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Constant Velocity (Speed)

Objectives: Measure distance and time during constant velocity (speed) movement.
Determine average velocity (speed) as the slope of a Distance vs. Time graph.

Equipment: battery operated vehicles, stopwatches, meter stick or measuring tape Procedure:
. ". #. %. '. !hoose an open area with a level floor. !omplete Table 1 by timing the vehicle as it travels the indicated distances. $se two stopwatches and perform two time trials for each distance. &verage the four time measurements for each distance. $se the distances traveled and these average times to make a Distance vs. Time graph (always named as y vs. () using M) *(cel or some other software program. +abel this and all graphs as directed in class. ,. $se the M) *(cel &dd -rendline function to fit a linear graph through your data points and to compute the best fit e.uation for the line. /. 0ecord the line1s e.uation and 0" value. -he slope, given with the units associated with the y2 and (2 a(es, is the average velocity (speed) of the vehicle. 3. 4rint your graph. Write the speed of the vehicle on the graph next to the line.

Table 1: Times to Travel Specified Distances Time, seconds Trial 1 Distance, cm


Time Meas rement 1 Time Meas rement 2

Trial 2
Time Meas rement 2

Time Meas rement 1

Average Time, sec 5

5 '5 55 '5 "55 "'5 #55

0epeat these same procedures, but this time measure how far the battery operated vehicle travels during the amounts of time specified in the -able ". 6. !omplete Table 2 by measuring the distances the vehicle travels in the specified times. 5. 7ave two timers call out the elapsed time and spotters mark where the vehicle was located at each time given in -able ". . -wo students should independentl! measure the distances the vehicle traveled during each time interval. 4erform two trials for each time. &verage all four values for each distance. ". $se the average distances traveled and the times to make another Distance vs. Time graph (always named as y vs. () using M) *(cel or some other software program. +abel this and all graphs as directed in class. #. $se the M) *(cel &dd -rendline function to a linear graph through your data points and to compute the best fit e.uations for the line. %. 0ecord this line1s e.uation and 0" value. -he slope, given with the units associated with the y2 and (2 a(es, is the average velocity (speed) of the vehicle. '. 4rint your graph. Write the speed of the vehicle on the graph next to the line.

Table 2: Distances Traveled in Specified Times Distance Traveled, centimeters Trial 1 Trial 2 Time, sec
Distance Meas rement 1 Distance Meas rement 2 Distance Meas rement 1

Distance Meas rement 2

Average Distance, cm 5

5 # , 6 " ' 3 Questions:


a.

!ompare the speeds of the vehicle (slopes of the graphs) obtained by graphing the distances and times displayed in each data table.

b.

8f you did not get the e(act same speed (slope) each time, list possible causes for this discrepancy (i.e., sources of error).

c. d. e.

Multiple T"M#$S help ensure that 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999. Multiple T$"A%S help ensure that 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999. Did the vehicle appear to maintain a constant velocity (speed): 99999 7ow can you tell by looking at a Distance vs. Time graph if the velocity (speed) is constant:

f.

8f plotted on the same graph, how would the Distance vs. Time graph of a faster car compare with the graph of a slower car:

g.

;hy was it valuable to take incremental time and distance measurements, rather than <ust simply measuring one single distance and time and dividing to get the average speed: