CHAPTER I §1 In the opening of the Politics, Aristotle describes his method: Since we see that every city is some

sort of association, and that every association is constituted for the sake of the good (for everyone does everything for the sake of what is held to be good), it is clear that all partnerships aim at some good, and that the partnership that is most authoritative of all and embraced all the others does so particularly, and aims at the most authorative good of all. This method has an assumption that men do things which they hold to be good. This is a secondary view. The primary concern is that the political association is the most authorative association. That this association is the polis. §2 Aristotle then notes that some argue that all rule is fundamentally the same. These people argue that the only difference between political rule, kingly rule, managing a household, and being a master of slaves is number not type of rule. Number is all that differentiates these types of rule. Aristotle argues that those who hold this position are incorrect, that number is not the only thing that differentiates these types of rule. That each of these types of rule are different fundamentally. That a ruler of a small city and a large family is not the same kind of rule. §3 Aristotle states the method of his inquiry: For just as it is necessary elsewhere to divide a compound into its uncompounded elements (for these are the smallest part of the whole), so too by investigating what the polis is composed of we shall gain a better view concerning this [kinds of rulers] as well, both as to how they differ from one another and as to whether there is some expertise characteristic of an art that can be acquired in connection with each of those mentioned. (1252a16-24) Aristotle intends to analyze the polis. This can be done in two methods: 1) the analytical method (mentioned above) or 2) the genetic (by growth) method. In the above passage, Aristotle clearly indicates that he will use the analytic method to examine the polis. Thus he will divide the polis into its lowest parts. [But the question to carefully examine is "Does he really divide it into its lowest parts" and if not why not?] Clearly the 1st chapter of the Politics ends with Aristotle insisting on using (because he says this method is the best and most complete) the Analytic method to study the polis [as the most authorative human association]. CHAPTER 2 §1 This chapter begins: Now in these matters as elsewhere it is by looking at how things develop naturally from the beginning that one may best study them. This paragraph contradicts the first chapter insistence of the Analytic method to understand the polis. This paragraph insists that the genetic (the growth) method is the best way to study the polis

This is not a matter of choice or deliberation (i. And nature does not care about any one in particular.1) the instinct of reproduction and 2) the rule of the foresighted over those lacking foresight.maybe it is not as by nature as he argues here. there must of necessity be a conjunction of person who cannot exist without one another: on the one hand. This is the other natural principle for human association: again for survival. Therefore to restate: Nature inculcates two principles for the coming together of human beings -. Aristotle continues on the other natural inclination: on the other hand. Nature requires that we get one. The rule of the foresighted over the un-foresight is advantageous for both ruled and ruler. with whomever. This is an important statement because it differentiates between sexual difference and mental capacity. This is engendered by sexual reproduction and reproduction occurs in all plants and animals by instinct: "to leave another that is like oneself.as is also the case with other animal and plants . whereas the unforesighted might have the physical ability but not the know-how to survive. These two natural principles and/or inclinations are the driving force behind why humans come together and ultimately the natural basis of the polis. the naturally ruling and ruled. male and female. For that which can foresee with the mind is the naturally ruling and naturally mastering element.) choice or preference. which one is a matter of preference and choice. then. §3 Aristotle distinguishes between female and slave. Therefore those with foresight should rule and those without foresight should obey is the principle that nature instills for survival. The foresighted has the know-how but maybe not the physical ability to survive. "Now the female is distinguished by nature from the slave" (1252a35b1). §2 Continuing: First. [But remember this if this is by nature . any male or female will do.(the political association). while that which can do these things with the body is the naturally ruled and slave. for the sake of reproduction (which occurs not from intentional choice but .why cannot the barbarians distinguish women and slaves -.] He continues: . To restate: Nature only requires that we reproduce. hence the same thing is advantageous for the master and slave. (1252a30-35) This is the principle that those who have foresight should rule over those without it. the with whom is merely a matter of individual (or societal. Each element needs each other. (1252a26-30) The first requirement is that people come together for survival in the most primary level: species survival.e. Aristotle seems to be arguing against the linking of the two. on account of preservation. etc." The desire for reproduction is instinctual in that male seeks out female.from a natural striving to leave behind another that is like yourself). To say "this" or "that" female or male is an act of choice of deliberation and thus not strictly speaking required by nature. the seeking out of a male or female).

whose function it is to bang nails in.To make the way of life. Men ----------------.To bear children. Each person is best suited to do what nature constructed him (or her) for: The foresighted ----. Women --------------. and each instrument would preform most finely if it served one task rather than many. as smiths make the Delphic knife. The same thing is said about human beings and of human functions. You can bang a nail in with a wrench (as well as pulling a pipe out with it as it was created to do) but not as well as with a hammer -.to provide labour. . but one thing with a view to one thing. Each tool functions best doing the thing it was built to do. The un-foresighted -. Each tool has a specific function and its best used to do that function rather that doing a thing that it was not created to do.for rule. Nature is said to be like a craftsman making fine tools. These are the roles which this argument ultimately suggests.Nature makes nothing in an economizing spirit.

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