to the rate of variation of the pressure with distance. Also called barometric gradient. pressure hydrophone. A HYDROPHONE in which the electric OUTPUT substantially corresponds to the instantaneous SOUND PRESSURE of the impressed SOUND WAVE. pressure ice. A general term for FLOATING ICE which has been squeezed together and in places forced upwards, when it can also be described as RAFTED ICE, HUMMOCKED ICE, PRESSURE RIDGE, TENTED ICE. pressure plate. In PHOTOGRAPHY, a flat plate (usually of metal but frequently of glass or other substance) which, by means of mechanical force, presses film into contact with the focal-plane plate of a CAMERA. pressure ridge. A ridge or wall of HUMMOCKED ICE where one FLOE has been pressed against another. pressure wave. A short-period oscillation of pressure such as that associated with the propagation of SOUND through the ATMOSPHERE; a type of LONGITUDINAL WAVE. Price-Gurley current meter. A battery powered electromechanical CURRENT METER which measures current speed only. pricker. A pointed tool used instead of a pencil for laying off finer and more accurate lines on a PLOTTING SHEET. primary circle. See PRIMARY GREAT CIRCLE. primary great circle. A GREAT CIRCLE used as the origin of measurement of a COORDINATE; particularly such a circle 90from the POLES of a system of SPHERICAL COORDINATES, as the EQUATOR. Also called primary circle, fundamental circle. primary radar. See RADAR. primary tide. See TIDE. primary tide station. See STATION: TIDE. prime meridian. See MERIDIAN. prime vertical. See PRIME VERTICAL CIRCLE. prime vertical circle. The VERTICAL CIRCLE through the east and west points of the HORIZON. Often shortened to prime vertical. priming of the tide(s). The acceleration in the TIMES of occurrence of HIGH and LOW WATER due to changes in the relative positions of the MOON and the SUN. The opposite effect is called LAGGING OF THE TIDES. principal axis. See AXIS OF LENS. principal distance. The perpendicular distance from the internal PERSPECTIVE CENTRE to the plane of a particular finished NEGATIVE or PRINT. This distance is equal to the CALIBRATED FOCAL LENGTH corrected for both the enlargement or reduction ratio of the film or paper shrinkage or expansion and maintains the same perspective angles at the internal PERSPECTIVE CENTRE to points on the finished NEGATIVE or PRINT, as existing in the taking CAMERA at the moment of EXPOSURE.

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principal line. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the trace of the PRINCIPAL PLANE upon the PHOTOGRAPH, (e.g., the line through the PRINCIPAL POINT and the PHOTOGRAPH NADIR). principal meridian. See MERIDIAN. principal parallel. See PARALLEL: PHOTOGRAPH. principal plane. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the vertical plane through the internal PERSPECTIVE CENTRE containing the photograph perpendicular of a tilted PHOTOGRAPH. principal point. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the foot of the perpendicular from the interior PERSPECTIVE CENTRE to the plane of the PHOTOGRAPH (i.e. the foot of the photograph perpendicular). principal scale. See SCALE. principal vertical circle. The VERTICAL CIRCLE through the north and south points of the HORIZON, coinciding with the CELESTIAL MERIDIAN. print. In PHOTOGRAPHY, a copy made from a transparency by photographic means. print: blue. A nonreproducible blue image or outline usually printed photographically on paper. print: contact. A photographic PRINT made from either a NEGATIVE or a POSITIVE in contact with a sensitized material. print: ozalid. A photographic contact print developed by a dry diazo process. The process produces a POSITIVE from a positive IMAGE or a NEGATIVE from a negative IMAGE. print: ratio. A PRINT in which the SCALE has been changed from that of the NEGATIVE or transparency by projection printing. printing plates. Any one-piece printing surface of any size, strength, or surface preparation, bearing an image made manually, mechanically or photographically, specifically for the purpose of printing such an image onto some other material. prismatic astrolabe. See ASTROLABE. probability. The likelihood of an event measured by the ratio of the favourable cases to the whole number of cases possible. probable error. See ERROR. probe. Any device inserted in an environment for the purpose of obtaining information about the environment. processor. See MICROPROCESSOR. production platform. A term used to indicate a permanent offshore structure equipped to control the flow of oil or gas. For charting purposes, the use of the term is extended to include all permanent platforms associated with oil or gas production, e.g., field terminal, drilling and accommodation platforms, and "booster" platforms located at intervals along some pipelines. It does not include entirely submarine structures. See also PLATFORM. profile. A graph or curve showing elevation or distribution of some property vs. distance along a line. The vertical SCALE may be greatly exaggerated with respect to the horizontal SCALE. An example of a profile is the graphic record made by a recording ECHO SOUNDER operating while a vessel is underway. A vertical section of the surface of the GROUND, or of underlying STRATA, or both, along any fixed line. profiling: continuous seismic. Determination of the subsoil strata and geological structure by use of sound sources which emit acoustic pulses to penetrate the seabed. Travel time between emission of pulses and reception is usually measured in a towed streamer. program (or programme). The complete sequence of COMPUTER instructions and routines necessary to solve a data processing problem. programming language. A language used to prepare computer programs, for example Fortran, Pascal and many others.

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progressive wave. See WAVE. progress sketch. A MAP or sketch showing work accomplished. In TRIANGULATION and TRAVERSE, each point established is shown on the progress sketch as well as lines observed over and BASES measured. In a levelling survey, the progress sketch shows the route followed and the towns passed through, but not necessarily the locations of the BENCH MARKS. prohibited area. An area shown on CHARTS within which NAVIGATION and/or anchoring is prohibited. In aviation terminology, a specified area within the land areas of a state or territorial waters adjacent thereto over which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. projection. The representation of a figure on a surface, either plane or curved, according to a definite plan. In a PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION this is done by means of projecting lines emanating from a single point, which may be infinity. In CARTOGRAPHY, any systematic arrangement of MERIDIANS and PARALLELS portraying the curved surface of the sphere or SPHEROID upon a plane. Also called map projection or chart projection. In PHOTOGRAPHY, the reduction or enlargement of a POSITIVE or NEGATIVE, by projecting the IMAGE through a LENS. projection: azimuthal (or zenithal). A PROJECTION on which the AZIMUTHS or DIRECTIONS of all lines radiating from a central point or POLE are the same as the AZIMUTHS or DIRECTIONS of the corresponding lines on the sphere. projection: azimuthal equidistant. An AZIMUTHAL PROJECTION on which straight lines radiating from the centre or pole of projection represent GREAT CIRCLES in their TRUE AZIMUTHS from the centre, and lengths along these lines are of exact SCALE. This PROJECTION is neither EQUAL AREA nor CONFORMAL. projection: azimuthal orthomorphic. See PROJECTION: STEREOGRAPHIC. projection: Cassini. A conventional PROJECTION constructed by computing the lengths of arcs along a selected GEOGRAPHIC MERIDIAN and along a GREAT CIRCLE perpendicular to that MERIDIAN, and plotting these as RECTANGULAR COORDINATES on a plane. projection: conformal. A PROJECTION in which all angles around any point are correctly represented. In such a PROJECTION the SCALE is the same in all DIRECTIONS about any point. Very small shapes are correctly represented, resulting in an orthomorphic projection. Hence, the terms of 'conformal' and 'orthomorphic' are used synonymously since neither characteristic can exist independently of the other. projection: conic (or conical). A PROJECTION produced by projecting the GEOGRAPHIC MERIDIANS and PARALLELS onto a cone which is tangent to (or intersects) the surface of a sphere, and then developing the cone into a plane. projection: cylindrical. A PROJECTION produced by projecting the GEOGRAPHICAL MERIDIANS and PARALLELS onto a cylinder which is tangent to (or intersects) the surface of a sphere, and then developing the cylinder into a plane. projection: equal area. A PROJECTION having a constant area scale. Such a PROJECTION is not conformal and is not used for NAVIGATION. Also called equivalent projection. projection: equivalent. See PROJECTION: EQUAL AREA. projection: geometric. See PROJECTION: PERSPECTIVE. projection: gnomonic. A PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION on a plane tangent to the surface of a sphere having the point of projection at the centre of the sphere. The PROJECTION is neither CONFORMAL nor EQUAL AREA. It is the only PROJECTION on which GREAT CIRCLES on the sphere are represented as straight lines. For this reason this PROJECTION is used principally for CHARTS for GREAT CIRCLE SAILING. projection: inverse Mercator. The name given to the TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTION when the latter is extended right over both POLES. It is used for air charts of polar areas.

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projection: Lambert conformal conic. A CONFORMAL PROJECTION of the conical type, on which all GEOGRAPHIC MERIDIANS are represented by straight lines which meet in a common point outside the limits of the MAP, and the GEOGRAPHIC PARALLELS are represented by a series of arcs of circles having this common point for a centre. MERIDIANS and PARALLELS intersect at right angles, and angles on the EARTH are correctly represented on the PROJECTION. This PROJECTION may have one or two STANDARD PARALLELS along which the SCALE is held exact. projection: Mercator. A CONFORMAL PROJECTION of the cylindrical type. The EQUATOR is represented by a straight line true to SCALE; the GEOGRAPHIC MERIDIANS are represented by parallel straight lines perpendicular to the line representing the EQUATOR; they are spaced according to their distance apart at the EQUATOR. The GEOGRAPHIC PARALLELS are represented by a second system of straight lines perpendicular to the family of lines representing the MERIDIANS, and therefore parallel with the EQUATOR. CONFORMALITY is achieved by mathematical analysis, the spacing of the PARALLELS being increased with the increasing distance from the EQUATOR to conform with the expanding SCALE along the PARALLELS resulting from the MERIDIANS being represented by parallel lines. Since RHUMB LINES appear as straight lines and DIRECTIONS can be measured directly, this PROJECTION is widely used in NAVIGATION. projection: meridional orthographic. An ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION having the plane of the projection parallel to the plane of some selected MERIDIAN; in this PROJECTION, the GEOGRAPHIC PARALLELS and the CENTRAL MERIDIAN are straight lines, the outer MERIDIAN is a full circle, and the other MERIDIANS are arcs of ellipses. projection: orthographic. A perspective azimuthal PROJECTION in which the projecting lines, emanating from a point at infinity, are perpendicular to a tangent plane. This PROJECTION is used chiefly in NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY for interconverting COORDINATES of the CELESTIAL EQUATOR and HORIZON systems. projection: orthomorphic. See PROJECTION: CONFORMAL. projection: perspective. The representation of a figure on a surface, either plane or curved, by means of projecting lines emanating from a single point, which may be infinity. Also called geometric projection. projection: polar orthographic. An ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION having the plane of the projection perpendicular to the AXIS of ROTATION of the EARTH (parallel with the plane of the EQUATOR); in this PROJECTION, the GEOGRAPHIC MERIDIANS are straight lines. projection: polyconic. A PROJECTION having the central GEOGRAPHIC MERIDIAN represented by a straight line, along which the spacing for lines representing the GEOGRAPHIC PARALLELS is proportional to the distances apart of the PARALLELS; the PARALLELS are represented by arcs of circles which are not concentric, but whose centres lie on the line representing the CENTRAL MERIDIAN, and whose radii are determined by the lengths of the elements of cones which are tangent along the PARALLELS. All MERIDIANS except the central one are curved. This PROJECTION is neither CONFORMAL nor EQUAL AREA but it has been widely used for MAPS of small areas because of the ease with which it can be constructed. projection: skewed. Any standard PROJECTION used in MAP or CHART construction, which does not conform to a general north-south format with relation to the NEAT LINES of the MAP or CHART. projection: stereographic. A PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION having the point of PROJECTION at the opposite end of the diameter of the sphere from the point of tangency of the plane of projection. It is conformal and is the only AZIMUTHAL PROJECTION having that quality. When the centre of the PROJECTION is located at a POLE of the sphere, it is called a stereographic polar projection; when on the EQUATOR, a stereographic meridional projection; and when on some other selected PARALLEL of LATITUDE, a stereographic horizon projection. Also called azimuthal orthomorphic projection. projection: stereographic horizontal. See PROJECTION: STEREOGRAPHIC. projection: stereographic meridional. See PROJECTION: STEREOGRAPHIC. projection: stereographic polar. See PROJECTION: STEREOGRAPHIC. projection: transverse cylindrical orthomorphic. See PROJECTION: TRANSVERSE MERCATOR.

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projection: transverse Mercator. A PROJECTION of the cylindrical type, being in principle equivalent to the regular MERCATOR PROJECTION turned (transversed) 90 in AZIMUTH. In this PROJECTION, the CENTRAL MERIDIAN is represented by a straight line, corresponding to the line which represents the EQUATOR on the regular MERCATOR PROJECTION. Neither the GEOGRAPHICAL MERIDIANS, except the CENTRAL MERIDIAN, nor the GEODETIC PARALLELS, except the EQUATOR (if shown), are represented by straight lines. It is a CONFORMAL PROJECTION. Also called transverse cylindrical orthomorphic projection. projection: Universal Transverse Mercator. See GRID: UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR (UTM). projection: zenithal. See PROJECTION: AZIMUTHAL. projector. An optical instrument which throws the IMAGE of a NEGATIVE or PRINT upon a SCREEN or other viewing surface, usually at a larger scale. An underwater acoustic TRANSMITTER. See UNDERWATER SOUND PROJECTOR. projector: reflecting. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, an instrument by means of which the IMAGE of an AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH can be projected onto a MAP. By varying the position of the projector lens, the scale of the projected IMAGE can be varied, and, by tilting the table top, compensation can be made for any tilt in the PHOTOGRAPH. prolate spheroid. See SPHEROID. prominent object. Objects which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classed as conspicuous. promontory. A high point of LAND extending into a body of water. A CAPE. proof. In CARTOGRAPHY, an advanced copy of a MAP produced to check the design, register and/or to enable ERRORS to be detected and corrected before final printing. proof plotting. An advanced copy of a map or chart produced by a PLOTTER to check the design and registration, and to detect and correct errors before final printing. propagated error. An error which occurs in one operation and contaminates subsequent operations. properties of sea water. See SEA WATER, SALINITY. proportional dividers. An instrument consisting in its simple form of two legs pointed at both ends and provided with an adjustable PIVOT, so that for any given pivot setting, the distance between one set of pointed ends always bears the same ratio to the distance between the other set. A change in the PIVOT changes the ratio. The dividers are used in transferring measurements between CHARTS or other drawings which are not at the same SCALE. protected reversing thermometer. See THERMOMETER. proton precession magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER: NUCLEAR PRECESSION. protractor. An instrument for measuring angles on a surface; an angular SCALE. In its most usual form it consists of a circle or part of one (usually a semicircle) graduated in DEGREES. See PROTRACTOR: THREE ARM and COMPASS ROSE. protractor: Cust. Square or rectangular sheet of transparent xylonite engraved with a circle graduated in DEGREES and half DEGREES. Observed angles are drawn, in general, on the under side. See PROTRACTOR: THREE ARM. protractor: parallel motion. An instrument consisting essentially of a PROTRACTOR and one or more arms attached to a parallel motion device, so that the movement of the arms is everywhere parallel. The protractor can be rotated and set at any position so that it can be oriented to a CHART. Also called universal drafting machine. protractor: three arm. An instrument consisting essentially of a circle graduated in DEGREES, to which is attached one fixed arm and two arms pivoted at the centre and provided with clamps so that they can be set at any angle to the fixed arm, within the limits of the instrument. It is used for finding a ship's POSITION, when the angles between three fixed and known points are measured. In British terminology, a perspex (or transparent plastic) device used when the MARKS are too close for the use of a STATION POINTER. This instrument has replaced the CUST PROTRACTOR.

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province. In OCEANOGRAPHY and in a morphological sense, a region composed of a group of similar physiographic features whose characteristics are markedly in contrast with surrounding areas (rarely used in marine CARTOGRAPHY). psephyte. A coarse fragmental ROCK (conglomerate) or DEPOSIT composed of rounded PEBBLES. psychrometer. Instrument used to measure the humidity of the ATMOSPHERE. It comprises two identical THERMOMETERS, the bulb of one of which is dry, while that of the other is wet and covered by a film of pure water or ICE. pseudorange. The time shift required to align (correlate) a replica of the GPS code generated in the receiver with the received GPS code, scaled into distance by the speed of light. This time shift is the difference between the time of signal reception (measured in the receiver time frame) and the time of emission (measured in the satellite time frame). puddle. An accumulation on the ICE of melt water, mainly due to melting SNOW, but in the more advanced stages also to the melting of ICE. Initial stage consists of patches of melted SNOW. pull. An impression from an individual printing PLATE. pulsar. A rotating neutron star emitting electromagnetic radiation in regular pulses related to its rotational period. pulse (or impulse). A variation of quantity whose value is normally constant (often zero), the variation being characterized by a rise and a decay. A common example is a very short burst of electromagnetic energy. See WAVE: CONTINUOUS. pulse length. The time interval during which the amplitude of a pulse is at or greater than a specified value, usually stated in terms of a fraction or percentage of the maximum value. pulse modulation. See MODULATION. pulse radio altimeter. See ALTIMETER: RADIO. pulse repetition rate. The rate at which recurrent PULSES are transmitted, usually expressed in PULSES per SECOND. pumice. An excessively cellular, glassy LAVA. It is very light and can float on water until it becomes waterlogged and sinks. punch register system. System involving the use of prepunched holes in the flat and plate and a set of plastic pins or buttons which are used in registering succeeding flats, positioning the image on the plate, and positioning the plate on the press. See also REGISTRATION. punched (or punch) card equipment. A system whose principal feature is that numbers are recorded on cards by means of holes punched in successive columns of a card, the row of the card indicating the digit. pycnocline. A vertical positive density GRADIENT in some LAYER of a body of water, which is appreciably greater than GRADIENTS above and below it.

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4107 4108 Q-factor. The pressure coefficient of the unprotected THERMOMETER expressed in C. QTG station. A RADIO STATION which is prepared to provide QTG service, that is to say, to transmit upon request from a ship, a radiosignal, the BEARING of which can be taken by that ship. quadrant. A double-reflecting instrument for measuring angles. It is similar to a SEXTANT, but has an arc of 90 . Also a surveying or astronomical instrument composed of a graduated arc about 90in length, equipped with a sighting device. quadrantal correctors. Masses of SOFT IRON placed near a MAGNETIC COMPASS to correct for QUADRANTAL DEVIATION. Spherical quadrantal correctors are called quadrantal spheres. quadrantal deviation. See DEVIATION. quadrantal sphere. See QUADRANTAL CORRECTORS. quadrature. An ELONGATION of 90usually specified as east or west in accordance with the direction of the body from the SUN. The MOON is at quadrature at first and last quarters. See PHASES OF THE MOON. The situation of two periodic quantities differing by a quarter of a CYCLE. quadripod. A four-legged stand for TRIANGULATION, SIGNALS, etc. quality control. All procedures which ensure that the product meets certain standards and specifications. quality of the bottom. See BOTTOM: NATURE OF. quarantine anchorage. An area where a vessel anchors when satisfying quarantine regulations. quarantine buoy. A BUOY marking the location of a QUARANTINE ANCHORAGE. quarter-diurnal tide(s). See TIDE. quartering sea. WAVES moving in a direction approximately 45from a vessel's HEADING, striking the vessel on the quarter. quarter point. The fourth of the distance from one POINT of the COMPASS to another, equivalent to about two DEGREES and forty-nine MINUTES. quartz. Crystalline silica. In its most common form it is colourless and transparent, but it takes a large variety of forms of varying degrees of opaqueness and colour. It is the most common solid mineral. Part of the ocean bed is composed of quartz. quartz clock. See CLOCK: CRYSTAL. quartz horizontal magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. quay. A WHARF approximately parallel to the SHORELINE and accommodating ships on one side only, the other side being attached to the SHORE. It is usually of solid construction, as contrasted with the open pile construction usually used for PIERS. quayage. A comprehensive term embracing all the structures in a PORT alongside which vessels can lie. quenching. The great reduction in underwater sound transmission or reception resulting from absorption and SCATTERING of sound energy by air bubbles entrapped around the sonar dome. See ATTENUATION. quicksand. A loose mixture of SAND and water that yields to the pressure of heavy objects. Such objects are difficult to extract once they begin sinking. quintant. A double-reflecting instrument for measuring angles. It is similar to a SEXTANT, but has an arc of 72 . Q-wave. See WAVE: LOVE.

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4131 race. Swiftly flowing water in a narrow CHANNEL or RIVER; also the CHANNEL itself which may be artificial as in a mill-race. Also a swift rush of water through a narrow CHANNEL in TIDAL WATERS and caused by the tidal movement of the waters. See TIDE RACE. Racon. A RADAR BEACON which returns a coded SIGNAL which provides identification of the beacon as well as RANGE and BEARING. The RANGE and BEARING are indicated by the location of the first character received on the radar PPI scope. The name 'racon' is derived from the words radar beacon. radar. A method, system or technique of using beamed, reflected, and timed RADIO WAVES for detecting, locating, or tracking objects, and for measuring ALTITUDES. The electronic equipment or apparatus used to generate, transmit, receive, and usually, to display radio scanning or locating waves; a radar set. The name 'radar' is derived from the words radio detecting and ranging. radar: primary. RADAR which transmits a SIGNAL and receives the incident energy reflected from an object to detect the object in contrast to secondary radar which receives PULSES from a TRANSPONDER triggered by PULSES transmitted from the RADAR. radar: secondary. See RADAR: PRIMARY. radar altimeter. See ALTIMETER: RADIO. radar beacon. A TRANSPONDER BEACON transmitting a coded SIGNAL on radar frequency, permitting an interrogating craft to determine the BEARING and RANGE of the TRANSPONDER. Also called RACON. See RAMARK. radar bearing. See BEARING. radar buoy. See BUOY. radar chain. An arrangement of radar sets in a chain usually used for vessel traffic control. radar chart. See CHART. radar conspicuous object. An object which returns a strong radar echo. radar dome. A dome shaped structure used to protect the antenna of a radar installation. radar surveillance station. A radar station established for traffic surveillance. radargrammetry. The process of obtaining reliable measurements in bi- and three-dimensional image processing by means of RADAR. radar guided tracks. Recommended TRACKS along which ships can be guided by coastal radar stations in the event of bad VISIBILITY. radar reflector. A device capable of or intended for reflecting radar signals. radar-responder. See RADAR BEACON. radarsonde. Equipment used for determining high-level WINDS, by means of RADAR aimed at a TARGET carried by a free balloon. radar target. An object which reflects a sufficient amount of a radar signal to produce an echo signal on the radar screen. radar view. A depiction (photographic reproduction or drawing) of appearance of LANDMARKS on the PPI scope of a radar set at a particular geographic location, intended to facilitate the identification of the COAST. This can aid the navigator to identify or match his own radar image of these same LANDMARKS.

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radial. A straight line extending outward from a centre. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a line or direction from the RADIAL CENTRE to any point on a PHOTOGRAPH. The RADIAL CENTRE is assumed to be the PRINCIPAL POINT, unless otherwise designated (e.g., NADIR RADIAL). See also ISORADIAL. radial: nadir. A RADIAL from the nadir point. See NADIR: PHOTOGRAPH. radial centre. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the selected point on a PHOTOGRAPH from which RADIALS (directions) to various IMAGE POINTS are drawn or measured (i.e., the origin of RADIALS). The radial centre is either the PRINCIPAL POINT, the nadir point, the ISOCENTRE, or a SUBSTITUTE CENTRE. radial distortion. See under DISTORTION. radial plot. See RADIAL TRIANGULATION. radial triangulation. The aerotriangulation procedure, either graphical or analytical, in which directions from the RADIAL CENTRE, or approximate RADIAL CENTRE, of each overlapping PHOTOGRAPH are used for horizontalcontrol extension by the successive INTERSECTION and RESECTION of these direction lines. A radial triangulation also is correctly called a radial plot or a minor-control plot. If made by analytical methods, it is called an analytical radial triangulation. A radial triangulation is assumed to be graphical unless prefixed by the word analytical. radian. The unit of plane angles in the SI SYSTEM. radiant energy. See ENERGY. radiant flux. See FLUX. radiation. Emission or transfer of energy in the form of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES or particles. The energy itself is also termed RADIANT ENERGY. radiation fog. A major type of FOG, produced over a land area when radiational cooling reduces the air temperature to or below its DEW POINT. radio. Communication by ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, without a connecting wire. A RADIO RECEIVER. Sometimes called wireless particularly in British terminology. radio aids. An aid to navigation transmitting information by radio waves. radio acoustic ranging. Determining distance by a combination of RADIO and SOUND, the RADIO being used to determine the instant of transmission or reception of the SOUND, and distance being determined by the TIME of transit of SOUND, usually in water. Also called radio acoustic sound ranging. See DISTANCE FINDING STATION, ECHO RANGING, SONOBUOY. radio acoustic sound ranging. See RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING. radio altimeter. See ALTIMETER. radiobeacon. A RADIO TRANSMITTER which emits a distinctive or characteristic SIGNAL used for the determination of BEARINGS, COURSES or location. One intended to mark a specific location is called MARKER BEACON. radiobeacon buoy. See BUOY. radio bearing. See BEARING. radiocommunications. Any TELECOMMUNICATION by means of RADIO WAVES. radio compass. See RADIO DIRECTION FINDER. radio direction finder. Radio receiving equipment which determines the direction of arrival of a SIGNAL by measuring the ORIENTATION of the WAVE FRONT or of the magnetic or electric vector. Radio direction finders may be either manual or automatic. Also called direction finder. Formerly called radio compass.

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radio direction finding (or finder) station. A RADIO STATION intended to determine only the direction of other stations by means of transmission from the latter. radio fog signal. See FOG SIGNAL. radio frequency. See FREQUENCY. radio horizon. The line at which direct RAYS from a transmitting ANTENNA become tangent to the EARTH's surface. Its distance from the transmitting ANTENNA is greater than that of the visible HORIZON, and increases with decreasing FREQUENCY. radiolocation. Determination of POSITION or of a LINE OF POSITION by means of radio equipment. See NAVIGATION: ELECTRONIC. radio mast. A tower, pole, or other structure for elevating an ANTENNA. radiometer. An instrument for measuring the intensity of RADIANT ENERGY. radio navigation. See NAVIGATION: ELECTRONIC. radio navigational warning. A radio-transmitted message affecting the safe NAVIGATION of vessels or aircraft. radio range. A radio facility the emissions of which are intended to provide a definite course guidance. radio range station. A radio navigation land station in the aeronautical radio navigation service providing radio EQUISIGNAL ZONES. In certain instances a radio range station may be placed aboard a ship. radio receiver. Equipment for receiving radio signals and converting them into usable form. radio signals: list of. See LIST OF RADIO SIGNALS. radiosonde. Instrument carried through the ATMOSPHERE, equipped with devices permitting one or several meteorological elements (pressure, temperature, humidity, etc.) to be determined, and provided with a RADIO TRANSMITTER for sending this information. radio sonobuoy. See SONOBUOY. radio spectrum. The RANGE of electromagnetic RADIATIONS useful for communication by RADIO (approximately 10 kilohertz to 300,000 MEGAHERTZ). radio stars. Sources of RADIO WAVES existing in the universe. The position of many of the radio stars have been plotted but their SIGNALS are generally very weak. radio station. A place equipped to transmit RADIO WAVES. Such a station may be either stationary or mobile, and may also be provided with a RADIO RECEIVER. In British terminology, also called w/t station. radiotheodolite. Electronic THEODOLITE designed to give the direction in space of a RADIO TRANSMITTER carried by a free balloon. radio time signal. A TIME SIGNAL sent by RADIO. radio transmitter. Equipment for generating radio signals. radio wave(s). See WAVE. radius: cruising. See CRUISING RADIUS. radius of visibility. See under VISIBILITY. radius vector. A straight line connecting a fixed REFERENCE POINT or centre with a second point, which may be moving. In ASTRONOMY, the expression is usually used to refer to the straight line connecting a CELESTIAL BODY with another which revolves around it, as a radius vector of the EARTH and MOON. See COORDINATES: PLANE POLAR and COORDINATES: POLAR.

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radome. A dome, usually of glass reinforced plastic, housing a radar aerial. These domes are often prominent. The term is also used for domes or pods housing similar equipment in ships or on aircraft. rafted ice. Type of PRESSURE ICE formed by one FLOE overriding another. rafting. Pressure process whereby one piece of ICE overrides another. Most common in NEW and YOUNG ICE. rain. PRECIPITATION of liquid water particles in the form of drops of more than 0.5 mm diameter or of smaller widely scattered drops. rainbow. Groups of concentric arcs with colours ranging from violet to red, produced on a "screen" of water drops (raindrops, droplets of DRIZZLE or FOG) in the ATMOSPHERE by LIGHT from the SUN or MOON. rainfall amount. Thickness of the layer of water which accumulates on a horizontal surface, as the result of one or more falls of PRECIPITATION, in the absence of infiltration or evaporation, and if any part of the precipitation falling as SNOW or ICE were melted. Also called amount of precipitation. rain gauge. See GAUGE. raise the land (v.t.). To sight LAND by approaching to the point where it appears above the HORIZON. ram. The underwater projection of ICE from an ICE FRONT, ICE WALL, ICEBERG, or FLOE. Ramark. A radar marker beacon which continuously transmits a SIGNAL appearing as a radial line on the PPI, the line indicating the DIRECTION of the BEACON. Ramarks are intended primarily for marine use. The name 'ramark' is derived from the words radar marker. ramp. A sloping structure that can either be used, as a landing place, at variable water levels, for small vessels, landing ships, or a ferry boat, or for hauling a cradle carrying a vessel. An accumulation of SNOW that forms an inclined plane between land or land ice elements and SEA ICE or ICE SHELF. Also called drift ice foot. random error. See ERROR: ACCIDENTAL. range. Two or more objects in line. Such objects are said to be in range. An observer having them in range is said to be on the range. See also TRANSIT. Distance in a single direction or along a GREAT CIRCLE. The extreme distance at which an object or LIGHT can be seen, or a SIGNAL detected or used. The distance a craft can travel without refuelling, usually called CRUISING RADIUS. The difference in extreme values of a variable quantity. range: cruising. See CRUISING RADIUS. range: diurnal. The difference in HEIGHT between MEAN HIGHER HIGH WATER and MEAN LOWER LOW WATER. Also called great diurnal range. range: geographic(al). The greatest distance at which a LIGHT can be seen as a function of the curvature of the EARTH and the HEIGHTS of the light source and the observer. range: great tropic. The difference in HEIGHT between TROPIC HIGHER HIGH WATER and TROPIC LOWER LOW WATER. range: luminous. The greatest distance at which a LIGHT can be seen merely as a function of its LUMINOUS INTENSITY, the METEOROLOGICAL VISIBILITY, and the sensitivity of the observer's eye. range: magnetic. A RANGE oriented in a given magnetic direction and used to assist in determination of the deviation of a MAGNETIC COMPASS. See DEVIATION: MAGNETIC. range: nominal. The LUMINOUS RANGE of a LIGHT in a homogenous ATMOSPHERE in which the METEOROLOGICAL VISIBILITY is 10 SEA MILES. range: small diurnal. The difference in HEIGHT between mean LOWER HIGH WATER and mean HIGHER LOW WATER.

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range: small tropic. The difference in HEIGHT between TROPIC LOWER HIGH WATER and TROPIC HIGHER LOW WATER. range finder. An optical instrument for measuring the distance to an object. range height indicator. A SCOPE which simultaneously indicates RANGE and HEIGHT of a RADAR TARGET. range light(s). See LIGHT. range of mountains. See MOUNTAIN RANGE. range of tide. The difference in HEIGHT between consecutive HIGH and LOW TIDES at a place. Also called tidal (or tide) range. range of visibility. The extreme distance at which an object or LIGHT can be seen. See RANGE: GEOGRAPHICAL, and RANGE: LUMINOUS. range rod. A simple SURVEYOR's rod, fitted with a sharp-pointed steel shoe. It is usually painted red and white alternately, and used to line up points of a SURVEY. rapid(s). Portions of a STREAM with accelerated CURRENT where it descends rapidly but without a break in the SLOPE of the BED sufficient to form a waterfall. Usually used in the plural. raster data presentation. Method of digitally representing data of an image by a matrix-like scheme of PIXELs. rate. In ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION, the designation of PULSE REPETITION RATE for a pair of transmitting stations, their SIGNALS, and the resulting LINES OF POSITION. rate station. See DRIFT STATION. rational horizon. See HORIZON: CELESTIAL. ratio of ranges. The ratio of the HEIGHT OF TIDE at the SUBORDINATE STATION to the HEIGHT OF TIDE at the REFERENCE STATION. ratio of rise. The ratio of the HEIGHT OF TIDE at two places. ratio print. See PRINT. ravine. In general, any steep-sided VALLEY. ray. A BEAM of RADIANT ENERGY of infinitesimal cross-section, such as a LIGHT RAY. Rayleigh criterion. Used in tidal analysis. Only those harmonic constituents which are separated by at least a complete period from their neighbouring constituents over the length of data available should be included in the harmonic analysis of a given time series. reach. A straight section of a RIVER, especially a navigable RIVER between two bends. See also SEA REACH. An ARM OF THE SEA extending into the LAND. real image. See IMAGE. rear light. See LIGHT(S): RANGE. rear nodal point. See NODAL POINT. receiver. One who or that which receives anything, particularly a RADIO RECEIVER. recession of a shoreline. Landward movement of the SHORELINE. Also called retrogression of a beach. reciprocal bearing. See BEARING. reciprocal levelling. See LEVELLING. reckoning. In NAVIGATION, computation by which the POSITION of a ship is found. See DEAD RECKONING.

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recommended course. See TRACK: RECOMMENDED. recommended route. See ROUTE: RECOMMENDED. recommended track. See TRACK: RECOMMENDED. reconnaissance. In SURVEYING, a general examination or SURVEY of the main features, or certain specific features, of a region, usually as a preliminary to a more detailed SURVEY. An examination of an area to gain specific information, as the weather conditions, extent and nature of ICE, etc. reconnaissance map. See MAP. reconnaissance survey. See SURVEY. recorder. The man on a survey party who records the observational DATA. A recording instrument. The part of an instrument or machine that records. recording anemometer. See ANEMOGRAPH. recording barometer. See BAROMETER. recoverable station. See STATION. recovery of station. In SURVEYING, the identifying and checking of an original STATION. This is considered as recovered when its MARK (MONUMENT) is identified as authentic and proved to be occupying its original site. rectangular coordinates. See COORDINATES. rectification. The process of projecting a tilted or OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH onto an horizontal reference plane, the angular relationship between the PHOTOGRAPH and the plane being determined by ground methods. rectified altitude. See ALTITUDE: APPARENT. rectilinear current. See CURRENT: REVERSING. rectilinear stream. See CURRENT: REVERSING. rectoblique plotter. A mechanical device intended for RECTIFICATION of individual RAYS on tilted or OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPHS. recurrence rate. See REPETITION RATE. red mud. See MUD. red sector. A sector of the CIRCLE OF VISIBILITY of a navigational LIGHT in which a red light is exhibited. Such sectors are designated by their limiting BEARINGS, as observed at some point other than the LIGHT. Red sectors are often located so that they warn of danger to vessels. red tide. A red or reddish-brown discoloration of surface waters, most frequently in coastal regions, caused by concentration of certain microscopic organisms, particularly dinoflagellates. Toxins produced by the dinoflagellates can cause mass kills of fishes and other marine animals. reduced latitude. See LATITUDE: PARAMETRIC. reduction. The process of substituting for an observed value one derived therefrom. reduction of soundings. The CORRECTION of the observed DEPTHS, for the HEIGHT OF TIDE above or below the plane of reference at the TIME of SOUNDING. Usually the term reduction of soundings does not cover CORRECTIONS other than those due to TIDE. See CORRECTION OF SOUNDINGS, LEAD LINE CORRECTION and TIDE REDUCER. reduction of tides. The processing of observed tidal data to obtain mean values of TIDAL CONSTANTS.

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reduction to centre. The amount which must be applied to a DIRECTION observed at an ECCENTRIC STATION, or to an ECCENTRIC SIGNAL, to reduce such DIRECTION to what it would be if there were no such ECCENTRICITY. reduction to sea level. A reduction applied to a measured horizontal length on the EARTH's surface to reduce it to the surface of the SEA LEVEL DATUM. reduction to the meridian. The process of applying a CORRECTION to an ALTITUDE observed when a body is near the CELESTIAL MERIDIAN of the observer, to find the ALTITUDE at MERIDIAN TRANSIT. See ALTITUDE: EXMERIDIAN. reed horn. A HORN that produces SOUND by means of a steel reed vibrated by air under pressure. reef. A mass of rock or coral which either reaches close to the sea surface or is exposed at low tide, posing a hazard to NAVIGATION. reef flat. A flat expanse of dead reef rock which is partly or entirely dry at LOW TIDE. reference direction. A DIRECTION used as a basis for comparison of other DIRECTIONS. reference ellipsoid. See REFERENCE SPHEROID. reference level. See DATUM: CHART and DATUM: VERTICAL CONTROL. reference line. Any line which can serve as a reference or base for the measurement of other quantities. Also called datum line. reference mark. In SURVEYING, a supplementary MARK of permanent character close to a STATION or to a BASE TERMINAL, to which it is related by an accurately measured distance and DIRECTION, and/or a difference in ELEVATION. reference object. A well-defined object selected as a starting point in the DIRECTION METHOD OF OBSERVATION. reference plane. See DATUM: CHART, and DATUM: VERTICAL CONTROL. reference point. Any point which can serve as a reference or base for the measurement of other quantities. Also called datum point. reference spheroid (or ellipsoid). A theoretical figure whose dimensions closely approach the dimensions of the GEOID. The exact dimensions are determined by various considerations of the section of the EARTH's surface considered. The SPHEROIDS of Bessel, Clarke, Delambre, Everest, Hayford, Helbert and others have been adopted as reference spheroids in geodetic work by different countries. Also called spheroid of reference, or ellipsoid of reference. See also SPHEROID: OBLATE. reference station. See STATION. reference tape. A BASE TAPE employed solely for use as a STANDARD of comparison. Also called standard tape. reflectance. The ratio of light given off by an object to the amount of light striking the object, expressed as percentage. reflected wave. See WAVE. reflecting projector. See PROJECTOR. reflecting telescope. See TELESCOPE. reflection. The process whereby a surface of discontinuity turns back a portion of the incident RADIATION into the medium through which the RADIATION approached. See SURFACE REFLECTION. reflection: angle of. See ANGLE OF REFLECTION. reflectivity. The ratio of the RADIANT ENERGY reflected by a surface to that incident upon it.

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reflector. A device capable of or intended for reflecting particles or RADIANT ENERGY. See RADAR REFLECTOR. refracted wave. See WAVE. refracting telescope. See TELESCOPE. refraction. The process in which the direction of energy propagation is changed as the result of a change in density within the propagating medium, or as the energy passes through the INTERFACE representing a density discontinuity between two media. refraction: angle. See ANGLE OF REFRACTION. refraction: astronomical. The apparent displacement of an object that results from LIGHT RAYS from a source outside the ATMOSPHERE being bent in passing the ATMOSPHERE. This results in all objects appearing to be higher above the HORIZON than they actually are. refraction: atmospheric. Refraction resulting when a ray of radiant energy passes obliquely through the atmosphere. It may be called astronomical refraction if the ray enters the atmosphere from outer space, or terrestrial refraction if it emanates from a point on or near the surface of the EARTH. refraction: coastal. A small change in the direction of travel of a RADIO WAVE when it crosses a SHORELINE obliquely due to a difference in conducting and reflecting properties between land and water, and thus velocity. refraction: coefficient of. The ratio of the ANGLE OF REFRACTION at the point of observation to the angle at the centre of the EARTH subtended by the arc connecting the point of observation and the observed point. refraction: index of. The ratio of the sine of the ANGLE OF INCIDENCE to the sine of the ANGLE OF REFRACTION. refraction correction. A CORRECTION due to REFRACTION, particularly such a CORRECTION to a SEXTANT ALTITUDE,due to ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION. refraction of light. The bending of LIGHT RAYS in passing from one transparent medium into another which has a different INDEX OF REFRACTION. refraction of water waves. The process by which the direction of a WAVE moving in SHALLOW WATER at an angle to the contours is changed. That part of the WAVE advancing in shallower water moves more slowly than the other part still advancing in deeper water, causing the WAVE CREST to bend toward alignment with the underwater contours. Also called wave refraction. The bending of WAVE CRESTS by CURRENTS. refuge. A place of safety for a vessel in danger. regime. In CLIMATOLOGY, term used to characterize the seasonal distribution of one or more elements at a given place. registration. Correct positioning of one component of a composite map image in relation to the other components. Achieved, for example, by punching sets of holes, having a fixed horizontal relationship to each other, in each component sheet and then attaching the components together using specially designed fasteners. See also PUNCH REGISTER SYSTEM. region A,B. Within the IALA Maritime Buoyage System there are two international buoyage regions, designated as Region A and Region B, where lateral marks differ only in the colours of port and starboard hand marks. regression of the nodes. Precessional motion of a set of NODES. The expression is used principally with respect to the MOON, the NODES of which make a complete westerly REVOLUTION in approximately 18.6 years. regular error. See ERROR: SYSTEMATIC. relative accuracy. See ACCURACY: RELATIVE. relative aperture. See APERTURE: RELATIVE. relative bearing. See BEARING.

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relative humidity. The ratio of the actual vapor pressure to the vapor pressure corresponding to saturation at the prevailing temperature. relative motion. Motion of one object or body relative to another. The expression is usually used in connection with problems involving motion of one craft, torpedo, or missile relative to another, the direction of such motion being called direction of relative movement, and the SPEED of such motion being called speed of relative movement or relative speed. Usually called apparent motion when applied to the change of position of a CELESTIAL BODY as observed from the EARTH. Also called relative movement. relative orientation. See ORIENTATION. relative position. See POSITION. relative speed. See RELATIVE MOVEMENT. relative tilt. See TILT. relative wind. For a moving object, WIND VECTOR relative to this object. Also called apparent wind. See TRUE WIND. release. A device for holding or releasing a mechanism, particularly the device by which the TANGENT SCREW of a SEXTANT or surveying instrument is held in place or disengaged from the LIMB, or CIRCLE respectively. In oceanography acoustic releases are used to sever deployed instruments from their anchoring. relief. The ELEVATIONS or the inequalities, collectively, of a land surface; represented on a MAP or CHART by CONTOURS, HYPSOMETRIC TINTS, SHADING, SPOT ELEVATIONS, HACHURES, etc. relief: submarine. Inequalities of the ocean bed, or their representation on a CHART. relief displacement. DISPLACEMENT of IMAGES radially inward or outward with respect to the PHOTOGRAPH NADIR, according as the ground objects are, respectively, below or above the ELEVATION of the GROUND NADIR. relief map. See MAP. relief model. A scaled representation in three dimensions of a section of the CRUST of the EARTH, or of another HEAVENLY BODY. A relief model primarily designed to display features on the surface of the EARTH is sometimes known as a topographic model. remanence. See MAGNETIC RETENTIVITY. remote sensing. The measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon by a recording device that is not in physical or infinite contact with the object or phenomenon under study. Sometimes restricted to the practice of data collection in the wavelengths from ultraviolet to radio regions. remotely operated vehicle (ROV). An unmanned submersible craft which can be used either for observation purposes or to perform hydrographic surveys, or for working purposes. Also called "remotely controlled vehicle (RCV)". repeatability. See REPEATABLE ACCURACY. repeatable accuracy. In a navigation system, the measure of the accuracy with which the system permits the user to return to a position as defined only in terms of the coordinates peculiar to that system. For example, the distance specified for the repeatable accuracy of the system such as LORAN-C is the distance between two LORAN-C positions established using the same stations and time-difference readings at different times. The correlation between the geographical coordinates and the system coordinates may or may not be known. repeater. A device for repeating at a distance the indications of an instrument or device. See COMPASS REPEATER, GYRO REPEATER, STEERING REPEATER. repeating instrument. See THEODOLITE: REPEATING. repeating theodolite. See THEODOLITE.

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repetition method of observation. A method of observing horizontal angles by which the OBSERVATIONS of each angle are completed separately. See THEODOLITE: REPEATING. repetition rate. The rate at which recurrent SIGNALS are transmitted. Also called recurrence rate. reported danger. An object dangerous to NAVIGATION which is shown on a CHART but the existence of which has not been confirmed. Sometimes called VIGIA. representative fraction. See SCALE: NATURAL. reprint (of a chart) (U.S. terminology). An issue of a CHART the supply of which is approaching exhaustion. The reprint is an exact duplicate of the current issue with no changes in printing or publication data. reproducible. An original drawing, photographic POSITIVE or NEGATIVE on stable base material to be used in the process of REPRODUCTION. reproduction. In CARTOGRAPHY, the processes involved in printing copies from an original drawing. The principal processes are PHOTOGRAPHY, LITHOGRAPHY (or ENGRAVING), and printing. A printed copy of an original drawing, made by any of the processes of reproduction. repromat. Reproduction material, generally in the form of positive or negative copies on film or glass for each colour plate, from which a map or chart may be reproduced without redrafting. reseau. A NETWORK. In PHOTOGRAPHY, a glass plate on which is etched a NETWORK of fine lines. Sometimes used as a focal-plane plate to provide a means of calibrating film DISTORTION. resection. The graphical or analytical determination of a POSITION as the intersection of at least three lines of known relative direction to corresponding points of known POSITION. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the determination of the position and/or attitude of a CAMERA, or the PHOTOGRAPH taken with that CAMERA, with respect to the exterior coordinate system. resection station. See STATION. reservoir. A place where anything is collected and stored, generally in large quantity; especially a POND, LAKE or BASIN, either natural or artificial, for the storage, regulation and control of water. residual. See ERROR: RESIDUAL. residual deviation. See DEVIATION. residual error. See ERROR. residual magnetism. See MAGNETISM. resolution. The separation by an optical system of parts of an object or of two or more objects close together. The degree of ability to make such a separation, called RESOLVING POWER, is expressed as the minimum distance between two objects that can be separated. The degree of ability of a radar set to indicate separately the echoes of two targets in range and bearing. resolving power. A mathematical expression of DEFINITION in a RADAR or OPTICAL SYSTEM, usually stated as the maximum number of lines per millimetre that can be seen as separate lines in the IMAGE. resonance. Re-enforcement or prolongation of any wave motion, such as SOUND, RADIO WAVES, etc., resulting when the NATURAL FREQUENCY of the body or system in VIBRATION is equal to that of an impressed VIBRATION. In TIDES, the water movement resulting from the natural PERIOD of OSCILLATION of a body of water which approximates the PERIOD of one of the TIDE-PRODUCING FORCES. resonant frequency. See FREQUENCY. resource exploration. The search for economic deposits of minerals, ore, gas, oil or coal. responder. A transmitter, fitted to a submersible or on the seabed, which can be triggered by a hardwired external control signal to transmit an interrogation signal which is received by a TRANSDUCER or HYDROPHONE.

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responder beacon. See TRANSPONDER BEACON. response. For a device or system, the motion or other OUTPUT resulting from an excitation or stimulus under special conditions. responsor. A RADIO RECEIVER which receives a reply from a TRANSPONDER and produces an OUTPUT suitable for feeding to a display system. A responsor is usually combined in a single unit with an INTERROGATOR which sends out the PULSE that triggers a TRANSPONDER, the combined unit being called an interrogator-responsor. restitution. The process of determining the true planimetric position of objects whose images appear on photographs. Restitution corrects for distortion resulting from both tilt and relief displacement. restricted area. A specified area designated by appropriate authority and shown on CHARTS, within which NAVIGATION is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions. resurvey. A retracing on the GROUND of the lines of an earlier SURVEY, in which all points of the earlier SURVEY that are recovered are held fixed and used as a control. If too few points of the earlier SURVEY are recovered to satisfy the control requirements of the resurvey, a new survey may be made. A resurvey is related directly to an original SURVEY although several resurveys may interpose between them. retardation. In ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION, the amount of delay in TIME or PHASE ANGLE introduced by the resistivity of the GROUND over which the SIGNAL is passing. In tide terminology, DAILY RETARDATION. retentivity: magnetic. See MAGNETIC RETENTIVITY. reticle (or reticule). A system of wires, hairs, threads, etched lines, or the like, placed normal to the AXIS of a TELESCOPE at its principal FOCUS, by means of which the TELESCOPE is sighted on a STAR, SIGNAL, or TARGET, or by means of which appropriate readings are made on some SCALE, such as a LEVELLING or STADIA ROD. See also CROSS WIRES, GRATICULE, DIAPHRAGM. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a mark such as a cross or system of lines lying in the image plane of a viewing apparatus and used singly as a reference mark in certain types of monocular instruments or as one of a pair to form a FLOATING MARK as in certain types of STEREOSCOPES. reticle ring. The ring across which the system of wires, hairs, threads, or the like of a RETICLE are streched; or the ring which supports the glass DIAPHRAGM when the RETICLE is a system of lines etched on glass. retired line of position. A LINE OF POSITION which has been moved backward along the COURSE line to correspond with a TIME previous to that at which the line was established. Called a transferred position line in British terminology. retrogression of a beach. See RECESSION OF A SHORELINE. reverberation. Continuation of RADIANT ENERGY, particularly SOUND by multiple REFLECTION. SOUND scattered towards the source, principally from the ocean surface (surface reverberation) or BOTTOM (bottom reverberation), and from small scattering sources in the medium such as bubbles of air and suspended solid matter (volume reverberation). reverse azimuth. See AZIMUTH: BACK. reversing current. See CURRENT. reversing thermometer. See THERMOMETER. reversing water bottle. See WATER BOTTLE. revetment. Facing of stone or other material, either permanent or temporary, placed along the edge of a stream to stabilize the bank and to protect it from the erosive action of the stream. revolution. Motion of a CELESTIAL BODY in its ORBIT; circular motion about an AXIS usually external to the body. The terms revolution and ROTATION are often used interchangeably but, with reference to the motions of a CELESTIAL BODY, revolution refers to the motion in an ORBIT or about an AXIS external to the body, while ROTATION refers to motion about an AXIS within the body. Thus, the EARTH revolves about the SUN annually and rotates about its AXIS daily.

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revolver. See FIX: CIRCULAR. revolving light. See LIGHT: ROTATING. rho-teta system. Positioning system measuring the distance (rho) and direction (teta) from an existing control station to a mobile or another point. rhumb. See RHUMB LINE. rhumb line. A line on the surface of the EARTH making the same oblique angle with all MERIDIANS; a LOXODROME spiralling toward the POLES in a constant true direction. PARALLELS and MERIDIANS, which also maintain constant true directions, may be considered special cases of the rhumb line. A rhumb line is a straight line on a MERCATOR PROJECTION. Sometimes shortened to rhumb. rhumb line sailing. See SAILING. ria. A long narrow INLET, with DEPTH gradually diminishing inward; a CREEK. Any broad RIVER opening into the OCEAN. ridge. a) A long, narrow ELEVATION with steep sides. b) A long, narrow ELEVATION often separating ocean basins. c) The major oceanic mountain systems of global extent. d) Region of the ATMOSPHERE in which pressure is high relative to the surrounding region at the same level. It is represented on a WEATHER CHART by a system of nearly parallel ISOBARS or CONTOURS, of approximately Ushape, which are concave towards an ANTICYCLONE. See OCEANIC RIDGE? TROUGH? WEDGE and PRESSURE RIDGE. rift. A cleft, fissure or chasm in the EARTH. See MEDIAN VALLEY. rift valley. See MEDIAN VALLEY. rig. A temporary, mobile structure, either fixed or floating, used in the exploration stages of oil and gas fields. right ascension. ANGULAR DISTANCE east of the vernal EQUINOX; the arc of the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, or the angle at the CELESTIAL POLE, between the HOUR CIRCLE of the vernal EQUINOX and the HOUR CIRCLE of a point on the CELESTIAL SPHERE, measured eastward from the HOUR CIRCLE of the vernal EQUINOX through 24 hours. right bank. Of a RIVER, the BANK on the right-hand side as one proceeds downstream. right reading image. An IMAGE which may be read or observed normally whether in NEGATIVE or POSITIVE form. rill mark. A small groove, furrow or CHANNEL made in MUD or SAND on a BEACH by tiny STREAMS following an outflowing TIDE. rip current. See CURRENT. ripple. The ruffling of the surface of water, hence a little curling WAVE or UNDULATION. A WAVE controlled to a significant degree by both surface tension and GRAVITY. ripple mark. Undulating surface features of various shapes produced in unconsolidated sediments by wave or current action. rip-rap. See GROIN. rips. A turbulent agitation of water generally caused by the interaction of CURRENTS and WIND; in nearshore regions, rips may also be caused by CURRENTS flowing swiftly over an irregular BOTTOM. rise. A long, broad ELEVATION that rises gently and generally smoothly from the SEA FLOOR. rise (v.i.). Of a CELESTIAL BODY, to cross the visible HORIZON while ascending. The opposite is SET. rise of tide. The HEIGHT of HIGH WATER above DATUM. Also called tidal rise.

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rising tide. See TIDE. river. A relatively large natural STREAM of water. river discharge. The rate of FLOW of water past a point in a STREAM, expressed as volume per unit time (usually cubic feet per second). river harbour. A harbour which lies on the banks of a river. river mouth. The exit or point of discharge of a river into the sea, a lake, or another river. river roadstead. A ROADSTEAD which lies in a river. rivulet. A small RIVER. road(s). See ROADSTEAD. roadstead. An area near the SHORE, where vessels can anchor in safety; usually a shallow INDENTATION in the COAST. Also called road or roads. See OPEN ROADSTEAD. roaring forties. An expression often used to denote that belt in the OCEANS, between 40 and 50 south LATITUDE, where strong westerly WINDS prevail. Roberts radio current meter. An electro-mechanical CURRENT METER which measures current speed and direction. This METER can be suspended below an anchored BUOY or ship which is equipped with a RADIO TRANSMITTER that transmits the current measurements to a ship or shore based monitor station. rock. Any formation of natural origin that constitutes an integral part of the LITHOSPHERE. The natural occurring material that forms the firm, hard, and solid masses of the ocean floor. An isolated rocky formation or a single large STONE, usually one constituting a danger to NAVIGATION. See ROCK AWASH, SUNKEN ROCKS, PINNACLE and ROCK WHICH COVERS AND UNCOVERS. rock awash. A ROCK awash at CHART DATUM. rock borer. A member of any of several families of bivalves that live in cavities they bore in soft ROCK, concrete and other material. rocket. In hydrography or navigation, a pyrotechnic projectile used for signalling, or for life-saving purposes. rocket sounding. Determination of one or more upper-air meteorological elements by means of rocket-borne instruments. rocket station. A LIFE SAVING STATION equipped with line-carrying rocket apparatus. rock flour. Finely ground rock particles, chiefly silt size, resulting from glacial ABRASION. A component of marine DEPOSITS off glacial stream mouths. rockweed. One of a group of marine plants, principally of an order (Fucales) of the brown ALGAE, mostly multibranched and leathery, which grow attached to ROCKS in the INTERTIDAL ZONE by means of an organ called a holdfast. Also called wrack or fucus. rock which covers and uncovers. A ROCK of small area (PINNACLE) that COVERS AND UNCOVERS at various states of the TIDE. rocky area. An area with a rocky BOTTOM. rod. A unit of length equal to 5.5 YARDS or 16.5 FEET. Also called PERCH or POLE. A STADIA or LEVELLING ROD. See also SOUNDING POLE. rod: levelling. See LEVELLING ROD. rod: range. See RANGE ROD. rod: sounding. See SOUNDING POLE.
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rodded points. Points where the ROD was actually held, as opposed to points sketched in between. rodman. A person using a surveying ROD. Roentgen rays. See X-RAYS. roll (or rolling). The oscillation of a ship about the longitudinal axis. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a rotation of a CAMERA or a photograph-coordinate system about either the photograph x axis or the exterior x axis. roller. An indefinite term, sometimes considered to denote one of a series of long-crested, large WAVES which roll in upon a COAST, as after a STORM. Large BREAKERS on exposed COASTS formed by SWELL coming from a great distance. See COMBER. rollers: blind. See BLIND ROLLERS. roof prism. A type of prism in which the IMAGE is reverted by a roof, that is, two surfaces inclined at 90 to each other. root mean square error. See ERROR: STANDARD. rose. Name given to a COMPASS CARD, or other DIAGRAM, having radiating lines. Rossby wave(s). Ignoring friction or depth changes; if a parcel of water with no initial relative vorticity (i.e. no rotation) is moved northward, as f (the Coriolis parameter) increases the parcel will gain negative relative vorticity and will circulate clockwise. The Coriolis force will be greater on the poleward side of the parcel than on the equatorward side and hence the parcel will be subjected to a net southward restoring force. This force will push the parcel south of the latitude of zero relative vorticity overshoots and the circulation becomes counterclockwise. Due to the Coriolis variation the parcel will now experience a northward restoring force. Thus the variation of f provides a restoring force (in the horizontal plane) allowing oscillation to occur just as the effect of gravity does (vertically) for surface or internal waves. In reality Rossby waves are complicated by depth variations and frictional effects. rotary current. See CURRENT. rotary stream. See CURRENT: ROTARY. rotating light. See LIGHT. rotating loop radiobeacon. See ROTATING RADIOBEACON STATION. rotating prism. See DOVE PRISM. rotating radiobeacon station. A special type of RADIOBEACON station emitting a BEAM of WAVES to which a uniform turning movement is given, the BEARING of the station being determined by means of an ordinary listening RECEIVER and a STOP WATCH. Also referred to as rotating loop radiobeacon. rotation. Turning of a body about an AXIS within the body, as the daily rotation of the EARTH. See REVOLUTION. rotten ice. SEA ICE which has become honeycombed in the course of melting, and which is in an advanced state of disintegration. roundabout. A TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEME in which traffic moves in a counter-clockwise direction around a specified point or zone. route: recommended. A route of undefined width, for the convenience of ships in transit, which is often marked by centreline buoys. route (or routeing) chart. See CHART. routeing. A complex of measures concerning routes followed by ships and aiming at reducing the risk of casualties (TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES, DEEP-DRAUGHT ROUTES, areas to be avoided, etc.).
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routeing guide. A document designed to be used in conjunction with nautical charts and other nautical publications in areas where complex routeing systems have been established by the IMO. routeing system. Any system of one or more routes or routeing measures aimed at reducing the risk of casualties; it includes traffic separation schemes, two-way routes, recommended tracks, areas to be avoided, inshore traffic zones, roundabouts, precautionary areas and deep-water routes. rubble. Fragments of hard SEA ICE, roughly spherical and up to 1,5 METRES (5 FEET) in diameter, resulting from the disintegration of larger ice formations. When afloat, commonly called BRASH ICE. Loose angular rock fragment. rubidium vapour magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. rudite (or rudyte). Rock or sediment DEPOSITS composed of grains larger than 2 millimetres. ruin. A ruin is a structure in a decayed or deteriorated condition resulting from neglect or disuse, or a damaged structure in need of repair. A ruin is considered hazardous if it extends over or into navigable waters and thus represents a danger to surface navigation. ruling. A mechanically produced series of equally-spaced parallel lines at a predetermined 'angle of ruling'. Used to distinguish particular areas of a MAP by providing a paler shade of the full printing colour. run. A BROOK, or small CREEK. The distance travelled by a craft during any given time interval, or since leaving a designated place. Complete performance of one PROGRAMME on a COMPUTER. run a line of soundings (v.t.) To obtain SOUNDINGS along a LINE OF SOUNDING, for surveying purposes. runnel. The smallest of natural STREAMS; a BROOK or RUN. A TROUGH or corrugation formed in the FORESHORE or in the BOTTOM, immediately offshore, formed by WAVES or TIDAL CURRENTS. running fix. See FIX. running survey. See SURVEY. run of micrometer. See ERROR OF RUN. run-up. The rush of water up a structure on the breaking of a WAVE. The amount of run-up is the vertical HEIGHT above STILL WATER LEVEL that the rush of water reaches. See UPRUSH. runway. A defined rectangular area, on a land aerodrome, prepared for the landing and take-off run of aircraft along its length. runway light(s). See LIGHT.

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4467 sac. An INDENTATION in the CONTOURS on a CHART showing SUBMARINE RELIEF which is analogous to a GULF on the surface. The opposite term is SUBMARINE PENINSULA. saddle. A COL or PASS or any land-form recalling in shape a saddle. A low part on a RIDGE or between SEAMOUNTS. safety aids. See AID TO NAVIGATION. safety fairway. An area within which permits are not granted for the erection of oil or gas related structures. The use of a safety fairway is not usually mandatory, but is recommended. safety zone. The area around an offshore installation within which vessels are prohibited from entering without permission. Special regulations protect installations within a safety zone and vessels of all nationalities are required to respect the zone. safe water mark. In the IALA Maritime Buoyage System a safe water mark indicates that there is navigable water around its position. sag correction (tape). See TAPE: SAG CORRECTION. sailing. A method of solving the various problems involving COURSE, distance, DIFFERENCE OF LATITUDE, DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE and DEPARTURE. The various methods are collectively spoken of as 'the sailings'. sailing: composite. A modification of GREAT-CIRCLE SAILING used when it is desired to limit the highest LATITUDE. sailing: great circle. Any SAILING when a GREAT CIRCLE TRACK is involved. sailing: Mercator. A mathematical solution of the plot as made on a MERCATOR CHART. It is similar to PLANE SAILING, but uses MERIDIONAL DIFFERENCE and DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE in place of DIFFERENCE OF LATITUDE and DEPARTURE, respectively. sailing: meridian. Following a TRUE COURSE of 0or 180 ; SAILING along a MERIDIAN. sailing: middle-latitude. A method of converting DEPARTURE into DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE, or vice versa, when the true COURSE is not 90or 270 , by assuming that such a COURSE is steered at the MIDDLE LATITUDE. sailing: parallel. A method of converting DEPARTURE into DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE, or vice versa, when the true COURSE is 90or 270 . sailing: plane. A SAILING in which the EARTH or a small part of it is considered a plane. sailing: rhumb line. Any SAILING when a RHUMB LINE is involved. sailing: spherical. Any of the SAILINGS which consider the spherical or spheroidal shape of the EARTH. sailing: traverse. A method of determining the equivalent COURSE and distance made good by a craft following a TRACK consisting of a series of RHUMB LINES. The problem is customarily solved by the principles of PLANE SAILING. sailing chart. See under CHART. sailing directions. Information published in book form describing COASTS, waters, CHANNELS, harbour facilities, etc., for use by mariners. Saint Elmo's fire. Faintly luminous electrical discharge in the ATMOSPHERE: this discharge, more or less continuous and of slight or moderate intensity, emanates from objects which present a high surface electric field, in particular from points and sharp edges. Saint Hilaire method. See MARCQ ST. HILAIRE METHOD.

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salina. A SALT MARSH or salt POND separated from the SEA but flooded by HIGH TIDES. salinity. A measure of the quantity of dissolved salts in SEA WATER. It is normally defined as the total amount of dissolved solids in SEA WATER in parts per thousand ( ) by WEIGHT when all the carbonate has been converted to oxide, the bromide and iodide to chloride, and all organic matter is completely oxidized. These qualifications result from the chemical difficulty in drying the salts in SEA WATER. In practice, salinity is not determined directly but is computed from CHLORINITY, electrical conductivity, refractive index, or some other property whose relationship to salinity is well established. Because of the Law of Constancy of Proportions, the amount of CHLORINITY in a sea water sample is used to establish the sample's salinity. The relationship between chlorinity Cl and salinity S as set forth in Knudsen's Tables is S = 0.03 + 1.805 Cl. A joint committee of IAPO, UNESCO, ICES, and SCOR proposed the universal adoption of the following equation for determining salinity from CHLORINITY: S = 1.80655 Cl. It was adopted by IAPO in 1963 and ICES in 1964. salinometer. Any device or instrument for determining SALINITY, especially one based on electrical conductivity methods. sallying ship. Producing rolling motion of a vessel by the running in unison of a group from side to side. This is usually done to help float a vessel which is aground or to assist it to make HEADWAY when it is BESET by ICE. salt marsh. Flat, poorly drained coastal SWAMPS which are flooded by most HIGH TIDES. salt pans. Shallow POOLS of brackish water used for the natural evaporation of SEA WATER to obtain salt. sample. A representative part or single item from a larger whole or group especially produced for inspection or to give evidence of quality. sampling. The process of taking samples. sand. Loose material consisting of small but easily distinguishable, separate grains, between 0.0625 and 2.000 millimetres in diameter. sand dune. A RIDGE of SAND piled up by the action of WIND on sea coasts or in deserts. sanding. An irregular dot pattern used on some of the early HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS to accentuate the area between the HIGH- and LOW-WATER LINES. sandwave. A large wavelike sediment feature in very shallow water and composed of sand. The wavelength may reach 100 meters; the amplitude is about 0.5 meter. Also called mega-ripple. sargasso (or sargassum). A certain type of SEAWEED, or more generally, a large floating mass of this SEAWEED. saros. The eclipse cycle of about 18 YEARS, almost the same length as 223 SYNODICAL MONTHS. At the end of each saros the SUN, MOON, and LINE OF NODES return to approximately the same relative positions, and another series of ECLIPSES begins, closely resembling the series just completed. satellite. A relatively small CELESTIAL BODY revolving around a PLANET. Name sometimes given to the fictitious bodies assumed in the HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDES. satellite: artificial. An object placed by man in ORBIT around the EARTH, or other CELESTIAL BODY. See NAVIGATIONAL (or NAVIGATION) SATELLITE. satellite: navigational (or navigation). See NAVIGATIONAL (or NAVIGATION) SATELLITE. satellite boat. A subsidiary boat used in PARALLEL SOUNDING. satellite geodesy. See GEODESY. satellite navigation. A positioning method using satellites. satellite sounding. SOUNDING effected by means of instruments placed on board an ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE. satellite station. See ECCENTRIC STATION.

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saturation. The condition existing when the greatest possible amount of anything has been reached, as a magnetic substance which cannot be further magnetized, or an electronic AID TO NAVIGATION which is being used by all the craft it can handle. At given temperature and pressure, state of moist air whose mixing ratio is such that the moist air can co-exist in neutral EQUILIBRIUM with an associated condensed phase (liquid or solid) at the same temperature and pressure, the surface of separation being plane. Savonius rotor current meter. A low-threshold current speed sensor composed of two cylindrical VANES disposed to form an S-shaped rotor responsive to a wide SPECTRUM of horizontal flow components. scale. A series of marks or GRADUATIONS at definite intervals. The ratio between the linear dimensions of a CHART, MAP, drawing, etc., and the actual dimensions represented. It may be called chart scale or map scale when applied to a CHART or a MAP. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the ratio of a distance on a PHOTOGRAPH to a corresponding distance on the ground. The scale of a PHOTOGRAPH varies from point to point because of DISPLACEMENTS caused by TILT and RELIEF; but it is usually taken as f/H where f is the PRINCIPAL DISTANCE of the CAMERA and H is the HEIGHT of the CAMERA above mean ground elevation. scale: bar. A graduated line on a MAP, PLAN, PHOTOGRAPH, or MOSAIC, by means of which actual ground distances may be determined. Also called graphic scale or linear scale. scale: border. A SCALE drawn along the BORDER OF CHART. scale: equivalent. The relationship which a small distance on a MAP, CHART or graphic bears to the corresponding distance on the EARTH, expressed as an equivalence. scale: fractional. See SCALE: NATURAL. scale: graphic. See SCALE: BAR. scale: large. A SCALE involving a relatively small reduction in size. A large scale CHART is one covering a small area. The opposite is SMALL SCALE. See SCALE: NATURAL. scale: latitude. The subdivided east and west borders of a MERCATOR CHART into DEGREES and MINUTES. A variant of the BAR SCALE, since a MINUTE of LATITUDE is very nearly equal to a NAUTICAL MILE. scale: linear. See SCALE: BAR. scale: logarithmic. A SCALE graduated in the logarithms of uniformly-spaced consecutive numbers. scale: log factor. In HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS, a proportional DIAGRAM constructed for the SCALE of the SURVEY sheet by means of which the LOG FACTOR can be quickly determined. scale: natural. The ratio between the linear dimensions of a CHART, drawing, etc., and the actual linear dimensions represented, expressed as a proportion. Occasionally called representative fraction, fractional scale or numerical scale. scale: numerical. See SCALE: NATURAL. scale parallel. Used in mercator projection charts to indicate the parallel at which the noted scale of the chart is exact. The scale parallel itself need not necessarily be depicted within the chart. scale: particular. The relation between an infinitesimal linear distance in any direction at any point on a map PROJECTION and the corresponding linear distance on a GLOBE. scale: principal. The SCALE of a reduced or generating globe representing the sphere or SPHEROID defined by the fractional relation of their respective radii. scale: small. A SCALE involving a relatively large reduction in size. A small scale chart is one covering a large area. The opposite is LARGE SCALE. See SCALE: NATURAL. scale: speed. A graphic SCALE by means of which the rate of SPEED of a SURVEY SHIP, or the distance travelled in a given time can be determined quickly and accurately.

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scale error. The difference between the PRINCIPAL SCALE and the PARTICULAR SCALE resulting from projection DISTORTION. scale factor. A multiplier for reducing a distance obtained from a MAP by computation or scaling to the actual distance on the DATUM of the MAP. A conventional modification which may be applied to the majority of map PROJECTIONS. This is the multiplication of the PRINCIPAL SCALE by some numerical constant which is slightly less than unity. This has the effect of changing all PARTICULAR SCALES by a corresponding amount and, since both maximum and minimum PARTICULAR SCALES are similarly modified, the special properties of the PROJECTION are unaffected. The effect is to produce a better balance of positive and negative SCALE ERRORS over the mapped area. scale of hydrographic survey. That SCALE at which the POSITIONS of the SOUNDINGS in the area are plotted on the HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY SHEET. Suitable survey scales are selected in each case in accordance with the nature of the SURVEY and the average DEPTHS prevailing in the area. scan. See SCOPE. scanner. A device for directing a BEAM of RADIANT ENERGY successively over all points of a given region. In data processing a photo-electronic device for digital reproduction of pictures. The picture is scanned linewise and decomposed into a matrix-like raster of individual pixels. In contrast to vectorial DIGITIZERS, the information to coherent elements of the picture (lines, symbols) is lost by this rasterization process. To retrieve these elements the rasterized picture has to be vectorized by pattern recognition methods and manual post-processing. scanning. Directing a BEAM of RADIANT ENERGY successively over all points of a given region. scar. A lofty, steep face of ROCK upon a mountain-side; a precipice; CLIFF. scarp. The steep face of a HILL. See also ESCARPMENT. scattering. In physics, the change in direction of a particle or WAVE, because of a collision with another particle or system. In electromagnetism, diffusion of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES in a random manner by air masses in the upper ATMOSPHERE. See also: TROPOSPHERIC SCATTERING. scend. Upward motion of a vessel, either upward motion of the bow and stern associated with pitching, or lifting of the entire vessel by WAVES or SWELL, when it may be called send. schist. A foliated metamorphic ROCK which can be split into thin flakes or flat lenticles. Schists are usually named from the dominant mineral, e.g. mica schist. school. See SHOAL. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). A committee established by ICSU to promote and coordinate antarctic research. scintillation. Rapid variations, often in the form of pulsations, of the brightness of the STARS or terrestrial light sources. scope. The face of a CATHODE-RAY TUBE of electronic equipment. The various methods of presenting the information on a radar scope are usually designated by letter, as A-scope, B-scope, etc. Also called INDICATOR, scan, SCREEN, although the alphabetical designations are not generally used with SCREEN. scoria (pl. scoriae). Volcanic rock fragments usually of basic composition, characterized by marked vesicularity, dark colour, high density, and a partly crystalline texture. scour. The action of a CURRENT or FLOW of water in clearing away MUD or other DEPOSIT; in civil engineering an artificial CURRENT or FLOW produced for this purpose. scree. A mass of DETRITUS, forming a precipitous, strong SLOPE upon a mountain-side. Also the material composing such a SLOPE. See also TALUS.

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screen. A device to shield or separate one part of an apparatus from other parts, or to separate the effects of one part on others. In electronic charting, a device connected to a COMPUTER displaying information either under computer control, or under user control, e.g. on a CATHODE-RAY TUBE. Devices allowing for high resolution are capable of displaying also graphics. scribing. A method of preparing a MAP by cutting the lines into a prepared coating. sea. The great body of salt water in general, as opposed to LAND; OCEAN. One of the smaller divisions of the OCEANS. The state of the surface of the OCEAN with regard to WAVE or SWELL, as a calm sea. See CROSS SEA, HEAD SEA, BEAM SEA, FOLLOWING SEA, QUARTERING SEA, SUGAR LOAF SEA. seabed sampler. A device used to obtain samples of the SEA FLOOR. seabed texture chart. A tracing showing the nature and texture of the BOTTOM, DEPTH CONTOURS and SEABED features including WRECKS and obstructions. Also called bottom texture tracing. seabed topography. See TOPOGRAPHY. sea bottom temperature. The temperature measured at or close to SEA FLOOR. seaboard. A general term for the rather extensive coastal region bordering the SEA. sea bed. See SEA FLOOR. sea (or lake) breeze. WIND of coastal regions, blowing by day from a large water surface (sea or lake) towards the LAND as a result of diurnal heating of the land surface. sea bottom. See SEA FLOOR. sea bottom sediment chart. See CHART: SEA BOTTOM SEDIMENT. sea buoy. See FAREWELL BUOY. sea channel. See CHANNEL. sea floor. The BOTTOM of the OCEAN when there is a generally smooth gentle GRADIENT. Also referred to as sea bed, sea bottom. sea fog. See FOG. seagrass. Any grasslike marine ALGA. Eelgrass is one of the best known seagrasses. sea ice. Any form of ICE which has originated from SEA WATER. Generally, any ICE in the SEA. sea level. The height of the sea surface uninfluenced by wind waves and swell, which is frequently measured relative to a reference horizon. Observations of the sea level over a certain period are often evaluated to render minimum, maximum, and mean sea level. sea level datum. A determination of MEAN SEA LEVEL that has been adopted as a standard DATUM of HEIGHTS although it may differ from a later determination over a longer period of time. seamanship. A general term for the art by which vessels are handled. seamark. An AID TO NAVIGATION located with the express purpose of being visible from a distance to SEAWARD. Often erected in shoal water rather than on LAND. sea mile. The length of one MINUTE of arc, measured along the MERIDIAN in the LATITUDE of the POSITION; its length varies both with the LATITUDE and with the FIGURE OF THE EARTH in use. Used in NAVIGATION to measure distances on sea charts using the MERCATOR PROJECTION. Not to be confused with NAUTICAL MILE or INTERNATIONAL NAUTICAL MILE. sea moat. See MOAT.

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seamount (or peak). An isolated or comparatively isolated ELEVATION rising 1 000 METRES or more from the SEA FLOOR and of limited extent across the SUMMIT. seamount chain. Several SEAMOUNTS in a line with bases separated by a relatively flat SEA FLOOR. seamount group. Several closely spaced SEAMOUNTS not in a line. seamount range. Several SEAMOUNTS having connected bases and aligned along a RIDGE or RISE. seaport. A PORT on or near the SEA and readily accessible to seagoing vessels. sea reach. The straight part of a RIVER between the last bend and the SEA. sea scarp. See ESCARPMENT. seashore. The SHORE of a SEA or OCEAN. seasonal current. See CURRENT. sea state. Numerical scale of the average surface WAVE HEIGHT as defined by the WMO code. Also called state of the sea. sea valley. See VALLEY. sea wall. An EMBANKMENT or wall for protection against WAVES or tidal action along a SHORE or WATER FRONT. seaward (adj. and adv.). Away from the LAND; toward the SEA. sea water. The water of the SEAS, distinguished from fresh water by its appreciable SALINITY. The degree of the SALINITY greatly affects the water's physical characteristics. sea water: colour of. The apparent colour of the surface layers of the SEA caused by the REFLECTION of certain components of the visible light spectrum coupled with the effects of dissolved material, concentration of PLANKTON, DETRITUS, or other matter. Colour of oceanic water varies from deep blue to yellow and is expressed by number values which are a variation of the FOREL SCALE. Plankton concentrations may cause a temporary appearance of red, white, green, or other colours. Also called water colour. See also DISCOLOURED WATER. seaway. A moderately rough SEA. Used chiefly in the expression 'in a seaway'. HEADWAY of a vessel. The SEA as a route of travel from one place to another; a shipping LANE. seaweed. Any macroscopic marine ALGA or SEAGRASS. Secchi disc. A white, black, or varicoloured disc, 30 centimetres in diameter, used to measure water transparency (clarity). The disc is lowered in the water and the DEPTH (in METRES) at which it disappears from sight is averaged with the DEPTH at which it reappears. This average value is used to represent sea water transparency. second. The unit of TIME in the SI system. A sixtieth part of a MINUTE, an angle or an arc. secondary port. See STATION: SUBORDINATE. secondary radar. See RADAR: PRIMARY. secondary station. See STATION: SUPPLEMENTARY. secondary tide(s). See TIDE. secondary tide station. See STATION: TIDE. second nodal point. See NODAL POINT. second order triangulation. See TRIANGULATION CLASSIFICATION.

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section. Process of locating and coordinating a point from at least two existing control stations by observing horizontal directions from the control stations to the point. Also called intersection. sector scan sonar. A horizontal aperture SONAR used to detect obstructions ahead of the vessel by mechanical or electronic scanning in the horizontal plane. secular change. An increase or decrease of intensity and/or change of direction of the total MAGNETIC FIELD over a period of many years. sediment. Particulate organic and inorganic matter which accumulates in a loose unconsolidated form. It may be chemically precipitated from solution, secreted by organisms, or transported by air, ICE, WIND, or water and deposited. sediment(s): bottom. In general all sedimentary material regardless of origin found on or in the submarine BOTTOM, including ballast or other material dumped into the SEA by man. More specifically it is limited to unconsolidated mineral and organic material forming the sea bottom, not including CORAL REEFS or BEDROCKS. sediment survey. A survey to determine the nature and distribution of types of sea bottom SEDIMENTS. sedimentary (adj.). Formed by the deposition of SEDIMENT. sedimentary rocks. ROCKS formed by the accumulation of SEDIMENT in water (aqueous DEPOSITS) or from air (eolian DEPOSITS). The SEDIMENTS may consist of rock fragments or particles of various sizes (conglomerate, sandstone, shale); of the remains or products of animals or plants (certain LIMESTONES and coal); of the product of chemical action or of evaporation (salt, gypsum, etc.); or of mixture of these materials. sedimentation. The process of breakup and separation of particles from the parent ROCK, their transportation, deposition, and consolidation into another ROCK. sediment core. See CORE. sedimentology. The science concerned with the description, classification, origin, and interpretation of sediments and sedimentary rock. sediment trap. A device used to measure the rate and amount of SEDIMENTATION in a location. seiche. A STANDING WAVE oscillation of an enclosed or semi-enclosed water body that continues, pendulum fashion, after the cessation of the originating force, which may have been either seismic, atmospheric, or wave induced. seismic reflection. The study of the shallower internal structure of the earth by generating acoustic waves and registering their reflection from subsurface layers. seismic refraction. The study of the shallower internal structure of the earth by generating acoustic waves and registering their return at increasing distances from the acoustic source, thus detecting waves that have been transmitted along deeper layers of greater elasticity and rigidity . seismic sea wave. See TSUNAMI. seismograph. An instrument that records the direction, intensity and TIME of EARTHQUAKES. seismology. The science and study of EARTHQUAKES, and their causes and effects and related PHENOMENA. selectivity. The degree of decrease in the RESPONSE of a resonant device with departure from RESONANCE. Selectivity determines the ability of a RADIO RECEIVER to differentiate between SIGNALS of different carrier FREQUENCY. selenotrope. A device used in geodetic SURVEYING for reflecting the MOON's RAYS to a distant point, to aid in long-distance OBSERVATIONS. self-aligning level. See LEVELLING INSTRUMENT: SELF-ALIGNING LEVEL. semaphore. Any apparatus for signalling.

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semicircular deviation. See DEVIATION. semidiameter. Half the angle at the observer subtended by the visible disk of a CELESTIAL BODY. SEXTANT ALTITUDES of the SUN and MOON should be corrected for semidiameter unless the centre is observed, as with a BUBBLE SEXTANT. semidiameter correction. A CORRECTION due to SEMIDIAMETER, particularly that sextant altitude correction resulting from OBSERVATION of the upper or lower LIMB of a CELESTIAL BODY, rather than the centre of that body. semidiurnal current. See CURRENT. semidiurnal tide. See TIDE. semi-enclosed sea. See ENCLOSED SEA. semimajor axis. One-half of the longest diameter of an ellipse. semiminor axis. One-half of the shortest diameter of an ellipse. send. See SCEND. sensibility of magnetic compass. The ability of a magnetic compass card to align itself with the MAGNETIC MERIDIAN after deflection. sensibility (or sensitivity) of spirit level. The ACCURACY and PRECISION which a SPIRIT LEVEL is capable of producing. Sensibility depends on the radius of curvature of its longitudinal section; the longer the radius, the more sensitive the level. sensible horizon. See HORIZON. sensitive bubble. See LEVEL: SPIRIT. sensitivity of electronic equipment. The ability of electronic equipment to amplify a SIGNAL, measured by the minimum strength of signal INPUT capable of causing a desired value of OUTPUT. The lower the INPUT signal for a given OUTPUT, the higher the sensitivity. sensitivity of spirit level. See SENSIBILITY OF SPIRIT LEVEL. separation effect. In ECHO SOUNDING instruments with separate transmitting and receiving units, the effect caused by such separation. This introduces an ERROR depending on the distance between the acoustic units and varying with the DEPTH of water. Such ERROR makes the registered DEPTH greater than the actual DEPTH. Separation also causes a LAG in registration of the transmitted SIGNAL. separation line. See SEPARATION ZONE. separation zone (or line). A zone or line separating the traffic LANES in which ships are proceeding in opposite, or nearly opposite directions; or separating a traffic lane from the adjacent sea area; or separating traffic lanes designated for particular classes of ships proceeding in the same direction. sequence of current. The order of occurrence of the TIDAL CURRENT strengths of a day, with special reference to whether the greater FLOOD immediately precedes or follows the greater EBB. sequence of tide. The order in which the TIDES of a day occur, with special reference to whether the HIGHER HIGH WATER immediately precedes or follows the LOWER LOW WATER. serial temperatures. The OBSERVATIONS required to determine the vertical distribution of temperature and SALINITY with DEPTH at any one place in the OCEAN. set. The direction toward which a CURRENT flows. set (v.i.). Of a CELESTIAL BODY, to cross the APPARENT HORIZON while descending. The opposite is RISE. To establish, as to set a COURSE.

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set of observations. A set of two or more OBSERVATIONS at different settings of the apparatus made in order to eliminate certain ERRORS which, for the apparatus concerned, are inherent in a single OBSERVATION. settlement. The general lowering in level of a moving vessel, relative to what its level would be were it motionless. Settlement is due to the regional depression of the surface of the water in which the ship moves. It is not an increase in displacement. Settlement is a factor to be reckoned in ECHO SOUNDING. sexagesimal. An angular division whereby a circle is divided in 360 equal parts called degrees. A degree is divided in 60 minutes and one minute in 60 seconds. sextant. A double-reflecting instrument for measuring angles, primarily ALTITUDES of CELESTIAL BODIES. The sextant has an arc of 60 , a sixth of a circle, from which it derives its name, and a RANGE of 120 . In modern practice the term also applies to a similar instrument, regardless of its RANGE. See also OCTANT, QUADRANT and QUINTANT. sextant: air. A SEXTANT designed primarily for AIR NAVIGATION. Air sextants are generally provided with some form of ARTIFICIAL HORIZON. sextant: bubble. A SEXTANT with a bubble or SPIRIT LEVEL to indicate the horizontal. sextant: gyro. A SEXTANT provided with a GYROSCOPE to indicate the horizontal. sextant: hydrographic. See SEXTANT: SOUNDING. sextant: marine. A SEXTANT designed primarily for MARINE NAVIGATION. sextant: pendulum. A SEXTANT provided with a PENDULUM to indicate the horizontal. sextant: sounding (British terminology). A simplified and more robustly constructed version of the marine sextant intended primarily for use in HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY. It has no SHADES, a wide angle low magnification telescope and is generally graduated in MINUTES of arc. It may be fitted with either a VERNIER or a MICROMETER reading device. Both mirrors are silvered all over to enable angles up to 180to be measured. Some sounding sextants have a 90prism attachment which reflects the normal direct LINE OF SIGHT 90to the left. Called surveying sextant, or hydrographic sextant in U.S. terminology. sextant: surveying. See SEXTANT: SOUNDING. sextant adjustment. The process of checking the ACCURACY of a SEXTANT and removing or reducing its ERROR. sextant altitude. See under ALTITUDE. sextant altitude correction. Any of several CORRECTIONS applied to a SEXTANT ALTITUDE in the process of converting it to TRUE ALTITUDE. sextant chart. See CIRCLE SHEET. sextant error. See ERROR. sextometer method. A substitute for PLANE TABLE TRAVERSE for short distances in unimportant areas where the use of the PLANE TABLE is impracticable and the survey party operates in a LAUNCH. AZIMUTH is carried forward by means of angles accurately measured with a SEXTANT. Distance is determined by measuring, also with the SEXTANT, the small horizontal angle between fixed TARGETS on a special rod held horizontally. The angle may be converted into a distance by means of a HYPSOGRAPH. shade. A coloured glass that can be moved into the LINE OF SIGHT of an optical instrument, such as a SEXTANT, to reduce the intensity of light reaching the eye. Also called shade glass. See HORIZON SHADE, and INDEX SHADE. shaded relief. See ILLUMINATED RELIEF. shade glass. See SHADE. shading. Gradations of light, colour, or thickness of lines; or indications of shadows. Shading of lines is sometimes used on CHARTS to produce the effect of HEIGHT or DEPTH. See also HILL SHADING.

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shadow pin. A small rod or pin used to cast a shadow on an instrument, such as a MAGNETIC COMPASS or SUN COMPASS, to determine the direction of the luminary; a GNOMON. shadow zone. A region into which very little sound energy penetrates. shallow (adj.). Having little DEPTH. shallow (n.). An area composed of unconsolidated material where the DEPTH of water is relatively slight. It may be a hazard to SURFACE NAVIGATION. shallows. An indefinite term applied to expanses of SHOAL or SHALLOW WATER. shallow water. Commonly, water of such a DEPTH that SURFACE WAVES are noticeably affected by bottom topography. It is customary to consider water of DEPTHS less than half the surface WAVE LENGTH as shallow water. shallow water constituent. A short-period harmonic term introduced into the formula of ASTRONOMICAL TIDE constituents to take account of the change in the form of a TIDE WAVE resulting from SHALLOW WATER conditions. Shallow water constituents include OVERTIDES and COMPOUND TIDES. See HARMONIC CONSTITUENT. shallow water corrections. Quantities to be applied to a TIDE PREDICTION to correct for the QUARTER DIURNAL TIDES. shallow water tide(s). See TIDE. shallow water wave. See WAVE: TRANSITIONAL WATER. shear strength. The internal resistance of a body to shear stress. shelf. Geologically an area adjacent to a continent or around an island and extending from the low-water line to the depth at which there is usually a marked increase of slope towards greater depth. See also CONTINENTAL SHELF. shelf break. See SHELF EDGE. shelf edge (or shelf break). The line along which there is a marked increase of SLOPE at the outer margin of a CONTINENTAL (or ISLAND) SHELF. shell. The hard outside covering of an animal. Part of the ocean bed is composed of numerous shells of marine animals. shelving. A gently sloping area. shimmer. Apparent fluttering of objects at the EARTH's surface, when they are viewed in an almost horizontal direction above strongly heated surfaces. shingle. Rounded, often flat waterworn rock fragments larger than approximately 16 millimetres. ship of opportunity. An expression designating ships of commercial lines employed in gathering oceanographic DATA. ship-to-shore triangulation. See TRIANGULATION. shipyard. A place where ships are built or repaired. shoal (adj.). SHALLOW. shoal (n.). An offshore hazard to NAVIGATION on which there is a DEPTH of ten FATHOMS or twenty METRES or less, composed of unconsolidated material, except CORAL or ROCK. See REEF. A great number of fish or aquatic animals swimming in company or considered as a group. Also called school. shoal (v.i.). To proceed from a greater to a lesser DEPTH. To cause to become less deep.

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shoaling effect. The alteration of a WAVE proceeding from deep water to SHALLOW WATER. shoot (v.t.). To observe the ALTITUDE of (a CELESTIAL BODY). shore. The narrow strip of LAND in immediate contact with any body of water including the area between HIGH and LOW WATER lines. shoreface. The narrow zone seaward from the low tide shoreline, permanently covered by water, over which the beach sands and gravels actively oscillate with changing wave conditions. shore lead. A LEAD between PACK ICE and the SHORE, or between PACK ICE and a narrow fringe of FAST ICE. shoreline. The line where SHORE and water meet. Although the terminology of COASTS and SHORES is rather confused, shoreline and coastline are generally used as synonymous. shoreline map. Shoreline maps are the graphic representation of planetable and photogrammetric surveys. The maps contain graphic data relating to the shoreline, alongshore natural and man-made features, and a narrow zone of natural and man-made features inland from the shoreline. The original sources of a shoreline map are ground survey data and photographs. Utilizing these sources, photogrammetric map compilation techniques, and instruments, cartographers generate shoreline maps, overlays, and associated data. The data are primarily generated to support nautical chart maintenance, new nautical chart construction, and hydrographic survey operations. shore station. See FIXED STATION. short baseline acoustic system. An underwater acoustic position fixing system comprising a minimum of three hydrophones on the hull of a surface vessel. Three ranges are measured to a beacon either mounted on the seabed or a submersible to obtain a three-dimensional position fix. short range navigation. See NAVIGATION. short wave. See WAVE. shower. PRECIPITATION, often short-lived and heavy, falling from convective CLOUDS; the drops or solid particles in showers are usually bigger than the corresponding elements in other types of PRECIPITATION. Showers are characterized by their sudden beginning and ending, generally by large and rapid changes of intensity, and, most frequently, by the appearance of the sky; namely, rapid alternations of dark, menacing CLOUDS (cumulonimbus) and of CLEARANCES of short duration. shuga. An accumulation of spongy white ice lumps, a few centimetres across; the lumps are formed from grease ice or slush and sometimes from anchor ice rising to the surface. shutter. In PHOTOGRAPHY, the mechanism of a CAMERA which controls the length of time the EMULSION is exposed. shutter: between-the-lens. A SHUTTER located between the lens elements of a CAMERA; usually consisting of thin metal leaves which open and close or revolve to make the EXPOSURE. shutter: focal-plane. A SHUTTER located near the FOCAL PLANE; usually consisting of a curtain with a slot which is pulled across the FOCAL PLANE to make the EXPOSURE. shutter: louver. A SHUTTER consisting of a number of thin metal strips or louvers which operate like a venetian blind to make the EXPOSURE; usually located just in front of or just behind the LENS. side echo(es). See ECHO(ES): FALSE. side lap. See OVERLAP. side-looking airborne radar (SLAR). A radar system using a stabilized antenna orientated at right angles to the aircraft flight path. side scan sonar. A form of active sonar in which fixed acoustic beams are directed into the water perpendicularly to the direction of travel to scan the bottom and generate a record of the bottom configuration.

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side scan sonar mosaic. An assembly of side scan sonar images whose edges have been cut or torn and matched to form a continuous side scan sonar image. sidereal (adj.). Of or pertaining to the STARS. sidereal chronometer. See CHRONOMETER. sidereal day. See DAY. sidereal hour angle. See HOUR ANGLE. sidereal month. See MONTH. sidereal time. See TIME. sidereal year. See YEAR. side shot. A reading or measurement from a survey station to locate a point which is not intended to be used as a base for the extension of the SURVEY. A side shot is usually made for the purpose of determining the POSITION of some object which is to be shown on the MAP. siemens. The unit of conductance in the SI SYSTEM. sight. OBSERVATION of the ALTITUDE, and sometimes also the AZIMUTH of a CELESTIAL BODY for a LINE OF POSITION, or the DATA obtained by such OBSERVATION. Any of various devices used to aid the eyes in lining up an optical instrument on its OBJECTIVE. sight line. See COLLIMATION: LINE OF. sight (or sighting) vane. See VANE. sigma-t. (Symbol s t). A conveniently abbreviated value of the DENSITY of a sea water sample of TEMPERATURE t and SALINITY S: st = (rho(S,t)-1) * 103 where rho(S,t) is the value of the sea water density in CGS units at standard ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. If, for example, rho(S,t) = 1.02648, then st = 26.48. signal. As applied to electronics, any transmitted electrical IMPULSE. That which conveys intelligence in any form of communication, such as a TIME SIGNAL, a PIP on the SCOPE of electronic equipment, or an object marking the location of a surveying STATION. signal: eccentric. See ECCENTRIC SIGNAL. signal: fog. See FOG SIGNAL. signal: hydrographic. Any object, existing or specially erected, for the CONTROL of HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY. See also SOUNDING MARK. signal: longitude. A sign indicating a time event, observable at different stations, and used in comparing LOCAL TIMES of those stations, and determining the difference of their LONGITUDES. signal: luminous. In SURVEYING, a SIGNAL consisting of HELIOTROPE or HELIOSTAT by day, and SELENOTROPE or SIGNAL LAMP by night. signal: sound. See SOUND SIGNAL. signal: survey. A natural or artificial object or structure whose horizontal and sometimes vertical POSITION is obtained by surveying methods. Survey signals are given special designation according to the kind of SURVEY in which they are determined, or which they may later serve. signal: tidal current. A SIGNAL or message conveying information on condition of TIDAL CURRENT in the area in question. signal: tide. A SIGNAL or message conveying information on tidal conditions in the area in question.

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signal: time. An accurate SIGNAL marking a specified TIME or time interval. It is used primarily for determining ERRORS of TIMEPIECES. Such SIGNALS are usually sent from an observatory by RADIO or telegraph, but visual SIGNALS are used at some PORTS. signal: topographic. Any object, existing or specially erected, used for the CONTROL of TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY. signal: triangulation. A rigid structure erected close or over a TRIANGULATION STATION. Also any object, natural or artificial, whose POSITION is obtained in a triangulation survey. The term may be applied to a structure whose POSITION is determined by TRIANGULATION, but whose primary purpose is to serve later in a HYDROGRAPHIC or TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, when it may become known as a HYDROGRAPHIC or TOPOGRAPHIC SIGNAL. signal: tripod. A three-legged TRIANGULATION SIGNAL. It is usually constructed in such a manner that an observer can set up his THEODOLITE and make OBSERVATIONS without moving any of the structure. signal: water. A HYDROGRAPHIC SIGNAL erected in SHALLOW WATER. signal: weather. A visual SIGNAL displayed to indicate a WEATHER FORECAST. signal lamp. See LAMP. signal station. A place on SHORE from which SIGNALS are made to ships at sea. signi. Abbreviation for Signalisation de Navigation Intrieure. A system of buoyage used in certain inland waters in the Netherlands. sill. The low part of the RIDGE or RISE separating ocean basins from one another or from the adjacent SEA FLOOR. sill depth. The greatest depth over a sill. silt. An unconsolidated SEDIMENT whose particles range in size from 0.0039 to 0.0625 millimetres in diameter (between CLAY and SAND size). siltation. The deposition or accumulation of silt that is suspended in a body of water. simplex. A method in which TELECOMMUNICATION between two stations takes place in one direction at a time. simultaneous altitudes. ALTITUDES of two or more CELESTIAL BODIES observed at the same TIME. simultaneous comparison of depths. The comparison of echo sounding depths with simultaneous direct vertical measurements of DEPTH. Simultaneous comparisons are periodically made to determine the INSTRUMENTAL ERROR of ECHO SOUNDERS. single buoy mooring (SBM). A large mooring buoy used by tankers to load and unload in port approaches or in offshore oil and gas fields. single day tide. See TIDE: DIURNAL. single point mooring (SPM). A mooring structure used by tankers to load and unload in port approaches or in offshore oil and gas fields. The size of the structure can vary between a large mooring buoy and a manned floating structure. sinker. WEIGHT used to sink fishing line or SOUNDING LINE. sinking. A downward movement of surface water generally caused by converging CURRENTS or when water mass becomes more dense than the surrounding water. See UPWELLING, and CONVERGENCE. An apparent lowering of distant terrestrial objects by abnormal ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION. Because of sinking, objects normally visible at or near the HORIZON sometimes disappear below the HORIZON. The opposite is LOOMING. siren. A type of FOG SIGNAL apparatus which produces SOUND by virtue of the passage of air through slots or holes in a revolving disk.

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SI System. See SYSTME INTERNATIONAL. sketch map. See MAP. sketch survey. See SURVEY. skew convergence. The angle, on a SKEWED PROJECTION, between TRUE NORTH and skew north. skewed projection. See PROJECTION. sky compass. See COMPASS. sky wave. See WAVE. sky-wave correction. The CORRECTION to be applied to the time difference reading of received SKY WAVES to convert it to an equivalent GROUND WAVE reading. slack tide. See SLACK WATER. slack water. The interval when the SPEED of the TIDAL CURRENT is very weak or zero; usually refers to the period of reversal between EBB and FLOOD currents. Also called slack tide. slant distance. The straight-line distance from one point to another, as contrasted with GROUND DISTANCE. This expression is customarily used only when the straight line connecting the two points lies above the surface of the EARTH. Also called slant range. slant range. See SLANT DISTANCE. slave. A SLAVE STATION. slave station. In a radio navigation system, the transmitting station controlled or triggered by the SIGNAL received from the MASTER STATION. Often shortened to slave. slide: dark. A thin PLATE (usually metal or fibre, rigid or flexible) which, after insertion in a camera magazine, renders it light-tight. slide (or sliding) rule. A device used for performing rapid computations involving multiplication, division, proportion, roots, and powers. It has a body like a ruler, but with a sliding section. Both body and sliding section are graduated with numbers according to LOGARITHMIC SCALES. slime. Soft, fine, oozy MUD or other substance of similar consistency. slip. See DOCK. slipway. The prepared and usually reinforced inclined surface on which keel- and bilge-blocks are laid for supporting a vessel under construction. slope. An inclined surface or line. The degree of INCLINATION to the horizontal. Usually expressed as a ratio. slope and height factor. In the measurement of distances with Tellurometer, a factor to be reckoned when reducing distances to the SPHEROID. It takes into account the mean HEIGHT of the stations (master and remote units) and the SLOPE of the line. slope angle. The angle between a SLOPE and the horizontal. slope correction (tape). See TAPE: GRADE CORRECTION. slotted-template triangulation. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a graphical RADIAL TRIANGULATION using slotted TEMPLATES. slough. A minor marshland or tidal WATERWAY which usually connects other tidal areas; often more or less equivalent to a BAYOU. Quagmire, SWAMP, miry place.

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sludge. Spongy whitish ice lumps, a few centimetres across; they consist of SLUSH, of snow slush and sometimes of spongy ice lumps formed on the BOTTOM of the SEA and emerging on the surface. sluice. Sliding gate or other contrivance for changing the level of a body of water by controlling FLOW into or out of it. slush. An accumulation of ice crystals which remain separate or only slightly frozen together. It forms a thin layer and gives the sea surface a greyish or leaden-tinted colour. With light WINDS no RIPPLES appear on the surface. small circle. See CIRCLE. small correction (British terminology). Minor corrections made to the chart plates. They have been discontinued since 1954. small craft chart. Chart designed for easy reference and plotting in limited spaces. It portrays regular nautical chart detail and other specific details of special interest to the small craft operator, such as enlargements of harbours; tide, current and weather information; rules of the road information; locations of marine facilities; anchorages; courses; and distances. small diurnal range. See RANGE. small halo. See HALO. small scale. See SCALE. small tropic range. See RANGE. smoothing. Averaging of data in space or time, designed to compensate for random errors or fluctuations of a scale smaller than that presumed significant to a specific problem. smooth sheet (U.S. terminology). See FAIR CHART. snag. A tree or branch embedded in a river or lake bottom and not visible on the surface, forming thereby a hazard to boats. snapper. A bottom sampling device used to collect a small amount (less than 1 pint) of material from the ocean floor. It has metal jaws that snap shut when the device touches the BOTTOM. Also called clamshell snapper. snapper: mud. A small clamshell SNAPPER which is attached to the bottom of SOUNDING LEAD by means of a hole drilled in the LEAD. snow. PRECIPITATION of ice crystals, most of which are branched (sometimes starshaped). snowstorm. STORM of blowing SNOW. soft iron. Iron or steel which is easily magnetized by induction, but loses its MAGNETISM when the MAGNETIC FIELD is removed. The opposite is HARD IRON. software. All programs which can be used on a computer system. In particular the system software (i.e. the OPERATING SYSTEM) consists of all programs which are necessary for the proper functioning of the computer. The application software consists of all programs developed for special user applications. soil. The EARTH or GROUND; the face or surface of the EARTH. The GROUND with respect to its composition, quality, etc., or as the source of vegetation. solar apex. See APEX. solar cell. A cell using the solar light or other light energy for conversion into electric energy. solar day. See DAY. solar eclipse. See ECLIPSE. solar parallax. See PARALLAX.

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solar radiation. RADIATION emitted by the SUN. solar system. The SUN and other CELESTIAL BODIES within its gravitational influence, including PLANETS, PLANETOIDS, SATELLITES, COMETS, and METEORS. solar tide. See TIDE. solar time. See TIME. solar year. See YEAR: TROPICAL. solenoid. A coil of wire, often helical in form, which becomes an electromagnet when an electric current is passed through it. solid. Matter of stable shape, not liquid or fluid. solitary wave. See WAVE. solstice. One of the two points of the ECLIPTIC farthest from the CELESTIAL EQUATOR; one of the two points on the CELESTIAL SPHERE occupied by the SUN at maximum north or south DECLINATION. That in the northern hemisphere is called the summer solstice or first point of Cancer, and that in the southern hemisphere, the winter solstice or first point of Capricorn. Also called solsticial point. That instant at which the SUN reaches one of the solstices, about June 21 (summer solstice) or December 22 (winter solstice). solsticial colure. See COLURE: SOLSTICIAL. solsticial point. See SOLSTICE. solsticial tide(s). See TIDE. sonar. A system of determining distance of an underwater object by measuring the interval of time between transmission of an underwater sonic or ultrasonic SIGNAL and the return of its ECHO. Direction may also be determined by noting the direction of transmission of the SIGNAL. The name sonar is derived from the words sound navigation and ranging. See ECHO RANGING. sonargram. The analog echo record produced by the side scan sonar recording device on special chemically-treated paper. sonar target. An object which reflects a sufficient amount of a sonar signal to produce a detectable echo signal at the sonar equipment. sonic bearing. See BEARING. sonic depth finder. See ECHO SOUNDER. sonic frequency. See AUDIOFREQUENCY. sonic line of position. A LINE OF POSITION determined by means of SOUND WAVES. Also called acoustic line of position. sonic navigation. See NAVIGATION. sonic wave. See WAVE: SOUND. sono-buoy. A BUOY with equipment for automatically transmitting a radio signal when triggered by an underwater SOUND SIGNAL. sono-radio buoy. See SONOBUOY. sound. A relatively long ARM OF THE SEA forming a CHANNEL between an ISLAND and a MAINLAND or connecting two larger bodies of water, as a SEA and the OCEAN, or two parts of the same body but usually wider and more extensive than a STRAIT. A vibratory disturbance in air or some other elastic medium, capable of being heard by the human ear, and thus of any FREQUENCY between about 20 and 20,000 CYCLES PER SECOND.

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sound (v.i.). To measure the DEPTH of the water. sound buoy. See BUOY. sound channel. The region in the water column where SOUND VELOCITY first decreases to a minimum value with DEPTH and then increases in value as a result of pressure. Above the minimum value SOUND RAYS are bent downward, and below the minimum value SOUND RAYS are bent upward; the RAYS are thus trapped in this CHANNEL. SOUND travelling in a deep channel can be detected thousands of MILES from the sound source. sounder. A machine or apparatus for SOUNDING. An ECHO SOUNDER. sounder: echo. See ECHO SOUNDER. sounding. Measured or charted DEPTH of water, or the measurement of such a DEPTH. In METEOROLOGY, determination of one or several upper-air meteorological elements by means of instruments carried up by balloon, aircraft, kite, glider, ROCKET, SATELLITE, etc. sounding: acoustic. See ECHO SOUNDING. sounding: danger. A minimum SOUNDING chosen for a vessel of specific DRAFT in a given area to indicate the limit of safe NAVIGATION. sounding(s): detached. Those SOUNDINGS, including least DEPTHS on SHOALS, whose POSITIONS were accurately located. See POSITION: DETACHED. sounding: doubtful. A DEPTH shown on a CHART over a SHOAL, a ROCK, etc., that may be less than that indicated. sounding: drift. A method of finding the least DEPTH in a shoal area by letting the boat drift along a series of closely spaced, previously run parallel SOUNDING LINES, while the LEADSMAN sounds or 'feels' along the BOTTOM. The operation is repeated until the SHOAL is found or the area is covered. sounding: echo. See ECHO SOUNDING. sounding: fixed angle. A method consisting in sounding along the arcs of circles subtended by two objects whose POSITION is known. For each arc, an angle remains constant (fixed angle) and the second angle, between another pair of objects, defines the POSITION of the vessel along the arc. By varying the fixed angle successively by equal amounts, a series of LINES OF SOUNDING covering the area systematically can be run. See FIXED ANGLE PLOT. sounding: formation. SOUNDING carried out by two or more ships in formation searching for a reported danger. sounding: hand lead. SOUNDING with HAND LEAD. Hand lead soundings are usually taken from a slowly moving vessel. sounding: line of. See LINE OF SOUNDING. sounding(s): minus (U.S. terminology). SOUNDINGS that reduce to HEIGHT above the SOUNDING DATUM (plane of reference) when corrected for HEIGHT OF TIDE. Minus soundings are shown on the SMOOTH SHEET preceded by a minus sign. sounding(s): no bottom (U.S. terminology). SOUNDINGS where the BOTTOM was not reached because the general DEPTHS were too great for the method of measurement. sounding: wire. SOUNDING with a SOUNDING MACHINE. To obtain a vertical wire sounding the ship or boat must be stopped while the wire is running out. sounding(s): zero (U.S. terminology). SOUNDINGS that reduce to HEIGHTS above the SOUNDING DATUM but shown on the SMOOTH SHEET as zero soundings regardless of HEIGHT. A practice now discontinued. See SOUNDING: MINUS. sounding apparatus. Any apparatus designed for use in measuring the DEPTH of water. sounding board. See FIELD BOARD.

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sounding book. See SOUNDING RECORD. sounding bottle. A strong metal container fitted with non-return valves for taking WATER SAMPLES at great DEPTHS. See also WATER BOTTLE. sounding datum. See DATUM. sounding interval. The interval between successive SOUNDINGS along a LINE OF SOUNDING. See DENSITY OF SOUNDINGS. sounding lead. A LEAD used for determining DEPTH of water. Also referred to as plummet. sounding line. A LINE OF SOUNDING. A LEAD LINE. sounding machine. An instrument for measuring DEPTH of water, consisting essentially of a reel of wire to one end of which is attached a WEIGHT which carries a device for recording the DEPTH. A crank or motor is provided for reeling in the wire. sounding mark (British terminology). A MARK erected for CONTROL of SOUNDING; its POSITION is determined by plotting using INTERSECTIONS from sextant FIXES. sounding pole. A graduated pole or rod used for SOUNDING in SHALLOW WATER. Also called sounding rod. sounding record. Bound record book in which all of the DATA taken on a HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY are entered, and become part of the permanent records of the SURVEY. Also called sounding book. sounding rod. See SOUNDING POLE. sounding selection. 1. Water depths numerically displayed on a CHART. 2. The process of choosing individual water depths from a hydrographic survey in the compilation of a chart. sounding tube. A glass tube of small diameter, used with certain types of SOUNDING MACHINES in determining DEPTH. sounding wire. A wire used with a SOUNDING MACHINE in determining DEPTH. sound intensity. See INTENSITY. sound pressure. See PRESSURE. sound ray. A line perpendicular at each of its points to the fronts of a sound WAVE. sound signal. Any SOUND produced to convey intelligence, as a FOG SIGNAL. sound signal: submarine. A SOUND SIGNAL transmitted through water. sound velocity. The rate of motion at which sound energy moves through a medium. The velocity of sound in SEA WATER is a function of temperature, SALINITY, and the changes in pressure associated with changes in DEPTH. An increase in any of these factors tends to increase the VELOCITY. sound wave. See WAVE. source. The point where a RIVER rises. source diagram. A small scale map or index placed on a chart to indicate the coverage area, and textual description, of the source data, used in construction of the chart. Also called compilation diagram. south celestial pole. See POLE: CELESTIAL. south geographical pole. See POLE: GEOGRAPHICAL. southing. The distance a craft makes good to the south. The opposite is NORTHING. south magnetic pole. See MAGNETIC POLE.

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space coordinates. See COORDINATES. space modulation. See MODULATION. spar buoy. A BUOY made of a tapered log or metal shaped like a tapered log, and secured so as to float in an approximately vertical position. sparker. An ECHO SOUNDER which uses an electrical spark discharge as the sound source. A RECORDER produces a CHART which represents a vertical cross section of the geological structure beneath the water bottom. spatial (adj.). Pertaining to or limited by space. special mark. In the IALA Maritime Buoyage System a special mark indicates an area or feature referred to in nautical documents; it is not primarily intended to assist navigation. special purpose map. See MAP. specific gravity. The ratio of the density of a substance at a given temperature and the density of some other substance used as a STANDARD. For liquids and solids, the STANDARD assumed is the density of distilled water at 4 C. spectroscope. An optical instrument for forming SPECTRA. It is very useful in studying the characteristics of CELESTIAL BODIES. spectrum (pl. spectra). A series of IMAGES formed when a BEAM of RADIANT ENERGY is separated into its various WAVE LENGTH components, as when a BEAM of white light is refracted and dispersed by a prism. The entire RANGE of electromagnetic RADIATIONS, or any part of it used for a specific purpose, as the RADIO SPECTRUM (10 kilohertz to 300,000 MEGAHERTZ). specular reflection. The type of reflection, in optics or microwave theory, characteristic of a highly polished plane surface from which all rays are reflected at an angle equal to the angle of incidence. speed. Rate of motion. The terms speed and VELOCITY are often used interchangeably, but speed is a scalar, having magnitude only, while VELOCITY is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction. Speed may either be the ship's speed through water, or the SPEED MADE GOOD over ground. speed: angular. Change of direction per unit time. Also called angular rate or angular velocity. speed: ground. See GROUND SPEED. speed: linear. Rate of motion in a straight line. speed: relative. See RELATIVE MOTION. speed line. A LINE OF POSITION approximately perpendicular to the COURSE. speed made good. The actual velocity of the ship along a course measured in relation to the ocean bottom or to fixed objects ashore. speed of lens. See APERTURE: RELATIVE. speed of propagation. The speed with which waves of energy travel through or along a medium other than a specially constructed path. speed of relative movement. See RELATIVE MOTION. speed of sound. The SPEED OF PROPAGATION of sound waves . speedometer. An ODOMETER recording the SPEED of a craft by a process of differentiation. speed scale. See SCALE. sphere. A curved surface all points of which are equidistant from a fixed point within, called the centre. spherical aberration. See ABERRATION OF LIGHT.

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spherical buoy. See BUOY. spherical coordinates. See COORDINATES. spherical excess. The amount by which the sum of the three angles of a spherical triangle exceeds 180 . spherical sailing. See SAILING. spherical wave. See WAVE. spheroid. An ellipsoid; a figure resembling a sphere. Also called ellipsoid or ELLIPSOID OF REVOLUTION, from the fact that it can be formed by revolving an ellipse about one of its axes. In GEODESY, this term is frequently used to mean REFERENCE SPHEROID. See also SPHEROID: OBLATE and SPHEROID: PROLATE. spheroid: oblate. An ELLIPSOID OF REVOLUTION, the minor AXIS of which is the AXIS of REVOLUTION. The EARTH is approximately an oblate spheroid. spheroid: prolate. An ELLIPSOID OF REVOLUTION, the major AXIS of which is the AXIS of REVOLUTION. spheroid of reference. See REFERENCE SPHEROID. spicule. A minute needlelike or multiradiate calcareous or siliceous body in sponges, radiolarians, primitive chitons, and echinoderms. They frequently are identified in marine sediment samples. spilling breaker. See BREAKER. spindle. A spar serving as a BEACON. A slender pin or rod, as one constituting part of a machine. spire. A pointed structure extending above a building. The spire is seldom less than two-thirds of the entire height and its lines are rarely broken by stages or other features. The term is not applied to short pyramid-shaped structures rising from a tower or belfry. spirit bubble. See LEVEL: SPIRIT. spirit compass. See COMPASS: LIQUID. spirit level. See LEVEL. spirit level axis. See AXIS OF SPIRIT LEVEL. spirit levelling. See LEVELLING. spit. A small point of land or narrow SHOAL projecting into a body of water from the SHORE. splines. Flexible rulers or interpolation algorithm used to draw smooth curves between points when constructing e.g. hyperbolic lattices. split fix. See FIX. split line of sounding. A LINE OF SOUNDING run to fill a void when the maximum spacing of principal lines is exceeded. spoil. MUD, SAND, SILT or other DEPOSIT obtained from the BOTTOM of a CHANNEL or HARBOUR by dredging. spoil banks. Submerged accumulations of dumped material dredged from CHANNELS or HARBOURS. spoil ground. A sea area where dredged material is deposited. Also called dumping ground. spoil ground buoy. A BUOY marking the limit of a SPOIL GROUND. spot elevation. A point on a MAP or CHART whose ELEVATION is noted. It is usually indicated by a dot accompanied by a number indicating the vertical distance of the point from the reference DATUM. Spot elevations are used principally to indicate points higher than their surroundings. Also called spot height.

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spot height. See SPOT ELEVATION. spout. Phenomenon consisting of an often violent WHIRLWIND, revealed by the presence of a cloud column or inverted cloud cone (funnel cloud), protruding from the base of a cumulonimbus and of a 'bush' composed of water drops raised from the surface of the SEA or of DUST, SAND, or litter, raised from the GROUND. spray. Ensemble of water droplets torn by the WIND from the surface of an extensive body of water, generally from the CRESTS of WAVES, and carried up a short distance into the air. spring. SPRING TIDE. A natural issue of water or other substances from the EARTH. One on the BOTTOM of the SEA is called a submarine spring. spring high water. See MEAN HIGH WATER SPRINGS. spring low water. See MEAN LOW WATER SPRINGS. spring range. The mean semidiurnal RANGE OF TIDE when SPRING TIDES are occurring. The mean difference in HEIGHT between MEAN HIGH WATER SPRINGS and MEAN LOW WATER SPRINGS. Also called mean spring range. spring rise. See MEAN SPRING RISE. spring tide(s). See TIDE. spur. A subordinate ELEVATION, RIDGE or RISE projecting outward from a larger feature. squall. Atmospheric phenomenon characterized by a very large variation of wind speed: it begins suddenly, has a duration of the order of minutes, and decreases rather suddenly in SPEED. It is often accompanied by a SHOWER or THUNDERSTORM. squall line. Fictitious moving line, sometimes of considerable extent, along which squall phenomena occur. squares: method of. A method of transferring one SURVEY to another of different SCALE. Also called squaring down or squaring up depending on whether the SCALE is being decreased or increased. squaring down. See SQUARES: METHOD OF. squaring up. See SQUARES: METHOD OF. squat. For a ship underway, the change of level of the bow and stern from the still water condition in response to the elevation and depression of the water level about the hull resulting from the bow and stern wave systems. stability. Property of the state of rest or continuous movement of a system such that any disturbance introduced into this state decreases. In METEOROLOGY, the term is often used as a synonym of STATIC STABILITY. stability: static. State of hydrostatic equilibrium of the ATMOSPHERE in which a particle of air moved from its initial level undergoes a hydrostatic force which tends to restore it to this level. Also called hydrostatic stability. stabilization: gyroscopic. See GYROSCOPIC STABILIZATION. stabilizer: marine. A device installed on ships to reduce rolling. stadia. A graduated rod used in the determination of distance by observing the intercept on the rod subtending a small known angle at the point of observation. In practice the angle is usually defined by two fixed lines in the RETICLE of a TELESCOPE. Also called stadia rod. stadia constant. The constant which is multiplied by the STADIA INTERVAL to obtain the length of a sight in METRES. stadia interval. The length of rod subtended between the top and the bottom CROSS WIRES in the LEVELLING INSTRUMENT as seen projected against the face of the LEVELLING ROD. stadia lines. Two or more horizontal wires fixed in the DIAPHRAGM at equal distances from the AXIS of TELESCOPES, of THEODOLITES and LEVELS. Also called stadia wires.

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stadia rod. See STADIA. stadia wires. See STADIA LINES. stadimeter. An instrument used to measure the distance from the observer to a more-or-less distant object, such as a vessel, when the HEIGHT of a specified part of the latter (e.g. the mast) is known. It is in effect a hand-held RANGE FINDER. stake. An elongated wood or metal pole embedded in the bottom to serve as a marker or support for fish nets. stand. See STAND OF TIDE. standard. An exact value (a physical entity or an abstract concept) established and defined by authority, custom, or common consent, to serve as a reference, model, or rule in measuring quantities or qualities, establishing practices or procedures, or evaluating results. In chart construction, a master copy of a CHART upon which are marked all corrections affecting the CHART between printings (U.S. terminology). standard atmosphere. See ATMOSPHERE. standard chronometer. See CHRONOMETER. standard circle sheet. See CIRCLE SHEET. standard compass. See COMPASS. standard depth. See DEPTH. standard deviation. See ERROR: STANDARD. standard error. See ERROR. standard meridian. See MERIDIAN. standard parallel. See PARALLEL. standard port. See STATION: REFERENCE. standard sea water. See NORMAL WATER. standard station. See STATION: REFERENCE. standard tape. See REFERENCE TAPE. standard time. See TIME. standardization. The comparison of an instrument or device with a STANDARD to determine the value of the instrument or device in terms of an adopted unit. See CALIBRATION. standing wave. See WAVE. stand of tide. The condition at HIGH TIDE or LOW TIDE when there is no change in the HEIGHT of the water. It may be called high water stand if it occurs at the TIME of HIGH TIDE, and low water stand if it occurs at LOW TIDE. Also called stand. standpipe. A tall cylindrical structure in a waterworks system, whose height is several times greater than its diameter. It extends from the ground and may be supported by a skeleton-type framework. star. CELESTIAL BODIES which appear as points of light due to their great distance from the EARTH. They are self-luminous whereas PLANETS shine only by reflection light. starboard. The right side of a craft facing forward. The opposite is PORT. star chart. See CHART.

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star finder. A device to facilitate the identification of STARS. Sometimes called a star identifier. See PLANISPHERE. star globe. A small globe representing the CELESTIAL SPHERE, on which the apparent positions of the STARS are indicated. It is usually provided with graduated arcs and a suitable mount for determining the approximate ALTITUDE and AZIMUTH of the STARS, to serve as a STAR FINDER. Also called celestial globe. star identifier. See STAR FINDER. starred lines of sounding. LINES OF SOUNDING which are 'starred' round a ROCK or ISLET. state of sea scale. Numerical SCALE of average WAVE HEIGHT in which the numbers increase with the WAVE HEIGHT. state of sky. State of the ATMOSPHERE in respect of the amount, genus, height, etc. of the CLOUDS which are present. state of the sea. See SEA STATE. static instability. See INSTABILITY. static stability. See STABILITY. station. Generally, a permanent or temporary location where scientific OBSERVATIONS and measurements are made. In SURVEYING, a point whose POSITION has been (or is to be) determined. A station may be a marked station (i.e., a point more or less permanently marked for recovery) or an unmarked station, one which is not recoverable. Also called survey station. station: astronomical. A point on the EARTH whose POSITION has been determined by OBSERVATIONS of CELESTIAL BODIES. station: control. See CONTROL. station: eccentric. See ECCENTRIC STATION. station: electronic navigation. A STATION emitting radio signals which are used in electronic navigational systems. station: intersection. In SURVEYING, an object whose horizontal POSITION is determined by OBSERVATIONS from other STATIONS, no OBSERVATIONS being made at the object itself. Where the object is observed from only two stations, the position is termed a no check position as there is no proof that such OBSERVATIONS are free from BLUNDERS. Intersection stations are either objects which would be difficult to OCCUPY with an instrument, or SURVEY SIGNALS whose POSITIONS can be determined with sufficient ACCURACY without being occupied. Also called intersected point. station: Laplace. A TRIANGULATION or TRAVERSE STATION at which a LAPLACE AZIMUTH is determined. At a Laplace station both ASTRONOMICAL LONGITUDE and ASTRONOMICAL AZIMUTH are determined. station: 'lost'. See STATION: UNRECOVERABLE. station: magnetic. The geographic location at which any set of MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS was taken. station: main scheme. A STATION through which the main computations and ADJUSTMENTS of the survey data are carried and serve for the continued extension of the SURVEY. station: oceanographic. The geographic location at which any set of oceanographic observations are gathered. The STATION may be occupied by a mobile PLATFORM (a ship) or a fixed platform such as a tower. station: recoverable. A STATION artificially marked by well defined natural or artificial objects, whose GEOGRAPHIC POSITION has been accurately determined and which has been described.

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station: reference. A place where tide or tidal current constants have been determined from OBSERVATIONS, and which is used as a STANDARD for the comparison of simultaneous OBSERVATIONS at a SUBORDINATE STATION. It is also a place for which independent daily predictions are given in the tide or tidal current tables, from which corresponding predictions are obtained for other locations by means of differences or factors. Also called standard station and standard port (British terminology). station: resection. A STATION located by RESECTION methods. station: satellite. See ECCENTRIC STATION. station: secondary. See STATION: SUPPLEMENTARY. station: subordinate. One of the places for which tide or tidal current predictions are determined by applying a CORRECTION to the predictions of a REFERENCE STATION. A tide or tidal current station at which a short series of OBSERVATIONS was made and reduced by comparison with simultaneous OBSERVATIONS at a REFERENCE STATION. Called secondary port in British terminology. See STATION: TIDE. station: subsidiary. A STATION established to overcome some local obstacle to the progress of a SURVEY, and not to determine position data for the station point. station: supplementary. An auxiliary STATION, established to increase the number of CONTROL STATIONS in a given area, or to place a STATION in a desired location where it is impracticable or unnecessary to establish a principal STATION. Also called secondary station. station: survey. See STATION. station: tide. A place where TIDAL OBSERVATIONS are obtained. It is a primary tide station when continuous OBSERVATIONS are available for a sufficient number of years to determine the characteristic tide features for the locality. A secondary tide station is operated during a short period of time to obtain DATA for a specific purpose. station: topographic. A definite point on the EARTH, whose GEOGRAPHIC POSITION has been determined by graphic methods, usually by PLANE TABLE TRAVERSE or graphic TRIANGULATION. Also a point located by geodetic methods but with less than third-order ACCURACY. station: traverse. A definite point on the EARTH whose POSITION has been determined from another known point by linear measurements controlled in AZIMUTH by angular measurements. station: triangulation. A recoverable point on the EARTH, whose GEOGRAPHIC POSITION has been determined by angular methods with geodetic instruments. A triangulation station is a selected point, which has been marked with a STATION MARK, or it is a conspicuous natural or artificial object. Also called trigonometric station or triangulation point. station: trigonometric. See STATION: TRIANGULATION. station: unrecoverable. A TRIANGULATION STATION that cannot be found and cannot be included in the TRIANGULATION to connect it with a new DATUM. Sometimes called 'lost' station. stationary wave. See WAVE: STANDING. stationary wave theory. A theory which assumes that the basic tide motion in the open OCEAN consists of a system of STANDING WAVE oscillations; PROGRESSIVE WAVES are of secondary importance except where the TIDE advances into tributary waters. station buoy. A BUOY used to mark the approximate POSITION of an important BUOY or LIGHTSHIP should it be carried away or temporarily removed. Also called MARKER BUOY, watch buoy. station error. See DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL. station mark (or marker). A buried mark-stone, a metal plug or disk, or any kind of permanent MARK intended to provide a means of re-identifying main CONTROL STATIONS. See SURFACE MARK and UNDERGROUND MARK.

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station pointer (British terminology). A metal instrument with three legs, a circle graduated in degrees and 1/2 degrees, and a VERNIER or MICROMETER for setting the angles. See also PROTRACTOR: THREE ARM. statoscope. A highly sensitive BAROMETER or ALTIMETER for measuring slight variations in pressure or ALTITUDE. statute mile. A unit of distance equal to 1,760 YARDS or 5,280 FEET (1,609.35 m). This MILE is generally used on LAND, and is sometimes called land mile. steel tape. See TAPE. steep-to (adj.). Precipitous. The term is applied particularly to a SHORE, BANK or SHOAL that descends steeply to a lower level. steerageway. The condition wherein the ship has sufficient way on that it will respond to rudder movements to maintain desired COURSE. steering compass. See COMPASS. steering repeater. A COMPASS REPEATER by which a craft is steered. See also COMPASS: STEERING. stellar parallax. See PARALLAX: ANNUAL. stellite. A trade name for an alloy of chromium, cobalt and tungsten. Stellite mirrors, free of imperfection and practically indestructible, are frequently used in hydrographic SEXTANTS. See SEXTANT: SOUNDING. steradian. The unit of a solid angle in the SI system. stereocomparator. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a stereoscopic instrument for measuring PARALLAX; usually includes a means of measuring PHOTOGRAPH COORDINATES of IMAGE POINTS. stereocompilation. See COMPILATION. stereogram. A STEREOSCOPIC PAIR of photographs or drawings correctly oriented and mounted or projected for stereoscopic viewing. stereographic horizon projection. See PROJECTION: STEREOGRAPHIC. stereographic meridional projection. See PROJECTION: STEREOGRAPHIC. stereographic polar projection. See PROJECTION: STEREOGRAPHIC. stereographic projection. See PROJECTION. stereometer. A measuring device comprising a micrometer movement by means of which the separation of two INDEX MARKS can be changed to measure PARALLAX DIFFERENCE on a STEREOSCOPIC PAIR of photographs. Also called parallax bar. stereometric camera. See CAMERA. stereomodel. See STEREOSCOPIC IMAGE. stereopair. See STEREOSCOPIC PAIR. stereophotogrammetry. PHOTOGRAMMETRY utilizing stereoscopic equipment and methods. stereoscope. A binocular optical instrument for helping an observer to view PHOTOGRAPHS, or DIAGRAMS, to obtain the mental impression of a three-dimensional model. stereoscopic fusion. The mental process which combines the two perspective views to give an impression of a threedimensional model. stereoscopic image. The mental impression of a three-dimensional model which results from viewing two overlapping perspective views. Also called stereoscopic model or stereomodel.

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stereoscopic model. See STEREOSCOPIC IMAGE. stereoscopic pair. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, two PHOTOGRAPHS of the same area taken from different AIR STATIONS so as to afford STEREOSCOPIC VISION. Frequently called a stereopair. stereoscopic plotting instrument. An instrument for compiling a MAP or obtaining spatial solutions by observation of STEREOSCOPIC IMAGES formed by STEREOSCOPIC PAIRS. See COMPILATION. stereoscopic vision. The particular application of BINOCULAR VISION which enables the observer to obtain the impression of depth, usually by means of two different perspectives of an object, as two PHOTOGRAPHS taken from different AIR STATIONS. stereoscopy. The science and art which deals with the use of BINOCULAR VISION for observation of a pair of overlapping PHOTOGRAPHS or other perspective views, and with the methods by which such viewing is produced. stereotriangulation. A triangulation procedure that uses a STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTING INSTRUMENT to obtain the successive ORIENTATION of the STEREOSCOPIC PAIRS of photographs into a continuous strip. The spatial solution for the extension of horizontal and/or vertical CONTROL using these STRIP COORDINATES may be obtained by either graphical or computational procedures. Also called bridging. sternway. Making way through the water in a direction opposite to the HEADING. still water level. The LEVEL that the sea surface would assume in the absence of WIND WAVES; not to be confused with MEAN SEA LEVEL or HALF-TIDE LEVEL. stippling. Graduation of SHADING by numerous separate touches. Shallow areas on CHARTS, for instance, are sometimes indicated by numerous dots decreasing in density as the DEPTH increases. stone. A general term for ROCK and rock fragments ranging in size from PEBBLES and GRAVEL to BOULDERS or large rock masses. stooping. Apparent decrease in the vertical dimension of an object near the HORIZON, due to large inequality of ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION in the LINE OF SIGHT to the top and bottom of the object. The opposite is TOWERING. stop. See APERTURE STOP. stop watch. See WATCH. storage. In a COMPUTER, a device in which DATA can be inserted and preserved, and from which DATA can be retrieved. Common storage devices are magnetic tapes, drums, disks and cores. storm. WIND with a SPEED between 44 and 50 KNOTS (Beaufort scale wind force 10). NOTE: The term 'storm' has been substituted for the term 'whole gale' in U.S. Weather Bureau Warnings. This term refers to wind speeds of 48-63 KNOTS. storm high water. See HIGH WATER. storm surge. A RISE above normal water level on the OPEN COAST due only to the action of WIND stress on the water surface. Storm surge resulting from a HURRICANE or other intense STORM also includes the RISE in level due to ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE reduction as well as that due to wind stress. A storm surge is more severe when it occurs in conjunction with a HIGH TIDE. Also called storm tide, storm wave, tidal wave. storm tide. See STORM SURGE. storm warning. See WARNING. storm wave. See WAVE. straight-edge. A bar of wood, metal, etc. with one edge accurately straight for drawing straight lines in cartographic applications. straight line. Mathematically the line of shortest distance between two points in a specified space or on a specified surface.

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strait (also straits). A PASSAGE connecting two larger bodies of water. straits used for international navigation. Geographically, a narrow passage between two land masses or islands or group of islands connecting two larger sea areas. strand. The portion of the SEASHORE between high and low water line. strand (v.t. & i.). To run aground. The term strand usually refers to a serious grounding, while the term GROUND refers to any grounding, however slight. stranded. 1. The terms "stranded" and "sunken" apply exclusively to items that once were afloat but which are now resting on the bottom. Stranded items project above the sounding datum while sunken items do not project above the sounding datum. These terms apply most often to wrecks. Masts, funnels, and other extensions of wreck superstructure should be disregarded when applying the above definition; i.e., such features may project above the sounding datum and still have the wreck classified as sunken. 2. The grounding of a vessel so that it is not soon refloated; a serious grounding. strath. A broad elongated DEPRESSION with relatively steep walls located on a CONTINENTAL SHELF. The longitudinal profile of the floor is gently undulating with greatest DEPTHS often found in the inshore portion. stratification. The state of a fluid that consists of two or more horizontal layers arranged according to their density. stratocumulus. See CLOUD GENERA. stratopause. Top of the INVERSION LAYER in the upper STRATOSPHERE, at about 50-55 km. stratosphere. Region of the ATMOSPHERE, situated between the TROPOPAUSE and the STRATOPAUSE, in which the temperature generally increases with HEIGHT. From an imperfect analogy with the ATMOSPHERE, the term is sometimes applied in OCEANOGRAPHY to the nearly uniform masses of cold, deep and bottom water of middle and low LATITUDES. This LAYER is separated from the TROPOSPHERE by the THERMOCLINE. stratum (pl. strata). A single sedimentary bed or LAYER of generally homogenous ROCK, independent of thickness. stratus. See CLOUD GENERA. strays. In ECHO SOUNDING, false indications occasionally appearing on the DIAL or FATHOGRAM of an ECHO SOUNDER. They may be caused by the motion of the vessel through the water, by acoustic or electric NOISES in the ship, or by electric NOISES in the echo sounding equipment. Strays may be mistaken for the true echo or may be of such a nature as to prevent the identification of the true echo. stream. Any RIVER, BROOK, RIVULET or course of running water. A steady CURRENT in the SEA or in a RIVER, especially the middle or most rapid part of a TIDE or CURRENT. A steady FLOW of a fluid, small solid particles, or RADIANT ENERGY. stream (v.t.). To place overboard and secure, as to stream a LOG, or stream a sea anchor. stream: ebb. See EBB STREAM. stream: flood. See FLOOD STREAM. stream: ingoing. See FLOOD STREAM. stream: outgoing. See EBB STREAM. stream: rectilinear. See CURRENT: REVERSING. stream: rotary. See CURRENT: ROTARY. stream: tidal. See CURRENT: TIDAL. stream current. See CURRENT.

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streamer. A string of hydrophones towed behind a ship. streamline. A LINE OF FLOW. In METEOROLOGY, line envelope in space of the tangents to the instantaneous wind directions at a given time. Also written as two words. See also TRAJECTORY. streamline flow. See LAMINAR FLOW. strength of current. The PHASE of a TIDAL CURRENT at which the SPEED is a maximum; also the SPEED at this time. strength of figure. In GEODESY, the comparative PRECISION of computed lengths in a TRIANGULATION NET as determined by the size of the angles, the number of conditions to be satisfied, and the distribution of BASES and points of fixed POSITION. striding level. See LEVEL. strip. In ice terminology, a long narrow area of PACK ICE, about 1 km or less in width, usually composed of small fragments detached from the main mass of ICE, and run together under the influence of WIND, SWELL or CURRENT. strip coordinates. See COORDINATES. strip film (or stripping film). A film which has the emulsion coated on an extremely thin membrane which is in turn supported on a normal-thickness film base. The emulsion and the membrane can be stripped (separated) from the base after exposure and processing. The thin image so obtained can be mounted face down on a new support for lateral image reversal or used for combining with, or inserting in, other image elements. stripes (of colour). Areas of contrasting colour separated from one another by straight lines, and used as distinguishing characteristic for navigation marks. In British terminology horizontal stripes are denoted as bands. strong gale. Wind with a speed between 41 and 47 KNOTS (Beaufort scale wind force 9). structure. The term "structure" shall include, without limitation, any pier, wharf, dolphin, weir, boom, breakwater, bulkhead, revetment, riprap, jetty, permanent mooring structure, power transmission line, permanently moored floating vessel, piling, aid to navigation, or any other obstacle or obstruction. stylus. A pointer that is operated by placing it in a display space or a tablet. subastral point. See SUBSTELLAR POINT. sub-bottom profiler. A form of active, low frequency sonar in which acoustic beams penetrate the BOTTOM. A recorder produces a chart which represents a cross section of the geological structure of the subbottom. See also: ECHO SOUNDER. sub-celestial point. See SUB-POINT. sublunar point. The GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION of the MOON. That point on the surface of the EARTH at which the MOON is in the ZENITH at a specified TIME. See SUB-POINT. submarine bell. A bell whose SIGNAL is transmitted through water. submarine cable. See CABLE. submarine canyon. See CANYON. submarine geology. See GEOLOGY. submarine navigation. See NAVIGATION. submarine oscillator. See OSCILLATOR. submarine peninsula. See PENINSULA.

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submarine pipeline. See PIPELINE. submarine relief. See RELIEF. submarine ridge. An elongated elevation of the sea floor, with either irregular or relatively smooth topography and steep sides which constitutes a natural prolongation of land territory. submarine sentry. A form of underwater KITE towed at a predetermined constant DEPTH in search of ELEVATIONS of the BOTTOM. The KITE rises to the surface upon encountering an OBSTRUCTION. submarine sound channel. A water layer with minimum sound velocity and high concentration of sound energy in which sound waves are propagated without reflection from sea surface or bottom. submarine sound signal. See SOUND SIGNAL. submarine spring. See SPRING. submarine valley. See VALLEY. submarine volcano. A seabed volcano, submerged at the chart sounding datum, which may or may not be active. submerged (adj.). Under water; not showing above water. The opposite is UNCOVERED. submerged rock. A rock covered at the chart sounding datum and considered to be potentially dangerous to navigation. subordinate station. See STATION. subpermanent magnetism. See MAGNETISM: PERMANENT. subplan. An INSET on a SURVEY SHEET used to extend the survey coverage shown on the sheet, or to show small congested areas at enlarged SCALES. sub-point. That point on the surface of the EARTH at which a particular CELESTIAL BODY is in the ZENITH at a specified TIME. Also called 'geographical position of a celestial body'. Called sub-celestial point in Canadian terminology. See SUBLUNAR POINT, SUBSOLAR POINT, SUBSTELLAR POINT. sub-sea completion. See WELL: PRODUCTION. subsidiary station. See STATION. subsoil. All naturally occurring matter lying beneath the sea-bed or deep ocean floor. subsolar point. The GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION of the SUN; that point on the EARTH at which the SUN is in the ZENITH at a specified TIME. subsonic (adj.). Designating or of SPEEDS that are less than that of SOUND. substellar point. The GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION of a STAR; that point on the surface of the EARTH at which the STAR is in the ZENITH at a specified TIME. Also called subastral point. substitute centre. A point which, because of its ease of identification on overlapping PHOTOGRAPHS, is used instead of the PRINCIPAL POINT as a RADIAL CENTRE. substitute map. See MAP. subsurface current. See CURRENT. subsurface mark. See UNDERGROUND MARK. subsurface sound channel. The SUBMARINE SOUND CHANNEL which is adjacent to the water surface. subtense bar. A horizontally held bar of precisely determined length, used to measure distances by observing the angle it subtends at the distance to be measured.

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subtense method. A procedure by which distance measurements are obtained by use of a SUBTENSE BAR. sue. The vertical amount which a vessel aground dries due to the fall of the TIDE. sugar loaf. A descriptive term for a conical HILL. sugar loaf sea. Waves that rise into sugar loaf shapes, with little WIND, possibly resulting from intersecting WAVES. summer solstice. See SOLSTICE. summer time. See TIME: DAYLIGHT SAVING. summit. The highest point, part or ELEVATION; top or APEX. Sumner line. A CELESTIAL LINE OF POSITION, particularly one established by the SUMNER METHOD. Named after Captain Thomas H. Sumner, the discoverer of the LINE OF POSITION by celestial observation. Sumner method. The establishing of a LINE OF POSITION from the OBSERVATION of the ALTITUDE of a CELESTIAL BODY by assuming two LATITUDES (or LONGITUDES) and calculating the LONGITUDES (or LATITUDES) through which the LINE OF POSITION passes. sun. The luminous CELESTIAL BODY at the centre of the SOLAR SYSTEM, around which other CELESTIAL BODIES revolve. sun: apparent. The actual SUN as it appears in the sky. Also called true sun. sun: mean. A fictitious SUN conceived to move eastward along the CELESTIAL EQUATOR at a rate that provides a uniform measure of TIME equal to the average APPARENT TIME. It is used as a reference for reckoning MEAN TIME, ZONE TIME, etc. sun: true. See SUN: APPARENT. sun compass. See COMPASS. sundial. An instrument that indicates TIME by the position of the shadow of a pointer or GNOMON cast by the SUN on the face of a DIAL marked in HOURS. sunken rock. A ROCK potentially dangerous to SURFACE NAVIGATION, the SUMMIT of which is below the lower limit of the zone for ROCK AWASH. sunrise. The crossing of the APPARENT HORIZON by the upper LIMB of the ascending SUN. sunset. The crossing of the APPARENT HORIZON by the upper LIMB of the descending SUN. sunshine recorder. See HELIOGRAPH. sunspot. Any of the dark spots sometimes seen at the surface of the SUN; they are believed to have some connection with magnetic disturbances on EARTH. sunspot cycle. The time interval (11.2 YEARS) during which the number of SUNSPOTS progresses from a minimum to a maximum and decreases again to a minimum. super high frequency (SHF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. superior conjunction. See CONJUNCTION. superior mirage. See MIRAGE. superior planet(s). See PLANET(S): SUPERIOR. superior transit. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT. superjacent waters. The waters lying immediately above the sea-bed or deep ocean floor up to the surface.

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super-short baseline acoustic system. A variation of the short baseline system with three sensors incorporated in a single transducer. supersonic (adj.). Designating or of a SPEED greater than the SPEED of SOUND. supplemental control. See CONTROL. supplemental control point. A photoimage point for which an ELEVATION or a horizontal POSITION, or both, is to be, or has been determined. See also CONTROL POINT. supplementary station. See STATION. surf. Collective term for BREAKERS. The wave activity in the area between the SHORELINE and the outermost limit of BREAKERS. surface boundary layer. See GROUND LAYER. surface current. See CURRENT. surface duct. A zone immediately below the sea surface where SOUND RAYS are refracted toward the surface and then reflected. They are refracted because the SOUND VELOCITY at some DEPTH near the surface is greater than at the surface. The RAYS alternately are refracted and reflected along the duct to considerable distances from the sound source. surface mark. A STATION MARK used in addition to the UNDERGROUND MARK, over which it is plumbed. surface navigation. See NAVIGATION. surface of position. A surface on some point of which a craft is located. surface reflection. The return of SOUND RAYS to depth after striking the sea surface. surface temperature. Temperature of the water of the surface layer of the SEA (or LAKE, RIVER, etc.). surface wave. See WAVE. surf zone. The area between the outermost BREAKER and the limit of wave UPRUSH. surge. A ship's bodily motion forward and backward along the longitudinal axis, caused by the force of the sea acting alternately on the bow and stern. The name applied to wave motion with a period intermediate between that of the ordinary WIND WAVE and that of the TIDE, from about 1/2 to 60 minutes. Horizontal oscillation of water with comparative short period accompanying a SEICHE. surge (v.i.). To rise and fall, as a vessel at anchor. To vary abruptly and momentarily in amount, as an electric current in a circuit. surge: negative. An occasion when the level of the sea is lower than the predicted level. It is caused by meteorological conditions. surge: positive. An occasion when the level of the sea is higher than the predicted level. It is caused by meteorological conditions. surging breaker. See BREAKER. surround. See MARGIN. survey. The orderly process of determining DATA relating to the physical or chemical characteristics of the EARTH. The act or operation of making measurements for determining the RELATIVE POSITION of points on, above or beneath the EARTH's surface. The result of such operations. An organization for making surveys.

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survey: aerial. A SURVEY using AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS as part of the surveying operation; also the taking of AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS for surveying purposes. survey: cadastral. A SURVEY relating to land boundaries and subdivisions, made to create units suitable for transfer or to define the limitations of title. Also called land survey. survey: coastal. HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY of coastal area including COASTLINING. survey: exploratory. A SURVEY executed for the purpose of obtaining general information concerning areas about which such information was not, previously, a matter of record. survey: geodetic. A SURVEY in which the figure and size of the EARTH is considered. It is applicable for large areas and long lines and is used for the precise location of basic points suitable for controlling other SURVEYS. survey: geologic(al). A SURVEY or investigation of the character and structure of the EARTH, of the physical changes which the EARTH'S CRUST has undergone or is undergoing, and of the causes producing those changes. survey: graphic control. A skeleton SURVEY made by PLANE TABLE for the purpose of (a) locating the HYDROGRAPHIC SIGNALS, (b) locating additional CONTROL from AERIAL SURVEYS and clarification of indefinite detail on PHOTOGRAPHS, of (c) a combination of the two. survey: gravimetric. A SURVEY made to determine the ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY at various places on the EARTH's surface. survey: ground. A SURVEY made by ground methods, as distinguished from an AERIAL SURVEY. A ground survey may or may not include the use of PHOTOGRAPHS. survey: harbour. HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY of a harbour area. survey: hydrographic. A SURVEY having for its principal purpose the determination of DATA relating to bodies of water. A hydrographic survey may consist of the determination of one or several of the following classes of DATA: DEPTH of water; configuration and NATURE OF THE BOTTOM; directions and force of CURRENTS; HEIGHTS and TIMES of TIDES and water stages; and location of topographic features and fixed objects for survey and navigation purposes. survey: land. See SURVEY: CADASTRAL. survey: large scale. A HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY at a LARGE SCALE. Large scale surveys are usually intended to furnish detailed information for dredging, or other types of harbour improvement. survey: magnetic. A SURVEY conducted to measure the strength and direction of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD at specific points on or near the surface of the EARTH. survey: magnetometer. A SURVEY wherein the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD is mapped by the use of a MAGNETOMETER. survey: new. See RESURVEY. survey: oceanographic. A study or examination of any physical, chemical, biological, geological or geophysical condition in the OCEAN, or any part of it. An expedition to gather DATA, samples or information to conduct such studies or examination. survey: offshore. HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS conducted in areas beyond a certain distance from the shore, e.g. in the HIGH SEAS. survey: photogrammetric. A SURVEY utilizing either TERRESTRIAL or AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS. survey: preliminary. See SURVEY: RECONNAISSANCE. survey: reconnaissance. A hasty preliminary SURVEY of a region made to provide some advance information regarding the area which may be useful, pending the execution of more complete SURVEYS. Also called preliminary survey.

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survey: revisory. Hydrographic surveys conducted for the revision of charts including checking depths, aids to navigation, existence of land and water features, and any changes or additions such as new features constructed that are important to the mariner. A revisory survey is not considered to be a detailed resurvey. survey: running. A HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY in which the greater part of the work is done from the ship steaming along the COAST. A LINE OF SOUNDING is run on the COURSE MADE GOOD and any additional information of a hydrographic nature which can be obtained whilst under way, is collected. survey: sketch. A HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY made (due to lack of time or facilities) to a lower degree of ACCURACY and detail than the chosen SCALE would normally indicate. survey: sonar. HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY using a SONAR. survey: tagline. A LARGE SCALE SURVEY made by employing a TAGLINE. An accurate method sometimes adopted in river and harbour work. survey: topographic. A SURVEY which has for its major purpose the determination of the configuration (RELIEF) of the surface of the EARTH and the location of natural and artificial objects thereon. survey: wire-drag. A HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY made utilizing a WIRE DRAG. In areas of rocky BOTTOM or where submerged obstacles such as WRECKS are present, a wire-drag survey represents the most practical way of making sure that all OBSTRUCTIONS or dangers have been found and least DEPTHS over them obtained. Also called wire drag sweep. survey buoy. See BUOY. survey boat. A boat used for hydrographic surveys. surveying. Specifically, the science or art of making such measurements as are necessary to determine the RELATIVE POSITION of points above, on, or beneath the surface of the EARTH, or to establish such points. Generally, the art of making a SURVEY. surveying: plane. A branch of the art of SURVEYING in which the surface of the EARTH is considered a plane surface. In plane surveying, curvature of the EARTH is neglected, and computations are made using the formulae of plane geometry and plane trigonometry. surveying (or mapping) camera. See CAMERA. surveying sextant. See SEXTANT: SOUNDING. survey mark. An object placed at the site of a station to identify the surveyed location of that station. In particular, an object whose coordinates are used for control in a geodetic network. Also called MARKER, geodetic marker, and MONUMENT. survey net. See LEVEL NET, TRIANGULATION NET. surveyor. A person engaged in SURVEYING. surveyor's compass. See COMPASS. survey sheet. See HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY SHEET. survey (or surveying) ship (or vessel). A ship or vessel specially equipped for carrying out HYDROGRAPHIC and/or OCEANOGRAPHIC SURVEY. survey signal. See SIGNAL. survey station. See STATION. survey traverse. See TRAVERSE. Swallow float. A tubular BUOY, usually made of aluminium, that can be adjusted to remain at a selected density level to drift with the motion of that water mass. The FLOAT is tracked by shipboard listening devices and current velocities can be determined.

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swamp. An area of spongy land saturated with water. It may have a shallow covering of water, usually with a considerable amount of vegetation appearing above the surface. swash. A narrow CHANNEL or SOUND within a sand bank, or between a sand bank and the SHORE. Also called swashway. A BAR over which the SEA washes. The rush of water up onto a BEACH following the breaking of a WAVE. swash channel. A CHANNEL across a BANK, or among SHOALS. swash mark. The thin wavy line of fine SAND, mica scales, bits of SEAWEED, etc., left by the UPRUSH when it recedes from its upward limit of movement on the BEACH. swashway. See SWASH. swath(e). The strip or lane on the ground scanned by a multi-beam sounder when the survey vessel proceeds along its course. swath(e) sounding system. A multi-beam system which is capable of obtaining a lane of soundings from a single ship's track. sway. The side-to-side bodily motion of a ship, independent of ROLLING, caused by uniform pressure being exerted all along one side of the hull. sweep (v.t. & i.). To tow a line or object below the surface, to determine the least depth in an area or to insure that a given area is free from navigational dangers to a certain depth; or the removal of such dangers. sweeping. The process of towing a line or object below the surface, to determine whether an area is free from isolated submerged dangers to vessels and to determine the position of any dangers that exist, or to determine the least depth of an area. swell. Ocean waves which have travelled out of their generating area. Swell characteristically exhibits a more regular and longer PERIOD and has flatter CRESTS than WAVES within their FETCH. Rising of the water of a RIVER above its usual LEVEL. Gently rising GROUND or a rounded HILL above the surrounding GROUND. swing. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, a rotation of a PHOTOGRAPH in its own plane about its camera axis. swinger. See FIX: CIRCULAR. swinging buoy. See COMPASS ADJUSTMENT BUOY. swinging ship. The process of placing a vessel on various HEADINGS and comparing MAGNETIC COMPASS readings with the corresponding magnetic DIRECTIONS, to determine DEVIATION. This usually follows COMPASS COMPENSATION (or ADJUSTMENT), and is done to obtain information for making a DEVIATION TABLE. Also called compass calibration, or calibration of compass. See COMPENSATION OF MAGNETIC COMPASS. swirl error. See ERROR. symbol. A CHARACTER, letter, or similar graphic representation used on a CHART, MAP, HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY SHEET, or DIAGRAM to represent some object, quantity, characteristic, etc. synodical month. See MONTH. synodic (or synodical) period. The interval of time between any planetary configuration of a CELESTIAL BODY, with respect to the SUN, and the next successive same configuration of that body, as from INFERIOR CONJUNCTION to INFERIOR CONJUNCTION. synoptic analysis. Sea WEATHER ANALYSIS. synoptic chart (or map). See CHART (or MAP): WEATHER. synoptic forecast. WEATHER FORECAST based on SYNOPTIC OBSERVATION.

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synoptic hour. Hour, expressed in terms of UT, at which, by international agreement, METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS are made simultaneously throughout the globe. synoptic meteorology. Branch of METEOROLOGY which is concerned with the study of METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS in space. It is based on the analysis of the SYNOPTIC CHARTS on which are plotted SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS for the purpose of the WEATHER ANALYSIS or WEATHER FORECAST. synoptic observation. METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATION made at the same time (SYNOPTIC HOUR) at numerous stations to obtain general representation of the state of the atmosphere at the given time. synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A RADAR with a synthetic aperture antenna which is composed of a large number of elementary transducing elements. The signals are electronically combined into a resulting signal equivalent to that of a single antenna of a given aperture in a given direction. syntony. The situation of two or more oscillating circuits having the same RESONANT FREQUENCY. systematic error. See ERROR. system development. The development of a program system comprising analysis, design, programming, testing, and implementation. systems of sounding lines. The predetermined lines that the SURVEY VESSEL is to follow for the best development of the DEPTH CONTOURS in an area. Systme International (SI System). System of metric measures consisting of seven basic units which are METRE, KILOGRAMME, SECOND, AMPERE, Kelvin, MOLE and CANDELA. syzygy. In ASTRONOMY, either of two opposing points in the ORBIT of a PLANET or SATELLITE, especially of the MOON, at which it is in CONJUNCTION with or in OPPOSITION to the SUN. syzygy tide. See TIDE.

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5273 table. An orderly, condensed arrangement of numerical or other information, usually in parallel vertical columns. See CONVERSION TABLE, CURRENT TABLES, TIDE TABLES, TRAVERSE TABLE. tableland. An elevated region of LAND with a generally level surface of large or considerable extent; a lofty PLAIN; a PLATEAU. tablemount. A SEAMOUNT having a comparatively smooth flat top. Also called guyot. tabular berg. A flat-topped ICEBERG. Most tabular bergs form by breaking from an ICE SHELF and show horizontal banding. tabulation. Orderly arrangement as in a TABLE. tachometer. A device that indicates or measures the revolutions per MINUTE of a revolving shaft or the VELOCITY of a machine. tachymeter (or tacheometer). A surveying instrument designed for use in the rapid determination of distance, DIRECTION, and difference of ELEVATION from a single OBSERVATION, using a short base which may be an integral part of the instrument. tachymetry. A method of SURVEYING for the rapid determination of distance, DIRECTION, and relative ELEVATION of a point with respect to the instrument station by a single OBSERVATION on a rod or other object at the point. The stadia method of SURVEYING is an example of tachymetry. tach stave (levelling staff). A staff with a length of about 2m with subdivisions. It is used in combination with a levelling instrument or theodolite. taffrail. The after rail at the stern of a vessel. taffrail log. See LOG. tagline. A line, either marked at equal intervals or run over a registered sheave, used in LARGE-SCALE SURVEYS to take equally spaced SOUNDINGS at predetermined distances from the CONTROL STATIONS. tagline survey. See SURVEY. tail wind. WIND which blows in the same direction as that in which an object is moving, with respect to the EARTH's surface. talus. A SLOPE. A sloping mass of DETRITUS lying at the base of a CLIFF or the like, and consisting of material which has fallen from its face; also the SLOPE or inclination of the surface of such a mass. talweg (or thalweg). The line joining the lowest points of a VALLEY throughout its length. Sometimes called valley line. tandem control. In HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY, a system of obtaining two or more adjacent SOUNDING LINES run simultaneously and controlled by one ship, the other ships, or LAUNCHES being merely referenced to it. tank. A fixed structure for storing liquids. tangent screw. A slow motion screw of a surveying instrument or SEXTANT. tape. In SURVEYING, a ribbon of steel, INVAR, or other suitable material on which GRADUATIONS are placed for the measurement of lengths or distances. See also BASE TAPE (or WIRE). tape: alignment correction. A CORRECTION applied to the measured length of a line to allow for the TAPE not being held exactly in a vertical plane containing the line. tape: base. See BASE TAPE (or WIRE). tape: catenary correction. See TAPE: SAG CORRECTION.

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tape: grade correction. A CORRECTION applied to a distance measured on a SLOPE to reduce it to a horizontal distance between the vertical lines through its end points. Also termed slope correction or correction for inclination of tape. tape: invar. Any survey TAPE made of INVAR. tape: length correction. The difference between the nominal length of a TAPE and its effective length under conditions of STANDARDIZATION. tape: reference. See REFERENCE TAPE. tape: sag correction. The difference between the effective length of a TAPE (or part of a TAPE) when supported continuously throughout its length and when supported at a limited number of independent points. Also called catenary correction. tape: standard. See REFERENCE TAPE. tape: steel. Any survey TAPE made of steel. tape: temperature correction. The quantity applied to the nominal length of a TAPE to allow for a change in its effective length because of its being used at a temperature other than that for which its standard length is given. tape: tension correction. The CORRECTION applied to the nominal length of a TAPE to allow for a change in effective length because of its being used at a tension other than that for which its standard length is known. tape correction(s). CORRECTIONS applied to a distance measured with a TAPE to eliminate ERRORS caused by the physical condition of the TAPE, and to the manner in which it is used. tape stretcher. A mechanical device which facilitates holding a TAPE at a prescribed tension and in a prescribed position. tape thermometer. See under THERMOMETER. taping. The operation of measuring a distance on the GROUND using a TAPE or ribbon of metal or other material. Also called chaining. target. Any object, point, etc., toward which something is directed. An object which reflects a sufficient amount of a radiated SIGNAL to produce an echo signal on detection equipment. See RADAR TARGET, SONAR TARGET. The distinctive marking or instrumentation of a ground point to aid in its identification on a PHOTOGRAPH. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, target designates a material marking so arranged and placed on the GROUND as to form a distinctive pattern over a geodetic or other control point marker, on a property corner or line, or at the position of an identifying point above an underground facility or feature. A target is also the image pattern on AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS of the actual MARK placed on the GROUND prior to PHOTOGRAPHY. target: false. See ECHO: FALSE. tartan plots. LATTICES resulting from the enlargement of small parts of Two Range and hyperbolic LATTICES, used for work which has to be carried out on a SCALE larger than that being used for the main SURVEY. taut wire measuring gear. An apparatus designed for measuring horizontal distances at sea. It is constructed so that a wire of small diameter, one end of which is anchored on the BOTTOM, passes around a calibrated sheave as the ship steams along the route to be measured. taut wire mooring. A mooring arrangement in which a submerged FLOAT provides the upward force necessary to maintain the system in a fixed position with reference to the sea bottom. tectonics. The study of origin and development of the broad structural features of the EARTH. telecommunication. Any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, SIGNALS, writing, IMAGES and SOUNDS or intelligence of any nature by wire, RADIO, visual or other electromagnetic systems. telegraph buoy. A BUOY used to mark the position of a submarine telegraph cable. telemeteorograph. General term for meteorological instruments whose indications are recorded at a distance.

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telemeter. An instrument for determining the distance from one point to another. Some such instruments employ a TELESCOPE and measure the angle subtended by a short base of known length. The complete equipment for measuring any quantity, transmitting the results electrically to a distance point, and there recording the values measured. telemeter: electronic. An electronic device that measures the phase difference or transit time between a transmitted electromagnetic IMPULSE of known FREQUENCY and SPEED and its return. telemetry. The study and technique involved in measuring a quantity or quantities in place, transmitting this value to a station, and there interpreting, indicating, or recording the quantities; and transmitting commands from the station to control the measurement device. telemotor. A hydraulic or electrical device controlling the action of power at a distance, specifically, a device which controls the steering gear of a ship. telescope. An optical instrument used as an aid in viewing or photographing distant objects, particularly celestial objects. telescope: meridian. A TELESCOPE whose motion along a VERTICAL CIRCLE is intended to lie in the plane of the MERIDIAN. telescope: photo zenithal. An instrument designed to take photos of stars culminating close to the zenith of a station in order to determine the position of the station with high accuracy. telescope: reflecting. A TELESCOPE which collects light by means of a concave MIRROR. telescope: refracting. A TELESCOPE which collects light by means of a LENS or system of LENSES. telescope: zenith. An astronomical instrument for determining the LATITUDE by observing ZENITH DISTANCES of two STARS that culminate as close as possible in TIME, and at nearly the same ALTITUDE on opposite sides of the ZENITH. telescopic alidade. See ALIDADE. telltale compass. See COMPASS. telluric current(s). See CURRENT: TELLURIC. temperature. The intensity or degree of heat. temperature correction (levelling). That CORRECTION which is applied to an observed difference of ELEVATION to correct for the ERROR introduced when the temperature at which the LEVELLING RODS are used in the field is different from the temperature at which they were standardized. temperature correction (tape). See TAPE: TEMPERATURE CORRECTION. temperature inversion. In OCEANOGRAPHY, a LAYER in which temperature increases with DEPTH. Also called inversion layer. temperature lapse rate. Rate of decrease of temperature with increasing HEIGHT; usually an average rate over a distance, for example 100 METRES, is considered. temperature-salinity diagram. The plot of temperature versus SALINITY data of a water column. The result is a DIAGRAM which identifies the water masses within the column, the column's stability, and indicates the st value, and allows an estimate of the ACCURACY of the temperature and salinity measurements. template (or templet). A pattern or guide, usually constructed of paper, plastic, or metal, used to shape, delimit, or locate an area. A device used in RADIAL TRIANGULATION to represent the AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH; the template provides a record of the directions of RADIALS taken from the PHOTOGRAPH. temporal (adj.). Pertaining to or limited by TIME. temporal variation. See MAGNETIC TEMPORAL VARIATION.

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temporary magnetism. See MAGNETISM. tension correction (tape). See TAPE: TENSION CORRECTION. tented ice. PRESSURE ICE in which two ICE FLOES have been pushed into the air, leaving an air space underneath. terminal. A number of berths grouped together, providing facilities for handling a particular form of cargo, e.g. oil terminal, container terminal. terrace. A relatively flat horizontal or gently inclined surface, sometimes long and narrow, bounded above and below by rather abrupt SLOPES. terrain. Standing GROUND. A tract of country considered with regard to its natural features, configuration, etc. terrestrial camera. See CAMERA. terrestrial equator. See EQUATOR. terrestrial globe. See GLOBE. terrestrial latitude. See LATITUDE. terrestrial longitude. See LONGITUDE. terrestrial magnetic field. See GEOMAGNETIC FIELD. terrestrial magnetism. See GEOMAGNETISM. terrestrial meridian. See MERIDIAN: ASTRONOMICAL. terrestrial navigation. The kind of NAVIGATION which uses marks ashore for positioning. terrestrial photogrammetry. See PHOTOGRAMMETRY. terrestrial photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH. terrestrial pole. See POLE. terrigenous (adj.). Derived from the LAND. Applied to marine DEPOSITS, originating from the EROSION of the LAND as opposed to pelagic DEPOSITS. terrigenous sediments. DEPOSITS consisting of DEBRIS derived from the EROSION of land areas and usually deposited in the shallow parts of the SEA. territorial sea. A belt of water of a defined breadth but not exceeding 12 nautical miles measured seaward from the territorial sea baseline. territorial waters. See TERRITORIAL SEA. tesla. The unit of magnetic flux density in the SI SYSTEM. test. The hard covering or supporting structure of many invertebrates; it may be enclosed within an outer layer of living tissue; a SHELL. Texas tower. A fixed tower mounted on the CONTINENTAL SHELF or on a SHOAL, used to drill and operate gas or petroleum wells, and to provide a platform for AIDS TO NAVIGATION and meteorological or oceanographic instrumentation. thalweg. See TALWEG. thaw. Melting of SNOW and/or ICE, at the EARTH's surface, following a temperature rise above 0 C. thematic map. See MAP.

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theodolite. A precision surveying instrument consisting of an ALIDADE with a TELESCOPE. It is mounted on an accurately graduated CIRCLE and is equipped with necessary LEVELS and reading devices. Sometimes, the ALIDADE carries a graduated VERTICAL CIRCLE. theodolite: direction. A THEODOLITE in which the graduated HORIZONTAL CIRCLE remains fixed during a series of OBSERVATIONS, the TELESCOPE being pointed on a number of SIGNALS or objects in succession, and the DIRECTION of each read on the CIRCLE, usually by the use of MICROMETER MICROSCOPES. theodolite: face(s) of. See FACE(S) OF THEODOLITE. theodolite: repeating. A THEODOLITE so designed that successive measures of an angle may be accumulated on the graduated CIRCLE, and a final reading of the CIRCLE made which represents the sum of the repetitions. The observed value of the angle is obtained by dividing the total arc passed through in making the series of OBSERVATIONS by the number of times the angle has been observed. Also called repeating instrument. See REPETITION METHOD OF OBSERVATION. theodolite: transit. See TRANSIT. theodolite axes. See AXIS: HORIZONTAL and AXIS: VERTICAL. theodolite drag. See DRAG (of THEODOLITE). theoretical error. See ERROR. thermal equator. See EQUATOR. thermal layer. See THERMOCLINE. thermocline. A vertical negative temperature gradient in some LAYER of a body of water, which is appreciably greater than the GRADIENTS above and below it; also a LAYER, in which such a GRADIENT occurs. The principal thermoclines in the OCEAN are either seasonal, due to heating of the surface water in summer, or permanent. Also called discontinuity layer, or thermal layer. thermocline: transient. A small decrease in vertical temperature observed above the THERMOCLINE. It is a shortterm PHENOMENON associated primarily with diurnal heating and wind mixing. thermogram. Record made by a THERMOGRAPH. thermograph. THERMOMETER used to give a graphical record of the time variations of temperature. thermohygrograph. See HYGROTHERMOGRAPH. thermometer. Instrument used in the measurement of temperature. thermometer: deep sea. A THERMOMETER for ascertaining the temperature of SEA WATER at any DEPTH. See THERMOMETER: PROTECTED REVERSING, THERMOMETER: REVERSING, THERMOMETER: UNPROTECTED REVERSING. thermometer: dry-bulb. That of the two THERMOMETERS of a PSYCHROMETER whose bulb is bare and which indicates the air temperature. thermometer: maximum. THERMOMETER used for measuring the highest temperature attained during a given interval of time, for example, a day. thermometer: minimum. THERMOMETER used for measuring the lowest temperature attained during a given interval of time, for example, a day. thermometer: protected reversing. A REVERSING THERMOMETER enclosed in a heavy glass case to protect it from HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE. thermometer: reversing. A DEEP-SEA THERMOMETER that records temperature at the desired DEPTH upon being inverted and thereafter retains its reading until returned to the first position. Reversing thermometers are generally used in pairs on WATER BOTTLES.

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thermometer: tape. A precision THERMOMETER fitted in a specially designed case to clip on and against a metal TAPE in order to determine TEMPERATURE CORRECTIONS for precision BASE or TRAVERSE tape measurements. thermometer: unprotected reversing. A REVERSING THERMOMETER which is not protected against HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE. Used in conjunction with PROTECTED REVERSING THERMOMETERS to determine THERMOMETRIC DEPTH. thermometer: wet-bulb. That of the two THERMOMETERS of a PSYCHROMETER whose bulb is wet and covered by a film of pure water or ICE. thermometric depth. See DEPTH. thermometric levelling. See LEVELLING. thermoprobe. A TRANSDUCER used to measure temperature 'in situ' of ocean BOTTOM SEDIMENTS at DEPTHS beneath the BOTTOM. Such measurements when combined with heat conductivity information provide a measurement of heat flow through the ocean bottom. third order triangulation. See TRIANGULATION CLASSIFICATION. three-arm protractor. See PROTRACTOR: THREE-ARM. three-point fix. See FIX. three-point fix method. One of the principal methods used on inshore HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS for establishing the POSITION of the SURVEY VESSEL. It involves the measurement with SEXTANTS of two angles between three known STATIONS, the middle STATION being common to both angles, and plotting the vessel's POSITION graphically with a THREE-ARM PROTRACTOR. three-point problem. The determination of the horizontal POSITION of a point of observation from DATA comprising two observed horizontal angles between three objects of known POSITION. The problem is solved either graphically by the use of a THREE-ARM PROTRACTOR, or analytically by trigonometrical computation. threshold. In aeronautical terminology, the beginning of that portion of the RUNWAY usable for landing. threshold speed. The minimum SPEED of CURRENT at which a particular CURRENT METER will measure at its rated reliability. thunder. Sharp or rumbling SOUND which accompanies LIGHTNING. thunderstorm. One or more sudden electrical discharges manifested by the flash of light (LIGHTNING) and a sharp or rumbling sound (THUNDER). tidal basin. See BASIN. tidal bore. See BORE. tidal constants. Tidal relations that remain essentially constant for any particular locality. Tidal constants are classed as harmonic and non-harmonic, the HARMONIC CONSTANTS consisting of the AMPLITUDES and EPOCHS, and the NON-HARMONIC CONSTANTS including those values determined directly from OBSERVATIONS, such as tidal ranges and intervals. tidal constituent. See HARMONIC CONSTITUENT. tidal current. See CURRENT. tidal current chart. See CHART. tidal current signal. See SIGNAL. tidal (or tide) cycle. A complete set of tidal conditions, as those occurring during a TIDAL DAY, LUNAR MONTH or METONIC CYCLE. tidal datum. See DATUM.

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tidal day. LUNAR DAY. The period of the daily CYCLE of the TIDES, differing slightly from the LUNAR DAY because of PRIMING and LAGGING OF THE TIDE. tidal difference. Difference in TIME or HEIGHT of a HIGH or LOW WATER at a SUBORDINATE STATION and at a REFERENCE STATION for which predictions are given in the TIDE TABLES. The difference, when applied according to sign to the prediction at the REFERENCE STATION, gives the corresponding TIME or HEIGHT for the SUBORDINATE STATION. tidal epoch. See PHASE LAG. tidal flat. A MARSH or sandy or muddy coastal flatland which is covered and uncovered by the RISE and fall of the TIDE. tidal harbour. See HARBOUR. tidal light(s). See LIGHT. tidal movement. The movement which includes both the vertical RISE and fall of the TIDE, and the horizontal FLOW of the TIDAL CURRENTS. This movement is associated with the astronomical TIDE-PRODUCING FORES of the MOON and SUN acting upon the rotating EARTH. tidal observations. See OBSERVATION. tidal prediction. See TIDE PREDICTION. tidal range. See RANGE OF TIDE. tidal rise. See RISE OF TIDE. tidal stream. See CURRENT: TIDAL. tidal theories. The different theories trying to describe the tidal phenomena. tidal water. Any water the level of which changes periodically due to tidal action. See TIDEWATER. tidal wave. See WAVE. tide. The periodic RISE and fall of the surface of OCEANS, BAYS, etc., due principally to the gravitational interactions between the MOON, SUN and EARTH. tide: analysis. The mathematical processes by which the observed TIDE or TIDAL CURRENT are analyzed to obtain constituents and statistics. tide(s): apogean. TIDES of decreased RANGE occurring when the MOON is near APOGEE. tide: astronomical. TIDE due to the attraction of the SUN and MOON, in contrast to a METEOROLOGICAL TIDE, caused by meterological conditions. EQUILIBRIUM TIDE. tide: compound. A tide constituent with a SPEED equal to the sum or difference of the SPEEDS of two or more basic constituents. Compound tides usually occur in SHALLOW WATER regions. See SHALLOW WATER CONSTITUENT. tide: diurnal. A TIDE in which the TIDAL CYCLE consists of one HIGH WATER and one LOW WATER each TIDAL DAY. In British terminology also called single day tide. tide: double. A double-headed TIDE. Also called agger. See HIGH WATER: DOUBLE and LOW WATER: DOUBLE. tide: earth. Periodic movement of the EARTH's CRUST caused by the TIDE-PRODUCING FORCES of the MOON and SUN. tide: ebb. See TIDE: FALLING.

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tide(s): equatorial. TIDES that occur approximately every two weeks when the MOON is over the EQUATOR. At these times, the MOON produces minimum DIURNAL INEQUALITY in the TIDE. tide: equilibrium. A hypothetical TIDE based upon the assumption that the water responds, instantly to the TIDEPRODUCING FORCES of the MOON and SUN, and forms a surface of EQUILIBRIUM under the action of these forces, disregarding friction, inertia and the irregular distribution of the land masses. tide(s): equinoctial spring. Those TIDES occurring near the EQUINOXES when the FULL or NEW MOON and the SUN have little or low DECLINATION and SPRING TIDES of greater RANGE than the average occur, particularly if the MOON is also nearly in PERIGEE. tide: falling. The portion of the TIDE CYCLE between HIGH WATER and the following LOW WATER. Also called ebb tide. The opposite is RISING TIDE. tide: flood. See TIDE: RISING. tide: half. The condition or TIME of the TIDE when at the level midway between any given HIGH TIDE and the following or preceding LOW TIDE. tide: high. See HIGH WATER. tide: leeward (or lee). A TIDAL CURRENT setting in the same direction as that in which the WIND is blowing. Also called leeward tidal current. tide: low. See LOW WATER. tide: lunar. That part of the TIDE due solely to the TIDE-PRODUCING FORCES of the MOON, as distinguished from that part caused by the forces of the SUN. See TIDE: SOLAR. tide: meteorological. A change in water level caused by local meteorological conditions, in contrast to an ASTRONOMICAL TIDE caused by the attraction of the SUN and MOON. tide: mid-extreme. A level midway between the extreme HIGH WATER and extreme LOW WATER occurring at a place. See HALF-TIDE LEVEL. tide: mixed. The TYPE OF TIDE in which a diurnal WAVE produces large INEQUALITIES in HEIGHTS and/or durations of successive HIGH and/or LOW WATERS. This term applies to the TIDES intermediate to those predominantly semidiurnal and those predominantly diurnal. tides: mixed diurnal. Diurnal tides which become semidiurnal with a considerable decrease of range when the moon's declination is small. tides: mixed semidiurnal. Semidiurnal tides with noticeable inequality in corresponding extremes. tide(s): neap. The TIDES of decreased RANGE occurring near the TIMES of FIRST and LAST QUARTER. tide: oceanic. The periodic rise and fall of the earth's oceans resulting from gravitational interactions between the sun, moon, and earth. tide: partial. One of the harmonic components comprising the TIDE at any point. The periods of the partial tides are derived from various combinations of the ANGULAR VELOCITIES of EARTH, SUN, MOON, and STARS relative to each other. See HARMONIC CONSTITUENT. tide(s): perigean. TIDES of increased RANGE occurring when the MOON is near PERIGEE. tide(s): predicted. The expected TIMES and HEIGHTS of the TIDE as given in the TIDE TABLES in advance of their occurrence. tide: primary. That part of a tidal UNDULATION that is the direct response to a TIDE-PRODUCING FORCE. tide(s): quarter-diurnal. The TIDE resulting from the distortion of the normal TIDE in SHALLOW WATER with four HIGH WATERS and four LOW WATERS during one day. See also TIDE(S): SHALLOW WATER. tide: rising. The portion of the TIDE CYCLE between LOW WATER and the following HIGH WATER. Also called flood tide. The opposite is FALLING TIDE.

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tide(s): secondary. Those additional TIDES HIGHER LOW WATERS and LOWER HIGH WATERS that occur twice a MONTH (when the MOON is over the EQUATOR) in a general pattern of DIURNAL TIDES. tide: semidiurnal. A TIDE in which the TIDAL CYCLE consists of two HIGH WATERS and two LOW WATERS each TIDAL DAY, with comparatively little DIURNAL INEQUALITY. tide(s): shallow water. A distortional effect upon astronomically generated TIDE caused by SHALLOW WATERS. See also TIDE(S): QUARTER-DIURNAL. tide: single day. See TIDE: DIURNAL. tide: slack. See SLACK WATER. tide: solar. That part of the TIDE due solely to the TIDE-PRODUCING FORCES of the SUN, as distinguished from that part caused by the forces of the MOON. tide(s): solsticial. TIDES occurring near the TIMES of the SOLSTICES, when the TROPIC RANGE is especially large. tide(s): spring. The TIDES of increased RANGE occurring near the TIMES of FULL MOON and NEW MOON. tide: storm. See STORM SURGE. tide: syzygy. The TIDE which takes place on the afternoon of the day the SUN and MOON are in SYZYGY. (This term is now little used). tide: tropic. The TIDE that occurs twice monthly when the effect of the MOON's maximum DECLINATION north or south of the EQUATOR is greatest. tide: vanishing. The PHENOMENON occurring when a HIGH and LOW WATER 'melt' together into a period of several hours with a nearly constant water level. The TIDE is in the diurnal category but is known as a 'vanishing tide'. tide: weather. See TIDE: WINDWARD. tide: windward. A TIDAL CURRENT setting to windward. Also called weather tide. tide-bound (adj.). Unable to proceed because of insufficient DEPTH of water due to tidal action. tide bulge. See TIDE WAVE. tide crack. The fissure at the line of junction between an immovable ICEFOOT or ICE WALL and FAST ICE, the latter being subject to the RISE and fall of the TIDE. tide curve. Any graphic representation of the RISE and fall of the TIDE. TIME is generally represented by the abscissae and the HEIGHT of the TIDE by ordinates. For normal TIDES the curve so produced approximates a sine curve. Also called marigram. tide cycle. See TIDAL CYCLE. tide gate. A restricted passage through which water runs with great SPEED due to tidal action. tide gauge. See GAUGE. tide-generating force. See TIDE-PRODUCING FORCE. tideland. LAND which is under water at HIGH TIDE and uncovered at LOW TIDE. tide lock. A LOCK situated between a BASIN or CANAL and TIDEWATER to maintain the water at a desired level as the HEIGHT of the TIDE changes. Also called guard lock. tidemark. A HIGH WATER MARK left by TIDAL WATER. The highest point reached by a HIGH TIDE. A MARK placed to indicate the highest point reached by a HIGH TIDE, or, occasionally, any specified state of TIDE.

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tide pole. See TIDE STAFF. tide-predicting machine. An instrument that computes, sometimes for years in advance, the TIMES and HEIGHTS of HIGH and LOW WATERS at a REFERENCE STATION by mechanically summing the HARMONIC CONSTITUENTS of which the TIDE is composed. tide (or tidal) prediction. The mathematical process by which the TIMES and HEIGHTS of the TIDE are determined in advance from the HARMONIC CONSTITUENTS at a place. See HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDE. tide-producing force(s). That part of the gravitational attraction of a CELESTIAL BODY which is effective in producing the TIDES on EARTH. The SUN and MOON are the principal astronomic bodies that have a tide-producing effect. The force varies approximately as the mass of the attracting body and inversely as the cube of its distance. Also called tide-generating force. tide race. A strong TIDAL CURRENT or a CHANNEL in which such a CURRENT flows. tide range. See RANGE OF TIDE. tide reducer. The CORRECTION that must be applied to a recorded SOUNDING for the HEIGHT OF TIDE above or below the DATUM of reference at the TIME of SOUNDING. tide register. See GAUGE: TIDE. tide rip(s). Small WAVES formed on the surface of water by the meeting of opposing TIDAL CURRENTS or by a TIDAL CURRENT crossing an irregular BOTTOM. Vertical oscillation, rather than PROGRESSIVE WAVES, is characteristic of tide rips. tide signal. See SIGNAL. tide staff. A TIDE GAUGE consisting of a vertical graduated pole from which the HEIGHT OF TIDE at any TIME can be read directly. Also called tide pole. tide staff: multiple. A succession of TIDE STAFFS on a sloping SHORE, so placed that the vertical GRADUATIONS on the several staffs form a continuous scale with reference to the same DATUM. tide station. See STATION. tide tables. TABLES listing daily predictions, usually a year in advance, of the TIMES and HEIGHTS of the TIDE. These predictions are usually supplemented by TIDAL DIFFERENCES and TIDAL CONSTANTS by means of which additional predictions can be obtained for numerous other places. See TIDE PREDICTION. tidewater. Water affected by TIDES or sometimes that part of it which covers the TIDELAND. The term is sometimes used broadly to designate the SEABOARD. See TIDAL WAVES. tide wave. A long-period wave associated with the TIDE-PRODUCING FORCES of the MOON and SUN; identified with the rising and falling of the TIDE. Also called tide bulge. See TIDE, TIDAL MOVEMENT, STAND OF TIDE. tideway. A CHANNEL through which a TIDAL CURRENT runs. tie. A survey connection from a point of known POSITION to a point whose POSITION is desired. A tie is made to determine the POSITION of a supplementary point whose POSITION is desired for mapping or reference purposes, or to close a SURVEY on a previously determined point. To tie in is to make such a connection. The point to which the connection is made is termed a TIE POINT. tie in (v.i.). See TIE. tie net. See TRIANGULATION NET. tie point. Point of closure of a SURVEY either on itself or on another SURVEY. till. Unstratified glacial DRIFT consisting of CLAY, SAND, GRAVEL, and BOULDERS intermingled in any proportions. Also called boulder clay.

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tillite. ROCK formed of consolidated or lithified TILL and generally a record of a glacial EPOCH, older than that of the quarternary. tilt. The angle which anything makes with the horizontal. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the angle at the PERSPECTIVE CENTRE between the photograph perpendicular and the PLUMB LINE, or other exterior REFERENCE DIRECTION; also, the dihedral angle between the plane of the PHOTOGRAPH and the horizontal plane. tilt: base. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the INCLINATION of the AIR BASE with respect to the horizontal. tilt: relative. The angular relationship between two overlapping VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPHS with no reference to an established DATUM. tilting level. See LEVELLING INSTRUMENT: TILTING LEVEL. time. The measurable aspect of duration. The HOUR of the DAY reckoned by the position of a celestial reference point relative to a reference CELESTIAL MERIDIAN. An elapsed interval. time: apparent. See TIME: APPARENT SOLAR. time: apparent solar. TIME measured by the apparent diurnal motion of the (true) SUN. Also called true solar time, and often apparent time. time: astronomic(al). SOLAR TIME in a DAY (ASTRONOMICAL DAY) that begins at NOON. time: civil. SOLAR TIME in a DAY (CIVIL DAY) that begins at MIDNIGHT. time: daylight saving. A variation of ZONE TIME, usually one HOUR ahead of that TIME. Sometimes called summer time. time: geologic(al). The division into a number of great ERAS, each represented by a group of ROCKS. time: Greenwich. TIME based upon the GREENWICH MERIDIAN as reference. time: Greenwich civil. See TIME: GREENWICH MEAN. time: Greenwich mean (GMT) (or Greenwich civil). MEAN SOLAR TIME at the GREENWICH MERIDIAN. See UNIVERSAL TIME (UT). time: local. TIME based upon the LOCAL MERIDIAN as reference, as contrasted with that based upon a ZONE MERIDIAN, or the MERIDIAN of Greenwich. Any TIME kept locally. time: local apparent. The APPARENT SOLAR TIME for the MERIDIAN of the observer. time: local mean. The MEAN SOLAR TIME for the MERIDIAN of the observer. time: local sidereal. The SIDEREAL TIME for the MERIDIAN of the observer. time: mean. See TIME: MEAN SOLAR. time: mean solar. TIME measured by the diurnal motion of the MEAN SUN, which is supposed to move uniformly in the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, completing the circuit in one TROPICAL YEAR. Often termed simply mean time. time: sidereal. TIME measured by the apparent diurnal rotation of the (true) VERNAL EQUINOX. It is counted from 0 HOUR, when the VERNAL EQUINOX is on the MERIDIAN, through 24 HOURS. Naming the MERIDIAN of reference is essential to its complete identification. time: solar. TIME based upon the ROTATION of the EARTH relative to the SUN. See TIME: APPARENT SOLAR, TIME: ASTRONOMICAL, TIME: CIVIL, TIME: MEAN SOLAR.

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time: standard. A variation of ZONE TIME adapted for use on or near LAND, with irregular but well-defined zone limits. time: summer. See TIME: DAYLIGHT SAVING. time: true solar. See TIME: APPARENT SOLAR. Time: Universal. See UNIVERSAL TIME (UT). time: zone. The LOCAL MEAN TIME of a reference or zone meridian, whose TIME is kept throughout a designated ZONE. The ZONE MERIDIAN is usually the nearest MERIDIAN whose LONGITUDE is exactly divisible by 15 . time ball. A visual TIME SIGNAL in the form of a ball. timepiece. An instrument for measuring TIME. See CHRONOMETER, CLOCK, WATCH. time signal. See SIGNAL. time tag. Reference assigned to each measurement input from a sensor to identify the time (either CPU, GPS, or UTC) when a measurement was actually made by that particular sensor; time tags allow adjustment of data from different sensors to a common time reference. time zone. See ZONE. tinted areas. Those areas on the NAUTICAL CHART that are symbolized by a flat colour to indicate the nature of the area. title. In CARTOGRAPHY, an inscription, on the CHART or FAIR CHART, including any useful information and details concerning the HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY, the NATURAL SCALE, and geodetic, magnetic and tidal DATA. titration. A chemical method for determining the concentration of a substance in solution. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the most common titration is that for CHLORINITY. tolerance. The maximum allowable variation from a STANDARD or from specified conditions. ton. A unit of WEIGHT equal to 1,000 KILOGRAMS ('metric ton'), 2,240 POUNDS ('long ton'), or 2,000 POUNDS ('short ton'). tongue. A projection of the ICE EDGE up to several kilometres in length, caused by WIND and CURRENT. A relatively narrow strip of LAND. An INLET. A narrow, rapid CURRENT. A protrusion of water into a region of different temperature. tonnage. The carrying capacity of ships. topmark. A characteristic shape secured at the top of a BUOY or BEACON to aid in its identification. topmark buoy. A BUOY with a TOPMARK, or characteristic shape secured at the top to aid in its identification. topoangulator. An instrument used to measure vertical angles in the PRINCIPAL PLANE of an OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH. topographic feature. A single feature of the surface of the EARTH such as a MOUNTAIN or VALLEY. topographic map. See MAP. topographic model. See RELIEF MODEL. topographic signal. See SIGNAL. topographic station. See STATION. topographic survey. See SURVEY.

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topography. The configuration of the surface of the EARTH, including its RELIEF, the position of its STREAMS, roads, cities, etc. The EARTH's natural and physical features collectively. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the term is applied to a surface such as the sea bottom or a surface of given characteristics within the water mass. topography board. See FIELD BOARD. toponymy. The place names or the study of place names of a country or district. tornado. In North America, the name for an intense SPOUT of large diameter. torrent. Rushing STREAM of water; great downpour of RAIN. torrid zone. That part of the EARTH between the TROPIC OF CANCER and the TROPIC OF CAPRICORN. Also called the tropics. torsion balance. A device for measuring very small forces of attraction resulting from GRAVITATION, MAGNETISM, etc., and consisting of a bar suspended horizontally by an elastic filament, one end of the bar being subjected to the influence of the attracting force to a greater degree than the other end. The attracting force is balanced and its comparative strength measured by the torsional reaction of the filament. total eclipse. See ECLIPSE. total magnetic intensity. The vector resultant of the intensity of the horizontal and vertical components of the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD at a specified point. towering. Apparent increase in the vertical dimension of an object near the HORIZON, due to large inequality of ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION in the LINE OF SIGHT to the top and bottom of the object. The opposite is STOOPING. tracer. Foreign substance introduced into the water by natural or artificial means which enables determination of water movement through measurement of distribution and location of the substance at the same time. tracing cloth. A fine semitransparent linen or cotton cloth sized on one side and dull on the other. tracing paper. A thin tough semitransparent paper suitable for making tracings of drawings, or for miscellaneous use in hydrographic work, where permanence is not important or when pencil work is sufficient. track. The actual path or route of a craft over the GROUND or sea bottom, or its graphic representation. In AIR NAVIGATION also called track made good. track (v.t.). To follow the movements of an object as by RADAR or an optical system. To navigate by keeping a record, tabular or graphical of the past POSITIONS of a craft without regard for future POSITIONS. track: dead reckoning. A line representing successive DEAD RECKONING POSITIONS of a craft. track: great-circle. The TRACK of a craft following a GREAT CIRCLE, or a GREAT CIRCLE which a craft intends to follow approximately. track: intended. The anticipated path of a vessel relative to the EARTH. track: radar guided. See RADAR. track: recommended. A track, shown on a chart by either a dashed or a continuous line, recommended to all or only certain vessels. track chart. A chart showing recommended, required, or established tracks, and usually indicating turning points, courses, and distances. tracking. The process of observing the sequential changes in the position of a target to establish its motion. tracking camera. See CAMERA: BALLISTIC.

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track line of sounding. A continuous record of SOUNDINGS obtained by a ship on an extended voyage en route between its home port and the working ground. Also called cruise line of sounding. track made good. See TRACK. track plotter. A PLOTTER used to plot the track or course of a craft. trade winds. Persistent WINDS, mainly in the lower ATMOSPHERE, which blow over vast regions from a subtropical ANTICYCLONE toward the equatorial regions. The predominant directions of the trade winds are from NE in the northern hemisphere and from SE in the southern hemisphere. traffic lane. An area within defined limits in which one-way traffic is established. Natural obstacles, including those forming separation zones, may constitute a boundary. traffic separation scheme. A scheme which aims at reducing the risk of collision in congested and/or converging areas by separating traffic moving in opposite, or nearly opposite, directions. training wall. A wall, BANK, or JETTY, often submerged, built to direct or confine the FLOW of a RIVER or TIDAL CURRENT. trajectory. The curved path of something hurtling through space. In METEOROLOGY, curve traced by the successive positions of a moving particle of air. Curve traced by the successive positions of the centre of a selected synoptic system, such as a DEPRESSION. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the path followed by moving water particles. In electronics the path followed by electrons emanating from the cathode as in an electron tube. transceiver. A combination transmitter and receiver in a single housing, with some components being used by both parts. See TRANSPONDER. transducer. Any device for converting energy from one form to another (electrical, mechanical, or acoustic). transducer: magnetostriction. A TRANSDUCER that depends for its operation on the interaction between the magnetization and the deformation of a material having magnetostrictive properties. transformation. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the process of projecting a PHOTOGRAPH (mathematically, graphically, or photographically) from its plane onto another plane by translation, rotation, and/or scale change. The projection is made onto a plane determined by the angular relations of the camera axes and not necessarily onto a horizontal plane. See also RECTIFICATION. transforming printer. A specially designed projection printer of fixed geometry used for transforming the oblique components of a coupled camera installation, a MULTIPLE-LENS CAMERA, or a panoramic camera onto a plane perpendicular to the axis of the system. transhipment or lightening area. An area designated for transfer of cargo from one vessel to another to reduce the draught of the larger vessel. Also called cargo transfer area. transient magnetism. See MAGNETISM: TEMPORARY. transient thermocline. See THERMOCLINE. transit. In ASTRONOMY, the apparent passage of a STAR or other CELESTIAL BODY across a defined line of the CELESTIAL SPHERE, as a MERIDIAN, PRIME VERTICAL, or ALMUCANTAR. When no line is specified, a transit across the MERIDIAN is usually intended. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT. The apparent passage of a STAR or other CELESTIAL BODY across a line in the RETICLE of a TELESCOPE, or some LINE OF SIGHT. The apparent passage of a smaller CELESTIAL BODY across the disk of a larger CELESTIAL BODY. A surveying instrument composed of a HORIZONTAL CIRCLE graduated in circular measure and an ALIDADE with a TELESCOPE which can be reversed in its supports without being lifted therefrom. Also, the act of making such a reversal. A THEODOLITE having a TELESCOPE that can be transited in its supports is a transit, and is sometimes termed a transit theodolite. All modern THEODOLITES are transits. An astronomical instrument having a TELESCOPE which can be so adjusted in position that the LINE OF SIGHT may be made to define a VERTICAL CIRCLE. A transit used in astronomical work is usually termed either an astronomic(al) transit or a transit instrument. In NAVIGATION, the position of two distant, fixed objects when they are in line to an observer; the line passing through them and the observer being a LINE OF POSITION. See also RANGE.

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transit: broken telescope. A precise astronomic TRANSIT or THEODOLITE in which the light passing through the OBJECTIVE LENS is reflected through a right angle by a prism placed in the HORIZONTAL AXIS. This hollow axis is continued beyond the supports, and the EYEPIECE is fitted at one end. transit: local. The apparent passage of a CELESTIAL BODY across the MERIDIAN of the observer. See also MERIDIAN TRANSIT. transit axis. See AXIS: HORIZONTAL. transit bearing. See BEARING. transit instrument. See TRANSIT. transitional water wave. See WAVE. transition layer. A water layer with a distinct change of the vertical gradient of a given parameter relative to adjacent layers. transition zone. The water area between two opposing CURRENTS manifested by EDDIES, UPWELLING, RIPS, and similar turbulent conditions occurring either vertically or horizontally; or a zone between two water masses of differing physical characteristics such as temperature and/or SALINITY. transit magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. transit micrometer. See MICROMETER. transit passage. In straits used for international navigation, all ships and aircraft enjoy the unimpeded right of transit passage. This means the freedom of navigation and overflight solely for the purpose of continuous and expeditious transit of the strait between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone. See also INNOCENT PASSAGE. transit theodolite. See TRANSIT. transit traverse. See TRAVERSE. translocation. A method to improve the accuracy of satellite positioning by simultaneously using several receivers. One receiver is deployed on a known position to obtain corrections required to match the known position and that derived from satellite signals. These corrections are then transmitted to the other receivers. transmitter. One who or that which transmits or sends anything, particularly a RADIO TRANSMITTER. transparency. In OCEANOGRAPHY, the property of water to transmit light of different WAVE LENGTHS. Transparency sometimes is measured in percent of RADIATION that penetrates a distance of one METRE. Sometimes it is expressed as the average DEPTH at which a SECCHI DISC disappears and reappears. In PHOTOGRAPHY, a photographic PRINT on a clear base, especially adaptable for viewing by transmitted light. Also, the light-transmitting capability of a material. transponder. A combined RECEIVER and TRANSMITTER whose function is to transmit SIGNALS automatically when triggered by an INTERROGATOR. See TRANSCEIVER. transponder beacon. A beacon having a TRANSPONDER. Also called responder beacon. transport. The process by which a substance or quantity is carried past a fixed point, or across a fixed plane. In OCEANOGRAPHY and METEOROLOGY, such quantities are: Heat, MOMENTUM, mass, dissolved impurities, suspended particles, etc. transverse cylindrical orthomorphic projection. See PROJECTION: TRANSVERSE MERCATOR. transverse Mercator grid. The grid on a chart using the transverse Mercator projection. transverse Mercator projection. See PROJECTION. transverse wave. See WAVE. travelling wave. See WAVE: PROGRESSIVE.

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traverse. A method of surveying in which a sequence of lengths and DIRECTIONS of lines between points on the EARTH are obtained from field measurements, and used in determining POSITIONS of the points. Also called survey traverse. traverse: astronomical. A TRAVERSE in which the GEOGRAPHIC(AL) POSITIONS of the STATIONS are obtained from ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS, and lengths and AZIMUTHS of lines are obtained by computation. traverse: closed. A TRAVERSE which starts and ends upon the same STATION, or upon STATIONS whose relative positions have been determined by other SURVEYS. traverse: hanging. See TRAVERSE: OPEN. traverse: open (or open end). A TRAVERSE which starts from a STATION of known or adopted POSITION, but does not end upon such a STATION. Also called hanging traverse. traverse: plane table. A graphical TRAVERSE executed by PLANE TABLE methods. traverse: transit. A TRAVERSE in which the angles are measured with a TRANSIT or THEODOLITE and the lengths with a suitable measuring device. traverse net. See TRIANGULATION NET. traverse point. See TURNING POINT. traverse sailing. See SAILING. traverse station. See STATION. traverse table. A TABLE giving relative values of various parts of plane right triangles, for use in solving such triangles, particularly in connection with various SAILINGS. trench. A long, narrow and deep DEPRESSION of the SEA FLOOR with relatively steep sides. A long narrow VALLEY between two MOUNTAIN RANGES, especially a rift valley or a U-shaped valley. trend. The general direction of something, such as a coastline. triangle of error. See COCKED HAT. triangulate. The process of TRIANGULATION. triangulation. A method of surveying in which the STATIONS are points on the GROUND at the vertices of a chain or NETWORK of triangles. The angles of the triangles are measured instrumentally and the sides are derived by computation from selected triangle sides called BASES (or BASE LINES), the lengths of which are obtained from direct measurements on the GROUND. triangulation: arc of. A system of TRIANGULATION of limited width designed to progress in a single general direction. Also called chain of triangulation. triangulation: flare. A method of TRIANGULATION in which simultaneous OBSERVATIONS are made on parachute flares. This method is used for extending TRIANGULATION over lines too long to be observed by ordinary methods. triangulation: floating. In hydrographic SURVEYING, a TRIANGULATION that may be carried out by means of anchored BUOYS when surveying at such a distance from the LAND that the SIGNALS on the SHORE cannot be directly used for locating the SOUNDINGS. Floating triangulation can be either connected to and extended from the STATIONS of a shore triangulation or of a fully floating type in which case the POSITIONS of the BUOYS are obtained by means of OBSERVATIONS and measurements taken at sea. BUOYS are anchored in such a position as to provide a framework for surveying the area. triangulation: order of. See TRIANGULATION CLASSIFICATION. triangulation: radial. See RADIAL TRIANGULATION.

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triangulation: ship-to-shore. A method of TRIANGULATION involving simultaneous OBSERVATIONS from three shore STATIONS on a target carried by a ship offshore of the middle STATION. The middle STATION must be visible from each of the two end STATIONS. triangulation classification. The classifying of TRIANGULATIONS into first-order, second-order, and third-order triangulation, according to the ERROR OF CLOSURE OF TRIANGLES. In first-order work, the average closure is not in excess of 1 SECOND; in second order work, it does not exceed 3 SECONDS; and in third-order work, it does not exceed 5 SECONDS. For the basic first-order work, the computed length through the NETWORK must agree with the measured BASE within 1 part in 50 000, as a minimum, and average about 1 in 75 000, or better. triangulation net. ARCS OF TRIANGULATION, sometimes with lines of TRAVERSE, connected together to form a system of loops or circuits extending over an area. Sometimes called tie net when used to tie small ISLANDS together. Also called traverse net or survey net. triangulation point. See STATION: TRIANGULATION. triangulation signal. See SIGNAL. triangulation station. See STATION. triangulation tower. A TRIANGULATION SIGNAL consisting of two separate structures, independent of one another an inner structure which supports the THEODOLITE and sometimes the TARGET or SIGNAL LAMP, and an outer structure which supports the observer and his assistants and sometimes the TARGET or SIGNAL LAMP. Triangulation towers are used to elevate the LINE OF SIGHT above trees, topographic features, and other obstacles that might interfere with the OBSERVATIONS. See BILBY STEEL TOWER. tribrach plate. A demountable, three-armed plate which is attached to an instrument stand or survey tower and on which the bottoms of the FOOTSCREWS of the instrument rest in milled grooves. tributary. A RIVER which joins a larger one. trigonometric levelling. See LEVELLING. trigonometric station. See STATION: TRIANGULATION. trilaterate. The process of TRILATERATION. trilateration. A method of surveying wherein the lengths of the triangle sides are measured, usually by electronic methods, and the angles are computed from the measured lengths. Compare with TRIANGULATION. trim. The way in which a ship floats on the water, in relation to her fore-and-aft line, whether on an even keel or down by the bow or by the stern. tripod. A three-legged stand for THEODOLITE, CAMERA, SIGNALS, etc. tripod signal. See SIGNAL. tripping device. A device to pull equipment out of or to lower it into water. tripton. Collectively, all of the dead suspended particulate matter in aquatic habitats. trivet. A low support for a surveying instrument which is used where a TRIPOD cannot be used. trochoidal wave. See WAVE. tropical cyclone. CYCLONE of tropical origin of small diameter (some hundreds of kilometers). It is characterized by violent WIND and torrential RAIN. Sometimes accompanied by a THUNDERSTORM. tropical month. See MONTH. tropical year. See YEAR. tropic higher high water. The HIGHER HIGH WATER of TROPIC TIDES. tropic higher low water. The HIGHER LOW WATER of TROPIC TIDES.

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tropic high water inequality. See DIURNAL INEQUALITY. tropic lower high water. The LOWER HIGH WATER of TROPIC TIDES. tropic lower low water. The LOWER LOW WATER of TROPIC TIDES. tropic low water inequality. See DIURNAL INEQUALITY. tropic of Cancer. The northern PARALLEL OF DECLINATION, approximately 23 27' from the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, reached by the SUN at its maximum northerly DECLINATION, or the corresponding PARALLEL on the EARTH. tropic of Capricorn. The southern PARALLEL OF DECLINATION, approximately 23 27' from the CELESTIAL EQUATOR, reached by the SUN at its maximum southerly DECLINATION, or the corresponding PARALLEL on the EARTH. tropic range. Short for GREAT TROPIC RANGE. tropics. See TORRID ZONE. tropic tide. See TIDE. tropopause. Upper limit of the TROPOSPHERE. troposphere. Lower part of the terrestrial ATMOSPHERE, extending from the surface up to a HEIGHT varying from about 9 km at the POLES to about 17 km at the EQUATOR, in which temperature decreases fairly regularly with HEIGHT. From an analogy with the ATMOSPHERE, the term is sometimes applied in OCEANOGRAPHY to the upper ocean layer of relatively high temperature that is found in middle and lower LATITUDES and within which strong CURRENTS are present. See STRATOSPHERE. tropospheric scattering. Diffusion of electromagnetic waves when traversing the troposphere. See also: SCATTERING. trough. A long DEPRESSION of the SEA FLOOR normally wider and shallower than a TRENCH. The lowest part of a WAVE between successive WAVE CRESTS. Also called wave trough. Region of the ATMOSPHERE in which the pressure is low relative to the surrounding regions at the same level. It is represented on a WEATHER CHART by a system of nearly parallel ISOBARS or CONTOURS, of approximately Vshape, which are concave towards a DEPRESSION. trough compass. See DECLINATOIRE. true (adj.). Related to TRUE NORTH. Actual, as contrasted with fictitious, as true SUN. Related to a fixed point, either on the EARTH or in space, as TRUE WIND; in contrast with relative, which is related to a moving point. Corrected, as TRUE ALTITUDE. true altitude. See ALTITUDE. true azimuth. See AZIMUTH. true bearing. See BEARING. true course. See COURSE. true horizon. See HORIZON. true meridian. See MERIDIAN. true north. See NORTH. true solar time. See TIME: APPARENT SOLAR. true sun. See SUN: APPARENT.

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true wind. WIND VECTOR in relation to the EARTH's surface. For a moving object it is the vector sum of the RELATIVE WIND and the VELOCITY of the object. trumpet buoy. See BUOY: SOUND. trunnion axis. See AXIS: HORIZONTAL. tsunami. A long-period sea wave produced by a submarine EARTHQUAKE or volcanic eruption. It may travel unnoticed across the OCEAN for thousands of MILES from its point of origin. It builds up to great HEIGHTS over shoal water. Also called tunami, TIDAL WAVE, seismic sea wave. tubular compass. See COMPASS. tufa. A chemical SEDIMENTARY ROCK composed of calcium carbonate or silica, precipitated from percolating ground water or from a SPRING. tuff. A ROCK formed of fragments of volcanic origin, DUST, ashes, etc., thrown out of a volcano during an eruption, frequently hardened to a ROCK. Hence tuff-cone, a volcanic cone built up of such material. tuff-cone. See TUFF. tunny net. A net built at sea for catching tunnies. turbidite. Turbidity current deposits, characterized by both vertically and horizontally graded bedding. turbidity. Reduced water clarity resulting from the presence of suspended matter. Water is considered turbid when its load of suspended matter is visibly conspicuous, but all waters contain some suspended matter and therefore are turbid. Reduced transparency of the ATMOSPHERE, caused by absorption and SCATTERING of RADIATION by solid or liquid particles, other than CLOUDS, held there in suspension. turbidity current. See CURRENT. turbulence. A state of fluid flow in which the instantaneous VELOCITIES exhibit irregular and apparently random fluctuations, so that in practice only statistical properties can be recognized and submitted to analysis. Superimposed on the mean motion of the air, an agitation composed of air motions which are uncoordinated and in a state of continuous change. turbulent flow. A FLOW characterized by TURBULENCE. turning basin. An enlargement of a channel for turning vessels. Also called manoeuvering basin. turning buoy. A BUOY marking a turn, as in a CHANNEL. turning point. In LEVELLING, a point on which both a minus sight (FORESIGHT) and a plus sight (BACKSIGHT) are taken on a line of DIRECT LEVELLING. In TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS, any point on which the rod is held while the instrument (PLANE TABLE) is moved to another STATION. In a TRAVERSE, any point of junction of two LEGS. Also called traverse point. turn of the tide. See CHANGE OF TIDE. twilight. The periods of incomplete darkness following SUNSET (evening twilight) or preceding SUNRISE (morning twilight). Twilight is designated as civil, nautical, or astronomical, as the darker limit occurs when the centre of the SUN is 6 , 12 , or 18below the CELESTIAL HORIZON, respectively. twilight stars. STARS suitably placed for ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATION during morning or evening TWILIGHT. two-way route. A route within defined limits inside which two-way traffic is established, aimed at providing safe passage of ships through waters where navigation is difficult or dangerous. tyfon. See TYPHON.

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type. In printing (TYPOGRAPHY) a metal block having a raised letter or figure which, when inked, is used to make an impression on paper or other material. Type can also be in the form of negative or positive stripping film. type face. A type of print, such as Roman, Egyptian, Caslon, etc. type of tide. The characteristic feature of the TIDE (TIDAL CURRENT) determined from the combination of its diurnal and semidiurnal components. TIDES are classified as SEMIDIURNAL, MIXED and DIURNAL, but there are no sharply defined limits separating the groups. typhon. A diaphragm HORN which operates under the influence of compressed air or steam. Called SIREN in Canadian terminology. Also called tyfon. typhoon. Name given to TROPICAL CYCLONES of the China Sea and, more generally, of the north-west Pacific.

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5719 5720 5721 5722 5723 5724 ultra high frequency (UHF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. ultrashort wave. See WAVE. ultrasonic (adj.). Having a FREQUENCY above the audible RANGE. ultrasonic depth finder. See ECHO SOUNDER. ultrasonics. The science and technology relating to SOUND WAVES of FREQUENCIES above the audible RANGE. ultraviolet (adj.). Having a FREQUENCY immediately beyond the violet end of the visible SPECTRUM. Said of RAYS of shorter WAVE LENGTH than visible light but longer than X-RAYS. uncontrolled mosaic. A MOSAIC composed of uncorrected PRINTS, the detail of which has been matched from print to print without GROUND CONTROL or other ORIENTATION. uncovered (adj.). Above water. The opposite is SUBMERGED. uncovers. See COVERS AND UNCOVERS. undercliff. A TERRACE or lower CLIFF formed by a LANDSLIDE. Also written as two words. undercurrent. A CURRENT below the surface, particularly one flowing in a direction or at a SPEED differing from the SURFACE CURRENT. underground mark. A STATION MARK set and plumbed below the centre of a SURFACE MARK and separated therefrom so as to preserve the STATION in case of accident to the SURFACE MARK. Also called subsurface mark. underkeel clearance. The distance between the lowest point of the ship's hull, normally some point on the keel, and the sea bottom. underkeel allowance. The estimated minimum UNDERKEEL CLEARANCE in a given channel accounting for the ship's squat, movement due to swell, tide height etc. undertow. A seaward FLOW near the BOTTOM of a sloping BEACH. The subsurface return by gravity flow of the water carried up on SHORE by WAVES or BREAKERS. See also BACKRUSH. underwater acoustics. A special field of technical acoustics dealing with the physics of sound propagation in the water. underwater ice. See ANCHOR ICE. underwater navigation. See NAVIGATION. underwater photogrammetry. See PHOTOGRAMMETRY. underwater position fixing. A method of position fixing for surface vessels, submersibles or towed devices in relation to a network of underwater acoustic beacons on the seabed with known relative positions. underwater sound projector. A TRANSDUCER used to produce SOUND in water. The conversion from electrical energy to SOUND is achieved through the use of either the piezoelectric or magnetostrictive effect. See MAGNETOSTRICTION and PIEZOELECTRICITY. underway (or under way) (adv.). Without MOORINGS; not secured in any way to the ground or a WHARF. In motion, particularly the start of such motion after a standstill. undulating (adj.). Having the form of WAVES or SWELLS, as undulating LAND. undulation. A continuously propagated motion to and from, in any fluid or elastic medium, with no permanent translation of the particles themselves.

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undulation of the geoid. The distance between the mathematical REFERENCE SPHEROID and the GEOID. unidirectional antenna. See ANTENNA. unifilar magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. uniform flow. Any CURRENT in which neither CONVERGENCE nor DIVERGENCE is present. unit magnetic pole. In magnetic theory, a fictitious entity analogous to a unit electric charge in electrostatic theory. United Nations (UN). The major international organization established to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to achieve cooperation in solving international problems. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Helps to restructure patterns of international trade in order to enable developing countries to play their part in world commerce. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). An UN agency which registers organizations and institutions located in developing countries which have the capacity for cooperative technical activities with organizations in other developing nations. The subject matter includes education and training courses, research and technological development activities, consulting and expert services, and scientific and technical information and used primarily by institutions and governments in developing countries. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Organized in 1945 to promote collaboration among nations in education, science, and culture; UNESCO is the parent agency for the INTERGOVERNMENTAL OCEANOGRAPHIC COMMISSION. universal drafting machine. See PROTRACTOR: PARALLEL MOTION. universal level. See LEVEL: SPIRIT. Universal Time (UT). TIME as defined by the rotational motion of the EARTH and determined from the apparent diurnal motions which reflect this ROTATION. Because of variations in the rate of rotation, Universal Time is not rigorously uniform. Also called Greenwich mean time. Universal Time 0 (UT0). The uncorrected TIME of the EARTH's ROTATION as measured by the TRANSIT of STARS across the observer's MERIDIAN. This ROTATION is referred to a fiducial mark on the ECLIPTIC which approximates the position of the MEAN SUN. Universal Time 1 (UT1). UT0 corrected for polar motion. Universal Time 2 (UT2). UT1 corrected for seasonal variations in the EARTH's ROTATION. Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). The time scale that is available from most broadcast time signals. It differs from INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC TIME by an integral number of seconds. UTC is maintained within 1 second of UT1 by the introduction of 1-second steps (leap seconds) when necessary, normally at the end of December. DUT1, an approximation to the difference UT1 minus UTC, is transmitted in code on broadcast time signals. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid. See GRID. unprotected reversing thermometer. See THERMOMETER. unrecoverable station. See STATION. unsurveyed area. An area where survey data is non-existent or very poor. unsurveyed clearance depth. The estimated depth over an unsurveyed wreck or obstruction over which the exact depth is unknown but which is considered to have a safe clearance to the depth shown. upland. The higher GROUND of a region contrasted with the VALLEYS and PLAINS. Used in contrast to LOWLAND. uplifted reef. A CORAL REEF exposed above water level.

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upper branch. That half of a MERIDIAN or CELESTIAL MERIDIAN from POLE to POLE which passes through a place or its ZENITH. upper culmination. Upper TRANSIT. upper limb. See LIMB. upper limit of navigability. The character of a river will, at some point along its length, change from navigable to non-navigable. Very often that point will be at a major fall or rapids, or other place where there is a marked decrease in the navigable capacity of the river. The upper limit will therefore often be the same point traditionally recognized as the head of navigation, but may, under some of the tests described above, be at some point yet farther upstream. upper transit. See MERIDIAN TRANSIT. uprush. The rush of water up onto the BEACH following the breaking of a WAVE. See RUN-UP. upstream (adj. & adv.). Toward the SOURCE of a STREAM. The opposite is DOWNSTREAM. upwelling. The process by which water rises from a lower to a higher DEPTH, usually as a result of DIVERGENCE and offshore CURRENTS. See SINKING. upwind (adj. & adv.). In the direction from which the WIND is blowing. The opposite is DOWNWIND.

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5775 vacuum lead. A CORER which makes use of HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE to force a tube into the BOTTOM SEDIMENT. valley. A long DEPRESSION or hollow in the LAND lying between HILLS or stretches of high GROUND and usually having a RIVER or STREAM flowing along the bottom. valley: median. See MEDIAN VALLEY. valley: submarine. A relatively shallow wide DEPRESSION with gentle SLOPES, the bottom of which grades continuously downward. This term is used for features that do not have canyon-like characteristics in any significant part of their extent. valley line. See TALWEG. vane. A device to indicate the direction from which the WIND blows. Also called weather vane, wind vane. See ANEMOMETER. A SIGHT on an instrument used for observing BEARINGS, as on a PELORUS, BEARING CIRCLE, etc. Also called sight (or sighting) vane. A device to indicate the direction toward which the CURRENT flows. vanishing line. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the straight line on a PHOTOGRAPH upon which lie all the VANISHING POINTS of all systems of parallel lines parallel to one plane. vanishing point. In PHOTOGRAMMETRY, the IMAGE in the plane of a PHOTOGRAPH, of the point toward which a system of parallel lines in the object space converges. vanishing tide. See TIDE. variate. A variate is a quantity that may take on any of the values of a specified set with a specified relative frequency or probability often known as random variable. It is to be regarded as defined not merely by a set of permissible values, but by an associated frequency (probability) function expressing how often those values appear in a given situation. variation. The angle between the MAGNETIC and GEOGRAPHICAL MERIDIANS at any place, expressed in DEGREES east or west to indicate the direction of MAGNETIC NORTH from TRUE NORTH. Also called magnetic variation, or magnetic declination. variation: grid. Angular difference in direction between GRID NORTH and MAGNETIC NORTH. It is measured east or west from GRID NORTH. Also called grivation, or grid magnetic angle. variation of the pole. A wandering of the POLES of the FIGURE OF THE EARTH with respect to its POLES of ROTATION. variometer. An instrument for comparing magnetic forces, especially of the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD. varsol. An oil used as the liquid in some modern MAGNETIC COMPASSES. varve. A sedimentary DEPOSIT, bed, or lamination deposited in one season. It is usually distinguished by colour or composition and used as an index to changes in the depositional environment. vectograph. A stereoscopic PHOTOGRAPH composed of two superimposed IMAGES which polarize light in planes o 90 apart. When these IMAGES are viewed through polaroid spectacles with the polarization axes at right angles, an impression of depth is obtained. vector. Direct connection between two points, either given as two sets of coordinates (points), or by direction and distance from one given set of coordinates; or a point in a vector space defined by one set of coordinates relative to the origin of a coordinate system. vector airborne magnetometer. See MAGNETOMETER. vector data presentation. Method of representing image features digitally by points, lines and polygons given through their coordinates and appropriate code(s).

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vectorial angle. See COORDINATES: PLANE POLAR. veering wind. Clock-wise change of WIND direction, in either hemisphere. vein. A narrow LEAD or lane in PACK ICE. In mineralogy, a crack or fissure in the ROCKS of the EARTH's CRUST in which highly heated waters from below have deposited from solution crystalline minerals (especially vein quartz) and, under certain circumstances, metallic minerals of economic importance. velocimeter. An instrument used for the 'in situ' measurement of the SPEED of SOUND in the SEA and other natural waters. velocity. A vector quantity equal to SPEED in a given direction. velocity of sound. See SOUND VELOCITY. veneer. A thin LAYER of SEDIMENT covering a rocky surface. vent. The orifice through which molten LAVA reaches the CRATER of a volcano. Eventually it may become choked as the LAVA solidifies to form a plug or neck. Venturi tube. The trade name for a short tube of smaller diameter in the middle than at the ends. When a fluid flows through such a tube, the pressure decreases as the diameter becomes smaller, the amount of the decrease being proportional to the SPEED of FLOW and the amount of restriction. vernal equinox. See EQUINOX. vernier. A short, auxiliary SCALE situated alongside the graduated SCALE of an instrument, by means of which fractional parts of the smallest division of the primary SCALE can be measured accurately. vertex (pl. vertices). The highest point; the vertices of a GREAT CIRCLE are the points nearest the POLE. See APEX. vertical (adj.). In the DIRECTION OF GRAVITY; perpendicular to the plane of the HORIZON. vertical (n.). The direction in which the force of GRAVITY acts. A vertical line, plane, etc. vertical axis. See AXIS. vertical circle. See CIRCLE. vertical clearance. The minimum vertical space available for passage. vertical collimator. See COLLIMATOR. vertical control. See CONTROL. vertical control datum. See DATUM. vertical deflection. See DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL. vertical dilution of precision. See DILUTION OF PRECISION. vertical intensity of the earth's magnetic field. The strength of the vertical component of the EARTH's MAGNETIC FIELD. vertical light(s). See LIGHT. vertical parallax. See PARALLAX: Y-. vertical photograph. See PHOTOGRAPH. vertical plane. See PLANE.

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very close pack ice. SEA ICE the CONCENTRATION of which is practically 10/10ths with little if any water present. very high frequency (VHF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. very low frequency (VLF). See FREQUENCY: RADIO. very open pack ice. SEA ICE the CONCENTRATION of which ranges between 1/10ths 3/10ths. vessel traffic service (VTS). Any service implemented by a relevant authority primarily designed to improve safety and efficiency of traffic flow and the protection of the environment. It may range from simple information messages, to extensive organization of the traffic involving national or regional schemes. viaduct. A structure consisting of a series of arches or towers supporting a roadway, waterway, etc., across a depression, etc. vibrating needle. A MAGNETIC NEEDLE used in compass adjustment to find the relative intensity of the horizontal components of the EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD and the MAGNETIC FIELD at the compass location. Also called horizontal force instrument. See COMPENSATION OF MAGNETIC COMPASS. vibration. Periodic motion of an elastic body or medium in alternately opposite directions from EQUILIBRIUM; OSCILLATION. The motion of a vibrating body during one complete CYCLE; two OSCILLATIONS. vigia. A PINNACLE, ROCK, or SHOAL the existence or POSITION of which is doubtful, or a warning note to this effect on a CHART. vignetting. In PHOTOGRAPHY, a gradual reduction in DENSITY of parts of a photographic IMAGE due to the stopping of some of the RAYS entering the LENS. violent storm. WIND with a speed between 56 and 63 KNOTS (Beaufort scale wind force 11). virtual image. See IMAGE. visibility. The extreme horizontal distance at which prominent objects can be seen and identified by the unaided eye. visibility: flight. The VISIBILITY forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight. visibility: meteorological. The greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions can be seen and recognized against the horizon sky, or, in the case of night observations, could be seen and recognized if the general illumination were raised to the normal daylight level. visibility: radius of. The radius of a circle limiting the area in which an object can be seen under specified conditions. visible horizon. See HORIZON: APPARENT. visual display unit (VDU). See DISPLAY. visual line of position. A LINE OF POSITION determined by visual OBSERVATION of a LANDMARK, AID TO NAVIGATION, etc. voe. An INLET, BAY, or CREEK. volcanic ash. Uncemented pyroclastic material consisting of fragments mostly under 4 millimetres in diameter. Coarse ash is 1/4 to 4 millimetres in grain size; fine ash is below 1/4 millimetre. A constituent of some marine SEDIMENTS. volt. The unit of potential difference or electromotive force in the SI SYSTEM. vulgar (or common) establishment. See ESTABLISHMENT.

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5845 5846 5847 5848 5849 5850 5851 wadi. A watercourse that is permanently dry or dry except for the rainy season. wake. The path of disturbed water or air behind a craft in motion. waning moon. See PHASES OF THE MOON. want of correspondence. See PARALLAX: Y-. warm front. Any non-occluded FRONT which moves in such a way that warmer air replaces colder air. warm pool. A body of warm water entirely surrounded by cold water. warning: gale. Meteorological message intended to warn those concerned of the occurrence or expected occurrence of a WIND of Beaufort force 8 or 9 over a specified area. warning: hurricane. Meteorological message intended to warn those concerned of the occurrence or expected occurrence of a WIND of BEAUFORT force 12 over a specified area. Tropical cyclone warning relating to a HURRICANE. warning: navigation. See NAVIGATIONAL WARNING. warning: storm. Meteorological message intended to warn those concerned of the occurrence or expected occurrence of a WIND of BEAUFORT force 10 or 11 over a specified area. More generally, forecast of severe weather conditions. warping buoy. A BUOY so located that lines to it can be used for the movement of ships. wash. The visible or audible motion of agitated water; especially that caused by the passage of a vessel. washovers. Small DELTAS formed on the lagoon side of a BAR separating the LAGOON from the OPEN SEA. STORM WAVES breaking over the BAR deposit SEDIMENT on the lagoon side in the form of DELTAS. Also called wave deltas. watch. A small TIMEPIECE of a size convenient to be carried on the person. watch: comparing. A HACK WATCH, particularly one having its ERROR determined by comparison with a CHRONOMETER. watch: hack. A WATCH used for timing OBSERVATIONS of CELESTIAL BODIES regulating ship's CLOCKS, etc. watch: stop. A WATCH that can be started, stopped, and reset at will, to indicate elapsed time. watch buoy. See STATION BUOY. water bottle. A device for collecting WATER SAMPLES from varying DEPTHS. They are lowered in an 'open' state to the required DEPTH and can be closed before being hauled up by means of a MESSENGER. Water bottles can be operated in series that is with more than one bottle on the wire rope so that WATER SAMPLES can be taken at a number of DEPTHS on the same CAST. Also called water specimen cup. water bottle: insulated (or insulating). A WATER BOTTLE specially designed for measuring temperatures and collecting WATER SAMPLES at moderate DEPTHS. This type of WATER BOTTLE is insulated to maintain the temperature constant while being brought to the surface. water bottle: reversing. A WATER BOTTLE specially designed for use in deep sea waters. The bottle is lowered by wire and can be closed watertight at any desired DEPTH, by means of a MESSENGER allowed to slide down the wire and strike the reversing mechanism making the bottle turn upside down. Thus the enclosed WATER SAMPLE is not contaminated by water at higher levels or lost by leakage after the bottle is brought on board. REVERSING THERMOMETERS are attached to reversing water bottles. See EKMAN BOTTLE and NANSEN BOTTLE. water colour. See SEA WATER: COLOUR OF.

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water column. A vertical continuum of water from sea surface to sea-bed. water content. A ratio; 100 multiplied by the weight of water in a bottom sediment sample divided by the weight of the dried sample, expressed as a percentage. watercourse. A STREAM of water, a RIVER or a BROOK; also an artificial CHANNEL for the conveyance of water. water front. LAND at the end of a STREAM, HARBOUR, etc. The part of a city or town on such LAND; WHARF or dock area. water levelling. See LEVELLING. waterline. The line marking the junction of LAND and water. The line along which the surface of the water touches a vessel's hull. Also written as two words. water-parting. A summit or boundary line separating the drainage districts of two STREAMS or COASTS; a divide or WATERSHED. water sample. A portion of water brought up from a certain DEPTH to determine its composition, or physical properties viz: temperature, SALINITY and DENSITY. water sampler. Any device for obtaining a WATER SAMPLE. Also called water sampling device. See WATER BOTTLE. watershed. WATER-PARTING. The whole region or area contributing to the supply of a RIVER or LAKE; drainage area; catchment area or BASIN. water signal. See SIGNAL. water sky. Typical dark patches and strips on low CLOUDS over a water area enclosed in ICE or behind its edge. water specimen cup. See WATER BOTTLE. water vapor. Water in the gaseous phase. waterway. A line of water (RIVER, CHANNEL, etc.) which can be utilized for communication or transport. watt. The unit of power in the SI system. wave. A disturbance which moves through or over the surface of the medium with SPEED dependent upon the properties of the medium. A ridge deformation, or UNDULATION of the surface of a liquid. wave: capillary. A WAVE whose VELOCITY of propagation is controlled primarily by the surface tension of the liquid in which the WAVE is travelling. Water waves of length less than one INCH are considered to be capillary waves. wave: carrier. A RADIO WAVE used as a vehicle for conveying intelligence, generally by MODULATION. Also called carrier. wave: cellular. System of SURFACE WAVES in which the OSCILLATION of water is limited as by solid BOUNDARIES. The PERIOD is the same in adjacent cells. wave: compressional. A WAVE in an elastic medium which causes an element of the medium to change its volume without undergoing rotation. wave: continuous. A series of WAVES of like AMPLITUDE and FREQUENCY. See WAVE: MODULATED, PULSE. wave: cycloidal. A very steep, symmetrical WAVE whose CREST forms an angle of 120 DEGREES. The wave form is that of a cycloid. A TROCHOIDAL WAVE of maximum steepness.

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wave(s): damped. WAVE(S) the AMPLITUDE of which becomes progressively smaller. wave: direct. A subdivision of the space wave component of the electromagnetic GROUND WAVE. This WAVE is propagated directly through space, i.e., it follows the shortest path between TRANSMITTER and RECEIVER. wave: edge. An ocean wave travelling parallel to a COAST, with CRESTS normal to the COASTLINE. Such a WAVE has a HEIGHT that diminishes rapidly seaward and is negligible at a distance of one WAVE LENGTH offshore. wave: electromagnetic. WAVE(S) of associated electric and magnetic fields characterized by variations of the fields. The electric and magnetic fields are at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation. An electromagnetic wave is coherent if the phase-time relationship is constant throughout the propagation path. wave: forced. A WAVE generated and maintained by a continuous force, in contrast to a FREE WAVE that continues to exist after the generating force has ceased to act. wave: free. A WAVE that continues to exist after the generating force has ceased to act, in contrast with a FORCED WAVE that is generated and maintained by a continuous force. A free wave on a water surface is one created by a sudden impulse, thereafter influenced only by friction, the dimensions of the BASIN, and the dispersive character of the water medium it moves in. Most ocean surface waves except TIDAL WAVES are free waves. See OSCILLATION. wave: gravity. A WAVE whose VELOCITY of propagation is controlled primarily by GRAVITY. Water waves of length greater than 2 INCHES are considered gravity waves. wave: ground. That portion of a RADIO WAVE in proximity to and affected by the GROUND, being somewhat refracted by the lower ATMOSPHERE, diffracted by the surface of the EARTH and retarded by the resistivity of the EARTH. Such a WAVE travels more or less parallel to the surface of the EARTH. See WAVE: SKY. wave: indirect. Any WAVE which arrives by an indirect path having undergone an abrupt change of direction by REFRACTION or REFLECTION. See WAVE: SKY. wave: internal. A WAVE that occurs within a fluid whose DENSITY changes with DEPTH, either abruptly at a sharp surface of discontinuity (an INTERFACE) or gradually. Also called boundary wave. wave: longitudinal. A WAVE in which the direction of displacement of each particle in the medium is perpendicular to the WAVE FRONT. wave: Love (or Q-wave). A TRANSVERSE WAVE propagated along the BOUNDARY of two elastic media which both have rigidity, i.e. both media must be capable of propagating TRANSVERSE WAVES. A surface seismic wave in which the particles of an elastic medium vibrate transverse to the direction of the WAVE's travel, with no vertical component. wave: modulated. A WAVE which varies in some characteristic in accordance with the variations of a MODULATING WAVE. See WAVE: CONTINUOUS. wave: modulating. A WAVE which modulates a CARRIER WAVE. wave: oscillatory. A WAVE in which each individual particle oscillates about a point with little or no permanent change in position. The term is commonly applied to progressive oscillatory waves in which only the form advances, the individual particles moving in closed ORBITS, as ocean waves in deep waters. Distinguished from a WAVE OF TRANSLATION. wave(s): periodic. WAVES which are repeated at regular intervals. wave: pressure. See PRESSURE WAVE. wave: progressive. A WAVE which is manifested by the progressive movement of the wave form. The opposite is a STANDING WAVE. Also called travelling wave. wave: propagation. The travel of waves through or along a medium. wave(s): radio. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES of FREQUENCIES generally higher than those of audible SOUND WAVES but lower than those of heat and light waves. Also called hertzian waves.

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wave: reflected. A WAVE that has had its direction of motion changed by REFLECTION. wave: refracted. A WAVE that has had its direction of motion changed by REFRACTION. wave: short. A RADIO WAVE shorter than those of the standard broadcasting band. In OCEANOGRAPHY, WAVES under conditions where the relative DEPTH (water depth/wave length) is greater than 0.5 and where the PHASE VELOCITY is independent of water depth, but dependent upon WAVE LENGTH. wave: sky. An indirect RADIO WAVE which travels from the transmitting ANTENNA into the sky, where the IONOSPHERE bends it back toward the EARTH. Also called ionospheric wave. See WAVE: GROUND. wave: solitary. A WAVE OF TRANSLATION consisting of a single CREST rising above the undisturbed liquid level, without any accompanying TROUGH, in contrast with a WAVE TRAIN. wave: sound. A mechanical disturbance advancing with finite VELOCITY through an elastic medium and consisting of longitudinal displacements of the ultimate particles of the medium, that is, consisting of compressional and rarefactional displacements parallel to the direction of advance of the disturbance; a LONGITUDINAL WAVE. Also called sonic wave, or acoustic wave. wave: spherical. A WAVE whose wave front surfaces are concentric spheres. Such WAVES propagate from a point source. wave: standing. A type of WAVE in which the surface of the water oscillates vertically between fixed points, called NODES, without progression. The points of maximum vertical RISE and fall are called antinodes or LOOPS. At the NODES, the underlying water particles exhibit no vertical motion but maximum horizontal motion. At the antinodes the underlying water particles have no horizontal motion and maximum vertical motion. They may be the result of two equal progressive WAVE TRAINS travelling through each other in opposite directions. Also called stationary wave. wave: storm. A wind-generated sea surface wave of great HEIGHT. See STORM SURGE. wave: surface. A progressive GRAVITY WAVE in which the disturbance (that is, the particle movement in the fluid mass as well as the surface movement) is confined to the upper limits of a body of water. Strictly speaking this term applies to those progressive GRAVITY WAVES whose celerity depends only upon the WAVE LENGTH. wave: tidal. The wave motion of the TIDES. In popular usage, any unusually high (and therefore destructive) water level along a SHORE. It usually refers to either a STORM SURGE or TSUNAMI. wave: tide. See TIDE. wave: transitional water. A progressive GRAVITY WAVE in water whose DEPTH is less than 1/2 but more than 1/25 the WAVE LENGTH. Often called shallow water wave. wave: transverse. A WAVE in which the direction of propagation of the WAVE is normal to the displacements of the medium, for example, a vibrating string. The GRAVITY WAVE in which fluid parcels move in circular ORBITS is an example of a mixed transverse-longitudinal wave. wave: trochoidal. A progressive OSCILLATORY WAVE whose form is that of a prolate cycloid or trochoid. It is approximated by WAVES of small AMPLITUDES. wave: ultrashort. A RADIO WAVE shorter than 10 METRES. wave: wind. A WAVE resulting from the action of WIND on a water surface. See FETCH. wave age. The state of development of a wind-generated sea surface wave, conveniently expressed by the ratio of wave speed to wind speed. WIND SPEED is usually measured at about 8 METRES above STILL WATER LEVEL. wave base. The greatest DEPTH at which SEDIMENT on the SEA FLOOR can just be stirred by the oscillating water. wave crest. The highest part of a WAVE.

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wave deltas. See WASHOVERS. wave direction. The direction from which WAVES are moving. wave forecasting. The theoretical determination of future wave characteristics; usually from observed or predicted meteorological or oceanographic PHENOMENA. waveform. The graphical representation of a WAVE, showing variation of AMPLITUDE with time. Also written as two words. wave front. The leading side of a WAVE. wave generation. The creation of WAVES by natural or mechanical means. In WAVE FORECASTING the growth of WAVES caused by a WIND blowing over a water surface for a certain period of time. The area involved is called the generating area or FETCH. wave group. A series of WAVES in which the WAVE DIRECTION, WAVE LENGTH, and WAVE HEIGHT vary only slightly. wave height. The vertical distance between a WAVE CREST and the preceding WAVE TROUGH. wave interference. The PHENOMENON which results when WAVES of the same or nearly the same FREQUENCY are superposed. It is characterized by a spatial or temporal distribution of AMPLITUDE of some specified characteristic differing from that of the individual superposed WAVES. wave length. The distance between corresponding points of two successive PERIODIC WAVES in the direction of propagation, for which the OSCILLATION has the same PHASE. Unit of measurement in METRES. Also written as one word. wavemeter. An instrument for measuring WAVES. One used for ocean waves usually measures HEIGHT and PERIOD; one used for ELECTROMAGNETIC or SOUND WAVES usually measures length. Also written as two words. wave of translation. A WAVE in which the individual particles of the medium are shifted in the direction of wave travel, as ocean waves in shoal waters. Distinguished from an OSCILLATORY WAVE. wave period. The time, in SECONDS, required for a WAVE CREST to traverse a distance equal to one WAVE LENGTH. wave refraction. See REFRACTION OF WATER WAVES. wave spectrum. In ocean wave studies, a graph showing the distribution of WAVE HEIGHTS with respect to FREQUENCY in a wave record. wave train. A series of WAVES moving in the same direction. See WAVE: SOLITARY. wave trough. See TROUGH. wave velocity. The SPEED at which the individual wave form advances. A vector quantity that specifies the SPEED and direction with which a SOUND WAVE travels through a medium. waxing moon. See PHASES OF THE MOON. way. The motion of a vessel through the water. weather (adj.). Of or pertaining to the direction from which the WIND is blowing, as opposed to LEE. weather. State of the ATMOSPHERE at a given time, as defined by the various meteorological elements. weather analysis. Operation of studying the general state of the ATMOSPHERE over a region, with respect to SYNOPTIC CHARTS. Also called synoptic analysis. weather buoy. An Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) used for collecting oceanographic or meteorological information. ODAS buoys are up to 40 feet in diameter.

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weather forecast. Statement of the expected meteorological conditions for a specified period, and for specified area or portion of air space. weather chart (or map). See CHART. weathered ice. Hummocked POLAR ICE subjected to weathering which has given the HUMMOCKS and PRESSURE RIDGES a rounded form. If the weathering continues, the surface may become more and more even. weather ship. See OCEAN STATION VESSEL. weather shore. SHORE that is to windward of a vessel. See LEE SHORE. weather side. The side of a vessel toward which, or the side of a CHANNEL from which the WIND is blowing. weather signal. See SIGNAL. weather tide. See TIDE: WINDWARD. weather vane. See VANE. weber. The unit of magnetic flux in the SI SYSTEM. wedge. In optics, a refracting prism of very small deviation such as those used in the EYEPIECE of some STEREOSCOPES. In METEOROLOGY, term synonymous with RIDGE, though usually applied to a fast-moving RIDGE between two DEPRESSIONS or TROUGHS. weight. The force with which a body is attracted by GRAVITY. Any block or mass of material used for its heaviness. The relative value of an OBSERVATION, source, or quantity when compared with other OBSERVATIONS, sources, or quantities of the same or related quantities. The value determined by the most reliable method is assigned the greatest weight. weighted mean. A value obtained by multiplying each of a series of values by its assigned WEIGHT and dividing the sum of those products by the sum of the WEIGHTS. weir. A DAM erected across a RIVER to raise the level of the water. A fence of stakes set in a RIVER or along the SHORE as a trap for fish. The word is now restricted to smaller works, the larger are called DAMS. well: appraisal. A borehole drilled to evaluate an oil field or gas field. well: development. A borehole drilled, usually from a production platform, after an oil field or gas field has been judged capable of economic production. well: deviated. A borehole drilled at an oblique angle to evaluate or remove oil or natural gas reserves not directly below the drilling structure. well: offshore. A borehole that produces or is capable of producing oil or natural gas. well: plugged. A borehole which has been sealed with a plug and permanently abandoned. well: production. A borehole, producing oil or natural gas, which is covered by a seabed installation of valves and pipelines for the controlled removal of the product. See also SUB-SEA COMPLETION. well: suspended. A borehole that has been temporarily abandoned pending future development. An obstruction up to 5 metres high may remain on the sea-floor. wellhead: offshore. See WELL: OFFSHORE. wellhead: submerged. A submarine structure projecting some distance above the seabed and capping a temporarily abandoned or suspended oil or gas well.

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westerlies. Zone, lying between the approximate LATITUDES 35 and 65 in each hemisphere, in which the air motion is mainly from west to east, especially in the high TROPOSPHERE and low STRATOSPHERE. Near the EARTH's surface, the zone is particularly well marked in the southern hemisphere. westing. The distance a craft makes good to the west. The opposite is EASTING. wet-bulb thermometer. See THERMOMETER. wet compass. See COMPASS: LIQUID. wet density. The ratio of the WEIGHT of the solid particles of a BOTTOM SEDIMENT and the contained moisture to its total volume. wet dock. See DOCK. wet fog. See FOG. wetlands. The term "wetlands" means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include SWAMPS, MARSHES, BOGS and similar areas. wharf. A structure serving as a berthing place for vessels. whirlpool. Water in rapid rotary motion. See EDDY. whirlwind. General term for a small-scale rotating column of air. whitecap. A CREST of a WAVE which becomes unstable in deep water, toppling over or breaking. See BREAKING OF WAVES. wind. Air motion relative to the EARTH'S surface. Unless it is otherwise specified, only the horizontal component is considered. wind circulation. The flow of air through a given area. wind direction. See DIRECTION OF WIND. wind driven current. See CURRENT. wind force. Number on a progressive scale (BEAUFORT WIND SCALE) corresponding to the effects produced by WINDS within a range of speeds. Force exerted by the wind on a construction, object, etc. wind rose. For a given STATION and period of time, a star-shaped DIAGRAM indicating the relative frequencies of different DIRECTIONS OF WIND, sometimes also the frequencies of groups of WIND SPEEDS in different directions. wind set-up. The vertical rise in the STILL WATER LEVEL on the leeward side of a body of water caused by wind stresses on the surface of the water. The difference in STILL WATER LEVELS on the windward and the leeward sides of a body of water caused by wind stresses on the surface of water. Synonymous with wind tide. Wind tide is usually reserved for use on the OCEAN and large bodies of water. Wind set-up is usually reserved for use on RESERVOIRS and smaller bodies of water. See TIDE: METEOROLOGICAL. wind speed. Ratio of the distance covered by the air to the time taken to cover it. The 'instantaneous speed' or, more briefly, the 'speed', corresponds to the case of an infinitely small time interval. The 'mean speed' corresponds to the case of a finite time interval. wind tide. See WIND SET-UP. wind vane. See VANE. wind velocity. See WIND VECTOR.

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wind vector (or wind velocity). Vector drawn in the sense and direction of the WIND and of length proportional to WIND SPEED. window. In computer applications, a rectangular subdivision of the screen showing information without affecting other parts of the screen; a method allowing to view different items of information (e.g. different data sets or graphics) at the same time. On graphical displays a window may be selected with the cursor and subsequently be enlarged (ZOOM). windward (adj. & adv.). In the general direction from which the WIND blows; in the WIND; on the WEATHER SIDE. The opposite is LEEWARD. windward tide. See TIDE. wind wave. See WAVE. winter ice. More or less unbroken, level SEA ICE of not more than one winter's growth originating from YOUNG ICE. Thickness from 15 cm to 2 m. winter solstice. See SOLSTICE. wire: base. See BASE TAPE (or WIRE). wire: invar. A wire made of INVAR metal used in measurement of geodetic BASES. wire: sounding. See SOUNDING. wire and bar sweep. See BAR SWEEPING and WIRE DRAG SWEEP. wire angle. The angle measured between the SOUNDING WIRE, or the oceanographic wire, and the VERTICAL. wire angle indicator. A device used to measure the angle of the SOUNDING WIRE, or the oceanographic wire, from the VERTICAL. It consists of a PROTRACTOR with a weighted plumb arm. The indicator is suspended from the wire at two points and the plumb arm points to the WIRE ANGLE. Also called inclinometer. wire drag. An apparatus for surveying rocky areas where normal sounding methods are insufficient to insure the discovery of all existing OBSTRUCTIONS, PINNACLES, ROCKS, etc., above a given depth or for determining the least DEPTH of an area. It consists essentially of a buoyed wire towed at the desired DEPTH by two LAUNCHES. Often shortened to drag. See DRAG (v.t.). wire drag survey. See SURVEY. wire drag sweep. See SURVEY: WIRE DRAG. wireless. See RADIO. wire sounding. See SOUNDING. witness mark. A MARK placed at a known distance and direction from a property corner, BASE TERMINAL, or survey STATION, to aid in its recovery and identification. Wollaston current meter. A CURRENT METER similar but much larger and heavier than the EKMAN CURRENT METER. It is equipped with recording mechanisms and is suitable for measuring CURRENTS up to six KNOTS. The Wollaston current meter is designed for use from ships at anchor. word. An addressable subdivision of storage memory of a computer system. Usually an integer number of BYTES (e.g. 4 bytes = 32 bit) indicating the standard length of number representation in storage. working chart. See CHART. working pendulum. See PENDULUM. World Geodetic System. A global geodesic reference system developed by the USA for satellite position fixing and recommended by IHO for hydrographic and cartographic use. World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Promotes international cooperation in the field of meteorology.

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World Wide Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS). A service established for the purpose of coordinating the transmissions of radionavigational warnings in geographical areas using coastal and satellite communication services. wrack. See ROCKWEED. wreck. The ruined remains of a stranded or sunken vessel which has been rendered useless. See also DANGEROUS WRECK, and DERELICT. wreckage. Goods or parts of a wrecked vessel washed ashore or afloat; remains of a WRECK. wreck buoy. A BUOY marking the location of a WRECK. w/t station. See RADIO STATION.

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X
6031 x-axis. A horizontal axis in a system of RECTANGULAR COORDINATES; that line on which distances to the right or left (east or west) of the reference line are marked, especially on a MAP, CHART, or graph. x-coordinates. See COORDINATES: PLANE RECTANGULAR. xerography. A process of electrostatic printing which employs a special selenium-coated PLATE, useable many times over. x-parallax. See PARALLAX: ABSOLUTE STEREOSCOPIC. x-rays. Electromagnetic RADIATION of the same nature as visible radiation but of an extremely short WAVE -2 LENGTH less than 10 micrometers. X-rays are used in radar technology.

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6036 6037 6038 yard. A unit of length equal to 3 FEET, 36 INCHES, or 0.9144 METRE. yaw (or yawing). The ship's oscillation about a vertical axis approximately through the center of gravity of the vessel. y-axis. A vertical axis in a system of RECTANGULAR COORDINATES; that line on which distances above or below (north or south of) a reference line are marked, especially on a MAP, CHART, or graph. The line which is perpendicular to the X-AXIS and passes through the ORIGIN. y-coordinates. See COORDINATES: PLANE RECTANGULAR. year. A period of one REVOLUTION of the EARTH around the SUN. year: anomalistic. The period of one REVOLUTION of the EARTH around the SUN, from PERIHELION to PERIHELION, averaging 365 DAYS, 6 HOURS, 13 MINUTES, 53.0 SECONDS in 1900, and increasing at the rate of 0.26 second per century. year: civil. A YEAR of the Gregorian calendar of 365 DAYS in common YEARS, or 366 DAYS in leap (or bissextile) years. year: sidereal. The period of one apparent REVOLUTION of the EARTH around the SUN, with respect to a fixed point, or a distant STAR devoid of proper motion, being 365 DAYS, 6 HOURS, 9 MINUTES, and 9.5 SECONDS in 1900 and increasing at the rate of 0.0001 second annually. year: tropical. The period of one REVOLUTION of the EARTH around the SUN, with respect to the VERNAL o EQUINOX. Because of PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOXES, this is not 360 with respect to the STARS, but 50"3 less. A tropical year is about 20 minutes shorter than a SIDEREAL YEAR, averaging 365 DAYS, 5 HOURS, 48 MINUTES, and 46 SECONDS in 1900 and is decreasing at the rate of 0.00530 second annually. Also called astronomical, equinoctial, natural, or solar year. Y-level. See LEVELLING INSTRUMENT: Y LEVEL. young ice. Newly formed LEVEL ICE in the transition stage of development from ICE RIND or PANCAKE ICE to WINTER ICE. Thickness from 5 to 15 cm. y-parallax. See PARALLAX.

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6048 zenith. The point where the direction of the PLUMB LINE produced above the HORIZON meets the CELESTIAL SPHERE. zenithal projection. See PROJECTION: AZIMUTHAL. zenith camera. A special CAMERA so designed that its OPTICAL AXIS may be pointed accurately toward the ZENITH. It is used for the determination of ASTRONOMICAL POSITIONS by photographing the position of the STARS. zenith distance. The vertical angle between the ZENITH and the object which is observed or defined. Zenith distance is the complement of the ALTITUDE. See ZENITH DISTANCE: DOUBLE. zenith distance: double. A value of twice the ZENITH DISTANCE of an object, obtained by OBSERVATION and not by mathematical process. zenith telescope. See TELESCOPE. zero sounding(s). See SOUNDING. zodiac. The band of the sky extending 8.5 either side of the ECLIPTIC. The SUN, MOON, and navigational PLANETS are always within this band, with the occasional exception of Venus. The zodiac is divided into 12 equal parts, called 'signs', each part being named for the principal CONSTELLATION originally within it. zodiacal light. White or yellowish light which spreads out, in the night sky, more or less along the ZODIAC from the HORIZON on the side on which the SUN is hidden. It is observed when the sky is sufficiently dark and the ATMOSPHERE sufficiently clear. zone. An area in all parts of which the same TIME is kept. In general, each zone is 15of LONGITUDE in width, with the GREENWICH MERIDIAN (0LONGITUDE) designated as the central MERIDIAN of zone 0 and the remaining zones centered on a MERIDIAN whose LONGITUDE is exactly divisible by 15 . Zones are used in connection with ZONE, STANDARD, and DAYLIGHT SAVING TIMES. Also called time zone. zone: equiphase. That region in space within which the difference in PHASE of two radio signals is indistinguishable. zone: equisignal. That region in space within which the difference in AMPLITUDE of two radio signals (usually emitted by a single STATION) is indistinguishable. zone meridian. The CENTRAL MERIDIAN of each zone of a grid system. zone of silence. See BLIND ZONE. zone time. See TIME. zoom. A method of enlarging graphics on a graphical display, usually a function provided by the hardware of the screen. Either a selected WINDOW may be enlarged to cover the entire screen or by repeatedly pressing a key, a stepwise or continuous enlargement of the screen contents can be invoked,keeping the graphics centered at the screen's centre. Zulu time. See UNIVERSAL TIME.

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ANNEX A Acronyms
ASCII BSHC CCIR CGS CIRM DOP DORIS DSL DTM EAHC EAtHC EBCDIC ECDB ECDIS ED ED EEZ EGC EP FAO FIG GDOP GEBCO GLOSS GMDSS HDOP HO IAC IACOMS IAG IAGA IAHR IAL IALA IAMAP IAPSO IASPEI IAT IAVCEI IBCCA IBCEA IBCM IBCRSGA IBCWIO IBWM ICA ICAO ICES ICOS ICSEM ICSU IERS IGC IGU IHB IHC IHO IIP IMO INMARSAT American Standard Code for Information Interchange Baltic Sea Hydrographic Commission Comit Consultatif International des Radiocommunications Centimetre-Gram-Second System Comit International Radio-Maritime (International Radio-Maritime Committee) Dilution of Precision Determination d'Orbite et Radiopositionnement intgrs par Satellite Deep Scattering Layer Digital Terrain Model East Asia Hydrographic Commission Eastern Atlantic Hydrographic Commission Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Electronic Chart Data Base Electronic Chart Display and Information System European Datum Existence Doubtful Exclusive Economic Zone Enhanced Group Call (INMARSAT) Estimated Position Food and Agricultural Organisation Fdration Internationale des Geomtres (International Federation of Surveyors) Geometric Dilution of Precision General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans Global Sea-Level Observing System Global Maritime Distress and Safety System Horizontal Dilution of Precision Hydrographic Office International Advisory Committee on Research in the Natural Sciences International Advisory Committee on Marine Sciences International Association of Geodesy International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy International Association for Hydraulic Research International Association of theoretical and applied Limnology International Association of Lighthouse Authorities International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior International Atomic Time International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IUGG) International Bathymetric Chart of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico International Bathymetric Chart of the Eastern Atlantic International Bathymetric Chart of the Mediterranean International Bathymetric Chart of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden International Bathymetric Chart of the Western Indian Ocean International Bureau of Weights and Measures International Cartographic Association International Civil Aviation Organization International Council for the Exploration of the Sea International Committee of Onomastic Sciences International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea International Council of Scientific Unions International Earth Rotation Service International Geological Congresses International Geographical Union International Hydrographic Bureau International Hydrographic Conference International Hydrographic Organization International Ice Patrol International Maritime Organization International Maritime Satellite Organization

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INT Chart IOC ISBA ISLW ISPRS ISRU ITU IUGG IUGS IUPAP LOP LOS MBSHC MKS system MSC M.S.L. M.T.L. MWARC NAD Navarea NAVTEX NHG NSHC NtM OECD PA PAIGH PD PDOP PIANC RHC RMS ROV SAD SAR SCAR SLAR SCOR SI SON SRC SSS SWPHC TDOP TSS UNCLOS ulcc UN UNCTAD UNDP UNEP UNESCO USCHC UT0 UT1 UT2 UTC UTM VDOP vlcc VHO VLBI VTS WGS WMO WWNWS

International Chart Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO International Sea Bed Authority Indian Spring Low Water International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing International Scientific Radio Union International Telecommunications Union International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics International Union of Geological Sciences International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Line of Position Law of the Sea Mediterranean and Black Seas Hydrographic Commission Meter Kilogram Second system Maritime Safety Committee (IMO) Mean Sea Level Mean Tide Level Maritime World Administrative Radio Conference North American Datum Navigational Warning Area Automatic Narrow Band Printing System Northern Hydrographic Group North Sea Hydrographic Commission Notice to Mariners Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Position Approximate Pan American Institute of Geography and History Position Doubtful Positioning Dilution of Precision Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses Regional Hydrographic Commission Root Mean Square Error Remote Operated Vehicle South American Datum Synthetic Aperture Radar, Search and Rescue Scientific Committee on Antarctic Researches Side-looking Airborne Radar Scientific Committee on Oceanographic Research System International Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation (IMO) Sub-Committee on Radio Communications (IMO) Side Scan Sonar South-West Pacific Hydrographic Commission Time Dilution of Precision Traffic Separation Scheme United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ultra large crude carrier (< 300 000 t) United Nations United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environmental Program United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization U.S/Canada Hydrographic Commission Universal Time 0 Universal Time 1 Universal Time 2 Universal Time Coordinated Universal Transverse Mercator (Grid) Vertical Dilution of Precision very large crude carrier (> 200 000 t) Voluntaring Hydrographic Office Very Long Baseline Interferometry Vessel Traffic Service World Geodetic System World Meteorological Organization World Wide Navigational Warning Service

280