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ANDERSONVILLE, By John McElroy
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ANDERSONVILLE
A STORY OF REBEL MILITARY PRISONS

FIFTEEN MONTHS A GUEST OF THE SO-CALLED SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY

A PRIVATE SOLDIERS EXPERIENCE IN RICHMOND, ANDERSONVILLE, SAVANNAH, MILLEN BLACKSHEAR AND FLORENCE

BY JOHN McELROY Late of Co. L. 16th Ill Cav. 1879

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TO THE HONORABLE

NOAH H. SWAYNE.

JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES, A JURIST OF DISTINGUISHED TALENTS AND EXALTED CHARACTER;
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ONE OF THE LAST OF THAT ADMIRABLE ARRAY OF PURE PATRIOTS AND SAGACIOUS COUNSELORS, WHO, IN THE YEARS OF THE NATION'S TRIAL, FAITHFULLY SURROUNDED THE GREAT PRESIDENT, AND, WITH HIM, BORE THE BURDEN OF THOSE MOMENTOUS DAYS; AND WHOSE WISDOM AND FAIRNESS HAVE DONE SO MUCH SINCE TO CONSERVE WHAT WAS THEN WON, THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED WITH RESPECT AND APPRECIATION,

BY THE AUTHOR.

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CONTENTS:
INTRODUCTION AUTHOR'S PREFACE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS CHAPTER I.
A STRANGE LAND--THE HEART OF THE APPALACHIANS--THE GATEWAY OF AN EMPIRE --A SEQUESTERED VALE, AND A PRIMITIVE, ARCADIAN, NON-PROGRESSIVE PEOPLE.

CHAPTER II.
SCARCITY OF FOOD FOR THE ARMY--RAID FOR FORAGE--ENCOUNTER WIT THE REBELS --SHARP CAVALRY FIGHT--DEFEAT OF THE "JOHNNIES"--POWELL'S VALLEY OPENED UP.

CHAPTER III.
LIVING OFF THE ENEMY--REVELING IN THE FATNESS OF THE COUNTRY--SOLDIERLY PURVEYING AND CAMP COOKERY--SUSCEPTIBLE TEAMSTERS AND THEIR TENDENCY

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TO FLIGHTINESS--MAKING SOLDIER'S BED.

CHAPTER IV.
A BITTER COLD MORNING AND A WARM AWAKENING--TROUBLE ALL ALONG THE LINE-- FIERCE CONFLICTS, ASSAULTS AND DEFENSE--PROLONGED AND DESPERATE STRUGGLE ENDING WITH A SURRENDER.

CHAPTER V.
THE REACTION--DEPRESSION--BITTING REFLEXION. COLD--SHARP HUNGER AND SAD

CHAPTER VI.
"ON TO RICHMOND!"--MARCHING ON FOOT OVER THE MOUNTAINS--MY HORSE HAS A NEW RIDER--UNSOPHISTICATED MOUNTAIN GIRLS--DISCUSSING THE ISSUES OF THE WAR--PARTING WITH "HIATOGA

CHAPTER VII.
ENTERING RICHMOND--DISAPPOINTMENT AT ITS APPEARANCE--EVERYBODY IN UNIFORM--CURLED DARLINGS OF THE CAPITAL--THE REBEL FLAG--LIBBY PRISON-DICK TURNER--SEARCHING THE NEW COMERS.

CHAPTER VIII.
INTRODUCTION TO PRISON LIFE--THE PEMBERTON BUILDING AND ITS OCCUPANTS-NEAT SAILORS--ROLL CALL--RATIONS AND CLOTHING--CHIVALRIC "CONFISCATION."

CHAPTER IX.
BRANS OR PEAS--INSUFFICIENCY OF DARKY TESTIMONY--A GUARD KILLS A PRISONER--PRISONERS TEAZE THE GUARDS--DESPERATE OUTBREAK.

CHAPTER X.
THE EXCHANGE AND THE CAUSE OF ITS INTERRUPTION--BRIEF RESUME OF THE DIFFERENT CARTELS, AND THE DIFFICULTIES THAT LED TO THEIR SUSPENSION.

CHAPTER XI.
PUTTING IN THE TIME--RATIONS--COOKING UTENSILS--"FIAT SOUP--"SPOONING"-AFRICAN NEWSPAPER VENDERS--TRADING GREENBACKS FOR CONFEDERATE MONEY-- VISIT FROM JOHN MORGAN.

CHAPTER XII.
REMARKS AS TO NOMENCLATURE--VACC1NATION AND ITS

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EFFECTS--"N'YAARKER'S,"-- THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR METHODS OF OPERATING.

CHAPTER XIII.
BELLE ISLE--TERRIBLE SUFFERING FROM COLD AND HUNGER--FATE OF LIEUTENANT BOISSEUX'S DOG--OUR COMPANY MYSTERY--TERMINATION OF ALL HOPES OF ITS SOLUTION.

CHAPTER XIV.
HOPING FOR EXCHANGE--AN EXPOSITION OF THE DOCTRINE OF CHANCES-- OFF FOR ANDERSONVILLE--UNCERTAINTY AS TO OUR DESTINATION--ARRIVAL AT ANDERSONVILLE.

CHAPTER XV.
GEORGIA--A LEAN AND HUNGRY LAND--DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UPPER AND LOWER GEORGIA--THE PILLAGE OF ANDERSONVILLE.

CHAPTER XVI.
WAKING UP IN ANDERSONVILLE--SOME DESCRIPTION OF THE PLACE--OUR FIRST MAIL--BUILDING SHELTER--GEN. WINDER--HIMSELF AND LINEAGE.

CHAPTER XVII.
THE PLANTATION NEGROS--NOT STUPID TO BE LOYAL--THEIR DITHYRAMBIC MUSIC-- COPPERHEAD OPINION OF LONGFELLOW.

CHAPTER XVIII.
SCHEMES AND PLANS TO ESCAPE--SCALING THE STOCKADE--ESTABLISHING THE DEAD LINE--THE FIRST MAN KILLED.

CHAPTER XIX.
CAPT. HENRI WIRZ--SOME DESCRIPTION OF A SMALL-MINDED PERSONAGE, WHO GAINED GREAT NOTORIETY--FIRST EXPERIENCE WITH HIS DISCIPLINARY METHOD.

CHAPTER XX.
PRIZE-FIGHT AMONG THE N'YAARKERS--A GREAT MANY FORMALITIES, AND LITTLE BLOOD SPILT--A FUTILE ATTEMPT TO RECOVER A WATCH--DEFEAT OF THE LAW AND ORDER PARTY.

CHAPTER XXI.

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DIMINISHING RATIONS--A DEADLY COLD RAIN--HOVERING OVER PITCH PINE FIRES --INCREASE ON MORTALITY--A THEORY OF HEALTH.

CHAPTER XXII.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ALABAMIANS AND GEORGIANS--DEATH PARROTT"-- A GOOD JOKE UPON THE GUARD--A BRUTAL RASCAL. OF "POLL

CHAPTER XXIII.
A NEW LOT OF PRISONERS--THE BATTLE OF OOLUSTEE--MEN SACRIFICED TO A GENERAL'S INCOMPETENCY--A HOODLUM REINFORCEMENT--A QUEER CROWD-MISTREATMENT OF AN OFFICER OF A COLORED REGIMENT--KILLING THE SERGEANT OF A NEGRO SQUAD.

CHAPTER XXIV.
APRIL--LONGING TO GET OUT--THE DEATH RATE--THE PLAGUE OF LICE --THE SO-CALLED HOSPITAL.

CHAPTER XXV.
THE "PLYMOUTH PILGRIMS"--SAD TRANSITION FROM COMFORTABLE BARRACKS TO ANDERSONVILLE--A CRAZED PENNSYLVANIAN--DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUTLER BUSINESS.

CHAPTER XXVI.
LONGINGS FOR GOD'S COUNTRY--CONSIDERATIONS OF THE METHODS OF GETTING THERE--EXCHANGE AND ESCAPE--DIGGING TUNNELS, AND THE DIFFICULTIES CONNECTED THEREWITH--PUNISHMENT OF A TRAITOR.

CHAPTER XXVII.
THE HOUNDS, AND THE DIFFICULTIES THEY PUT IN THE WAY OF ESCAPE-- THE WHOLE SOUTH PATROLLED BY THEM.

CHAPTER XXVIII.
MAY--INFLUX OF NEW PRISONERS--DISPARITY IN NUMBERS BETWEEN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN ARMIES--TERRIBLE CROWDING--SLAUGHTER OF MEN AT THE CREEK.

CHAPTER XXIX.
SOME DISTINCTION BETWEEN SOLDIERLY DUTY AND MURDER--A PLOT TO ESCAPE-- IT IS REVEALED AND FRUSTRATED.

CHAPTER XXX.

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AND HIS DEATH--STIGGALL AND EMERSON-RAVAGES ON THE SCURVY. CHAPTER XXXIV.htm JUNE--POSSIBILITIES OF A MURDEROUS CANNONADE--WHAT WAS PROPOSED TO BE DONE IN THAT EVENT--A FALSE ALARM--DETERIORATION OF THE RATIONS-. "OLE BOO. 9 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. CHAPTER XXXII.gutenberg.FEARFUL INCREASE OF MORTALITY. THE HAYMAKER"--A FETID. THE EXECUTION--BUILDING THE SCAFFOLD--DOUBTS OF THE CAMP-CAPTAIN WIRZ THINKS IT IS PROBABLY A RUSE TO FORCE THE STOCKADE--HIS PREPARATIONS AGAINST SUCH AN ATTEMPT--ENTRANCE OF THE DOOMED ONES--THEY REALIZE THEIR FATE--ONE MAKES A DESPERATE ATTEMPT TO ESCAPE--HIS RECAPTURE-INTENSE EXCITEMENT--WIRZ ORDERS THE GUNS TO OPEN--FORTUNATELY THEY DO NOT--THE SIX ARE HANGED--ONE BREAKS HIS ROPE--SCENE WHEN THE RAIDERS ARE CUT DOWN. BURNING DESERT--NOISOME WATER. A COMMUNITY WITHOUT GOVERNMENT--FORMATION OF THE REGULATORS-RAIDERS ATTACK KEY BUT ARE BLUFFED OFF--ASSAULT OF THE REGULATORS ON THE RAIDERS --DESPERATE BATTLE--OVERTHROW OF THE RAIDERS. CHAPTER XXXVIII." AND "OLE SOL. CHAPTER XXXI. LICE AND RAIDERS--PRACTICES OF THESE HUMAN VERMIN-PLUNDERING THE SICK AND DYING--NIGHT ATTACKS. CHAPTER XXXVII. AND BATTLES BY DAY--HARD TIMES FOR THE SMALL TRADERS. AND THE EFFECTS OF DRINKING IT--STEALING SOFT SOAP. THE SLOW. CHAPTER XXXVI. MAGGOTS.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. WHY THE REGULATORS WERE NOT ASSISTED BY THE ENTIRE CAMP-PECULIARITIES OF BOYS FROM DIFFERENT SECTIONS--HUNTING THE RAIDERS DOWN--EXPLOITS OF MY LEFT-HANDED LIEUTENANT--RUNNING THE GAUNTLET. CHAPTER XXXIII. DYING BY INCHES--SEITZ. "POUR PASSER LE TEMPS"--A SET OF CHESSMEN PROCURED UNDER DIFFICULTIES-RELIGIOUS SERVICES--THE DEVOTED PRIEST--WAR SONG. CHAPTER XXXV.

REBEL MUSIC--SINGULAR LACK OF THE CREATIVE POWER AMONG THE SOUTHERNERS-. CHAPTER XLVI.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. DIFFICULTY OF EXERCISING--EMBARRASSMENTS OF A MORNING WALK--THE RIALTO OF THE PRISON--CURSING THE SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY--THE STORY OF THE BATTLE OF SPOTTSYLVANIA COURTHOUSE.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. AND WHERE IT WAS BORROWED FROM--A FIFER WITH ONE TUNE. CLOTHING: ITS RAPID DETERIORATION. THE WEATHER HOTTER. SOME FEATURES OF THE MORTALITY--PERCENTAGE OF DEATHS TO THOSE LIVING-AN AVERAGE MEAN ONLY STANDS THE MISERY THREE MONTHS--DESCRIPTION OF THE PRISON AND THE CONDITION OF THE MEN THEREIN. JULY--THE PRISON BECOMES MORE CROWDED.gutenberg. AND MORTALITY GREATER--SOME OF THE PHENOMENA OF SUFFERING AND DEATH. SURLY BRITON--THE STOLID COURAGE THAT MAKES THE ENGLISH FLAG A BANNER OF TRIUMPH--OUR COMPANY BUGLER. NATIONS POORER. CHAPTER XLV. CHAPTER XL. CHAPTER XXXIX. CHAPTER XLII. HIS CHARACTERISTICS AND HIS DEATH-URGENT DEMAND FOR MECHANICS--NONE WANT TO GO--TREATMENT OF A REBEL 10 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm AFTER THE EXECUTION--FORMATION OF A POLICE FORCE--ITS FIRST CHIEF-"SPANKING" AN OFFENDER. CHAPTER XLI. AUGUST--NEEDLES STUCK IN PUMPKIN SEEDS--SOME PHENOMENA OF STARVATION-RIOTING IN REMEMBERED LUXURIES. THE BATTLE OF THE 22D OF JULY--THE ARMS OF THE TENNESSEE ASSAULTED FRONT AND REAR--DEATH OF GENERAL MCPHERSON--ASSUMPTION OF COMMAND BY GENERAL LOGAN--RESULT OF THE BATTLE.CONTRAST WITH SIMILAR PEOPLE ELSEWHERE--THEIR FAVORITE MUSIC. AND DEVICES TO REPLENISH IT--DESPERATE EFFORTS TO COVER NAKEDNESS--"LITTLE RED CAP" AND HIS LETTER. CHAPTER XLIII. CHAPTER XLIV. BY A LEADING SCIENTIFIC MAN OF THE SOUTH.

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SHOEMAKER-- ENLARGEMENT OF THE STOCKADE--IT IS BROKEN BY A STORM-- THE WONDERFUL SPRING.

CHAPTER XLVII.
"SICK CALL," AND THE SCENES THAT ACCOMPANIED IT--MUSTERING THE LAME, HALT AND DISEASED AT THE SOUTH GATE--AN UNUSUALLY BAD CASE--GOING OUT TO THE HOSPITAL--ACCOMMODATION AND TREATMENT OF THE PATIENTS THERE--THE HORRIBLE SUFFERING IN THE GANGRENE WARD--BUNGLING AMPUTATIONS BY BLUNDERING PRACTITIONERS--AFFECTION BETWEEN A SAILOR AND HIS WARD-DEATH OF MY COMRADE.

CHAPTER XLVIII.
DETERMINATION TO ESCAPE--DIFFERENT PLANS AND THEIR MERITS--I PREFER THE APPALACHICOLA ROUTE--PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE--A HOT DAY--THE FENCE PASSED SUCCESSFULLY PURSUED BY THE HOUNDS--CAUGHT-- RETURNED TO THE STOCKADE.

CHAPTER XLIX.
AUGUST--GOOD LUCK IN NOT MEETING CAPTAIN WIRZ--THAT WORTHY'S TREATMENT OF RECAPTURED PRISONERS--SECRET SOCIETIES IN PRISON--SINGULAR MEETING AND ITS RESULT--DISCOVERY AND REMOVAL OF THE OFFICERS AMONG THE ENLISTED MEN.

CHAPTER L
FOOD--THE MEAGERNESS, INFERIOR QUALITY, AND TERRIBLE SAMENESS-- REBEL TESTIMONY ON THE SUBJECT--FUTILITY OF SUCCESSFUL EXPLANATION.

CHAPTER LI.
SOLICITUDE AS TO THE FATE OF ATLANTA AND SHERMAN'S ARMY--PAUCITY OF NEWS --HOW WE HEARD THAT ATLANTA HAD FALLEN--ANNOUNCEMENT OF A GENERAL EXCHANGE--WE LEAVE ANDERSONVILLE.

CHAPTER LII.
SAVANNAH--DEVICES TO OBTAIN MATERIALS FOR A TENT--THEIR ULTIMATE SUCCESS --RESUMPTION OF TUNNELING--ESCAPING BY WHOLESALE AND BEING RECAPTURED EN MASSE--THE OBSTACLES THAT LAY BETWEEN US AND OUR LINES.

CHAPTER LIII.
FRANK REVERSTOCK'S ATTEMPT AT ESCAPE--PASSING OFF AS REBEL BOY HE REACHES GRISWOLDVILLE BY RAIL, AND THEN STRIKES ACROSS THE COUNTRY FOR SHERMAN, BUT IS CAUGHT WITHIN TWENTY MILES OF OUR LINES.

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CHAPTER LIV.
SAVANNAH PROVES TO BE A CHANGE FOR THE BETTER--ESCAPE FROM THE BRATS OF GUARDS--COMPARISON BETWEEN WIRZ AND DAVIS--A BRIEF INTERVAL OF GOOD RATIONS--WINDER, THE MAN WITH THE EVIL EYE-- THE DISLOYAL WORK OF A SHYSTER.

CHAPTER LV.
WHY WE WERE HURRIED OUT OF ANDERSONVILLE--THE OF THE FALL OF ATLANTA-- OUR LONGING TO HEAR THE NEWS--ARRIVAL OF SOME FRESH FISH--HOW WE KNEW THEY WERE WESTERN BOYS--DIFFERENCE IN THE APPEARANCE OF THE SOLDIERS OF THE TWO ARMIES.

CHAPTER LVI.
WHAT CAUSED THE FALL OF ATLANTA--A DISSERTATION UPON AN IMPORTANT PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM--THE BATTLE OF JONESBORO--WHY IT WAS FOUGHT-HOW SHERMAN DECEIVED HOOD--A DESPERATE BAYONET CHARGE, AND THE ONLY SUCCESSFUL ONE IN THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN--A GALLANT COLONEL AND HOW HE DIED--THE HEROISM OF SOME ENLISTED MEN--GOING CALMLY INTO CERTAIN DEATH.

CHAPTER LVII.
A FAIR SACRIFICE--THE STORY OF ONE BOY WHO WILLINGLY GAVE HIS YOUNG LIFE FOR HIS COUNTRY.

CHAPTER LVIII.
WE LEAVE SAVANNAH--MORE HOPES OF EXCHANGE--SCENES AT DEPARTURE-"FLANKERS"--ON THE BACK TRACK TOWARD ANDERSONVILLE--ALARM THEREAT-AT THE PARTING OF TWO WAYS--WE FINALLY BRING UP AT CAMP LAWTON.

CHAPTER LIX.
OUR NEW QUARTERS AT CAMP LAWTON--BUILDING A HUT--AN EXCEPTIONAL COMMANDANT--HE IS a GOOD MAN, BUT WILL TAKE BRIBES--RATIONS.

CHAPTER LX.
THE RAIDERS REAPPEAR ON THE SCENE--THE ATTEMPT TO ASSASSINATE THOSE WHO WERE CONCERNED IN THE EXECUTION--A COUPLE OF LIVELY FIGHTS, IN WHICH THE RAIDERS ARE DEFEATED--HOLDING AN ELECTION.

CHAPTER LXI.
THE REBELS FORMALLY PROPOSE TO US TO DESERT TO THEM--CONTUMELIOUS TREATMENT OF THE PROPOSITION--THEIR RAGE--AN EXCITING TIME--AN OUTBREAK THREATENED--DIFFICULTIES ATTENDING DESERTION TO THE REBELS.

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CHAPTER LXII.
SERGEANT LEROY L. KEY--HIS ADVENTURES SUBSEQUENT TO THE EXECUTIONS-HE GOES OUTSIDE AT ANDERSONVILLE ON PAROLE--LABORS IN THE COOK-HOUSE-ATTEMPTS TO ESCAPE--IS RECAPTURED AND TAKEN TO MACON--ESCAPES FROM THERE, BUT IS COMPELLED TO RETURN--IS FINALLY EXCHANGED AT SAVANNAH.

CHAPTER LXIII.
DREARY WEATHER--THE COLD RAINS DISTRESS ALL AND KILL HUNDREDS-EXCHANGE OF TEN THOUSAND SICK--CAPTAIN BOWES TURNS A PRETTY, BUT NOT VERY HONEST, PENNY.

CHAPTER LXIV
ANOTHER REMOVAL--SHERMAN'S ADVANCE SCARES THE REBELS INTO RUNNING US AWAY FROM MILLEN--WE ARE TAKEN TO SAVANNAH, AND THENCE DOWN THE ATLANTIC & GULF ROAD TO BLACKSHEAR

CHAPTER LXV.
BLACKSHEAR AND PIERCE COUNTRY--WE TAKE UP NEW QUARTERS, BUT ARE CALLED OUT FOR EXCHANGE--EXCITEMENT OVER SIGNING THE PAROLE--A HAPPY JOURNEY TO SAVANNAH--GRIEVOUS DISAPPOINTMENT

CHAPTER LXVI.
SPECIMEN CONVERSATION WITH AN AVERAGE NATIVE GEORGIAN--WE LEARN THAT SHERMAN IS HEADING FOR SAVANNAH--THE RESERVES GET A LITTLE SETTLING DOWN.

CHAPTER LXVII.
OFF TO CHARLESTON--PASSING THROUGH THE RICE SWAMPS--TWO EXTREMES OF SOCIETY--ENTRY INTO CHARLESTON--LEISURELY WARFARE--SHELLING THE CITY AT REGULAR INTERVALS--WE CAMP IN A MASS OF RUINS--DEPARTURE FOR FLORENCE.

CHAPTER LXVIII.
FIRST DAYS AT FLORENCE--INTRODUCTION TO LIEUTENANT BARRETT, THE REDHEADED KEEPER--A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF OUR NEW QUARTERS--WINDERS MALIGN INFLUENCE MANIFEST.

CHAPTER LXIX.
BARRETT'S INSANE CRUELTY--HOW HE PUNISHED THOSE ALLEGED TO BE ENGAGED IN TUNNELING--THE MISERY IN THE STOCKADE--MEN'S LIMBS ROTTING OFF WITH DRY GANGRENE.

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CHAPTER LXX.
HOUSE AND CLOTHES--EFFORTS TO ERECT A SUITABLE RESIDENCE--DIFFICULTIES ATTENDING THIS--VARIETIES OF FLORENTINE ARCHITECTURE--WAITING FOR DEAD MEN'S CLOTHES--CRAVING FOR TOBACCO.

CHAPTER LXXI.
DECEMBER--RATIONS OF WOOD AND FOOD GROW LESS DAILY--UNCERTAINTY AS TO THE MORTALITY AT FLORENCE--EVEN THE GOVERNMENT'S STATISTICS ARE VERY DEFICIENT--CARE FOB THE SICK.

CHAPTER LXXII.
DULL WINTER DAYS--TOO WEAK AND TOO STUPID To AMUSE OURSELVES-ATTEMPTS OF THE REBELS TO RECRUIT US INTO THEIR ARMY--THE CLASS OF MEN THEY OBTAINED --VENGEANCE ON "THE GALVANIZED"--A SINGULAR EXPERIENCE--RARE GLIMPSES OF FUN--INABILITY OF THE REBELS TO COUNT.

CHAPTER LXXIII.
CHRISTMAS--AND THE WAY THE WAS PASSED--THE DAILY ROUTINE OF RATION DRAWING--SOME PECULIARITIES OF LIVING AND DYING.

CHAPTER LXXIV.
NEW YEAR'S DAY--DEATH OF JOHN H. WINDER--HE DIES ON HIS WAY TO A DINNER --SOMETHING AS TO CHARACTER AND CAREER--ONE OF THE WORST MEN THAT EVER LIVED.

CHAPTER LXXV.
ONE INSTANCE OF A SUCCESSFUL ESCAPE--THE ADVENTURES OF SERGEANT WALTER HARTSOUGH, OF COMPANY K, SIXTEENTH ILLINOIS CAVALRY--HE GETS AWAY FROM THE REBELS AT THOMASVILLE, AND AFTER A TOILSOME AND DANGEROUS JOURNEY OF SEVERAL HUNDRED MILES, REACHES OUR LINES IN FLORIDA.

CHAPTER LXXVI
THE PECULIAR TYPE OF INSANITY PREVALENT AT FLORENCE--BARRETT'S WANTONNESS OF CRUELTY--WE LEARN OF SHERMAN'S ADVANCE INTO SOUTH CAROLINA--THE REBELS BEGIN MOVING THE PRISONERS AWAY--ANDREWS AND I CHANGE OUR TACTICS, AND STAY BEHIND--ARRIVAL OF FIVE PRISONERS FROM SHERMAN'S COMMAND--THEIR UNBOUNDED CONFIDENCE IN SHERMAN'S SUCCESS, AND ITS BENEFICIAL EFFECT UPON US.

CHAPTER LXXVII

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FRUITLESS WAITING FOR SHERMAN--WE LEAVE FLORENCE--INTELLIGENCE OF THE FALL OF WILMINGTON COMMUNICATED TO US BY A SLAVE--THE TURPENTINE REGION OF NORTH CAROLINA--WE COME UPON A REBEL LINE OF BATTLE--YANKEES AT BOTH ENDS OF THE ROAD.

CHAPTER LXXVIII.
RETURN TO FLORENCE AND A SHORT SOJOURN THERE--OFF TOWARDS WILMINGTON AGAIN--CRUISING A REBEL OFFICER'S LUNCH--SIGNS OF APPROACHING OUR LINES --TERROR OF OUR RASCALLY GUARDS--ENTRANCE INTO GOD'S COUNTRY AT LAST.

CHAPTER LXXIX.
GETTING USED TO FREEDOM--DELIGHTS OF A LAND WHERE THERE IS ENOUGH OF EVERYTHING--FIRST GLIMPSE OF THE OLD FLAG--WILMINGTON AND ITS HISTORY --LIEUTENANT CUSHING--FIRST ACQUAINTANCE WITH THE COLORED TROOPS-LEAVING FOR HOME--DESTRUCTION OF THE "THORN" BY A TORPEDO--THE MOCK MONITOR'S ACHIEVEMENT.

CHAPTER LXXX
VISIT TO FORT FISHER, AND INSPECTION OF THAT STRONGHOLD--THE WAY IT WAS CAPTURED--OUT ON THE OCEAN SAILING--TERRIBLY SEASICK--RAPID RECOVERY-ARRIVAL AT ANNAPOLIS--WASHED, CLOTHED AND FED--UNBOUNDED LUXURY, AND DAYS OF UNADULTERATED HAPPINESS.

CHAPTER LXXXII.
CAPTAIN WIRZ THE ONLY ONE OF THE PRISON-KEEPERS PUNISHED--HIS ARREST, TRIAL AND EXECUTION.

CHAPTER LXXXIII.
THE RESPONSIBILITY--WHO WAS TO BLAME FOR ALL THE MISERY--AN EXAMINATION OF THE FLIMSY EXCUSES MADE FOR THE REBELS--ONE DOCUMENT THAT CONVICTS THEM--WHAT IS DESIRED.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
(The Skipped Numbers were drawings unsuitable for copying.) 1. Frontpiece 2. "War"
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8. Cumberland Gap, Looking Eastward 4. A Cavalry Squad 5. The 'Rebels Marching Through Jonesville 6. 'Leven Yards Killing the Rebel 7. A Scared Mule Driver 8. Bugler Sounding "Taps" 9. Company L Gathering to Meet the Rebel Attack 10. The Major Refuses to Surrender 11. Ned Johnson Trying to Kill the Rebel Colonel 12. Girls Astonished at the Jacket Tabs 14. An East Tennesseean 15. A Rebel Dandy 17. Turner in Quest of British Gold 18. Barnacle backs Discouraging a Visit from a Soldier 19. Ross Calling the Roll 20. An Evening's Amusement with the Guards 21. Prisoners' Culinary Outfit 23. Skimming, the Bugs From My Soup 23. "Spooning" 24. A Richmond News Boy 25. "Say, Guard: Do You Want to Buy Some Greenbacks?" 26. A "N'Yaarker" 27. Decoying Boisseux's Dog to Its Death 28. The Dead Scotchman 29. Map of Georgia, South Carolina and part of North Carolina 30. Cooking Rations 31. General John W. Winder 32. A Field hand 33. Scaling the Stockade 34. Captain llenri Wirz 35. The Prize-fight for the Skillet 36. Killing Lice by Singeing 37. Stripping the Dead for Clothes 38. A Plymouth Pilgrim 40. Midnight Attack of the Raiders 41. Ignominious End of a Tunnel Enterprize 42. Tunneling 43. Tattooing the Tunnel Traitor 44. Overpowering a Guard 45. A Master of the Hounds 46. Hounds Tearing a Prisoner 47. Shot at the Creek by the Guard 48. Cooking Mush 49. Seitz on Horseback 50. Finding Seitz Dead 51. A Case of Scurvy 52. Confiscating Soft Soap 63. Religious Services 54. The Priest Anointing the Dying 55. Raider Fight with one of Ellett's Marine Brigade 56. Key Bluffing His Would-be Assassins 67. Rebel Artillerists Training the Cannon on the Prison 58. Overthrow of the Raiders

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59. Arrest of Pete Donnelly 60. Death of the Sailor 61. Execution of the Raiders 63. Sergeant A. R, Hill, 100th O. V. I. 63. "Spanking" a Thief 64. The Wounded Illinois Sergeant 65. The Idiotic Flute-Player 66. One of Sherman's "Veterans" 67. "You Hear Me" 68. Logan Taking Command of the Army of the Tennessee 69. Death of M'Pherson 70. The Work of a Shell 71. The Fight for the Flag 72. In the Rifle-pit After the Battle 73. Taken In 74. The Author's Appearance on Entering Prison 75. His Appearance in July, 1864 76. Little Red Cap 77. "Fresh Fish" 78. Interior of the Stockade, Viewed from the Southwest 79. Burying the Dead 80. The Graveyard at Andersonville, as the Rebels Left It 81. Denouncing the Southern Confederacy 82. The Charge 83. "Flagstaff" 84. Nursing a Sick Comrade 65. A Dream 86. The English Bugler 87. The Break in the Stockade 88. At the Spring 89. Morning Assemblage of Sick at the South Gate 91. Old Sailor and Chicken 92. Death of Watts 93. Planning Escape 94. Our Progress was Terribly Slow--Every Step Hurt Fearfully 95. "Come Ashore, There, Quick" 96. He Shrieked Imprecations and Curses 97. The Chain Gang 98. Interior of the Stockade--The Creek at the East Side 99. A Section from the East Side of the Prison Showing the Dead Line 100. "Half-past Eight O'clock, and Atlanta's Gone to H--l!" 101. Off for "God's Country" 102. Georgian Development of the "Proud Caucasian" 103. It was Very Unpleasant When a Storm Came Up 104. When We Matched Our Intellects Against a Rebel's 107. His New Idea was to have a Heavily Laden Cart Driven Around Inside the Dead Line 108. They Stood Around the Gate and Yelled Derisively 110. "See Heah; You Must Stand Back!" 111. He Bade Them Goodbye 112. "Wha-ah-ye!" 114. One of Ferguson's Cavalry 115. Then the Clear Blue Eyes and Well-remembered Smile

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117. Millen 118. A House Builded With Our Own Own Hands 119. Our First Meat 120. A Lucky Find 121. Sergeant L. L. Key 124. "Where Are You Going, You D--d Yank?" 127. "Who Mout These Be?" 128. A Roadside View 129. The Charleston & Savannah Railroad 131. A Rice Field Girl 132. A Rice Swamp 133. A Scene in the "Burnt District" 134. The Part Where We Lay Was a Mass of Ruins 135. Ruins of St. Finbar Cathedral 136. The Unlucky Negro Fell, Pierced by a Score of Bullets 137. Recapture of the Runaways 139. "Take These Shears and Cut My Toes Off" 140. Corporal John W. January 142. Andrews Managed to Fish Out the Bag and Pass to Me Three Roasted Chickens 143. In God's Country at Last 144. Map of Wilmington and Neighborhood 148. The Infantry Assault on Fort Fisher 149. They Removed Every Trace of Prison Grime 152. Trial of Captain Wirz 153. Execution of Captain Wirz 154. "Peace"

INTRODUCTION.
The fifth part of a century almost has sped with the flight of time since the outbreak of the Slaveholder's Rebellion against the United States. The young men of to-day were then babes in their cradles, or, if more than that, too young to be appalled by the terror of the times. Those now graduating from our schools of learning to be teachers of youth and leaders of public thought, if they are ever prepared to teach the history of the war for the Union so as to render adequate honor to its martyrs and heroes, and at the same time impress the obvious moral to be drawn from it, must derive their knowledge from authors who can each one say of the thrilling story he is spared to tell: "All of which I saw, and part of which I was." The writer is honored with the privilege of introducing to the reader a volume written by an author who was an actor and a sufferer in the scenes he has so vividly and faithfully described, and sent forth to the public by a publisher whose literary contributions in support of the loyal cause entitle him to the highest appreciation. Both author and publisher have had an honorable and efficient part

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Many will be slow to believe all that is here told most truthfully of the tyranny and cruelty of the captors of our brave boys in blue. which can be applied to the work now introduced. When the anti-slavery reformers of thirty years ago set forth the cruelties of the slave system. Of his qualifications. As a journalist he had acquired the habit of noticing and memorizing every striking or thrilling incident. He speaks from personal experience and from the stand-paint of tender and complete sympathy with those of his comrades who suffered more than he did himself. The publisher. Prevented from carrying out this design. a most sacred cause. This reluctance to believe unwelcome truths has been the snare of our national life. nor scarcely believe when it is declared unto them. had performed a most perverting. These letters were read and shouted over gleefully at every camp-fire in the Union Army. He took with him into the terrible prison enclosure not only a brave. This is a point we can not afford to be mistaken about. A generation is arising who do not know what the preservation of our free government cost in blood and suffering. The sketches themselves testify to his ability with such force that no commendation is required. engaged in journalistic work. what to the future of the great Republic is more important. demonizing work on the dominant race. entered. intending to lead them to the field. more than equal to the might of whole battalions poured in upon the enemy. And yet. Weld issued his "Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses. and may help the reader better to accept and appreciate its statements. and we might say. which people bred under our free civilization can not at once understand. right at this point this volume will meet its severest criticism. they were met with a storm of indignant denial. despotic. until the drum of the recruiting officer called him to join the ranks of his country's defenders. villification and rebuke. Even the men of the passing generation begin to be forgetful. at the beginning of the war. But the sharp wit of the humorist drives it before the world's derision into shame and everlasting contempt. and the experiences of his prison life were adapted to enstamp themselves indelibly on both feeling and memory. and written to support. When Theodore D. attractive and admirable burlesque. but invaluable habits of mind and thought for storing up the incidents and experiences of his prison life.gutenberg. maintained for over two hundred years at the South. Weld said: "Suppose I should seize you. vigorous." to the cruelty of slavery. long laughter of a world!" The unique and telling satire of these papers became a power and inspiration to our armies in the field and to their anxious friends at home.htm in the great struggle. with all earnestness. if we may judge from the recklessness or carelessness of their political action.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and make you work without pay as long as you lived. The soldier is not always remembered nor honored as he should be. The author. His famous "Nasby Letters" exposed the absurd and sophistical argumentations of rebels and their sympathisers. and at this point its testimony is most vital and necessary. Would that be justice? Would it be kindness? Or would it be monstrous injustice and cruelty? Now. An athlete in logic may lay an error writhing at his feet. as to direct against them the "loud. There are no parallels to the cruelties and malignities here described in Northern society. and are therefore worthy to hand down to the future a record of the perils encountered and the sufferings endured by patriotic soldiers in the prisons of the enemy. rob you of your liberty. drive you into the field. We have not been willing to believe how hardened. there is great danger of our people under-estimating the bitter animus and terrible malignity to the Union and its defenders cherished by those who made war upon it. pregnant with sound philosophy. This work is needed. Other humorists were content when they simply amused the reader. but "Nasby's" jests were argumentsthey had a meaning—they were suggested by the necessities and emergencies of the Nation's peril. The system of slavery. As the reader is told. is the man who robs you every day too tender-hearted ever to 19 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . morally desolating. youthful spirit. and cruel the wielders of irresponsible power may become. But. Mr. and eagerly devoured by crowds of listeners when mails were opened at country post-offices. he introduced it with a few words. he was made a prisoner. in such broad. when very young. his energies were directed to a more effective service.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and after all it may recover to do great mischief. with zeal and ardor upon the work of raising a company of men. the writer of these introductory words need not speak.

with all its fearful concomitants.gutenberg. and all comfort in religion. it had never occurred to me that I was in any way charged with the duty of increasing that enlightenment. or without warm stockings in winter. to keep human beings subservient to their will? Are we to expect nothing but chivalric tenderness and compassion from men who made war on a tolerant government to make more secure their barbaric system of oppression? These things are written because they are true. too. how yearn his tender bowels! What! talk of a man treating you well while robbing you of all you get. No affected deprecation of my own abilities had any part is this. The publisher of this work urged his friend and associate in journalism to write and send forth these sketches because the times demanded just such an expose of the inner hell of the Southern prisons. from being again the scourge and terror of our beloved land. nor let their dear stomachs get empty!" In like manner we may ask. never push them too hard in the field. but is shocked if you work bare-headed in summer. lesser than they would fail preposterously to rise to the level of the theme. AUTHOR'S PREFACE Fifteen months ago—and one month before it was begun—I had no more idea of writing this book than I have now of taking up my residence in China. we shall be able to prevent treason. your right to acquire knowledge. shot-gun and bloodhound. but never without a shirt. I certainly knew enough of the matter. it cuts him to the quick. as did every other boy who had even a month's experience in those terrible places. are not the cruelties and oppressions described in the following pages what we should legitimately expect from men who. but if your stomach is empty.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and as fast as you get it? And robbing you of yourself. We must accept the truth and act in view of it. Acting wisely on the warnings of the past. your body and mind. but loves you too well to let you go hungry. He can strip you of all protection of law. He can crush in you all hope of bettering your condition by vowing that you shall die his slave. half-clad and half-sheltered. to the heroic living. and yet you are content to believe without question that men who do all this by their slaves have soft hearts oozing out so lovingly toward their human chattles that they always keep them well housed and well clad. who have endured the pangs of a hundred deaths for their country's sake. unvarnished tale" of suffering endured for freedom's sake. While I have always been deeply impressed with the idea that the public should know much more of the history of Andersonville and other Southern prisons than it does. duty to the government which depends on the wisdom and constancy of its good citizens for its support and perpetuity. property and reputation. your liberty and earnings. He can make you go without your liberty. but if you are exposed to the weather. Duty to the brave dead. He fleeces you of your rights with a relish. No writer ever described such a deluge of woes as swept over the unfortunates confined in Rebel 20 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. ROBERT McCUNE. never make their dear backs smart. your free speech and rights of conscience. limbs and senses. have used whip and thumb-screw. he will never lacerate your back—he can break your heart. and thus expose you to all outrages. He can make you work a life-time without pay. all their lives. One day at Andersonville or Florence would be task enough for the genius of Carlyle or Hugo. your muscles. but though he can thus cruelly torture your feelings. calls for this "round. but the very magnitude of that knowledge overpowered me. The tender mercies of oppressors are cruel. but is very tender of your skin.htm cuff or kick you? He can empty your pockets without remorse. your hands and feet. by showing me the vast requirements of the subject-requirements that seemed to make it presumption for any but the greatest pens in our literature to attempt the work.

statement and description. strong. No one has a deeper love for every part of our common country than I. than were killed in front of them by cannon and rifle. The years 1864-5 were a season of desperate battles. Study of the subject since confirms me in this view. nor could it be. but in that time many more Union soldiers were slain behind the Rebel armies. R. It knows full well how grandly her sons met death in front of the serried ranks of treason. It is an offering of testimony to future generations of the measureless cost of the expiation of a national sin. no earthly good resulted from the martyrdom of those tens of thousands. It is to help supply this deficiency that this book is written.htm prisons in the last year-and-a-half of the Confederacy's life. I wish I could see some hope that their wantonly shed blood has sown seeds that will one day blossom. and bear a rich fruitage of benefit to mankind. If I could see that the sufferings at Andersonville and elsewhere contributed in any considerable degree to that end. The work was begun at the suggestion of Mr. I no more felt myself competent to the task than to accomplish one of Michael Angelo's grand creations in sculpture or painting. but it has heard little of the still greater number who died in prison pen. Nasby).org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. able-bodied men. and I am fortified in my position by unsolicited letters from over 3. I apprehend being assailed by a sirocco of contradiction and calumny. Blood and tears mark every step in the progress of the race. until finally they took the range they now have. when I say that we have no revenges to satisfy. no hatreds to appease. We only desire that the Nation shall recognize and remember the grand fidelity of our dead comrades. I know that what is contained herein will be bitterly denied. There was never the least military or other reason for inflicting all that wretchedness upon men. and but little of the sublime firmness with which they endured unto the death. all that the ingenious cruelty of their foes could inflict upon them while in captivity. The country has heard much of the heroism and sacrifices of those loyal youths who fell on the field of battle. But I am naturally embittered by the fruitlessness. I am prepared for this. warmly indorsing the account as thoroughly accurate in every respect. At first it was only intended to write a few short serial sketches of prison life for the columns of the TOLEDO BLADE. the eminent political satirist. I am ready to demonstrate this by any test that the deniers of this may require. but it saddens me beyond expression that I can not. and my only claim for this book is that it is a contribution—a record of individual observation and experience—which will add something to the material which the historian of the future will find available for his work.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. (Petroleum V. and no one to-day will make more efforts and sacrifices to bring the South to the same plane of social and material development with the rest of the Nation than I will. I know I speak for all those still living comrades who went with me through the scenes that I have attempted to describe. It has been charged that hatred of the South is the animus of this work.000 surviving prisoners. Nothing can be farther from the truth. and of the preservation of our national unity. D. starving and rotting to death. The exceeding favor with which the first of the series was received induced a great widening of their scope. by starvation and exposure. In my boyhood I witnessed the savagery of the Slavery agitation—in my youth I felt the fierceness of the hatred directed against all those who stood by the Nation.gutenberg. save by an inspired pen. as far as mortal eye can discern. Such a gigantic tragedy as this stuns the mind and benumbs the imagination. This is all. so far from there being any exaggeration in any particular. and take abundant care that they shall not 21 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . But I solemnly affirm in advance the entire and absolute truth of every material fact. No man was ever called upon to describe the spectacle and the process of seventy thousand young. It is a mite contributed to the better remembrance by their countrymen of those who in this way endured and died that the Nation might live. Locke. that in no instance has the half of the truth been told. and human misery seems unavoidable in securing human advancement. as well as the uselessness of the misery of Andersonville. and. I know that hell hath no fury like the vindictiveness of those who are hurt by the truth being told of them. and I should not regret that they had been. We do not ask that anyone shall be punished. I assert that.

JOHN McELROY. who served through the war in the ranks of the Forty-second Ohio. of Toledo. 22 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Reich. and had no better opportunities for gaining information than any other of his 60. I hope that the time is near when even that advanced spelling reformer will be left far in the rear by the progress of a people thoroughly weary of longer slavery to the orthographical absurdities handed down to us from a remote and grossly unlearned ancestry.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. are from the atelier of Mr. and which.000 companions. no system—of orthography. Toledo. Some thirty of the pictures. Dec. We but hate a vicious social system. Cincinnati.. has proved their own and their country's bane. 1879. A word as to the spelling: Having always been an ardent believer in the reformation of our present preposterous system—or rather. and the allegorical illustrations of War and Peace.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. His army experience has been of peculiar value to the work. as it has enabled him to furnish a series of illustrations whose life-like fidelity of action. by elevating bad men to power. I am anxious to do whatever lies in my power to promote it. 10.htm have died in vain. The following story does not claim to be in any sense a history of Southern prisons. The majority of the illustrations in this work are from the skilled pencil of Captain O. Hopkins. O. to which they yield. For the great mass of Southern people we have only the kindliest feeling. In the following pages the spelling is simplified to the last degree allowed by Webster. It is simply a record of the experience of one individual—one boy—who staid all the time with his comrades inside the prison. O. J.gutenberg. including the frontispiece. O. pose and detail are admirable. the lingering shadow of a darker age.

And fraud and lies Live only in its shadow. Hot burns the fire Where wrongs expire. Endure and wait and labor! WHITTIER 23 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm We wait beneath the furnace blast The pangs of transformation. Not painlessly doth God recast And mold anew the nation. All justice dies. West.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The poison plant the fathers spared All else is overtopping. God give us grace Each in his place To bear his lot. And.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg. It curses the earth. South. North. murmuring not. The hand-breadth cloud the sages feared Its bloody rain is dropping. Nor spares the hand That from the land Uproots the ancient evil. Then let the selfish lip be dumb And hushed the breath of sighing. East. Before the joy of peace must come The pains of purifying.

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.htm ANDERSONVILLE A STORY OF REBEL 24 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

Large streams of water burst out in the most unexpected planes. who dominated the country the southeast of the Cumberland range. every crevice in the rocks has for tenants rattlesnakes or stealthy copperheads. aggressive race. and sweep it away. A STRANGE LAND—THE HEART OF THE APPALACHIANS—THE GATEWAY OF AN EMPIRE —A SEQUESTERED VALE. interposed across every approach from the usual haunts of men. rarely trodden forests.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and found it the fastness of the Xualans. AND A PRIMITIVE. Caves. Even the rank vegetation is eccentric. The throes of some great convulsion of Nature are written on the face of the four thousand square miles of territory. square. of which Cumberland Gap is the central point. a bold. and their recesses filled with metallic salts of the most powerful and diverse natures. and as smooth and regular as the side of a monument. Roundabout the land is full of strangeness and mystery. penetrated to this region. Kentucky and Tennessee. A low. and frequently conflicting peoples. Ohio and Indiana—and the Cherokees. There the god Terminus should have had one of his chief temples. crowning almost inaccessible mountains. hundreds of feet high. aggressive. balefully bright eyes. Huge. Again the Cherokees were victorious. break the mountain sides at frequent intervals. fantastically-shaped rocks abound everywhere—sometimes rising into pinnacles on lofty summits—sometimes hanging over the verge of beetling cliffs. remembering the old Greek and Roman myths and superstitions. Everywhere one is met by surprises and anomalies. indicates the boundaries of—the three great States of Virginia. and fall in silver veils upon stones beaten round by the ceaseless dash for ages. continually warring with its neighbors. and as prone to develop into bizarre forms as are the rocks and mountains. and the 25 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg. and "white-collar" encircled throats. Miles of granite mountains are thrust up like giant walls. The dreaded panther ranges through the primeval. one would recognize as fitting to mark the confines of the territories of great masses of strong. It is such a place as. and his sacred solitude guarded from the rude invasion of armed hosts by range on range of battlemented rocks. frequently far up mountain sides. NON-PROGRESSIVE PEOPLE. In 1540—339 years ago —De Soto. The human events happening here have been in harmony with the natural ones. with their great. rich in quaintly formed stalactites and stalagmites. who lorded it over what is now Kentucky. and linger around the fields to chill his blood who catches a glimpse of their upreared heads. in that energetic but fruitless search for gold which occupied his later years. and he witnessed there the most sanguinary contest between Indians of which our annals give any account—a pitched battle two days in duration. where his shrine would be shadowed by barriers rising above the clouds. ARCADIAN. set near the summit of the eastern approach to the formidable natural fortress of Cumberland Gap. while long. It has always been a land of conflict.htm MILITARY PRISONS CHAPTER I.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. plainly-hewn stone. wonderfully swift "blue racers" haunt the edges of the woods. as if placed there in waiting for a time when they could be hurled down upon the path of an advancing army. When next the white man reached the country—a century and a half later—he found the Xualans had been swept away by the conquering Cherokees. between the invading Shawnees.

CHAPTER II. Tennessee and Virginia. Murrell—and his gang. The young men who have annually driven cattle to the distant markets in Kentucky. nor yet craving after luxury." and the latest improved fire-arms for themselves. and twice was it wrested away from them. Wheeled vehicles are almost unknown. Having this there seems to be little care for more. after the disasters of Wild Cat and Mill Springs. When the Rebellion broke out the region at once became the theater of military operations. near Lexington. one 26 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Between the main ridge upon which Cumberland Gap is situated. They left germs behind them. and with the speech. and later into guerrillas and bushwhackers. the clothing is the product of the farm and the busy looms of the women. Three months later his beaten forces sought refuge from their pursuers behind its impregnable fortifications. hogs. and the next range on the southeast which runs parallel with it. There has been but little change since then. It is called Powell's Valley. now descending upon some little town.htm discomfited Shawnees retired north of the Gap. have brought back occasional stray bits of finery for the "women folks. They infested the country for years. disturb their contented souls or drag them away from the non-progressive round of simple life bequeathed them by their fathers. Ambition nor avarice. however. The fat soil brings forth the substantials of life in opulent plenty. but this is about all the innovations the progress of the world has been allowed to make. and forced their way into Kentucky. sheep and the products of the field. Ky. to plunder its stores and houses.gutenberg. The base of supplies was at Camp Nelson. The people are rich in cattle. very fruitful valley." and it was whither they fled. manners and ideas that their fathers brought into the Valley when they settled it a century ago. At length Murrell and his band were driven out. In it dwell a simple. As the Autumn of 1863 advanced towards Winter the difficulty of supplying the forces concentrated around Cumberland Gap—as well as the rest of Burnside's army in East Tennessee —became greater and greater.. shut out from the world almost as much as if they lived in New Zealand. Had the South ever been able to separate from the North the boundary would have been established along this line. horses. is a narrow. that developed into horse thieve counterfeiters. and sought a new field of operations on the Lower Mississippi. walled in on either side for a hundred miles by tall mountains as a City street is by high buildings. Then the white man delivered battle for the possession the land. long. SCARCITY OF FOOD FOR THE ARMY—RAID FOR FORAGE—ENCOUNTER WIT THE REBELS —SHARP CAVALRY FIGHT—DEFEAT OF THE "JOHNNIES"—POWELL'S VALLEY OPENED UP.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and life is as rural and Arcadian as any ever described in a pastoral. men and women travel on horseback as they did a century ago.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. In 1861 it was the point whence Zollicoffer launched out with his legions to "liberate Kentucky. In 1862 Kirby Smith led his army through the Gap on his way to overrun Kentucky and invade the North. now waylaying the trader or drover threading his toilsome way over the lone mountains. Another half century saw the Gap the favorite haunt of the greatest of American bandits—the noted John A. Twice Cumberland Gap was seized by the Rebels. and bought it with the lives of many gallant adventurers. primitive people. Another year saw Burnside burst through the Gap with a conquering force and redeem loyal East Tennessee from its Rebel oppressors. beaten and shattered. Half a century later Boone and his hardy companion followed.

htm hundred and eighty miles from the Gap. Come. its stock of products was as yet almost exempt from military contributions. each about 75 strong—was sent on the errand of driving out the Rebels and opening up the Valley for our foraging teams. Go. He went. Consequently a raid was projected to reduce the Valley to our possession. and which the copious rains and heavy traffic had rendered well-nigh impassable. and I say unto one. and secure its much needed stores. of the Battalion. in their best state were wretched. he did not feel at liberty to decline. who said with the characteristic boastfulness of one of the lower grades of commissioned officers when he happens to be a snob: For I am also a man set under authority. Rather "airy" talk that for a man who nowadays would take rank with Captains of infantry. The writer was invited to attend the excursion. Do this. 27 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Maj. and the invitation came from his Captain. having under me soldiers. All the country to our possession had been drained of its stock of whatever would contribute to the support of man or beast. and he cometh. and to another. As he held the honorable. Beer's third Battalion. H. C. It was guarded by the Sixty-fourth Virginia. but not very lucrative position of "high. Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry—four companies. private" in Company L. That portion of Powell's Valley extending from the Gap into Virginia was still in the hands of the Rebels.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. who had then been in the service about two years. made up of the young men of the locality. as private soldiers have been in the habit of doing ever since the days of the old Centurion. and he doeth it.gutenberg. and he goeth. and all that the Army used had to be hauled that distance by mule teams over roads that. a mounted regiment. and to my servant.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.

as the bugle sounded "Right forward! fours right!" we moved off at a walk through the melancholy mist that soaked through the very fiber of man and horse." buckled on three hundred more or less trusty sabers and revolvers. One. came into line "as companies" with the automatic listlessness of the old soldiers. "counted off by fours" in that queer gamut-running style that makes a company of men "counting off"—each shouting a number in a different voice from his neighbor—sound like running the scales on some great organ badly out of tune. A cavalryman soon recognizes as the least astonishing thing in his existence the signal to "Fall in!" and start somewhere. Two. Three. a rich drover. until 28 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . something like this: One. Four. dreary rain. Four. whom he was pretending to pilot through the mountains—down to where the "Virginia road" turned off sharply to the left and entered Powell's Valley.gutenberg. saddled three hundred more or less gallant steeds.htm Three hundred of us responded to the signal of "boots and saddles.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. He feels that he is the "Poor Joe" of the Army—under perpetual orders to "move on. Such matters had long since ceased to excite any interest. Then. One. which we plodded silently. Four. as he stooped to drink of its crystal waters." Down we wound over the road that zig-tagged through the forts. Two. Three. batteries and rifle-pits covering the eastern ascent to the Flap-past the wonderful Murrell Spring—so-called because the robber chief had killed. Three. nor cared.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and reduced the minds of both to a condition of limp indifference as to things past. The mist had become a chill. Two. Whither we were going we knew not. through. present and future.

The guard looked at the fellow contemptuously. about 40 miles from the Gap. and we laid down with feet to the fire to get what sleep we could. by mounting and starting down the Valley to drive us out. when he could go in-doors. had learned of our starting up the Valley to drive them out. without even a return shot.gutenberg. Our esteemed friends of the Sixtyfourth Virginia. 29 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Before morning we were awakened by the bitter cold. and the 300 of us resumed our onward plod over the rocky. This was better than the rain.htm night closed in around us some ten miles from the Gap.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. coffee made. A good fire and a hot cup of coffee would make the cold quite endurable. at all events.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. cedar-crowned hills. As we halted to go into camp. It had cleared off during the night and turned so cold that everything was frozen stiff. as if he hated to waste powder on a man who had no better sense than to stay out in such a rain. At daylight the bugle sounded "Right forward! fours right!" again. horses rubbed. other things were taking place elsewhere. and the bushwhacker escaped. and they showed that warm reciprocity characteristic of the Southern soldier. In the meantime. who were in camp at the little town of Jonesville. an indignant Virginian resented the invasion of the sacred soil by firing at one of the guards moving out to his place. Fires were built.

As Company K clears its ground. The women turned out to wave their fathers.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. there was perfect accord in our ideas.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Suddenly a few shots ring out upon the frosty air from the carbines of the advance. and the boys instinctively range themselves into fours—the cavalry unit of action.htm Nothing could be more harmonious. flying in disorder and our men yelling in pursuit. At the same instant our sabers and revolvers are drawn. The Major. He has received a carbine bullet through his head and his blood colors a great space around him. We shout in a frenzy of excitement. It is yet bitterly cold. the men cheer and the Company flings itself forward.gutenberg. we see every man draw his saber and revolver. Here and there are men in butternut clothing. 30 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and the rest of us are strung along for a quarter of a mile or so back. Barring the trifling divergence of yews as to who was to drive and who be driven. wounded and dying. If I were to say that they considerably outnumbered us. I see nothing more until I reach the place where the Rebel line stood. Every man. and I see the smoke and fire spurt from the muzzles. About 9 o'clock in the morning—Sunday—they rode through the streets of Jonesville on their way to give us battle. Now we go into line just as we raise the hill. who is riding about the middle of the first Company —I—dashes to the front. Not a word had been spoken by any one for hours. At noon we are still straggling along without much attempt at soldierly order. Then I find it is gone. Our numbers were about equal. The Company raises a mighty cheer and dashes forward. All this time we of Company L can see nothing except what the companies ahead of us are doing. the fours sweep around into line. It was here that most of the members of the Regiment lived. woman and child in the town was related in some way to nearly every one of the soldiers. replaced by keen attention. over the rough. I have just time to notice closely one middle-aged man lying almost under my horse's feet. The general apathy is instantly. No soldier-high or low-ever admitted engaging an equal or inferior force of the enemy. We are wrought up to the highest pitch. and as my four comes around. brothers and lovers on to victory. prone on the frozen ground. I see the woods filled with Rebels. we press forward eagerly. A glance seems to satisfy him. the sabers and revolvers come out spontaneously. The head of the column has just reached the top of the hill. and the horses spring forward as if shot from a bow. This is the portion of the line which Companies I and K struck. I would be following the universal precedent. As the fours come into line on a trot. as if to expose as little surface as possible to the unkind elements. and men and horses draw themselves together. The Sixty-fourth rode away to what hope told them would be a glorious victory. it will be perceived. Company K presses forward to the ground Company I has just left. jointed toy snake. Looking beyond toward the bottom of the hill. I catch a hurried glimpse through a rift in the smoke of a line of butternut and gray clad men a hundred yards or so away. husbands. frozen hill-sides. The old men gathered to give parting counsel and encouragement to their sons and kindred. for he turns in his saddle and his voice rings out: "Company I! FOURS LEFT INTO LINE!—MARCH!!" The Company swings around on the hill-top like a great. Their guns are at their faces.

attempts to rally his companions. before or since then. The first messenger who rushed into Job's presence to announce the beginning of the series of misfortunes which were to afflict the upright man of Uz is a type of all the cowards who. fifteen miles from Jonesville.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. have been the first to speed away from the field of battle to spread the news of disaster. who hag been cut off. My four trots off to the road at the right. and waves his hat to draw his companions to him. The man will be ground into a shapeless mass if left where he has fallen. He halts on a little knoll. wheels his horse to face us. He falls from his horse with a bullet through his back. fires. A Rebel bugler. In an agony of anxiety they hurried forward to meet him and learn his news. This happened on the summit of Chestnut Ridge. without checking his horse's pace.gutenberg. which has remained in column as a reserve. his life-blood runs down in little rills on either side of the knoll. We spring from our horses and drag him into a fence corner. is now thundering up close behind at a gallop. The heavy Sharpe's bullet tears a gaping hole through the Rebel's heart. lank fellow in the next four to me—who goes by the nickname of "'Leven Yards"—aims his carbine at him. Company M. and.htm One brave man. 31 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . riding a roan horse. then remount and join in the pursuit. He drops from his saddle. We all fire at him on the impulse of the moment. A tall. Late in the afternoon the anxious watchers at Jonesville saw a single fugitive urging his well-nigh spent horse down the slope of the hill toward town. leaps his horse into the road in front of us.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and his riderless horse dashes away in a panic. At this instant comes an order for the Company to break up into fours and press on through the forest in pursuit. Its seventy-five powerful horses are spurning the solid earth with steel-clad hoofs.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. When he reached the summit of the hill he found the Rebel line nearly formed and ready for action. Occasionally we would see where some little stream ran down over the face of the bare. As they came on down the hill as almost equally disorganized crowd of pursuers appeared on the summit. Company K followed and plunged through the Rebel center. occupying half the forenoon in getting to where his rays would reach the stream that ran through the Valley's center. or melt the arabesque frost-forms with which the many dashing cascades decorated the adjacent rocks and shrubbery.htm He said: "And the Sabeans fell upon them. the teamsters and employee of the Quartermaster's Department—who were loading grain into wagons and hauling it away. and the worn-out pursuers gave up the chase. 32 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. festooning the war-grimed walls of some old castle. Beyond it. flying at the utmost speed of their nearly exhausted horses. Comparing notes around the camp-fires in the evening. The two masses of men swept on through the town. and then its course would be a long band of sheeny white." The terrible extent of his words was belied a little later. we took an account of stock. granitewalled Valley. and took them away. the road branched in several directions. and the soldierly way in which he took advantage of it. and a considerable quantity of small arms. yelling in voices hoarse with continued shouting. Perpetual shadow reigned on the northern and western faces of these towering Nights—not enough warmth and sunshine reaching them in the cold months to check the growth of the ever-lengthening icicles hanging from the jutting cliffs. Our duty now was to break up any nuclei of concentration that the Rebels might attempt to form. CHAPTER III. by the appearance on the distant summit of the hill of a considerable mob of fugitives. and pouring an incessant fire of carbine and revolver bullets upon the hapless men of the Sixty-fourth Virginia. yea. LIVING OFF THE ENEMY—REVELING IN THE FATNESS OF THE COUNTRY —SOLDIERLY PURVEYING AND CAMP COOKERY—SUSCEPTIBLE TEAMSTERS AND THEIR TENDENCY TO FLIGHTINESS—MAKING SOLDIER'S BED. black rocks for many hundred feet. between mountains so lofty that the sun labored slowly over them in the morning. like a great rich. and instantly dashed through the right of the Rebel line. At his command Company I went into line with the thought-like celerity of trained cavalry. nearly that many horses. they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword. and when we of Company L arrived on the ground. the pursued scattered on each of these. spotless scarf of satin. For weeks we rode up and down—hither and thither—along the length of the narrow.gutenberg. and charged the left. his grasp of the situation. and found that we were "ahead" one hundred and fifteen prisoners." So this fleeing Virginian shouted to his expectant friends: "The boys are all cut to pieces. the last vestige of resistance was swept away. Returning to Jonesville. Our loss was trifling.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and to guard our foragers—that is. as they were scattered over the whole fifteen miles between where the fight occurred and the pursuit ended. I'm the only one that got away. A moment's hesitation might have been fatal to us. This was the way Powell's Valley was opened to our foragers. we found that our success had been owing to the Major's instinct. How many of the enemy had been killed and wounded could not be told. The whole affair did not probably occupy more than fifteen minutes.

and give to him careful warning before discharging a carbine to clean it. it was neglected to inform the teamsters of this. There is no man in the world that needs as much protection as an Army teamster. and there is no telling what moment a rock may take such a form as to freeze his young blood. when anything occurs to jar upon his delicate nerves. There is no man who can get as much speed out of a mule as a teamster falling back from the neighborhood of heavy firing.gutenberg. and make each particular hair stand on end like quills upon the fretful porcupine.htm This last was an arduous task. Very innocent cedars have a fashion of assuming in his eyes the appearance of desperate Rebels armed with murderous guns. This nervous tremor was not peculiar to the engineers of our transportation department. He is given to sudden fears and causeless panics. is to cut his wheel-mule loose and retire with the precipitation of a man having an appointment to keep and being behind time. His first impulse. He is worse in this respect than a New England manufacturer. It was noticeable in the gentry who carted the scanty provisions of the Rebels. The night was rainy.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. One of Wheeler's cavalrymen told me that the brigade to which he belonged was one evening ordered to move at daybreak.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Unfortunately. and it was thought best to discharge the guns and reload before starting. or an old maid on her travels. One has to be particular about snapping caps in his neighborhood. and at the first discharge they 33 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

who were as quick to see the joke as the other side. as Col. and the usual products of the field in plenty. peculiar to mast-fed bacon. and was ignominiously beaten. who popped away at us industriously. We carried it to and ground it in the quaintest. and rolled over their riders in the swift running. potatoes.gutenberg. The apparition of a badly-scared teamster urging one of his wheel mules at break-neck speed over the rough ground. rudest little mills that can be imagined outside of the primitive affairs by which the women of Arabia coarsely powder the grain for the family meal. But what savory meals we used to concoct around the campfires.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. for while the mule. and a great deal more rapidly. there were plenty of Rebels in the country. ice-cold waters. Then there was an abundance of the delightful little apple known as "romanites. cheer. cabbages.htm varnished from the scene with such energy that it was over a week before the brigade succeeded in getting them back again. is an animal without pride of ancestry or hope of posterity. he is still not a coward by any means.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and covering these with clapboards held in place by large flat stones. we fared sumptuously—for soldiers—every day. They resembled the mills of the gods—in grinding slowly. after all. in the dankest night. exceedingly rapid mountain stream. by diverting a portion of the volume of water to a channel at the side. Once they played a sharp practical joke upon us. out of the rich materials collected during the day's ride! Such stews. and they hung around our front. We tried to get even with them by a sharp chase. We found the most delicious hams packed away in the ash-houses. to the roosting place of the most desirable poultry. with a very slippery rocky bottom. there was much to make our sojourn in the Valley endurable. and occasionally treating us to a volley at close range. When we came to it there was a light line of skirmishers on the opposite bank. exquisite nutty flavor. as they galloped away. As they did so at least one-half of the horses went down as if they were shot. and dashed in to carry the ford at a charge. Still. and after he has camped in a neighborhood for awhile it would require a close chemical analysis to find a trace of ham. Why association with the mule should thus demoralize a man. was an almost hourly occurrence. gave the customary. The cavalryman is always charged by the infantry and artillery with having a finer and surer scent for the good things in the country than any other man in the service. and the laugh was re-echoed by our fellows. so that the Virginians were not long in discovering that they were losing more than they gained in this useless warfare. He is believed to have an instinct that will unfailingly lead him. such broils. They would shoot much farther. that turned two small stones. from some favorable point. without having taken any prisoners. It used to seem that a healthy man could eat the meal faster than they ground it. not larger than good-sized grindstones. Then they tolled us off in pursuit of a small party to this ford. even profusion. But we had the decided advantage of them at this game. exchanging shots with us at long taw. A line of boulders reaching diagonally across the stream answered for a dam. Of course the squad dispatched to his assistance found nobody. The corn in the fields furnished an ample supply of breadstuff." There were turnips. has always been a puzzle to me. Our Sharpe's carbines were much superior in every way to their Enfields. But. where it moved a clumsily constructed wheel. Copper River is a deep." who had appeared on some hilltop in sight of where he was gathering corn. Over this would be a shed made by resting poles in forked posts stuck into the ground. We did our best to sustain the reputation of our arm of the service. The Rebels yelled a triumphant laugh. receiving injuries from which she died shortly afterward. It is beyond dispute that a full-grown and active lioness once attacked a mule in the grounds of the Cincinnati Zoological Garden. yelling for protection against "them Johnnies. Though we did not wear fine linen. but we gave it up after a few miles. Ingersoll has remarked. Sometimes the mill would consist only of four stout posts thrust into the ground at the edge of some stream. The Rebels blockaded a ford in such a way that it was almost impossible for a horse to keep his feet. such soups. They were small. pumpkins. Our boys formed in line. and had that. such wonderful commixtures of 34 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

springy. at an alarm. It is surprising what an amount of comfort a man can get out of such a couch. to the flowing cadences of which the boys had arranged the absurdly incongruous words: "S-a-y—D-e-u-t-c-h-e-r-will-you fight-mit Sigel! Zwei-glass of lager-bier. They were washed down by a tincupful of coffee strong enough to tan leather. and perhaps concealing the lurking foe. and a seat by the ruddy. sparkling fire of aromatic cedar logs. smuggle their faithful four-footed friends a few ears of corn. the wonderful merits of each man's horse. mournful tattoo of the Regulations. but these were as. and the prospect of the morrow. see that their horses are securely tied.htm things diverse in nature and antagonistic in properties such daring culinary experiments in combining materials never before attempted to be combined.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. their feet towards the fire. and spicy. If not too tired. 35 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . ja! ja! JA!" Words were fitted to all the calls. their boots at the foot. and upon this they lie. On this is laid the poncho or rubber blanket. lasted until the silver-voiced bugle rang out the sweet. rub off from the fetlocks and legs such specks of mud as may have escaped the cleaning in the early evening. or another bunch of hay. he springs from it. the cavalryman has prepared himself a comfortable couch for the night. almost instantly dressed and armed. and everything else is favorable. which generally bore some relativeness to the signal. then came a brier-wood pipeful of fragrant kinnikinnic. saber and carbine. Tattoo always produces an impression of extreme loneliness. pleasing incense. and how. half-availing notes ring out and are answered back from the distant rocks shrouded in night. visit the horse line. at the sides of the bed." I have often thought the same thing of the heterogeneities that go to make up a soldier's pot-a feu. that diffused at once warmth. But for all that they never failed to taste deliciously after a long day's ride. the soldier remembers that he is far away from home and friends—deep in the enemy's country. the boys arise from around the fire. The French say of untasteful arrangement of hues in dress "that the colors swear at each other. and their belts.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. A chat over the events of the day. encompassed on every hand by those in deadly hostility to him.gutenberg. and if possible. As its weird. Next comes one of their overcoats. mattress-like foundation. covering themselves with the two blankets and the other overcoat. with revolver. who are perhaps even then maturing the preparations for his destruction. The two have gathered enough small tufts of pine or cedar to make a comfortable. As the tattoo sounds. destitute of congruity as of sense. He always sleeps with a chum. and the disgusting irregularities of the mails from home.

htm Half an hour after tattoo the bugle rings out another sadly sweet strain. that hath a dying sound.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 36 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

ASSAULTS AND DEFENSE—PROLONGED AND DESPERATE STRUGGLE ENDING WITH A SURRENDER. The comfortless gray dawn was crawling sluggishly over the mountain-tops. so that a fellow could go home as soon as cold weather began. It was a question which would be the more uncomfortable. and the company buglers. to see if there was not another position in which it would be warmer. were answering him.gutenberg. dreading to get up. I lay on my bed. and accompany the operation with numerous unkind and sulphurous remarks.htm CHAPTER IV. I turned over. On a knoll at the end of the village toward us. and tell camp stories until the Spring was far enough advanced to let him go back to the front wearing a straw hat and a linen duster. and began wishing for the thousandth time that the efforts for the amelioration of the horrors of warfare would progress to such a point as to put a stop to all Winter soldiering. 37 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . from the bitter cold. ringing tarr-r-r-a-ta-ara of the Regulation reveille. under command of Lieutenant Alger and Sergeant Davis. A BITTER COLD MORNING AND A WARM AWAKENING—TROUBLE ALL ALONG THE LINE—FIERCE CONFLICTS. Peach and other tender trees had been killed by the frosty rigor. The night had been the most intensely cold that the country had known for many years.—stood a three-inch Rodman rifle. the icy covering of the streams near us. We were camped around Jonesville. belonging to the Twenty-second Ohio Battery.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. had been sent up to us a few days before from the Gap. as if numb as the animal and vegetable life which had been shrinking all the long hours under the fierce chill. The deep snow on which we made our beds.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. It and its squad of eighteen men. as fast as they could thaw out their mouth-pieces.—one of which led to us. Then I began wondering how much longer I would dare lie there. The Major's bugler had saluted the morn with the lively. and yet not anxious to lie still. the limbs of the trees above us. and at a point where two roads separated. Company L lay about a mile from the Court House. and sentinels had been frozen to death in our neighborhood. before the Orderly Sergeant would draw me out by the heels. each of the four companies lying on one of the roads leading from the town. had been cracking with loud noises all night. sit around a comfortable stove in a country store.

and eyes opened at about the same instant. rushing toward us. boots and revolver belt went on.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.htm This cogitation. My Captain and First Lieutenant had taken up position on the right front of the tents. The Second Lieutenant had stationed himself on a knoll on the left front. he remarked earnestly: "Well: this beats hell!" I thought he had a clear idea of the situation. Cap. overcoat.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. There was evidently something of more interest on hand than the weather. I arose-promptly. was abruptly terminated by hearing an excited shout from the Captain: "Turn Out!—COMPANY L!! TURNOUT ! ! !" Almost at the same instant rose that shrill. sententious sort of a chap. which one who has once heard it rarely forgets. 38 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . all yelling and some firing. As I snatched up my carbine. and the whole woods appeared to be full of Rebels. and as we ran forward to the Captain's line. and part of the boys were running up to form a line alongside them. I looked out in front. and this was followed by a crashing volley from apparently a regiment of rifles. My chum was a silent. piercing Rebel yell. and about a third of the company was rallying around him.

in column of fours.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and our time was evidently at hand. Many fell. Nowhere was there room enough to move with even a platoon front against the enemy. mounted on a white horse. The Colonel fired and killed him. swinging gallop. The latter-a gallant old graybeard—cursed the Rebel bitterly and snapped his now empty revolver in his face. and rushed toward Town. whereupon his squad. The dullest could see that we were in a desperate situation. and the Rebels galloped straight for the three-inch Rodman. The Rebels had not stopped to reload.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Before they could fire it. and this would have been suicide. the long gun sprang up and recoiled. and led by two Sergeants-Key and McWright. through which lay the road back to the Gap. as the heavy ball left the mouth. and as we saw the fate of our companions the Captain gave the word for every man to look out for himself. better success was secured elsewhere. difficult movement. but were rushing impetuously toward us. The Rebels gave way in disorder. Another column swept down the other road. The artillerymen had turned the gun and loaded it with a solid shot. Critical positions were no new experience to us. Men dropped from their horses each instant. It seemed as if it was absolutely impossible to check their rush for an instant. more stopped to load and reply. Again they were urged forward. Company M struck them headlong. The Rebels gave ground slowly. We were caught-trapped as surely as a rat ever was in a wire trap. and a portion of the artillery squad. The best we could do was a slow. and there seemed to be a demoniac yell in its ear-splitting crash. We gave them a hot. and were packed into a dense mass in the lane up which they had charged. As we learned afterwards. giving us a breathing spell to get ourselves in shape for defense. but the mass surged straight forward at us. While we were vainly attempting to stem the onset of the column dashed against us. and strongly posted. and they fell back to devise further tactics. and fell dead almost under the gun. and this precluded all chances of cutting out. The Rebel Colonel dashed up to the Second Lieutenant. was held by a force of Rebels evidently much superior to our own. sprang over the fence into the fields. while to the right and left rose the steep mountain sides.gutenberg. and got the gun and turned it. the Rebels encouraging us to make good time by a sharp fire into our backs from the fence. say fifty yards. with two of its Sergeants killed and half its numbers on the ground. saber and revolver in hand. winding through rocks and gorges. and ordered him to surrender. rolling volley from our carbines. Instantly a wide lane opened through our ranks. and a body of them headed by their Colonel. The scale of victory was turned by the Major dashing against the Rebel left flank at the head of Company I. surrendered. This ended it. The Rebels now saw that we were not to be run over like a field of cornstalks. as they never are to a cavalry command after a few months in the field. tortuous one. The narrow throat of the Valley. pushed forward through the gap between us and the Second Lieutenant. and our men fell back to give the gun an opportunity to throw shell and canister. Major 39 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . word was passed through our men to open to the right and left on the sides of the road. fire burst from the primer and the muzzle. This had to come back on the run before the overwhelming numbers. The Rebel leader sank under a half-dozen simultaneous wounds. with sword and pistol. though the pitcher goes often to the well. the man with the lanyard drew the fatal cord. After they had been crowded back. Company M was the first to get saddled and mounted. and the riderless steeds fled away. Then our fire grew so deadly that they showed a disposition to cover themselves behind the rocks and trees. and now came up at a steady. upon which there was only an outlying picket. On the other side of the Town the Rebels were massed stronger. a whole division of cavalry. The Rebels were too near. in two platoons. The road was a slender. We ran back a little distance.htm All this occupied an inappreciably short space of time. but they took the terrible impact without flinching. but. Illinois. and tore its bloody way through the bodies of the struggling mass of men and horses.—printer boys from Bloomington. under command of the noted Rebel. and for a few minutes there was fierce hand-to-hand work. it is broken at last. They divined the object of the Rebel dash. and strained every nerve to reach the gun first. The Rebels in our front and flank pressed us with equal closeness.

they seemed hours. and smoke poured out. The lull in the fight did not last long. their glaring eyes fastened on the foe. began replying to us pretty sharply. Away we went. seeking to drive them back. and led him to adopt cautious tactics. for an instant all was deathly still. We sent word to our faithful artillerists. as to which could stand the most punishment. We were frequently successful. At another time a considerable force of rebels gained the cover of a fence in easy range of our main force. There were frequent crises in the struggle. the men on both sides. Once a determined onset was made from the East. where he was a Drill Sergeant. to offset in a measure Longstreet's repulse at Knoxville. scoundrels. sons of vipers never go? At length a few Rebels sprang up and tried to fly. desperate duel at short range.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and then on that. had been sent to effect our capture. Nor was an element of fun lacking. the shell had burst among the confined mass of men inside! We afterwards heard that twenty-five were killed there. Companies L and K were ordered to charge forward on foot and dislodge them. A portion of the Rebel line on the east rushed forward to gain a more commanding position. voiceless rage of men in a death grapple. Not a word was said. the Rodman assisting with a couple of well-aimed shells. rained shot on each other as fast as excited hands could crowd cartridges into the guns and discharge them.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. A hundred yards in front of the Rebels was a little cover. so that our few men and our breech-loaders told to a good purpose. and we. It was a question between Northern pluck and Southern courage. and the rough treatment we gave the two columns that attacked us first confirmed the Rebel General's ideas of our strength. and so it went on all day—the Rebels rushing up first on this side. hell-hounds. We concentrated in that direction and drove it back. their bullets shrieked angrily as they flew past. It crashed through the side. and had the advantage of the short interior lines. and threw its cold flakes in faces that were white with the fires of consuming hate. A Second Lieutenant was ordered to take a party of skirmishers to the top of a hill and engage those of the Rebels stationed on another hill-top across a ravine. Lying as flat as possible on the crusted snow. He had but lately joined us from the Regular Army.gutenberg. only raising the head or body enough to load and aim. instead of crushing us out speedily. The first shell screamed over the roof. Then the whole line rose and ran! The relief was so great that we jumped to our feet and cheered wildly. and behind this our men lay down as if by one impulse.htm General Sam Jones. we thought it had gone on through. by a determined advance of all parts of his encircling lines. Naturally. they buried themselves with a dull thud in the quivering bodies of the enraged combatants. Then came a close. forgetting in our excitement to make use of our victory by shooting down our flying enemies. we were on the inside. and scorned to do otherwise under fire than he would upon the 40 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . their nerves as tense as tightly-drawn steel wires. he was very methodical in his way. who trained the gun upon the house. and burst harmlessly beyond. hastily collecting at the exposed points. We suspended fire to watch the next. with their teeth set. the clapboards flew off the roof. The shallower enthusiasm that expresses itself in oaths and shouts had given way to the deep. that at some times gave encouragement. under a fire that seemed to drop a man at every step. Then came a roar and a crash. The Rebel line was a rolling torrent of flame. and making loopholes in its walls. but never hope. they struck the snow in front of us. A gross overestimate of our numbers had caused the sending of so large a force on this errand. and was met by the equally determined resistance of nearly our whole force. panic-stricken Rebels rushed from the doors and sprang from the windows-like bees from a disturbed hive.—This was followed by a similar but more successful attempt by another part of the Rebel line. Would the villains. Our fire was so galling that a large number of our foes crowded into a house on a knoll. They were shot down instantly. Minutes passed.

" "Then. we were driven back from knoll to knoll. he "dressed" it. sir. and he answered: "By —-. Never was there an angrier man than that Second Lieutenant. there was not a man of his nicely formed skirmish line visible.htm parade ground. He moved his little command to the hill-top. I will never surrender to my inferior in rank!" 41 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . whereat the boys winced a little. much to the Lieutenant's disgust. The Major raised piece of a shelter tent upon a pole. then had them count off with great deliberation. We had maintained the unequal struggle for eight hours. followed by two privates. and in an instant they availed themselves of their shelter. the boys thought. and having a blank cartridge left. Sir!" "I am Adjutant of the Sixty-fourth Virginia. over one-fourth of our number were stretched upon the snow. Despite all our efforts. killed or badly wounded. he brandished his saber and swore.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www." "What is your rank. and from one fence after another." The punctillious soul of the old "Regular"—for such the Major was swelled up instantly. commanded "Front!" and "Begin. and when he looked back again. informing him that when the Rebels would stand out in the open field and take their fire. the cannon had fired its last shot long ago. Sir. he said. the Rebel line crawled up closer an closer to us. The line halted.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Our cartridges were nearly all gone. and deployed them as coolly as if them was not an enemy within a hundred miles. The Johnnies received them with a yell and a volley. had shot the rammer at a gathering party of the enemy. but the boys stuck to their shelter for all that. Just as the Winter sun was going down upon a day of gloom the bugle called us all up on the hillside. Then the Rebels saw for the first time how few there were. "Who is in command this force?" The Major replied: "I am. in close order. After the line deployed. and faced them to the front.gutenberg. I demand your sword. An officer rode out from it. firing!" his attention was called another way for an instant. they would likewise. The logs and stones had evidently been put there for the use of skirmishers. and began an almost simultaneous charge all along the line. Approaching the Major. who swore at them. he seemed to feel that all his soldierly reputation was gone.

htm The Adjutant reined his horse back. and to him the Major handed his saber. the first thought of many of them was to snatch out the cylinder's of their revolvers. CHAPTER V. and throw them away.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. His two followers leveled their pieces at the Major and waited orders to fire. so as to make the arms useless. the biting wind soughing through the leafless branches.gutenberg. the groans and shrieks of our wounded mingling with the triumphant yells of the Rebels plundering our tents. They were covered by a dozen carbines in the hands of our men. As we stood there on the bleak mountain-side. it seemed as if Fate could press to man's lips no cup with bitterer dregs in it than this. the shadows of a gloomy winter night closing around us. and the slides of their carbines.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. He presently returned with a Colonel. The Adjutant ordered his men to "recover arms. 42 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM ." and rode away with them. We were overcome with rage and humiliation at being compelled to yield to an enemy whom we had hated so bitterly. As the men realized what was being done.

Then his rage was terrible. past middle age. and good enough soldiers. Among the many who had lost chums and friends was Ned Johnson. The fittest place for man to die. uncompromising Abolitionist. to which his fellow-citizens of Urbana. Illinois. our Second Lieutenant. Walter Savage was of the same surly type. but our chief regret was for the gallant Osgood. than to command a troop of rough riders in a great civil war. He. that he believed he was gone from him forever. He was a superb horseman—as all the older Illinoisans are and. the uncertainty as to the future. This was intensified in our cases by the sharp sting of defeat. and urging the boys to "Stand up to 'em! Stand right up to 'em! Don't give a inch! Let them have the best you got in the shop! Shoot low. made a long stride forward. But none more gallant than he ever vaulted into saddle to do battle for the right. "Of being taken by the Insolent foe. Others joined in. A guard was formed around us. and 43 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . took the weapon away. and had been together ever since. of his Company. His voice could ever be heard above the firing. above all others. Ned was a young Englishman. A horseman. His fist was readier than his tongue. Before he could pull the trigger Orderly Sergeant Charles Bentley. For the rest of the day he was at the head of every assault upon the enemy. the gold stars upon the Rebel's collar led him to believe that he was the commander of the enemy. caught his wrist and threw the revolver up. Or in the battle's van. his head upon his breast. A radical. At the sound of his voice Ned raised his head and gave him a swift glance. the humiliation of having to yield ourselves. our horses and our arms into the possession of the enemy. which had been protracted through the long hours that the fight lasted. but Osgood was the one "whose adoption tried. it was probably the way he desired to die. snatched from the breast of his overcoat the revolver he had been hiding there. No one believed more ardently than he that Whether on the scaffold high. we grappled to our souls with hooks of steel.gutenberg. and don't waste a cartridge!" When we surrendered.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. clattered up to give some directions concerning us. As for him. and we gathered about the fires that were started. and the eyes which had been gleaming deadly hate when he was stricken down were glazed over with the dull film of death. Company L had suffered very severely.htm THE REACTION—DEPRESSION—BITTING COLD—SHARP HUNGER AND SAD REFLEXION. Ned sprang to his feet. of Company K. Is where he dies for man. cocked it and leveled it at the Rebel's breast. leaped forward. was succeeded by a proportionate mental depression. was our trusted leader. and did his duty with the unflagging zeal of an olden Puritan fighting for liberty and his soul's salvation. who was watching him. The night that followed was inexpressibly dreary: The high-wrought nervous tension. Savage was killed in the struggle for the fence described in the preceding chapter. such as naturally follows any strain upon the mind. he recognized few superiors for strength and activity in the Battalion. The two had come from England twelve years before. with much of the suggestiveness of the bull-dog common to the lower class of that nation. and he kept his word in this as in everything else. his arms folded. A quiet. Ned sat apart. cursing the Rebels bitterly. It was only when the body rapidly stiffened on its icy bed.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. he looked much better fitted for the office of Justice of the Peace. Ned seemed to yield sullenly to the inevitable. brooding bitterly upon Walter's death. he had frequently asserted that he would rather die than yield to a Rebel." There was never any difficulty in getting all the volunteers he wanted for a scouting party."—Othello. had elected and reelected him. The Captain and First Lieutenant were brave men. Ned could not realize for a while that his friend was dead. He threw his belt and apparently his revolver with it upon the snow. and the sorrow we felt at the loss of so many of our comrades. His chum. evidently a Colonel or General. for all his two-score years and ten. pleasant spoken gentleman. He went into the Army solely as a matter of principle.

gutenberg. and the other side turned to the fire. set it up in front of the fire to bake. until a happy thought struck some one that our caps would do for kneading troughs. each man made a little wad of dough—unsalted—and spreading it upon a flat stone or a chip.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. We had eaten nothing all day. After somewhat of the edge had been taken off our hunger by this food. It was fortunate for me that I little dreamed that this was the way I should have to get my meals for the next fifteen months. who then ordered us all to be searched for arms. it was pulled off the stone. We had nothing to mix the meal in. having been marched rapidly all night in order to come upon us by daylight.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. speculated as to what was to be done with us. and it looked as if we would have to eat it dry. The fight began before we had time to get any breakfast. 44 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . we crouched around the fires. All our dejection could not make us forget that we were intensely hungry. At once every cap was devoted to this.htm handed it over to the officer. It was a very primitive way of cooking and I became thoroughly disgusted with it. The Rebels were no better off than we. and of course there was no interval for refreshments during the engagement. Late in the evening a few sacks of meal were given us. and rode away. and snatched such sleep as the biting cold would permit. talked over the events of the day. As soon as it was browned on one side. Getting water from an adjacent spring. and we took the first lesson in an art that long and painful practice afterward was to make very familiar to us.

but when it ceased I began to worry about his fate. Those useful members of my body seemed to swell up as they do to a young man at his first party. as the gorilla or the chimpanzee. He rode by my side as we plodded over the steep. In the afternoon of the third day after the capture. and their remarks explained it all. he would have a Yankee for them for close inspection. and we beguiled the way by chatting of the thousand things that soldiers find to talk about. and the usual chorus followed. wrung my heart. I was puzzled for a minute. and exchanged reminiscences of the service on both sides. The Sergeant was a pleasant. Attention was called to the size of my feet and hands. "ON TO RICHMOND!"—MARCHING ON FOOT OVER THE MOUNTAINS—MY HORSE HAS A NEW RIDER—UNSOPHISTICATED MOUNTAIN GIRLS—DISCUSSING THE ISSUES OF THE WAR—PARTING WITH "HIATOGA. I got very red in the face. and then the direction of their glances." The "Yankees" were instantly objects of greater interest than the parade of a menagerie would have been." At dawn we were gathered together. open-mouthed. staring. and with a propensity to giggle that was chronic and irrepressible. and asked permission to take from the saddle pockets some letters. My equanimity was partially restored by this reflection. and if they would be at a certain house. he stopped and gave a whinny of recognition. and I was presently ushered into a room in which the damsels were massed in force. a station at the point where the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad crosses the line between Virginia and Tennessee. I turned around to speak to the Sergeant. and then a shower of comments upon my appearance. even if they were ignorant Virginia mountaineers.htm CHAPTER VI. As he and his rider came near I called out to him. —a carnation-checked. He granted this. but I was still too young to escape embarrassment and irritation at being thus dissected and giggled at by a party of girls. if at all. At the rear of the lower part of the cavalry jacket. and then came a ripple of laughter. the Sergeant obtained leave to take me out with a guard. A remark was made about my hair and eyes. human. The hum of comment deepened into surprise. more meal issued to us. slippery hills. and their risibles gave way. and answered as pleasantly as I could. After halting. The Sergeant told the girls we were going to camp for the night a mile or so ahead. linsey-clad crowd. Into the open ulcer of my heart he poured the acid of all manner of questions concerning my lost steed's qualities and capabilities: would he swim? how was he in fording? did he jump well! how did he stand fire? I smothered my irritation. which we cooked in the same way. and in so doing showed my back to the ladies. about where the upper ornamental buttons are 45 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Then I saw that in the minds of these bucolic maidens I was scarcely. and uncomfortable generally. and we became friends from thence on until we separated. They felt as free to discuss my points before my face as they would to talk of a horse or a wild animal in a show. and then were started under heavy guard to march on foot over the mountains to Bristol. pictures and other trinkets. He rode up to me and inquired if it was my horse. As we were preparing to set out a Sergeant of the First Virginia cavalry came galloping up to us on my horse! The sight of my faithful "Hiatoga" bestrid by a Rebel. When we entered the room there was a general giggle.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.—each sentence punctuated with the chorus of feminine cachination.gutenberg. we came up to where a party of rustic belles were collected at "quilting.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. During the action I had forgotten him. which seemed also a plaintive appeal for an explanation of the changed condition of affairs. I was a "Yankee"—a something of the non-human class. that half stopped and then intensified the giggle. to which I replied in the affirmative. they did not understand that I belonged to the race. as ignorant of corsets and gloves as of Hebrew. But the subject he was fondest of was that which I relished least: my—now his—horse. judgment was passed on my nose. gentlemanly boy of about my own age.

This anatomical phenomena was discussed intently for a few minutes. who had been intensely amused at the girls' wonderment. dromedary-like humps." Then a new idea seized them. are two funny tabs. When the belt is off it would puzzle the Seven Wise Men to guess what they are for. as the buttons do in front. and they said to the Sergeant "Make him sing! Make him sing!" This was too much for the Sergeant. and stick out straight behind. Their use is to support the heavy belt in the rear. or perchance the horns of which they had heard so much. They are fastened by the edge. during which I heard one of the girls inquire whether "it would hurt him to cut 'em off?" and another hazarded the opinion that "it would probably bleed him to death. The unsophisticated young ladies.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. about the size of small pin-cushions. immediately jumped at the conclusion that the projections covered some peculiar conformation of the Yankee anatomy—some incipient. He 46 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm on the tail of a frock coat.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. with that swift intuition which is one of lovely woman's salient mental traits.

To force its mechanics into the army would therefore be suicidal. and manufactories much scarcer. I asked him to get the ladies to sing for me. the argument was more in name than in fact. who seemed to be the leader of the crowd. owing to the polemic poverty of our opponents. Like all people of slender or untrained intellectual powers they labored under the hallucination that asserting was reasoning. The South is as nearly a purely agricultural country as is Russia or South America. but its operations would be embarrassed. Said he: "Oh. and having the same tune as the "Bonnie Blue Flag. and proceeded to compare the homespun habiliments of the Southern women to the finery and frippery of the ladies on the other side of Mason and Dixon's line in a manner very disadvantageous to the latter. no one will kill the other's workers of iron. The narrow round which all from highest to lowest —traveled was sometimes comical. It greatly astonished us at first to find that nearly all the mechanics were included among the exempts. The limited quantity of products of mechanical skill needed by the people was mostly imported from the North or Europe. sang "The Homespun Dress.htm turned to me. and the country was thrown upon its own slender manufacturing resources. and whenever opportunity offered or could be made. by a want of supplies. those of us who were inclined to talk were speedily involved in an argument with crowds of soldiers and citizens.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. This condition of affairs reminded one of the singular paucity of mechanical skill among the Bedouins of the desert. But. or could be if they chose. The rest of the girls made a fine exhibition of the lung-power acquired in climbing their precipitous mountains.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. On our journey to Bristol we met many Rebel soldiers. Both these sources of supply were cutoff by the war. and instances are told of warriors saving their lives at critical periods by falling on their knees and making with their garments an imitation of the action of a smith's bellows. logic. phases and progress of the war. The people have. of all ranks. and to this they acceded quite readily. come now. which renders the life of a blacksmith sacred." It began. Consequently mechanics are very scarce. if not stopped altogether. As the conscription had then been enforced pretty sharply for over a year the only able-bodied men seen in civil life were those who had some trade which exempted them from being forced into active service." I replied that I could not sing a note. One girl." a song very popular in the South. The Army would gain a few thousand men. when they came in on the chorus Hurra! Hurra! for southern rights Hurra! Hurra for the homespun dress. All whom we met were eager to discuss with us the causes. but a very little reflection showed us the wisdom of such a policy. I envy not the Northern girl Their silks and jewels fine. and sometimes irritating. No matter how bitter the feud between tribes. little inclination or capacity for anything else than pastoral pursuits." I nevertheless assured him that there really were some Yankees that did not have any musical accomplishments. with: "Sergeant: the girls want to hear you sing. with a fair soprano. and a small number of citizens. I never seed or heerd of a Yankee that couldn't sing. according to one's mood! The dispute invariably began by their asking: "Well. very red in the face.gutenberg. what are you 'uns down here a-fightin' we 'uns for?" As this was replied to the newt one followed: 47 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . I know better than that. The Southern ladies wear. This ended the entertainment. and that I was one of that unfortunate number. and the emphatic reiteration of bald statements.

the discomforts of the muddy camp. they were as nearly ruined as they could well be and still run. seemed to be as slenderly furnished with logical ammunition as the balance...org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. over questions of precedence at watering places. .. and I replied with marked acerbity: "Because we are the Northern mudsills whom you affect to despise. We had endured together the Winter's cold. the gripings of hunger. struck his spurs into "Hiatoga's" sides. or any but the most necessary repairs stopped for three years. who had achieved considerable military reputation as commander of a division of Kentucky cavalry. whom he addressed.. we had had our frequently recurring rows with other fellows and their horses." Even General Giltner. the fatigue of the long march..gutenberg.. and with a marked absence of even ordinary skill and care in their management. The insolence of office. the dispiriting drench of the rain. I was retired from actual service to a prison.... and grassplots. I had often gone hungry that he might have the only ear of corn obtainable. let me tell you. and the spurns which a patient private and his horse of the unworthy take. who had been my constant companion through so many perils and hardships. the weariness of the drill and review... One of the severe embarrassments under which the roads labored was a lack of oil.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. improvement. and bade us a kindly good day. sir. A new and keener sense of desolation came over me at the final separation from my tried and true four-footed friend... and he bore his new master off to battle against his old friends.. They were never more than passably good. Packed closely in old. I only know that his strong limbs never failed me.. toward the Rebel capital. Four days after our capture we arrived in Bristol. the proud man's contumely. We had shared in common The whips and scorns of time. The oppressor's wrong. with all renewal... a pleasanter light came into his sinister gray eyes.... with a large part of the skilled men engaged upon them escaped back to the North. you can never whip people that are fighting for liberty.. Now at last our paths diverged.. and that he was always ready for duty and ever willing. but now. the perils of the vidette post. The railroads of the South were already in very bad condition. The guards who had brought us over the mountains were relieved by others." The answer seemed to tickle him. I am not skilled enough in horse lore to speak of his points or pedigree. There is very 48 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .. and we came down here to lick you into respecting us. dilapidated stock and box cars. the courier service. as if cattle in shipment to market.htm "Why are you'uns takin' our niggers away from we 'uns for?" Then came: "What do you 'uns put our niggers to fightin' we'uns for?" The windup always was: "Well. we pounded along slowly. for as he halted by us he opened the conversation with the well-worn formula: "Well: what are you 'uns down here a-fighting we'uns for?" The question had become raspingly monotonous to me.. the scout and the fight. sometimes coming off victorious and sometimes being driven off ingloriously.. the Sergeant bade me good by.. had had lively tilts with guards of forage piles in surreptitious attempts to get additional rations. even in their best estate. and he and my faithful horse were soon lost to view in the darkness. sir. he laughed lightly. and apparently interminably.

There seemed to be a scanty supply of oil provided for the locomotives. the loathsome scurvy. Moreover. and was easily pried back upon the track. in whose rock-ribbed heart we had fought our losing fight. This scarcity of oleaginous matter produced a corresponding scarcity of soap and similar detergents. The rugged sternness of the Appalachian mountain range. Were every doom foretokened by appropriate omens. The depression which had weighed us down for a night and a day after our capture had now been succeeded by a more cheerful feeling. Our engine went off the wretched track several times. The cotton seed oil could be produced much cheaper. dark. We began to look upon our condition as the fortune of war. the ravens along our route would have croaked themselves hoarse. but translucent blue. but more graceful outlines as we approached the pine-clad. through which we must pass for hundreds of sad days. The climate and the food plants do not favor the accumulation of adipose tissue by animals. The first yielded a fine bland oil. and reveal the length and the ghastly horror of the Valley of the Shadow of Death. Fortunately for this delusive hopefulness there was no weird and boding Cassandra to pierce the veil of the future for us. stretching out into long months of suffering and death. we began to appreciate and enjoy the picturesque grandeur of the scenery through which we were moving.htm little fatty matter of any kind in the South. We believed that we had killed and seriously wounded as many of them as they had killed. and it might not be a month until we were again marching out of Cumberland Gap. wounded and captured of us. but it would all be straightened out in a few days. as a whole. Attempts were made to obtain lubricants from the peanut and the cotton seed. and the heartsickness of hope deferred. and the Rebel officers confidently assured us that this would be so. and there is no other source of supply. about whose distant and lofty summits hung a perpetual veil of deep. We had nothing to blame ourselves for. We knew we had sold ourselves at a price which. Happily there was no one to tell us that of every five in that party four would never stand under the Stars and Stripes again. straining way. But. sandy plains of the seaboard. they would not pay for us. At Lynchburg we saw the famed Peaks of Otter—twenty miles away—lifting their proud heads far into the clouds. resembling the ordinary grade of olive oil. if the Rebels had it to do over again. but this was a deprivation which caused the Rebels. long-continued exposure. I have seen many thousands of them who were obviously greatly in need of soap. far from being oppressed by any presentiment of coming evil. on an avenging foray against some of the force which had assisted in our capture. There was then a temporary hitch in the exchange. but if they were rent with any suffering on that account they concealed it with marvelous self-control. as little inconvenience as any that they suffered from. was now softening into less strong.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. We were proud of our resistance to overwhelming numbers. and sent again upon her wheezy. the bullet of the brutal guard. She was small. but it was entirely too expensive for use in the arts. but the cars had to run with unlubricated axles. upon which Richmond is built. would find respite from pain low in the barren sands of that hungry Southern soil. the hideous gangrene. and the screaking and groaning of the grinding journals in the dry boxes was sometimes almost deafening. like giant watchtowers sentineling the gateway that the mighty waters of the James had forced through the barriers of 49 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Lard oil and tallow were very scarce and held at exorbitant prices. We were skirting along the eastern base of the great Blue Ridge. but it had in it such a quantity of gummy matter as to render it worse than useless for employment on machinery. especially when we were going around a curve.gutenberg. the worst consequence to us was a severe jolting. we began to be buoyed up with the expectation that we would be exchanged immediately upon our arrival at Richmond. but as she was not running much faster than a man could walk. but succumbing to chronic starvation. which refracted the slanting rays of the morning and evening sun into masses of color more gorgeous than a dreamer's vision of an enchanted land.

postern gates. I knew much of their unwavering fidelity to the Union. Early on the tenth morning after our capture we were told that we were about to enter Richmond. broadened into an expanse of arable acres. in the two and one-half centuries that the white man has dwelt near them. as in those days I estimated all men simply by their devotion to the great cause of National integrity. full-tide streams. itself guarded by imposing and impregnable fortifications. were now great.htm solid adamant lying across their path to the far-off sea. At one of the stopping places I had been separated from my companions by entering a car in which were a number of East Tennesseeans. with which romantic history had made us familiar. and the elements made to do his work. The spires and the tall chimneys of the factories rose in the distance very much as they had in other Cities we had visited. What we had seen many miles back start from the mountain sides as slender rivulets. We anticipated seeing a City differing widely from anything ever seen before. and the elements wantoned on in undisturbed freedom. while in Massachusetts and her near neighbors every rill that can turn a wheel has been put into harness and forced to do its share of labor for the benefit of the men who have made themselves its masters. captured in the operations around Knoxville. some anomaly of nature displayed in its site. almost unnoticed. seventy miles away. Instantly all were keenly observant of every detail in the surroundings of a City that was then the object of the hopes and fears of thirty-five millions of people—a City assailing which seventy-five thousand brave men had already laid down their lives. enough of them in any fifty miles of our journey to furnish water power for all the factories of New England. and there were no signs that there had ever been any immediate expectation of use for the works.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and made sacrifices even unto death. (a habit that still clings to me) I 50 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and all the other panoply of defensive warfare. where the Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of the Potomac lay confronting each other. rushing. down which our way lay. of the firm steadfastness with which they endured persecution for their country's sake. They were then seaming his brow on the Rappahannock. were treating with studied contumely. I had always had a very warm side for these simple rustics of the mountains and valleys. but the scrubby pines in front were not cut away. A redoubt or two—without guns—could be made out. moats and ditches. the Valleys of the James and the Appomattox. perhaps even walls. CHAPTER VII. was to cost the life blood of another one hundred and fifty thousand valiant assailants and defenders. We passed a single line of breastworks of bare yellow sand. castles. Grim-visaged war had few wrinkles on his front in that neighborhood. Their amazing opulence of mechanical energy has lain unutilized. ENTERING RICHMOND—DISAPPOINTMENT AT ITS APPEARANCE—EVERYBODY IN UNIFORM—CURLED DARLINGS OF THE CAPITAL—THE REBEL FLAG—LIBBY PRISON —DICK TURNER—SEARCHING THE NEW COMERS. with powerful forts and heavy guns. and. and this was all.gutenberg. before it fell.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. So much had been said and written about Richmond that our boyish minds had wrought up the most extravagant expectations of it and its defenses. and the faces of those streams were frequently flecked by gem-like little islands. and whom the Rebels. Here is one of the differences between the two sections: In the North man was set free. We were disappointed—badly disappointed—in seeing nothing of this as we slowly rolled along. defending which an equal number had died. In the South man was the degraded slave. in accordance with their usual custom. brawling over the worn boulders. As we went on. and which.

I had gone into their car to do my little to encourage them.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.htm rated these men very highly. and when I attempted to return to my own I was prevented by the guard.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 51 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

the usual seemingly purposeless and vacillating. The streets we passed through were lined with retail stores.gutenberg. almost dizzying. in which business was being carried on very much as in peaceful times. and drilled regularly. yet the wearing of a military garb did not necessarily imply this. in theory at least. to the Home Guards. I was marched off with the Tennesseeans through the City to the office of some one who had charge of the prisoners of war. Many people were on the streets.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. our train came to a halt on the other side of the river with the usual clamor of bell and whistle. Even the members of the Confederate Congress were uniformed and attached. Still unable to regain my comrades and share their fortunes. Though numbers of these were in active service. and armed. a dozen years ago. enrolled in some sort of an organization.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. that seemed unavoidably necessary.htm Crossing the long bridge. but the greater part of the men wore some sort of a uniform. in getting a train into a City. Nearly every able-bodied man in Richmond was. 52 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . running backward and forward on a network of sidetracks and switches.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.htm 53 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

and in these were thirteen white stars. This was the first time I had seen the latter. statuary and heraldry. and but one square away from them. very properly. so as to exchange them for their own men. high-instepped boots. The commandant of the prisons directed the Tennesseeans to be taken to Castle Lightning—a prison used to confine the Rebel deserters. and sometimes the West Virginians. dirt-grimed walls could speak. from which a bullion tassel dangled several inches down the wearer's back. On our way we passed the noted Capitol of Virginia—a handsome marble building. and the new flag of the Confederacy from the northern end.—the feet compressed into high-heeled. who strutted in uniforms when the enemy was far off. The Confederate gray could be made into a very dressy garb. did not place a high estimate upon this class of recruits to their army. The design was exceedingly plain. which had been recently adopted.gutenberg. and. among whom they also classed the East Tennesseeans. and wore citizen's clothes when he was close at hand. It stands in the center of the City. as we shall see farther along. The battle-flag was simply the red field. Kentuckians.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The two blue stripes were drawn diagonally across this field in the shape of a letter X. the dungeons beneath the level of the water did in the annals of the Venetian Council of Ten. which were now used by the Rebel Government as prisons and military storehouses. My examination of all this was necessarily very brief. by putting them among the regular prisoners of war. (no Virginian is himself without a fine pair of skin-tight boots) and the head covered with a fine.htm It was obvious even to the casual glimpse of a passing prisoner of war.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and besides they were in a hurry to be relieved of us and get their breakfast. and the collar decorated with stars indicating the wearer's rank—silver for the field officers. It was believed that if the bricks in its somber. as the Rebels. Simply a white banner. let alone a rainy day on the march. It was lined on both sides by plain brick warehouses and tobacco factories. and gold for the higher grade. The guards felt that I was in Richmond for other purposes than to study architecture. four and five stories high. you had a military swell. caparisoned for conquest—among the fair sex. that the City did not lack its full share of the class which formed so large an element of the society of Washington and other Northern Cities during the war—the dainty carpet soldiers." but that was all. Marylanders and Missourians found fighting against them. Upon the grounds is Crawford's famous equestrian statue of Washington. We did not excite much attention on the streets.—of the column-fronted Grecian temple style. each could tell a separate story of a life deemed dangerous to the State that had gone down in 54 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . heros of the promenade and the boudoir. soft. The first we passed was Castle Thunder. and also the Legislature of Virginia. whose gloss had never suffered from so much as a heavy dew. The Confederate Congress was then in session in the Capitol. of bloody repute. This occupied the same place in Confederate history. broad-brimmed hat. There were many curled darlings displaying their fine forms in the nattiest of uniforms. Occasionally passers by would fling opprobrious epithets at "the East Tennessee traitors. corresponding to the number of States claimed to be in the Confederacy. so my art-education was abbreviated sharply. and I examined it with some interest. that. surrounded by smaller statues of other Revolutionary patriots. a fact indicated by the State flag of Virginia floating from the southern end of the building. with a red field in the corner where the blue field with stars is in ours. Back we were all marched to a street which ran parallel to the river and canal. Such of our men as deserted to them were also lodged there. trimmed with a gold cord. With the sleeves lavishly embroidered with gold lace. Prisoners had by that time become too common in Richmond to create any interest. violated all obligations of good faith with them.

How well this dark reputation was deserved. set close together. This was the notorious "Libby Prison. Seen upon the street he would be taken for a second or third class gambler. carefully folded a bill into each cavity." the man who was superintending these operations. felt over each carefully. In this way they brought in several hundred dollars safely. and replaced the cap. The prisoners told me afterward that. It was confidently asserted that among the commoner occurrences within its confines was the stationing of a doomed prisoner against a certain bit of blood-stained." whose name was painfully familiar to every Union man in the land. they had taken off the caps of the large. and he would run his fat.htm night.gutenberg. Next we came to Castle Lightning. feel under their arms and elsewhere where he thought a stray five dollar greenback might be concealed. and relieving the Confederacy of all farther fear of him by the rifles of a firing party. glanced around continually. On one side of this was the prison office. SHIP CHANDLERS AND GROCERS. and those charged with the convenient allegation of "treason against the Confederate States of America. in which were a number of dapper. and scrutinized each seam and fold. His faculties were at that moment absorbed in seeing that no person concealed any money from him. His subordinates did not search closely enough to suit him. Presently a clerk addressed as "Majah Tunnah. suspecting they would be searched. As I entered this space a squad of newly arrived prisoners were being searched for valuables. large enough to admit a dray or a small wagon. The prison was employed for the detention of spies. He compelled him to strip off everything. one in whom a certain amount of cunning is pieced out by a readiness to use brute force. his body long. and selfishly sensual. had money concealed about his person. and I scanned him with increased interest. His face. clean-shaved. A few squares more and we arrived at a warehouse larger than any of the others. But with all his greedy care he was no match for Yankee cunning. except a "Bowery-b'hoy" goatee." It is probable that many of these were sent out of the world with as little respect for the formalities of law as was exhibited with regard to the 'suspects' during the French Revolution. and stand shivering in the sharp cold. was white. fat. and here I bade adieu to my Tennessee companions. 55 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . feeble-faced clerks at work on the prison records. rank and regiment recorded in the books. bullet-chipped wall. Over the door was a sign THOMAS LIBBY & SON. while he took up one filthy rag after another. I was delighted to see that after all his nauseating work he did not find so much as a five cent piece. He looked as if he deserved his reputation. at the behest of the ruthless Confederate authorities. Turner was convinced. heavilyringed fingers through the prisoner's hair. and made to appear longer.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. no one but those inside the inner circle of the Davis Government can say. Under the sign was a broad entrance way. There was one dirty old Englishman in the party. It is safe to believe that more tragedies were enacted there than the archives of the Rebel civil or military judicature give any account of. Small. and having their names. His legs were short. by his wearing no vest—a custom common them with Southerners. hated all over the North for his brutality to our prisoners. as I knew then that he was the ill-famed Dick Turner. hollow brass buttons of their coats.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. who. pig-like eyes.

sir. Here I found about four hundred men.htm It came my turn.gutenberg. sixty dollars in Confederate graybacks—and displayed it as Turner came up with. during the dreadful months that followed.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. In after months. in that frigid atmosphere. when I was nearly famished. and: What were the prospects of exchange? It makes me shudder now to recall how often. where and when captured." so I pulled out of my pocket my little store of wealth—ten dollars in greenbacks. when his opponent held a "king full. I had no desire. my estimation of "Majah Tunnah" was hardly enhanced by the reflection that what would have purchased me many good meals was probably lost by him in betting on a pair of queens. "There's all I have. The guard conducted us across the street. One of the whey-faced clerks said with the supercilious asperity characteristic of gnat-brained headquarters attaches: "Get out of here!" as if I had been a stray cur wandering in in search of a bone lunch." Turner pocketed it without a word. who crowded around me with the usual questions to new prisoners: What was my Regiment. mostly belonging to the Army of the Potomac. and did not search me." I ventured to step into the office to inquire after my comrades. and catch his death of cold. this momentous question was eagerly propounded to every new comer: put with bated breath by men to 56 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. to strip down to what Artemus Ward called "the skanderlous costoom of the Greek Slave. The utmost I could hope for in the way of revenge was that the delicate creature might some day make a mistake in parting his hair. and into the third story of a building standing on the next corner below. I wanted to feed the fellow to a pile-driver.

Occasionally a busy little tug would bustle up or down. and possibly of the next.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. It extended about twelve miles. like a pretty little inland lake. wife or sweet-heart. said to be General Winfield Scott's farm. or a schooner beat lazily from one side to the other. against which it was built. CHAPTER VIII INTRODUCTION TO PRISON LIFE—THE PEMBERTON BUILDING AND ITS OCCUPANTS —NEAT SAILORS—ROLL CALL—RATIONS AND CLOTHING—CHIVALRIC "CONFISCATION. The building into which I had been conducted was an old tobacco factory. and only one hundred yards distant. At intervals during each day squads of fresh prisoners could be seen entering its dark mouth." I began acquainting myself with my new situation and surroundings." possibly from an owner of that name. behind but three. First Division. with its guards pacing around it on the sidewalk. meant life. watching the fifteen hundred officers confined within its walls. The basement of the building was occupied as a store-house for the taxes-in-kind which the Confederate Government collected. sandy plain. restoration to manhood. First Corps distinguished by a round red patch on their caps. suggestive of a reserved power. On the second floor—where I was—were about four hundred men. We could see up the James River for a mile or so. across the river.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. to where the long bridges crossing it bounded the view. friends. Directly in front. and searched. The question only became a living issue when he or some of his intimate friends fell into the enemy's hands. and standing on the corner of what I was told were Fifteenth and Carey streets. These were principally from the First Division. I answered as simply and discouragingly as did the tens of thousands that came after me: "I did not hear anything about exchange. with no intervening buildings. It fronted towards the James River and Kanawha Canal. to be registered. The tug's activity seemed spasmodic and forced—a sort of protest against the gradually increasing lethargy that reigned upon the bosom of the waters —the gunboat floated along as if performing a perfunctory duty. and self-respect —everything. to where a gap in the woods seemed to indicate a fort. was a flat. The view down the river was very fine." A soldier in the field had many other things of more immediate interest to think about than the exchange of prisoners. Thus began my first day in prison. home. at that time the principal fortification defending the passage of the James. in a long. and the schooners sailed about as if tired of remaining in one place. Between that point and where we were lay the river. To the right front was Libby.gutenberg. marked by 57 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and the only vessel that passed the barrier was the occasional flag-of-truce steamer.htm whom exchange meant all that they asked of this world. Beyond Fort Darling the Union gunboats lay. The front windows afforded a fine view. everything that makes existence in this world worth having. and then marched off to the prison assigned them. owing to the rapid rise of the hill. Second Corps. and now used as a proving ground for the guns cast at the Tredegar Iron Works. In front it was four stories high. which we imagined to be Fort Darling. called the "Pemberton building. broad mirror-like expanse. a gunboat move along with noiseless dignity. and the James River—both lying side by side. On the first floor were about five hundred men. That little stretch of water was all that was left for a cruising ground. But these were so few as to make even more pronounced the customary idleness that hung over the scene.

who drew rations and enforced what little discipline was observed. and kept their mouths filled with the extracted juice. Besides these there was a considerable number from the Eighth Corps.gutenberg. They chewed tobacco enormously." About eight o'clock a spruce little lisping rebel named Ross would appear with a book.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. They were mainly captured at Gettysburg and Mine Run. They retained the discipline of the ship in their quarters. On the third floor were about two hundred sailors and marines. While the washing up was going on each man stripped himself and made close examination of his garments for the body-lice. who wore a red diamond. and the First Division. Any luckless "sojer" who attempted to ascend the stairs usually returned in haste. captured at Winchester. each mess electing a Sergeant as its head. Each mess detailed a man each day to wash up the part of the floor it occupied. getting down on our knees and rubbing it clean and dry with rags. to avoid the deluge of the filthy liquid. and each floor electing a Sergeant-of-the-Floor. Second and Third West Virginia—taken in Averill's desperate raid up the Virginia Valley. taken in the gallant but luckless assault upon the ruins of Fort Sumter. and their floor as white as a ship's deck. we tried to keep our quarters reasonably clean. A few old barnacle-backs always sat on guard around the head of the steps leading from the lower rooms. which otherwise would have increased beyond control. and a large infusion of Cavalry-First. and we washed the floor every morning. Third Corps. For convenience in issuing rations we were divided into messes of twenty. Though we were not so neat as the sailors above us. whose camp ideas of neatness differed from theirs. kept themselves trim and clean. They did not court the society of the "sojers" below. and a 58 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Blankets were also carefully hunted over for these "small deer. in the September previous. and he had to do this properly or no ration would be given him. with the Wytheville Salt Works as an objective.htm a red clover leaf.

These times afforded an illustration of the thorough subjection of man to the tyrant Stomach. as one could 59 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and run out of the game fifty points ahead of him. Behind him were two or three armed guards.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. with his gun-barrel cane raised ready for use upon any one who should arouse his ruffianly ire. our hunger seemed to increase in arithmetical ratio with every quarter of an hour. who had the air of a Policeman. consisting of a big Irishman.htm body-guard. Many could have given odds to the traditional bear with a sore head. We had eaten nothing since the previous noon. closely followed by his Irish aid. They were crosser than the lines of a check apron. It was astonishingly easy to get up a fight at these times. two sticks" utterly failed as a comparison. There was no need of going a step out of the way to search for it. Breaking ranks we returned to our places.gutenberg. Rising hungry. Ross walked down in front and counted the files. the guards halted at the head of the stairs.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. "Crosser than. A more irritable lot of individuals could scarcely be found outside of a menagerie than these men during the hours waiting for rations. and carried a musket barrel made into a cane." We formed along one side of the room. The Sergeant-of-the-Floor commanded: "Fall in in four ranks for roll-call. and sat around in moody silence for three hours.

There had been so much said about the privations of the prisoners that our Government had. S. while our Government was allowed to furnish rations. with escape or exchange. the rations were tolerably good. and help carry the rations back. who found the point raised by him not well taken. We were too ill-natured to talk for amusement. This half loaf was accompanied. to feed and clothe prisoners in its hands. which would encourage them with yells to do their best. were to be the absorbing ones for us for the next fifteen months. One did not get any more gyrations or obtain them any sooner by this." as they were derisively dubbed. For a little while after our arrival in Richmond. and lastly between the adherents and opponents of McClellan. and the later or "Three-Hundred-Dollar-men. and show its absurdity by pointing out that it is not an unusual practice with nations at war. For the last hour or so of these long waits hardly a word would be spoken. Fortunately for our Government the rebels decided to out themselves off from this profitable source of supply. All the old irritating flings between the cavalry. would neither be returned nor delivered to us. and pressed forward to be one of the favored fourteen." I will not stop to argue this point of honor. We could see from our windows Rebels strutting about in overcoats. BRANS OR PEAS—INSUFFICIENCY OF DARKY TESTIMONY—A GUARD KILLS A PRISONER—PRISONERS TEAZE THE GUARDS—DESPERATE OUTBREAK. the artillery and the infantry. This spell was broken about eleven o'clock by the appearance at the head of the stairway of the Irishman with the gun-barrel cane. In a few minutes one of the parties to the fistic debate." "And surely they are all honorable men!" Heaven save the mark. There was now issued to every two men a loaf of coarse bread—made of a mixture of flour and meal—and about the size and shape of an ordinary brick.htm have a full fledged article of overwhelming size on his hands at any instant. between men of different States.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. would retire to the sink to wash the blood from his battered face. by a trifling indiscretion of speech or manner. but it was a relief. CHAPTER IX. and there was nothing else to talk for. with a small 60 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. which had been sent under a flag of truce to City Point. But.gutenberg. when a ring would be formed around the combatants by a crowd. between the different corps of the Army of the Potomac. in which the box wrinkles were still plainly visible. Of course but a small part of that sent ever reached its destination. after much quibbling and negotiation. succeeded in getting the privilege of sending food and clothing through the lines to us." blankets as cloaks. We read one day in the Richmond papers that "President Davis and his Cabinet had come to the conclusion that it was incompatible with the dignity of a sovereign power to permit another power with which it was at war. wearing new "U. came to the lips and were answered by a blow with the fist. It is a sufficient commentary upon this assumption of punctiliousness that the paper went on to say that some five tons of clothing and fifteen tons of food. and walking in Government shoes. and his singing out: "Sargint uv the flure: fourtane min and a bread-box!" Instantly every man sprang to his feet. and the rest would resume their seats and glower at space until some fresh excitement roused them. worth fabulous prices in Confederate money. but "converted to the use of the Confederate Government. the older "first-call" men. and a change to walk the half square outside the prison to the cookhouse. to return to the rations—a topic which. There were too many greedy Rebels along its line of passage to let much of it be received by those for whom it was intended.

and replied. and clothed with a cap and blouse. shot him through the heart. paced up and down. and firing. were still sufficient to support life and health." This. we spent the afternoon and evening comfortably. I will not attempt to bias the reader's judgment by saying which side I believed to be right. and some having as many as twelve by actual count—within its shell. "Uncle. One day a member of a Virginia regiment. or a half-pint or such a matter of soup made from a coarse. the bullet passing through his body. would be protruded. who was standing at a window near. a window in the third story would open. walked out into the center of the street.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and through the floor above. till I put the question fairly." said the pea-champion triumphantly. by the way. in Andersonville. they declared. played cards. but nutritious.htm piece of corned beef." The rations issued to us. was a distinctive characteristic of the pea family. and was still raging between the survivors who passed into our lines in 1865. We were not altogether blameless. doubtless. when everybody would be lying down. because it was shaped like one. We usually had them divided and eaten by noon. on guard on the pavement in front. Late at night. with a piece nailed across to represent arms. It waxed hot occasionally. There were few opportunities to say bitterly offensive things to the guards." or "cow-pea. as will be seen above. bean or pea. Now. I spec dat lots of 'em does. and a voice coming from a man carefully protected by the wall. g-uarr-d. and each side continually sought evidence to support its view of the case. read what few books were available. became a fruitful bone of contention during our stay in the South. As the historic British showman said. boys. "But. though they appear scanty. Occasionally we got a sweet potato. in revenge for some injury which our men had done the assassin or his family. "Well. a broomstick. The contention began with our first instalment of the leguminous ration. was summoned to decide a hot dispute that was raging in the crowd to which I belonged. dey mos' generally calls 'em stock-peas. and because it was so full of bugs —none being entirely free from insects. Occasionally it was dangerous to be about the windows." "There. This depended wholly on the temper of the guards. and watched the Rebels trying their guns and shells. the floor for exercise. don't they also call them beans?" "Well. and was done. would inquire: "S-a-y. The champion of the pea side said. and brown. "You pays your money and you takes your choice. in reply to the question as to whether an animal in his collection was a rhinoceros or an elephant. and out of the way of shots." And this was about the way the matter usually ended. we used to look back to them as sumptuous.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. This. and. The prisoners in the third floor of the Smith building. Once an old darky. deliberately left his beat. chile. what do they call that there?" The colored gentleman scrutinized the vegetable closely. let pass unimproved. with the gnawings of hunger appeased. The act was purely malicious.gutenberg. One strong party among us maintained that it was a bean. uncle. called variously "nigger-pea. by any means." "stock-pea. yes. had their own way of teasing them. producing one of the objects of dispute: "Now. stood at the windows and studied the landscape. aimed his gun at a member of the Ninth West Virginia. which they claimed no pea ever was." broke in the leader of the bean party. what time is it?" 61 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and so on as long as it was daylight. round hyar aways. and months afterward. sent into the prison on some errand. keep still. We told stories. The other party held that it was a pea because its various names all agreed in describing it as a pea. adjoining us. sung.

I would ——" By this time the guard. you kno hits agin all odahs to do dat?" Then the voice would say. if I couldn't shoot no better than you. Johnny Reb.htm If the guard was of the long suffering kind he would answer: "Take yo' head back in. would provoke still another. go to —— you —— Rebel ——.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. aggravatingly. when an alarm sounding. "Oh. having his gun loaded again. if you can't answer a civil question. didn't you. "Thought you were going to hurt somebody. only to find everybody up there snoring away as if they were 62 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . only to go out again the next instant. the guards at Libby and all the other buildings around us would turn out. An officer of the guard would go up with a squad into the third floor.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. which. well. with a derisive laugh.gutenberg. would cut short the remarks with another shot." Before the speech was ended the guard's rifle would be at his shoulder and he would fire. you —— —— —— —— ——. Back would come the blouse and hat in haste. Mr. followed up with similar remarks. But. up dah. Lord. and. you can't shoot for sour apples.

He pulled these apart. but confined themselves to big words. A scheme to accomplish this was being wrought out. and dropped missiles out. as they laid against the shore next to us. It was all in vain. One night in January things took a more serious turn.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The other guards fell back and opened fire on them. overpowered the guard who stood at the foot of the stairs. after killing ten or fifteen. seize their arms. and their artillery made to assist us. release the officers. with their heavy guns trained upon the building. and his own unworthiness in particular. Among those who led in the assault was a drummer-boy of some New York Regiment. Two gunboats were brought up the next morning. by the south side of the James. and might have been carried out. The prisoners were all ranged on one side of the room and carefully examined by one party. chase the guards into the board house in the basement. It was thought that this would intimidate as from a repetition of the attack. the Rebel officers came in and vapored around considerably. and more could be prevented from coming over by burning the bridges behind us. laid the fourshooter between them. and went on calmly nibbling away at the loaf while the search was progressing. they could be easily captured.htm the Seven Sleepers. set fire to the public buildings and retreat from the City. The essential features of the plan were that at a preconcerted signal we at the second and third floors should appear at the windows with bricks and irons from the tobacco presses. drive those away from around Libby and the other prisons. but there was no one in the building who was generally believed to have the qualities of a leader. while the men of the first floor would pour out. Of these one thousand five hundred were officers in Libby. but our sailors conceived that. The boy had a loaf of wheat bread. 63 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . bought from a baker during the day. the officer would return to his quarters in the guard house. and were taken as much by surprise as were the Rebels. organize into regiments and brigades. pressed the two halves together. Besides there were the prisoners in Castles Thunder and Lightning. where there was but a scanty force of Rebels. After relieving his mind of a quantity of vigorous profanity. which a should shower down on the guards and drive them away. We of the second and third floors did not anticipate the break at that time. and the maddened guard be regaled with a spirited and vividly profane lecture on the depravity of Rebels in general. and we remained quiet. when we received notice to move. and threats to "buck and gag" and cut off the rations of the whole room. other troops hastened up. CHAPTER X. They were particularly anxious to find the revolver. and soon drove them back into the building. and when they rushed out he fired it off at the guards. After the prisoners were driven back. while another hunted through the blankets and bundles. and poured into the street. It was a magnificent scheme. but before any concerted action could be taken it was seen that the case was hopeless. set together in two pieces like a biscuit. and anchored in the canal near us. a recklessly brave little rascal. But while it was being debated a few of the hot heads on the lower floor undertook to precipitate the crisis. There were then about fifteen thousand prisoners in Richmond—ten thousand on Belle Isle and five thousand in the buildings.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. no pistol could be found. They seized what they thought was a favorable opportunity. The boys on the lower floor of our building had long considered a plan of escape. Nearly all were lying down and many were asleep. but before he was fairly ensconced there the cap and blouse would go out again. and it came to naught. seize the armory. He had somehow smuggled a small four-shooter in with him. Some hastened to the windows. and ordered a general and rigorous search for it. It was a round loaf.

Privateers to be placed upon the footing of officers and men of the navy. Over this vexed question there has been waged an acrimonious war of words. 1882. or a Brigadier General. and may be warped in judgment by prejudices in favor of my own Government's wisdom and humanity. shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank. shall be exchanged upon the conditions and terms following: Prisoners to be exchanged man for man and officer for officer. or Lieutenants or Ensigns in the Army. carrying a broad pennant. or six privates or common seamen. including those taken on private armed vessels. nor any convictions—the disputants. or a Captain in the Army or marines shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank.—It is hereby agreed and stipulated. having been commissioned by the authorities they respectively represent to make arrangements for a general exchange of prisoners of war. to be admission by us that the war was no longer an insurrection but a revolution. but. shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank. that all prisoners of war.htm THE EXCHANGE AND THE CAUSE OF ITS INTERRUPTION—BRIEF RESUME OF THE DIFFERENT CARTELS. Then the following cartel was agreed upon by Generals Dig on our side and Hill on that of the Rebels: HAXALL'S LANDING.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. which. shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank. A Commodore. known as privateers. naturally anxious to diminish as much as possible the great odium resting upon their section for the treatment of prisoners of war during the last year and a half of the Confederacy's existence. held by either party. while it placed them on a somewhat different plane from mere insurgents. A Lieutenant. The undersigned.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. one and all. ON JAMES RIVER. or for sixty privates or common seamen. It is alleged on our side. to secure a release of its unfortunate men in the power of the Rebels. or a Colonel. or Commander in the Navy. or for fifteen privates or common seamen. For some time after the beginning of hostilities our Government refused to exchange prisoners with the Rebels. on the ground that this might be held by the European powers who were seeking a pretext for acknowledging the Confederacy. shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank. A Lieutenant Colonel. Southern writers and politicians. July 22. have agreed to the following articles: ARTICLE I. and repelled all advances from the Rebel Government looking toward a resumption of exchange. and men and officers of different services may be exchanged according to the following scale of equivalents: A General-commanding-in-chief. or an Admiral. did not elevate them to the position of soldiers of a foreign power. A Captain in the Navy. the following is my firm belief as to the controlling facts in this lamentable affair: 1. shall be exchanged for officers 64 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . which had resulted in the 'de facto' establishment of a new nation. 2. This difficulty was finally gotten over by recognizing the Rebels as belligerents. Master's-mates in the Navy. that our Government did all that was possible. consistent with National dignity and military prudence. or a Master in the Navy. on the other hand. remaining on the sides of the controversy occupied by them when the debate began. or for ten privates or common seamen.gutenberg. Men and officers of lower grades may be exchanged for officers of a higher grade. AND THE DIFFICULTIES THAT LED TO THEIR SUSPENSION. which has apparently led to no decision. however this may be. Few questions intimately connected with the actual operations of the Rebellion have been enveloped with such a mass of conflicting statement as the responsibility for the interruption of the exchange. I may not be in possession of all the facts bearing upon the case. have vehemently charged that the Government of the United States deliberately and pitilessly resigned to their fate such of its soldiers as fell into the hands of the enemy. or twenty privates or common seamen.

—Each party upon the discharge of prisoners of the other party is authorized to discharge an equal number of their own officers or men from parole. garrison or field-work. or soldier. or officers of higher grade exchanged for officers of lower grade. D.—The stipulations and provisions above mentioned to be of binding obligation during the continuance of the war. at the expense of the capturing party. That no officer. State. shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank. HILL. shall be sent with all reasonable dispatch to A. First. and there exchanged of paroled until such exchange can be effected. or to Vicksburg. below Dutch Gap. on the Mississippi River. and all civilians in the actual service of either party. and all noncommissioned officers in the Army or marines. The surplus prisoners not exchanged shall not be permitted to take up arms again. the great principles involved being. That all prisoners. notice being previously given by each party of the number of prisoners it will send. thus enabling each party to relieve from parole such of their officers and men as the party may choose. S.—All prisoners of war now held on either side. or any alleged civil offense. garrison. so soon thereafter as practicable. Second Captains. according to scale of equivalents. and all petty officers in the Navy. civil and militia rank held by persons not in actual military service will not be recognized. A. and private soldiers or common seamen shall be exchanged for each other man for man. other places bearing as nearly as may be the present local 65 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Fourth. shall be severally exchanged for persons of equal rank. is to be considered as exchanged and absolved from his parole until his equivalent has actually reached the lines of his friends. ARTICLE VII. until exchanged under the provisions of this cartel. are to be exchanged or paroled in ten days from the time of their capture. and those hereafter taken. The lists thus mutually furnished.htm of equal rank. nor to discharge any duty usually performed by soldiers. to the other party a list of their prisoners discharged. Fifth. nor as guards of prisoners. Third. ARTICLE II. man for man. Midshipmen. DIX.gutenberg. M. H. teamsters. deposits or stores. it matters not which party may have the surplus of prisoners. to be transported to the points mutually agreed upon. in the State of Mississippi. furnishing. ARTICLE III. masters of merchant vessels and commanders of privateers.—If citizens held by either party on charges of disloyalty. Major General. are exchanged.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. police. Lieutenants or mates of merchant vessels or privateers. held by either of the respective parties. on the James River. The exchange is not to be considered complete until the officer or soldier exchanged for has been actually restored to the lines to which he belongs. and all prisoners hereafter taken. or four privates or common seamen. and the time when they will be delivered at those points respectively. C.—Local. nor to serve as military police or constabulary force in any fort. or guard or constabulary duty. if not. the basis of exchange being the grade actually held in the naval and military service of the respective parties. That parole forbids the performance of field. to be exchanged for persons in similar positions. Second. Aiken's. Captured sutlers. so as to render the same inconvenient for the delivery and exchange of prisoners. ARTICLE VI. employed in the service of either party. or officer for officer. if it be practicable to transfer them to their own lines in that time. it shall only be for citizens. will keep both parties advised of the true condition of the exchange of prisoners. at the same time. An equitable exchange of prisoners. of whatever arm of service. and the prisoners now held. or three privates or common seamen. SUPPLEMENTARY ARTICLES. and of their own officers and men relieved from parole. JOHN A.—All prisoners of war to be discharged on parole in ten days after their capture. in Virginia. That privates and officers and men of different services may be exchanged according to the same scale of equivalents. Major General. and in case the vicissitudes of war shall change the military relations of the places designated in this article to the contending parties. warrant officers in the Navy. ARTICLE IV.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. ARTICLE V. or for privates. or for two privates or common seamen.

a modification of the cartel was agreed upon. the main feature of which was that all prisoners must be reduced to possession. leaving in the hands of both sides the prisoners captured at Gettysburg. Va. Missouri and Maryland were "captured" and paroled. substituted. After some months of trial of this scheme. JOHN A. Miss. but that. or Vicksburg. Major General. effectually. East Tennessee. and setoff against regular Rebel soldiers taken by us. The paroling now stopped abruptly. At the opening of the fight at Gettysburg Lee captured some six thousand Pennsylvania militia. could obtain it by so straggling in the vicinity of the enemy. not knowing what Meade had done. The Rebels then issued an order that neither these troops nor their officers should be held as amenable to the laws of war. but shall be made the subject of friendly explanation. since it was very doubtful if he could get his beaten army back across the Potomac. S. but while it was going on Vicksburg was captured. asking him to receive prisoners on parole. commanding the Pennsylvania militia. as herein provided. and second.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and in good faith. shall be. and the officers turned over to the Governors of the States in which they were taken. ARTICLE VIII. West Virginia. Men on both sides. and to carry out promptly. Lee then sent a communication to General Couch. each party will appoint two agents for the exchange of prisoners of war. so that at the time we arrived in Richmond the Rebels had about fifteen thousand prisoners in their hands and our Government had about twenty-five thousand. to attend to the delivery of the prisoners at the places agreed on. Then the Rebels grew into the habit of paroling everybody that they could constrain into being a prisoner of war. This worked very well for some months. He sent to Meade to have these exchanged on the field of battle. unwarlike and decrepit citizens of Kentucky. Meade declined to do so for two reasons: first. at other points mutually agreed on by said commanders. But nothing in this article contained shall prevent the commanders of the two opposing armies from exchanging prisoners or releasing them on parole. A. to be dealt with according to the stringent law punishing the incitement of servile insurrection.htm relations of said places to the lines of said parties. in order that the object of this agreement may neither be defeated nor postponed. and Couch. and ordered the paroles to be treated as of no force.gutenberg. it is mutually agreed that such misunderstanding shall not affect the release of prisoners on parole. frequently upon the spot—allowed them to visit home. until our Government began organizing negro troops. because he was anxious to have Lee hampered with such a body of prisoners. whose duty it shall be to communicate with each other by correspondence and otherwise. when captured. Major General. acceded to the request. Our Government could not permit this for a day. This plan did not work well. by mutual agreement. because it was against the cartel. 4. let alone his prisoners. H. C. This discussion did not put a stop to the exchange.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. to prepare the lists of prisoners. The Rebel Government was promptly informed that rebel officers and men would be held as hostages for the proper treatment of such members of colored regiments as might be taken. the men should be returned to slavery. The first placed one of the exchange points in our hands. The Rebels added considerably to those in their hands by their captures at Chickamauga. Cumberland Gap and elsewhere. DIX. It was bound by every consideration of National honor to protect those who wore its uniform and bore its flag. Peaceable. who wanted a little rest from soldiering. and sojourn awhile where were pleasanter pastures than at the front. HILL. and delivered to the exchange officers either at City Point. and the battle of Gettysburg was fought. 66 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . ARTICLE IX. while we gained a great many at Mission Ridge. except the militia above mentioned. 5. 3. which prescribed that prisoners must be reduced to possession. Our Government disavowed Couch's action instantly. whereupon the Rebel Government ordered back into the field twelve thousand of the prisoners captured by Grant's army at Vicksburg.—And.—For the purpose of carrying into effect the foregoing articles of agreement. all the details and provisions of the said articles of agreement. in case any misunderstanding shall arise in regard to any clause or stipulation in the foregoing articles.. Their parole—following close upon their capture. D.

This. for the sake of humanity. The rebels now began demanding that the prisoners on both sides be exchanged—man for man—as far as they went. but the meat diminished. At this juncture General B. and five hundred Union prisoners returned for them.—the mornings in ill-nature hunger.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. On February 12. 7. suffered continued change. Our Government offered to exchange man for man. F. and decreasing of that of the beans. too. in the gradually increasing proportion of James River water. after the manner described in a former chapter. and not shared in to any appreciably extent by the gentlemen who were managing our boarding house. Then we receive a pint or less of soup made from the beans or peas before mentioned. in which be asked. The Winter days passed on. 67 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . If the reader will fix these facts in his minds I will explain other phases as they develop. was or view of the case. They held that the nutritive potency was increased by the dilution. merely. Another five hundred. they through homoeopathic lenses. 1864. 1864. but this. were refused. CHAPTER XI. This was the condition of affairs in February. The Rebels scorned to notice this home thrust by the Union General. but declined—on account of the previous bad faith of the Rebels—to release the balance on parole. the afternoons and evenings in tolerable comfort. The water of the James River is doubtless excellent: it looks well—at a distance—and is said to serve the purposes of ablution and navigation admirably. as Jefferson Davis and all associated with him in the Rebel Government had been outlawed by the proclamation of President Lincoln. 8. and the remainder paroled. one by one. though. on the ground that he was outlawed by the proclamation of Jefferson Davis. which made him an ex-officio Commissioner of Exchange. PUTTING IN THE TIME—RATIONS—COOKING UTENSILS—"FIAT" SOUP—"SPOONING" —AFRICAN NEWSPAPER VENDERS—TRADING GREENBACKS FOR CONFEDERATE MONEY —VISIT FROM JOHN MORGAN. The Rebels instantly refused to treat with him. There seems to be a limit however.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. absolutely destitute of dishes. Butler was appointed to the command of the Department of the Blackwater.' My first experience with this "flat" soup was very instructive. I had come into prison. or cooking utensils. The five hundred sent with the General's letter were received. that the questions interrupting the exchange be left temporarily in abeyance while an informal exchange was put in operation. The Rebels also refused to make any concessions in regard to the treatment of officers and men of colored regiments. and occasional days would pass without any being issued. sent the next day. to the extent of its advantageous combination with the bean (or pea) for nutritive purposes. The rations kept growing lighter and lighter.htm 6. General Butler very pertinently replied that this only placed him nearer their level. and so this reasonable and humane proposition ended in nothing. General Butler addressed a letter to the Rebel Commissioner Ould. if not agreeable. say a bucket of beans (or peas) to a bucket of water. when the Rebel authorities concluded to send us to Andersonville. let them be met by a similar number of Union prisoners. He would send five hundred prisoners to City Point. The well-used. We thought that the atomic weight of peas (or beans) and the James River fluid were about equal. and the best results were obtainable when the symptoms of hunger were combated by the trituration of a bucketful of the peas-beans with a barrel of 'aqua jamesiana. This could go on from day to day until all in each other's hands should be transferred to their respective flags. which would indicate that the proper combining proportions would be.gutenberg. We seemed to view the matter through allopathic spectacles. the quantity of bread remained the same. as did most other prisoners.

It was a place where cooking utensils were in demand. and as well off as the most fortunate. the blackened quart cup.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. There were but few tin cups in the prison. By great good fortune I found an empty fruit can. and only gave it up after our release and entry into a land where the plenitude of cooking utensils of superior construction made ours valueless. and were lost to me when I separated from my horse. and these were. therefore. when we were told that we were to draw soup. Then we flung them into the sea.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. We were better off than the mass. We were more anxious to get rid of the many hateful recollections 68 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . I next manufactured a spoon and knife combined from a bit of hoop-iron. I was in great danger of losing my ration from having no vessel in which to receive it. It was a curious illustration of that law of political economy which teaches that so-called intrinsic value is largely adventitious. Their possession gave us infinitely more consideration among our fellows than would the possession of a brown-stone front in an eligible location. as far as worldly goods were concerned. I was also lucky enough to find a piece from which to make a bail.htm half-canteen frying-pan. and. made the best use of it in our intercourse with our fellows. of course. wanted by their owners. with little gratitude for the great benefit they had been to us.gutenberg. holding about a quart. On our side we obeyed another law of political economy: We clung to our property with unrelaxing tenacity. We were in possession of something which every one needed every day. and the spoon. which formed the usual kitchen outfit of the cavalryman in the field. and all the modern improvements. were persons of consequence and consideration to those around us who were present or prospective borrowers. and title-deeds to brown-stone fronts were not. were in the haversack on my saddle. Now. These two humble utensils at once placed myself and my immediate chums on another plane. furnished with hot and cold water throughout.

But the top layer seemed to be underlaid with another equally dense.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. It was only another step toward a closer conformity to that grand rule which I have made the guiding maxim of my life: 'When I must. I had better.htm clustering around them. But beneath this appeared another layer. I did not care for fresh meat in that form. which. so as to lose as little soup as possible. Afterward I drank my soup without skimming.gutenberg. I have before spoken of the remarkable bug fecundity of the beans (or peas). when removed. Every scouped out pea (or bean) which found its way into the soup bore inside of its shell from ten to twenty of these hard-crusted little weevil. I skimmed them off carefully. But. It was not that I hated the weevil less. 69 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and so on. This was a demonstration of it. Much as I wanted animal food. until I had scraped to the bottom of the can. to return to the alleged soup: As I started to drink my first ration it seemed to me that there was a superfluity of bugs upon its surface.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. but that I loved the soup more. and the last of the bugs went with the last of my soup.' I recommend this to other young men starting on their career. showed still another. This was also skimmed off as deftly as possible.

Even then it required pretty close "spooning" together —so close in fact that all sleeping along one side would have to turn at once." That individual would reply: "All right. and he fired directly down the line of toes. but more immediate generation by a common domestic animal. and one of the wearied ones would sing out to the Sergeant who was in command of the row— "Sergeant: let's spoon the other way.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. from the remote monkey. The incensed Rebel opened the door wide enough to thrust his gun in. and a chalk line drawn from the crack between the door and the frame to the opposite wall would touch. Attention! LEFT SPOON!!" and the whole line would at once flop over on their left sides.htm The room in which we were was barely large enough for all of us to lie down at once. would be lying on their right sides. The feet of the row that slept along the east wall on the floor below us were in a line with the edge of the outer door. His piece was apparently 70 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . say 150 pairs of feet. All. They greeted this threat with a chorus profanely uncomplimentary to the purity of the guard's ancestry. It was funny to watch this operation. for instance.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. They would begin to get tired. and one night their noise so provoked the guard in front of the door that he called out to them to keep quiet or he would fire in upon them. They were a noisy crowd down there.gutenberg. they did not imply his descent a la Darwin.

His long. accompanied by a guard. It was soon found out that nobody had been hurt seriously. The simultaneous shriek that went up was deafening. He had one unvarying formula for proclaiming his wares. pierced the feet. we understood.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. We long remembered him as one of the peculiar features of Richmond. He was allowed. One of the prisoners in Libby was Brigadier General Neal Dow. of Maine. Sou' Cahlina! "Great Nooze in depapahs!" 71 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . It ran in this wise: "Great Nooze in de papahs! "Great Nooze from Orange Coaht House. and there was not a little fun over the occurrence. Newsboys seemed to be a thing unknown in Richmond.htm loaded with buckshot. used to see him frequently on the street. The one who frequented our section with the morning journals had a mellow.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. to visit our sick in the hospital. whose places were near the front window. rich baritone for which we would be glad to exchange the shrill cries of our street Arabs. Virginny! "Great Nooze from Washington City! "Great Nooze from Chattanoogy. and otherwise slightly wounded the lower extremities of fifty men. snowy beard and hair gave him a venerable and commanding appearance. and the author of the famous Maine Liquor Law.gutenberg. Tennessee! "Great Nooze from Chahlston. nipped off the toes. We. and the little balls must have struck the legs. Virginny! "Great Nooze from Alexandry. The papers were sold on the streets by negro men. who had then a National reputation as a Temperance advocate.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg. He would 72 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm It did not matter to him that the Rebels had not been at some of these places for months.

htm not change for such mere trifles as the entire evaporation of all possible interest connected with Chattanooga and Alexandria. playing cards. It was made legal tender for all debts public and private. it was decreed that the man who refused to take it was a public enemy. This was a very lucrative position for the latter. or traded wheat bread. should suffer imprisonment in the Penitentiary. daily papers. and any soldier so offending should suffer death. tobacco..ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The blockade had cut off the Confederacy's supplies from the outer world. There was also considerable brokerage in money. and the law provided that any citizens found trafficking in the money of the enemy—i. neckties. greenbacks. There was a considerable trade driven between the prisoners and the guard at the door. for them. He was a true Bourbon Southerner—he learned nothing and forgot nothing. The Rebels exhausted their ingenuity in framing laws to sustain the purchasing power of their paper money.e. and men of a commercial turn of mind generally managed to get stationed there. silver watches. and were always near their supplies. gold pens.gutenberg. The men of the Army of the Potomac. etc. had their pockets filled with combs. who paid fair prices in Confederate money. all the considerations of patriotism were rallied to its support. who were paid regularly. etc. dice. and the manner of doing this was an admirable exemplification of the folly of the "fiat" money idea. Such of these as escaped appropriation by their captors and Dick Turner.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. knives. 73 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and the many trinkets about a man's person were in good demand at high prices.. silk handkerchiefs. pencils. were eagerly bought by the guards.

next to J. Prentice: "Why don't somebody put a pistol to Basil Duke's head. how much do you want for them?" The reply was then: "Ten for one. as was the custom with the rural beaux some years ago. what hope could there be of restraining anybody else? One day we were favored with a visit from the redoubtable General John H. with a full. He had lately escaped from the Ohio Penitentiary. and the Rebel would pace industriously up and down his beat with the air of the school boy who "ain't been a-doin' nothing. Kentucky jeans pantaloons. coarse. His long black hair was carefully oiled.htm Notwithstanding all this. and blow John Morgan's brains out!" [Basil Duke was John Morgan's right hand man. both would release their holds simultaneously. which still retains all its original distinctness." There was never any risk in approaching any guard with a proposition of this kind.gutenberg. Guard: do you want to buy some greenbacks?" And be sure that the reply would be. sluggish gray eyes. E. Prentice's bon mot about him was in its acrid truth.] CHAPTER XII. Stuart the greatest of Rebel cavalry leaders. except a large. He was invited to Richmond to be made a Major General. heavy man. neatly fitting boots. and no vest. put up one hand with it. and lazy. how much have you got?" The Yankee would reply. East Tennessee—whom he was anxious to have exchanged for men of his own regiment—the First Kentucky Cavalry (Rebel)—who were captured at the same time he was. the head and heart of the Confederacy." "All right. I never heard of one refusing to trade for greenbacks. B. At the word. after a furtive glance around to see that no officer was watching: "Yes. He was a tall. and if the men on guard could not be restrained by these stringent laws. in Richmond. It is simply the adoption of the usual terms employed by 74 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Said Mr. the Rebel would walk to the farther end of his beat. sandy goatee. while with the other he caught hold of one end of the Yankee's greenback. He came into our building to visit a number of the First Kentucky Cavalry (loyal)—captured at New Philadelphia. the exchange was complete. Before going any further in this narrative it may be well to state that the nomenclature employed is not used in any odious or disparaging sense. in January. Morgan. and turned under at the ends. His face was clean shaved. REMARKS AS TO NOMENCLATURE—VACCINATION AND ITS EFFECTS —"N'YAARKER'S" —THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR METHODS OF OPERATING. And still worse: There was not a day during our stay in Richmond but what one could go to the hole in the door before which the guard was pacing and call out in a loud whisper: "Say. 1864—long before the Rebel cause began to look at all desperate—it took a dollar to buy such a loaf of bread as now sells for ten cents. and everything else in proportion. and I thought as I studied him that the sting of George D. I happened to get very close to him while he was standing there talking to his old acquaintances. a newspaper was a half dollar.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. returning. and. and was given a grand ovation by the citizens and civic Government.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. He wore a high silk hat. and somewhat dull face. There was nothing remotely suggestive of unusual ability or force of character. a black broadcloth coat. count out the necessary amount. and I made a mental photograph of him.

They were men who. Foul ulcers appeared on various parts of the bodies of the vaccinated. They spoke it with a peculiar accent and intonation that made them instantly recognizable from the roughs of all other Cities. It is true that there was small pox in the City. as "Rebels. felons. as a rule. when our room was inoculated.—bore upon his temple to his dying day. They included representatives from all nationalities. cold. amplified and enriched by the cant vocabulary and the jargon of crime of every European tongue." they of and to us. These were the fledglings of the slums and dives of New York—graduates of that metropolitan sink of iniquity where the rogues and criminals of the whole world meet for mutual instruction in vice. whose fathers.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. a fearful scar. until his very marrow is surcharged with it. but the English and Irish elements predominated. so I escaped what was an infliction to all. lice and the oppression of distraint." and "Johnnies . but that any consideration for our safety should have led them to order general inoculation is not among the reasonable inferences. We thought at the time that the Rebels had deliberately poisoned the vaccine matter with syphilitic virus. But. where the flesh had sloughed off from the effects of the virus that had tainted his blood." 75 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . until it saturated every fiber of their being as a dweller in a jungle imbibes malaria by every one of his." or "Federalists." would have seemed useless euphemism. procuresses and thieves. This I do not pretend to account for." and "Yankees. whose mothers. hunger.. vaccination was ordered. and their descendants.gutenberg. malefactors and. to leave nothing undone that could add to the miseries of our prison life. The plainer terms suited better. and it was a day when things were more important than names. and fatal to many. and death followed from a corruption of the blood. be that as it may. I do not now believe that this was so. The low standard of medical education in the South makes this theory quite plausible. The explanation with which I have satisfied myself is that some careless or stupid practitioner took the vaccinating lymph from diseased human bodies.htm the soldiers of both sides in speaking to or of each other. millions of pores. and performed. men who had from infancy lived in an atmosphere of sin. For some inscrutable reason the Rebels decided to vaccinate us all. had never known. Why they did this has been one of the unsolved problems of my life." To have said "Confederates." "Unionists." we came to know them as "Raiders. It was partly made up of the "flash" language of the London thieves. and thus infected all with the blood venom. and other parts of those who recovered. We habitually spoke of them and to them. and after the war a banker in Bowling Green. A special friend of mine." "Secessionists. (loyal). I can hardly think that members of the humane profession of medicine would be guilty of such subtle diabolism—worse even than poisoning the wells from which an enemy must drink. wives and sisters were prostitutes. By great good luck I was absent from the building with the squad drawing rations. (which occurred a year ago). and it was so charged upon them. Frequently the faces. and among the prisoners at Danville. as "Yanks. In many instances the arms literally rotted off. Sergeant Frank Beverstock—then a member of the Third Virginia Cavalry. We now formed the acquaintance of a species of human vermin that united with the Rebels. were disfigured by the ghastly cicatrices of healed ulcers. without any conception of what he was doing. O. brothers and constant companions were roughs. They had an argot peculiar to themselves. a day of honesty and cleanliness in their misspent lives." "Northerners" or "Nationalists. They called themselves "N'Yaarkers. The direst consequences followed the operation." "Southerners.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.

and cowardly when confronted with resolution by anything like an 76 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm If everything in the animal world has its counterpart among men. then these were the wolves.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg. jackals and hyenas of the race at once cowardly and fierce—audaciously bold when the power of numbers was on their side.

but the unsophisticated Tennesseeans did not dream of disputing his statement. and about fifty dollars in greenbacks.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and they were indefatigable in making these offer. The latter kept them at Castle Lightning for awhile. from whom the Government did not receive so much service as would pay for the buttons on their uniforms. a couple of rings." This was all pure invention. Thousands of the so-called "dangerous classes" were recruited. with home. and more obsequious lick-spittles to power never existed—they were perpetually on the look-out for a chance to curry favor by betraying some plan or scheme to those who guarded us. to be exchanged regularly with us. had taken to bounty-jumping. People expected that they would make themselves as troublesome to the Rebels as they were to good citizens and the Police. They were only anxious to use them to get their own men back." Suddenly one of the latter said with an oath: "I was robbed last night. and I never heard of any one else who did. and then. About fifty of them were sitting in a group in one corner of the room. and considering that it was best to trade them off for a genuine Rebel soldier. no. The highest type of soldier which the world has yet produced is the intelligent." 77 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . they robbed by actual force. some Terror of Plug Uglyville. Those who were thrust in upon us had followed this until it had become dangerous. so tenacious of the defense and the assault.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. ignorant folks. There may have been in the Army some habitual corner loafer. In the sixty centuries that war has been a profession no man has entered its ranks so calmly resolute in confronting danger." swift to see any opportunity for dishonest gain. or. His unfailing courage and good sense won fights that the incompetency or cankering jealousy of commanders had lost. who was worth the salt in the hard tack he consumed. and near them a couple or three "N'Yaarkers. High officers were occasionally disloyal.htm equality of strength. but reasonably courageous. or willing to sacrifice their country to personal pique. They stole whenever opportunities offered. as the boy who. and it shows at the same time how brazen effrontery will sometimes get the better of courage. so shrewd and energetic in his aggressiveness. I believe some of you fellers went through me. Like all other roughs and rascals of whatever degree. self-respecting American boy. I did not form his acquaintance. they were utterly worthless as soldiers." for a livelihood. and a still greater number of East Tennesseeans. whenever force would avail. These latter were simple. and went to the field in obedience to a conviction of duty. Our "N'Yaarkers. and then deserted to the Rebels. and duty in front beckoning him on. some fistic champion of the bar-room and brothel. but the enlisted man had more than enough innate soldiership to make amends for these deficiencies. and answered in chorus: "Oh. as they termed it. he no more had the things mentioned than he had purity of heart and a Christian spirit. we ain't that kind. It was the rule that the man who was the readiest in the use of fist and slungshot at home had the greatest diffidence about forming a close acquaintance with cold lead in the neighborhood of the front. we didn't take your things. and father and mother and friends behind him. In a room in an adjacent building were a number of these fellows. The moment they came into contact with us our troubles began. had been "well-raised" in a Godfearing home. sent them in among us. and terrible to the people in the rear of the Army who had anything that could be stolen. and his superb conduct often brought honors and promotions to those only who deserved shame and disaster. I lost two silver watches. but if there were. still more frequently they were ignorant and inefficient. There was not so much good faith as good policy shown by this. mister. but they were only pugnacious to the provost guard. rightly estimating their character. so certain to rise swiftly to the level of every emergency. I saw one day a queer illustration of the audacious side of these fellows' characters. in the good old phrase. It was a matter of indifference to the Rebels how soon our Government shot these deserters after getting them in its hands again. "leppin' the bounty.gutenberg.

he had been taken to the hospital. but these were all occupied when our battalion came in. covering of any kind. So intense became the craving for animal food. The so-called soup had been diluted to a ridiculous thinness. and. cut up. stand up agin the wall there till I search yez!" And that whole fifty men. and he was then skinned. so that they were compelled to lie on the snow and frozen ground. a blanket thrown over him. cooked. and swept by the bleak. and his superior in point of real courage. During this time the cold had been so intense that the James had frozen over three times. He told me they had been sent to Belle Isle. or fire. any one of whom was physically equal to the N'Yaarker. whither he had gone. I was thoroughly disgusted. greatly to my delight and astonishment. upon his convalesence. piercing winds that howled up and down the surface of the James. It was low.gutenberg. actually stood against the wall. BELLE ISLE—TERRIBLE SUFFERING FROM COLD AND HUNGER—FATE OF LIEUTENANT BOISSEUX'S DOG—OUR COMPANY MYSTERY—TERMINATION OF ALL HOPES OF ITS SOLUTION. that one day when Lieutenant Boisseux—the Commandant—strolled into the camp with his beloved white bull-terrier.htm This was like the reply of the lamb to the wolf. Andrews. and the N'Yaarker retorted with a simulated storm of passion. and such trinkets as the searcher took a fancy to.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. the latter was decoyed into a tent. now a physician in Astoria. The first prisoners placed on the island had been given tents that afforded them some shelter. damp. in the fable.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. In February my chum—B. placed in our prison. The rations had been much worse than ours. 78 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Our men were suffering terribly on the island. which was as fat as a Cheshire pig. but succumbing to the rigors of that dreadful place. and a torrent of oaths: "—— —— I know ye did. his throat cut within a rod of where his master was standing. and meat had wholly disappeared. and submitted to being searched and having taken from them the few Confederate bills they had. and from him I obtained the much desired news as to the fate of my comrades. CHAPTER XIII. Illinois —was brought into our building. I know some uv yez has got them. and furnished a savory meal to many hungry men. B. without shelter.

Scrupulously neat in dress. and ran. Then Charley Osgood. but as brave and earnest as his gallant father. who appeared on the rolls as William Bradford. whether married or single. sank under the combination of hunger and cold. obeyed orders promptly and without remark. One of the mysteries of our company was a tall. where he had lived. pleasantspoken boy. slender. but he never availed himself of any of the numerous opportunities offered to change his associations. His elegant penmanship would have 79 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The only revenge possible was to sentence more prisoners to ride the cruel wooden horse which he used as a means of punishment. He was courteous and pleasant. with manners and conversation that showed him to have belonged to a refined and polished circle. The enraged sentry leveled his gun and fired into the crowd.gutenberg. never asked for a furlough or pass. what his profession. son of our Lieutenant. Jacob Lowry and John Beach were standing near the gate one day when some one snatched the guard's blanket from the post where he had hung it. and never expressed a wish to be elsewhere than in camp. elderly Scotchman. a quiet.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. He interfered with no one. but very reserved. Four of our company were already dead. He came to us while in Camp of Instruction near Springfield. frank blue eyes glazed over in death. and seemed to have left all his past behind him as he crossed the line of sentries around the camp. One stinging morning he was found stiff and stark. and was always present for duty. fair-haired. no one ever knew. Illinois. his bright. always as clean-shaved as an old-fashioned gentleman of the world. on the hard ground.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. intensely enraged. He never received any letters. and never wrote any. What his past life had been. he was evidently out of place as a private soldier in a company of reckless and none-too-refined young Illinois troopers.htm When Boisseux learned of the fate of his four-footed friend he was. The balls passed through Lowry's and Beach's breasts. but that was all the good it did him. of course.

gutenberg. a man of high station. Another time. an accomplished villain eluding his pursuers—in short. 80 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . who was expiating some fearful crime. showing him to have been the disinherited scion of some noble house. and discussing which fitted him best. but no less reserved. One day. and grew weaker.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. he spent much of his time in writing some Latin verses in very elegant chirography upon the white painted boards of a fence along which his beat ran. each day. At length. We pressed in all the available knowledge of Latin about camp. and made us more impatient for further developments. These evidences we accepted as sufficient demonstration that there was a woman at the bottom of the mystery. but he declined to accept a detail. We never got but two clues of his past. he left lying near me a small copy of "Paradise Lost. a half-dozen intensely emotional careers for him. upon which he lay. and they were faint ones. He was found in the morning stone dead. a Somebody who would be a fitting hero for Miss Braddon's or Wilkie Collins's literary purposes. We were always expecting a denouement that would come like a lightning flash and reveal his whole mysterious past. one bitter cold night ended it all. and found that the tenor of the verses was very uncomplimentary to that charming sex which does us the honor of being our mothers and sweethearts. while on guard with him. Our mystery had to remain unsolved. with his iron-gray hair frozen fast to the ground. These were never to come. He became an exciting mystery to a knot of us imaginative young cubs. Bradford pined away an Belle Isle.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. We spent much time in mentally trying these on. Turning over its leaves I found all of Milton's bitter invectives against women heavily underscored. There was nothing about his person to give any hint as to his past. who sorted up out of the reminiscential rag-bag of high colors and strong contrasts with which the sensational literature that we most affected had plentifully stored our minds." that he always carried with him.htm secured him an easy berth and better society at headquarters.

A Sergeant of the Seventh Indiana Infantry stated his theory to me this way: "You know I'm just old lightnin' on chuck-a-luck. This explanation satisfied us. whence we expected to march to the exchange post. we momentarily expecting an order to get out. which was the utmost limit of the car.. an' every time it don't come up makes it more likely to come up the next time. We reached Petersburg before noon. an' it don't come up. and this would bring about a transfer of prisoners. until at last it comes up an' then I win a bushel o' money. C. and the Rebel would hurry off to put his prisoners somewhere else. and each government would make an effort to get all its men into the field. and changed cars. HOPING FOR EXCHANGE—AN EXPOSITION OF THE DOCTRINE OF CHANCES —OFF FOR ANDERSONVILLE—UNCERTAINTY AS TO OUR DESTINATION—ARRIVAL AT ANDERSONVILLE. You see the thing's got to come up some time. and be counted. as we were crowded unbearably. how many men have you got in de cah?" Then one of us would order the imaginary host in the invisible recesses to— "Stand still there. were taking us into the Department of some other commander to exchange us. and not only obtained room to lie down in the car. 1864. It's just the same way with this 'ere exchange." while he would gravely count up to one hundred or one hundred and twenty. say on the ace. Now the way I bet is this: I lay down. The Rebel would look convinced. and we rolled slow ly away after a wheezing engine to Petersburg. and mebbe bust the bank. so as to give the impression that the car was densely crowded. The thing's got to happen some day." Some months later I folded the sanguine Sergeant's stiffening hands together across his fleshless ribs. the campaign would soon open. we confidently expected that the next would bring some news of the eagerly-desired exchange. where we received a few crackers for rations. in order to get a piece of wood to cook my ration of meal with. On the evening of the 17th of February. that the Spring was near. we were ordered to get ready to move at daybreak the next morning. and we resorted to a little strategy to secure more room.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but also drew three or four times as many rations as were intended for us. but after we had proceeded this way for several hours some one conceived the idea that the Rebels. and the cars halted there along time. so that while we at no time had enough. Then the train started up and moved out of the City toward the southeast. we would yell out to him to take some of the men out. and immediately announced that it was too full to admit any more. Night found us at Gaston. We hopefully assured each other that the thing could not be delayed much longer. We managed to play this successfully during the whole journey.htm CHAPTER XIV. We were packed so tightly in these that it was impossible to even sit down. and helped carry his body out to the dead-house at Andersonville. on our way to the cars. and our spirits rose again. As each lagging day closed. N. we were farther from starvation than our less strategic companions. In the mean time everybody in the car would pack closely around the door. It was dark. About thirty of us got into a tight box car.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. an' keep on doublin' every time it loses.gutenberg. This was inexplicable. and demand: "Why. and our exaltation was such that we did little sleeping that night. I just double my bet on the ace. 81 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . to avoid treating with Butler. We were certain this could mean nothing else than exchange. When an officer came along with another squad to stow away. an' every day that it don't happen increases the chances that it will happen the next day. The morning was very cold. but we sang and joked as we marched over the creaking bridge.

almost unending. Charlotte. and we were ordered off. We had still no idea of where we were going. and that it was a fort on the sea coast. they'd have to manure this ground before they could even make brick out of it. "By George. The scene was weird and uncanny. Columbia and Augusta. A few small rude houses were scattered around near. 82 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . We only knew that our general course was southward. Five hundred weary men moved along slowly through double lines of guards. South Carolina and Georgia. We were in the midst of a forest of tall trees that loaded the air with the heavy balsamic odor peculiar to pine trees. Stretching out into the darkness was a double row of great heaps of burning pitch pine. that smoked and flamed fiercely. and were in Georgia. For four or five days more the decrepit little locomotive strained along. Ga. The pyres. It seemed to me that I had read something of Macon in Revolutionary history. and that we had passed through the Carolinas. that. The fires blazed up and showed us a section of these. thick flaming shot a dismal glare. said rather strongly. About midnight the train stopped." and the long lines of huge fires reminded me of that scene in the first book.gutenberg. North Carolina.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. A quarter of a mile from the railroad we came to a massive palisade of great squared logs standing upright in the ground. Late on the afternoon of the 25th of February the Seventh Indiana Sergeant approached me with the inquiry: "Do you know where Macon is?" The place had not then become as well known as it was afterward. and turned upon a road that led almost due south. He said that the guard had told him that we were to be taken to a point near that place. the capitol of North Carolina. and were camped in a piece of timber. stood up. interspersed with swamps. to find the soil a sterile sand bank. used to the fertility of the great American Bottom. About the middle of the night a man belonging to a New Jersey regiment. It was a flat. and two massive wooden gates. and shortly after dark orders were issued to us all to lie flat on the ground and not rise up till daylight. Between these two rows lay a road. which we were ordered to take." It was a surprise to all of us who had heard so much of the wealth of Virginia. Five hundred men marched silently towards the gates that were to shut out life and hope from most of them forever. and lit up a little space around in the somber forest with a ruddy glare. and we agreed that it was probably a new place of exchange. They swung open as we stood there and we passed through into the space beyond. where the Greeks burn on the sea shore the bodies of those smitten by Apollo's pestilential-arrows For nine long nights. and was immediately shot dead by the guard. who had apparently forgotten the order. CHAPTER XV. We were in Andersonville. stretch of pine barrens and the land so poor that a disgusted Illinoisan. I had recently read the "Iliad. A little later we passed through the town of Macon. dragging after it the rattling' old cars. We furbished up our school knowledge of geography and endeavored to recall something of the location of Raleigh. but the attempt was not a success.htm The second afternoon we arrived at Raleigh. with heavy iron hinges and bolts.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. through all the dusky air. through which we passed. The scenery was intensely monotonous.

and teeming With venomous snakes.gutenberg. solemn pines. and wholly destitute of limbs. extending to the Atlantic Ocean and the Florida line. and all manner of hideous crawling thing. except the little. Millen and Blackshear.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. which has an extent about equal to that of Indiana. That part lying to the north and west of this line is usually spoken of as "Upper Georgia. It is a vast expanse of arid. Lower Georgia. or a productive soil in the last steps of deterioration into a desert. to Columbus. by a geological line extending directly across the State from Augusta. or rather lack of these—a mention of some of its peculiar characteristics may help the reader to a fuller comprehension of the conditions surrounding us—our environment. impressing one as a desert in the first stages of reclamation into productive soil. productive. as Darwin would say. but in all probability will ever remain so. sterile land." In this part of the State—though far removed from each other—were the prisons of Andersonville. As the next nine months of the existence of those of us who survived were spent in intimate connection with the soil of Georgia. but it does not cover it as we say of forests in more favored lands. upright and symmetrical as huge masts.htm GEORGIA—A LEAN AND HUNGRY LAND—DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UPPER AND LOWER GEORGIA—THE PILLAGE OF ANDERSONVILLE. The tall. on the Chattahoochie. as it exercised a potential influence upon our comfort and well-being. is the largest State in the South. There is no fraternal 83 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . is divided into two distinct and widely differing sections. Georgia. stand far apart from each other in an unfriendly isolation. in which we were incarcerated one after the other. which. that will in time become quite wealthy. and. umbrella-like crest at the very top. on the Savannah River. is not only poorer now than a worn-out province of Asia Minor. more area than the great State of New York. with a jungle-life growth of unwholesome vegetation. yellow sand. and has nearly twenty-five per cent. The original forest still stands almost unbroken on this wide stretch of thirty thousand square miles. next to Texas. on the Ocmulgee. Savannah. through Macon. It is a starved. metalliferous region. is called "Lower Georgia. broken at intervals by foul swamps. Upper Georgia—the capital of which is Atlanta—is a fruitful.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www." while that lying to the south and east.

as "Station No. thrive upon its bountifulness. and mankind is pouring into the virgin fields of America. grasping men do a servant or a beast. subdued and somber. To us it seemed beyond the last forlorn limits of civilization. one hundred and six miles from Macon. we were in the midst of the Rebel military and. tax it to the last limit of production of the necessities of life. and demi-trees. berries and nuts. the elements that have been wrung from the land. We felt that we were more completely at the mercy of our foes than ever. like the hair on a mangy cur. but a sparse. or "death moss. they reduce it to cultivation. Lower Georgia is very thinly settled. and their limbs are hung with heavy festoons of the gloomy Spanish moss. but numbered. to bring to the seaboard the rich products of the interior. wiry. and give nothing back.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. four hundred miles away. with almost as little interference with the view as on a prairie. Exhausting all these. at Chattanooga. famines are becoming terribly frequent. shrubs. springing sod of emerald green. starve and overwork it as cruel. as they then lay. The three or four railroads which pass through it have little reference to local traffic. take from it continually. the head of navigation on the Flint River. our armies. In the swampier parts the trees are lower. consequently. famished grass. 10". Between them is no genial undergrowth of vines. such as make one of the charms of Northern forests. umbrageous shadow. German and English portions of Europe. to shelter goods and travelers. While in Richmond we were in the heart of the Confederacy. some numerous and civilized race had drained from the soil the last atom of food-producing constituents. did not overawe us depressingly. The nearest was Sherman. The turn of the latter is now come. It would seem as if. and on the other side of a range of mountains hundreds of miles wide. and when at last it breaks down under the strain. because where it grows rankest the malaria is the deadliest. the Carolinas and Eastern Virginia have all the characteristics of these starved and worn-out lands. Everywhere Nature seems sad. I have long entertained a peculiar theory to account for the decadence and ruin of countries. probably because it contained some half dozen of shabby houses. and there was no telling what day this superiority of strength." as it is more frequently called. they were deserted for the French. civil force. our own men were also near. The roads were built as through lines. generous in fruits. then the Iberian Peninsula. might be 84 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . then the Grecian Peninsula. 4"—"No. and were surrounded on every hand by visible evidences of the great magnitude of that power. that runs from Macon to Albany. So wide and clean is the space between them. Much of the land is still in the hands of the Government. and in still greater force—that while they were very strong our army was still stronger. It is on a rudely constructed. fragrant with the elusive sweetness of white clover. stations are made every ten miles. and that it is now slowly gathering back.htm interlacing of branches to form a kindly. Impoverishing these. and the African shores of the Mediterranean. which is. and not named. but this.gutenberg. The giant pines seem to have sucked up into their immense boles all the nutriment in the earth. scattered thinly over the surface in tufts and patches. There are no towns along them as a rule. and dainty flowers. as the centuries pass. My reading of the world's history seems to teach me that when a strong people take possession of a fertile land. Andersonville is one of the few stations dignified with a same. Andersonville is about sixty miles from Macon. while it enforced our ready submission. about three hundred miles from the Gulf. On the ground is no rich. it revenges itself by starving many of them with great famines. and two hundred and fifty from the Gulf of Mexico. from the cradle of the race on the banks of the Oxus to the fertile plains in the Valley of the Euphrates. while the others go off in search of new countries to put through the same process of exhaustion. as the Southern Confederacy could give. The camp was merely a hole cut in the wilderness. etc. that one can look through the forest in any direction for miles. and starved out every minor growth. rickety railroad. We have seen one country after another undergo this process as the seat of empire took its westward way.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. next Syracuse and the Italian Peninsula. away back in the distance of ages. multiply into millions the mouths to be fed from it. men next sought the Valley of the Nile. whereas at the others there was usually nothing more than a mere open shed. Lower Georgia. We knew that though the Rebels were all about us in great force. and. It was as remote a point from.

the wall was. There were two entrances to the stockade. from two to three feet in diameter.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www." These were constructed double. and to each of these was a quantity of sheets of tin.gutenberg. evidently used to put between the layers of tobacco. But here we felt as did the Ancient Mariner: Alone on a wide. This was done to prevent the gates being carried by a rush by those confined inside. with another set of gates. and we had already a cheerful fire blazing for every little squad. From this swamp the sand-hills sloped north and south to the stockade. hewn square. In a few minutes we were all hard at work preparing our first meal in Andersonville. which were real handy 85 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . We roused up promptly with the dawn to take a survey of our new abiding place. midway between it and the ends. The walls were formed by pine logs twenty-five feet long. or say one hundred and sixty acres altogether. So lonely 'twas that God himself Scarce seemed there to be. and called respectively the "North Gate" and the "South Gate. The debris of the forest left a temporary abundance of fuel. This manner of enclosure was in some respects superior to a wall of masonry. The only view we had of the outside was that obtained by looking from the highest points of the North or South Sides across the depression where the stockade crossed the swamp.htm demonstrated in such a way as to decisively benefit us. as a young surveyor—a member of the Thirty-fourth Ohio—informed us after he had paced it off. All the rank vegetation of the swamp had also been cut off. and so yielding that one attempting to walk upon it would sink to the waist. There were a number of tobacco presses in the rooms we occupied in Richmond. and much more difficult to undermine or batter down. twenty feet high. WAKING UP IN ANDERSONVILLE—SOME DESCRIPTION OF THE PLACE—OUR FIRST MAIL—BUILDING SHELTER—GEN. save two. of course. wide sea. There being five feet of the logs in the ground. CHAPTER XVI. It was equally unscalable. set into the ground to a depth of five feet. which were carefully secured. He estimated that it contained about sixteen acres. The pen was longest due north and south. and placed so close together as to leave no crack through which the country outside could be seen. Before our inspection was finished. before the inner gates were opened. they were first brought inside the outer gates. The deft hands of the mechanics among us bent these up into square pans. a sweet potato and a few ounces of salt beef were issued to each one of us. It was divided in the center by a creek about a yard wide and ten inches deep. one on each side of the creek. and this meager landscape had to content us for the next half year. WINDER—HIMSELF AND LINEAGE. On each side of this was a quaking bog of slimy ooze one hundred and fifty feet wide. and a quart of meal. All the trees inside the stockade. running from west to east. At regular intervals along the palisades were little perches. who overlooked the whole inside of the prison. We found ourselves in an immense pen. When prisoners or wagons with rations were brought in. by building smaller stockades around them on the outside. upon which stood guards. a wagon drove in with rations. had been cut down and used in its construction.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. In this way we could see about forty acres at a time of the adjoining woodland. about one thousand feet long by eight hundred wide.

Taking one of the pieces of tin which had not yet been made into a pan. or else boiled as mush in the same vessels. we spread upon it a layer of dough about a half-inch thick.htm cooking utensils. just to see what it was like.gutenberg. the meal mixed in them to a dough. the potatoes were boiled. Propping this up nearly upright before the fire.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Save that it was destitute of salt. during my whole prison life. excited my wonder. holding about—a quart.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and their final service was to hold a little meal to be carefully browned. Starving men were driven to all sorts of shifts for want of 86 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Never. both for myself and companions. I found my education at Jonesville in the art of baking a hoe-cake now came in good play. and then water boiled upon it. so as to form a feeble imitation of coffee. The supreme indifference with which the Rebels always treated the matter of cooking utensils for us. This process made it sweat itself loose from the tin. when it was turned over and the bottom browned also. It never seemed to occur to them that we could have any more need of vessels for our food than cattle or swine. it was soon nicely browned over. did I see so much as a tin cup or a bucket issued to a prisoner. it was quite a toothsome bit of nutriment for a hungry man. Water was carried in them from the creek. and I recommend my readers to try making a "pone" of this kind once.

Pantaloons or coats were pulled off and their sleeves or legs used to draw a mess's meal in. it seemed as if there would be plenty of opportunities to get beyond the stockade. Though we had been sadly disappointed in not being exchanged. we had left the snow and ice behind at Richmond—or rather at some place between Raleigh. and began devising means for shelter. The only tools were a few pocket-knives. Boots were common vessels for carrying water. had kept his eyes in the position of gazing at the buttons of the third man to the right. The cervical muscles were distorted in such a way as to suggest to us the name of "Wry-necked Smith. if you Yanks don't just beat the devil. The wither and poles that grew in the swamp were bent into the shape of the semi-circular bows that support the canvas covers of army wagons. despite all these drawbacks. A Rebel Sergeant came in presently and arranged us in hundreds. until they had become permanently fixed in their obliquity and he was compelled to go through life taking a biased view of all things. Nothing showed the inborn capacity of the Northern soldier to take care of himself better than the way in which we accomplished this with the rude materials at our command. it seemed that on the whole our condition had been bettered. but bracing. and when the feet of these gave way the legs were ingeniously closed up with pine pegs. There rode in among us. in that instructive but awfully dull book. the Rebel Sergeant who called the roll entered. we replied with the well-worn prison joke." We settled down to make the best of things. which. who were worse than the devil. of the Third Michigan." Of course. a network of briers and vines. After our meal was disposed of. it was certainly better to have sixteen acres to roam over than the stiffing confines of a building. Yet.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.—nearly enough. Smith walked in. an old man whose collar bore the wreathed stars of a Major General. we had quite a village of huts erected in a few days." Smith. being a good soldier. These formed the timbers of our dwellings. Tufts of the long leaves which are the distinguishing characteristic of the Georgia pine (popularly known as the "long-leaved pine") were wrought into this network until a thatch was formed. We subdivided these into messes of twenty-five. so as to form rude leathern buckets. still better. though chill. Men whose pocket knives had escaped the search at the gates made very ingenious little tubs and buckets. which "kep' out the coarsest uv the cold. They were held in place by weaving in. nearly to his 87 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and. N. who treated us in regard to these the same as in respect to culinary vessels. that was a fair protection against the rain—it was like the Irishman's unglazed window-sash. to afford tolerable shelter for the whole five hundred of us first-comers. if he had ever seen "Mitchell's Geography. C. As our village was approaching completion. S. as we beat the Rebels. who was the wag of our squad. basket-wise. and perhaps half-a-dozen hatchets which some infantrymen-principally members of the Third Michigan—were allowed to retain. who would have lain unsheltered upon the sand until bleached out like field-rotted flax." The results accomplished were as astonishing to us as to the Rebels. in fact. made a diagonal survey of the encampment. and these devices enabled us to get along after a fashion. waiting for the order to restore them to their natural direction. and Columbia. was not nipping. accounted for Smith's condition by saying that while on dress parade once the Colonel of Smith's regiment had commanded "eyes right." by which we always designated him. Heavy white locks fell from beneath his slouched hat. and then expressed the opinion that usually welled up to every Rebel's lips: "Well. a few days after our arrival." and then forgot to give the order "front.. spade nor mattock was allowed us by the Rebels. and attempt a journey through the woods to that blissful land —"Our lines. C." probably reminded him of the picture of a Kaffir village. This first ration was a decided improvement on those of the Pemberton building. I'll be durned. that we supposed we did.gutenberg. and both ends thrust in the ground. He was very odd-looking.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.—and the air here. before thinking to protect themselves in this way. No ax. It looked as if we would have a plenty of wood for shelter and fuel. Pete Bates. we held a council on the situation.htm these.

rancorous shaveling. It was he who in August could point to the three thousand and eighty-one new made graves for that month." 88 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . not an inquisitor filled with holy zeal for what he mistakenly thought the cause of Christ demanded. Baltimorean renegade and the malign genius to whose account should be charged the deaths of more gallant men than all the inquisitors of the world ever slew by the less dreadful rack and wheel. but a spleeny.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg.htm shoulders. Commissary General of Prisoners. marked a hard. with corners drawn down deeply—the mouth which seems the world over to be the index of selfish. cruel.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. who tortured men from hatred of their superiority to him. sulky malignance. too dull and cold to light up. It is such a mouth as has the school-boy—the coward of the play ground. compressed mouth. The rider was John H. Sunken gray eyes. the salient feature of which was a thin-upped. and sheer love of inflicting pain. envious. stony face. and exultingly tell his hearer that he was "doing more for the Confederacy than twenty regiments. It is such a mouth as we can imagine some remorseless inquisitor to have had—that is. Winder. who delights in pulling off the wings of flies.

89 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . nullified the resistance of the gallant Commodore Barney. Our troubles. from that hour.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.htm His lineage was in accordance with his character. was the tormentor of those whom the fortunes of war. Winder gazed at us stonily for a few minutes without speaking. always cautiously distant from the scene of hostilities. and the arms of brave men threw into his hands. rode out again. The father was a coward and an incompetent. rapidly increased. Winder. turning. and. His father was that General William H. and gave Washington to the British.gutenberg. in 1814. whose poltroonery at Bladensburg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. the son.

We were much interested in watching the negro work. They seemed to sing the music for the music's sake alone. in admirable consonance with the pitch. The absolute independence of the conventionalities of tune and sentiment. gazing for the first time upon a locomotive or a steam threshing machine. something akin to the look on the face of the rustic lout. but none were retaken where a field hand could prevent it. he's gone up dah. We had an opportunity—soon to disappear forever—of studying the workings of the "peculiar institution" in its very home. wild. The stockade was not quite finished at the time of our arrival—a gap of several hundred feet appearing at the southwest corner. It is the testimony of every Union prisoner in the South that he was never betrayed by or disappointed in a field-negro. and were as heedless of the fitness of the accompanying words.htm CHAPTER XVII. was the musical leader of the party.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. He would suddenly break out with— "Oh. as sentinel to signal danger. or a purveyor of food. apparently quite as well as his master. ox-like. he knew. but they were none the less readily undertaken. And these offers were sincere. These services were frequently attended with the greatest personal risk. I done hope he is happy now!" And the antiphonal two hundred would chant back "O-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o!" And so on for hours. but improvised all as he went along. full notes of a French horn. air and time started by the leader— "O-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o!" Then would ring out from the leader as from the throbbing lips of a silver trumpet: "Lord bress him soul. this interest took the shape of stupid. hewing legs. mellow baritone. but when near us and in the presence of a white Rebel. Their demeanor toward us illustrated this. with a powerful. open-mouthed wonder. but could always approach any one of them with perfect confidence in his extending all the aid in his power. played by a virtuoso. We were the objects of the most supreme interest to them. The negros were of the lowest field-hand class. Very many of our men who managed to get away from the prisons were recaptured through their betrayal by house servants. open-eyed. gave them freedom to wander through a kaleideoscopic variety of harmonic effects. mournful music." At this every darkey within hearing would roll out. This applies only to the field-hands. dull. A gang of about two hundred negros were at work felling trees. and of offering his services in any possible way.gutenberg. They never seemed to weary of singing. that they were in some way his friends and allies. nevah to come back agin. whether as a guide to escape. He never seemed to bother himself about air. and he sang as the spirit moved him. whenever the character of the labor permitted. ready at any instant to return to their original horn-and-tail condition and snatch him away to the bluest kind of perdition. and placing them upright in the trenches. like the round. THE PLANTATION NEGROS—NOT STUPID TO BE LOYAL—THEIR DITHYRAMBIC MUSIC —COPPERHEAD OPINION OF LONGFELLOW. vacant face lighted up with an entirely different expression.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but each having in our eyes an admixture of cunning and secretiveness that their masters pretended was not in them. They wove in a great deal of their peculiar. as spontaneous and 90 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . He was no longer the credulous yokel who believed the Yankees were only slightly modified devils. the house servants were treacherous and wholly unreliable. the blank. as the composer of a modern opera is of his libretto. But if chance threw one of them near us when he thought himself unobserved by the Rebels. and he lost no opportunity in communicating his appreciation of that fact. One middle aged man. strong. notes or words. and we certainly did not of listening to them.

with one of my chums—a Frank Berkstresser. the Lord arisen. long after the shadows of night had fallen upon the hillside. And an earthquake's arm of might 91 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . who before enlisting was a mathematical tutor in college at Hancock. in their prison. Paul and Silas.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. I thought of and repeated to him Longfellow's fine lines: THE SLAVE SINGING AT MIDNIGHT.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. As we listened to the unwearying flow of melody from the camp of the laborers. of the Ninth Maryland Infantry. And the voice of his devotion Filled my soul with strong emotion. I sat one evening.htm changeful as the song of a bird. Sang of Christ. wildly sad. For its tones by turns were glad Sweetly solemn.gutenberg. Maryland.

Another party believed the most feasible plan was to go northward. 92 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and also that gained by persistent questioning of such guards and other Rebels as he had come in contact with. We held conferences. and Savannah laid down upon it." Having our huts finished." CHAPTER XVIII. and thence get into East Tennessee. As we knew we had come southward from Macon. at which every man was required to contribute all the geographical knowledge of that section of Georgia that he might have left over from his schoolboy days. and we reasoned that if we followed its course we would be led to the Flint. but the sentiment's damnable. and this was the burden of our thoughts. to which we were afterward transferred.htm Broke their dungeon gates at night. SCHEMES AND PLANS TO ESCAPE—SCALING THE STOCKADE—ESTABLISHING THE DEAD LINE—THE FIRST MAN KILLED. The Rebels styled it officially "Camp Lawton. day and night. as the French say of all first steps. The official designation of our prison was "Camp Sumpter. of fearfully pro-slavery ideas. what holy angel Brings the slave this glad evangel And what earthquake's arm of might. this. where. we felt pretty certain we were in the southwestern corner of the State. that had Macon." but this was scarcely known outside of the Rebel documents. Our map showed that these two united and flowed together into Appalachicola Bay. alas. and he replied. Breaks his prison gags at night. and endeavor to gain the mountains. was what would cost. It was the same way with the prison five miles from Millen. This was the favorite scheme of the party with which I sided. isn't that fine. down which we could float on a log or raft to the Appalachicola. But the main thing was to get away from the stockade." but we called it always "Millen.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Said I: "Now. But. and that the Flint lay a little nearer on the east.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. a newspaper item had said that we had gunboats stationed. When first landed in the prison we were as ignorant of our whereabouts as if we had been dropped into the center of Africa. reports and orders. But one of the prisoners was found to have a fragment of a school atlas. Atlanta. some of us remembered. Conversations with guards and others gave us the information that the Chattahooche flowed some two score of miles to the westward. the poetry's tolerable. Berkstresser?" He was a Democrat. Milledgeville. the next solicitude was about escape. in which was an outline map of Georgia. The creek that ran through the stockade flowed to the east. sententiously: "O.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. We made a rope twenty-five or thirty feet long. A stout stick was fastened to the end. fell in single rank. the stick caught fairly in the notch.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. we gathered together. according to this arrangement. out of strings and strips of cloth.gutenberg. and marched to the place. The line was thrown skillfully. About fifty of us resolved to make the attempt. drew cuts to determine each boy's place in the line. and the boy who had drawn number one climbed up amid a suspense so 93 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . so that it would catch on the logs on either side of the gap. and strong enough to bear a man. On a night dark enough to favor our scheme. and it seemed as if they could be successfully scaled.htm Our first attempt was made about a week after our arrival. We found two logs on the east side that were a couple of feet shorter than the rest.

and as each man dropped down from the Stockade he was caught by the shoulder. He stooped down and reached under for it. but no attention was paid to our protest. in the foul slang that none but such as he were low enough to use. rotund." A few days later a gang of negros came in and drove a line of stakes down at a distance of twenty feet from the stockade. there. at the close of the war. and an order to surrender whispered into his ear. getting away just in time to escape a volley which a squad of guards. had sought to obtain favor in the Rebel eyes by betraying us. poured upon the spot where we had been standing. I have always imagined that the fellow returned home. Vitus's dance. and he performed the feat as successfully as his predecessor. or even touched. the muzzle of a revolver thrust into his face. 94 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and our alacrity in leaving the unhealthy locality. The charge of ball-and-buck entered the poor old fellow's shoulder and tore through his body. wearing the white crescent of the Second Division of the Eleventh Corps. They were defeated in this benevolent intention by the readiness with which we divined the meaning of that incautiously loud halt. Thus it went on. They nailed upon this a strip of stuff four inches wide. and well-clothed. The game was up. where he fed and fattened like a rat that had secured undisturbed homestead rights in the center of a cheese. and that the noise he made must certainly attract the attention of the guard. When the miserable remnant of us were leaving Andersonville months afterward. The victim was a German. It seemed ages before he reached the top. "Number. I saw him. we also heard a Rebel voice say in a vicious undertone: "Halt! halt. and the remaining thirty-five of us left that locality with all the speed in our heels. He regarded us a moment contemptuously. We saw our comrade's. Their story was that one of the N'Yaarkers. until. Our surveyor figured up this new contraction of our space. It was expected that the guards in the sentry-boxes would do such execution among those of us still inside as would prove a warning to other would-be escapes. the guards would fire upon the offender without warning. still clutching the dirty rag that had cost him his Life." was whispered by our leader. At that instant the guard fired. as we still had plenty of room. and became a prominent member of Tweed's gang. As he went hobbling around with a vacuous grin upon his face. however. and then heard the dull thump as he sprang to the ground on the other side. "Number two. Another result of this abortive effort was the establishment of the notorious "Dead Line. and brought on a severe attack of St. figure outlined against the sky as he slid. each chained to a sixty-four pound ball.htm keen that I could hear my heart beating. The Rebels stationed a squad at the crossing place. he spied an old piece of cloth lying on the ground inside the Dead Line. over the top.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The first man was killed the morning after the Dead-Line was put up. and then went on conversing with a fellow N'Yaarker. posted in the lookouts. It did not. sleek. He fell dead." and he followed noiselessly and quickly.gutenberg. The next morning the fifteen who had got over the Stockade were brought in." Hardship and exposure had crazed him.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. just as we heard number fifteen drop. and we were left now only thirteen acres. and then an order was issued that if this was crossed. we were discovered. three. whom we had nicknamed "Sigel. who had become cognizant of our scheme. The traitorous N'Yaarker was rewarded with a detail into the commissary department. and came to the conclusion that the Dead Line and the Swamp took up about three acres. This was not of much consequence then. lounging leisurely in the door of a tent. We protested against the barbarity of compelling men to wear irons for exercising their natural right of attempting to escape. d—n you!" This was enough.

Yet a few weeks later we were to see seven times that many packed into that space. like that which small boys used to wear. He said to Wry-Necked Smith: "Py Gott. but harmless English revolvers. He was an undersized. stepped nervously about and sputtered volubly in very broken English. WHO GAINED GREAT NOTORIETY—FIRST EXPERIENCE WITH HIS DISCIPLINARY METHOD. and fastened to his wrist by a strap two or three feet long. fidgety man. There was a fair amount of space for this number. They came in by train loads of from five hundred to eight hundred. and as yet we suffered no inconvenience from our crowding.htm CHAPTER XIX. and fire a musket-bullet from the center. precisely as was the custom with the garments of boys struggling with the orthography of words in two syllables. with the other part of his body covered with a calico garment.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. By the end of the month there were about five thousand in the stockade. The wearer of this composite costume. and peatin' you efery dimes. though most persons would fancy that thirteen acres of ground was a rather limited area for five thousand men to live." 95 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . at intervals of two or three days.gutenberg. and a mouth that protruded like a rabbit's. was one of those formidable looking. One morning a new Rebel officer came in to superintend calling the roll. His bright little eyes. assisted in giving his countenance a look of kinship to the family of rodent animals—a genus which lives by stealth and cunning." This was fastened to the pantaloons by buttons.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. called "waists. like those of a squirrel or a rat. move and have their being a upon. with an insignificant face. subsisting on that which it can steal away from stronger and braver creatures. He was dressed in a pair of gray trousers. The emptying of the prisons at Danville and Richmond into Andersonville went on slowly during the month of March. HENRI WIRZ—SOME DESCRIPTION OF A SMALL-MINDED PERSONAGE. Sticking in his belt. that have ten barrels around the edge of the cylinder. you don't vatch dem dam Yankees glose enough! Dey are schlippin' rount. CAPT. and bearer of this amateur arsenal. Upon his head was perched a little gray cap.

gutenberg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.htm 96 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.

generally. Wirz was not long in giving us a taste of his quality. however. even with the best of intentions. He re-arranged the men in "squads" of ninety. a chum of mine. 8d Mich. Soule. It took Wirz between two and three hours to count the whole camp. and ordered all the squads and detachments to form. and in the same squad with me." The detachments were numbered in order from the North Gate. Co. It was awkward in every way—in drawing rations. he had not a quality that commanded respect from any one who knew him. Plots were considered for a daring assault to force the gates or scale the stockade. to use the words of a Thirty-Fifth Pennsylvanian standing next to me—his "big intestines were eating his little ones up. was Charles L. but because Wirz had had some training as an accountant. I never heard anything of his profession or vocation before entering the army.. if you please. united to a mind incapable of conceiving the results of his acts. and remain standing in ranks until all were counted. counting. Being a fool he could not help being an infliction to them. who never had brains or self-command sufficient to control himself. They are good shots. I mention the probability of his having been a dry-goods clerk or book-keeper. that he had been a cheap clerk in a small dry-goods store. E. His first move was a stupid change. Any soldier will say that there is no duty more annoying and difficult than standing still in ranks for any considerable length of time. and three of these—two hundred and seventy men —into a "detachment. There has been a great deal of misapprehension of the character of Wirz. of the Third Michigan Infantry. ready speakers and ardent politicians. a third or fourth rate book-keeper. or understanding the pain he was Inflicting. and Wirz was not troubled with good intentions. I always believed. He is usually regarded as a villain of large mental caliber. Gnat-brained." it was impossible to keep the rank formation during the long hours. fine horsemen. His name appeared on the rolls: "Chas. and feeble natured.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The next morning after his first appearance he came in when roll-call was sounded. One man after another straggled away. and so on." That is. but. not with any disrespect to two honorable vocations. priv. they flounder hopelessly in what people of this section would consider simple mathematical processes. three. are astonishingly ignorant of arithmetic and accounting. from whatever point of view he was studied. We had been grouped in the natural way into hundreds and thousands. One of our constant amusements was in befogging and "beating" those charged with calling rolls and issuing rations. and the squads were numbered "one. Where Wirz got his. Wirz could count beyond one hundred. Imagine. His cruelty did not seem designed so much as the ebullitions of a peevish. Soule. etc. and this was what gave him the place over us. It was not at all difficult at times to make a hundred men count as a hundred and ten. with a warning that a failure to obey would be punished as that of the previous day had been.gutenberg. snarling little temper. one such. Inf. like all noncommercial people." On the rolls this was stated after the man's name. He was simply contemptible. and by that time we of the first detachments were almost all out of ranks. and again we lost our rations. For instance. Though we were so hungry. cowardly.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Rebels. as a rule. especially when there is nothing to do or to engage the attention. Thereupon Wirz announced that no rations would be issued to the camp that day. and with a genius for cruelty. 1-2. the new commandant of the interior of the prison. L. or something similar. placed in command of thirty-five thousand men. The men were crazy enough to attempt 97 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . that. That afternoon we became desperate. preposterous idea of organization from has always been a mystery to me. he belonged to the Second Squad of the First Detachment. dividing into messes. The orders to stand in ranks were repeated the next morning. He was nothing of the kind. and this determined his selection for the place. two.htm This was Captain Henri Wirz.

short-legged hoodlum.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. at the heads of which were the aforesaid Infant and Chicken. and we were given our rations for that day. but those of the other days were permanently withheld. These were a couple of bounty-jumpers who had some little reputation in New York sporting circles. remorselessly. A great deal of strong talk. He did not come in again for a long while. Their claims were strenuously supported by their respective messes. had been stolen by the crowd from the Rebels. The hopelessness of any such venture was apparent. on the ground of being most active in securing it. When we arrived a twenty-four foot ring had been prepared by drawing a deep mark in the sand. It was a small affair. and "belted" back. Did he see a foot obtruding itself so much as an inch over the mark in the sand—and the pressure from the crowd behind was so great that it was difficult for the front fellows to keep off the line—his heavy club and a blasting curse would fall upon the offender simultaneously. and never afterward without a retinue of guards. We did not manifest any keen desire for intimate social relations with them." armed with a club. as if to fire upon his assailants. which was to come off between two professional pugilists. holding a half gallon. 98 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . PRIZE-FIGHT AMONG THE N'YAARKERS—A GREAT MANY FORMALITIES. or spider.htm anything rather than sit down and patiently starve. That afternoon Wirz ventured into camp alone. He pulled out his revolver. a foul-mouthed. and several indecisive knock-downs resulted in an agreement to settle the matter by wager of battle between the Infant and Chicken. The number of these had swelled to four hundred or five hundred—all leagued together in the fellowship of crime. and bundles of rags to answer for sponges. Without waiting to fire a shot. One afternoon a number of us went across to their camp. In Andersonville its worth was literally above rubies. at a considerable distance from us. He was assailed with a storm of curses and execrations. under the names of the "Staleybridge Chicken" and the "Haarlem Infant. nick-named "Heenan. he turned and ran to the gate for dear life. and worth to-day about fifty cents. CHAPTER XX. acted as ring keeper. AND LITTLE BLOOD SPILT—A FUTILE ATTEMPT TO RECOVER A WATCH—DEFEAT OF THE LAW AND ORDER PARTY.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. named Pete Bradley. One of the train-loads from Richmond was almost wholly made up of our old acquaintances—the N'Yaarkers. Two men belonging to different messes each claimed the ownership of the utensil. and they did not seem to hunger for our society. Another corner was occupied by the umpire. to witness a fight according to the rules of the Prize Ring." On the way from Richmond a cast-iron skillet.gutenberg. A long-bodied. This time we succeeded in remaining in ranks in such a manner as to satisfy Wirz. so they moved across the creek to the unoccupied South Side. and the propositions went no farther than inflammatory talk. loud-tongued Tombs shyster. Many offered themselves as leaders in any attempt that it might be thought best to make. In diagonally opposite corners of these the seconds were kneeling on one knee and supporting their principals on the other by their sides they had little vessels of water. even to famished men. A yell was raised to take his pistol away from him and a crowd rushed forward to do this. and a shower of clubs. any of the spectators who crowded over the line. and established their camp there. The third morning the orders were again repeated.

washed his face off. All these. advance briskly to the scratch across the center of the ring. but they would give a signal which would bring to their assistance the whole body of N'Yaarkers. who have no time to waste. until one got in a blow that sent the other to the ground. as the successive "hot ones" which the Chicken had succeeded in planting upon his mouth. and the stolen things were conveyed to their camp. He then rested until the next call of time." "e'en though he might still be a villain.gutenberg. it was believed. were the work of the N'Yaarkers. as a couple of earnest." He began coming up to the scratch as sluggishly as a hired man starting out for his day's work. His interest in the skillet was evidently abating. with good reason. 99 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . where he would lie until his second picked him up. In the whole hour and a-half there was not so much savage fighting.htm Every effort was made to have all things conform as nearly as possible to the recognized practices of the "London Prize Ring. Articles of clothing and cooking utensils would go the same way. amid enthusiastic cheers from the crowd. The moment they arrived in camp we began to be annoyed by their depredations. This sort of performance went on for an hour or more. and turn the tables on their assailants. and spar away sharply for a little time.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. with the knockdowns and other casualities pretty evenly divided between the two." At Bradley's call of "Time!" the principals would rise from their seconds' knees. Occasionally depredators would be caught and beaten.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but unscientific men. and finally he did not come up at all. and Bradley declared the Chicken to be the victor. Blankets—the sole protection of men—would be snatched off as they slept at night. and gave him a drink. Then it became apparent that the Infant was getting more than he had storage room for. and occasionally a man would be robbed in open daylight. will frequently crowd into an impromptu affair not exceeding five minutes in duration. not so much damage done. A bunch of blood soaked rags was tossed into the air from his corner. Our next visit to the N'Yaarkers was on a different errand. We voted the thing rather tame. the leering grin he wore upon his face during the early part of the engagement had disappeared long ago. carried him back. put it out of his power to "smile and smile.

It was lots of fun for them. Other boys let him take their watches to tinker up. Two minutes after the engagement became general there was no doubt that we would have been much better off if we had staid on our own side of the creek. They wanted to stay with us awhile. The N'Yaarkers understood that trouble was pending. One day Martin was at the creek. The watch was a very poor one. We earnestly wished that some of the boys would come over and help us let go of the N'Yaarkers. so as to make a show of running. which speaks of a man "biting off more than he can chew. of the Third Michigan. however. we started on our errand. Only one could go over at a time. when a N'Yaarker asked him to let him look at a watch. and he very slowly. Said he: "We havn't got your watch. and more arrogant in their demeanor than ever. and many received blows that greatly hastened their deaths. sailed in. and return home hastily. had considerable confidence in his muscular ability.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. After this the N'Yaarkers became bolder in their robberies. and be available for trading to the guards. We thought we would just say good day to our N'Yaark friends. four thousand yelling spectators on the opposite hill. He flamed up into mighty wrath. and each. and we were too proud to ask it. pell-mell. Martin incautiously did so. and swore a sulphurous oath that we would get that watch back. the Sergeant of our squad. and we had the poor revenge upon those who would not assist us. but it was too late then to alter the program. Each of us providing ourselves with a club." That is what we had done. but it was only partially successful. Peter Bates. and began striking with their clubs. The crossing of the swamp was quite difficult. with the N'Yaarkers pursuing hotly with yell and blow. The rest of the camp—about four thousand—gathered on the hillside to watch us. The rest of us took this as our cue. and be ye can't have it. of seeing a reign of terror inaugurated over the whole camp. of the Eighth New York Infantry. There was hardly enough of the amusement to go clear around. We were driven down the hill. 100 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and it all fell short just before it reached us. Very few got back without some severe hurts.we're going to have it. but they did not. Bates replied: "We have come over to get a watch that one of your fellows took from one of ours. when the N'Yaarker snatched it and sped away to the camp of his crowd. At the swamp we tried to make a stand to secure our passage across. but they were enjoying the thing too much to interfere. As we came up a stalwart Irishman stepped out and asked us what we wanted. anyhow. This was the last feather which was to break the camel's back of our patience. There is a very expressive bit of slang coming into general use in the West. and by —. who were greatly enjoying our discomfiture. We thought they might have sent us some assistance. But they declined to be left so precipitately.gutenberg. as it was about as much their fight as ours. selecting as small a N'Yaarker as we could readily find." This joined the issue just as fairly as if it had been done by all the documentary formula that passed between Turkey and Russia prior to the late war." The Irishman's reply was equally explicit though not strictly logical in construction. Bates and the Irishman then exchanged very derogatory opinions of each other. From the way they turned out it was evident that we should have come over with three hundred instead of two hundred.htm We had in our squad a little watchmaker named Dan Martin.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and sub-let the bigger half. and they began mustering to receive us. Martin ran back to us and told his story. and for the. We had taken a contract that we should have divided. whereupon about two hundred of us avowed our willingness to help reclaim it.

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. a large portion of the day was spent in absorbing games of "bluff" and "draw. never to return." After a number of hours' diligent playing. and arctic in temperature. It was much drier in our leaf-thatched tents. and feed it to us like stock. a squad. and the first issue was only a quart to a detachment of two hundred and seventy men. An attempt was ostensibly made to issue us cow-peas instead. and joined the sweet potato in that undiscovered country from whose bourne no ration ever returned. regular pelting of the great rain drops. and we were spared much of the annoyance that comes from the steady dash of rain against the body for hours. were measurably better off than the later arrivals. after the Spring rains had fairly set in. The condition of those who had no tents was truly pitiable. About the middle of March the windows of heaven opened. a piece of meat about the size of one's two fingers. An hour's respite would be followed by a day of steady.htm CHAPTER XXI. The fuel and building material in the stockade were speedily exhausted. and we were at a loss what to do until somebody suggested that we play poker for them. We first comers. and took the washing flow with such gloomy composure as they could muster. For dreary hours that lengthened into weary days and nights. searching the very marrow of the five thousand hapless men against whose chilled frames it beat with pitiless monotony. This met general acceptance. the beans had to be counted. One can brace up against the extremes of heat and cold." at a bean "ante. Then meat followed suit with the rest. Nobody received enough to pay for cooking.gutenberg. drenching flood poured down upon the sodden earth. until eventually the meat bade us a final adieu. It seems to me now that it must have been two or three weeks that the sun was wholly hidden behind the dripping clouds. and sometimes a detachment. It was tropical in quantity and persistency. some lucky or skillful player would be in possession of all the beans in a mess. Then the sweet potato took unto itself wings and flew away. It became so exceedingly coarse that the common remark was that the next step would be to bring us the corn in the shock. a sweet potato. who had huts. not shining out once in all that time. The intervals when it did not rain were rare and short. DIMINISHING RATIONS—A DEADLY COLD RAIN—HOVERING OVER PITCH PINE FIRES —INCREASE ON MORTALITY—A THEORY OF HEALTH. and occasionally a spoonful of salt. and mitigate their inclemency in various 101 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . First the salt disappeared. as long as beans were drawn. at fifty-six inches —nearly five feet—while that of foggy England is only thirty-two. This has two-thirds of a pint to each squad of ninety. I find that the report of the Smithsonian Institute gives the average annual rainfall in the section around Andersonville. and it began a rain like that of the time of Noah. The later comers had nothing whatever to build shelter with. and these again into never-ending weeks. The rations decreased in size. it seemed that we had not tasted misery until then. They sat or lay on the hill-side the live-long day and night. and after that. Next the meal began to diminish in quantity and deteriorate in quality. and soaked the sand bank upon which we lay until it was like a sponge filled with ice-water. and made but a few spoonfuls for each of the four messes in the squad. and the number of days that we did not get any. The rations diminished perceptibly day by day.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. All soldiers will agree with me that there is no campaigning hardship comparable to a cold rain. the driving. When it came to dividing among the men. kept constantly increasing in proportion to the days that we did." and no "limit. Our experience would lead me to think that we got the five feet all at once. and have enough for a good meal. But. When we first entered we each received something over a quart of tolerably good meal.

because of this. and supplied with ages. and such trifles as we might have in our pockets. and consequently life by carrying away from the various parts of the body the particles of worn-out and poisonous tissue. enough material to make everybody comfortable tents. lifeless form. more especially. It was always the large and strong who first succumbed to hardship. to bring back a load of such knots and limbs as could be picked up. and the fuel obtained was carefully guarded and husbanded. as supple and weak as cats. of course. quick. The only relief attainable was found in huddling over little fires kept alive by small groups with their slender stocks of wood. knives. after his encounter with David. and seemed the picture of health. and fell first under the combined effects of home-sickness. "hearty" man lived through a few months of imprisonment. in a week's time. forming a coating as thick as heavy brown paper. of a cheerful temperament." He was a Sergeant in the Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry. A handful of brass buttons would catch every one of them as swiftly and as surely as a piece of red flannel will a gudgeon. and gummed up into elflocks of fantastic shape and effect. the effect upon the appearance of the hoverers was. Two hundred men allowed to go out on parole. But there is no escaping a long-continued. very great. withy boys. His early demise was an example of a general law. He was by much the largest man in prison.—slender. or ten or twelve jacket buttons. mediumstatured fellows. occupying as much ground as Goliath's. The hair also became of midnight blackness. It is this: a.htm ways. Our regular fee for an escort for three of us to the woods was six over-coat or dress-coat buttons. or rather the lack of it. like Indians. of whom two hundred and eighty-three died. exposure and the privations of army life. and leach away the very vital force. toil-inured men sank down earliest on the march. The slender. were passionately fond of bright and gaudy things. The circulation of the blood maintains health. "BIG JOE. It seems to penetrate to the heart. and was called. All in the mess contributed to this fund. strong. startling.gutenberg. the brass buttons on our uniforms. The stalwart. The survivors were invariably youths. The only way of getting it was to stand around the gate for hours until a guard off duty could be coaxed or hired to accompany a small party to the woods. and to supply all the fuel needed. and put to blush the most elaborate make-up of the grotesque burnt-cork artists. active. This manner of conducting the wood business is a fair sample of the management. There were few exceptions to this rule in the army—there were none in Andersonville. would have brought in from the adjacent woods. chilling rain. the workings of which few in the army failed to notice. and replacing them with 102 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. I can recall few or no instances where a large. pencils. huge-limbed. As this wood was all pitch-pine. of every other detail of prison administration. One morning the news ran through the prison that "Big Joe is dead. had apparently the nine lives of those animals. without changing a hair. Any one of us could have gone on the negro minstrel stage. neck and hands became covered with mixture of lampblack and turpentine. Among the first to die was the one whom we expected to live longest. Rebel soldiers. The official report says the total number in the prison in March was four thousand six hundred and three. yielded soonest to malarial influences. that burned with a very sooty flame. in whom one would have expected comparatively little powers of endurance. Our chief persuaders to the guards to do us this favor were rings. at the verge of manhood. No wood was issued to us. The mortality caused by the storm was. All the hardships we suffered from lack of fuel and shelter could have been prevented without the slightest expense or trouble to the Confederacy. and absolutely irremovable by water alone. The theory which I constructed for my own private use in accounting for this phenomenon I offer with proper diffidence to others who may be in search of a hypothesis to explain facts that they have observed." and a visit to his squad showed his stiff.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. combs. and. Face. negros and other imperfectly civilized people.

There is not even any charge for it. the Alabamians never fired until they were satisfied that a deliberate offense was intended. a Rebel officer came in with a guard. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ALABAMIANS AND GEORGIANS—DEATH OF "POLL PARROTT" —A GOOD JOKE UPON THE GUARD—A BRUTAL RASCAL. as a strong man does. I can recall of my own seeing at least a dozen instances where men of the Fifty-Fifth Georgia Killed prisoners under the pretense that they were across the Dead Line. In light. and honorable. the exertion of great strength does not favor circulation. b. and went hobbling about the camp on crutches. on the other hand. and took the occupants of the tent outside for punishment. By-and-by he gave still greater cause for offense by his obsequious attempts to curry favor with Captain Wirz. as would justify them in shooting men down.htm fresh. They were manly. from Chicago. The Alabamians were the superiors of the Georgians in every way that one set of men could be superior to another. Never were two regiments of the same army more different. saying all manner of hateful and annoying things. I will lay down this simple axiom: No strong man. we suffered from the Georgians everything that mean-spirited cruelty could devise.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The Georgians were always on the look-out for something that they could torture into such apparent violation of orders. He had lost one leg. there is nothing to prevent the reader from building up one to suit him better. c. The only man I ever knew to be killed by one of the Twenty-Sixth Alabama was named Hubbard. d.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and. when the victims were a yard or more from the Dead Line. CHAPTER XXII. broke the tunnel in. but call one into play after another. chattering continually in a loud. discordant voice. and a member of the Thirty-Eighth Illinois. some hours after one of Poll Parrot's visits outside. and kept so in such a manner as to promote the movement of the blood to every extremity. The question that demanded immediate solution then was: "Who is the traitor who has informed the Rebels?" Suspicion pointed very strongly to "Poll Parrot. structure-building material. It rather retards it. If my theory is not a sufficient explanation of this. Men of considerable muscular power are disposed to be sluggish. There is no compulsion on the reader to accept this speculation at any valuation whatever. Finally. We had nothing to complain of at the hands of the Alabamians.gutenberg. There were two regiments guarding us—the Twenty-Sixth Alabama and the Fifty-Fifth Georgia. because all the parts are put in motion." By the next morning the evidence collected 103 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . soldierly. and disturbs its equilibrium by congesting the blood in quantities in the sets of muscles called into action. Ills. to the exhibition swell in a country gymnasium. where the Georgians were treacherous and brutal. the circulation goes on perfectly and evenly. The man is healthiest in whom this process goes on most freely and continuously. and had not the remotest idea of going any nearer. wherever he saw an opportunity. active men. who took him outside several times for purposes that were not well explained. They do not strain one set of muscles by long continued effort. is a healthy man from the athlete in the circus who lifts pieces of artillery and catches cannon balls. proceeding with suspicious directness to a tent which was the mouth of a large tunnel that a hundred men or more had been quietly pushing forward." His misfortune caused him to be tolerated where another man would have been suppressed.. This and his beak-like nose gained for him the name of "Poll Parrot.

As he was carried back to die. put his back against the Dead Line. in a way that spoke vastly more for our enthusiasm for the Union than our musical knowledge. It was the only time that I saw a sentinel show anything but exultation at killing a Yankee. As no one gave the usual agonized yell of a prisoner when shot. The rest thought it was a piece of bravado.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The rains had ceased. and a crowd caught the Parrot with the intention of lynching him." and cock his rifle. I won't go out. We were coming in strong on the chorus. in attempting to speak. It carried 104 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . thar—right thar—a-standin' agin the Ded Line. and our spirits rising with this increase in the comfort of our surroundings. and hastened to slay him. who formed our guards later in the season. It was quite dark. because of his belief that the Rebels would not injure. The charge struck the Parrot's lower jaw. we supposed the ball had not taken effect. Again the gun cracked. and officers could be heard turning the men out. a number of us were sitting around "Nosey"—a boy with a superb tenor voice—who was singing patriotic songs. and bringing it in. he wagged his tongue rigorously." "The Battle Cry of Freedom. and while our noise was going on the guards changed. and again there was no sound of anybody being hit." "Why. and secured a piece of a log as large as two of them could carry. him after he had served them. I won't go." etc. they gave the rascal who had been so anxious to kill somebody a torrent of abuse for having disturbed them. A ludicrous contrast to this took place a few nights later. Suddenly. the weather had become warmer. the guard again ordered the Parrot out." "What Yank? Where's any Yank?" "Why. and said in his harsh. any how?" "I'm a shootin' at that —— —— Yank thar by the Dead Line. The Georgia Reserves. and we threw our whole lungs into the chorus.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and supposed that." Part of the crowd were taken back by this move. cackled out: "No. he was trying to kill some of us for spite.htm seemed to amount to a certainty. Again we could hear the sentry churning down another cartridge. that's a chunk of wood. altered to percussion. At the sound of the gun we jumped up and scattered. hear him "return rammer. The thing was becoming exciting. fire at me. "Nosey" sang the "Star Spangled Banner. cackling voice: "No. tearing open his blouse. They renewed their yells. It was very rare that the guards fired into the prison without hitting at least one person." There was no help for it. which the other guards took up. and as the Reserves came double-quicking up. and learned the occasion of the alarm. The drums began beating the long roll in the camps. guard. irritated at our singing. leaving his tongue and the roof of his mouth exposed. and carried it completely away. We could hear the sentinel ramming down another cartridge. You can't get any furlough for shooting that!" At this there was a general roar from the rest of the camp. Poll Parrot rose up on his one leg. faced the guard. It was an unusual good fortune that nobody was struck.. new men coming on duty. bang! went the gun of the guard in the box about fifty feet away from us. The Rebel leveled his gun and fired. At first it looked as if he had done this to secure the protection of the guard." "Brave Boys are They. and one of us sang out to the guard: "S-a-y! What the are you shooting at. you Rebel fool. There's my heart shoot me right there. stood it up near the Dead Line. but it was of no use. We knew it was a Fifty-Fifth Georgian. my tent. When the guard mounted to his post he was sure he saw a temerarious Yankee in front of him.gutenberg. capitally. and by —. A part of our crowd had been out after wood during the day. The latter—a Twenty-Sixth Alabamian —ordered him out. were armed with an old gun called a Queen Anne musket. near where I was sitting in. He succeeded in breaking away from them and ran under the Dead Line. but the latter. The guard set his gun down and buried his face in his hands. If I've lost the confidence of my comrades I want to die. and felt disposed to accept it as a demonstration of the Parrot's innocence.if you'uns don't take him in I'll blow the whole head offn him.

The balance of the regiments were sent in in the same manner—each arriving on the field just after its predecessor had been thoroughly whipped by the concentrated force of the Rebels. The majority of the Seventh New Hampshire were an unwelcome addition to our numbers. had attained to responsible commands. The Rebels. waiting for a chance to go out after wood. and belonged to the Eighth United States. The story they told of the battle was one which had many shameful reiterations during the war. and three or four buckshot. but the stupidity of a Commanding General is a thing that the gods themselves strive against in vain. the guard sank a bayonet through the foot as quick as a flash. The men fought gallantly. The armies had been very quiet during the Winter. It was the story told whenever Banks. Fla. but the Government clung to them literally with hooks of steel. waited till he had strung his command along through swamps and cane brakes. A Fifty-Fifth Georgian was the gate guard. to save himself from falling. Consequently none but a few cavalry prisoners were added to the number already in the hands of the Rebels. So far only old prisoners—those taken at Gettysburg. There were about seven hundred of them. The regiment was overpowered. such as our own. The crowd behind pushed one man till he put his foot a few inches over the line. Forty-Eighth and One Hundred and Fifteenth New York. and Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts. When fired into a group of men it was sure to bring several down. suffered the same fate. and intentions he was profoundly ignorant. they deserted to the Rebels during the retreat from the battlefield. to do he hardly knew what.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. who. They were N'Yaarkers—old time colleagues of those already in with us—veteran bounty jumpers. in some inscrutable manner. disposition. I was standing one day in the line at the gate. CHAPTER XXIII A NEW LOT OF PRISONERS—THE BATTLE OF OOLUSTEE—MEN SACRIFICED TO A GENERAL'S INCOMPETENCY—A HOODLUM REINFORCEMENT—A QUEER CROWD —MISTREATMENT OF AN OFFICER OF A COLORED REGIMENT—KILLING THE SERGEANT OF A NEGRO SQUAD. We suffered a humiliating defeat. and the property of the United States by pretentious blunderers. The first lot of new ones came in about the middle of March. Forty Seventh. In this instance.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 105 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . on the 20th of February. Chicamauga and Mine Run—had been brought in. and had been assigned to fill up the wasted ranks of the veteran Seventh regiment. It was a senseless waste of the lives of private soldiers. Butler. which was brought to Andersonville and placed in position to command the prison. the Seventh New Hampshire.htm a bullet as big as a large marble. and he drew a line in the sand with his bayonet which we should not cross. a bungling Brigadier named Seymore had marched his forces across the State of Florida. preparing for the death grapple in the Spring. Sturgis. under General Finnegan. and then fell unexpectedly upon his advance. and Averill's attempt to gain and break up the Rebel salt works at Wytheville. location. scores of miles from his supports. They had tried to desert as soon as they received their bounty. About five hundred of them were white. and Saltville. and helped much to establish the hoodlum reign which was shortly inaugurated over the whole prison. that had been drawn to New Hampshire by the size of the bounty offered there. save a few cavalry raids. and another regiment that hurried up to its support. sending many of them to the regiment in irons.. They were quite an accession to the force of our N'Yaarkers. Thus foiled. or one of a host of similar smaller failures were trusted with commands.gutenberg. who had been captured at the battle of Oolustee. and in the neighborhood of an enemy of whose numbers. and Sherman's regular battery. The rest were colored. with a loss of two thousand men and a fine rifled battery. and belonged to the Seventh Connecticut. There had been nothing done.

Italians." It was believed that every nation in Europe was represented in their ranks. (colored) had fallen into the hands of the rebels by reason of a severe wound in the leg. I was constrained to decline the honor. that no two of them spoke the same language. Levantines. and for pantaloons they had a sort of a petticoat reaching to the knees. soldierly Sergeant had received a bullet which had forced its way under the scalp for some distance. They utterly refused to recognize him as an officer. Spaniards. One stalwart. and partially imbedded itself in the skull. The bullet could be felt plainly with the fingers. No opportunity to insult. He suffered intense agony. but as I had no accident policy. The negro soldiers were also treated as badly as possible. They were just as singular otherwise as in their looks. a coat with funny little tales about two inches long. The negros were made into a squad by themselves. as Dawson. and would pass the whole night walking up and down the street in front of our tent. moaning distressingly. and we were sure that it would not be a minute's work. They wore a little cap with an upturned brim. speech and uniform. if we could get it. the gate guard. it was generally agreed. dropped his gun until the muzzle rested against the Sergeant's stomach. that "Nobody but one of them darned queer Lost Ducks would eat a varmint like a water snake. where it still remained. and it used to be said jocularly. killing him instantly. and taken out every day to work around the prison. Finally inflammation set in and he died.htm The Forty-Eighth New Yorkers who came in were a set of chaps so odd in every way as to be a source of never-failing interest.gutenberg. He was a fine. Fortunately the Rebel's marksmanship was as bad as his intentions. and bore it all with dignified self-possession. who was the object of the contumely of the guards and other Rebels. and compelled to get up and hobble into line when the rest were mustered for roll-call. intelligent young man. No care was given his wound. horse or mule. to remove it and give the man relief. The Rebels treated him with studied indignity. He was placed in a squad near me. which we anglicized into "The Lost Ducks. and the N'Yaarkers vied with the Rebels in heaping abuse upon him.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. A white Sergeant was placed over them. which two of them had succeeded in capturing in the swamps. until after a lapse of some weeks the Rebels changed their policy and took him from the prison to send to where the other officers were.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and fired. with a sharp knife. CHAPTER XXIV. One day as he was standing near the gate. without any provocation whatever. But we could not prevail upon the Rebel Surgeons even to see the man. jolting road to Andersonville." Major Albert Bogle. Instead of being sent to Macon or Columbia. no surgeon would examine it or dress it. Once a Rebel officer rode up and fired several shots at him. where the other officers were." was neglected. He was thrown into a stock car. as he lay helpless on the car floor. Any of us were ready to eat a piece of dog. "the nigger officer. jabbering in high glee over their treasure trove. On one occasion the whole mob of us went over in a mass to their squad to see them cook and eat a large water snake. As near as I could find out they were all or nearly all South Europeans. and sewed together down the middle. Portuguese. and none of the shots took effect. of my company expressed it. the same as an enlisted man. but. and carried off to their mess. and hauled over the rough. with a predominance of the French element. he was sent to Andersonville. and a strap resting on the chin. The wounded were turned into the Stockade without having their hurts attended to. and a brass chain across the breast. 106 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . which left him helpless upon the field at Oolustee. of the Eighth United States. or even as a man. without a bed or blanket. cat. The name of their regiment was 'L'Enfants Perdu' (the Lost Children). waiting his orders to come out. The Sergeantcy was then offered to me.

the desire for a wider. It now became a part of. Clothes having by this time become a very important consideration with the prisoners. at such a time. and bore them off at the rate of nearly a score a day. into pints and quarts. the big toes tied together with a bit of string. was to "louse" his clothing. and see if any friends were among them. and drawing and cooking our scanty rations. so much as an intense longing to get where care and comforts would arrest their swift progress to the shadowy hereafter. inspect and count the dead. in taking care of him.gutenberg. and a slip of paper containing the man's name. But to many of our number the aspirations for freedom were not. The cruel rains had sapped away their stamina. the day's regular routine to take a walk past the gates in the morning. the parasites speedily increased into millions. it was the custom of the mess in which a man died to remove from his person all garments that were of any account. and earth. more terrible than that. to lie around in vacuous idleness —to spend days that should be crowded full of action in a monotonous. dirt-grimed skin drawn tensely over the facial bones. when Nature was rousing her slumbering forces to activity. even had we been no better fed.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and they could not recover it with the meager and innutritious diet of coarse meal. lank. The lips and nostrils were distorted with pain and hunger. But imprisonment had never seemed so hard to bear—even in the first few weeks—as now. The unclosed eyes shone with a stony glitter— An orphan's curse would drag to hell A spirit from on high: But. One of the most effectual ways of doing this was to turn the garments wrong side out and hold the seams as close to the fire as possible. Quick consumption. Where a sick man had friends or comrades. manlier field of action. without burning the cloth. or. There is no doubt that the irritation from the biting of these myriads materially the days of those who died. gathering at roll-call. to speak more comprehensively. and the whole framed with the long. Millions of lice swarmed over the wasted limbs and ridged ribs. It did not even seem exaggeration when some one declared that he had seen a dead man with more than a gallon of lice on him.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Existence became much more tolerable. awaking all vegetation to energetic life. The yearning to be up and doing something-to turn these golden hours to good account for self and country—pressed into heart and brain as the vivifying sap pressed into tree-duct and plant cell. pneumonia. It was easier to submit to confinement to a limited area. objectless routine of hunting lice. The appearance of the dead was indescribably ghastly. To be compelled. like pop-corn. The hands were crossed upon the breast. April brought sunny skies and balmy weather. Is the curse in a dead man's eye. O. When a man became so sick as to be unable to help himself. With freedom it would have been enjoyable. and an occasional scrap of salt meat.htm APRIL—LONGING TO GET OUT—THE DEATH RATE—THE PLAGUE OF LICE —THE SO-CALLED HOSPITAL. the sallow. was torturing. when cold and rain were aiding hunger to benumb the faculties and chill the energies than it was now. of course part of their duty. matted hair and beard. rank. and air and sky were filled with stimulus to man to imitate her example. This method was a favorite one for another reason than its efficacy: it gave one a keener sense of revenge upon his rascally little tormentors than 107 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . as with us. bronchitis. company and regiment was pinned on the breast of his shirt. These verminous pests had become so numerous—owing to our lack of changes of clothing. and so many bodies were carried out nearly naked. and of facilities for boiling what we had—that the most a healthy man could do was to keep the number feeding upon his person down to a reasonable limit—say a few tablespoonfuls. low fever and diarrhea seized upon these ready victims for their ravages. clothed and sheltered. In a short time the lice would swell up and burst open.

and smite the dust of the land. and smote the dust of the earth. and it became lice in man and in beast. They even filled the hot sand under our feet.htm he could get in any other way. And they did so.gutenberg. the lice became more unendurable. all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. 108 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod. and voracious troops would climb up on one like streams of ants swarming up a tree. that it may become lice through all the land of Egypt. We began to have a full comprehension of the third plague with which the Lord visited the Egyptians: And the Lord said unto Moses.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Stretch out thy rod. Say unto Aaron. As the weather grew warmer and the number in the prison increased.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.

We scooped a hole a foot deep in the sand and stuck our tent-poles around it. and in these the long leaves of the pine were made into apologies for beds of about the goodness of the straw on which a Northern farmer beds his stock.. This reduced the tent and bedding material of our party—now numbering five—to a cavalry overcoat and a blanket. Andrews. In the course of a few weeks three of my chums died and left myself and B. We had to tear down our huts and move. At night we lay down upon the overcoat and covered ourselves with the blanket. A portion of the ground was divided from the rest of the prison by a railing. the two out side fellows used to get very chilly. But it had to do. according to the official report. There was an average of five thousand prisoner's in the pen during all but the last few days of the month. nutritious food. Save a few decoctions of roots. What they needed to bring about their recovery was clean clothing. and we took turns sleeping on the outside. there were no medicines. At that rate we should all have died in about eight months. and so worse than decimation. 109 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . was five hundred and seventy-six. shelter and freedom from the tortures of the lice. A makeshift of a hospital was established in the northeastern corner of the Stockade. and squeeze the three inside ones until they felt no thicker than a wafer. By this time the materials had become so dry that we could not rebuild with them. Andrews (now Dr. This would make the loss over eleven per cent. of Astoria.) sole heirs to and occupants of.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. when the number was increased by the arrival of the captured garrison of Plymouth. The British had about as many men as were in the Stockade at the battle of New Orleans. the overcoat and blanket. or an average of over nineteen a day. B. and there could be but one result: the official records show that seventy-six per cent.gutenberg. of those taken to the hospitals died there. a few tent flies were stretched. By day we spread our blanket over the poles for a tent. The establishment of the hospital was specially unfortunate for my little squad. Ill.htm The total number of deaths in April. the sick were fed the same coarse corn meal that brought about the malignant dysentery from which they all suffered. as the pine tufts fell to pieces. yet their loss in killed fell much short of the deaths in the pen in April. The sick taken there were no better off than if they had staid with their comrades. They obtained none of these. We could have gone through a sharp campaign lasting those thirty days and not lost so great a proportion of our forces. The ground required for it compelled a general reduction of the space we all occupied.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. they wore and slept in the same vermin-infested clothes. It required considerable stretching to make it go over five.

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CHAPTER XXV.
THE "PLYMOUTH PILGRIMS"—SAD TRANSITION FROM COMFORTABLE BARRACKS TO ANDERSONVILLE—A CRAZED PENNSYLVANIAN—DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUTLER BUSINESS. We awoke one morning, in the last part of April, to find about two thousand freshly arrived prisoners lying asleep in the main streets running from the gates. They were attired in stylish new uniforms, with fancy hats and shoes; the Sergeants and Corporals wore patent leather or silk chevrons, and each man had a large, well-filled knapsack, of the kind new recruits usually carried on coming first to the front, and which the older soldiers spoke of humorously as "bureaus." They were the snuggest, nattiest lot of soldiers we had ever seen, outside of the "paper collar" fellows forming the headquarter guard of some General in a large City. As one of my companions surveyed them, he said: "Hulloa! I'm blanked if the Johnnies haven't caught a regiment of Brigadier Generals, somewhere." By-and-by the "fresh fish," as all new arrivals were termed, began to wake up, and then we learned that they belonged to a brigade consisting of the Eighty-Fifth New York, One Hundred and First and One Hundred and Third Pennsylvania, Sixteenth Connecticut, Twenty-Fourth New York Battery, two companies of Massachusetts heavy artillery, and a company of the Twelfth New York Cavalry.
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They had been garrisoning Plymouth, N. C., an important seaport on the Roanoke River. Three small gunboats assisted them in their duty. The Rebels constructed a powerful iron clad called the "Albemarle," at a point further up the Roanoke, and on the afternoon of the 17th, with her and three brigades of infantry, made an attack upon the post. The "Albemarle" ran past the forts unharmed, sank one of the gunboats, and drove the others away. She then turned her attention to the garrison, which she took in the rear, while the infantry attacked in front. Our men held out until the 20th, when they capitulated. They were allowed to retain their personal effects, of all kinds, and, as is the case with all men in garrison, these were considerable.

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The One Hundred and First and One Hundred and Third Pennsylvania and Eighty-Fifth New York had just "veteranized," and received their first instalment of veteran bounty. Had they not been attacked they would have sailed for home in a day or two, on their veteran furlough, and this accounted for their fine raiment. They were made up of boys from good New York and Pennsylvania families, and were, as a rule, intelligent and fairly educated. Their horror at the appearance of their place of incarceration was beyond expression. At one moment they could not comprehend that we dirty and haggard tatterdemalions had once been clean, self-respecting, well-fed soldiers like themselves; at the next they would affirm that they knew they could not stand it a month, in here we had then endured it from four to nine months. They took it, in every way, the hardest of any prisoners that came in, except some of the 'Hundred-Days' men, who were brought in in August, from the Valley of Virginia. They had served nearly all their time in various garrisons along the seacoast—from Fortress Monroe to Beaufort—where they had had comparatively little of the actual hardships of soldiering in the field. They had nearly always had comfortable quarters, an abundance of food, few hard marches or other severe service. Consequently they were not so well hardened for Andersonville as the majority who came in. In other respects they were better prepared, as they had an abundance of clothing, blankets and cooking utensils, and each man had some of his veteran bounty still in possession. It was painful to see how rapidly many of them sank under the miseries of the situation. They gave up the moment the gates were closed upon them, and began pining away. We older prisoners buoyed ourselves up continually with hopes of escape or exchange. We dug tunnels with the persistence of beavers, and we watched every possible opportunity to get outside the accursed walls of the pen. But we could not enlist the interest of these discouraged ones in any of our schemes, or talk. They resigned themselves to Death, and waited despondingly till he came.

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A middle-aged One Hundred and First Pennsylvanian, who had taken up his quarters near me, was an object of peculiar interest. Reasonably intelligent and fairly read, I presume that he was a respectable mechanic before entering the Army. He was evidently a very domestic man, whose whole happiness centered in his family. When he first came in he was thoroughly dazed by the greatness of his misfortune. He would sit for hours with his face in his hands and his elbows on his knees, gazing out upon the mass of men and huts, with vacant, lack-luster eyes. We could not interest him in anything. We tried to show him how to fix his blanket up to give him some shelter, but he went at the work in a disheartened way, and finally smiled feebly and stopped. He had some letters from his family and a melaineotype of a plain-faced woman—his wife—and her children, and spent much time in looking at them. At first he ate his rations when he drew them, but finally began to reject, them. In a few days he was delirious with hunger and homesick ness. He would sit on the sand for hours imagining that he was at his family table, dispensing his frugal hospitalities to his wife and children. Making a motion, as if presenting a dish, he would say: "Janie, have another biscuit, do!" Or, "Eddie, son, won't you have another piece of this nice steak?" Or, "Maggie, have some more potatos," and so on, through a whole family of six, or more. It was a relief to us when he died in about a month after he came in. As stated above, the Plymouth men brought in a large amount of money —variously estimated at

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from ten thousand to one hundred thousand dollars. The presence of this quantity of circulating medium immediately started a lively commerce. All sorts of devices were resorted to by the other prisoners to get a little of this wealth. Rude chuck-a-luck boards were constructed out of such material as was attainable, and put in operation. Dice and cards were brought out by those skilled in such matters. As those of us already in the Stockade occupied all the ground, there was no disposition on the part of many to surrender a portion of their space without exacting a pecuniary compensation. Messes having ground in a good location would frequently demand and get ten dollars for permission for two or three to quarter with them. Then there was a great demand for poles to stretch blankets over to make tents; the Rebels, with their usual stupid cruelty, would not supply these, nor allow the prisoners to go out and get them themselves. Many of the older prisoners had poles to spare which they were saying up for fuel. They sold these to the Plymouth folks at the rate of ten dollars for three—enough to put up a blanket. The most considerable trading was done through the gates. The Rebel guards were found quite as keen to barter as they had been in Richmond. Though the laws against their dealing in the money of the enemy were still as stringent as ever, their thirst for greenbacks was not abated one whit, and they were ready to sell anything they had for the coveted currency. The rate of exchange was seven or eight dollars in Confederate money for one dollar in greenbacks. Wood, tobacco, meat, flour, beans, molasses, onions and a villainous kind of whisky made from sorghum, were the staple articles of trade. A whole race of little traffickers in these articles sprang up, and finally Selden, the Rebel Quartermaster, established a sutler shop in the center of the North Side, which he put in charge of Ira Beverly, of the One Hundredth Ohio, and Charlie Huckleby, of the Eighth Tennessee. It was a fine illustration of the development of the commercial instinct in some men. No more unlikely place for making money could be imagined, yet starting in without a cent, they contrived to turn and twist and trade, until they had transferred to their pockets a portion of the funds which were in some one else's. The Rebels, of course, got nine out of every ten dollars there was in the prison, but these middle men contrived to have a little of it stick to their fingers. It was only the very few who were able to do this. Nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand were, like myself, either wholly destitute of money and unable to get it from anybody else, or they paid out what money they had to the middlemen, in exorbitant prices for articles of food. The N'Yaarkers had still another method for getting food, money, blankets and clothing. They formed little bands called "Raiders," under the leadership of a chief villain. One of these bands would select as their victim a man who had good blankets, clothes, a watch, or greenbacks. Frequently he would be one of the little traders, with a sack of beans, a piece of meat, or something of that kind. Pouncing upon him at night they would snatch away his possessions, knock down his friends who came to his assistance, and scurry away into the darkness.

CHAPTER XXVI
LONGINGS FOR GOD'S COUNTRY—CONSIDERATIONS OF THE METHODS OF GETTING THERE—EXCHANGE AND ESCAPE—DIGGING TUNNELS, AND THE DIFFICULTIES CONNECTED THEREWITH—PUNISHMENT OF A TRAITOR. To our minds the world now contained but two grand divisions, as widely different from each other as happiness and misery. The first—that portion over which our flag floated was usually spoken of as "God's Country;" the other—that under the baneful shadow of the banner of rebellion—was designated by the most opprobrious epithets at the speaker's command. To get from the latter to the former was to attain, at one bound, the highest good. Better to be a

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doorkeeper in the House of the Lord, under the Stars and Stripes, than to dwell in the tents of wickedness, under the hateful Southern Cross. To take even the humblest and hardest of service in the field now would be a delightsome change. We did not ask to go home—we would be content with anything, so long as it was in that blest place "within our lines." Only let us get back once, and there would be no more grumbling at rations or guard duty—we would willingly endure all the hardships and privations that soldier flesh is heir to. There were two ways of getting back—escape and exchange. Exchange was like the ever receding mirage of the desert, that lures the thirsty traveler on over the parched sands, with illusions of refreshing springs, only to leave his bones at last to whiten by the side of those of his unremembered predecessors. Every day there came something to build up the hopes that exchange was near at hand—every day brought something to extinguish the hopes of the preceding one. We took these varying phases according to our several temperaments. The sanguine built themselves up on the encouraging reports; the desponding sank down and died under the discouraging ones. Escape was a perpetual allurement. To the actively inclined among us it seemed always possible, and daring, busy brains were indefatigable in concocting schemes for it. The only bit of Rebel brain work that I ever saw for which I did not feel contempt was the perfect precautions taken to prevent our escape. This is shown by the fact that, although, from first to last, there were nearly fifty thousand prisoners in Andersonville, and three out of every five of these were ever on the alert to take French leave of their captors, only three hundred and twenty-eight succeeded in getting so far away from Andersonville as to leave it to be presumed that they had reached our lines. The first, and almost superhuman difficulty was to get outside the Stockade. It was simply impossible to scale it. The guards were too close together to allow an instant's hope to the most sanguine, that he could even pass the Dead Line without being shot by some one of them. This same closeness prevented any hope of bribing them. To be successful half those on post would have to be bribed, as every part of the Stockade was clearly visible from every other part, and there was no night so dark as not to allow a plain view to a number of guards of the dark figure outlined against the light colored logs of any Yankee who should essay to clamber towards the top of the palisades. The gates were so carefully guarded every time they were opened as to preclude hope of slipping out through theme. They were only unclosed twice or thrice a day—once to admit, the men to call the roll, once to let them out again, once to let the wagons come in with rations, and once, perhaps, to admit, new prisoners. At all these times every precaution was taken to prevent any one getting out surreptitiously. This narrowed down the possibilities of passing the limits of the pen alive, to tunneling. This was also surrounded by almost insuperable difficulties. First, it required not less than fifty feet of subterranean excavation to get out, which was an enormous work with our limited means. Then the logs forming the Stockade were set in the ground to a depth of five feet, and the tunnel had to go down beneath them. They had an unpleasant habit of dropping down into the burrow under them. It added much to the discouragements of tunneling to think of one of these massive timbers dropping upon a fellow as he worked his mole-like way under it, and either crushing him to death outright, or pinning him there to die of suffocation or hunger.

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In one instance, in a tunnel near me, but in which I was not interested, the log slipped down after the digger had got out beyond it. He immediately began digging for the surface, for life, and was fortunately able to break through before he suffocated. He got his head above the ground, and then fainted. The guard outside saw him, pulled him out of the hole, and when he recovered sensibility hurried him back into the Stockade. In another tunnel, also near us, a broad-shouldered German, of the Second Minnesota, went in to take his turn at digging. He was so much larger than any of his predecessors that he stuck fast in a narrow part, and despite all the efforts of himself and comrades, it was found impossible to move him one way or the other. The comrades were at last reduced to the humiliation of informing the Officer of the Guard of their tunnel and the condition of their friend, and of asking assistance to release him, which was given. The great tunneling tool was the indispensable half-canteen. The inventive genius of our people, stimulated by the war, produced nothing for the comfort and effectiveness of the soldier equal in usefulness to this humble and unrecognized utensil. It will be remembered that a canteen was composed of two pieces of tin struck up into the shape of saucers, and soldered together at the edges.

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a little larger than a man's body. he found that by melting the halves of his canteen apart. Number One began digging with his half canteen. dug ahead of him. threw the dirt under him. and the digger had to be relieved every half-hour. could catch it and work it back to the next.htm After a soldier had been in the field a little while. also lying on his stomach. stew vegetables.. When the cooking was done. so that in a tunnel seventy-five feet long there would be from eight to ten men lying one behind the other. he came out. A sufficient handle was made with a split stick. As the tunnel lengthened the number of men behind each other in this way had to be increased. the handle was thrown away. and so on. 118 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg. There seemed to be no end of the uses to which this ever-ready disk of blackened sheet iron could be turned. Several instances are on record where infantry regiments. The tunnel was simply a round. The party engaged in the work organized by giving every man a number to secure the proper apportionment of the labor.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. made by tying up the bottoms of pantaloon legs. After he had worked until tired. etc. with no other tools than this. When the dirt was pushed back to the mouth of the tunnel it was taken up in improvised bags. and the half canteen slipped out of the road into the haversack. carried to the Swamp. The work in the tunnel was very exhausting. and thrown away or lost the curious and complicated kitchen furniture he started out with. rat-like burrow. he had a vessel much handier in every way than any he had parted with. bake bread. and Number Two took his place.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The digger lay on his stomach. and sufficiently well closed to screen the operations from the sight of the guards near by. The starting point of a tunnel was always some tent close to the Dead Line. It could be used for anything —to make soup or coffee in. brown coffee. etc. and worked it back with his feet till the man behind him. and emptied. covered themselves on the field with quite respectable rifle pits.

and made certain compensations for the tendency to the sinister side. was badly startled by the ground giving way under his feet. I suppose. which. and his sinking nearly to his waist in a hole. One day in May. The thing was inexplicable.gutenberg. It was hardly even necessary to dress these in our uniform. For an hour. He was a very skilful tattoo artist. The next day a man walking by a tent some little distance from the one in which the hole began. This added much to our satisfaction with the manner of his treatment. 119 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and the fellow was thrown upon the ground and held there. but after wondering over the matter for some hours." the top part to extend across his forehead and the stem to run down his nose. as spies. and then go ahead with another series of prickings and tobacco juice drenchings.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Another trouble connected with tunneling was the number of traitors and spies among us. he would study the effect for an instant. After that we practised digging with our left hand.htm The greatest trouble was to carry the tunnel forward in a straight line. connected with the missing end of our tunnel. he opened his mouth. The first tunnel I was connected with was a ludicrous illustration of this. as measurement with a string showed that we had gone nearly twice the distance necessary for the purpose. After an instant's work with the needles. acted as a kind of mordant. and they actually started to beat him to death. About twenty of us had devoted our nights for over a week to the prolongation of a burrow. We learned afterwards that he was not one of our men. He chewed tobacco enormously. which astonished us. he would deluge it with a flood of tobacco spit. in order to curry favor with the Rebel officers. Captain Jack continued his alternate pickings and drenchings. there came a glimmer of suspicion that it might be. and we ceased operations to consider the matter. Our tunnel was shaped like a horse shoe. At the end of that time the traitor's face was disfigured with a hideous mark that he would bear to his grave. there was an almost irresistible tendency to make the course veer to the left. We had not yet reached the Stockade. After pricking away for a few minutes at the design on the arm or some portion of the body. again. the Rebels had numbers of their own men in the pen at night. and began operations. having been compelled to trade garments with their captors. That worthy decided to brand him with a great "T." and the suggestion was immediately acted upon. At first everybody was in favor of killing him. in some way. This was arrested by a proposition to "have Captain Jack tattoo him. and the beginning and end were not fifteen feet apart. I hardly think Captain Jack would be pleased to meet him again. and confirmed the suspicions by coming out where the man had broken through. being. because a great many of our own men came into the prison in Rebel clothes. It was very singular. taken outside. As nearly everybody dug most of the time with the right hand. Piping this off with a filthy rag. and filled the wretch's face and eyes full of the disgusting saliva. but. he claimed. There were many—principally among the N'Yaarker crowd who were always zealous to betray a tunnel. but a Rebel spy. Then. "Captain Jack" was a sailor who had been with us in the Pemberton building at Richmond. I am sure. could make the process nastier than any other that I ever saw attempt it. The Captain took his head between his legs. Captain Jack got his tattooing kit ready. quite an excitement was raised by the detection of one of these "tunnel traitors" in such a way as left no doubt of his guilt.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The tunnel-traitor was taken to Captain Jack. He disappeared shortly after the operation was finished. that was doubtless an eternity to the rascal undergoing branding. One of us started through on an exploring expedition. The crowd round about yelled with delight at this new process.

Three of our detachment—members of the Twentieth Indiana—had an experience of this kind that will serve to illustrate hundreds of others. Those who succeeded. AND THE DIFFICULTIES THEY PUT IN THE WAY OF ESCAPE —THE WHOLE SOUTH PATROLLED BY THEM. and were more dreaded by possible "escapes. along carelessly with the guard.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. 120 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . one way or another. All around were Rebel patrols. As soon as they were fairly out of sight of the rest. pickets and guards. the strongest of them—Tom Williams—snatched the Rebel's gun away from him. The first was to get away from the immediate vicinity of the prison.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. watching every avenue of egress. found still more difficulties lying between them and freedom than would discourage ordinarily resolute men. THE HOUNDS. but not their canine colleagues." than any other means at the command of our jailors. in passing the Stockade limits. They had been taken outside to do some work upon the cook-house that was being built.gutenberg. A guard was sent with the three a little distance into the woods to get a piece of timber. throttled him. so that he could not give the alarm. Guards and patrols could be evaded. and managed to get pretty near him. or circumvented. The boys sauntered.htm CHAPTER XXVII. and the other two springing upon him as swift as wild cats. but the hounds could not. Several packs of hounds formed efficient coadjutors of these. Nearly every man brought back from a futile attempt at escape told the same story: he had been able to escape the human Rebels.

the squads of cavalry. By this time they were ten or fifteen miles away. bidding him a hasty.gutenberg. When he came up. The dogs stopped at the shore. but Tom Williams. The boys tried to ran. who was so desperate that he preferred death to recapture. with a chuckle: 121 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . it was in a lot of saw logs and drift wood that hid him from being seen from the shore.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. They had gone but a few miles. but not specially tender. and said. came up and made a pretty thorough search for him. It was not long until they were missed. did not punish them. and thought that they could safely leave the creeks for better walking on the solid ground. but.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. farewell. and the parties sent in search found and released the guard.htm Still keeping a hand on his throat. The Yankees kept in the swamps and creeks. they could make no headway. jumped into a mill-pond near by. Two of them were soon caught. and the foot patrols were sent out to scour the adjacent country. for freedom. and no trace of them was found that afternoon or evening. and tied him to a sapling with strings made by tearing up one of their blouses. when the pack of hounds Captain Wirz was with took their trail. He was beaming with delight when he returned them to our squad. The Rebels with them. for a wonder. All the packs of hounds. He was also securely gagged. who gave all the information he possessed as to what had become of his charges. struck out. probably because he was so rejoiced at his success in capturing them. and the boys. and they came to the conclusion that Tom had been drowned. and came after them in full cry. Wirz marched the other two back and. who had seen Tom spring in. and bayed after the disappearing prey. exhausted as they were. as they fondly hoped. they led him off some distance. As they did not think to probe around the drift wood this was unsuccessful.

sneaking and cowardly when alone. I pring you pack two of dem tam Yankees wat got away yesterday. about three weeks later. and speedily ran him down." What was our astonishment. where he had crossed the road from one field to another. come stalking into the pen. He had been put in a little country jail. a cow horn. to see Tom. The other dogs were the mongrels that are found in such plentifulness about every Southern house—increasing. The bloodhounds were debased descendants of the strong and fierce hounds imported from Cuba—many of them by the United States Government—for hunting Indians. and were bending every energy to keep him there. when a pack of hounds. The whole country was carefully policed by Provost Marshals to bring out those who were shirking military duty. and what I could learn from others. This patrolling for negros and deserters was another of the great obstacles to a successful passage through the country. 122 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . with which he controlled the band by signals. and well fed till an opportunity occurred to send him back. and to check any movement by the negros. From what I saw of the hounds. He had nearly reached the mountains. scraped very thin. or had deserted their colors. The rebels had put. fierce and bold when in packs. Each pack was managed by a well-armed man. One could not go anywhere without a pass. and dressed in a full suit of butternut. as a rule.htm "Brisoners. every able-bodied white man in the ranks.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. unt I run de oder raskal into a mill-pont and trowntet him. as every road was continually watched by men and hounds. took his trail. They are like wolves.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. when escaping. fat and healthy. during the Seminole war. It was the policy of our men. I believe that each pack was made up of two bloodhounds and from twenty-five to fifty other dogs. in numbers as the inhabitant of the house is lower down and poorer. who rode a mule. slung over his shoulders by a cord. to avoid roads as much as possible by traveling through the woods and fields.gutenberg. and carried. patrolling for deserters or negros.

officers. but. It was the custom of the Rebels to send a pack of hounds around the prison every morning. It was believed that they rarely failed to find a prisoner's tracks. continually in motion and must have daily made trails leading in every direction. We got information in this way whether any tunnel had been successfully opened during the night.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and still more rarely ran off upon a Rebel's. There was about the Stockade from six thousand to ten thousand Rebels and negros. to examine if any Yankees had escaped during the night. 123 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm What always puzzled me much was why the hounds took only Yankee trails. etc. If those outside the Stockade had been confined to certain path and roads we could have understood this. in the vicinity of the prison. including guards.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. for us. to watch the packs go yelping around the pen searching for tracks. servants. workmen. of course. as I understand. they were not. It was part of the interest of the day.gutenberg. These were.

htm The use of hounds furnished us a crushing reply to the ever recurring Rebel question: "Why are you-uns puttin' niggers in the field to fight we-uns for?" The questioner was always silenced by the return interrogatory: "Is that as bad as running white men down with blood hounds?" CHAPTER XXVIII MAY—INFLUX OF NEW PRISONERS—DISPARITY IN NUMBERS BETWEEN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN ARMIES—TERRIBLE CROWDING—SLAUGHTER OF MEN AT THE CREEK. The campaign began which was to terminate eleven months later in the obliteration of the Southern Confederacy. May 3. Sigel moved up the Shenandoah Valley with thirty thousand men.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. May 3.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg. the Army 124 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . May 1. Butler began his blundering movement against Petersburg. In May the long gathering storm of war burst with angry violence all along the line held by the contending armies.

Now let him imagine what would be the result if that lot. ready to open at the instant with grape and canister. If we saw a squad of one hundred and fifty or thereabouts at the headquarters. by clerks (detailed prisoners. As it is impossible to describe this adequately. and engaged Joe Johnston at Rocky Face Ridge and Tunnel Hill. This was in addition to the risk of capture in action. As they entered. and second. the Rebel guards would stand to arms. Grant lost in prisoners from May 5 to May 31. Every day—and sometimes twice or thrice a day—we would see great squads of prisoners marched up to these headquarters. we felt pretty certain they were from Sherman. on an ordinary City lot. and gathered to meet them. and this condition grew rapidly worse as the season advanced and the sun's rays gained fervency. At each of these times about two thousand prisoners were brought in. their names entered upon the prison records. For this there were two reasons: First. The infantry would be in line of battle. it was a consequence of the aggressive movements.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. where they would be searched. and there were none of our comrades among them. He has an idea of how much filth is produced. and the artillerymen standing by their guns. in the Wilderness. There were three exceptions to this rule while we were in Andersonville. An army acting offensively usually suffers more from capture than one on the defensive. and for removing and concealing filth. with none of these appliances. It is more active. when the drunken and incompetent Sturgis (now Colonel of the Seventh United States Cavalry) shamefully sacrificed a superb division at Guntown. Sherman moved from Chattanooga. save New York and Philadelphia. It could not be otherwise. Miss. able-bodied young men than there are in any of our leading Cities. or for the usual arrangements of a camp. that the entanglement in the dense thickets and shrubbery of the Wilderness enabled both sides to capture great numbers of the other's men. on the 22d of July.htm of the Potomac left Culpeper. that there were many more men in that Army than in any other. The bulk of the prisoners were taken from the Army of the Potomac. and on the 5th began its deadly grapple with Lee. This is more 125 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . few Rebels had the requisite clerical skill) and then be marched into the prison.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. the cavalry mounted. and the third was when Stoneman was captured at Macon. in a week. The disparity between the number coming in from the Army of the Potomac and Western armies was so great. I must again ask the reader to assist with a few comparisons. Before the reader dismisses this statement from his mind let him reflect how great a number this is. every skirmish line. If there were from five hundred to two thousand we knew they were from the Army of the Potomac. Our armies were penetrating the enemy's country in close proximity to a determined and vigilant foe. seven thousand four hundred and fifty. and about twice as many as Scott went into battle with at any time in his march to the City of Mexico. he probably captured two-thirds of that number from the Johnnies. Wirz's headquarters were established in a large log house which had been built in the fort a little distant from the southeast corner of the prison. became indescribably filthy. by its occupation by a family say of six persons. was the home of one hundred and eight men. Each of these columns lost heavily in prisoners. instead of having upon it six persons. May 6. The next was after Hood made his desperate attack on Sherman. every foraging party ran the risk of falling into a Rebel trap. every picket. By the end of May there were eighteen thousand four hundred and fifty-four prisoners in the Stockade. with every appliance for keeping themselves clean. and most kinds of exercise were wholly precluded. These eighteen thousand four hundred and fifty-four men were cooped up on less than thirteen acres of ground. despite all our efforts. making about fifteen hundred to the acre. The ground. The first was in June. that we Westerners began to take some advantage of it. That he may figure out these proportions for himself. The men crowded together like pigs nesting in the woods on cold nights.gutenberg. and learn the news from our friends. No room could be given up for streets. Every scout. It is four times as many troops as Taylor won the victory of Buena Vista with. I will repeat some of the elements of the problem: We will say that an average City lot is thirty feet front by one hundred deep. It is more than the average population of an Ohio County.

A gun would crack. A road was made across the swamp.htm front than most of them have. How pure the water was when it came into the Stockade was a question. ending by dropping down upon some exposed portion of a man's body. and— "O. All the water that we had to use was that in the creek which flowed through this seething mass of corruption. and the utmost care could not prevent a mess of food from being contaminated with them. kitchen. I think I hazard nothing in saying that for weeks at least one man a day was killed at this place. Those getting water would go to this spot. The murders became monotonous. a half-a-mile away. where the creek entered the pen. We hear so much now-a-days of blood poisoning from the effluvia of sinks and sewers. Then thousands of throats would yell out curses and denunciations. there was a dreadful sameness to them. and reach as far up the stream as possible.gutenberg. and stinging him like a gad-fly. lying there a few minutes. We always believed that it received the drainage from the camps of the guards. and. they would drop into what he was cooking. They would crawl out by thousands on the warm sand. sprout a wing or a pair of them. Upon thirteen of these acres. With the warm weather the condition of the swamp in the center of the prison became simply horrible. and received its sewerage. This gives us a surface of three thousand square feet. At the same instant would rise a piercing shriek from the man struck.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. I wonder how a man inside the Stockade. and into whose nostrils came a breath of that noisomeness. give the Rebel —— —— —— —— a furlough!" 126 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and decided that nobody could live for any length of time in such contracted space. exercise grounds and outhouses. Still worse. After he has found the number of square feet that each man had for sleeping apartment. now floundering in the creek in his death agony. to get the water that was least filthy. the muzzle of the musket of one of the guards on either side of the creek. still smoking. As they could reach nearly to the Dead Line this furnished an excuse to such of the guards as were murderously inclined to fire upon them. escaped being carried off by a malignant typhus. But I will not anticipate. I will tell him that a few weeks later double that many men were crowded upon that space that over thirty-five thousand were packed upon those twelve and a-half or thirteen acres. along the Dead Line at the west side. but we will be liberal. looking up we would see.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. dining room. An acre contains forty-three thousand five hundred and sixty square feet. we had eighteen thousand four hundred and fifty-four men. In the slimy ooze were billions of white maggots. that reading it. With these they would essay a clumsy flight.

gutenberg. Frederick Holliger. who missed him. and was fired upon by the guard. reached out too far. Mr. CHAPTER XXIX SOME DISTINCTION BETWEEN SOLDIERLY DUTY AND MURDER—A PLOT TO 127 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Whatever defense there might be for firing on men who touched the Dead Line in other parts of the prison. for having drawn the fire of the guard. but killed another man and wounded a second. The men had no intention of escaping.htm It was our belief that every guard who killed a Yankee was rewarded with a thirty-day furlough. and captured at Guntown. they were not leading any party to assail it. tells me. They were in every instance killed in the act of reaching out with their cups to dip up a little water. as his introduction to Andersonville life. they had no designs upon the Stockade. now of Toledo. formerly a member of the Seventy-Second Ohio. there could be none here. that a few hours after his entry he went to the brook to get a drink. and beat him nearly to death. The other prisoners standing near then attacked him. Nothing could be more inexcusable than these murders.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

Among those who came in about the last of the month were two thousand men from Butler's command. lost in the disastrous action of May 15. The increasing number of prisoners made it necessary for the Rebels to improve their means of guarding and holding us in check. The Twenty-Sixth Alabama and Fifty-Fifth Georgia. Their young imaginations had been inflamed with stories of the total depravity of the Unionists until they believed it was a meritorious thing to seize every opportunity to exterminate them. they were turned bareheaded and barefooted into the prison. Early one morning I overheard a conversation between two of these youthful guards: "Say. could not comprehend that a Yankee was a human being." in forming these regiments. If one of them survived the germ theory of disease is a hallucination. Every pains was taken to mistreat them. and men over the military age. A strong star fort was thrown up at a little distance from the southwest corner. Packed as we were we had reason to dread a single round from any of these works. The slaying of every man there was a foul crime. of killing.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. In a majority of instances there was not even a transgression of a prison rule. where the sinks were. and the worst possible place in the pen hunted out to locate them upon. and they vented this upon these men who were so luckless—in every sense—as to be in his command. and when there was such a transgression it was a mere harmless inadvertence. As General Grant aptly-phrased it. In the same way. Stripped of every article of clothing. but now they were ordered to the field. Let the reader understand that in any strictures I make I do not complain of the necessary hardships of war. and to kill them. Eleven field pieces were mounted in this in such a way as to rake the Stockade diagonally. and their places filled by the Georgia "Reserves. or capturing. If I did not want to take these chances I ought to stay at home. At that time the Rebel hatred for Butler verged on insanity. which could not fail to produce fearful havoc. the maggot flies swarmed over them. had guarded us since the opening of the prison. or that it was any more wrongful to shoot one than to kill a mad dog. It was a matter of soldierly duty. God! you jest ought to've heerd him holler. at least. which could be used with fearful effect in case of an outbreak. at the edge of the Swamp and at the eastern side of the prison. My going into the field uniformed and armed implied an intention. Had I been posted over prisoners I should have had no compunction about shooting at those trying to get away. I never questioned for an instant the right of a guard to fire upon those attempting to escape. A smaller fort. This was under the bank. The sand upon which they lay was dry and burning as that of a tropical desert.gutenberg. 128 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and all filth from the upper part of the camp flowed down to them. equipment. mounting five guns. and consequently I could not blame the Rebels for doing the same thing. wounding. and the stench was frightful. wounded." Evidently the juvenile murderer had no more conception that he had committed crime than if he had killed a rattlesnake. "They had robbed the cradle and the grave. I heerd that you shot a Yank last night?" "Now. myself killed. At intervals along this were piles of hand grenades. nor could they have got away if not arrested by a bullet. But not one of the men assassinated by the guards at Andersonville were trying to escape. was built at the northwest corner. some of it by old men. and at the northeast and southeast corners were small lunettes." an organization of boys under. with a couple of howitzers each.htm ESCAPE —IT IS REVEALED AND FRUSTRATED.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. They threw up a line of rifle pits around the Stockade for the infantry guards. There was consequently no ground of complaint if I was. Bill. who had grown up from children since the war began. except a shirt and a pair of pantaloons. I recognized the right of our captors or guards to take proper precautions to prevent our escape. or captured. by which Butler was "bottled up" at Bermuda Hundreds. some of the enemy. The most of this was done by very young boys. I understood fully and accepted the conditions of a soldier's career. The boys. you just bet I did. and cooking utensils—everything. they were without the slightest shelter of any kind.

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. we never heard of him after he passed the inner gate. it was imagined. in this densely crowded place. We were careful in each of our companies to admit none to membership except such as long acquaintance gave us entire confidence in. bearing white flags. in addition. We worked energetically at our tunnels. and had made sufficient preparations to defeat it. which soon began to assume such shape as to give assurance that they would answer our expectations in opening the prison walls. We would gather what arms we could. under officers regularly elected. seized Baker and took him out. H. the guns would open with grape and canister without warning. with which we thought we could march to Appalachicola Bay. I hereby warn the leaders and those who formed themselves into a band to carry out this. not connected with those who concocted a mad plan to force the Stockade. that I am in possession of all the facts. What was done with him I know not. he caused the following notice to be posted on the gates NOTICE.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The Plymouth Brigade was then to man these and turn them on the camp of the Reserves who. so as to frustrate it. All these were to be thrown down at a preconcerted signal.1864. to some New York regiment—was the grand organizer of the scheme. any gathering exceeding one hundred was observed. The guard had been strongly reinforced. He said. so that a half dozen or so could be pushed over with a little effort. The plan was to dig large tunnels to the Stockade at various places. resolute men. and make in this way their escape. who made a speech informing them that he knew all the details of the plot. bound by the most stringent oaths that could be devised. The next day a line of tall poles. Not wishing to shed the blood of hundreds. The number of deaths in the Stockade in May was seven hundred and eight. When the Sergeants returned. There they met Wirz.htm Still a plot was concocted for a break. Then came the usual blight to all such enterprises: a spy or a traitor revealed everything to Wirz. A man named Baker—belonging. except at roll call. and what effect this would have. May 25. First a secret society was organized. need not be told. and driven back across the river. were put up at some little distance from the Dead Line. the companies were to rush out and seize the eleven guns of the headquarters fort. No choice would be left me but to open with grape and canister on the Stockade. would drop their arms and take to their heels after receiving a round or so of shell. and disposed in such a manner as to protect the guns from capture. that Sherman had been badly defeated by Johnston. The Stockade had been secured to prevent its falling. The members of this were divided into companies of fifty men each.gutenberg. and it seemed to the sanguine portions of us that it must prove successful. or to Sherman. closer the Stockade than these poles. I think. about as many as had been killed in Sherman's army during the same time. Wirz. and place them in the hands of the most active and determined. so that any hopes of co-operation by him would be ill-founded. and have made my dispositions accordingly. 129 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and then hollow out the ground at the foot of the timbers. and make a gap ten or twelve feet wide. The secrecy was assumed in order to shut out Rebel spies and the traitors from a knowledge of the contemplated outbreak. This would give us frown eight to ten thousand fairly armed. even if undermined. One day a guard came in. and a notice was read to us at roll call that if. Immediately afterward all the Sergeants of detachments were summoned outside.

I think it would have been successful without a loss of a tenth of the number. Men who have any talent for governing find little occasion for the death penalty. I am quite sure. especially. and. and then a carnage would begin the like of which modern times had never seen. excited. But the insuperable trouble—in our disorganized state—was want of concert of action. though it would be at a fearful loss of life. we relieved our surcharged feelings with a few general yells of execration upon Rebels generally. the palisade could be scaled. The great element in our favor was the shortness of the distance between us and the cannon. The long dreaded time had arrived. He knew no art of government. This was because of the essential weakness of his nature. The stronger they are in themselves—the more fitted for controlling others—the less their need of enforcing their authority by harsh measures. I was cooking my dinner—that is. and upon those around us particularly. or throw a shell into the prison. and burst in the woods beyond. Wirz.gutenberg. A fuse shell shrieked across the prison—close to the tops of the logs.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. it was merely a signal. It was believed that if anything would occur which would rouse half those in the pen to make a headlong effort in concert. It was not fired. We waited for what seemed ages for the next gun. As we realized what the whole affair meant. We could hope to traverse this before the guns could be reloaded more than once. or we them. Bitter experience had long since taught us that the Rebels rarely threatened in vain. or seeming offense. however. There was a general expression of determination among the prisoners to answer any cannonade with a desperate attempt to force the Stockade. on which were standing twelve thousand men—erect. JUNE—POSSIBILITIES OF A MURDEROUS CANNONADE—WHAT WAS PROPOSED TO BE DONE IN THAT EVENT—A FALSE ALARM—DETERIORATION OF THE RATIONS —FEARFUL INCREASE OF MORTALITY.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. It was answered with a yell of defiance from ten thousand throats. and the gates carried. I was sure that at the next shot they would surge straight against the Stockade like a mighty human billow. was much more likely to kill without warning. Had ten thousand rushed forward at once. it would lash everybody to such a pitch that they would see that the sole forlorn hope of safety lay in wresting the arms away from our tormentors. that the attempt would have been made had the guns opened. and resumed our occupation of cooking rations. It was agreed that anything was better than dying like rats in a pit or wild animals in a battue. killing lice. He could conceive of no other way of managing men than the punishment of every offense. each with a determination to do or die. Suddenly the long rifle in the headquarters fort rang out angrily. Though the gun had a shell in it. going into position in the rifle pits and the hand-grenade piles. than to warn without killing. I looked across to the opposite bank. we lived in daily apprehension of some pretext being found for opening the guns upon us for a general massacre. It would have depended wholly upon the spirit and unanimity with which the effort was made. One day. with death. in my fruit can. and discussing the prospects of exchange and 130 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The excitement and suspense were terrible. the Rebels had opened the massacre in which they must exterminate us. while the agitation of this matter was feverish. Whether it would have been possible to succeed I am unable to say. and the guards came doublequicking up by regiments. After Wirz's threat of grape and canister upon the slightest provocation. no method of discipline save "kill them!" His petty little mind's scope reached no further. defiant. I sprang up-my heart in my mouth. If the Rebels would discharge grape and canister. with the aid of a handful of splinters that I had been able to pick up by a half day's diligent search.htm CHAPTER XXX. Old Winder was merely showing the prisoners how he could rally the guards to oppose an outbreak. the majority of those making the attempt would get out. boiling my pitiful little ration of unsalted meal.

for long hungry weeks and months. when one goes without it for a while. I wish the reader would prepare himself an object lesson as to how little life can be supported on for any length of time. and a thin slice of pork. but did not stay with one so long. As still more prisoners came in. it seemed as if every muscle in our bodies was invigorated. and eight and three-fourths pounds of meal. during the Crimean war. like everything else about us. four thousand died of chronic diarrhea. My detachment was allowed to choose which it would take—bread. Earnest solicitation at length resulted in having occasional scanty issues of wood to cook this with. and one thousand three hundred and eighty-four died of dysenteria. pieces of shelter tents. and then imagine how he would fare. energy. making total of six thousand two hundred and one victims to enteric disorders. with that as his sole daily ration. A bakery was built outside of the Stockade in May and our meal was baked there into loaves about the size of brick. was call that I received. at present prices cost one-third that. and made our mush. as a rule. The meal was ground very coarse and produced great irrition in the bowels. A week's rations then would be two and one-third pounds of bacon—worth ten cents. and was rolled into little balls. active men. We used to have the most frightful cramps that men ever suffered from. neither bread nor mush could be furnished them.htm escape. The dumplings held an intermediate position—the water in which they were boiled becoming a sort of a broth that helped to stay the stomach. upon the bare sand. the mush the bulkiest—it made a bigger show. by death in all shapes. They pretended to give us one-third of pound of bacon and one and one-fourth pounds of corn meal. by procuring a piece of corn bread the size of an ordinary brickbat. a week. It would surprise me to learn that we averaged two-thirds of it. It may help his perception of the magnitude of this number to remember that the total loss of the British. We traded buttons to the guards for red peppers. Of the twelve thousand and twelve men who died. and mush was issued to a number of detachments. Dio Lewis satisfied himself that he could sustain life on sixty cents. mush or meal. and rich possibilities for the good of the community and country died with those six thousand two hundred and one young. There were three ways of doing it: Bread. eight hundred and seventeen died of acute diarrhea. The bread was the most satisfactory and nourishing. It took the latter. the latter receiving it on blankets. When. hot with the 131 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . worth. or dumplings. Let the reader reflect a moment upon this number. which was then hailed inside and issued out to the detachments. was four thousand five hundred and ninety-five. which were then boiled. the size of marbles. Each of us got a half of one of these for a day's ration. or one thousand seven hundred and six less than the deaths in Andersonville from dysenteric diseases alone. Cooking the meal was the topic of daily interest. As a matter of fact. mush and "dumplings. I am sure that the food furnished us by the Rebels would not. It was not long until the bakery became inadequate to supply bread for all the prisoners. A deep wagon-bed would be shoveled full of the smoking paste. till comprehends fully how many six thousand two hundred and men are. lacking even these. The loathsome maggot flies swarmed about the bakery." In the latter the meal was dampened until it would hold together. and dropped into the trough where the dough was being mixed. ten cents more. Then great iron kettles were set. There was not so much cleanliness and care in preparing this as a farmer shows in cooking food for stock.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. instead of bread.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Those who were predisposed intestinal affections were speedily carried off by incurable diarrhea and dysentery. I do not presume that at any time we got this full ration. say. training. No one knows the intense longing for this. or bread. and a part of the detachments received their rations in meal. had steadily grown worse. and how much force. We received no salt. The rations. so that it was rare to get a ration of bread not contaminated with a few of them. and occasionally a small slice of salt pork. This. after a privation of weeks we would get a teaspoonful of salt apiece.gutenberg. or.

and quarreled among ourselves daily as to whether the joint stock should be converted into bread. At the end of June there were twenty-six thousand three hundred and sixty-seven prisoners in the Stockade. and even so slight a change as a variation in the way of combining the two was an agreeable novelty. but it was a failure. but after having fifty or sixty meals of them in succession. We had now six months of unvarying diet of corn meal and water. We all remember the man who was very fond of white beans. mush or dumplings. If very hungry. in hopes that this would make up for the lack of salt. My little squad—now diminished by death from five to three—cooked our rations together to economize wood and waste of meal. but it was far from it. This may seem a trifling matter.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The decision depended upon the state of the stomach. dumplings. One pinch of salt was worth all the pepper pods in the Southern Confederacy. 132 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and one thousand two hundred—just forty per day—had died during the month. began to find a suspicion of monotony in the provender.htm fiery-pods.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. bread. if disposed to weigh matters. we made mush. if less famished.

with poor Seitz clinging to his mane like the traditional grim Death to a deceased African. swearing in deep German gutterals. He did not know enough about horses to put a snaffle-bit in one's mouth. was a genial little Corporal. Then "Bruno" Weeks—a young boy. AND HIS DEATH—STIGGALL AND EMERSON —RAVAGES ON THE SCURVY. "Billy" Phillips—who was a favorite with us all. while in the service. THE SLOW. fill it with tobacco. and go plodding off in a cloud of smoke in search of some fresh way to narrowly escape destruction. with frequent allusion to 'tausend teuflin. upon whose back he was scarcely more at home than he would be upon a slack rope. It was no uncommon thing to see a horse break out of ranks. was even still farther beyond the power of conjecture. We then knew that Seitz had thoughtlessly sunk the keen spurs he would persist in wearing. 133 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg. when he would exclaim: "Zo! dot vos pretty vunny now. and one of the slowest of created mortals.htm CHAPTER XXXI DYING BY INCHES—SEITZ. Did somebody tumble over a bank of a dark night. deep into the flanks of his high-mettled animal. a German. who had run away from his home in Fulton County. The next to go was good-natured. but it was of little avail. Ohio. the son of a preacher. a Detroit cigar maker. and that imported son of the Fatherland was equally sure to be caught under him. May and June made sad havoc in the already thin ranks of our battalion. most mettlesome animal in the corral.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. it was Seitz that we soon heard making his way back. ain't it?" And as he surveyed the scene of his trouble with true German phlegm. harmless Victor Seitz. Everything was done for him that kindness could suggest. to join us.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Among the first to die of my company comrades. it was almost sure to be Seitz's. Why his supernatural slowness and clumsiness did not result in his being killed at least once a day. and go past the battalion like the wind. we ran over and pulled Seitz out of the debris. he would fish a brier-wood pipe from the recesses of his pockets. Did a horse fall on a slippery road. succumbed to hardship and privation. and yet he would draw the friskiest.' Did a shanty blow down. Nearly a score died in my company—L—and the other companies suffered proportionately. No accident ever happened in the company that Seitz did not have some share in. How he ever came to go into the cavalry was beyond the wildest surmises of his comrades.

." and be ready to move out before the last notes of the call had fairly died away. and the Johnnies will skin you alive!" etc. with calm. 134 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . etc. "count off by fours from the right. and bridle in hand. Seitz!" "If you ain't on that horse in half a second. It was Seitz's. mount. equable steps. Just then we would notice an unsaddled horse still tied to the hitching place. Seitz.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. hurry up!" "Seitz! you are like a cow's tail—always behind!" "Seitz. pipe in mouth." the rest of us would pack up.htm These accidents became so much a matter-of-course that when anything unusual occurred in the company our first impulse was to go and help Seitz out.gutenberg. and that worthy would be seen approaching. Seitz.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. we'll go off and leave you. as if any time before the expiration of his enlistment would be soon enough to accomplish the saddling of his steed. When the bugle sounded "boots and saddles. A chorus of impatient and derisive remarks would go up from his impatient comrades: "For heaven's sake. you are slower than the second coming of the Savior!" "Christmas is a railroad train alongside of you.

htm Not a ripple of emotion would roll over Seitz's placid features under the sharpest of these objurgations. tied his big toes together. Then Seitz would mount. One day we remembered that none of us had seen him for several days. folded his hands 135 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . though Erebus yawned and bade him fly. steadfast courage of his race. two or three boys would dismount. saddle and bridle him. run to Seitz's horse. We found him in a distant part of the camp. and we started in search of him. and his disposition to oblige equal to the severest test. He stood up pretty well under the hardships of Belle Isle. dis is worse dun a dog's det!" In a few days we gave him all the funeral in our power. M ——. we liked him. At last. but lost his cheerfulness—his unrepining calmness—after a few weeks in the Stockade. He uttered the first complaint I ever heard him make. For all this.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. as I came up to him: "My Gott. lying near the Dead Line.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg. He did not lack a grain of his full share of the calm. as if he were struck with a whirlwind. His good nature was boundless. losing all patience. despite his unfitness for many of the duties of a cavalryman. or be sentry around wagons or a forage pile-duties that most of the boys cordially hated. and we would move 'off. But he came into the last trouble at Andersonville. and would stay where he was put. He was very useful. He was a good guard. Every part of his clothing was gray with the lice that were hastening his death with their torments. pack. and always ready to take charge of prisoners. his blue eyes had the flush of fever. His long fair hair was matted together.

When this appeared. and always ready for duty. faithful. At times it seemed impossible to say or listen to pleasant words. in large chunks. by simply making his wishes known. and nobody was ever allowed to go any length of time spoiling for a fight. Co. "my pardner wants a cool drink. I met Emerson one day. the ever-present maggot flies laid eggs in these. Frightful. fragments of gums and loosened teeth. and each seemed actually jealous of any person else doing anything for the other. L. and they established their quarters at the base of the hill. First. Between them they had an overcoat and a blanket. were two Norwegian boys. the ankle joints swelled. The sufferer looked and felt as if. I said: "Johnny. but was hobbling down towards the Creek with a bucket made from a boot leg. but as long as it kept out of our legs we were hopeful. By day the blanket served as a tent. All of us who had read sea-stories had read much of this disease and its horrors. It usually manifested itself first in the mouth. beside some scores of others that were awaiting the arrival of the six-mule wagon that hauled them to the Potter's Field. M ——" he wheezed out.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. They had an affection for each other that reminded one of the stories told of the sworn attachment and the unfailing devotion that were common between two Gothic warrior youths. Even the best of chums would have sharp quarrels and brisk fights. of my company. pinned to his shirt a slip of paper. The teeth became so loose that they frequently fell out. SEITZ. pull themselves up on their knees by clenching the poles of their tents —in order to strike each other with clubs. and soon worms swarmed therein. He was one of the first victims of scurvy.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg. beyond the lips. diarrhea and scurvy set in." "No. And laid his body at the South Gate. and they kept striking until the bystanders interfered and took their weapons away from them. they found all the desirable ground taken up. livid and disgusting. The hardships and annoyances that we endured made everybody else cross and irritable. the gums swelled until they protruded. more or less. Their tenderness and affection were remarkable to witness. and this disposition increased as disease made greater inroads upon them.htm across his breast. they wasted away till their muscles and tissues almost disappeared. All the time one was eating his mouth would be filled with blood. with one leg drawn clear out of shape. colorless and transparent as a tightly blown bladder. carried off so many. The leg was so much larger at the bottom than at 136 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . There they dug a little hole to lie in. At night they lay upon the coat and covered themselves with the blanket. But Stiggall and Emerson never quarreled with each other. and rendered almost useless by the scurvy. and put in a layer of pine leaves. upon which was written: VICTOR E. just give me your bucket. leaving the skin lying fiat upon the bones. near the Swamp. and I guess I'd better get it for him. In attempting to bite the hard corn bread furnished by the bakery the teeth often stuck fast and were pulled out. Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry. which. which was to be their last resting-place. We all had scurvy. we considered the man doomed. malignant ulcers appeared in other parts of the body. The breath became unbearably fetid. The last change was ushered in by the lower parts of the legs swelling. in the succeeding few weeks. but we had little conception of the dreadful reality." Stiggall died in June. He could usually be accommodated upon the spot to any extent he desired. which would be swallowed or spit out. I'll fill it for you. and fine specimens of their race—intelligent. and the skin from these down was distended until it looked pale. He was very weak. his body was anticipating the rotting it would undergo a little later in the grave. I saw in one instance two brothers-both of whom died the next day of scurvy—and who were so helpless as to be unable to rise. and bring it up to your tent. but their principal solicitude was for each other. and the sufferer would pick them up and set them back in their sockets. Coming into Andersonville some little time after the rest of us. They began to go the way that so many were going. then the foot became useless. much obliged. The swelling increased until the knees became stiff. John Emerson and John Stiggall. The gums had a fashion of breaking away. though he yet lived and moved.

The only effort made by the Rebel doctors to check its ravages was occasionally to give a handful of sumach berries to some particularly bad case. reported to the Rebel Government his belief that nine-tenths of the great mortality of the prison was due.gutenberg.htm the thigh." The man then became utterly helpless and usually died in a short time. that the sufferers used to make grim jokes about being modeled like a churn. to this cause. The official report puts down the number of deaths from scurvy at three thousand five hundred and seventy-four. "with the biggest end down. When Stiggall died we thought Emerson would certainly follow him in a day or two. but. to our surprise. Jones. the Rebel surgeon.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. but Dr. either directly or indirectly. 137 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . he lingered along until August before dying.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.

leaving them entirely naked. Doubtless—had that water been pure. When the hot weather came on. was much better than that of the creek. sending his level rays through the wide interstices between the somber pines." AND "OLE SOL. I beg that the hottest place in the Sahara may be selected. by strings made of strips of cloth. this was Dawson's invariable observation at the break of day. which made a decided improvement on a desert. Their clothes speedily became too small for them.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. changed to: "Well. AND THE EFFECTS OF DRINKING IT—STEALING SOFT SOAP. The hot sand would glow as one sees it in the center of the unshaded highway some scorching noon in August.htm CHAPTER XXXII "OLE BOO. Dawson would. and they suffered intensely until death at last came to their relief. In my company was a none-too-bright fellow. It may be said that we had an abundance of water. Ole Sol." He was so unvarying in this salutation to the morn that his designation of disagreeable weather as "Ole Boo" became generally adopted by us. Each was hotter. But every mouthful of it was a blood poison. was a young man named Baxter. The difference is as that between a brick-kiln and a sewer. He was very fine looking—tall. By nine o'clock in the morning his beams would begin to fairly singe everything in the crowded pen. THE HAYMAKER"—A FETID.gutenberg. But a firm clay was reached a few feet below the surface. poisoned with the excretions of thousands of sick and dying men. which afforded tolerable strong sides for the lower part. were the ailments most active in carrying men off. During the chilly rains or the nipping. and fellows were perpetually falling down the holes. of the Fifth Indiana Cavalry. the Haymaker.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. named Dawson. The high walls of the prison prevented the circulation inside of any breeze that might be in motion. survey the forbidding skies with lack-luster eyes and remark. Even before reaching the Stockade it was so polluted by the drainage of the Rebel camps as to be utterly unfit for human use. The gradually lengthening Summer days were insufferably long and wearisome. longer and more tedious than its predecessors. and this superinduced malignant dropsical complaints. and nothing wherewith to wall the wells. to-day. taken at Chicamauga. next to diarrhea. and helped promote disease and death. upon rising and seeing excellent prospects for a scorcher. there is nothing worse about it than heat and intense dryness. It is not. The intense heat led men to drink great quantities of water. slender. oracularly: "Well. as it contained the seepage from the filthy ground. ana furnished material to make adobe bricks for curbs to keep out the sand of the upper part. He was quite right. winds of our first days in prison. to the great damage of their legs and arms. Among those of my squad who died in this way. but was still far from pure. Ole Boo gits us agin. which. while the foul stench rising from the putrid Swamp and the rotting ground seemed to reach the skies. The Ole Haymaker would do some famous work before he descended in the West. the morning. or boot leg buckets. is going to git in his work on us agin to-day. One can readily comprehend the horrors of death on the burning sands of a desert. as he rose in. Should the fates ever decide that I shall be flung out upon sands to perish. and loading the air with the germs of death. Dawson's remark. Those affected in this way swelled up frightfully from day to day. however. The sides were continually giving away. We had no other tools for this than our ever-faithful half canteens. which was drawn up in little cans." As long as he lived and was able to talk. scurvy and gangrene. with regular features and intensely black hair and eyes. The water. filled with disgusting vermin. rather than such a spot as the interior of the Andersonville Stockade. BURNING DESERT —NOISOME WATER. he sang 138 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . In our part of the prison we sank several wells—some as deep as forty feet—to procure water. But the desert sand is at least clean. and were ripped off. as that was at Andersonville.

springing from their horses and struggling around every well or spring on the line of march for an opportunity to fill their canteens. It was impossible to get really clean. We in prison saw even less of it. and our desire for it. The occasional rain storms that swept across the prison were welcomed. in a few minutes he had forgotten me. however. arising from the little pitch pine fires over which we hovered when cooking our rations.htm nicely. since the naked followers of Boadicea gathered in force to do battle to the Roman invaders. and still be able to give effective assistance. I was taken up to Wirz's office. I began wondering what was in the box I was sitting upon. none at all. not only because they cooled the air temporarily. if possible. But. A handful was scooped up and speedily shoved into my 139 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and the water could do little towards cleansing so many. because I foresaw that the rush through the gaps in the Stockade would be bloody business. I made liberal use of the Creek for bathing purposes. He turned around. His body had swollen until it seemed marvelous that the human skin could bear so much distention without disruption. His swarthy hair and beard. as I have before stated—was nearly as scarce in the Southern Confederacy as salt. I imagined that it came from the rosin or turpentine. Our bodies seemed covered with a varnish-like. I was offered a temporary detail outside to. The like has not been seen. I imagine. and slipped my left hand down of a voyage of discovery.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. like the great majority of the prisoners. having exhausted everything else in the room. taking in the details for a half-hour. or to yield to sickness. I sat quietly. and. I resolved to accept. As they came up. It seemed very likely that there was something there that a loyal Yankee deserved better than a Rebel. gummy matter that defied removal by water alone. I had steadfastly refused all offers of positions outside the prison on parole. day by day. This did not cool one off much. Fancy. I hitched it forward a little without attracting Wirz's attention. for the shallow stream was nearly as hot as the sand. but it seemed to do some good. I felt as if I would rather die than accept the smallest favor at their hands. even on the dustiest marches. when last I saw him. but because they gave us a shower-bath. and I shared the common contempt for those who did. recalls a bit of personal experience. and by going out in advance I would avoid that much of the danger. were those who were always on the lookout for drinking water. Long before I entered the army. and ordered me to sit down upon a box at the other end of the room. or rather. nearly every one stripped naked and got out where he could enjoy the full benefit of the falling water. told the Sergeant to leave me. I do not presume that in a year I drank a quart of cold water. and it helped pass away the tedious hours. and soon found that I got along very comfortably without drinking anything beyond that which was contained in my food. The scarcity of it. and finding no need. It would yield to nothing except strong soap-and soap. I followed this up after entering the army. Experience seemed to confirm my views. and was generally liked. The lid was loose. visiting it four or five times a day during the hot days. I found that it was a fine article of soft soap. had that peculiar repulsive look which the black hair of the sick is prone to assume. A more pitiable object than he. I had constructed a theory—on premises that were doubtless as insufficient as those that boyish theories are usually based upon—that drinking water was a habit.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. the spectacle of twenty-five thousand or thirty thousand men without a stitch of clothing upon them. Turning his back and resuming his writing. can not be imagined. All the old look of bright intelligence had been. first because I thought I might get some information that would be of use in our enterprise. grown long and ragged. driven from his face by the distortion of his features. I attributed much of my freedom from the diseases to which others succumbed to abstention from water drinking. for I noticed that the first to sink under a fatigue.gutenberg. as. when the movement for a grand attack on the Stockade—mentioned in a previous chapter—was apparently rapidly coming to a head. He was writing at a desk at one end of a large room when the Sergeant brought me in. next. just before his death. and then. The stream was nearly all the time filled as full of bathers as they could stand. I took some trouble to curb my appetite for water. my hatred of the Rebels grew more bitter. to wash myself all over. assist in making up some rolls. for anything more. which sapped away the energy. and a pernicious one. drinking nothing at any time but a little coffee.

I kept dipping up handful after handful. until he decided what to do with me. I set my teeth. who stole the fox and suffered the animal to tear his bowels out rather than give a sign which would lead to the exposure of his theft. and the face wore its expression of infantile ingenuousness. But I also had a half gallon of excellent soft soap. Between four and five o'clock-after I had endured the thing for five or six hours. Then the process was repeated with the other hand. After each handful I rubbed my hand off on the back of my shirt and waited an instant for a summons to the desk. Still Wirz did not look up.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and stood it silently and sullenly.gutenberg. the hand wiped off on the back of the shirt. and one down my back. Shortly after Wirz rose and ordered a guard to take me away and keep me. and soon the soap in my pockets and on the back of my shirt began burning like double strength Spanish fly blisters. after coming inside. until I had gotten about a quart in the left hand pocket. The day was intensely hot. For the first time in my life I thoroughly appreciated the story of the Spartan boy. This was also successfully transferred.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Wirz was still engrossed in his writing. Expecting every instant that Wirz would turn around and order me to come to the desk to show my handwriting. and did not look around. 140 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Upon hastily removing my clothes. hastily and furtively wiped my hand on the back of my shirt and watched Wirz with as innocent an expression as a school boy assumes when he has just flipped a chewed paper wad across the room. squatted down under the shade of the parapet of the fort. I was emboldened to reach down for another handful. and a quart of the saponaceous mush was packed in the right hand pocket. I found I had a blister on each thigh. There was nothing to do but grin and bear it.htm left pantaloon pocket. that would have delighted an old practitioner of the heroic school. a guard came with orders from Wirz that I should be returned to the Stockade.

though the grains of leaven were entirely too small to leaven such an immense measure of meal.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Smith. The shapes that we made for pieces and pawns were necessarily very rude. and Frank Smith. A few of them would take their station in some part of the Stockade (a different one every time).gutenberg. found a piece of plank that would answer for a board and purchased it from its possessor for part of a ration of meal. but our cards soon wore out. as nearly like the way it was done at 141 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Newcomers. They were indefatigable in trying to evangelize the prison. as the Rebel guards had an affection for that style of cutlery. Very many tried to escape both the heat and ennui by sleeping as much as possible through the day. I could read anatomy or nothing." and in a few minutes they would have an attentive audience of as many thousand as could get within hearing. during which Sheppard. Every one else procured such amusement as they could. Do the best we could. and begin singing some old familiar hymn like: "Come. killing lice and washing—could be disposed of in an hour's time. and some others would make short. for the use of which a couple of hours each day. and we were left with fifteen or sixteen waking hours. Those who had books read them until the leaves fell apart. but this was usually given up after being in prison a few weeks. They conducted several funerals. The singing would be followed by regular services. Corbett. CHAPTER XXXIII "POUR PASSER LE TEMPS"—A SET OF CHESSMEN PROCURED UNDER DIFFICULTIES —RELIGIOUS SERVICES—THE DEVOTED PRIEST—WAR SONG. and consequently I did not do it. for which there was absolutely no employment. but I noticed that those who did this soon died. All that was necessary to be done during the day—attending roll call. gambled as long as their means lasted. and his book with him. and so were fitted out with what served until our release to distract our attention from much of the surrounding misery. now a leading Baptist minister in Eastern Ohio. but it was Hobson's choice. I was not specially interested in the subject. now at the head of the Railroad Bethel work at Toledo. there were very many tiresome hours for which no occupation whatever could be found. The knife was the only one among a large number of prisoners. and gave our clothes the same. and which tasted as sweet to us as manna to the Israelites. and so I tackled it with such good will that before my friend became sick and was taken outside. practical addresses. Y. Card playing had sufficed to pass away the hours at first. I was fortunate enough to know a boy who had brought a copy of "Gray's Anatomy" into prison with him. Andrews. A boy near us had a tolerably sharp pocket-knife. We found a soft. Boston Corbett. Thou fount of every blessing. who still had money and cards. and deprived us of this resource. which no doubt did much good to all who heard them. but they were sufficiently distinct for identification. The time moved with leaden feet. Ninety-Seventh O. L. I had obtained a very fair knowledge of the rudiments of physiology. There was a little band of devoted Christian workers. very closely. drawing and cooking rations. white root in the swamp which answered our purpose.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and I constructed a set of chessmen with an infinite deal of trouble. Those who had paper and pen and ink tried to write descriptions and keep journals. Sheppard. spirited. who afterward slew John Wilkes Booth. which led them to search incoming prisoners. The fortunate owner of this derived quite a little income of meal by shrewdly loaning it to his knifeless comrades. we gave a few spoonfuls of meal. and we still had soap enough left to barter for some onions that we had long coveted.htm My chums and I took a magnificent wash. among whom were Orderly Sergeant Thomas J. We blackened one set with pitch pine soot. My chum.

nostrils. and unmistakably devout. The Rebel preachers did not make that effort to save our misguided souls which one would have imagined they would having us where we could not choose but hear they might have taken advantage of our situation to rake us fore and aft with their theological artillery. attending to those who needed spiritual consolation. He was unwearied in his attention to the sick. While in Richmond a preacher came into our room and announced in an authoritative way that he would address us on religious subjects. with sacred oil. slender. middle-aged. and gathered around him. he would kneel by the latter's side and anoint him upon the eyes. 142 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . This was about all the religious services that we were favored with. but also serve in the Rebel army before he could attain to heaven. repeating the while. Their ministrations were not confined to mere lip service. ears.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and that a man must not only be saved through Christ's blood. lips.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The only minister who came into the Stockade was a Catholic priest. and the whole day could be seen moving around through the prison. He spoke but a few moments before making apparent his belief that the worst of crimes was that of being a Yankee. hands. who addressed the Lord as if drilling a brigade. feet and breast. Of course we raised such a yell of derision that the sermon was brought to an abrupt conclusion. They only attempted it in one instance. brawling Boanerges. and made many a poor fellow's way to the grave much smoother for him.gutenberg. from a little brass vessel.htm home as possible. It was interesting to see him administer the extreme unction to a dying man. We uncovered respectfully. tall. He was a loud-tongued. Placing a long purple scarf about his own neck and a small brazen crucifix in the hands of the dying one. but they labored assiduously in caring for the sick. in an impressive voice. the solemn offices of the Church.

"I go not among them. nor do I hear anything from them. with unquailing eye." Like many other people. my son. friends. regiment. and soldier 143 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . relations.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www." replied he. no matter how little inclined one might be to view priestliness generally with favor. He was evidently of such stuff as Christian heros have ever been made of. and each knew as much about the other's previous history as we chose to communicate. His name was Father Hamilton. while you are outside among the Rebel officers. The world should know more of a man whose services were so creditable to humanity and his Church: The good father had the wisdom of the serpent. "But. I find that the best use I can make of my time is in studying the Word of God. and especially the Psalms of David. nothing could betray him into the slightest expression of opinion regarding the war or those who were the authors of all this misery." said I one day. father. Though full of commiseration for the unhappy lot of the prisoners. I supposed that the whole world was excited over that in which I felt a deep interest. measured tones." We were not any longer good company for each other. at the call of duty. His invariable reply was that he lived apart from these things and kept himself ignorant of them. and he was stationed at Macon. we forgot his sacerdotal character. "No. full of sorrow at what I have seen here. "you must certainly hear or read something of this. with an impatience that I could not wholly repress. with the harmlessness of the dove. In our impatience at our treatment. and importuned him for tidings of the exchange.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. We had heard over and over again all each other's stories and jokes. in his usual calm. and hunger for news. and would have faced stake and fagot. The story of every individual's past life.htm His unwearying devotion gained the admiration of all. When I leave the prison in the evening.

144 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . until the repetition was wearisome. was fortunate enough to have a sweet singer in Israel "Nosey" Payne—of whose tunefulness we never tired. Among the best of these was "Brave Boys are They. which he sang with feeling and correctness. Our squad." which I always thought was the finest ballad. and which helped much to make the calm Summer nights pass agreeably. He had a large repertoire of patriotic songs. produced by the War. though its stock of stories was worn threadbare.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.htm experience had been told again and again. The cool nights following the hot days were favorable to little gossiping seances like the yarn-spinning watches of sailors on pleasant nights.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg. both in poetry and music.

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.htm 145 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

energetic scoundrel. these boys brought in with them a large portion of their first instalment of veteran bounty—aggregating in amount. would net several hundred dollars in Confederate money.htm CHAPTER XXXIV. An average one of them—even if his money were all gone—was a bonanza to any band which could succeed in plundering him. If the victim resisted there was always sufficient force at hand to conquer him. Decoys. If not." "Collins's Raiders. and a plentiful supply of personal trinkets. They formed themselves into bands numbering from five to twenty-five. Those near would raise the cry of "Raiders!" and attack the robbers. and laid in sores and wounds larvae that speedily became masses of wriggling worms. where Sherman's men. they would offer battle. They would occasionally snatch a blanket from the tent poles. MAGGOTS. that could be readily traded off to the Rebels. lure them to where they could be easily despoiled during the night. handkerchief." etc. or knock a boy down at the Creek and take his silver watch from him. and not seldom his life paid the penalty of his contumacy. no time was free from them. "bunko-steerers" at home. If the latter had secured their booty they retreated with all possible speed. and not unfrequently they came in with all their belongings untouched.gutenberg. but this was all. between twenty-five thousand and one hundred thousand dollars. arriving the same day. and were soon lost in the crowd. Many of the prisoners that came in from the Army of the Potomac repaid robbing equally well. The quarry was selected during the day. ranging all the way from sneak thievery to highway robbery. the maggot-flies fouled our food. knife. As a rule those from that Army were not searched so closely as those from the West. each led by a bold. and sheared him of his goods with incredible swiftness. At first these depredations were only perpetrated at night. Abundant opportunities for securing richer swag came to them with the advent of the Plymouth Pilgrims. The N'Yaarkers were human vermin that preyed upon and harried us unceasingly. The lice worried us by day and tormented us by night. the Raiders had slender picking. and signal for assistance from the 146 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . As long as we old prisoners formed the bulk of those inside the Stockade. and their bodies—with throats cut. I have known as many as three of these to be killed in a night. and when found in places convenient for attack.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. After the victim was asleep the band dashed down upon him. or skulls crushed in—be found in the morning among the dead at the gates. combs and similar trifles. had an abundance of blankets and camp equipage. would be on the look-out for promising subjects as each crowd of fresh prisoners entered the gate." and the most prominent and best known of the bands were called by the names of their ruffian leaders. ring. unscrupulous. AND BATTLES BY DAY—HARD TIMES FOR THE SMALL TRADERS. All men having money or valuables were under continual espionage. LICE AND RAIDERS—PRACTICES OF THESE HUMAN VERMIN —PLUNDERING THE SICK AND DYING—NIGHT ATTACKS. The Pilgrims were likewise well clothed." "Delaney's Raiders." "Curtis's Raiders. a rush was made for them. which cut off the Rebel communication with the outer world." "Sarsfield's Raiders. shoes. hot Summer hour the lice. would be stripped nearly to the buff. As had been before stated. according to varying estimates. With each long. as "Mosby's Raiders. We now called them "Raiders. All the arts learned in the prisons and purlieus of New York were put into exercise. and by kindly offers to find them a sleeping place. The methods of the Raiders were various. They were ever-present annoyances and troubles. They were knocked down and their persons rifled with such swift dexterity that it was done before they realized what had happened.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. the maggot-flies and the N'Yaarkers increased in numbers and venomous activity. His watch and chain. and arrangements made for a descent. made these in great demand. The blockade.

147 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and each member of the gangs had become so familiarized with all the rest by long association in New York. One day I saw "Dick Allen's Raiders. men struggling. by some means or another.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. By the middle of June the continual success of the Raiders emboldened them so that they no longer confined their depredations to the night. in which men were so badly beaten as to die from the effects. and clubs being plied vigorously. Several of them had succeeded in smuggling bowie-knives into prison. while. They had the great advantage in these rows of being well acquainted with each other. if necessary. The weapons used were fists. but he was brave.gutenberg. clubs. and there was hardly an hour in the twenty-four that the cry of "Raiders! Raiders!" did. Dick Allen managed to slip around behind him unnoticed. that he never dealt a blow amiss. and striking him on the head with a slung-shot. except the Plymouth Pilgrims. The Raiders were plentifully provided with the usual weapons of their class—slung-shots and brassknuckles." eleven in number. knocked him down. axes. not go up from some part of the pen. tent-poles. and total strangers to all outside of their own little band. but made their forays in broad daylight. Two or three times he struck one of his assailants so fairly on the head and with such good will that I congratulated myself that he had killed him.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and on looking in the direction of the cry. one would see a surging commotion. the rest of the prisoners were made up of small squads of men from each regiment in the service. and elsewhere. when the whole crowd pounced upon him to kill him. He had come into possession of a spade. and he used this with delightful vigor and effect. etc.htm other bands. attack a man wearing the uniform of Ellett's Marine Brigade. and alone. This was even more common than the guards shooting men at the Creek crossing. Finally. Severe engagements of this kind were of continual occurrence. while their opponents were nearly as likely to attack friends as enemies. He was a recent comer. The Raiders could concentrate. four hundred or five hundred men upon any point of attack. but were driven off by others rallying to his assistance.

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. insufficient food. they managed to accumulate small sums—from ten dollars upward.gutenberg. fresh meat. with a circular top. Among their special objects of attack were the small traders in the prison. While hundreds were dying of scurvy and diarrhea. by trading between the guards and the prisoners. and other things. whom they fawned upon and groveled before. situated on the street leading to the South Gate. and lack of vegetables. these fellows had flour. and their headquarters was a large. constructed of stolen blankets. scorbutic. the very looks of which were a torture to hungry. from the miserable.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. going out upon detail. They all had good tents. potatoes. and capable of accommodating from seventy-five to one hundred men. green beans. roomy tent. in the way of trading. while others were dying from starvation. They were on the best possible terms with the Rebels. We had quite a number of these whose genius for barter was so strong that it took root and flourished even in that unpropitious soil. All the material for this had been wrested away from others. and were in return allowed many favors. and making purchases.htm The proceeds of these forays enabled the Raiders to wax fat and lusty. and during the time when new prisoners were constantly coming in with money. onions. In the period immediately following a prisoner's entrance he was likely to spend all 148 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . dysenteric men.

There were no fat salaries to tempt any one to take upon himself the duty of ruling the masses. and "Egypt" went through the manual labor of knocking our opponents down. In the southwest corner of the Stockade—where I was—we formed ourselves into a company of fifty active boys—mostly belonging to my own battalion and to other Illinois regiments—of which I was elected Captain. after we had been enfeebled by months of starvation and disease. who managed to make him pay handsomely for what he got.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. As soon as he thought the 149 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Then was when he was profitable to these go-betweens. that not enough men could be concentrated against them to whip them. they cared as little what we did there as for the performances of savages in the interior of Africa. My First Lieutenant was a tall. and as fear of consequences swayed them. We made a tacit division of duties: I did the talking. If a fellow did wrong he was pounded—if there was anybody capable of doing it. trusting to fortune to get him out of there when these were gone. The great bulk of the boys were recent comers. but this was all they would do. Their whole energies were concentrated in preventing our escape. It reminded one of the habits of the fishing eagle. as is usually the case in this world. The administration of justice was reduced to its simplest terms. I doubt if they would have interfered had one-half of us killed and eaten the other half. and helped beat off the Raiders when their own territory was invaded. The rest of us formed similar guards. whose stripes carried no weight of authority. but. It was an ocular demonstration of the total depravity of the Yankees. He was wonderfully handy with his fists. If not he went free.htm his money and trade off all his possessions for food. and lie longer than any person I ever saw. The Raiders kept watch of these traders.gutenberg. To fully appreciate the condition of affairs let it be remembered that we were a community of twenty-five thousand boys and young men—none too regardful of control at best—and now wholly destitute of government. The almost unvarying success of the Raiders in—their forays gave the general impression that they were invincible—that is. If we could not beat them then. "Egypt" would stand by my side. Our ill-success in the attack we made on them in April helped us to the same belief. while I pursued the dialogue with the leader of the other crowd. In the numerous little encounters in which our company was engaged. The time of our stay was—it was hoped—too transient to make it worth while bothering about organizing any form of government. Among ourselves there was no one in position to lay down law and enforce it.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. they did not see it in the light that we wished them to. I think he could knock a fellow down so that he would fall-harder. The Rebels never made the slightest attempt to maintain order in the prison. and then takes it away. taciturn. and plundered them whenever occasion served. They established guards around their squads." as he came from that section of the State. according to their several bents. So long as we staid inside the Stockade. CHAPTER XXXV A COMMUNITY WITHOUT GOVERNMENT—FORMATION OF THE REGULATORS —RAIDERS ATTACK KEY BUT ARE BLUFFED OFF—ASSAULT OF THE REGULATORS ON THE RAIDERS —DESPERATE BATTLE—OVERTHROW OF THE RAIDERS. which hovers around until some other bird catches a fish. and made and enforced their own regulations on their own territory. Each little squad of men was a law unto themselves. silent. we could not now. grim and patient. who hoped that in another week or so they would be out again. They rather took a delight in such atrocities as came to their notice. where we think somebody else ought to undertake the performance of a disagreeable public duty. whose organization was yet very strong. whom we called "Egypt. to do good or evil. Being all enlisted men we were on a dead level as far as rank was concerned—the highest being only Sergeants. long-armed member of the One Hundred and Eleventh Illinois. and all were left to their own devices. should undertake the task. It seemed to us that the Plymouth Pilgrims.

He was ably seconded by "Limber Jim. They knocked him down. and the other fellow dropped as if he had suddenly come in range of a mule that was feeling well. dark. We were all very proud of him. Though fearfully reduced in numbers. whose lithe. and striking features reminded one of a young Sioux brave. of Company M. and had accumulated forty dollars by his bartering. In spite of our company and our watchfulness. who. intelligent and strong-willed.gutenberg. resolved to make an effort to crush the Raiders. He had all of Key's desperate courage. to make a rush for Marion. This state of things had become unendurable." as they were styled. Tom Larkin. He was a printer. and others. and one of the bravest men I ever knew. sinewy form. our battalion. One evening at dusk Delaney's Raiders. Louis. Other stalwart specimens of physical manhood in our battalion were Sergeant Goody. genial Irish boy. and these formed the nucleus for Key's band of "Regulators. That unexpected left-hander never failed. from Bloomington.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. were still more than a match for the best of the Raiders. of Company I of our battalion. It would have made Charles Reade's heart leap for joy to see it. but only used his fists when some of his comrades were imposed upon. his long left arm stretched out like a flash. took advantage of the absence of most of us drawing rations. about twenty-five strong. Corporal of Company I. and robbed him of his forty dollars. He was a big-hearted. who was never known to get into trouble on his own account.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Ned entered into the regulating scheme heartily. was one of the small traders. tall.htm conversation had reached the proper point. By the time we could rally Delaney and his attendant scoundrels were safe from pursuit in the midst of their friends. from Chicago—who was so confessedly the best man in the whole prison that he was never called upon to demonstrate it. and it was as good as an entertainment to us to see the noisiest roughs subside into deferential silence as Ned would come among them. Sergeant Leroy L. Among them were several who had no equals in physical strength and courage in any of the Raider chiefs. cut him across the wrist and neck with a razor. in a prize fight near St. but not his brains or his talent for leadership. Key. like some grand mastiff in the midst of a pack of yelping curs. He had fought in the ring. while not approaching Carrigan's perfect manhood. Marion Friend. our battalion had still about one hundred well men in it." of the Sixty-Seventh Illinois. the Raiders beat us badly on one occasion. Ned Johnson. and on one occasion had killed a man with a single blow of his fist. Illinois. 150 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Our best man was Ned Carrigan.

To the great majority of the prisoners it was the first intimation that such a thing was contemplated. and the other two. He said it was.htm Key proceeded with the greatest secrecy in the organization of his forces. To us of the Regulators it showed that the Raiders had penetrated our designs. Indianians and Ohioans.gutenberg. information as to his scheme reached the Raiders.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The boys from those States seemed to naturally go together. They told him what they had heard. It was debated at their headquarters. "billies" to attack him. who happened to be in a complaisant humor. They called on Key. and allowed him the use of the enclosure of the North Gate to confine his prisoners in. One of them then drew a knife. and soon everybody was discussing the chances of the movement. so that any unusual commotion within the prison might not be mistaken for an attempt upon the Stockade. and decided there that Key must be killed. and were prepared for them. he came out of the blanket-covered hole on the hillside that he called his tent. He accepted none but Western men. a dusk. In spite of Key's efforts at secrecy. Key had procured a revolver which one of the Pilgrims had brought in in his knapsack and drawing this he drove them off. Kansans. and asked if it was true. anticipating trouble. The occurrence caused the greatest excitement. Wirz. and preferred Illinoisans. Iowans.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. He informed Wirz what he proposed doing. For awhile men ceased their interminable discussion of escape and exchange—let those over worked words and 151 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . the news spread from squad to squad with the greatest rapidity. on the evening of the 2d of July. Three men were selected to do this work. but without firing a shot. In response to their inquiries. But. approved of the design. and made the excuse for opening with the artillery. and be moved by the same motives.

and we never heard them anywhere else. We. The sun rose rapidly through the clear sky. by way of variety. took additional precautions in every way. or whether this affair precipitated the crisis. and spent the hours in anxious anticipation. at any instant.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Morning at last came. secured to his wrist by a string. and sang in such a way as suggested highway robbery. and had the confidence begotten by a long series of successes. I know not. Each man was armed with a small club. mayhem and arson: Brennan on the moor! Brennan on the moor! Proud and undaunted stood John Brennan on the moor. or the Regulators conquer the Raiders. As I have before explained the two sides sloped toward each other like those of a great trough. fearing that the Raiders might attempt to frustrate the scheme by an attack in overpowering force on Key's squad. though confident of success. Left him a farm of ten acres of ground. and as their only interpretation of anything unusual there was a design upon the Stockade. the fuses thrust into the touch-holes and the men stood with lanyards in hand ready to mow down everybody. held ourselves in readiness to offer any assistance that might be needed. Whether Key had originally fixed on the next day for making the attack. and consequently those standing on the northern slope saw everything as if upon the stage of a theater. They threw out pickets to all the approaches to their headquarters. who were waiting and watching. The Raiders were in good health well fed. which soon glowed down on us like a brazen oven. His father he died. murder. He battered away till he hadn't a pound. and ready for action the next morning. The reasons which I have previously enumerated. The whole camp gathered where it could best view the encounter. whose chief virtue was that What he rob-bed from the rich he gave unto the poor. The Regulators lacked in all these respects. They howled these two nearly the live-long night. The Rebels learned through their spies that something unusual was going on inside. induced a general disbelief in the probability of our success. were no less exercised. which would be accompanied by the assassination of him and Limber Jim. and then marched to the space on the South Side where the rations were issued. The other related the exploits of an Irish highwayman named Brennan.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. This was upon the North Side. They became eventually quite monotonous to us. And this was the villainous chorus in which they all joined.htm themes have a rare spell of repose—and debated whether the Raiders would whip the regulators. It would have been quite a relief if they had thrown in a new one every hour or so. vile whisky made from sorghum—and they grew quite hilarious in their Big Tent over their potations. and provided otherwise against surprise. and he made him a man agin. The Rebels—with their chronic fear of an outbreak animating them—had all the infantry in line of battle with loaded guns. The Raiders. used to operating together. They had smuggled in some canteens of a cheap. The first began: In Athol lived a man named Jerry Lanagan. Two songs had long ago been accepted by us as peculiarly the Raiders' own—as some one in their crowd sang them nearly every evening. Our companies mustered on their grounds. 152 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . There was very little sleep anywhere that night. but later in the evening he sent us all order: to be on our guard all night. The Raiders' headquarters stood upon the center of the southern slope.gutenberg. The cannon in the works were shotted. they strengthened the guards.

The sight was the strangest one my eyes ever encountered. and Ned Johnson led the advance with their companies. Goody. For an instant—it seemed an hour—the struggle was desperate. against which our advance was moving. Not a blow was struck until the lines came close together. making acres on acres of faces. They could not themselves tell.htm While standing in ranks waiting the orders to move. As we approached. the Raiders massed themselves in a strong. with the center. as it was impossible to say where their line ended and the mass of spectators began. great muscles strained almost to 153 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . When all was ready we moved down upon the Big Tent. There were at least fifteen thousand perhaps twenty thousand—men packed together on the bank. and every eye was turned on us. heavy line.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. It was as if the whole broad hillside was paved or thatched with human countenances. Strong. Then the Raider center launched itself forward against ours. The slope was such that each man's face showed over the shoulders of the one in front of him. held by the most redoubtable of their leaders. Limber Jim. as the attitude of a large portion of the spectators would be determined by which way the battle went. Key. Ned Carigan. and looked in the direction indicated by the speaker. and grappled savagely with the leading Regulators. whose intentions gave me more uneasiness than anything else. How many there were of them could not be told. The prison was as silent as a graveyard. in as good order as we could preserve while passing through the narrow tortuous paths between the tents. Tom Larkin. one of my comrades touched me on the arm. and said: "My God! just look over there!" I turned from watching the Rebel artillerists. fierce men clenched and strove to throttle each other.

that Wirz might be re-assured and let the rations enter.htm bursting. We light weights had been sent around on the flanks to separate the spectators from the combatants. Wagons containing bread and mush had driven to the gates. and blows with fist and club-dealt with all the energy of mortal hate—fell like hail. Larkin. and very hungry. that they could not escape us. Carrigan. One—perhaps two endless minutes the lines surged—throbbed—backward and forward a step or two. our men flung the Raider line back from it—broken—shattered. The next instant our leaders were striding through the mass like raging lions. strike the Raiders 'en revers. and then. but our great relief from the intense strain we had long borne. and they sought safety in flight.gutenberg. We were very tired. keep the crowd from reinforcing them. Johnson and Goody each smote down a swath of men before them. as they moved resistlessly forward.' and. Limber Jim. but Wirz would not allow these to be opened. Wirz was thoroughly 154 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . they vented their pent-up excitement in a yell that made the very ground tremble. In five minutes after the first blow—was struck the overthrow of the Raiders was complete. We picked up a few prisoners on the battle field. lest in the excited condition of the men an attempt might be made to carry them. Key ordered operations to cease.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. as we knew. As the result became apparent to the—watchers on the opposite hillside. and retired without making any special effort to get any more then. and we answered them with a shout that expressed not only our exultation over our victory. as far as possible. Resistance ceased. The time for drawing rations had arrived. as if by a concentration of mighty effort.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. It was in vain.

This is always the case. at the farthest. CHAPTER XXXVI." and "haag" for "hog." where we said simply "Lend me your knife. exceeded five hundred. but they were not. The wagons stood out in the hot sun until the mush fermented and soured. and mingled 155 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . have commanded their cordial assistance. and Ray's Arithmetics at school. were as manly. who belonged to the same "Ninety" with me. but three or four weeks in the Stockade. but it would have been difficult to convince a new prisoner that there were not thousands of them. They had the same tricks of speech. They made occasional shows of fierce resistance. Those from Ohio. admired the same great men. We never estimated that the raiding N'Yaarkers. First. the great bulk of the prisoners were new comers. The work of arresting the leading Raiders went on actively all day on the Fourth of July." or "Give me just a sup of that water. until after the decisive blow was struck. more disposed to be social. and had to be thrown away. Secondly. and held generally the same opinions on any given subject. WHY THE REGULATORS WERE NOT ASSISTED BY THE ENTIRE CAMP—PECULIARITIES OF BOYS FROM DIFFERENT SECTIONS—HUNTING THE RAIDERS DOWN—EXPLOITS OF MY LEFT-HANDED LIEUTENANT—RUNNING THE GAUNTLET. Indiana. broken their confidence. The activity and audacity of the Raiders gave them the impression that at least half the able-bodied men in the Stockade were engaged in these depredations. To all intents and purposes they might have come from the same County. while it required an effort to bring about harmony of action with those from other sections." They were less reserved than the true Yankees. and there was no way in which it could be done readily. There were many reasons for this. having been. had studied McGuffey's Readers. we could. A half dozen burglars or other active criminals in a town will produce the impression that a large portion of the population are law breakers." or "hand me a drink. It was never difficult to get them to act in unison—they did it spontaneously. These were strangers to and distrustful of all out side their own little circles. but the events of the day before had destroyed their prestige. and driven away from their support very many who followed their lead when they were considered all-powerful. the prisoners were made up of small squads from every regiment at the front along the whole line from the Mississippi to the Atlantic. Mitchell's Geography. They did not understand that all the outrages—or very nearly all—were the work of—a relatively small crowd of graduates from the metropolitan school of vice. and rose the next day with more than usually empty stomachs to goad us on to our work. Had the Western boys in prison been thoroughly advised of the nature of our enterprise.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and. read the same newspapers. The Pennsylvanians and New Yorkers each formed groups. They scattered from their former haunts. The boys from Minnesota and Wisconsin were very much like those from Michigan. with all their eccentricities. doubtless. with their spies and other accomplices. I could ask no better comrades than the boys of the Third Michigan Infantry. The Eastern men were especially so. Iowa and Kansas all seemed cut off the same piece." "Let me look at your knife half a second. and did not fraternize readily with those outside their State lines.htm scared. I may not have made it wholly clear to the reader why we did not have the active assistance of the whole prison in the struggle with the Raiders. while we event rationless to bed. They did not comprehend the situation of affairs as we older prisoners did. Illinois. The Michigan men were modified New Englanders. honorable a set of fellows as it was my fortune to meet with in the army.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The New Jerseyans held aloof from all the rest.gutenberg. while the Massachusetts soldiers had very little in Common with anybody—even their fellow New Englanders. they said "I be" for "I am. They spoke the same dialect.

fairly lifted him from his feet." who stood by my side. Myself and "Egypt. and make short work of them." I replied diffidently that one never knew what—he could do till he tried.gutenberg. about a half step in advance. "Pete. for the squad would return reinforced. Finally Pete thrust his fist in my face. he recognized me and said: "Hello. I only know that we are sent for you. Key has sent me for you." "What the —— does Key want with me?" "I don't know. were sent with our company to arrest Pete Donnelly. and dropped him on his back among his followers. and as we marched up to where he was standing at the head of his gathering clan. He was more "knocker" than Raider." "Well. he only said to bring you. He was an old Pemberton building acquaintance. Illinoy." "But I haven't had anything to do with them other snoozers you have been a-having trouble with.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. over was that of profound wonder as to where that blow could have come from. 156 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . you —— —— —— " This was "Egypt's" cue." (the name by which I was generally known in prison) "what do you want here?" I replied. however. we were as willing a lot of little fellows as he ever saw. the prisoners generally were beginning to understand and approve of the Regulators' movement. Several times they managed to collect enough adherents to drive off the squads sent after them. The conversation seemed unnecessarily long to "Egypt. I'm sure.htm with the crowds in other parts of the prison. Donnelly under the chin. you can talk to Key as to that. and if it were all the same to him." my taciturn Lieutenant of the sinewy left arm. who sent parties to arrest them. a notorious character. It caught Mr. a bad crowd. we would undertake to waste a little time getting him to headquarters. Pete was becoming angrier and more defiant every minute. while "Egypt" and one or two others tied his hands and otherwise secured him. and roared out: "By —-. I ain't a going with ye. I want you to go to headquarters. His followers were crowding up to us. and reported to Key. you don't think you can take me unless I choose to go? You haint got anybody in that crowd big enough to make it worth while for him to waste his time trying it. but were recognized. club in hand. to engage his followers. and leader of. Besides. but this only gave them a short respite. It seemed to me that the predominating expression in his face as he went. that while none of us were very big. His long left arm uncoupled like the loosening of the weight of a pile-driver. and were disposed to give all the assistance needed.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. But his henchmen made no effort to rescue him. the rest of us stepped forward with our clubs. and why he did not see it in time to dodge or ward it off." "I don't know anything about that. and we carried him over to headquarters without molestation. and ye can't take me. As Pete dropped.

I believe that a man named Dick McCullough.gutenberg. rings. Blankets. dreading midnight assassination if they did. A large quantity of watches. etc. and came in with a squad of Rebels equipped with spades. Wirz had allowed him the use of the small stockade forming the entrance to the North Gate to confine them in. Others would not go before the Court except at night.—the booty of many a raid—was found. and cooking utensils were carried off as spoils. there were thousands who had been robbed and maltreated. But for all this there was no lack of evidence. and the ground was dug over for secreted property.. gold pens. as I took no part in any of the operations of that nature.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. belonging to the Third Missouri Cavalry. knives. of whom I have before spoken. tent poles. and helped to give impetus to the hunt. etc. with thousands eagerly engaged in it. and allowed to cross-examine them to any extent he desired. chosen from the latest arrivals of prisoners. I cannot speak with any certainty as to this. with all the formality of a legal procedure that the Court and those managing the matter could remember as applicable to the crimes with which the accused were charged. though my impression is that at least one was found. Even the Rebel Quartermaster. Pete Bradley. The next thing was the judgment and punishment of the arrested ones. was the President of the Court. The Raiders' tents were torn down and pillaged. or who had seen these outrages committed on others. with the characteristic keen scent of the Rebels for spoils. How successful he was I know not. For this purpose Key organized a court martial composed of thirteen Sergeants. the foul-tongued Tombs shyster. Such was the fear of the vengeance of the Raiders and their friends that many who had been badly abused dared not testify against them. chains. It was claimed that several skeletons of victims of the Raiders were found buried beneath the tent. Each of these confronted by the witnesses who testified against him.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. that they might have no prejudice against the Raiders. smelled from the outside the opportunity for gaining plunder. and the boldness of the leaders in their bight of power 157 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm The work of arresting increased in interest and excitement until it developed into the furore of a hunt. The trial was carefully conducted. to dig for buried treasures. The defense was managed by one of their crowd. By evening Key had perhaps one hundred and twenty-five of the most noted Raiders in his hands.

htm rendered their identification a matter of no difficulty whatever.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. If they could succeed in breaking through the line at any place they were generally let go without any further punishment. Company E. I had no liking for the gauntlet performance. Patrick Delaney. as I believe all the rascals were professional bounty-jumpers. and began forcing the Raiders through it—one at a time—at the point of the bayonet. Muir. however. Three of the number were beaten to death. of my crowd. alias "Mosby. They did this with all the energy that they possessed. and grimly awaited the incoming of the objects of their vengeance. facing inward. The trial lasted several days. Those sentenced to ball-and-chain were brought in immediately.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. A. and he informed Key that he should turn them back into the Stockade immediately. and each as he entered was told what he already realized well—that he must run for his life. These names and regiments are of little consequence. It was not yet determined how punishment should be meted out to the remainder. Key begged for little farther time to consider the disposition of the cases. and refused to have anything to do with it. In the meantime the news had spread through the prison that the Raiders were to be sent in again unpunished. to get such satisfaction as they could out of the rascals. parallel lines. and as they ran blows rained on their heads." Company D. to the Stockade. Eighty-Eighth Pennsylvania. Charles Curtis. if not all.gutenberg. but Wirz refused it. and mostly composed of men who had suffered injuries at the hands of the marauders. a smaller number to wear balls and chains. I saw one of these killed. Eighty-Third Pennsylvania. Company A. 158 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and concluded with sentencing quite a large number to run the gauntlet. United States Navy. arms and backs. but circumstances themselves decided the matter. The Officer of the Guard opened the wicket in the gate. and did not belong to any regiment longer than they could find an opportunity to desert and join another. One Hundred and Forty-Fourth New York. and the following six to be hanged: John Sarsfield. and had the irons fitted to them that had been worn by some of our men as a punishment for trying to escape. gathered at the South Gate. Wirz became tired of guarding so large a number as Key had arrested. clubs in hand. William Collins. as did most. and an angry mob. Terence Sullivan. They formed in two long. and ordered the Officer of the Guard to return all arrested. Fifth Rhode Island Artillery. numbering some thousands. save those sentenced to death. Seventy-Second New York.

He broke through the line. He had a large bowie knife concealed about his person somewhere." He seemed to have known from the first that the Raider would run that way. as if at a "present arms. About midway of the distance stood a boy who had helped carry a dead man out during the day. the boy dropped the rail like the bar of a toll gate. and ran up the street towards me. felled him as if by a shot. They fell back from before him. THE EXECUTION—BUILDING THE SCAFFOLD—DOUBTS OF THE CAMP-CAPTAIN WIRZ THINKS IT IS PROBABLY A RUSE TO FORCE THE STOCKADE—HIS PREPARATIONS AGAINST SUCH AN ATTEMPT—ENTRANCE OF THE DOOMED ONES—THEY REALIZE THEIR FATE—ONE MAKES A DESPERATE ATTEMPT TO ESCAPE—HIS RECAPTURE —INTENSE EXCITEMENT—WIRZ ORDERS THE GUNS TO OPEN—FORTUNATELY THEY DO NOT—THE SIX ARE HANGED—ONE BREAKS HIS ROPE—SCENE WHEN THE RAIDERS ARE CUT DOWN.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and his pursuers then beat him to death. watching what was being done. A sailor was let in. Just as he came squarely under it. He was holding this straight up in the air. I was standing by my tent at the head of a little street. about two hundred feet from the line. and struck savagely with at his tormentors on either side. 159 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . but closed in behind and pounded him terribly.gutenberg. CHAPTER XXXVII. It struck the Raider across the head.htm While the gauntlet was in operation.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and while out had secured a large pine rail which he had brought in with him. which he drew.

4 of each gun holding the lanyard cord in his hand. My first direct information as to this was by a messenger from Key with an order to assemble my company and stand guard over the carpenters who were to erect the scaffold. that a man could snatch it from under the planks serving as the floor of the scaffold. ready to fire the piece at the instant of command. A rude ladder to ascend by completed the preparations. and let the whole thing drop. vowed that we should never carry out the execution. The remaining twenty thousand were wedged together in a solid mass on the North Side. which would precipitate a general engagement of even larger proportions than that of the 3d. and the Regulators themselves were not thoroughly at ease on that score. though no authoritative announcement of the fact had been made. sufficient to build a rude scaffold with. and kept vacant for the purpose of issuing rations. and marched down to the designated place. about fifteen feet high. The N'Yaarkers gathered around in considerable numbers. and it was claimed that the Raiders had received large reinforcements from those.—a claim rendered probable by most of the new-comers being from the Army of the Potomac. Outside.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. until on the morning of the 11th. standing upright. Our first duty was to care for these as they came in. when it became generally known that the sentences were too be carried into effect that day. Key came over with the balance of the Regulators. I had hoped that if the men were to be hanged I would be spared the unpleasant duty of assisting. At about the height of a man's head a couple of boards stretched across the space between the posts. As the arrangements neared completion the excitement in and around the prison grew intense. He informed me that all the Regulators would be held in readiness to come to our relief if we were attacked in force. the artillerymen were in place about their loaded and trained pieces. 160 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . There was much canvassing as to where they should be executed. for.htm It began to be pretty generally understood through the prison that six men had been sentenced to be hanged. that they would scarcely have fallen to the ground before they were spirited away. and swore that they had marked each one for vengeance. They cursed us with all their rich vocabulary of foul epithets. Some five thousand or six thousand new prisoners had come in since the first of the month. which was an open space near the end of the street running from the South Gate. and inside the prison. A stout beam was fastened on the top of two posts. and suffered no secret of their intentions to leak out. our company marking the line on the East Side. the No. had we not stood over them all the time with clubs. and afforded as good a view to the rest of the camp as could be found. sullen and abusive. with their yelping packs. Of these about one-third packed themselves as tightly about our square as they could stand. the ends in the center rested upon a couple of boards. The ends at the posts laid on cleats. It was a very simple affair. There were now thirty thousand in the prison. and near it were the masters of the hounds. We returned the compliments in kind. however. spectacle of a mosaic pavement of human faces covering the whole broad hillside. and each having a piece of rope fastened through a hole in it in such a manner. the camp was not yet convinced that the Raiders were really conquered. that I could see.gutenberg. Again I contemplated the wonderful. Key and those immediately about him kept their own counsel in the matter. The small squad of cavalry was drawn up on the hill near the Star Fort. and met in the center. It was quite near the spot where the Raiders' Big Tent had stood. the Rebel. and so "Egypt" and I got the boys together. and occasionally it seemed as if a general collision was imminent. Key had secured the loan of a few beams and rough planks.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and whether an attempt to hang them inside of the Stockade would not rouse their friends to make a desperate effort to rescue them. though I believed they richly deserved that punishment. I had much rather some one else administered it upon them. and plank for tent purposes. There was no way out of it. and by noon the scaffold was finished. infantry was standing in the rifle pits. but we succeeded in avoiding this. and we formed a hollow square around the scaffold. The carpenters sent by Key came over and set to work. Despite the result of the affairs of that and the succeeding days. for such was the need of wood. startling.

he 161 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . hundreds of white and colored women. You haf tried dem yourselves.gutenberg. you don't really mean to hang us up there!" Key answered grimly and laconically: "That seems to be about the size of it. a little farther to the right. men. negros. when it was stopped by one of them saying imperatively: "All of you stop now. but a still better one could be had. and Wirz rode in. to read their fate in the countenances of those whom he was addressing. Key took up his position inside the square to direct matters. which lasted for a minute or so. Tearing off the broadbrimmed hat which he wore. Do wit dem as you like. The sun shot his perpendicular rays down with blistering fierceness. and let the priest talk for us. employer. and found dem guilty—I haf had notting to do wit it. The silence seemed to become even more profound as the priest began his appeal. Ned Johnson." At this they burst out in a passionate storm of intercessions and imprecations. Two Corporals of my company—"Stag" Harris and Wat Payne—were appointed to pull the stays from under the platform at the signal. and mounted on his white horse—a conjunction which had gained for him the appellation of "Death on a Pale Horse. With him were Limber Jim. This movement brought Curtis—a low-statured. Garts.'em! hang 'em! hang 'em!" This was taken up all over the prison. such as the Rebels brought in meal in.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Wirz then said: "Brizners. All came inside the hollow square and halted. teamsters. Each of these six was provided with a white sack. and may Gott haf mercy on you and on dem. Before that they had evidently thought that the talk of hanging was merely bluff. about face! Voryvarts. and reading the service for the condemned. he flung it on the ground with the exclamation! "By God. and tens of thousands throats yelled it in a fearful chorus. dressed in a suit of white duck. motionless crowds made the heat almost insupportable. The condemned faced in the same direction.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. They had a good view from there. and facing the multitude on the North Side began a plea for mercy. Dick McCullough. and about ten or fifteen steps from my company. I'll die this way first!" and. Then. The whole camp had been as still as death since Wirz's exit. march!" With this he marched out and left us. in all forming a motley crowd of between one and two thousand. One of them gasped out: "My God. though they knew the danger they would incur if the artillery opened. were gathered together in a group between the end of the rifle pits and the Star Fort. They seemed to comprehend for the first time that it was really the determination of the Regulators to hang them. massively built man—on the right of their line. Sergeant Goody. They kept edging up in that direction. and the densely packed. walking between double ranks of Rebel guards. A little after noon the South Gate opened. drawing his head down and folding his arms about it. and one or two others." Behind him walked the faithful old priest. The day was broiling hot." At this the priest closed the book upon which he had kept his eyes bent since his entrance. For a moment the condemned looked stunned. Also. I return to you dose men so Boot as I got dem. Tom Larkin. as the nearest of the thousands comprehended what he was saying they raised a shout of "No! no!! NO!!" "Hang them! hang them!" "Don't let them go! Never!" "Hang the rascals! hang the villains!" "Hang. I vash my hands of eferyting connected wit dem. wearing his Church's purple insignia of the deepest sorrow. as crowds will. and in front of the guns.htm All the hangers-on of the Rebel camp—clerks. and three others who were to act as hangmen. For a minute every ear was strained to catch what he said. Curtis turned from the crowd with desperation convulsing his features. The six doomed men followed.

When Wirz saw the commotion he was panic-stricken with fear that the long-dreaded assault on the Stockade had begun. not being a fool. heard Wirz's excited yell. and the ten thousand prisoners immediately around us. and could see his captors start back with him. Curtis ran diagonally down the hill. I never saw men drink such inordinate quantities of water. As Curtis broke through. and only knocked him on his knees. Delaney stopped. started to follow. standing firm. He took one step. and fell down over and trampled upon each other in endeavoring to get away. filthy ooze. and as he raised it above Delaney he hissed out: "If you dare move another step. Delaney. and knocked him down. were in hot pursuit of Curtis. They called for it continually. But the spectators who had gotten before the guns. The excitement almost became delirium. sinking nearly to his hips in the fetid. From where we were we could see the successful end of the chase after Curtis. jumping over the tents and knocking down the men who happened in his way. The guards on that side of the Stockade ran down in a panic. Their success was announced with a roar of applause from the North Side. and remembering the consequences to themselves should the artillery be discharged. At the same instant Limber Jim's long legs took three great strides.htm dashed forward for the center of my company. and all of these were filled full of men that fell into them as the crowd rushed away. He rose with an almost superhuman effort. a brawny Irishman standing next to him. "Egypt" and I strained every energy to restore our lines. Both captors and captured were greatly exhausted. before the break could be taken advantage of by the others. There were quite a number of wells right around us. It was the stormiest five minutes that I ever saw. By this time order had been restored about us. became frenzied with fear. and caught up to him just as he emerged on the other side. But the din was so overpowering that they could not hear me. and kept two men going nearly all the time 162 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and placed him directly in front of Delaney. and I have no doubt that several were killed. like a great stone hurled from a catapult. His pursuers followed his example. Arriving at the swamp he plunged in. I'll open you —— —— ——. I'll open you from one end to the other. He forged his way through with terrible effort. and screamed. but away from it. as I feared they would be set upon by the Raiders and murdered. could see that the rush was not towards the Stockade. The excitement seemed to make the doomed ones exceedingly thirsty. While this was going on two of my company. "Egypt" and I saw where he was going to strike. and the crowd massed around us again. This checked the others till our lines reformed. I had seen them start and shouted to them to come back. The priest resumed his reading of the service for the condemned. belonging to the Fifth Iowa Cavalry. They struck him on the back of the head with their clubs. shrieking: "Fire! fire! fire!" The Captain. He ran down from the headquarter steps to the Captain of the battery. The guns remained silent. Our boys behaved splendidly. expecting no less than that the next instant we would be swept with grape and canister.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and plunged into the mass beyond. and they were coming back very slowly. and ran down the line to help stop him. Jim's right hand held an enormous bowie-knife. and he refrained from giving the order.gutenberg. For an instant I feared that everything was gone to ruin. and in a few seconds the line was restored. gulped down a quart or more at a time. but so many of us struck at him at once that we broke each other's clubs to pieces.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Key ordered the balance up on to the scaffold. stampeded tumultuously. They obeyed promptly. Many had legs and arms broken. As he came up we rained blows on his head with our clubs. and doubtless would not have come back if they had heard.

Once the priest stopped and said: "My son. show yourself a man. and say yell forgive me. and turn your attention toward those of heaven. and so on. as to dispositions to be made of certain bits of stolen property: to give a watch to this one.gutenberg. a ring to another. and refused with an oath. placed the noose around his neck. Key said: "Time's up!" put the watch back in his pocket and raised his hand like an officer commanding a gun." Delaney paid no attention to this admonition. drew it up tolerably close." Again the priest resumed his reading. Shpake up. and sprang to the ground." We called upon Marion Friend. and said to him: "Come on up. When Curtis finally arrived. whose throat Delaney had tried to cut three weeks before while robbing him of forty dollars.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. I hope ye'll forgive me. if I've hurted any of y ez. pulled a meal sack down over his head. good by. Each of the six hangmen tied a condemned man's hands. Harris and Payne laid hold of the ropes to the supports of the planks. and then. The planks 163 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . slowly and painfully climbed the steps. reeking with filth. The whole six then began delivering farewell messages to those in the crowd. Key pulled a watch from his pocket and said: "Two minutes more to talk. any of yez that I've hurted.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. b'ys. now. The priest began praying aloud. Key dropped his hand. who kept calling out directions to Pete Donelly. now. who was standing in the crowd.htm carrying it to them. let the things of this earth go. Payne and Harris snatched the supports out with a single jerk. but Friend was not in a forgiving mood. and die game." Delaney said cheerfully: "Well. to rest. Delaney seemed to think he was suffering as much from fright as anything else. he sat on the ground for a minute or so. to come forward. but it had no interest to Delaney.

and the unrelenting purpose of the Regulator Chiefs. Pete Donnelly and Dick Allen knelt down and wiped the froth off Delaney's lips. Dick McCullough. he carried him to the scaffold and handed him up to Tom Larkin. and decided that he still lived. AFTER THE EXECUTION—FORMATION OF A POLICE FORCE—ITS FIRST CHIEF —"SPANKING" AN OFFENDER. or carry out any orders from the chief. and Limber Jim had to set his heel and wrench desperately at them before he could force them out. through which all the prisoners passed and took a look at the bodies. and the Regulators formal two parallel lines. After hanging till life was extinct. saying: "O for God's sake. I. Ohio.htm fell with a clatter. he pulled the meal sack once more over "Mosby's" head. that was very tempting to a certain class of sharps to take him up for a "luberly greeny. the meal sack removed. and who. Some of the men ran forward. who fitted the noose around his neck and sprang down. Then he began to beg piteously for his life. in the prime of his manhood—the beginning of his thirtieth year—he was as good-natured as big. had killed Limber Jim's brother-broke the rope. The rope was cut off his neck. Five of the bodies swung around dizzily in the air. broad-shouldered. He meant that you should be merciful to me. V.gutenberg. and went outside. examined the body. and with a slightly rustic twang. After the executions Key. He gasped out: "Where am I? Am I in the other world?" Limber Jim muttered that they would soon show him where he was. A great. the two Corporals who pulled the props from under the scaffold. giant. He spoke slowly. The chieftainship was first held by Key. and a stout rope had replaced the broken one.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The sixth that of "Mosby.—now a resident of Wauseon. These were divided into companies. patrols passed through the camp in all directions continually." The man who did so usually repented his error in sack-cloth and ashes. The supports had not been set with the same delicacy as at first. which in time came to number twelve hundred men. In the meanwhile provision had been made for the future maintenance of order in the prison by the organization of a regular police force. Limber Jim. Then picking up the large man as if he were a baby. R. do not put me up there again! God has spared my life once. one of the worst in the lot. among other crimes. and water thrown in his face until consciousness returned. In this crowd were Key. Then "Mosby" passed away without a struggle. knowing that he.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. CHAPTER XXXVIII. the bodies were cut down. and swore vengeance against those who had done him to death. When the scaffold was rearranged.—his successor. powerful. of the One Hundredth O. who never ceased his pleadings. softly. the six hangmen. and as mild-mannered as brave. Ned Carrigan. and perhaps some others whom I do not now remember. but when he went outside he appointed Sergeant A. raw-boned man." Limber Jim deigned him no reply. secured details as nurses and ward-masters in the hospital. At the first instant he thought he was in eternity. Hill. Hill first came into prominence as the victor in the most stubbornly contested fight in the prison 164 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and all those prominently connected with the hanging." a large. and fell with a thud to the ground. and went on grimly fixing up the scaffold anew. "Mosby" soon realized what had happened. and signals with whistles could summon sufficient assistance to suppress any disturbance. Guards were detailed for certain locations. Hill was one of the notabilities of that immense throng. the meal-sacks pulled off their faces. would be in hourly danger of assassination if they remained inside. under appropriate officers.

and his ideas as to those who should be included in this class widened daily. few of a right arm that indefinite locality known as "the middle of next week. was the undisputed fistic monarch of the Island.htm history of Belle Isle. but pound everybody on the Island. but thrashed everybody on the Island whom he thought needed it.1863—arrived on Belle Isle. 165 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg. He did not bear his blushing honors modestly. in September." is something that the possessor can as little resist showing as can a girl her first solitaire ring. When the squad of the One Hundredth Ohio—captured at Limestone Station.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Jack Oliver was one who did not let his biceps rust in inaction. a certain Jack Oliver. until it began to appear that he would soon feel it his duty to let no unwhipped man escape. East Tennessee. To know that one can certainly strike a disagreeable fellow out of time is pretty sure to breed a desire to do that thing whenever occasion serves. of the Nineteenth Indiana.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.

Rations of bread and of wood. receiving again a sounding blow in the short ribs.htm One day his evil genius led him to abuse a rather elderly man belonging to Hill's mess. and again caught a blow on his luckless left. He died of scurvy and diarrhea. He did not seem to understand how he had laid himself open to such a pass. as he surveyed him with a mocking smile: "Mister—you—seem—to—be—one—of—them—partick-e-ler—fellers. were still stolen. and Jack had sense enough to see that the imperturbable rustic was likely to give him a job of some difficulty. and thenceforth Mr. that sounded—as one of the by-standers expressed it—"like striking a hollow log with a maul. be dashed at Hill feinted strongly with his right.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Then they clenched and struggled to throw each other. and the wretched little cans and half canteens that formed our cooking utensils.gutenberg. Hill feinted with his left. Hill said with more than his usual "soft" rusticity: "Mister—I—don't—think—it—just—right—for—a—young—man—to—call—an—old —one—such—bad names. As he fired off his tirade of contumely. without removing a garment. some months afterward. nor provoke a change in the calm slowness of his speech. and made the same mistake. articles of clothing. Hill's superior strength and skill crushed his opponent to the ground. but all these were in a sneak-thief way. which the latter swallowed." Jack roared out. "Well! may be you want to take it up?" The grin on Hill's face looked still more verdant. in Andersonville. either. how shall we settle this? Regular stand-up-and knock-down. or rough and tumble?" If anything Hill's face was more vacantly serene. and made other elaborate preparations for the affray. for again he opened his guard in response to a feint. Oliver resigned his pugilistic crown. Now. the fight ceased. The prison was freer from crime than the best governed City. ribs. Both closed and fought savagely at half-arm's length for an instant. intending to kick him in the face. As they grappled there. and as Jack uncovered to guard. In an instant he was knocked down by a stalwart member of the One Hundredth.—I guess—I—will—be —able—to—keep —up—with—you. "By —-." Jack Oliver turned on him savagely.—Mister. while Hill's comrades of the One Hundredth gathered around to insure him fair play. Jack pulled off his coat and vest. said. He reeled back among his supporters for an instant to breathe. one of Jack's followers sought to aid his leader by catching Hill by the hair. during which Hill struck Jack so fairly in the mouth as to break out three front teeth. but his fiercest bluster could not drive that infantile smile from Hill's face. He went off and came back with his clan. There were frequent squabbles and fights. I'll make you partickeler before I get through with you. but delivered a terrible kick against the lower part of the latter's abdomen. rolled up his sleeves. and his tones blander than ever. There was an entire absence of the audacious open-day robbery and murder —the "raiding" of 166 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . This taught him nothing. Recovering his wind. It was evident that nothing would do but a battle-royal. The almost hourly scenes of violence and crime that marked the days and nights before the Regulators began operations were now succeeded by the greatest order. as he answered: "Strike—any—gait—that—suits—you. as he answered with gentle deliberation: "Well—mister—I—don't—go—around—a—hunting—things—but—I —ginerally—take— care—of—all—that's—sent—me!" Jack foamed." They closed. that drove the blood from his face and the breath from his body." The color in Jack's face paled. and he fell upon him. he caught him fairly on the lower left ribs. and then literally lifted out of the ring by kicks. Hill.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and many petty larcenies. and retired to the shades of private life. of course. Jack was soon so badly beaten as to be unable to cry "enough!" One of his friends did that service for him. by a blow from his mighty right fist.

The summary punishment inflicted on the condemned was sufficient to cow even bolder men than the Raiders. The wronged one came before him and told his tale: he had his blouse. and sharply interrogated. by the "shake" in same strong and willing hand. His judicial methods and punishments also reminded one strongly of the primitive judicature of Oriental lands. and took his meals standing.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and Hill's skill in detecting the guilty ones. decide the innocence or guilt of the accused. Sergeant Hill's administration was vigorous. The culprit was made to bend down until he could catch around his ankles with his hands. or his money stolen during the night. As a rule he slept on his face for a week or so after. nor yet nail his ears to a doorpost. and they were frightened into at least quiescence. like the Cadi of a Mahometan Village. and secured the best results. and sat at the door of his tent to dispense justice to all comers.htm the previous few weeks. He became a judge of all infractions of morals and law.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but he introduced a modification of the bastinado that made those who were punished by it even wish they were dead. The part of the body thus brought into most prominence was denuded of clothing and "spanked" from one to twenty times. The instrument used was what is called in the South a "shake" —a split shingle. The suspected one was also summoned.gutenberg. 167 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . It was very amusing—to the bystanders. as Hill ordered. Hill would revolve the stories in his mind. He did not imitate his Mussulman prototypes to the extent of bowstringing or decapitating the condemned. order the culprit to punishment. or his watch. had a very salutary effect upon the smaller criminals. and if he thought the accusation sustained. or his shoes. and with one end whittled down to form a handle. a yard or more long. The fear of the spanking. The "spankee" never seemed to enter very heartily into the mirth of the occasion. nor did he cut any thief's hands off. confronted with his accuser. or his quart cup.

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were still plainly visible about the throat. and promised the most exemplary behavior for the future. and begged Hill daily to release them. thousands from Grant's lines in front of Petersburg. mothers. and delighted in each separate pang. Strike as swiftly and as heavily as he would. JULY—THE PRISON BECOMES MORE CROWDED. a week or so after the hanging. There was no doubt as to why he had been killed. Over one thousand squandered by Sturgis at Guntown came in. not with the merciful delivery of speedy death. fathers. In all. One of the Raiders—named Heffron—had.htm The Raiders who had been put into irons were very restive under the infliction. beardless boys. turned into that seething mass of corrupting humanity to be polluted and tainted by it.gutenberg. D. couched in his foul lair.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. One morning. seven thousand one hundred and twenty-eight were.]—the deliverer—was coming. who. They professed the greatest penitence. and given testimony that assisted materially in the conviction of his companions. racked their minds with intolerable suspense. CHAPTER XXXIX. two thousand of those captured in the desperate blow dealt by Hood against the Army of the Tennessee on the 22d of the month before Atlanta. slew them. turned State's evidence. but. but the actual perpetrators were never discovered. burned their bodies with the slow fire of famine. hundreds from Hunter's luckless column in the Shenandoah Valley. Though the deaths were one thousand eight hundred and seventeen more than were killed at the battle of Shiloh—this left the number in the prison at the end of the month thirty-one thousand six hundred and seventy-eight. All during July the prisoners came streaming in by hundreds and thousands from every portion of the long line of battle. according to the census of 1870: 169 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . declaring that they should wear the irons until delivered up to our Government. The impression made by the fingers of the hand that had strangled him. gloating over his prey. his body was found lying among the other dead at the South Gate. and to assist in turn to make it fouler and deadlier. and in the mountains beyond Atlanta. THE WEATHER HOTTER. at the threshold of a life of honor to themselves and of usefulness to the community. AND MORTALITY GREATER—SOME OF THE PHENOMENA OF SUFFERING AND DEATH. until they sank beneath the fearful accumulation. he could not strike so hard nor so sure at his foes with saber blow and musket shot. stretching from the Eastern bank of the Mississippi to the shores of the Atlantic. He rotted their flesh with the scurvy. or that the Raiders were his murderers. sisters and sweethearts. Let me assist the reader's comprehension of the magnitude of this number by giving the population of a few important Cities. Over seventy hecatombs of chosen victims —of fair youths in the first flush of hopeful manhood. were sent in as the monthly sacrifice to this Minotaur of the Rebellion. But he came too late to save them. NATIONS POORER. with minds thrilling with high aspirations for the bright future. as his Cretan prototype did the annual tribute of Athenian youths and maidens.W.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. where he was hewing his way towards them and the heart of the Southern Confederacy. His terrible sword could be seen gleaming as it rose and fell on the banks of the James. during the month. rich in the priceless affections of homes. doomed them to lingering destruction. Theseus [Sherman. shortly after his arrest. as they could at the hapless youths with the dreadful armament of starvation and disease. Hill refused to release them.

Columbus. Florida. The weather became hotter and hotter.766 32.260 The number of prisoners exceeded the whole number of men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five in several of the States and Territories in the Union. Mass Charleston.450 6. Montana. at midday the sand would burn the hand.157 15. Directly in front of me lay two brothers—named Sherwood—belonging to Company I. and to walk a few hundred feet in any direction would require an hour's patient threading of the mass of men and tents. C. and swelled up in great watery puffs. O. Mass Kansas City. which soon became the breeding grounds of the hideous maggots. There was hardly room for all to lie down at night. One could not look a rod in any direction without seeing at least a dozen men in the last frightful stages of rotting Death. and struck his victims down on every hand. Idaho.958 31.htm Cambridge. They were now in the last stages of scurvy and diarrhea. who were likely to find the confines of a State too narrow for them.431 12. The loathsome swamp grew in rank offensiveness with every burning hour. The pestilence literally stalked at noon-day. are the returns for 1870. New Medico. as a sample of the condition of the whole prison: I will take a space not larger than a good sized parlor or sitting room. The thin skins of fair and auburn-haired men blistered under the sun's rays.677 24.377 62. were cooped up on thirteen acres of ground—less than a farmer gives for play-ground for a half dozen colts or a small flock of sheep. Nebraska. New Hampshire. Vermont or West Virginia. Rhode Island.418 35. under strong pressure. Arkansas. On this were at least fifty of us.959 44. Maine. Colorado.gutenberg. These thirty-one thousand six hundred and seventy-eight active young men. or the still more deadly gangrene. Louisiana. who came originally from Missouri. Nevada. for instance. Minnesota.639 48.684 23. Fall River. Every particle of muscle and fat about their limbs and 170 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Here.762 60.166 5. Delaware. Dakota. Arizona.301 9. Mo 89. Connecticut. Let me describe the scene immediately around my own tent during the last two weeks of July. of my battalion. in either Alabama. Oregon. District of Columbia.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Dayton. South Carolina.274 30.473 26. S.832 It was more soldiers than could be raised to-day. California. of men of military age in some portions of the country: Arizona Colorado Dakota Idaho Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire Oregon Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia 5.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. O. Utah.

171 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . leaving the skin clinging close to the bone of the face. arms. and before the day was gone the worms were hatched out. protruded far beyond their lips. He was wasting away with diarrhea.htm bodies had apparently wasted away. from which most of their teeth had already fallen. a fine soldierly man. Accustomed as we were to misery. as he wandered uncomplainingly to and fro.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and died before the month was out. To their left lay a Sergeant and two others of their company. young and intelligent looking. distended with gallons of purulent matter. Of course. occasionally stopping to squeeze it. with pardonable pride. save the ligating of the arteries. all three slowly dying from diarrhea.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. he had not been inside an hour until the maggot flies had laid eggs in the open wound.gutenberg. as one does a boil. and he was turned into the Stockade with the stump all undressed. hands. who. To my right was a handsome young Sergeant of an Illinois Infantry Regiment. Next to him staid an Irish Sergeant of a New York Regiment. conspicuously on his left breast. I do not think he ate or slept for a week before he died. drawn face. whose life was ebbing tediously away. holding his maimed limb with his right hand. and beyond was a fair-haired German. where it was swollen tense and transparent. and rioting amid the inflamed and super-sensitive nerves. wore. His left arm had been amputated between the shoulder and elbow. ribs and thighs—everywhere except the feet and legs. and I would be happier could I forget his pale. where their every motion was agony. we found a still lower depth in his misfortune. captured at Kenesaw. and press from it a stream of maggots and pus. Their livid gums. a medal gained by gallantry while a British soldier in the Crimea.

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and having the dead line on two sides. He played or rather tooted away in his "blues"-inducing strain hour after hour. Like all poor players. There was no more stop to him than to a man with a hand-organ. mournful notes. and to this day the low. Yet. as plaintive as the distant cooing of the dove in lowering. 173 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Near us an exasperating idiot. death-laden days. farthest from the Swamp. had established himself. sad notes of a flute are the swiftest reminder to me of those sorrowful. who played the flute.gutenberg. despite our energetic protests. Where I was was not only no worse than the rest of the prison.htm This was what one could see on every square rod of the prison.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. as it was the highest ground inside. but was probably much better and healthier. with all these conditions in our favor. weather. the mortality was as I have described. had a ventilation that those nearer the center could not possibly have.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and occasionally flinging a club at him. he affected the low.

The wood was very much needed by my mess. like a torn sleeve. The value of this "find" was that if we took it to the gate. and secured a very good chunk of wood while outside with it.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 174 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and I hastily caught hold of the arm near the elbow to help bear the body away. A verbal dispute led to one of blows.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. to use in cooking. in which we came off victorious. as our squad had then had none for more than a week. we would be allowed to carry it outside to the deadhouse.gutenberg.htm I had an illustration one morning of how far decomposition would progress in a man's body before he died. and on our way back have an opportunity to pick up a chunk of wood. but I clung to my prize. and slipped with it down to the wrist. It was sickening. My chum and I found a treasure-trove in the streets. While discussing our good luck another party came up and claimed the body. in the shape of the body of a man who died during the night. The skin gave way under my hand.

It indicated a resolve to stake the fate of Atlanta." All this meant one supreme effort to arrest the onward course of Sherman. more than ever. I was particularly fortunate in getting hold of these." purchased from the guards at from fifty cents to one dollar apiece. We knew that Jeff. or Sturgis. Davis and his Government were strongly dissatisfied with the Fabian policy of Joe Johnston. of his going so far as to sneer about the necessity of providing pontoons at Key West." When any reading matter was brought into our neighborhood. we were not likely to be much impressed with it. The Rebel papers usually had very meager reports of the operations of the armies. of his bitter comments on Johnston's tactics.gutenberg. and a fierce longing to see those who daily tortured and insulted us trampled down in the dust of humiliation. when our sanguine hopes as to Sherman were checked by a possibility that he had failed. Now. to be read aloud for the benefit of everybody. until at last it gave up the struggle in September. All the older prisoners knew me by the nick-name of "Illinoy" —a designation arising from my wearing on my cap. in a little Town south of Atlanta. upon the hazard of one 175 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . everything of this kind was immediately brought to me. had we reason to ardently wish for the destruction of the Rebel power. Now we had a hatred of the Rebels that passed expression. Naturally. or occasionally thrown in to us when they had some specially disagreeable intelligence. and these were greatly distorted. and we added to the information thus obtained by getting—almost daily—in some manner or another—a copy of a Rebel paper. as Sherman's Army advanced. that his long campaign towards Atlanta had culminated in such a reverse under the very walls of the City as would compel an abandonment of the enterprise. 1864. but they were still very interesting. Becoming installed as general reader for a neighborhood of several thousand men. and the papers were full of the exulting predictions of what would now be accomplished "when that gallant young soldier is once fairly in the saddle. They had no doubt that they were pushing the enemy straight to the wall. when I entered prison. a neat little white metal badge of "ILLS. there would be a general cry of: "Take it up to 'Illinoy. THE BATTLE OF THE 22D OF JULY—THE ARMS OF THE TENNESSEE ASSAULTED FRONT AND REAR—DEATH OF GENERAL MCPHERSON—ASSUMPTION OF COMMAND BY GENERAL LOGAN—RESULT OF THE BATTLE. to exult over.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. however. so that Johnston might continue his retreat even to Cuba. or Bunter. and the fortunes of the Confederacy in the West. They would admit that Grant was pounding Lee terribly." as they used to facetiously term a Memphis paper that left that City when it was taken in 1862. Then came the news of Johnston's Supersession by Hood. after about two thousand miles of weary retreat from an indefatigable pursuer. Those from the Army of the Potomac were never so hopeful.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and that every day brought the Southern Confederacy much nearer its downfall. and as we always started in to read with the expectation that the whole statement was a mass of perversions and lies. The daily arrival of prisoners kept us tolerably well informed as to the general progress of the campaign. and for two years fell back from place to place. The papers were brought in by "fresh fish. Sherman's men were always sanguine. like the defeat of Banks. There came a day. but the shadow of the frequent defeats of the Army of the Potomac seemed to hang depressingly over them. where truth was an infrequent accident. The papers had told us of the Rebel President's visit to Atlanta.htm CHAPTER XL.'" and then hundreds would mass around my quarters to bear the news read. and possibly a humiliating retreat. Before capture we had love of country and a natural desire for the triumph of her flag to animate us. or an issue of the "Memphis-Corinth-Jackson-Grenada-Chattanooga-Resacca-Marietta-Atlanta Appeal. There was a marled difference in the tone of the reports brought in from the different armies. we had a consuming hunger for news of what was being accomplished by our armies toward crushing the Rebellion. Most frequently these were Atlanta papers.

htm desperate fight. they drove back with a withering fire the force assailing them in the rear. One paper likened him to the pilot-fish. The steadiest troops in Europe would think it foolhardiness to attempt to withstand an assault in force in front and rear at the same time. The finest legions that follow any flag to-day must almost inevitably succumb to such a mode of attack. On the 22d this force fell on the rear with the impetuous violence of a cyclone. It was well planned. they jumped back to their proper places. We dreaded another Chickamauga.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. It was an ordeal that no other army ever passed through successfully. We also knew that great numbers of wounded had been brought to the prison hospital. Sometimes part of our line would be on one side of the works. Now that he was gone. was the part struck. Springing over the front of their breastworks. was the brain and guiding hand of Sherman's army. The Rebel papers exulted without stint over what they termed "a glorious victory. with no one in it capable of directing it. The Army of the Tennessee. and part on the other. The blow fell on the 22d of July. On the night of the 21st Hood marched a heavy force around its left flank and gained its rear. This beaten off." They were particularly jubilant over the death of McPherson. as it showed they retained possession of the battle field. of which we were uncertain for many days. and it must soon fall to utter ruin under the skilfully delivered strokes of the gallant Hood. they claimed. while the Rebels in the works immediately around Atlanta attacked furiously in front. but as they were captured during the progress of the fight. We watched the summoning up of every Rebel energy for the blow with apprehension. A host of new prisoners perhaps two thousand—was brought in from there. 176 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . But the seasoned veterans of the Army of the Tennessee encountered the shock with an obstinacy which showed that the finest material for soldiery this planet holds was that in which undaunted hearts beat beneath blue blouses. and in front of the works firing upon those coming up in the rear. and this seemed to confirm the Rebel claim of a victory. This was the way the battle was waged until night compelled a cessation of operations. which guides the shark to his prey. who. In the prison we were greatly excited over the result of the engagement. they could not speak definitely as to its issue. said the paper. Our boys were alternately behind the breastworks firing at Rebels advancing upon the front. and repulsed the assault in front.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg. the left of Sherman's forces. Sherman's army becomes a great lumbering hulk.

htm 177 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg.

It was the sickest victory they ever got. We gathered around them eagerly." "So you were in the affair on the 22d. His pantaloons were tucked inside his stocking tops. and they were lively enough to amuse any one. self-possessed pose of limbs and body would have told the observer that he was one of those "Old Reliables" with whom Sherman and Grant had already subdued a third of the Confederacy. "Yes. officers and all. what's left of 'em. came in.' I suppose because I was the youngest boy in the Regiment. rather. But I tell you we did get into a red hot scrimmage on the 22d. and the Rebels claim a great victory. its ends tied together. he had re-enlisted for the war). and were moving up toward the City from the East. was tightly rolled. honorable. It just laid over Champion Hills. you bet. and by morning 178 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and he has been in command ever since we went into Vicksburg. the rest of the troops over in West Tennessee used to call our Brigade 'Leggett's Cavalry. and we had a pretty sharp fight before we drove them off. was the extreme left of the army. To the eye of the soldier this said that he was a veteran member of the Sixty-Eighth Regiment of Ohio Infantry (that is. His cap was marked "68th O. Hand him his faithful Springfield rifle. too. and we kept him skedaddling. for I reckon if the truth was known. our regiment fired about the first and last shot that opened and closed the fighting on that day.' for they always had us chasing Old Forrest. the Seventeenth. I suggested to him that he was rather a youngster to be wearing veteran chevrons. fronting them towards Atlanta. and a heavy loss of life besides. our old Colonel ain't only twenty-four years old now." said he. without an instant's demur or question. having already served three years. waft slung easily from the shoulder opposite to that on which the blanket rested. I can tell you pretty much all about that fight. They call me 'Old Dad.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Well. captured in one of the engagements subsequent to the 22d. About one more victory of that kind would make their infernal old Confederacy ready for a coroner's inquest. and that he belonged to the Third Division of the Seventeenth Army Corps. you see the whole Army got across the river. the Rebels had neglected to take from him. that were pulled up as far as possible. who. self respecting American boy. are about as young a lot of officers and men as there are in the service.gutenberg. but if his stripes had not said this. when we first entered the service. "I am not so old as some of the rest of the boys. and forty rounds in his cartridge bog. officers. I have heard it said by our boys that since we veteranized the whole Regiment. He was so young and fresh looking that one could hardly believe him to be a veteran. the world has not equaled in the sixty centuries that war has been a profession. Y. We run onto the Rebs about sundown the 21st. His blanket. and fight anything that crossed his path. Our Corps. but I have seen about as much service and been in the business about as long as any of them. blue-eyed infantryman—or boy. Well. All we know is that there has been a big fight. But they are gray-hounds to march and stayers in a fight. curly-haired. as a soldier." "O. Why. put three days' rations in his haversack. Why. and even blacker half-canteen. A none-too-clean haversack. The Fifteenth (Logan's) Corps joined us on the right. then the Army of the Cumberland further to the right. with McPherson killed. and kept at it all night in changing and strengthening the old Rebel barricades. which. He was a type of the honest. L. They had some breastworks on a ridge in front of us. and the Regiment to day. containing the inevitable sooty quart cup. average less than twenty-four years old. Y. Come over here to my quarters and tell us all you know.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and the graceful. though our whole Company. were only a lot of boys. and he would be ready. or any of the big fights around Vicksburg. for a wonder. and men.htm About the 1st of August a large squad of Sherman's men. and were closing in around the City of Atlanta. they be ——-. We went right to work. and thrown over his shoulder scarf-fashion. were you! We are awful anxious to hear all about it. and tied tightly around his ankle with a string. to march to the ends of the earth. the soldierly arrangement of clothing and accouterments." his sleeves were garnished with re-enlistment stripes. Among them I noticed a bright. as he was yet beardless. and on the breast of his blouse was a silver arrow. pretty lively.

We could hear the commands of the officers and see the flags and banners of regiment after regiment as they passed us. while I was shoveling dirt like a beaver out on the works. About three or four o'clock in the morning. only a few rods in front of our works. and Bob Wheeler.htm had some good solid works along our whole line. Go as quietly as possible and as fast as you can. and off we started over the breastworks and through the thick woods.' "He gave us the countersign. of F Company. We got back quietly and quickly. I have selected you for the duty. artillery and teams. During the night we fancied we could hear wagons or artillery moving away in front of us. standing there with his Springfield at a parade rest. where I could find him. We went out as much as half a mile or more. We then cautiously crept forward until we could see the main road leading south from the City filled with marching men. I reported and found him with General Leggett. keep your eyes and ears open. pointing to a large tree in the rear. and not what you imagine or suspect. We soon came to our skirmish or pickets.' Bob says to me: "'The old General shakes his head as though he thought them d—-d Rebs ain't evacuating Atlanta so mighty sudden. As soon as I came up. and come back and tell us exactly what you have seen and heard. They ain't going to keep falling back and falling back to all eternity. and gave it as our opinion that the Johnnies were evacuating Atlanta. You hear me!' 179 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The General shook his head. I have selected you for the duty.gutenberg. and found the General and our Colonel sitting on a log where we had left them. I ain't sure but he's right. passed through our picket line all right. talking mighty serious. and the Colonel says: 'You may re turn to your company.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but are just agoin' to give us a rip-roaring great big fight one o' these days—when they get a good ready. and cautioned them not to fire on us in going or returning. but are up to some devilment again. apparently going South. waiting for us.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. until we could plainly hear the sound of wagons and artillery. who commanded our Division. We reported what we had seen and heard. or towards our left. the Colonel says: "Boys. don't fire a shot if you can help it. the Lieutenant came to me and said the Colonel wanted to see me. the General wants two level-headed chaps to go out beyond the pickets to the front and toward the left.

It was about daylight then. Not a shot was being. We could look away out across a large field in front of our works. and the boys all tallying about going right into Atlanta. feeling pretty mad that we had to go to the rear. and finally found ourselves out by the Seventeenth Corps headquarters. we filed off into a small road cut through the woods and marched rapidly to the rear.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. instead of marching to the front and toward the City. that the Rebels had evacuated the City during the night. We marched at quick time. back in some open fields. "We passed the Sixteenth Corps lying on their arms. and I must have snoozed away until near noon. Two or three companies were sent out to picket several roads that seemed to 180 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . We could not understand what it meant. when I heard the order 'fall in!' and found the regiment getting into line. fired on either side.htm "Saying which we both went to our companies. "To our surprise.gutenberg. and laid down to get a little sleep. when the rest of our Division were going into Atlanta.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and that we were going to have a race with the Fifteenth Corps as to which would get into the City first. and see the skirmish line advancing steadily towards the main works around the City. and the wagon trains of our Corps all comfortably corralled.

as we captured him on the battlefield at the battle of 'Matamora. and finally turned in through some open fields to the left. and our flanks in open timber.' or 'Hell on the Hatchie. said something hastily.' as our boys always called it. facing toward Atlanta. if you think you can get to them. But try it on. that all could hear. as it was reported 'Rebel Cavalry' had been seen on these roads but a short time before. who were fighting like devils along their whole line. All was quiet back at the main works we had just left. but to the left and in the rear of the position occupied by our Corps. keeping under cover of the bank as much as possible to protect us from the shots of the enemy. His aids and orderlies vainly tried to keep up with him. and we moved off on 'double quick by the right flank. He rode up to the Colonel. and there could see a line of Rebels moving by the flank. General. without any signs of works. and who commanded our brigade. Up to this time not a shot had been fired. which had hastily formed in the open field. As soon as we reached the fence we fired a round or two into the backs of these gray coats. when all at once we heard the all-firedest crash of musketry and artillery way up at the front where we had built the works the night before and left the rest of our brigade and Division getting ready to prance into Atlanta when we were sent off to the rear. We could plainly see the Rebel lines as they came out of the woods into the open grounds to attack the Sixteenth Corps. "Just as we came out into the open field we saw General R. in a loud voice. some of their shot coming over mighty close to where we were. though. face!' The Lieutenant Colonel dashed down one of the roads where one of the companies had gone out on picket. We were just far enough in the rear so that every blasted shot or shell that was fired too high to hit the ranks of the Sixteenth Corps came rattling over amongst us. K. and where are you going?'" The Colonel.htm cross at that point. We suddenly saw General Logan and one or two of his staff upon the right bank of the ravine riding rapidly toward us. who evidently had ordered the Colonel to join his brigade up at the front.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Scott put spurs to his old horse. who ordered us to 'fall in!' 'Take aims!' 'about. having a hand-to-hand fight. All this time we were marching fast. and away he went back towards the position where his brigade and the troops immediately to their left were now hotly engaged. 'Old Hatchie. As he neared the head of the regiment he shouted: "'Halt! What regiment is that. come tearing toward us with one or two aids or orderlies. 'you had better go right in here on the left of Dodge.' as we called him. who was about telling the Colonel not to try to go to the position 181 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h." "Logan says. and we had to get well over to the right to get around the flank of the Rebels. He was on his big clay-bank horse.gutenberg. They found the Rebels on the road we had just marched out on. following along the bank of a little creek. We soon reached a fence enclosing a large field. Just about the time we fired on the rebels the Sixteenth Corps opened up a hot fire of musketry and artillery on them. We did not wait for them to come back. God knows they need you. The Major and Adjutant galloped down the others. our colors in the road. Scott.' "Just at this moment a staff officer came riding up on the opposite side of the ravine from where Logan was and interrupted Logan. when suddenly we saw several staff officers come tearing up to the Colonel. and came out just in the rear of the Sixteenth Corps. "We had just stacked arms and were going to take a little rest after our rapid march. We marched pretty fast.' for you see we were completely cut off from the troops up at the front. going to join our brigade of the Third Division—your old Division. paying no attention apparently to the shot and shell and bullets that were tearing up the earth and exploding and striking all around him. in line of battle. He rode right along in rear of the Sixteenth Corps. The Third Division have hardly ground enough left now to bury their dead. when several Rebel prisoners were brought in by some of the boys who had straggled a little. who used to be our Colonel. following in the direction General Scott had taken. We were down under the crest of a little hill. told him: "The Sixty-Eighth Ohio. and were standing up like men. of the Seventeenth Corps. who was one of the fastest runners in our Division. and forming. who broke into confusion. and this accounted for our being rushed out in such a great hurry. "Just then the other companies joined us. but moved right back on the road we had just come out.

clear tone that we all could hear: "Say to General Sherman I have heard of McPherson's death. and Sherman will reinforce you to the extent of the whole army. Logan put spurs to his horse and rode in one direction. and it made us feel very bad. He was a great favorite with all his Army. and orders you to take command of the Army of the Tennessee. and loved him dearly. Some of the officers and men cried as though they had lost a brother. which he commanded for a long while. for we had been his Headquarters Guard for over a year. standing in his stirrups. and swore to avenge his death. and have already anticipated his orders in regard to closing the gap between Dodge and the Seventeenth Corps.htm held by the Third Division by the road cut through the woods whence we had come out. The officer saluted Logan. and shouted across: "General Sherman directs me to inform you of the death of General McPherson. He replied in a ringing. the staff officer of General Sherman in another. of course. As 182 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and have assumed the command of the Army of the Tennessee.' "This. but to keep off to the right towards the Fifteenth Corps.gutenberg. Our company.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. all happened in one quarter of the time I have been telling you.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. This was the first we had heard of McPherson's death. have Dodge close well up to the Seventeenth Corps. and we started on a rapid step toward the front. particularly of our Corps. his black eyes fairly blazing and his long black hair waving in the wind. especially. knew him well. others pressed their lips. on his beautiful black horse.' "Logan. gritted their teeth. as the woods referred to were full of Rebels. formed a picture against the blue sky as we looked up the ravine at him.

the only one of his command not killed. having been shot off his horse. and with their line at right angles with the line of works occupied by the left of the Seventeenth Corps. It seems he found the body right by the side of the little road that we had gone out on when we went to the rear. and recognized General McPherson. the bullet striking him in the back. Major Strong. which we would soon be in. coming right towards us out of the very woods Logan had cautioned the Colonel to avoid. when Strong found them.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Brigadier Generals and their staffs. and that we were stripping for the fight. Just at this moment we saw an ambulance. wounded or captured. but the Rebels had discovered there was a gap between the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Corps. and started himself to ride over from the Seventeenth Corps to the Sixteenth Corps. and were getting pretty near back to our main line of works. Major Generals and their staffs. with the horses on a dead run. McPherson sent his staff and orderlies with various orders to different parts of the line. "It seems that when the fight opened away back in the rear where we had been. 183 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and batteries of artillery. just below his heart. and in the ambulance he had the body of General McPherson. He was in the ambulance with the body of McPherson when they stopped by us. He was dead when he found him. and we recognized Major Strong. were mighty thick along the banks of the little ravine we were following. officers all killed. and probably he rode right into them and was killed before he realized the true situation. stories were heard of divisions.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and the speaker. then it would let up on them and the Seventeenth Corps would be hotly engaged along their whole front. whom the all knew. when the Colonel ordered a halt and knapsacks to be unslung and piled up. and taking position in new lines in rear of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Corps. and meeting no opposition to their advances in this strip of woods. But you boys have heard and seen the same cowardly sneaks. taking exactly the same course our Regiment had. during a slight lull in the fighting at that part of the line.gutenberg. in fights that you were in. It was pretty well out of danger from the bullets and shell of the enemy. We knew that this meant business though. for it was a fearful hot day. we could see brigades. as he was the Chief Inspector of our Corps. There was a young fellow with him who was wounded also. probably. it appears. stragglers and wounded men by the hundred were pouring in to the safe shelter formed by the broken ground along which we were rapidly marching. where they were hidden from view. perhaps an hour before. When the ambulance got to where we were it halted. I tell you it was a relief to get them off. and we had been marching almost double quick. They stopped. and regiments. coming over from the right of the Army.htm we marched along. having taken an ambulance and driven into the very jaws of death to recover the remains of his loved commander. they were thus parallel and close to the little road McPherson had taken. He belonged to our First Division. they had marched right along down in the rear. and stood by him until Major Strong came up. part of the time the Sixteenth Corps seemed to be in the worst. followed by two or three mounted officers and men. toward the front. brigades and regiments that these wounded or stragglers belonged. and at the left of the Sixteenth Corps which was almost directly in the rear of the Seventeenth Corps. probably killing him instantly. "We had probably marched half an hour since leaving Logan. The battle raged furiously all this time. having been all cut to pieces. of McPherson's Staff.

He was outside of our line of works. It exploded as it struck. too. keeping along on the outside of our works. they stopped firing to let us pass. who were played out with the heat and most ready to drop with sunstroke. so they cannot be enfiladed. scattering death and destruction to the men and horses attached to it.gutenberg. You know how we build breastworks—sort of zigzag like. that's just the way the works were along there. you know. except occasional shots from some heavy guns on the main line of Rebel works around the City. and most of their shots went over us. They seemed to be having an easy time of it just then —no fighting going on in their front. The ambulance with the corpse of Gen. who had strapped them on the caissons for transportation.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. We had not gone far before the Rebel gunners in the main works around the City discovered us. We saw one of them—I think it was a shell—strike an artillery caisson belonging to one of our-batteries. exploded with an awful noise. and left a couple of our older men. and then the caisson.htm "Having piled our knapsacks. we started on again. McPherson moved off towards the right of the Army.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and the way they did tear loose at us was a caution. "Just after passing the hill where our battery was making things so lively. We came up to the main line of works just about at the left of the Fifteenth Corps. but we were glad to learn afterwards that it was the contents of the knapsacks of the Battery boys. our Division Commander. which was the last we ever saw of that brave and handsome soldier. We crossed right over the Fifteenth Corps' works and filed to the left. We saw General Leggett. to guard them. which was full of ammunition. "We bore off a little to the right of a large open field on top of a high hill where one of our batteries was pounding away at a tremendous rate. throwing pieces of wood and iron and its own load of shot and shell high into the air. Their aim was rather bad. however. and you never saw 184 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Well. come riding toward us. We thought we saw arms and legs and parts of bodies of men flying in every direction.

"'Our Brigade. We all believed that he was either killed or captured.' which we discovered. they were cool and as steady as on parade. His absence was a great loss. A line of the Rebs tried to charge across the open fields in front of us. but by the help of the old twenty-four pounders (which proved to be part of Cooper's Illinois Battery.) You see General Scott had not been seen or heard of since he had started to the rear after our regiment when the fighting first commenced. You see.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. "There were times when a fellow did not know which side of the works was the safest. we drove them back a-flying. they were not demoralized or in confusion. which had been to the left of us. Why. and go along a little further and here was a regiment. was now commanded by 'Old Whiskers' (Colonel Piles. when the Rebs got into the works in their rear. I'll bet he's got the longest whiskers of any man in the Army. where we were placed in position in an open corn-field. our Fourth Division. But the old Division had. and rear—in the direction of the Sixteenth Corps. of the Seventy-Eighth Ohio. for our brigade was then ordered to leave the works and to move to the right about twenty or thirty rods across a large ravine. only to have to jump over on the outside of our works the next minute to tackle a heavy force that came for our rear through that blasted strip of woods. and a bull-dog of a fighter. both sets firing in opposite directions. in all their long service. that we had been alongside of in many a hard fight before). He was a splendid soldier.htm such a curious shape as we formed our Division in. and the firing on both sides seemed to have pretty much stopped. never been driven from any position they had once taken. for the Johnnies were in front of us and in rear of us. so that our Division was now at the point where our line turned sharply to the left. "No sir'ee.gutenberg. but we had not much time to think of such things. had been forced to quit their works. We soon drove them off. or part of a regiment on the other side. you know. part of them were on one side of the works.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. forming a new line at quite an angle from the line of 185 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and they did not propose to leave that ridge until they got orders from some one beside the Rebs. "We got into business before we had been there over three minutes. or he would have been with his command.

At their first appearance we opened on them. and were struggling through the thicket of undergrowth in the ravine. the three lines now forming one solid column. extending to the left. when we heard the most unearthly Rebel yell directly in front of us. yelling louder and appearing more desperately reckless than the one ahead. and every one of them yelling like so many Sioux Indians. At one time the Rebs were right in on top of the Seventy-Eighth.' were into it as hot and heavy as we had been. "On they came. and we barely had time to lay them down in front of us.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. still occupied the old works on the highest part of the hill. 186 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . dried-up fellow. and had lost numbers of their officers and men. and that by the third. It grew louder and came nearer and nearer. which was coming on the double quick. about sixty years old. now reinforced by a part of the Third Ohio heavy guns. until we could see a solid line of the gray coats coming out of the woods and down the opposite slope. The battery of howitzers. and getting us back nearer onto a line with the Sixteenth Corps. they were one confused mass of officers and men. One of their first surges came mighty near going right over the left of our Regiment. which made several desperate efforts to rush up to the top of the hill where we were punishing them so. a little. as they were lying down behind their little rail piles. short. One big Reb grabbed their colors. "The Seventy-Eighth and Twentieth Ohio. each.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. We took our position just on the brow of a hill. how we did wish that we had the breech loading Spencers or Winchesters. and tried to pull them out of the hands of the color-bearer. struck him with his sword across the back of the neck. which we discovered a few rods behind us in the shape of a good ten-rail fence. but were hanging on to their little rail piles when the fight was over. and the rear rank to go for rails. officers in front with drawn swords. with canister. their battle flags flying. Every rear-rank chap came back with all the rails he could lug. But old Captain Orr. the first line staggered and wavered back on to the second. Lordy. arms at right shoulder. Such a raking as we did give them.htm works we had just left. and so did the bully old twenty-four-pounders. and killed him deader than a mackerel. But the boys clubbed their guns and the officers used their revolvers and swords and drove them back down the hill. But we had the old reliable Springfields. followed closely by the second line. our right and left bowers. The line seemed to be massed six or eight ranks deep.gutenberg. forming a little barricade of six to eight or ten inches high. who had been brigaded with us ever since 'Shiloh. and we poured it in hot and heavy. Oh. and were ordered to lie down. By the time the charging column got down the opposite slope. right in his tracks. just to the right of our new line. if possible.

for they kept up such an all-fired shelling of us from so many different directions.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and we laid there and could just fire right up into the rear of those fellows as they lay behind a traverse extending back from our old line of works. 187 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . "There was one point off to our right. came along and said he wanted a couple of good shots out of our company to go with him. that the boys had built traverses and bomb-proofs at all sorts of angles and in all directions. when they.htm "It was now getting dark. and from some heavy guns away over to the right of us. and by morning we were in splendid shape to have received our friends. the rest of the boys were putting up some good solid earthworks right where our rail piles had been. but every time they would shoot.gutenberg. Down in the ravine below us lay hundreds of killed and wounded Rebels. from the left. It was so dark we could only see where to fire by the flash of guns. they had better be going. in the main works around Atlanta. no matter which way they had come at us. of D Company. They opened fire on us from a number of pieces of artillery from the front. since we were going to stay. a few rods up along our old line of works where there was a crowd of Rebel sharpshooters that annoyed us more than all the rest. and while part of us were sharpshooting and trying to keep the Rebels from working up too close to us. some of us would let them have one. He took about ten of us. and the Johnnies concluded they had taken a bigger contract in trying to drive us off that hill in one day than they had counted on. by their constant firing at us through the night. They killed one of Company H's boys. and got behind a large fallen tree. so they quit charging on us. "It was an awful night. either. Finally Captain Williams. so I went for one. "We did not fool away much time that night.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and we crawled down into the ravine in front of where we were building the works. We got our shovels and picks. They staid there until almost daylight. but drew back under cover of the woods and along the old line of works that we had left. and wounded several others. concluded as things looked. and kept up a pecking away and sharp-shooting at us all night long.

The Rebel dead and badly wounded laid where they had fallen.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. bruised and broken by the thousands of bullets and other missiles that had been poured into them from almost every conceivable direction during the day before. and next were the two great..htm groaning and crying aloud for water and for help. Our Major was severely wounded. to see how some of our boys over there had got through the scrimmage. I tell you it was pretty tough next morning to go along to the different companies of our regiment and hear who were among the killed and wounded. O. By his side lay First Sergeant Lesnit. it seems. thus dying in each other's arms. Nelson Skeeles. We did do what we could for those right around us—but it was so dark.gutenberg. "It was a frightful sight. There was the Captain of Company E. "But I can't begin to think or tell you the names of all the poor boys that we laid away to rest in their last. and several other officers had been hit more or less badly. and the larger trees were scarred. for they had about as nasty a fight 188 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . to go over the field in front of our works on that morning. though. One. was killed while supporting the head of the other. The underbrush was cut. powerful Shepherds—cousins but more like brothers. of Fulton County. and to see the long row of graves that were being dug to bury our comrades and our officers. and so many shell bursting and bullets flying around that a fellow could not get about much. and torn into shreds.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. slashed. who had just received a death wound. long sleep on that gloomy day. "A lot of us boys went way over to the left into Fuller's Division of the Sixteenth Corps. The bottom and opposite side of the ravine showed how destructive our fire and that of the canister from the howitzers had been. one of—the bravest and best officers in the regiment.

' is it! Well. and that after their last repulse. and that when. I knew I was a goner.htm as any part of the Army. 'I Thinks. and made him wait until a report was sent back to Corps headquarters. "'Halt!' and I'll be dog-Boned if there wasn't two of the meanest looking Rebels. thinks I. and was about ready to start back to camp. and the first thing I knew I was detailed for picket duty. They all seemed to think it was safe enough. But I saw a beautiful. with about fifty of their best men.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.' I was just reaching up after it when I heard some one say. and keep up a show of fight. and I had picked up my blanket and haversack. and take it back to camp.gutenberg. and as near as we could learn the Rebels wanted a truce to bury their dead. and that he lost more than half his men before he left. He also told us that General Scott was captured by their Division. he felt that if they would keep close to us during the night. borne by an officer. and if it had not been for their being just where they were. Along about dusk some of the boys on my post got to telling about a lot of silver and brass instruments that belonged to one of the bands of the Fourth Division. He said they staid until almost daylight. who were taken the day before.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and we have been fooling along in a lot of old cattle cars getting down here ever since. From there I was kept going for an hour or two until we got over to a place on the railroad called East Point. where their picket line was. standing not ten feet from me. while waiting. 'I'll just take that little toot horn in out of the wet. I am not sure but what the old Seventeenth Corps would have had a different story to tell now. when here I found the horns all hanging around on the trees just as the boys had described. He said that he. where their brigade had got into a pretty lively fight on their own hook. 'I'll just go out there and see about them horns. We had not been out but a short time when we saw a flag of truce. We found our friends had been way out by Decatur. nice looking silver bugle hanging off to one side a little. which had been hung up in some small trees a little way over in front of where we were when the fight was going on the day before. and was now a prisoner in their hands. and that the troops that charged us so fiercely the evening before was Cleburne's whole Division. But the truce for burying the dead was agreed to. at about the time and almost the same spot as where General McPherson was killed.' I told the boys what I was going to do. The Rebel officer was quite chatty and talkative with our picket officer. with their guns cocked and pointed at me. There I got in with a big crowd of our prisoners. a bullet would strike one of the horns they could hear it go 'pin-g' and in a few minutes 'pan-g' would go another bullet through one of them. and we were posted over a few rods across the ravine in our front. Our folks tried to get up an exchange of prisoners that had been taken by both sides the day before. by—!" 189 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . they walked me back about one hundred and fifty yards. "Quite a lot of our staff officers soon came out. I should think. and. coming towards us. and that he was not hurt or wounded. "We got back to camp. that we would pull out and abandon the hill before morning. "A new picket was just coming' on. and it was his party that had occupied the traverse in our old works the night before and had annoyed us and the Battery men by their constant sharpshooting. when. knowing the hill where we were posted was the most important position along our line. Some of them had lots of bullet holes in them. We halted him.' says I. had volunteered to keep up the demonstration. of course. I had not gone more than a hundred yards. He said he was on General Cleburne's staff. "So this is 'Andersonville. so out I started. which we fellows behind the old tree had finally tired out. but for some reason they could not bring it about.

we were tattered and torn to an extent that a second-class tramp would have considered disgraceful. Now. Our garments told the whole story of the hard campaigning we had undergone. Clothing had now become an object of real solicitude to us older prisoners.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The Mine Run fellows were eight months old. AND DEVICES TO REPLENISH IT—DESPERATE EFFORTS TO COVER NAKEDNESS—"LITTLE RED CAP" AND HIS LETTER. digging wells.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. working in tunnels. CLOTHING: ITS RAPID DETERIORATION.. and my battalion had had seven months' incarceration. The veterans of our crowd—the surviving remnant of those captured at Gettysburg—had been prisoners over a year. sleeping on the sand. etc. 190 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm CHAPTER XLI. with months of the wear and tear of prison life. None of us were models of well-dressed gentlemen when captured. The next in seniority—the Chickamauga boys—had been in ten months.gutenberg.

with the rough usage a soldier in the field must necessarily give them. The clothes were not as fine in texture." and "musketo-netting overcoats.htm This is no reflection upon the quality of the clothes furnished by the Government. 191 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . because I want to contribute my little mite towards doing justice to a badly abused part of our Army organization —the Quartermaster's Department.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. It was always marvelous to me that they lasted so well. but I have no hesitation in asking the indorsement of my comrades to the statement that we have never found anywhere else as durable garments as those furnished us by the Government during our service in the Army." when any discussion of the Quartermaster service is the subject of conversation. I am particular to say this.gutenberg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. but when it came to wear they could be relied on to the last thread." and utter some stereotyped sneers about "brown paper shoes. It is fashionable to speak of "shoddy. We simply reached the limit of the wear of textile fabrics. nor so stylish in cut as those we wore before or since.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.htm 192 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

They used to descant loudly on the chaste elegance of the design. etc. for I know the work spent upon them: I remember my Andersonville pantaloons. but hopeless." as the infantry called them." or "ready-made patches. warm. heavy overcoat. When I pulled my alleged shirt off. by courtesy. I would reply to their witticisms in the language of Portia's Prince of Morocco: Mislike me not for my complexion— The shadowed livery of the burning sun. I called such. I have been shown—in later years—many table tops. Then part of the underclothing retired from service. by taking my own case as an example: When I entered prison I was clad in the ordinary garb of an enlisted man of the cavalry—stout. and the subject of countless jokes by them. pantaloons. piece by piece. which kept giving out at the most embarrassing places. Wherever these holes were the sun had burned my back. my skin showed a fine lace pattern in black and white. It had fallen into so many holes that it looked like the coarse "riddles" through which ashes and gravel are sifted. The same insatiate demand finally consumed the whole coat. and beg me to furnish them with a copy of it when I got home. cunningly arranged. The parts covered by the threads and fragments forming the boundaries of the holes. breast and shoulders deeply black. with a "reenforcement. as the weather had become quite warm.gutenberg.. snug-fitting jacket. ornamented in marquetry. under and over shirts. The pantaloons—or what. The jacket and vest followed. I can best illustrate the way our clothes dropped off us. and it was more pleasant than otherwise to go barefooted. and a forage-cap. drawers. were still white. that should have called forth the admiration of a Florentine artist in mosaic. but this was no special hardship. and patiently joined together. that was very interesting to my comrades. were a monument of careful and ingenious. comfortable boots. like the petals from the last rose of Summer. for their sisters to work window curtains or tidies by. to wash or to free it from some of its teeming population. They were sure that so striking a novelty in patterns would be very acceptable. inlaid with thousands of little bits of wood. I always look at them with interest.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. their end being hastened by having their best portions taken to patch up the pantaloons. First my boots fell into cureless ruin. in a vain attempt to prevent an exposure of person greater than consistent with the usages of society. woolen pocks. the richness of the tracing.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 193 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Then the cape of the overcoat was called upon to assist in repairing these continuallyrecurring breaches in the nether garments. patching. The clothing upon the upper part of my body had been reduced to the remains of a knit undershirt. vest.htm But to return to my subject.

htm One of the stories told me in my childhood by an old negro nurse.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. was of a poverty stricken little girl "who slept on the floor and was covered with the door.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www." and she once asked— "Mamma how do poor folks get along who haven't any door?" 194 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg.

furnished many good suits to cover the nakedness of older. who would doubtless have lived had they been able to reach our lines—"get to God's country. The Plymouth Pilgrims. prisoners. I have before alluded to the general incapacity of the Rebels to deal accurately with even simple numbers. and no body was carried out with any clothing on it that could be of service to the survivors.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. After awhile the Rebels began to see through this sleight of hand manipulation. It was no loss of time to them. They had all heard rumors. To thousands now hanging on the verge of eternity it meant life or death. For my own part. carefully raveled out. that an exchange had been agreed upon. The meal furnished as rations was brought in in white cotton sacks. Of course the most common source of clothing was the dead. of little importance. or. The needles were about the size of ordinary darning needles. soldiers in active service in the field had other things to busy themselves with than reading up the details of the negotiations between the Commissioners of Exchange. It was never very difficult for a shrewd Sergeant to make nine sacks count as ten. I do not think any red Indian of the plains exceeded us in the patience with which we worked away at these minutia of life's needs. and as very many died within a month or six weeks after their entrance. and the answer awaited. These devices gave one some conception of the way savages provide for the wants of their lives. and then had an eye laboriously worked through it with a bit of wire or something else available for the purpose. and in the next. Every new batch of prisoners was besieged with anxious inquiries on the subject which lay closest to all our hearts: "What are they doing about exchange!" Nothing in human experience—save the anxious expectancy of a sail by castaways on a desert island—could equal the intense eagerness with which this question was asked. the day before he was taken. who were so well clothed on coming in. would furnish a couple of handfuls of thread. and to check it.gutenberg. and were now dying off very rapidly. Sergeants of detachments were required to return these when the rations were issued the next day. Time was with them. he would fabricate himself a shirt or a pair of pantaloons. where a civilized man could purchase a much better one with the product of three minutes' labor. who was captured in front of Petersburg. and could only bring myself to it after I had been a year in prison. One common way of keeping up one's clothing was by stealing mealsacks. they left their clothes in pretty good condition for those who constituted themselves their heirs. was carefully rubbed down upon a brick. however. administrators and assigns. There was none to bring in the first place. A half of a sack. Most of the prisoners from the Army of the Potomac were well dressed. and it became a question between doing that and freezing to death. and by the time they reached Andersonville. a report like this would spread like wildfire: "An Army of the Potomac man has just come in. The cotton cloth gained in this way was used for patching. they had crystallized these into actual statements of fact. and that our ships had already started for Savannah to take us home. and answered the purpose very well. I had the greatest aversion to wearing dead men's clothes. as with us. Had it not been for this resource all our sewing and mending would have come to a standstill. We obtained all our thread in the same way. A half hour after they entered the Stockade.htm In the same spirit I used to wonder how poor fellows got along who hadn't any shirt.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Then the Sergeants resorted to the device of tearing the sacks in two. split as near as possible to the required size. A piece of bone." 195 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . He says that he read in the New York Herald. Most of our needles were manufactured by ourselves from bones. if a boy could succeed in beating the Rebels out of enough of it. Between the first day of July and the first of November over twelve thousand men died. The new comers brought little reliable news of contemplated exchange. nor to us. and turning each half in as a whole one. to spend a large portion of the waking hours of a week in fabricating a needle out of a bone." as we expressed it.

I am pretty certain that I should have ended the matter by crossing the Dead Line. 196 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . There was hardly a day when I did not say to myself that I would much rather die than endure imprisonment another month.gutenberg. agonizing death that so many around me were dying. and had I believed that another month would see me still there. I was firmly resolved not to die the disgusting.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. We fed ourselves on such stuff from day to day.htm Then our hopes would soar up like balloons.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and doubtless many lives were greatly prolonged by the continual encouragement.

I received the following letter: ECKHART MINES. fascinated the women visitors at headquarters.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and I know all the survivors of his old admirer. and every day could be seen riding Wirz's gray mare.htm One of our best purveyors of information was a bright. and evidently the darling of some refined loving mother. and turned a deaf ear to their blandishments. in which was a chapter or two of a prison life of a soldier during the late war. the smaller a drummer boy is the harder he is. to some loyal Virginia regiment. too. I was forcibly struck with the correctness of what he wrote. but assume to say that from the following description he will remember having seen me in Andersonville: I was the little boy that for three or four months officiated as orderly for Captain Wirz. they are there yet. Shortly after Wirz assumed command he took Red Cap into his office as an Orderly. which was in the last of February. But no six-footer had a more soldierly heart than little Red Cap. Tenth West Virginia Infantry. calling themselves soldier should make war on such a tender boy and drag him off to prison." (proper name Collins) Delaney. etc. March 24.gutenberg. Curtis. and. Several days after the above had been written. and was fifteen years of age a day or two after arriving in Andersonville." from his wearing a jaunty. He kept his ears open to the conversation of the Rebel officers around him. I think. but no amount of attrition with rough men could coarse the ingrained refinement of Red Cap's manners. as handsome as a girl. beyond a doubt. Md. Limber Jim. I was acting in this capacity when the six raiders —"Mosby. He belonged. fair-haired little drummer boy. I do not know who your soldier correspondent is. and frequently secured permission to visit the interior of the Stockade. was captured in one of the actions in the Shenandoa Valley. gold-laced. He was a good observer and told his tale with boyish fervor. etc. To the Editor of the BLADE: Last evening I saw a copy of your paper. when he would communicate to us all that he has heard. or about the Stockade. It was a pleasure to hear him tell the story of the fights and movements his regiment had been engaged in. I have no doubt that I would have remained there. I hope that if he sees this. and it seemed utterly shameful that men. and numbers of them tried to adopt him. He was between thirteen and fourteen. and had been with us in Richmond. or any one who knows anything about him. 1884. Alleghany County. had I not been more fortunate. and the names of several of my old comrades which he quoted: Hill.. but with poor success. poor fellows. I wore a red cap. I ran down to the stocks and told them. share my great interest in him. We called him "Red Cap. the best known and most popular person in the prison.. and no orator ever secured a more attentive audience than would gather around him to listen to what he had to say." but before it had yet appeared in the paper. I was a drummer boy of Company I. He received a flattering reception every time he cams in. either at headquarters. His bright face and winning manner. and—I forget the other names—were executed.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. blue-eyed. Like the rest of us. There are thousands who will be glad to hear from him. and whether his subsequent career has justified the sanguine hopes we all had as to his future. and none were more loyal to the cause. 197 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . As soon as Wirz received the dispatch to that effect. and "set up. he will communicate with me. he could see few charms in an existence under the Rebel flag. and my curiosity as to whether he yet lives. Ordinarily. I believe that I was the first that conveyed the intelligence to them that Confederate General Winder had approved their sentence. A most remarkable coincidence occurred in regard to this comrade. crimson cap. He was. Nineteen of my comrades were there with me. well-bred as a lady.

. and was the only man that I ever knew that escaped and reached our lines. O. Yours truly. and found him hale and hearty. I formed the acquaintance of several Ohio soldiers whilst in prison. Editor. who went to Andersonville about the same time that I did. After an absence of several months he was retaken in one of Sherman's battles before Atlanta. D. or Eaglesville. Richards. No living. O. of Tennessee. RANSOM T. I also knew John L. Also. Mr. I feel called upon to certify that I have no doubts of the truthfulness of your correspondent's story. I have not heard from him for a number of years until reading your correspondent's letter last evening. It is the only letter of the series that I have seen. and brought back. I would like to hear from all of these parties. will ever be able to properly paint the horrors of those infernal dens. since the war.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. of Fostoria. The world will never know or believe the horrors of Andersonville and other prisons in the South. Among these were O. Seneca County. and escaped.htm I visited Hill. of Cleveland. Streeter. a long and useful life. of Wauseon. but after reading that one. Wood County.gutenberg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. They all know me. Fulton County. who was a partner of Charley Aucklebv. human being. a man by the name of Beverly. I will close by wishing all my comrades who shared in the sufferings and dangers of Confederate prisons. in my judgment. POWELL 198 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

except eight thousand two hundred and eighteen. the pollution of ground and air. and for clearly estimating the value of the facts coming under his notice were. I do not mean to include them in the above class. there were ten thousand four hundred and twenty-seven in the Stockade. Many came in who had been in good health during their service in the field. August 8 there were thirty-three thousand one hundred and fourteen.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and left before the middle of September. of the boys who so much as set foot in Andersonville died there. for fear of being accused of exaggeration and downright untruth. for the benefit of science. May 1. I reproduce the major part of his testimony—embodying also his official report to medical headquarters at Richmond—that my readers may know how the prison appeared to the eyes 199 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg. I believe this was about the usual proportion for those who were in as long as we. BY A LEADING SCIENTIFIC MAN OF THE SOUTH. The great majority came in after the 1st of May. thirteen lived through. The Plymouth boys arrived in May. a Surgeon of high rank in the Rebel Army. Let it be kept in mind all the time. and the insufficiency of the ration of coarse corn meal. died in a few days or weeks.htm CHAPTER XLII SOME FEATURES OF THE MORTALITY —PERCENTAGE OF DEATHS TO THOSE LIVING —AN AVERAGE MEAN ONLY STANDS THE MISERY THREE MONTHS—DESCRIPTION OF THE PRISON AND THE CONDITION OF THE MEN THEREIN. Twenty-nine per cent. vastly superior to mine. a friend has sent me a transcript of the evidence at the Wirz trial. taking one hundred ordinarily healthful young soldiers from a regiment in active service. June and July. My idea is that. September 30 all these were dead or gone. immediately after their removal from Andersonville. say at the end of six months fifty of them would be dead. Since the above matter was first published in the BLADE. of the phenomena of disease occurring there. September and October. He visited Andersonville at the instance of the Surgeon-General of the Confederate States' Army. His capacity and opportunities for observation. and giving way to despondency. After this the mortality would be somewhat less. One of every three and a-half men upon whom the gates of the Stockade closed never repassed them alive. by the end of the third month at least thirty-three of those weakest and most vulnerable to disease would have succumbed to the exposure. to make a study. and at the end of a year there would be fifteen or twenty still alive. as their sickness was more mental than physical. of course. the bulk of those who died passed away in July and August. but who seemed utterly overwhelmed by the appalling misery they saw on every hand. In all there were forty-five thousand six hundred and thirteen prisoners brought into Andersonville. The great increase of prisoners from all sources was in May. to say nothing of thousands that died in other prisons in Georgia and the Carolinas. 1864. that the average stay of a prisoner there was not four months. There were sixty-three of my company taken. The remainder would hang on still more tenaciously. The greatest mortality among these was in August. The records of the world can shove no parallel to this astounding mortality. and who stood at the head of the medical profession in Georgia. Of these twelve thousand nine hundred and twelve died there. I am reminded of my theory that the ordinary man's endurance of this prison life did not average over three months. of whom four thousand five hundred and ninety died inside of the next thirty days. Speaking of the manner in which the Plymouth Pilgrims were now dying. of Professor Joseph Jones.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and putting them into Andersonville. and as he states the case stronger than I dare to.

Q. Q. though a bitter Rebel. What position do you hold now? A. [Transcript from the printed testimony at the Wirz Trial. Both.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. or rather as an investigator of medicine as a science? A.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Q. How long have you been engaged in the practice of medicine? A.] OCTOBER 7. That of Medical Chemist in the Medical College of Georgia. 1885. Georgia. was still a humane man and a conscientious observer. Where do you reside Answer. Dr. Joseph Jones. How long have you held your position in that college? 200 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm of one who. striving to learn the truth: MEDICAL TESTIMONY. Of the University of Pennsylvania. Q. Q. inclusive. Has your experience been as a practitioner. In Augusta. at Augusta. Are you a graduate of any medical college? A. pages 618 to 639.gutenberg. for the prosecution: By the Judge Advocate: Question. Eight years.

Andersonville. Did you. It was believed that a large body of men from the Northern portion of the United States. with the design of instituting a series of inquiries upon the nature and causes of the prevailing diseases. 1864. by Joseph Jones. Q. For the purpose of prosecuting investigations ordered by the Surgeon General. The condition of Peyer's glands in this disease was considered as worthy of minute investigation. SURGEON GENERAL'S OFFICE. RICHMOND. Surgeon General. and I believed that this would prove an admirable field for the establishment of its characteristic lesions. in Sumter County. a desire to visit Camp Sumter. Confederate States of America. the relations of continued and malarial fevers. A. (A document being handed to witness.) Q. professionally? A. and the rest of the time in the medical department. suddenly transported to a warm Southern climate. at Augusta. Professor of Medical Chemistry in the Medical College of Georgia. Yes. and the pathology of camp diarrhea and dysentery. S. Sir. Q. SIR:—The field of pathological investigations afforded by the large collection of Federal prisoners 201 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg.. Sir. would furnish an excellent field for the investigation of the relations of typhus. Moore. C. Under the direction of whom? A. Yes. Va.: CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. For the purpose of making investigations there? A. I expressed to the Surgeon General.htm A. and is as follows: Observations upon the diseases of the Federal prisoners. Did you reduce the results of your investigations to the shape of a report? A. and confined upon a small portion of land. Under the direction of Dr. Moore. 1864. Smallpox had appeared among the prisoners. Q. Georgia.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Q. You went there in obedience to a letter of instructions? A. I was engaged at that work when General Johnston surrendered his army. The Surgeon General of the Confederate States of America furnished me with the following letter of introduction to the Surgeon in charge of the Confederate States Military Prison at Andersonville. Q. Georgia. Surgeon P. Q. instituted with a view to illustrate chiefly the origin and causes of hospital gangrene. P. Have you examined this extract from your report and compared it with the original? A. confined to Camp Sumter. Hearing of the unusual mortality among the Federal prisoners confined at Andersonville. it is accurate. while acting under his direction. S. In obedience to orders which I received. and malarial fevers. I served six months in the early part of it as a private in the ranks.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.' The document just examined by witness was offered in evidence. during a visit to Richmond. So far as my examination extended. visit Andersonville. How were you employed during the Rebellion? A. August 6. typhoid. Georgia.. in the month of August. Ga. Is it accurate? A. I have. VA. Q. Since 1858..

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. September 16. The Surgeon in charge of the hospital for Federal prisoners. S. In charge of Hospital for Federal prisoners. but especially in the arduous labors of post mortem examinations. A. White. September 17. R. and R. together with his assistants. Post Andersonville. will afford every facility to Surgeon Joseph Jones. JOSEPH JONES. your obedient servant. 202 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . In compliance with this letter of the Surgeon General. ANDERSONVILLE. is of great extant and importance. Andersonville. After the completion of my labors in the military prison hospital. the following communication was addressed to Brigadier General John H. I desire to institute certain inquiries ordered by the Surgeon General. have afforded me every facility for the prosecution of my labors among the sick outside of the Stockade. Very respectfully. 1864. Ga. WHITE. Isaiah H. In the absence of General Winder from the post.htm in Georgia. and Surgeon R. Stevenson. Surgeon Isaiah H. Surgeon ISAIAH H. The medical officers will assist in the performance of such post-mortems as Surgeon Jones may indicate. GENERAL:—I respectfully request the commandant of the post of Andersonville to grant me permission and to furnish the necessary pass to visit the sick and medical officers within the Stockade of the Confederate States Prison. in order that this great field for pathological investigation may be explored for the benefit of the Medical Department of the Confederate Army. MOORE. in consequence of the refusal on the part of the commandant of the interior of the Confederate States Military Prison to admit me within the Stockade upon the order of the Surgeon General: CAMP SUMTER. Winder. Brigadier General JOHN H.gutenberg. and it is believed that results of value to the profession may be obtained by careful investigation of the effects of disease upon the large body of men subjected to a decided change of climate and those circumstances peculiar to prison life. P. Chief Surgeon of the post. in charge of the Prison Hospital. Chief Surgeon of the post. ANDERSONVILLE GA. Stevenson. in the prosecution of the labors ordered by the Surgeon General. not only in his examinations into the causes and symptoms of the various diseases. afforded the necessary facilities for the prosecution of my investigations among the sick outside of the Stockade. Surgeon in charge of the Prison Hospital. S. R. Surgeon P. Commandant.. Captain Winder furnished the following order: CAMP SUMTER. White. 1864. Efficient assistance must be rendered Surgeon Jones by the medical officers. C. Surgeon General. WINDER.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

The internal structure of the hills. Very respectfully. which forms in its various combinations a cement to the sand. the middle Stockade being sixteen feet high. while in case of an attempt to deliver the prisoners by a force operating upon the exterior. These are intended for offense and defense. During the month of March the prison was less crowded than at any subsequent time. The clay is sufficiently tenacious to give a considerable degree of consistency to the soil. may sweep the entire enclosure. exercise. The Confederate Military Prison at Andersonville. twenty feet in height. habits. The surface soil of these hills is composed chiefly of sand with varying admixtures of clay and oxide of iron. moral condition. tunneled extensively from these wells.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The Stockade was built originally to accommodate only ten thousand prisoners.gutenberg. food. and included at first seventeen acres. running zig-zag. These figures represent the condition of the Stockade in a better light even than it really was. in some cases. If the inner Stockade should at any time be forced by the prisoners. the outer line forms an admirable protection to the Confederate troops. as well as the oxide of iron. enclosing twenty-seven acres. allow of extensive tunneling. diseases. are wet and boggy from the constant oozing of water. from which the cannon. The alternate layers of clay and sand. flowing from west to east between the hills. W. which originally were scattered sparsely 203 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Captain H.2 or less than four square yards. is similar to that already described. The ground enclosed by the innermost Stockade lies in the form of a parallelogram. and crowded into the confined space. physical condition. Description of the Confederate States Military Prison Hospital at Andersonville. bordering on the stream. The average number of square feet of ground to each prisoner in August 1864: 35. consists of a strong Stockade. but they have also. The four angles of the outer line are strengthened by earthworks upon commanding eminences. in case of an outbreak among the prisoners. A. the larger diameter running almost due north and south. the second forms another line of defense.. and it was designed to connect these works by a line of rifle pits. until in the month of June the average number of square feet of ground to each prisoner was only 33. and a most formidable obstacle to cavalry or infantry. and the outer twelve feet. The lower portions of these hills. around the outer Stockade.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. between which a stream of water runs from west to east. WINDER. as revealed by the deep wells. The pines and other small trees and shrubs. firmly planted in the ground. By direction of General Winder. G. Commanding Prison. taken from the wells which they have excavated all over those hills. and was covered with the excrement of the men.7 feet.7 Within the circumscribed area of the Stockade the Federal prisoners were compelled to perform all the offices of life—cooking. was low and boggy. A. The Federal prisoners were gathered from all parts of the Confederate States east of the Mississippi. Number of prisoners. Ga. The prisoners not only constructed numerous dirt huts with balls of clay and sand. and then the average space of ground to each prisoner was only 98. who has orders from the Surgeon General. those rifle pits have never been completed. to visit the sick within the Stockade that are under medical treatment. for a considerable breadth of land along the stream. Surgeon Jones is ordered to make certain investigations which may prove useful to his profession. WIRZ. the calls of nature. Near the close of the month of June the area was enlarged by the addition of ten acres. The ground added was situated on the northern slope of the largest hill. or less than seven square yards. and thus rendered wholly uninhabitable. and sleeping. S. This space includes the northern and southern opposing sides of two hills. and in fact useless for every purpose except that of defecation. clothing. washing. The Stockade is formed of strong pine logs. The main Stockade is surrounded by two other similar rows of pine logs.htm CAPTAIN:—You will permit Surgeon Joseph Jones.

. The Confederate authorities are said not to have interfered with these proceedings. the duties of the Confederate soldiers acting as guards being limited to the occupation of the boxes or lookouts ranged around the stockade at regular intervals... covered the surface of the low grounds with excrements. that he might destroy his life and fall heir to his clothing. With their characteristic industry and ingenuity. who were murdered at night. In the location and arrangement of these tents and huts no order appears to have been followed... Even judicial matters pertaining to themselves. of men... removed to its present site without the Stockade. The vast majority appeared to lose all repulsion to filth. .. and to the manning of the batteries at the angles of the prison.. The Federal prisoners also made frequent forays upon the hospital stores and carried off the food and clothing of the sick. under a defective system of police. and the excrements were deposited at the very doors of their tents. February 24. and hanged six (6) of their own number... But few tents were distributed to the prisoners.. and they accumulated in such quantities in the lower portion of the stream as to form a mass of liquid excrement heavy rains caused the water of the stream to rise. and even the sick who were unable to defend themselves were robbed of their scanty supplies of food and clothing. and thousands of the prisoners gathered around to witness the execution. or else accumulated upon the low boggy ground. and dysentery.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and with the tents and huts clustered thickly around the hospital.. and by scurvy... I heard a sick and wounded Federal prisoner accuse his nurse. The volume of water was not sufficient to wash away the feces.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. as large bodies of prisoners were from time to time added suddenly without any previous preparations. during his sleep inoculated his wounded arm with gangrene. it was impossible to secure proper ventilation or to maintain the necessary police. the sick were treated within the Stockade. a fellow-prisoner of the United States Army.. the stronger preyed upon the weaker..gutenberg. were in a short time cut down and consumed by the prisoners for firewood.htm over these hills. to May 22. In the crowded condition of the Stockade. condemned. want of exercise.. the Federals constructed for themselves small huts and caves.. regular streets appear to be out of the question in so crowded an area. after the subsidence of the waters. and the excrements were in large measure deposited so near the borders of the stream as not to be washed away.. The large number of men confined within the Stockade soon. and no shade tree was left in the entire enclosure of the stockade.. both sick and well. they were unable to evacuate their bowels within the stream or along its banks.. They were all hung upon the same day. every phase of human character was represented. and as the arrangements for the passage of the increased amounts of water out of the Stockade were insufficient. The hospital was.. Dark stories were afloat. In this collection of men from all parts of the world. Improvements were projected for the removal of the filth and for the prevention of its accumulation.. who had been convicted of stealing and of robbing and murdering their fellow-prisoners. 1864. The accommodations for the sick were imperfect and insufficient. when the Federal prisoners within the Stockade tried.. and with imperfect arrangements. and those were in most cases torn and rotten. especially too. and attempted to shield themselves from the rain and sun and night damps and dew.. of having stealthily. as the detection and punishment of such crimes as theft and murder appear to have been in a great measure abandoned to the prisoners.. and five acres of ground covered with oaks and 204 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The police and internal economy of the prison was left almost entirely in the hands of the prisoners themselves.... The sinks over the lower portions of the stream were imperfect in their plan and structure. in fact. and both sick and well disregarded all the laws of hygiene and personal cleanliness. As the forces of the prisoners were reduced by confinement. improper diet.. strangled to death by their comrades for scant supplies of clothing or money. on the 22d of May.. From the organization of the prison. the liquid feces overflowed the low grounds and covered them several inches. The action of the sun upon this putrefying mass of excrements and fragments of bread and meat and bones excited most rapid fermentation and developed a horrible stench. diarrhea. The irregular arrangement of the huts and imperfect shelters was very unfavorable for the maintenance of a proper system of police... but they were only partially and imperfectly carried out. A striking instance of this occurred in the month of July..

should have been recorded. nearly one-third the entire number of prisoners. the Confederacy. instituted in the month of September. and chronic dysentery. coats. and who had not been entered upon the sick reports. in anticipation of an advance of General Sherman's forces from Atlanta. There were near five thousand seriously ill Federals in the Stockade and Confederate States Military Prison Hospital. whereas at least twenty medical officers should have been employed. diarrhea. The nurses and attendants upon the sick have been most generally Federal prisoners. just outside of the Southwestern Gate.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.htm pines appropriated to the use of the sick. 1864. and blankets stretched upon stacks.gutenberg. The tents and huts were not arranged according to any order. The dead were buried without coffins. An indescribable sickening stench arose from these fermenting masses of human filth. If one might judge from the large pieces of corn-bread scattered about in every direction on the ground the prisoners were either very lavishly supplied with this article of diet. nine thousand four hundred and seventy-nine deaths. however. I found the Stockade and hospital in the following condition during my pathological investigations. with the exception of the damp lowlands bordering the small stream. and other parts of. appointed as nurses. with the design of liberating their captive brethren. Owing to the slow progress of the diseases most prevalent. The supply of medical officers has been insufficient from the foundation of the prison. but were also engaged in extensive robbing of the sick. in trenches four feet deep. CONFEDERATE STATES MILITARY PRISON. The sick were attended almost entirely by their fellow-prisoners. Savannah. were suffering from severe and incurable diarrhea. From thence they were carried in carts to the burying ground. dysentery. and small ragged tents and parts of blankets and fragments of oil-cloth. who in too many cases appear to have been devoid of moral principle. and hence they retained the power of moving about to within a comparatively short period of the close of life. From the want of proper police and hygienic regulations alone it is not wonderful that from February 24 to September 21. 1864: STOCKADE. At this time only one medical officer was in attendance. which in many places appeared to be alive with working maggots. and large numbers of the prisoners who were walking about. Charleston. The low grounds bordering the stream were covered with human excrements and filth of all kinds. and scurvy. they were compelled to exert themselves at all times to attend to the calls of nature. lying under some long sheds which had been built at the northern portion for themselves. about fifteen thousand prisoners remained confined within the limits of the Stockade and Confederate States Military Prison Hospital. and the deaths exceeded one hundred per day. At the time of my visit to Andersonville a large number of Federal prisoners had been removed to Millen. of the Prison. In the Stockade. the corpses were as a general rule emaciated. 205 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . side by side.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Each day the dead from the Stockade were carried out by their fellow-prisoners and deposited upon the ground under a bush arbor. and as they received but little attention. one-quarter of a mile northwest. and there was in most parts of the enclosure scarcely room for two men to walk abreast between the tents and huts. I visited two thousand sick within the Stockade. and who not only neglected their duties. the surface was covered with huts. or else this kind of food was not relished by them.

spongy.. covered with livid vibices.. at Belle Island..... I 206 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM ........ pale complexion. livid........ and petechiae spasmodically flexed.... bleeding gums.. The effects of scurvy were manifested on every hand.. The absence of typhoid and typhus fevers amongst all the causes which are supposed to generate these diseases.... feeble. oedematous limbs. I was surprised to find but few cases of malarial fever. and large. and in other parts of the Confederacy for months.3. from the muddy.... and no well-marked cases either of typhus or typhoid fever... languid muscular motions...9.. purple.. was unfavorable to the existence and action of the malarial poison... and hospital gangrene were the prevailing diseases. dirty..254 Died in Hospital during same time ... and in all its various stages..gutenberg.... dysentery..... and even as long as two years........... to the dusky... were proof against their action...... fungoid.... and during this time they had been subjected to the same bad influences... February 24. spontaneous hemorrhages from mucous canals.479 Scurvy. lowness of spirits.. The absence of the different forms of malarial fever may be accounted for in the supposition that the artificial atmosphere of the Stockade..... leaden complexion...... and fetid breath.. swollen features.225 Total deaths in Hospital and Stockade ... diarrhea... from long exposure.... painful and hardened extremities. 186l to September 2l .. crowded densely with human beings and loaded with animal exhalations.. pale gums...6..htm Died in the Stockade from its organization.. loose teeth.. spreading ulcers covered with a dark purplish fungus growth.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www... ill-conditioned......org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.... appeared to be due to the fact that the great majority of these prisoners had been in captivity in Virginia. and those who had not had these fevers before either had them during their confinement in Confederate prisons or else their systems.

. and especially in the lower extremities. and that when this was checked by a change of diet. and dejected.. filthy habits. infested with numerous lice. In several cases of dropsy of the abdomen and lower extremities supervening upon scurvy.. Many of the prisoners believed that the scurvy was contagious. Some hundred or 207 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . the difficulty lay in the failure to separate the husk from the corn-meal. with their glazed eye balls staring up into vacant space.. I carefully examined the bakery and the bread furnished the prisoners. the patients affirmed that previously to the appearance of the dropsy they had suffered with profuse and obstinate diarrhea. instead of pus. from Indian corn-bread baked with the husk. sanious fluid... as well as the most total deprivation of vegetables and fruit. preventing the motion of the skin over the swollen parts. without adding any nutriment to the bread. The sick lay upon the bare boards.. and exuded a thin. which had supervened upon slight injuries. to boiled rice. in a country cut off from all intercourse with foreign nations. which was attempting to make the negro equal to the white man. and sorely pressed on all sides. appeared to be widespread. Many ulcers which originated from the scorbutic condition of the system appeared to become truly gangrenous. The material existed in abundance for the preparation of such soup in large quantities with but little additional expense.... and found that they were supplied almost entirely with corn-bread from which the husk had not been separated. took on rapid and frightful ulceration and gangrene.. their systems had become so disordered that the smallest abrasion of the skin. A feeling of disappointment and even resentment on account of the United States Government upon the subject of the exchange of prisoners. bad diet. hopeless misery which it would be impossible to portray bywords or by the brush. From the crowded condition. ofttimes imperfectly cured. crying for medical aid and food.gutenberg. distressed countenances of these miserable.. As far as my examination extended no fault could be found with the mode in which the bread was baked. fearing lest some man suffering with the scurvy might use the water and thus poison them. with its necessary and unavoidable sufferings. whilst on the other hand they charged their prolonged captivity upon their own Government. with the flies swarming down their open and grinning mouths.. and I saw men guarding their wells and springs.. assuming all the characteristics of hospital gangrene..ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. formed a picture of helpless. elevated surface. The sick within the Stockade lay under several long sheds which were originally built for barracks... This husk acted as an irritant to the alimentary canal..htm observed that in some of the cases of scurvy the parotid glands were greatly swollen. depressed condition of the prisoners. The long use of salt meat. living skeletons... or from the prick of a splinter. with livid swollen edges. fetid. or from the effects of the sun. purple fungoid. but it would also have acted as an efficient remedial agent for the removal of the scorbutic condition. These sheds covered two floors which were open on all sides. as if lymph had been effused between the integuments and apeneuroses. the dropsy appeared.. and of spreading scorbutic ulcers. Such aliment would have been not only highly nutritious. and often with a brawny feel of the parts. as they lay amongst the sick and dying.. to which a liberal supply of sweet potatos and vegetables might have been advantageously added. and in some instances to such an extent as to preclude entirely the power to articulate. or from scratching.. or upon such ragged blankets as they possessed. as far as I observed. accompanied with stiffness and contractions of the knee joints and ankles. and cursing their Government for its refusal to exchange prisoners. any bedding or even straw.. without.. and the ghastly corpses. appeared to be the chief causes of the scurvy. The scorbutic ulcers presented a dark. in some cases. I heard some of the prisoners go so far as to exonerate the Confederate Government from any charge of intentionally subjecting them to a protracted confinement. and over their ragged clothes. The severe pains and livid patches were frequently associated with swellings in various parts. from the rubbing of a shoe. and the apparent hopeless nature of the negotiations for some general exchange of prisoners appeared to be a cause of universal regret and deep and injurious despondency. I strongly urged the preparation of large quantities of soup made from the cow and calves' heads with the brains and tongues. complaining. .. dejected.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.. I observed also numerous cases of hospital gangrene. The haggard. or a musketo bite.

the eastern portion of which. as we have before said. dying. and that it was impossible to obtain any number of experienced nurses from the Confederate forces. in a vacant space near the pots used for cooking. and even for nearly two years in 208 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The patients and attendants. and many of the patients were so stung by these pestiferous insects. When a gangrenous wound needed washing. in the dressings and wounds themselves. is used as a privy and is loaded with excrements. This want of cleanliness on the part of the nurses appeared to be the result of carelessness and inattention. swarming with myriads of flies. and water poured over it. these worms destroy only the dead tissues and do not injure specially the well parts.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and presented a stout and healthy appearance. I saw several gangrenous wounds filled with maggots. or board. The results of the treatment of wounds in the hospital were of the most unsatisfactory character. that they resembled those suffering from a slight attack of the measles.htm more of the prisoners had been released from confinement in the Stockade on parole. druggists. and in the mouths of the dead. oft-times without even a blanket. and carpenters. the attendants. and as far as my experience extends. government. The accusation was made that the nurses in many cases robbed the sick of their clothing. even for the regulation of the internal hygiene and police of the hospital. as well as from various other causes which will be more fully considered. in the various departments. or rags upon which the patient was lying. and covered the faces of the sleeping patients. and dead Federals. Large numbers of them were without any bunks in the tents. Millions of flies swarmed over everything. The manner of disposing of the dead was also calculated to depress the already desponding spirits of these men. effects of the sick. and lay upon the ground. and I saw the most filthy rags which had been applied several times. used in dressing wounds. and deposited their maggots in the gangrenous wounds of the living. Musketos in great numbers also infested the tents. and filth of all kinds. money.gutenberg. and to the absence of intelligent organization and division of labor. These men were well clothed. bones. In extenuation of these abuses it was alleged by the medical officers that the Confederate troops were barely sufficient to guard the prisoners. who appeared in almost every instance to have been selected from the prisoners. I have frequently seen neglected wounds amongst the Confederate soldiers similarly affected. and the whole trouble can be traced to the want of the proper police and sanitary regulations. and carried on a clandestine trade with the paroled prisoners and Confederate guards without the hospital enclosure. The tents extend to within a few yards of the small stream. it was impossible for any wound to escape contagion under these circumstances. in the clothing. The supply of rags for dressing wounds was said to be very scant. The police and hygiene of the hospital were defective in the extreme.. They certainly appeared to neglect the comfort and cleanliness of the sick intrusted to their care in a most shameful manner. No beds or straw appeared to have been furnished. healed more rapidly than if it had been left to itself. and imperfectly washed. but wholesome sanitary regulations. are crowded into this confined space and are but poorly supplied with old and ragged tents. thirty feet in diameter and several feet in hight. and are strictly guarded by Confederate soldiers. The abuses were in a large measure due to the almost total absence of system. from this neglect of cleanliness. and filled various offices as clerks. and rigid. The entire grounds are surrounded by a frail board fence. In fact the guard appeared to be too small. near two thousand in number. the limb was thrust out a little from the blanket. and rations. and as a general rule they presented a much more robust and healthy appearance than the Confederate troops guarding the prisoners. many of whom have been confined for months.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and I observed a large pile of corn-bread. and all the putrescent matter allowed to soak into the ground floor of the tent. etc. even after making due allowances for the difficulties of the situation. Many of the sick were literally encrusted with dirt and filth and covered with vermin. I have even heard surgeons affirm that a gangrenous wound which had been thoroughly cleansed by maggots. rather than of malignant design. and crawled down their open mouths. and no prisoner except the paroled attendants is allowed to leave the grounds except by a special permit from the Commandant of the Interior of the Prison. seemed to have in many cases but little interest in the welfare of their fellow-captives. Where hospital gangrene was prevailing.

209 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .. and neglect of personal cleanliness.. In the dead-house the corpses lie upon the bare ground. ... he is simply laid in the narrow street in front of his tent... The dead-house is merely a frame covered with old tent cloth and a few bushes..... and during the day even the dead were frequently allowed to remain for hours in these walks.. They were allowed to cook in the tent doors and in the lanes..... Five large iron pots similar to those used for boiling sugar cane... and another favorable condition for the generation and multiplication of flies and other vermin.... The cooking arrangements are of the most defective character. until he is removed by Federal negros detailed to carry off the dead. appeared to be the only cooking utensils furnished by the hospital for the cooking of nearly two thousand men..ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and were in most cases covered with filth and vermin. situated in the southwestern corner of the hospital grounds. bad food. and whose strength had been wasted by bad air...org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and the patients were dependent in great measure upon their own miserable utensils.gutenberg. he lies there until the morning. if a patient dies during the night.. When a patient dies....htm Richmond and other places. and this was another source of filth.

.. CONCLUSIONS. We will examine first the consolidated report of the sick and wounded Federal prisoners. during the prosecution of my pathological inquiries at Andersonville.09 per cent..2. from February 24 to September 21.479) deaths were recorded.htm The air of the tents was foul and disagreeable in the extreme. can best be determined by a comparison of the statistics of each month. This increase of mortality was due in great measure to the accumulation of the sources of disease. will appear from the reports of the surgeons in charge.3 per cent. their persons and clothing inmost instances. as far as those statistics extend. The ratio of mortality continued to increase during September. and if to diarrhea or dysentery or scurvy... If they were due to improper and insufficient food. one thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven (1. that is. . appended to this report. and the hot climate. in August. The entire number of Federal prisoners confined at Andersonville was about forty thousand six hundred and eleven.. as the increase of excrements and filth of all kinds.. for notwithstanding the removal of one-half of the entire number of prisoners during the early portion of the month.. or 13. I entered nearly all the tents and carefully examined the cases of interest. one hundred and nineteen.767) deaths are registered from September 1 to 21. terminated fatally. There appeared to be almost absolute indifference and neglect on the part of the patients of personal cleanliness. begrimed from head to foot with their own excrements. of mean strength.. appear to be. exactly one in 4..' In other words.... the classification should in like manner have been explicit. forty-two thousand six hundred and eighty-six cases of diseases and wounds were reported. During six months. or more. 210 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and in fact the entire grounds emitted a most nauseous and disgusting smell. without any medical attention or record beyond the bare number of the dead.. During the month of August fifty-three cases and fifty-three deaths are recorded as due to marasmus. large as they. those men died without having received sufficient medical attention for the determination of even the name of the disease causing death. are far below the truth. That this description of the Stockade and hospital has not been overdrawn.. the relations between those reported sick and well.. During this period of six months no less than five hundred and sixty-five deaths are recorded under the head of 'morbi vanie. crowding. and therefore enjoyed every opportunity to judge correctly of the hygiene and police of the hospital.gutenberg. As the number of prisoners varied greatly at different periods. from the 1st of March to the 31st of August. sick and well.. during this period near one-fourth. on the 16th. and also to the progressive effects of salt diet. Surely this large number of deaths must have been due to some other morbid state than slow wasting. and during the period of near seven months. nine thousand four hundred and seventy-nine (9. This fact. It was too often the case that patients were received from the Stockade in a most deplorable condition. and especially of those suffering with gangrene and scorbutic ulcers. in March to 9.. from 3. upon numerous occasions. demonstrate that these figures. they should have been classed accordingly.. in conjunction with those already presented relating to the insufficiency of medical officers and the extreme illness and even death of many prisoners in the tents in the Stockade. No classified record of the sick in the Stockade was kept after the establishment of the hospital without the Prison.11 per cent.. We observe a progressive increase of the rate of mortality.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.. and the concentration of noxious effluvia... were filthy in the extreme and covered with vermin. I have seen men brought in from the Stockade in a dying condition. and especially the cases of gangrene. resembled negros rather than white men.. and the largest number of deaths upon any one day occurred during this month. and so black from smoke and filth that they.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. viz..

imperfect and irregular though it may be in its progress. foul air. 4th. even in those who are suffering from such a condition of the blood. the blood was altered in its constitution. This mode of termination in cases of dysentery was quite common in the foul atmosphere of the Confederate States Military Hospital. In cases of ulceration of the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal. dejected state of the nervous system and moral and intellectual powers. A scorbutic condition of the system appeared to favor the origin of foul ulcers. as well as from the published observations of Dr. would remove the scorbutic condition without curing the hospital gangrene. and an unvarying diet of cornmeal. there was more or less serous effusion into the abdominal cavity. and the heart clots and fibrous concretions were almost universally absent. and in all diseases uncomplicated with inflammation. Heart clots were very common. although there were no local manifestations of gangrene upon the surface of the body. The great mortality among the Federal prisoners confined in the military prison at Andersonville was not referable to climatic causes. and originated spontaneously without any previous contagion. in which the fibrous element and coagulation of the blood are increased. is most favorable 211 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . as well as upon the intensity of the poison in the atmosphere. were manifested in the great prevalence of scurvy. and in cases of gangrene of the intestines. The presence of those clots in the cases of hospital gangrene. The rapidity of the appearance and action of the gangrene depended upon the powers and state of the constitution. the habits of the patients. In such cases. while in simple diarrhea. From the results of the existing war for the establishment of the independence of the Confederate States. This was further illustrated by the important fact that hospital gangrene. there resulted various serous effusions into the pericardium. which frequently took on true hospital gangrene. 2d. The bowel affections appear to have been due to the diet. especially in crowded ships and camps. was also influenced to an important extent in its origin and course by the foul animal emanations. The origin of hospital gangrene among these prisoners appeared clearly to depend in great measure upon the state of the general system induced by diet. and occurred sporadically all over the Stockade and prison hospital. ventricles of the brain. 5th. without doubt. filth. vegetable diet. Trotter. and from such diseases as are naturally accompanied with a decrease in the fibrous constituent. the blood was fluid and did not coagulate readily. it is evident that the scorbutic condition of the system. and others of the English navy and army. the fibrous element was deficient. and to the effluvia arising from the decomposing animal and vegetable filth. with vegetable acids. heart clots and fibrous coagula were universally present. if not universally present. while they were absent in the cases in which there was no inflammatory symptoms.gutenberg. sustains the conclusion that hospital gangrene is a species of inflammation. Sir Gilbert Blane.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 3d. the action of the poisonous gases in the densely crowded and filthy Stockade and hospital. or a disease resembling it in all essential respects. The effects of salt meat. or upon the direct application of poisonous matter to the wounded surface. depraved condition of the system of these Federal prisoners. From the watery condition of the blood. attacked the intestinal canal of patients laboring under ulceration of the bowels. and various external noxious influences. even before the manifestation of actual disease. Scurvy and hospital gangrene frequently existed in the same individual. In almost all the cases which I examined after death.htm 1st. while in the uncomplicated cases of diarrhea and scurvy. uncomplicated with ulceration. The chief causes of death were scurvy and its results and bowel affections-chronic and acute diarrhea and dysentery. and into the abdomen. with but few vegetables. In both the well and the sick the red corpuscles were diminished. in the depressed. it was either diminished or else remained stationary. From the sameness of the food and form. was proof positive that this disease will arise whenever the conditions of crowding. The fact that hospital Gangrene appeared in the Stockade first. and bad diet are present. In cases of hospital gangrene of the extremities. the depressed. in cases of ulceration of the intestinal mucous membrane. and imperfect supplies of vinegar and syrup. This disease. The exhalations from the hospital and Stockade appeared to exert their effects to a considerable distance outside of these localities. or to the nature of the soil and waters. even the most emaciated.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. the fibrous element of the blood was increased.

nutritious food. resembling hospital gangrene.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 9th. As in the present case of Andersonville. for there was great similarity in the appearance of the ulcers in the two diseases. that a form of moist gangrene. was quite common in this foul atmosphere. Without such well-established facts. not only for the sake of suffering humanity. Nitric acid and escharotics generally in this crowded atmosphere. and the patient was apparently doing well.] 212 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . from the ravages of hospital gangrene. so also in past times when medical hygiene was almost entirely neglected. fresh air. the same wash-bowl serving for scores of patients.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. This will be rendered evident by an examination of the observations of Dr. as well as prisoners. and the limited supply of washing utensils. the gangrene would frequently return with redoubled energy. Finally. As far as my observation extended. 10th. were sources of such constant circulation of the gangrenous matter that the disease might rapidly spread from a single gangrenous wound. but proves in the clearest manner that neither the contact of the poisonous matter of gangrene. imperfectly washed and scanty supplies of rags. Lind and Sir Gilbert Blane upon scorbutic ulcers. loaded with noxious effluvia. I endeavored to impress upon the medical officers the view that in this disease treatment was almost useless. in cases of dysentery. In this foul atmosphere amputation did not arrest hospital gangrene. and to enforce a rigid system of hygiene. So commonly have those two diseases been combined in their origin and action. after their application to the diseased surfaces. exerted only temporary effects. and in truth the only means of protecting large armies and navies. disorganized structures. is to furnish liberal supplies of well-cured meat. Such changes. those two diseases were almost universally associated in crowded ships. however. The fact already stated. not only demonstrates the dependence of the disease upon the state of the constitution. The best. The gangrenous mass was without true pus. very few of the cases of amputation for gangrene recovered. The flies swarming over the wounds and over filth of every kind. this gigantic mass of human misery calls loudly for relief. who have been or who may be. both with and without the existence of the disease upon the entire surface. Gangrenous spots followed by rapid destruction of tissue appeared in some cases where there had been no known wound. as would allow of the isolation of the cases of hospital gangrene appeared to be out of the power of the medical officers. it might be assumed that the disease was propagated from one patient to another. when during life there was but little swelling of the part. or at least leave their enemies without a shadow of an excuse for any violation of the rules of civilized warfare in the treatment of prisoners. it was impossible to isolate the wounded from the sources of actual contact of the gangrenous matter. but also on account of our own brave soldiers now captives in the hands of the Federal Government. The progress of these cases was frequently very deceptive. either from the effects of gangrene or from the prevailing diarrhea and dysentery. together with fresh beef and vegetables. Strict justice to the gallant men of the Confederate Armies. 6th. that the description of scorbutic ulcers. The reaction of the gangrenous matter in certain stages was alkaline.htm to the origin and spread of foul ulcers and hospital gangrene. I have observed after death the most extensive disorganization of the structures of the stump. and tonics and stimulants. by many authors. 7th. it would frequently return and destroy the patient. evidently includes also many of the prominent characteristics of hospital gangrene. the filthy. and even after the gangrene had been completely removed by local and constitutional treatment. demands that the Confederate Government should adopt that course which will best secure their health and comfort in captivity. the disease almost invariably returned. nor the direct action of the poisonous atmosphere upon the ulcerated surfaces is necessary to the development of the disease. Almost every amputation was followed finally by death. and consisted chiefly of broken-down. without an abundant supply of pure. so unfortunate as to be compelled to surrender in battle. [End of the Witness's Testimony. 8th.gutenberg. In such a filthy and crowded hospital as that of the Confederate States Military Prison at Andersonville. In many cases it was very difficult to decide at first whether the ulcer was a simple result of scurvy or of the action of the prison or hospital gangrene.

and its Sergeant came up and drew rations for a full detachment. I have always imagined both these statements to be short of the truth. in no other great community. clerks. nevertheless. 213 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The greatest number of deaths in one day is reported to have occurred on the 23d of August. It is true that the fearfully disproportionate mortality of those months was largely due to the fact that it was mostly the sick that remained behind.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. In November one in every three died. to see how many prisoners there really were inside. It supports the theory I have advanced above. because its startling magnitude will hardly dawn upon him at first reading. and in November one-third of those who still survived. because my remembrance is that one day in August I counted over two hundred dead lying in a row. Does the reader fully understand that in September one-third of those in the pen died. eventless. will show: In April one in every sixteen died. or one man every eleven minutes. These recurring tides mingle all classes together and promote the general healthfulness. In September one in every three died. CHAPTER XLIII. In May one in every twenty-six died. there is yet. when there were thirty-three thousand one hundred and fourteen. that ever existed upon the face of the globe was there so little daily ebb and flow as in this. I remember quite distinctly standing by the ration wagon during the whole time of the delivery of rations. every evening towards its extremities. As each detachment consisted of two hundred and seventy men. but even this diminishes but little the frightfulness of the showing. In June one in every twenty-two died. DIFFICULTY OF EXERCISING—EMBARRASSMENTS OF A MORNING WALK—THE RIALTO OF THE PRISON—CURSING THE SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY—THE STORY OF THE BATTLE OF SPOTTSYLVANIA COURTHOUSE. even stupid the lives of its citizens. died? Let him pause for a moment and read this over carefully again. In July one in every eighteen died. exclusive of those in the hospital. That day the One Hundred and Thirty-Third Detachment was called. his reading has been much more extensive than mine. Did any one ever hear of an epidemic so fatal that one-third of those attacked by it in one month died. Dull as an ordinary Town or City may be.gutenberg. as the constant motion hither and yon of the ocean's waters purify and sweeten them. one-half of the remnant the next month. hospital attendants and various other employments—say from one to two thousand more. that in October one-half of the remainder perished. when one hundred and twenty-seven died. and one-third of the feeble remainder the next month? If he did.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. a flow every day of its life-blood—its population towards its heart. As for the greatest number of prisoners. and those detailed outside as cooks. In August one in every eleven died. In October one in every two died. however monotonous. as the following facts. The greatest number of prisoners in the Stockade is stated to have been August 8. one hundred and thirty-three detachments would make thirty-five thousand nine hundred and ten. and an ebb of the same. All the other detachments were habitually kept full by replacing those who died with new comers. Certainly. taken from the official report.htm The variation—from month to month—of the proportion of deaths to the whole number living is singular and interesting.

htm The lack of these helped vastly to make the living mass inside the Stockade a human Dead Sea—or rather a Dying Sea—a putrefying. discuss the latest news. to curse the Rebels. like those rotting southern seas. and lying supinely on the hot sand. a few visits to the Creek to wash all over. I could have walked thither and back in at most a half an hour. most of all. A conversation between two boys—strangers to each other who came to the Creek to wash themselves or their clothes. and the difficulty of making one's way through it. I used to make it a point to go to some of the remoter parts of the Stockade once every day. had the way been clear. day in and day out. and ghastly greens and yellows. yet it usually took me from two to three hours to make one of these journeys. when I say that no point in the prison could be more than fifteen hundred feet from where I staid. speedily brought themselves into such a condition as invited the attacks of disease. and Wirz. stinking lake. and doing some little duties for my sick and helpless comrades. canvass the prospects of exchange. or for some other purpose. The Creek was the great meeting point for all inside the Stockade. Winder and Davis in particular. One can gain some idea of the crowd. and no room to exercise whatever wish there might be in that direction. a few games of chess. there was a monotony in the misery as in everything else. whose seething filth burns in hideous reds. and consequently the temptation to sit or lie still in one's own quarters became very great. as for most of the active youths in the prison.gutenberg. Still further. and. cooking and eating the same. drawing rations. All able to walk were certain to be there at least once during the day. resolving itself into phosphorescent corruption. It required both determination and effort to take a little walking exercise. constituted the daily routine for myself. very many succumbed unresistingly to the apathy which was so strongly favored by despondency and the weakness induced by continual hunger. simply for exercise.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. there was nothing to see anywhere or to form sufficient inducement for any one to make so laborious a journey. and. "lousing" my fragments of clothes. One simply encountered at every new step the same unwelcome sights that he had just left. attendance upon roll call.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and we made it a rendezvous. would progress thus: 214 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Indeed no conversation ever progressed very far without both speaker and listener taking frequent rests to say bitter things as to the Rebels generally. This daily trip. a place to exchange gossip. Being little call for motion of any kind. The ground was so densely crowded with holes and other devices for shelter that it took one at least ten minutes to pick his way through the narrow and tortuous labyrinth which served as paths for communication between different parts of the Camp.

and set a guard of plantation niggers over 'em." Second Boy." First Boy—(returning to the story of his capture. trying to get even with us for gobbling up Johnson in the morning.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg.. with orders to limb.) "Old Hancock caught the Johnnies that morning 215 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and that he'd catch old Jeff.—Hancock's. when they were butting their heads against our breast-works.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. that when our folks get Richmond. Winder. with orders to blow their whole infernal heads off. skin and jayhawk it worse than he did New Orleans. with just the rations they are givin' us. put 'em in this pen."—He stops suddenly and changes tone to say: "I hope to God. where the Western boys stated their Regiment. (fervently :) "I wish to God he would. if they dared so much as to look at the dead line.htm First Boy—"I belong to the Second Corps. strip 'em just as we were. and that grayheaded devil.] They got me at Spottsylvania. [the Army of the Potomac boys always mentioned what Corps they belonged to. and the old Dutch Captain. they will put old Ben Butler in command of it.

Then the General's voice rang out like a bugle: "Ready!—FORWARD! CHARGE!' 216 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . though they ought. by fighting so close together that much of the time you could almost shake hands with the Graybacks. and didn't propose to allow anybody to jump our claim. the Rebels came double-quicking up to defend them. We were all turned out very quietly about four o'clock in the morning. After the two armies had murdered each other for four or five days in the Wilderness. The rebels looked up in astonishment.htm the neatest you ever saw anything in your life. like packs of mad wolves. The Johnnies seemed so mad over what we'd done that they were half crazy. They fired and ran back. after they'd lost over ten thousand men.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. as every fellow snatched his bayonet out and slapped it on the muzzle of his gun. as sure as anything. But we had now waked up the whole of Lee's army. Each side had lost about twenty thousand men in learning that if it attacked the other it would get mashed fine. Longstreet let drive at our left flank. and we were almost on to them before they discovered us. As we poured over the works. because we would have expected such an attack from them if we hadn't made it ourselves.' The night of the 11th of May it rained very hard. that they might not rattle against our bayonets. At one place the Rebel line ran out towards us like the top of a great letter 'A. It was one of those deathly.gutenberg. and tried to nag the other into coming out and attacking. and Hill tackled our right. Not a bit of noise was allowed. and any force that attempted to cross it to attack would be cut to pieces. both hauled off a little. We fell back to the works we had taken." "We all ceased instantly. At this we raised a yell and dashed forward at a charge. But they came on. and were already executing the order. who shake fists and dare each other. officers in front waving swords. and they all came straight for us. you know. yelling and swearing. We even had to take off our canteens and tin cups. You can imagine the crash that ran down the line. "The Johnnies didn't seem to have the faintest suspicion of what was coming. and started for the next line of Rebel works about a half a mile away. They charged us five times. and shouting—all that business. We poured such a fire on them that the bullets knocked up the ground in front just like you have seen the deep dust in a road in the middle of Summer fly up when the first great big drops of a rain storm strike it. About midnight. When they came on the last charge. we'll all jump over the works and go for them with the bayonet. and there was a good deal of confusion among them. When they got to about one hundred yards from us. We flanked Johnson's Division quicker'n you could say 'Jack Robinson. We sent them to the rear under guard. when you think your heart is making as much noise as a bass drum.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and then came a fog so thick that you couldn't see the length of a company. our Brigadier walked behind each of our regiments and said: "Boys. We laid there three or four days watching each other—just like boys at school. and lay and glowered at each other.' and had four thousand of 'em in our grip just as nice as you please. so they fell back sullen like to their main works. and when they begin to waver. coming up every time just as if they were going to lift us right out of the works with the bayonet. Give it to 'em by the acre. Hancock thought he'd take advantage of this. The brigade bugle sounded: "Stop firing. Our General sang out: "Fix bayonets!' but we knew what was coming. they seemed to understand that we had pre-empted that piece of real estate. we'll send 'em back this time for keeps. Warren and Wright came up to help us. At Spottsylvania our lines and those of the Johnnies weren't twelve hundred yards apart. Ewell struck us in the center. and we had it hot and heavy for the rest of the day and part of the night. still movements. they did not seem to be coming so fast. The ground was clear and clean between them. So each built a line of works and lay behind them.' "We did it just that way. The ground was so wet that our footsteps couldn't be heard. Their pickets were out just a little ways from their works.

"Well. A Johnny's wind would begin to give out he'd fall behind his comrades. or run. mister! I surrender!' and find that we were a hundred feet off.gutenberg. When we all came sailing over the works. he'd turn around. not knowing whether to come for us. and our regiment was the left of the brigade.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but went right towards them on the double quick. throw up his hands. The Johnnies seemed to have been puzzled at the stoppage of our fire. and jumped over the works. In our excitement of chasing the Johnnies. with the bayonets looking awful savage and hungry.htm "We cheered till everything seemed to split. Finally it began to be real funny. we didn't see that we had passed an angle of their works. he'd hear us yell and think that we were right behind him. and we swung out ahead of all the rest of the boys. or we'll blow your heads off. and sing out: "I surrender. We chased after 'em as fast as we could. with guns brought right. We did not allow them long to debate. you —— Yankee —— ——' 217 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . my company was the left of our regiment.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. About thirty of us had become separated from the company and were chasing a squad of about seventy-five or one hundred. they were so astonished for a minute that they stood stock still. and would have to have a bayonet as long as one of McClellan's general orders to touch him. We had got up so close to them that we hollered: "'Halt there. 'halt yourselves. down where they meant business. It was too much for Mr. almost every man at the same minute. and they lit out of there as if they had been sent for in a hurry. Johnny Reb's nerves. now. ready to sink a bayonet through him'. They all seemed to about face' at once. and picked up just lots of 'em.' "They turned round with.

Debarred from expressing their aspirations as people of broader culture do—in painting." CHAPTER XLIV. these mountaineers make song the flexible and ready instrument for the communication of every emotion that sweeps across their souls. which were filled with Rebels waiting for our fellows to get to where they could have a good flank fire upon them. The battles which the Scotch and Irish fought to replace the luckless Stuarts upon the British throne—the bloody rebellions of 1715 and 1745. Another characteristic of the same nature was their wonderful lack of musical ability. Exquisite melodies. the Tyrolese valleys. and awake the voice of song in them hearts. and I had a knife. For a century the bones of both the Pretenders have moldered in alien soil. revenge. mean as little to the multitude of today as those of the Saxon Ethelbert. transplanted on account of their 218 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . AND WHERE IT WAS BORROWED FROM—A FIFER WITH ONE TUNE. and the minstrels of Scotland. and we had hardly gone inside of the works. REBEL MUSIC—SINGULAR LACK OF THE CREATIVE POWER AMONG THE SOUTHERNERS —CONTRAST WITH SIMILAR PEOPLE ELSEWHERE—THEIR FAVORITE MUSIC. Yet these same Scotch and Irish. and especially war seems to tune their minds to harmony. until the Johnnies opened on our brigade and drove it back." Second Boy (irrelevantly." First Boy (savagely. or of any kind of tuneful creativeness. people living under similar conditions to the Southerners are exceedingly musical. the same Jacobite English." "Over the Water to Charlie." "The Bonny Blue Bonnets are Over the Border. all over the world. The music of English-speaking people is very largely made up of these contributions from the folk-songs of dwellers in the wilder and more mountainous parts of the British Isles.) "I only wish the whole Southern Confederacy was hanging over hell by a single string. the names of James Edward. There was nothing to do but to throw down our guns and surrender. This ended the battle at Spottsylvania Court House.) "Some day the underpinning will fly out from under the South." "Charlie is my Darling. was astonishment at their lack of mechanical skill and at their inability to grapple with numbers and the simpler processes of arithmetic. the Bavarian Highlands. in poetry and prose. Elsewhere.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and Charles Edward. by people who have long since forgotten what burning feelings gave birth to their favorite melodies. and saw that we were not one hundred feet away from the angle of the works. yet the world goes on singing—and will probably as long as the English language is spoken—"Wha'll be King but Charlie?" "When Jamie Come Hame.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. hatred. grief. and Danish Hardicanute. Love. I have before mentioned as among the things that grew upon one with increasing acquaintance with the Rebels on their native heath. and let it sink right into the middle kittle o' hell." and a myriad others whose infinite tenderness and melody no modern composer can equal. songs which are today esteemed and sung wherever the English language is spoken. left a rich legacy of sweet song.gutenberg. and as plaintive as the cooing of a turtle-dove seems as natural products of the Scottish Highlands as the gorse which blazons on their hillsides in August.htm "We looked around at this. passionate loyalty to a wretched cause. One rarely goes far out of the way in attributing to this source any air that he may hear that captivates him with its seductive opulence of harmony. limpid and unstrained as the carol of a bird in Spring-time. in sculpture. the outpouring of loving." "Saddle Your Steeds and Awa. and we owe the great majority of the sweetest compositions which delight the ear and subdue the senses to unlettered song-makers of the Swiss mountains. which were once trumpet blasts to rouse armed men. anger. Ireland and Wales.

The fact that the mountaineers had but few or no slaves. born of ages of dumb suffering. which has repressed this as it has all other healthy growths in the South. where the slave-driver ceased from troubling and the weary were at rest. fervid impressiveness characteristic of the ballad singing of unlettered people. fighting for what they claimed to be individual freedom and national life. and silken clad. and suffered the consequences of its stunting their development in all directions. and the depth of the popular feeling. they would have found none whose sentiments were suitable for the ode of a people undergoing the pangs of what was hoped to be the birth of a new nation. of struggles for freedom. the delights of abundance of food. and the range of subjects limited. like the 'Volklieder' of Germany. of rage. They did not compose songs and music. because we see that the peasantry of the mountains of Spain and the South of France as ignorant as these people. glowing with warmth and kindness emanating from the Creator himself. is Blind Tom. because they did not have the intellectual energy for that work. and an undeniable one. Searching for peculiar causes we find but two that make the South differ from the ancestral home of these people. or a bar of music that the world could recognize as such. Then it must be ascribed to the incubus of Slavery upon the intellect. as the ague-smitten inhabitant of the Roman Campana finds every sense and every muscle clogged by the filtering in of the insidious miasma. harp in hand. Where two million Scotch. but handed down from one generation to the other. They sang of the pleasures of idling in the genial sunshine. The descendants of those who drew swords for James and Charles at Preston Pans and Culloden dwell to-day in the dales and valleys of the Alleganies. and dwellers in a still more enervating atmosphere-are very fertile in musical composition.htm chronic rebelliousness to the mountains of Virginia. could not stimulate any adherent of the Stars and Bars into the production of a single lyric worthy in the remotest degree of the magnitude of the struggle. These two were Climate and Slavery. contests with malign persons and influences. No composer. and the bondmen of all ages and lands. the eternal happiness that awaited them in the heavenly future. Their wonderful prolificness in wild. Had their masters condescended to borrow the music of the slaves. eleven million of Southerners. and Georgia. the Carolinas. The themes were exceedingly simple. the negro idiot. such as form the motifs for the majority of the poetry of free and strong races. As a rule the Southerners are fond of music. hopes and despairs of love's gratification or disappointment. jealousy. It was a disappointment to me that even the stress of the war. did not produce any original verse. were wholly absent from their lyrics. Very many play tolerably on the violin and banjo. hatred. most of which have never been printed. the songs they made and sang all had an undertone of touching plaintiveness.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. They are fond of singing and listening to old-fashioned ballads.gutenberg. was one of the salient characteristics of that down-trodden race. Climatic effects will not account for the phenomenon. Like the Russian serfs. The joys. Its explanation I must leave to abler analysts than I am. and sorrows. fighting to restore the fallen fortunes of the worse than worthless Stuarts. as their fathers did in the dales and valleys of the Grampians. They lived under the deadly shadow of the upas tree. 219 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . where Time rolled around in endless cycles of days spent in basking.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The negros displayed all the musical creativeness of that section. and their songs are to the Romanic languages what the Scotch and Irish ballads are to the English. The only musician produced by the South of whom the rest of the country has ever heard. revenge. under the soft effulgence of cloudless skies. They sing these with the wild. Religion. the passion and fierceness with which the Rebels felt and fought. hunger and toil were their main inspiration. Slavery seems to benumb all the faculties except the passions. with strangely melodious airs that burned themselves into the memory. rude songs. This is the fact. in golden streets. but their voices are mute. and occasionally one is found whose instrumentation may be called good. no song writer of any kind has appeared within the borders of Dixie. as some fine singing birds do when carried from their native shores. seem to have lost their tunefulness. filled the world with immortal music. But above this hight they never soar. does not seem to be of importance in the case.

but had quite as much red and white as azure. and the same was true wherever else we went in the so-called Confederacy. I give the air and words below: All familiar with Scotch songs will readily recognize the name and air as an old friend.htm The three songs most popular at the South. and one of the fierce Jacobite melodies that for a long time disturbed the tranquility of the Brunswick family on the English throne. The new words supplied by the Rebels are the merest doggerel. The flag of the Rebellion was not a bonnie blue one. were "The Bonnie Blue Flag. My Maryland.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h." The first of these was the greatest favorite by long odds. It did not have a single star. While in the field before capture. Women sang. it was the commonest of experiences to have Rebel women sing it at us tauntingly from the house that we passed or near which we stopped. and generally regarded as distinctively Southern." and "Stonewall Jackson Crossing into Maryland. and the so-called musicians played it wherever we went.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. men whistled. we were sure to hear its wailing crescendo rising upon the air from the lips or instruments of some one more quartered there.gutenberg. At Richmond it rang upon us constantly from some source or another. and fit the music as poorly as the unchanged name of the song fitted to its new use. If ever near enough a Rebel camp. but 220 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM ." "Maryland.

hemlock tree O. hemlock tree! O. hemlock tree! how faithful are thy branches! Green not alone in Summer time. Maryland! Thy beaming sword shall never rust Maryland! Remember Carroll's sacred trust. And gird thy beauteous limbs with steel. But in the Winter's float and rime. The Rebel version ran: MARYLAND. Etc.gutenberg. Maryland! Come! with thy panoplied array.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Maryland! His touch is at thy temple door. Near in popularity was "Maryland. And be the battle queen of yore. Maryland! My Maryland! Thou wilt not cower in the duet. Maryland! For life and death. Maryland! My Maryland! Come! 'tis the red dawn of the day. Tannenbaum. Nein. etc." The versification of this was of a much higher Order. Maryland! With Ringgold's spirit for the fray. being fairly respectable. and a familiar one to all college students. which Longfellow has finely translated. auch in Winter. Maryland! Avenge the patriotic gore That flecked the streets of Baltimore.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. O. for woe and weal. to thee I kneel. when es Schneit.htm thirteen. Thy peerless chivalry reveal. and belongs to one of the most common of German household songs: O. The despot's heel is on thy shore. O. Remember Howard's warlike thrust— And all thy slumberers with the just. My Maryland. The air is old. Maryland! My mother State. Maryland! My Maryland! Hark to the wand'ring son's appeal. wie tru sind deine Blatter! Da gruenst nicht nur zur Sommerseit. Tannenbaum! O. hemlock tree! How faithful are thy branches. 221 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

Maryland! My Maryland! Dear Mother! burst the tyrant's chain.gutenberg. nor deaf.htm With Watson's blood at Monterey. in majesty again. Maryland! My Maryland! Comet for thy shield is bright and strong. With fearless Lowe and dashing May. Maryland! Virginia should not call in vain. Maryland! Better the fire upon thee roll. Maryland! She meets her sisters on the plain— 'Sic semper' 'tis the proud refrain. Maryland! But lo! there surges forth a shriek From hill to hill. That stalks with Liberty along. Maryland! Come! to thins own heroic throng.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. fife. Maryland! Come! for thy dalliance does thee wrong. Maryland! Thou wilt not crook to his control. the shot. Maryland! Arise. That baffles millions back amain. Maryland! My Maryland! I see the blush upon thy cheek. the bowl. Maryland! She is not dead. Maryland! The Old Line's bugle. Better the blade. Maryland! My Maryland! Thou wilt not yield the vandal toll. nor dumb— Hnzza! she spurns the Northern scum! She breathes—she burns! she'll come! she'll come! Maryland! My Maryland! 222 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Maryland! My Maryland! I hear the distant Thunder hem. And give a new Key to thy song.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. from creek to creek— Potomac calls to Chesapeake. Maryland! But thou wast ever bravely meek. and drum. Than crucifixion of the soul.

We revenged ourselves as best we could by constructing fearfully wicked. But it was all that he had. but desecrated the Lord's Day by playing as vilely as on the rest of the week. and he played it with wearisome monotony for every camp call—five or six times a day. obscene and insulting parodies on these. during our stay in the Southern Confederacy. "Billy Patterson. of course. "Why—darning needles stuck in pumpkin seeds. with the same dreary wail that had rung in our ears all day. The fifer actually knew but one tune "The Bonnie Blue Flag" —and did not know that well. They became so terribly irritating to us. nearly as bad as the lice. We heard these songs with tiresome iteration. or rather demerit. as "The Bonnie Blue Flag. as we sat contemplating our naked. and by singing them with irritating effusiveness in the hearing of the guards who were inflicting these nuisances upon us. and with the wildest latitude as to air and time. Jack. Of the same nature was the garrison music.htm "Stonewall Jackson Crossing into Maryland. 223 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h." breakfast. I never hated any piece of music as I came to hate that threnody of treason. one day." Its air was that of the well-known and popular negro minstrel song." said I. constituted the entire band for the post. daily and nightly. They were. He called us up in the morning with it for a reveille. Some one of the guards seemed to be perpetually beguiling the weariness of his watch by singing in all keys. dinner and supper with it. The Rebels were fully conscious of their musical deficiencies. and sadly attenuated underpinning. One fife. "Illinoy. gaunt Jack North. and give us one day of rest.gutenberg. and made repeated but unsuccessful attempts to induce the musicians among the prisoners to come outside and form a band. he sounded the "roll call" and "drill call. it sounded very martial and stirring when played by a brass band." was another travesty. He did not. in every sort of a voice. in fact. and finally sent us to bed. It would have been such a relief if the old asthmatic who played it could have been induced to learn another tune to play on Sundays." For all that. CHAPTER XLV AUGUST—NEEDLES STUCK IN PUMPKIN SEEDS—SOME PHENOMENA OF STARVATION —RIOTING IN REMEMBERED LUXURIES. "what do our legs and feet most look most like?" "Give it up. and seven days in the week. to me. and one rheumatic drummer. of the One Hundred and Fourteenth Illinois. that to this day the remembrance of those soul-lacerating lyrics abides with me as one of the chief of the minor torments of our situation." said tall. played by an asthmatic old fellow whose breathings were nearly as audible as his notes.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. of about the same literary merit." I never heard a better comparison for our wasted limbs.

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.htm 224 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

which were to seal his doom.htm The effects of the great bodily emaciation were sometimes very startling.. and I know of nothing that reflects any more credit upon our boy soldiers. and August "fetched him." and cracked all sorts of jokes about putting an insulator on his head.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. though there were exceptions. There were thousands of instances of this generous devotion to each other by chums in Andersonville. but June. and then.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. as most large men. named George Hillicks. braiding his legs and using him for a whip lash. Chester nursed and looked out for George with wife-like fidelity. and came out at last in good shape. and comrades who came into prison later would utterly fail to recognize them. Ill. and he grew so thin that his hight seemed preternatural. Most fat men. and had his reward in bringing him safe through our lines." and he became a pretty good load for even the strongest horse. etc. of Prairie City.gutenberg. and setting him up for a telegraph pole. July. 225 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . George had shot up within a few years to over six feet in hight. and trading him off to the Rebels for a sponge and staff for the artillery. taken on such a development of flesh that we nicknamed him the "Giant. as such boys occasionally do. Boys of a fleshy habit would change so in a few weeks as to lose all resemblance to their former selves. and looked continually for the development of the fatal scurvy symptoms. George held his flesh through Belle Isle." as the boys said.—one of the most devoted chums I ever knew. We all expected him to die. letting his hair grow a little longer. We called him "Flagstaff. But he worried through. and the earlier weeks in Andersonville. after enlisting with us. had. He seemed to melt away like an icicle on a Spring day. One of these was a boy of my own company. a happy result due as much as to anything else to his having in Chester Hayward. died in a little while after entering.

Large numbers of watermelons were brought to the prison. greenbacks. Their babblings and maunderings about something to eat were painful to hear. but as I had never." I saw the wide corridors. A boy who had means to buy a piece of these would be followed about while eating it by a crowd of perhaps twenty-five or thirty livid-gummed scorbutics. It was evident that unless some change occurred my time was near at hand. but to me then. Scanty as this was. It was. with all the keen appreciation of youth and first experience. crouching in a hole in the ground. very many could not eat it. the dead and dying around us. green corn or wheat flour. the brigade of sleek.htm There was little chance for any one to accumulate flesh on the rations we were receiving. But to know each day that the gates would open to admit the same distasteful apologies for food took away the appetite and raised one's gorge. at which I was a boyish guest. the heat. One of the pleasant recollections of my pre-military life was a banquet at the "Planter's House. The cravings for green food of those afflicted with the scurvy were. There was not only hunger for more food. or worse mush. and it was only with the greatest effort—pulling the bread into little pieces and swallowing each. became unbearable. I had been blessed with a good digestion and a talent for sleeping under the most discouraging circumstances. apiece. These. agonizing. and remember when past. there was no great amount of adipose to lose. and were visited with torturing dreams of it at night. Louis. as banquets go. I am sure that any good-sized "shanghai" eats more every day than the meager half loaf that we had to maintain life upon. But now this delightful reminiscence became a torment. there would be thousands of men still living who now slumber beneath those melancholy pines. doubtless. it became so nauseous to them that they could not force it down. We could for a while forget the stench. an ordinary affair. It would have given something to look forward to. of these as one would a pill—that I succeeded in worrying the stuff down. Hundreds of times I dreamed I was again at the "Planter's. I had not as yet fallen away very much. the buffets with wines and fruits. very hard work to banish thoughts and longings for food from our minds. the tables gleaming with cutglass and silver. weighed so much as one hundred and twenty-five pounds. were of the greatest assistance to me in my struggle for existence.gutenberg. even while famishing for something to eat. and to be able to say afterwards that I had partaken of it. half-starved. weeks and months. with their mosaic pavement.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and sold to those who had the money to pay for them at from one to five dollars. and who would go through the show of helping them to imaginary viands and delicacies. to that time. and they died of starvation with the chunks of the so-called bread under their head. the maggots. the insulting malignance of our jailors. just to see what each was like. black. it was a feast worthy of Lucullus. We thought of food all day. I entered the grand dining-room." St. up. headed by one who had presence enough for a major General. for days. I have no doubt. white-aproned waiters. and hungry as all were. Numbers of them wandered around entirely naked. keeping timidly near the friend to whose kindness I owed this wonderful favor. but it was. waiting for my keepers to fling 226 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . I found myself rapidly approaching this condition. but longing with an intensity beyond expression for alteration of some kind in the rations. even when famishing. whose insanity took the form of imagining that he was sitting at the table with his family. all these bewildering delights of the first realization of what a boy has read and wondered much over. Crazy men could be found in all parts of the camp. vermin-eaten wretch. But now the rations became fearfully obnoxious to me. Hundreds became actually insane from brooding over it. the lice. each imploring him for the rind when he was through with it. calling for everything that I dared to. Again I reveled in all the dainties and dishes on the bill-of-fare. the festoons and mottos. I have before mentioned the case of the Plymouth Pilgrim near me. The changeless monotony of the miserable saltless bread. the evergreen decked ceilings. I say it in all soberness that I do not believe that a healthy hen could have grown fat upon them. Their stomachs revolted against the trash. and longed for. would dance their rout and reel through my somnolent brain. I saw again the mirror-lined walls. Then I would awake to find myself a half-naked.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. If those wretched mule teams had only once a month hauled in something different—if they had come in loaded with sweet potatos.

Well. that we have the best butter at our house that there is in Central Illinoy. New York. Naturally the boys—and especially the country boys and new prisoners —talked much of victuals—what they had had. When she lays herself out to get up a meal all the other women in the neighborhood just stand back and admire!" Bill—"O.—'a leetle the nicest. can't make up for a spring house." Tom—(unheedful of the counter claims. and give back the cent if I win.' Yes. he sez. juicy loin roast. and the way my mother can fry Spring chickens——" Bill—(aside to Jim. white church at Simpkin's Corners. Then. when it comes to good cooking. sez he:—I've et at a great many hundred tables in the fifty years I have labored in the vineyard of the Redeemer. and when he passed up his plate the third time for more chicken." John—"If you'd et some of the new kind of peachblows that we raised in the old pasture lot the year before I enlisted. Mrs. when we get back to God's country. and there ain't a better one in Orange County.htm me a chunk of corn bread.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.) "Now. they have soaked up all the beef gravy. I tell you. he took dinner at our house when he came up to dedicate the big. no gospel. we'll lay the foundation like with a nice. and preached more good sermons than any other man who ever set on saddle-bags. better'n quail. a darned sight. of our dominick breed. nor to mine. and they crinkle between your teeth—" Jim—"Now." John—(with patronizing contempt.gutenberg. and the bill-of-fare I'd set out for you fellers when you come over to see me. do you like mashed potatos with beef? The way may mother does is to pare the potatos. killin lice and talking of exchange: Tom—"Well.) "Every durned woman in the country thinks she can 'spry ching frickens. when they got out. and what they would have again. and lay them in the pan along with the beef. there's old Peter Cartwright. you and Jim and John must all come to my house and take dinner with me. and folks do say that out in the new settlements they can't get no preachin'. First. but I must say. of course. and brown. Then you'll see dome of the biscuits my mother makes. I want to give you a square meal. who has traveled over Illinoy and Indianny since the Year One. we'll hev biscuits an' butter. that's what he said. and some mashed potatos. mashed Neshannocks with butter on 'em is plenty good enough for me. tenderest meat. I'll just bet five hundred dollars to a cent. Kiggins. shucks! None of you fellers were ever at our house." Tom—(taking breath and starting in fresh. until the chickens become so plenty that a preacher is reasonably sure of havin' one for his dinner wherever he may go.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Take this as a sample of the conversation which might be heard in any group of boys. they come out just as nice and crisp. You know my mother is just the best cook in all that section. nor nothin'. you know. I only wish that the sisters generally would get your reseet. Bill. there's no use of talkin'—all the patent churns that lazy men ever invented—all the fancy milk pans an' coolers. sitting together on the sand. but I'll bet she can't hold a candle to my mother. you'd never say another word about your Neshannocks. You can't never hev good butter onless you have a spring house. that's all right.) I hev teen studyin' up the dinner I'd like.) "O.'" Tom—"An' then." Jim—"No. Locations for a spring house are scarcer than hen's teeth in Illinoy. They give 'em chicken wherever they go.' but my mother—-" John—"You fellers all know that there's nobody knows half as much about chicken doin's as these 'tinerant Methodis' preachers. Now. and has et more chickens than there are birds in a big pigeon roost." 227 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . but we hev one. I want to show you just what good livin' is. that your way of frying chickens is a leetle the nicest that I ever knew. even when we had one of our common weekday dinners. Bill—(interrupting. Them dominicks of ours have the nicest.) "Then we'll hev some fried Spring chickens.

and drop a few drops of clear honey on this." 228 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM ." roar out a half dozen of the surrounding crowd. whose mouths have been watering over this unctuous recital of the good things of the table. do you want to drive yourselves and everybody else crazy with such stuff as that. and they melt in your month like a ripe Bartlett pear. my mother's a boss biscuit-maker.gutenberg. together again.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. but my mother——" Tom—(coming in again with fresh vigor) "They're jest as light an' fluffy as a dandelion puff." Jim—"You kin just gamble that mine is. that's the way you fellers ought to think an' talk. an' common doins. for God Almighty's sake. stop talking that infernal nonsense.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. an' stick the two halves back. too.htm Bill—"Well. he'll most likely cut his biscuit open with a case knife. has had 'em often at his house. If he's been raised mostly on corn bread. an—" "Oh. You just pull 'em open—Now you know that I think there's nothin' that shows a person's raisin' so well as to see him eat biscuits an' butter. Dry up and try to think of something else. then he'll lay a little slice of butter inside. But if he is used to biscuits. slow an' easy like. an' make it fall as flat as one o' yesterday's pancakes." John—"O. now. he'll—just pull 'em open. "You blamed fools.' an' don't know much about good things to eat.

and has for centuries carried the British flag with dauntless courage into every land under the sun. and wanted others to do the same. and swore. Early in August. 229 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . since he was a genuine character. he minded his own business strictly. Previous to coming to America he had been for many years an English soldier. it is true. if the Captain had ordered him to shoot one of the company through the heart. and obeyed them under all circumstances promptly. but with stony impassiveness. and soon half the company were engaged in the assault. but Marriott might as well have been a graven image. surly and unsocial. Rough. As we were returning from stable duty one evening. but an incident occurred which turned the tide in his favor. When he first came into the company. which forms the bulk of the English armies. a couple of the smaller boys began an attack upon him. he would have executed the command according to the manual of arms. he did his duty with the unemotional steadiness of a machine. Doubtless. if it mattered to the extent of a pinch of salt whether we whipped the Rebels or they defeated us. In the excitement of action the rest of the boys shouted." and at the word marched back to his quarters without an inquiry as to the cause of the proceedings.gutenberg. and I accepted him as a type of that stolid. Some annoying little depredations had been practiced on the boys. and it needed but a word of suspicion to inflame all their minds against the surly Englishman as the unknown perpetrator.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and retired at command as phlegmatically as he advanced. he kept that feeling so deeply hidden in the recesses of his sturdy bosom that no one ever suspected it. SURLY BRITON—THE STOLID COURAGE THAT MAKES THE ENGLISH FLAG A BANNER OF TRIUMPH—OUR COMPANY BUGLER. brought his carbine to a "recover. Marriott. F. halted at the word. his gruffness had no taint of selfish greed in it. and expressed their tense feelings in various ways. for all the expression that he suffered to escape. until about half of the company were in a mood to kill the Bugler outright. our Company Bugler. others hastened to their assistance.htm CHAPTER XLVI. some little occurrence fanned the smoldering anger into a fierce blaze. he gained the enmity of nearly everybody in it. HIS CHARACTERISTICS AND HIS DEATH—URGENT DEMAND FOR MECHANICS—NONE WANT TO GO—TREATMENT OF A REBEL SHOEMAKER —ENLARGEMENT OF THE STOCKADE—IT IS BROKEN BY A STORM—THE WONDERFUL SPRING. Indeed. he was rather a favorite. doggedly brave class. He knew nothing but to obey orders. and though his surliness repelled us. and with face as blank as a side of sole leather. He went as far as ordered. died.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. With the command to move forward into action. If he cared a straw whether he advanced or retreated. The feeling intensified. he made few enemies. He made no friends. he moved forward without a word.

jest come hat me one hat a time. defiantly: "Dom yer cowardly heyes." 230 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . squaring himself off. hand hI'll wollop the 'ole gang uv ye's. and.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.htm He succeeded in disengaging himself from his assailants.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg. said.

to the intense delight of the boys. vauntingly: "Just fall back and form a ring. or at least assailed us with biting English epithets. He seemed to want to get as far away from the rest of us as possible. and everybody enjoyed hearing his deep-toned growl. They were at least a week old. Those of us who wandered up in his neighborhood occasionally. at least. who yelled enthusiastically whenever he got in "a hot one. not forgetting each of us. Some good Samaritan had filled his little black oyster can with water. and I think that at least a dozen times I was approached by Rebel publishers 231 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . in the customary way: folded the hands across his breast. The whole battalion soon came to share this feeling. worked an entire revolution in his favor. for they are likely to be so handy with their fists as to make the consequences of an acceptance more lively than desirable. While in Richmond the managers of the Tredegar Iron Works were brazen and persistent in their efforts to seduce what are termed "malleable iron workers. A boy who was master of any one of the commoner trades had but to make his wishes known. and staid with him until the next afternoon. machinists. Though the latter was the younger and stronger the first round showed him that it would have profited him much more to have let Marriott's challenge pass unheeded. As a rule. to bring back a load of wood. it is as well to ignore all invitations of this kind from Englishmen. and see me polish off the—-fool. So the Sergeant found. He gave us such a glare of recognition as I remembered to have seen light up the fast-darkening eyes of a savage old mastiff. The scarcity of mechanics of all kinds in the Confederacy. and placed it within his reach. we thought that comradeship demanded another visit. molders and metal workers generally. He thought this was a good time to show off. and his body was swarming with vermin. like Marriott. I was a printer. We did what little we could. have served a term in the army.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. he could barely reach for the water near him. The place where he lay was indescribably filthy. and forcing his way through the crowd. next to these blacksmiths. Not a week passed during my imprisonment that I did not see a Rebel emissary of some kind about the prison seeking to engage skilled workmen for some purpose or another. with the Bugler and the Sergeant in the center. Thus he had doubtless driven away all those who had attempted to help him." and was as vain of his pugilistic abilities as a small boy is of a father who plays in the band. Had he been able he would have driven us away.htm One of our Sergeants styled himself proudly "a Chicago rough. led to continual inducements being offered to the artizans among us to go outside and work at their trade." as one of the spectators expressed it. among utter strangers. that after his encounter with the Sergeant no one ever again volunteered to "polish" him off. Chunks of uneaten corn bread lay by his head. tied the toes together. For a week. The rations since then had evidently been stolen from the helpless man by those around him. he had not been able to rise from the ground. At length." He planted his blows just where he wished. which mischievous boys would incite by some petty annoyances deliberately designed for that purpose. I will mention incidentally." The ring was formed. he said." and their delight at seeing the Sergeant drubbed so thoroughly and artistically. and he would be allowed to go out on parole to work. Thenceforward we viewed his eccentricities with lenient eyes. We found him in the last stages of scurvy and diarrhea. Andersonville did not improve either his temper or his communicativeness. that I and my boyish companions once found dying in the woods of disease and hurts.gutenberg. "Marriott.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h." to enter their employ. when he died. and took up his quarters in a remote corner of the Stockade. "went around him like a cooper around a barrel. after none of us had seen him for weeks. Shoemakers seemed most in demand. that we did not hasten to repeat the visit. were received with such scant courtesy. boys. We prepared his body. and the urgent needs of the people for many things which the war and the blockade prevented their obtaining. and carried it outside. and especially from those who. to see how he was getting along. and became rather proud of his bull-dog stolidity and surliness. We all hated him cordially—even more than we did Marriott.

giving about an acre to every one thousand seven hundred men. millers. we were not in a condition to profit by the opportunity until it was too late. apparently considering his propositions. I'll stay in here till I rot. offered me two dollars and a half a "thousand" for composition. by consenting to go to the railroad shops at Griswoldville and ply their handicraft. in any shape or form. The machinists alone could have done more good to the Southern Confederacy than one of our brigades was doing harm. weavers. He prosecuted his search for these until he reached the center of the camp on the North Side. All solicitations to accept a parole and go outside to work at one's trade were treated with the scorn they deserved.. and only released when Wirz cut off the rations of the prison for that day. The Rebels noticed the breaches as soon as the prisoners. The terrible crowding was somewhat ameliorated by the opening in July of an addition—six hundred feet long—to the North Side of the Stockade. tailors. There is no measuring the benefit it would have been to the Southern cause if all the hundreds of tanners and shoemakers in the Stockade could have. 232 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . One from Columbia. and all the guards rushed out. and work at good prices. the fact did not come under my notice. this would make weekly wages run from eighty-seven dollars and fifty cents to one hundred and twenty-five dollars—but it was in Confederate money. it would have been of immense benefit to the Confederacy if they could have been induced to work at them. Sir! By God. and those who moved on to it had that much in their favor. when some of the shoemakers who had gathered around him.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. if one was attempted. engineers. to shoemakers. and there was not enough left of the eight hundred foot wall of twenty-five-foot logs to make a box of matches. been persuaded to go outside and labor in providing leather and shoes for the almost shoeless people and soldiery. This lack of resources was primarily caused by a lack of skilled labor to develop those resources. and the maggots carry me out through the cracks in the Stockade. from a case-knife to an ax. The new ground was not a hotbed of virulent poison like the olds however. hatters. before I'll so much as raise my little finger to help the infernal Confederacy. The lack of material resources in the South was one of the strongest allies our arms had. That night the standing timbers were attacked by thousands of prisoners armed with every species of a tool to cut wood. railroad men. This increased the room inside to twenty acres. seized him and threw him into a well. both in the west and east sides. The palisades between the new and the old portions of the pen were left standing when the new portion was opened. The little creek running through the camp swelled up immensely.gutenberg. As the highest price for such work that I had received before enlisting was thirty cents a thousand. Taken by surprise. this seemed a chance to accumulate untold wealth. and nowhere could there be found a finer collection of skilled laborers than in the thirty-three thousand prisoners incarcerated in Andersonville. and swept out large gaps in the Stockade. and in a little while the water was falling in torrents. machinists. As nearly all in the prison had useful trades. and similar tradesmen. then worth from ten to twenty cents on the dollar. Any of these could have made a handsome thing by accepting the offers made them almost weekly. tanners. Since a man working in day time can set from thirty-five to fifty "thousand" a week. If any mechanic yielded to them.htm with offers of a parole. or Rebels. They worked the live-long night with such energy that by morning not only every inch of the logs above ground had disappeared.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and formed so as to prevent any egress." In August a Macon shoemaker came in to get some of his trade to go back with him to work in the Confederate shoe factory. We were still suffering a great deal of inconvenience from lack of wood.—a preposterously contracted area still. C. He was kept there a whole day. S. One afternoon—early in August—one of the violent rain storms common to that section sprung up. Still better offers were made to iron workers of all kinds. but that below had been dug up. Two guns were fired from the Star Tort. The usual reply to invitations of this kind was: "No. and announced that no more would be issued until the man was returned safe and sound to the gate.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. before the stream entered the Stockade. The oozy seep at the bottom of the hillsides drained directly into it all the mass of filth from a population of thirty-three thousand. no increase of intimacy with our offensive surroundings. Immediately on entering the Stockade the contamination became terrible. Imagine. Toward the end of August there happened what the religously inclined termed a Providential Dispensation. without becoming sick at the stomach. 233 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The water in the Creek was indescribably bad. and heated by the burning rays of the sun in the thirty-second degree of latitude. and the lightning struck several times within one hundred feet of the prison. all of these people having to wash in and drink of this foul flow. and receiving all the offensive product of so dense a gathering into a shallow. passing through the heart of a city of that many people. No one can successfully deny that there were at least thirty-three thousand prisoners in the Stockade. Imagine the condition of an open sewer. a yard wide and five inches deep. and left the camp much more wholesome.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. situated about a half-mile above. I am quite content to have its truth—as well as that of any other statement made in this book—be determined by the evidence of any one. As I have said previously. if one can. it was rendered too filthy for any use by the contaminations from the camps of the guards.gutenberg. There is not a scintilla of exaggeration in this statement. The foul stench rising from the camp made an excellent electrical conductor. who had any personal knowledge of the condition of affairs at Andersonville. No amount of familiarity with it. sluggish stream. no matter how bitter his hatred of the Union.htm The storm did one good thing: it swept away a great deal of filth. That it is within the exact truth is demonstrable by the testimony of any man—Rebel or Union—who ever saw the inside of the Stockade at Andersonville. could lessen the disgust at the polluted water.

which I have introduced in a previous chapter. it seemed as truly a heaven-wrought miracle as when Moses's enchanted rod smote the parched rock in Sinai's desert waste. the first warning the wretched prisoner got that he was suspected of transgressing a prison-rule was the charge of "ball-and-buck" that tore through his body. but they did all in their power to prevent us from digging the wells. With these main facts admitted. that they might get water with as little filth in it as possible. was at once their main sewer and their source of supply of water for bathing. where the Creek entered the Stockade. and the living waters gushed forth. The great majority of the prisoners who went to the Creek for water. Professor Jones lays special stress on this tunnel feature in his testimony. and made continual forays to capture the digging tools. drinking and washing. because the wells were frequently used as the starting places for tunnels. which passed through the prison.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and also its execution. some one nearly every day got so close to the Dead Line as to arouse a suspicion in the guard's mind that he was touching it. It is true that some of the more fortunate of us had wells. In the crowds struggling there for their turn to take a dip.gutenberg. To the many who looked in wonder upon it.htm and that the one shallow. We dug the wells with case and pocket knives. More wicked and unjustifiable murders never were committed than these almost daily assassinations at the Creek. the only one of the group killed. and running continual risk of being smothered to death by the caving in of the unwalled sides.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. went as near as possible to the Dead Line on the West Side. 234 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The suspicion was the unfortunate one's death warrant. pulling up the dirt in pantaloons legs. no thanks to our gaolers for making the slightest effort to provide these necessities of life. It was lucky if he was. sweet water in an apparently exhaustless quantity. thanks to our own energy in overcoming extraordinary obstacles. As the sluggish brain of the guard conceived it he leveled his gun. about midway between the Swamp and the summit of the hill. One morning the camp was astonished beyond measure to discover that during the night a large. It poured out its grateful flood of pure. bold spring had burst out on the North Side. Not only did the Rebels refuse to give us boards with which to wall the wells. the reader's common sense of natural consequences will furnish the rest of the details. the distance to his victim was not over one hundred feet. narrow creek. he never failed his aim. and buckets for drawing the water. and half canteens to a depth of from twenty to thirty feet.

it would be of that fountain which appeared so opportunely for the benefit of the perishing thousands of Andersonville. and ascribe to its water wonderful grace giving and healing properties." 235 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . This was kept up during our whole stay in Andersonville.gutenberg. And when I hear of people bringing water for baptismal purposes from the Jordan. If I could believe that any water was sacred and thaumaturgic. who still preserve the tradition of its miraculous origin. and is held in most pious veneration by the negros of that vicinity. similar to those which pious Catholics believe exist in the holy water of the fountain at Lourdes.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. I am told by comrades who have revisited the Stockade of recent years. I say in my heart. "How much more would I value for myself and friends the administration of the chrismal sacrament with the diviner flow from that low sand-hill in Western Georgia. and every morning. a thousand men could be seen standing in line.htm The police took charge of the spring. waiting their turns to fill their cans and cups with the precious liquid.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and every one was compelled to take his regular turn in filling his vessel. shortly after daybreak. I must confess that I do not think they are so very far from right. that the spring is yet running as when we left.

htm CHAPTER XLVII. Measurably-calloused as we had become by the daily sights of horror around us." AND THE SCENES THAT ACCOMPANIED IT—MUSTERING THE LAME." Had the crowds worn the flouting robes of the East. It was of a young man not over twenty-five. "having with them those that were lame. with frequent stops. Beside them hobbled the scorbutics with swollen and distorted limbs. we encountered spectacles in these gatherings which no amount of visible misery could accustom us to. hither came scores of groups of three or four comrades. Here were the burning sands and parching sun. Dozens. who a few weeks ago—his clothes looked comparatively new —had evidently been the picture of manly beauty and youthful vigor. unable to walk. the three chevrons on his arm that he was a Sergeant.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. adventurous spirit. thousands of sick gathered at the South Gate. As over three thousand (three thousand and seventy-six) died in August. where the doctors made some pretense of affording medical relief. HALT AND DISEASED AT THE SOUTH GATE—AN UNUSUALLY BAD CASE—GOING OUT TO THE HOSPITAL—ACCOMMODATION AND TREATMENT OF THE PATIENTS THERE—THE HORRIBLE SUFFERING IN THE GANGRENE WARD—BUNGLING AMPUTATIONS BY BLUNDERING PRACTITIONERS—AFFECTION BETWEEN A SAILOR AND HIS WARD —DEATH OF MY COMRADE. crawled painfully along. blind. Every morning after roll-call." by the shores of the Sea of Galilee. there were probably twelve thousand dangerously sick at any given time daring the month.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. the picture would have lacked nothing but the presence of the Son of Man to make it complete. and a large part of these collected at the South Gate every morning. and having no comrades to carry them. maimed. and his eyes still showed that they had gleamed with a bold. dumb. "SICK CALL.gutenberg. dark curling hair fell over a forehead which had once been fair. I remember one especially that burned itself deeply into my memory. lithe form. He had had a well-knit. laboriously staggering under the weight of a blanket in which they had carried a disabled and dying friend from some distant part of the Stockade. Every form of intense physical suffering that it is possible for disease to induce in the human frame was visible at these daily parades of the sick of the prison. on their hands and knees. and the stripe at his cuff that he 236 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . each more loathsome and nearer death than the lepers whom Christ's divine touch made whole. and many others. The red clover leaf on his cap showed that he belonged to the First Division of the Second Corps. The scene there reminded me of the illustrations in my Sunday-School lessons of that time when "great multitudes came unto Him.

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was a veteran. Some kind-hearted boys had found him in a miserable condition on the North Side, and carried him over in a blanket to where the doctors could see him. He had but little clothing on, save his blouse and cap. Ulcers of some kind had formed in his abdomen, and these were now masses of squirming worms. It was so much worse than the usual forms of suffering, that quite a little crowd of compassionate spectators gathered around and expressed their pity. The sufferer turned to one who lay beside him with: "Comrade: If we were only under the old Stars and Stripes, we wouldn't care a G-d d—n for a few worms, would we?" This was not profane. It was an utterance from the depths of a brave man's heart, couched in the strongest language at his command. It seemed terrible that so gallant a soul should depart from earth in this miserable fashion. Some of us, much moved by the sight, went to the doctors and put the case as strongly as possible, begging them to do something to alleviate his suffering. They declined to see the case, but got rid of us by giving us a bottle of turpentine, with directions to pour it upon the ulcers to kill the maggots. We did so. It must have been cruel torture, and as absurd remedially as cruel, but our hero set his teeth and endured, without a groan. He was then carried out to the hospital to die. I said the doctors made a pretense of affording medical relief. It was hardly that, since about all the prescription for those inside the Stockade consisted in giving a handful of sumach berries to each of those complaining of scurvy. The berries might have done some good, had there been enough of them, and had their action been assisted by proper food. As it was, they were probably nearly, if not wholly, useless. Nothing was given to arrest the ravages of dysentery. A limited number of the worst cases were admitted to the Hospital each day. As this only had capacity for about one-quarter of the sick in the Stockade, new patients could only be admitted as others died. It seemed, anyway, like signing a man's death warrant to send him to the Hospital, as three out of every four who went out there died. The following from the official report of the Hospital shows this: Total number admitted .........................................12,900 Died ................................................. 8,663 Exchanged ............................................ 828 Took the oath of allegiance .......................... 25 Sent elsewhere ....................................... 2,889 Total .........................................................12,400 Average deaths, 76 per cent.

Early in August I made a successful effort to get out to the Hospital. I had several reasons for this: First, one of my chums, W. W. Watts, of my own company, had been sent out a little whale before very sick with scurvy and pneumonia, and I wanted to see if I could do anything for him, if he still lived: I have mentioned before that for awhile after our entrance into Andersonville five of us slept on one overcoat and covered ourselves with one blanket. Two of these had already died, leaving as possessors of-the blanket and overcoat, W. W. Watts, B. B. Andrews, and myself. Next, I wanted to go out to see if there was any prospect of escape. I had long since given up hopes of escaping from the Stockade. All our attempts at tunneling had resulted in dead failures, and now, to make us wholly despair of success in that direction, another Stockade was built clear around the prison, at a distance of one hundred and twenty feet from the first palisades. It was manifest that though we might succeed in tunneling past one Stockade, we could not go beyond the second one.

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I had the scurvy rather badly, and being naturally slight in frame, I presented a very sick appearance to the physicians, and was passed out to the Hospital. While this was a wretched affair, it was still a vast improvement on the Stockade. About five acres of ground, a little southeast of the Stockade, and bordering on a creek, were enclosed by a board fence, around which the guard walked, trees shaded the ground tolerably well. There were tents and flies to shelter part of the sick, and in these were beds made of pine leaves. There were regular streets and alleys running through the grounds, and as the management was in the hands of our own men, the place was kept reasonably clean and orderly for Andersonville. There was also some improvement in the food. Rice in some degree replaced the nauseous and innutritious corn bread, and if served in sufficient quantities, would doubtless have promoted the recovery of many men dying from dysenteric diseases. We also received small quantities of "okra," a plant peculiar to the South, whose pods contained a mucilaginous matter that made a soup very grateful to those suffering from scurvy. But all these ameliorations of condition were too slight to even arrest the progress of the disease of the thousands of dying men brought out from the Stockade. These still wore the same lice-infested garments as in prison; no baths or even ordinary applications of soap and water cleaned their dirt-grimed skins, to give their pores an opportunity to assist in restoring them to health; even their long, lank and matted hair, swarming with vermin, was not trimmed. The most ordinary and obvious measures for their comfort and care were neglected. If a man recovered he did it almost in spite of fate. The medicines given were scanty and crude. The principal remedial agent—as far as my observation extended—was a rank, fetid species of unrectified spirits, which, I was told, was made from sorgum seed. It had a light-green tinge, and was about as inviting to the taste as spirits of turpentine. It was given to the sick in small quantities mixed with water. I had had some experience with Kentucky "apple-jack," which, it was popularly believed among the boys, would dissolve a piece of the fattest pork thrown into it, but that seemed balmy and oily alongside of this. After tasting some, I ceased to wonder at the atrocities of Wirz and his associates. Nothing would seem too bad to a man who made that his habitual tipple. [For a more particular description of the Hospital I must refer my reader to the testimony of Professor Jones, in a previous chapter.] Certainly this continent has never seen—and I fervently trust it will never again see—such a gigantic concentration of misery as that Hospital displayed daily. The official statistics tell the story of this with terrible brevity: There were three thousand seven hundred and nine in the Hospital in August; one thousand four hundred and eighty-nine—nearly every other man died. The rate afterwards became much higher than this. The most conspicuous suffering was in the gangrene wards. Horrible sores spreading almost visibly from hour to hour, devoured men's limbs and bodies. I remember one ward in which the alterations appeared to be altogether in the back, where they ate out the tissue between the skin and the ribs. The attendants seemed trying to arrest the progress of the sloughing by drenching the sores with a solution of blue vitriol. This was exquisitely painful, and in the morning, when the drenching was going on, the whole hospital rang with the most agonizing screams. But the gangrene mostly attacked the legs and arms, and the led more than the arms. Sometimes it killed men inside of a week; sometimes they lingered on indefinitely. I remember one man in the Stockade who cut his hand with the sharp corner of a card of corn bread he was lifting from the ration wagon; gangrene set in immediately, and he died four days after. One form that was quit prevalent was a cancer of the lower one corner of the mouth, and it finally ate the whole side of the face out. Of course the sufferer had the greatest trouble in eating and drinking. For the latter it was customary to whittle out a little wooden tube, and fasten it in a tin cup, through which he could suck up the water. As this mouth cancer seemed contagious, none of us would allow any one afflicted with it to use any of our cooking utensils. The Rebel doctors at the

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hospital resorted to wholesale amputations to check the progress of the gangrene. They had a two hours session of limb-lopping every morning, each of which resulted in quite a pile of severed members. I presume more bungling operations are rarely seen outside of Russian or Turkish hospitals. Their unskilfulness was apparent even to non-scientific observers like myself. The standard of medical education in the South—as indeed of every other form of education—was quite low. The Chief Surgeon of the prison, Dr. Isaiah White, and perhaps two or three others, seemed to be gentlemen of fair abilities and attainments. The remainder were of that class of illiterate and unlearning quacks who physic and blister the poor whites and negros in the country districts of the South; who believe they can stop bleeding of the nose by repeating a verse from the Bible; who think that if in gathering their favorite remedy of boneset they cut the stem upwards it will purge their patients, and if downward it will vomit them, and who hold that there is nothing so good for "fits" as a black cat, killed in the dark of the moon, cut open, and bound while yet warm, upon the naked chest of the victim of the convulsions. They had a case of instruments captured from some of our field hospitals, which were dull and fearfully out of order. With poor instruments and unskilled hands the operations became mangling. In the Hospital I saw an admirable illustration of the affection which a sailor will lavish on a ship's boy, whom he takes a fancy to, and makes his "chicken," as the phrase is. The United States sloop "Water Witch" had recently been captured in Ossabaw Sound, and her crew brought into prison. One of her boys—a bright, handsome little fellow of about fifteen—had lost one of his arms in the fight. He was brought into the Hospital, and the old fellow whose "chicken" he was, was allowed to accompany and nurse him. This "old barnacle-back" was as surly a growler as ever went aloft, but to his "chicken" he was as tender and thoughtful as a woman. They found a shady nook in one corner, and any moment one looked in that direction he could see the old tar hard at work at something for the comfort and pleasure of his pet. Now he was dressing the wound as deftly and gently as a mother caring for a new-born babe; now he was trying to concoct some relish out of the slender materials he could beg or steal from the Quartermaster; now trying to arrange the shade of the bed of pine leaves in a more comfortable manner; now repairing or washing his clothes, and so on. All the sailors were particularly favored by being allowed to bring their bags in untouched by the guards. This "chicken" had a wonderful supply of clothes, the handiwork of his protector who, like most good sailors, was very skillful with the needle. He had suits of fine white duck, embroidered with blue in a way that would ravish the heart of a fine lady, and blue suits similarly embroidered with white. No belle ever kept her clothes in better order than these were. When the duck came up from the old sailor's patient washing it was as spotless as new-fallen snow.

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I found my chum in a very bad condition. His appetite was entirely gone, but he had an inordinate craving for tobacco—for strong, black plug —which he smoked in a pipe. He had already traded off all his brass buttons to the guards for this. I had accumulated a few buttons to bribe the guard to take me out for wood, and I gave these also for tobacco for him. When I awoke one morning the man who laid next to me on the right was dead, having died sometime during the night. I searched his pockets and took what was in them. These were a silk pocket handkerchief, a gutta percha finger-ring, a comb, a pencil, and a leather pocket-book, making in all quite a nice little "find." I hied over to the guard, and succeeded in trading the personal estate which I had inherited from the intestate deceased, for a handful of peaches, a handful of hardly ripe figs, and a long plug of tobacco. I
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hastened back to Watts, expecting that the figs and peaches would do him a world of good. At first I did not show him the tobacco, as I was strongly opposed to his using it, thinking that it was making him much worse. But he looked at the tempting peaches and figs with lack-luster eyes; he was too far gone to care for them. He pushed them back to me, saying faintly: "No, you take 'em, Mc; I don't want 'em; I can't eat 'em!" I then produced the tobacco, and his face lighted up. Concluding that this was all the comfort that he could have, and that I might as well gratify him, I cut up some of the weed, filled his pipe and lighted it. He smoked calmly and almost happily all the afternoon, hardly speaking a word to me. As it grew dark he asked me to bring him a drink. I did so, and as I raised him up he said: "Mc, this thing's ended. Tell my father that I stood it as long as I could, and——" The death rattle sounded in his throat, and when I laid him back it was all over. Straightening out his limbs, folding his hands across his breast, and composing his features as best I could, I lay, down beside the body and slept till morning, when I did what little else I could toward preparing for the grave all that was left of my long-suffering little friend.

CHAPTER XLVIII.

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DETERMINATION TO ESCAPE—DIFFERENT PLANS AND THEIR MERITS—I PREFER THE APPALACHICOLA ROUTE—PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE—A HOT DAY—THE FENCE PASSED SUCCESSFULLY PURSUED BY THE HOUNDS—CAUGHT —RETURNED TO THE STOCKADE. After Watt's death, I set earnestly about seeing what could be done in the way of escape. Frank Harvey, of the First West Virginia Cavalry, a boy of about my own age and disposition, joined with me in the scheme. I was still possessed with my original plan of making my way down the creeks to the Flint River, down the Flint River to where it emptied into the Appalachicola River, and down that stream to its debauchure into the bay that connected with the Gulf of Mexico. I was sure of finding my way by this route, because, if nothing else offered, I could get astride of a log and float down the current. The way to Sherman, in the other direction, was long, torturous and difficult, with a fearful gauntlet of blood-hounds, patrols and the scouts of Hood's Army to be run. I had but little difficulty in persuading Harvey into an acceptance of my views, and we began arranging for a solution of the first great problem—how to get outside of the Hospital guards. As I have explained before, the Hospital was surrounded by a board fence, with guards walking their beats on the ground outside. A small creek flowed through the southern end of the grounds, and at its lower end was used as a sink. The boards of the fence came down to the surface of the water, where the Creek passed out, but we found, by careful prodding with a stick, that the hole between the boards and the bottom of the Creek was sufficiently large to allow the passage of our bodies, and there had been no stakes driven or other precautions used to prevent egress by this channel. A guard was posted there, and probably ordered to stand at the edge of the stream, but it smelled so vilely in those scorching days that he had consulted his feelings and probably his health, by retiring to the top of the bank, a rod or more distant. We watched night after night, and at last were gratified to find that none went nearer the Creak than the top of this bank.

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Then we waited for the moon to come right, so that the first part of the night should be dark. This took several days, but at last we knew that the next night she would not rise until between 9 and 10 o'clock, which would give us nearly two hours of the dense darkness of a moonless Summer night in the South. We had first thought of saving up some rations for the trip, but then reflected that these would be ruined by the filthy water into which we must sink to go under the fence. It was not difficult to abandon the food idea, since it was very hard to force ourselves to lay by even the smallest portion of our scanty rations. As the next day wore on, our minds were wrought up into exalted tension by the rapid approach of the supreme moment, with all its chances and consequences. The experience of the past few months was not such as to mentally fit us for such a hazard. It prepared us for sullen, uncomplaining endurance, for calmly contemplating the worst that could come; but it did not strengthen that fiber of mind that leads to venturesome activity and daring exploits. Doubtless the weakness of our bodies reacted upon our spirits. We contemplated all the perils that confronted us; perils that, now looming up with impending nearness, took a clearer and more threatening shape than they had ever done before. We considered the desperate chances of passing the guard unseen; or, if noticed, of escaping his fire without death or severe wounds. But supposing him fortunately evaded, then came the gauntlet of the hounds and the patrols hunting deserters. After this, a long, weary journey, with bare feet and almost naked bodies, through an unknown country abounding with enemies; the dangers of assassination by the embittered populace; the risks of dying with hunger and fatigue in the gloomy depths of a swamp; the scanty hopes that, if we reached the seashore, we could get to our vessels. Not one of all these contingencies failed to expand itself to all its alarming proportions, and unite with its fellows to form a dreadful vista, like the valleys filled with demons and genii, dragons and malign enchantments, which confront the heros of the "Arabian Nights," when they set out to perform their exploits. But behind us lay more miseries and horrors than a riotous imagination could conceive; before us could certainly be nothing worse. We would put life and freedom to the hazard of a touch, and win or lose it all. The day had been intolerably hot. The sun's rays seemed to sear the earth, like heated irons, and the air that lay on the burning sand was broken by wavy lines, such as one sees indicate the radiation from a hot stove. Except the wretched chain-gang plodding torturously back and forward on the hillside, not a soul nor an animal could be seen in motion outside the Stockade. The hounds were panting in their kennel; the Rebel officers, half or wholly drunken with villainous sorgum whisky, were stretched at full length in the shade at headquarters; the half-caked gunners crouched under the shadow of the embankments of the forts, the guards hung limply over the Stockade in front of their little perches; the thirty thousand boys inside the Stockade, prone or supine upon the glowing sand, gasped for breath—for one draft of sweet, cool, wholesome air that did not bear on its wings the subtle seeds of rank corruption and death. Everywhere was the prostration of discomfort—the inertia of sluggishness. Only the sick moved; only the pain-racked cried out; only the dying struggled; only the agonies of dissolution could make life assert itself against the exhaustion of the heat. Harvey and I, lying in the scanty shade of the trunk of a tall pine, and with hearts filled with solicitude as to the outcome of what the evening would bring us, looked out over the scene as we had done daily for long months, and remained silent for hours, until the sun, as if weary with torturing

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and slaying, began going down in the blazing West. The groans of the thousands of sick around us, the shrieks of the rotting ones in the gangrene wards rang incessantly in our ears. As the sun disappeared, and the heat abated, the suspended activity was restored. The Master of the Hounds came out with his yelping pack, and started on his rounds; the Rebel officers aroused themselves from their siesta and went lazily about their duties; the fifer produced his cracked fife and piped forth his unvarying "Bonnie Blue Flag," as a signal for dress parade, and drums beaten by unskilled hands in the camps of the different regiments, repeated the signal. In time Stockade the mass of humanity became full of motion as an ant hill, and resembled it very much from our point of view, with the boys threading their way among the burrows, tents and holes. It was becoming dark quite rapidly. The moments seemed galloping onward toward the time when we must make the decisive step. We drew from the dirty rag in which it was wrapped the little piece of corn bread that we had saved for our supper, carefully divided it into two equal parts, and each took one and ate it in silence. This done, we held a final consultation as to our plans, and went over each detail carefully, that we might fully understand each other under all possible circumstances, and act in concert. One point we laboriously impressed upon each other, and that was; that under no circumstances were we to allow ourselves to be tempted to leave the Creek until we reached its junction with the Flint River. I then picked up two pine leaves, broke them off to unequal lengths, rolled them in my hands behind my back for a second, and presenting them to Harney with their ends sticking out of my closed hand, said: "The one that gets the longest one goes first." Harvey reached forth and drew the longer one. We made a tour of reconnaissance. Everything seemed as usual, and wonderfully calm compared with the tumult in our minds. The Hospital guards were pacing their beats lazily; those on the Stockade were drawling listlessly the first "call around" of the evening: "Post numbah foah! Half-past seven o'clock! and a-l-l's we-l-ll!" Inside the Stockade was a Babel of sounds, above all of which rose the melody of religious and patriotic songs, sung in various parts of the camp. From the headquarters came the shouts and laughter of the Rebel officers having a little "frolic" in the cool of the evening. The groans of the sick around us were gradually hushing, as the abatement of the terrible heat let all but the worst cases sink into a brief slumber, from which they awoke before midnight to renew their outcries. But those in the Gangrene wards seemed to be denied even this scanty blessing. Apparently they never slept, for their shrieks never ceased. A multitude of whip-poor-wills in the woods around us began their usual dismal cry, which had never seemed so unearthly and full of dreadful presages as now. It was, now quite dark, and we stole noiselessly down to the Creek and reconnoitered. We listened. The guard was not pacing his beat, as we could not hear his footsteps. A large, ill-shapen lump against the trunk of one of the trees on the bank showed that he was leaning there resting himself. We watched him for several minutes, but he did not move, and the thought shot into our minds that he might be asleep; but it seemed impossible: it was too early in the evening. Now, if ever, was the opportunity. Harney squeezed my hand, stepped noiselessly into the Creek, laid himself gently down into the filthy water, and while my heart was beating so that I was certain it could be heard some distance from me, began making toward the fence. He passed under easily, and I raised my eyes toward the guard, while on my strained ear fell the soft plashing made by Harvey as he pulled himself cautiously forward. It seemed as if the sentinel must hear this; he could not help it, and every second I expected to see the black lump address itself to motion, and the musket flash out fiendishly. But he did not; the lump remained motionless; the musket silent. When I thought that Harvey had gained a sufficient distance I followed. It seemed as if the disgusting water would smother me as I laid myself down into it, and such was my agitation that it appeared almost impossible that I should escape making such a noise as would attract the guard's notice. Catching hold of the roots and limbs at the side of the stream, I pulled myself slowly along,

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until I could rest. I hardly breathed. The guard evidently heard the noise. but to my heated imagination he appeared to have turned and be watching me. and I could watch him closely all the time. and to my unutterable surprise and relief. but this sound was too customary to give us any uneasiness.gutenberg. which broke with a loud crack. and a straight line which I knew to be his musket separated itself from the lump. My heart absolutely stood still. evidently to speak to the man whose beat joined his. but still with the greatest caution. and was leveling his piece to fire. I passed under the fence without difficulty. and then started on. that I could scarcely restrain myself from springing up and dashing away to avoid the shot. We waited there a few minutes. In a brief instant I lived a year of mortal apprehension. and within fifteen feet of the guard.htm and as noiselessly as possible. until after half-an-hour's painful effort I had gotten fully one hundred and fifty yards away from the Hospital fence. and calm my perturbed nerves down to something nearer their normal equilibrium.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The black lump separated itself from the tree. We hoped that if we were as lucky in our next step as in the first one we would reach the Flint River by daylight. watching for me. that my face might be toward the guard. the filthy water rippling past me seemed to roar to attract the guard's attention. I reached my hand out cautiously to grasp a root to pull myself along by. I had lain down into the creek upon my right side. and caught instead a dry branch. Then I heard him take a step. As I came under the fence he was still leaning motionless against the tree. close to the water's edge. and found Harney crouched on a cypress knee. 245 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and was outside. We could hear the hounds still baying in the distance.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and have a good long start before the morning roll-call revealed our absence. he walked off farther from the Creek. So certain was I that he had discovered me. I pulled away more swiftly.

and its light showed that the creek continued its course through a dense jungle like that we had been traversing. and vines trailed across it. If we staid in the Creek we were sure the hounds would not find our trail. The vines tripped us. ascending the bank. We struggled on determinedly for nearly an hour. We concluded to take the chances. These caught and tore our bare feet and legs. There was no mistake now. It seemed as if every step was marked with blood. and were running us down. The moon came up.gutenberg. An instant later their baying rang out on the still night air right behind us. and with fearful distinctness. and there could be but little risk in trying a short walk on the dry ground. Every step hurt fearfully. while on the high ground to our left were the open pine woods I have previously described. and we frequently fell headlong. and briers. The Creek bed was full of roots and snags. and. All at once it struck me that with all our progress the hounds sounded as near as when we started.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. urged myself and Harney on. I shivered at the thought. The 246 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . rendered abnormally tender by the scurvy. they had found our trail. We recalled our promise to keep in the Creek. and were perhaps a mile from the Hospital. It seemed that we had gone far enough to be out of reach of the packs patrolling immediately around the Stockade. but it was equally certain that at this rate we would be exhausted and starved before we got out of sight of the prison. and though nearly ready to drop with fatigue.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. We stopped and debated for a few minutes.htm But our progress was terribly slow. we walked and ran as fast as we could for about two miles further. the experience of other boys who had tried to escape and been caught by the hounds.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. fatigued. tooting signals to his dogs as he came. and it seemed as if we would be torn to pieces the moment they could reach us. the hounds became almost frantic. and yelled out: "Come ashore. there. but seemed in too much hurry to get back to waste any time annoying us with the dogs. torn. upon whose great knees we climbed —thoroughly exhausted—just as the yelping pack reached the edge of the water. and before midnight were again in the hospital. But the master dismounted and drove them back. We moved as rapidly as our fatigue and our lacerated feet would allow us. until we gained a large cypress. The next morning we were turned back into the Stockade as punishment. We obeyed our first impulse. As we neared it. and in full cry.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. covered us with his revolver. forced our way for a few yards through the flesh-tearing impediments. bruised and wretched beyond description or conception. rushed back into the swamp. It was a physical impossibility for us to go another step. quick: you—— —— —— ——s!" There was no help for it. We climbed down off the knees and started towards the land.htm change from fearful apprehension to the crushing reality stopped us stock-still in our tracks. In a moment the low-browed villain who had charge of the hounds came galloping up on his mule. filthy. He was surly —even savage—to us. At the next breath the hounds came bursting through the woods in plain sight. and stopped there and bayed at us. He ordered us to get around in front of the mule. and start back to camp. 247 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . on the cow-horn slung from his shoulders. He immediately discovered us.gutenberg.

nor have I talked with any one who did. German and English. Encountering Captain Wirz was one of the terrors of an abortive attempt to escape. was the subject of many bitter jibes by the Rebels—especially by those whose secure berths they possessed themselves of. curses. or among the prisoners inside after we left. but they all happened among "paroles" outside the Stockade. and foul epithets in French. and one of that horde of Marylanders in the Rebel Army. until he fairly frothed at the mouth. Brandishing the fearful and wonderful revolver—of which I have spoken in such a manner as to threaten the luckless captives with instant death. and he retired to where the chances of attaining a ripe old age were better than in front of the Army of the Potomac's muskets. Harney and I were specially fortunate in being turned back into the Stockade without being brought before Captain Wirz. he would shriek out imprecations. since I never saw him kill any one. he got his stomach full of war as soon as the real business of fighting began. so I knew nothing of them. There were a number of cases of this kind testified to upon his trial. 248 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm CHAPTER XLIX. We subsequently learned that we owed this good luck to Wirz's absence on sick leave—his place being supplied by Lieutenant Davis. My Maryland!" whose enthusiasm for the Southern cause and consistency in serving it only in such places as were out of range of the Yankee artillery. a moderate brained Baltimorean. How true these rumors were I am unable to say of my own personal knowledge.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but. whose principal service to the Confederacy consisted in working themselves into "bomb-proof" places. and forcing those whom they displaced into the field. until he inflicted injuries that soon resulted in death. He was one of the mob which attacked the Sixth Massachusetts in its passage through Baltimore. like all of that class of roughs. We shall hear of Davis again. When recaptured prisoners were brought before him he would frequently give way to paroxysms of screaming rage.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Winder was the illustrious head of this crowd of bomb-proof Rebels from "Maryland. so violent as to closely verge on insanity. Lieutenant Davis went into the war with great brashness. and still more of his knocking boys down and jumping upon them. AUGUST—GOOD LUCK IN NOT MEETING CAPTAIN WIRZ—THAT WORTHY'S TREATMENT OF RECAPTURED PRISONERS—SECRET SOCIETIES IN PRISON—SINGULAR MEETING AND ITS RESULT—DISCOVERY AND REMOVAL OF THE OFFICERS AMONG THE ENLISTED MEN. There were plenty of stories current in camp of his having several times given away to his rage so far as to actually shoot men down in these interviews.

I think it was nearly two weeks before the last one succumbed.htm One of the Old Switzer's favorite ways of ending these seances was to inform the boys that he would have them shot in an hour or so. After keeping them in fearful suspense for hours he would order them to be punished with the stocks. and bid them prepare for death. I am sure.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. since the terrible punishments visited upon the insurgents of 1848 by the Austrian aristocrats—has been so diabolical as the stocks and chain-gangs. since the days of the Inquisition—or still later. sitting in the stocks near the Star Fort—in plain view of the camp—became objects of interest to everybody inside. Nothing.gutenberg. What they endured in that time even imagination cannot conceive—I do not think that an Indian tribe ever devised keener torture for its captives. but were kept there until all of them died. They were never relieved from their painful position. as used by Wirz. or—if his fierce mood had burned itself entirely out —as was quite likely with a man of his shallop' brain and vacillating temper—to be simply returned to the stockade. At one time seven men.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. the chain-gang. the ball-and-chain. 249 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

belonged to the fraternity. The churches of all denominations—except the solitary Catholic priest. and I think such as made themselves known before death.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. for the brethren among the prisoners who would accept such favors. etc. a spoonful of salt.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. —ignored us as wholly as if we were dumb beasts. except occasional trifles that I 250 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and I take special pride in one thing: that during my whole imprisonment I was not beholden to a Rebel for a single favor of any kind. From first to last I received nothing but my rations.gutenberg. and perhaps other Surgeons. received burial according to the rites of the Order. and the necessities of some one of their number kept them constantly in motion. and so missed all share in any of these benefits. standing out in the hot sun.htm The chain-gang consisted of a number of men—varying from twelve to twenty-five. They were scourged with the dysentery. The Rebel Masons interested themselves in securing details outside the Stockade in the cookhouse. Materials were sent inside to build tents for the Masons. which were literally beyond price. all chained to one sixty-four pound ball. and be the means of securing for the wearer the tender of their good offices. every moment of the long. I can see them distinctly yet. I mention it most gladly. They were also stationed near the Star Fort. an inch of thread. tramping laboriously and painfully back and forward over that burning hillside. or a stick of wood. and especially of vegetables. the commissary. and elsewhere. weary Summer days. When one moved they all had to move. Doctor White. as it was the sole recognition on the part of any of our foes of our claims to human kinship. The Rebel does not live who can say that he ever gave me so much as a handful of meal. ward-master. as well as in any others. such as a detail into the Hospital as nurse. Lay humanitarians were equally indifferent. Such as did not feel inclined to go outside on parole received frequent presents in the way of food. and the only interest manifested by any Rebel in the welfare of any prisoner was by the Masonic brotherhood. and the wearing of a Masonic emblem by a new prisoner was pretty sure to catch their eyes. I was not fortunate enough to be one of the mystic brethren. Father Hamilton. A comrade writes to remind me of the beneficent work of the Masonic Order. without a particle of shade over them.

and saved his life." and were headed by a bookbinder named Ned Hopkins. in turn." and it was duly responded to. said: "I seed a Yank in the Stockade to-day a-wearing a pin egzackly like that ere.. who called the roll in the Stockade. and sent to Macon. and among the members was Charles E. Some one started a branch of the Order in Napoleon. I owe no man in the Southern Confederacy gratitude for anything—not even for a kind word. No words that I can use. The secret was so well kept that none of us suspected it until the fact was announced by the Rebels themselves.. as the latter was going down hill very rapidly. They were taken out immediately. and second. gave him the "grand hailing sign" of the "Royal Reubens. First Ohio Artillery. The badge of the society was a peculiarly shaped gold pin.htm succeeded in stealing from the stupid officers charged with issuing rations. and its equally unimportant badge of membership. One day a Rebel Sergeant. INFERIOR QUALITY. I have in other places dwelt upon the insufficiency and the nauseousness of the food. but still sufficient meal in the evening. O. and succeeded in saving his life—all of which happy results were directly attributable to that insignificant boyish society. his biscuits and his beefsteak for breakfast—a substantial dinner of roast or boiled—and a lighter. for his choice as elements of nourishment. where he was captured.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. a chivalrous wish to share the fortunes and fate of their boys.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Let the reader consider for a moment the quantity. I trust that every one who peruses this book—that every one in fact over whom the Stars and Stripes wave—has his cup of coffee. He recognized the pin. in the neighborhood of Richmond. Speaking of secret society pins recalls a noteworthy story which has been told me since the war. and he went inside in search of the other "feller. while scouting.—two thousand miles from the place of Hopkins's capture. of that town. no insistence upon this theme. In all. quality. It would not do to trust such possible leaders with us another day. Reynolds entered the Sixty-Eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. When the war broke out. with no other object than fun and the usual adolescent love of mystery. can give the reader any idea of its mortal importance to us. after studying Hopkins's pin a minute. and was sent to the Army of the Potomac.gutenberg. The motive of these officers was two-fold: first. The upshot of the matter was that he took Reynolds out with him as clerk. Along in the last of August the Rebels learned that there were between two and three hundred Captains and Lieutenants in the Stockade. and variety of food that he now holds to be necessary for the maintenance of life and health. At the breaking out of hostilities there existed in Toledo a festive little secret society." This aroused Hopkins's interest. disinclination to gratify the Rebels by the knowledge of the rank of their captives. Reynolds and Hopkins never met. Reynolds. CHAPTER L. and had no acquaintance with each other. At Andersonville Hopkins became one of the officers in charge of the Hospital. and was taken in the neighborhood of Jackson. AND TERRIBLE SAMENESS —REBEL TESTIMONY ON THE SUBJECT—FUTILITY OF SUCCESSFUL EXPLANATION. FOOD—THE MEAGERNESS. passing themselves off as enlisted men. secured the detail of a comrade of the SixtyEighth who was failing fast. Reynolds. spoke to its wearer. Miss. certainly not less than fifty different articles are set before him during the day. There were a dozen or so members in it who called themselves "The Royal Reubens. of boys whom I knew." Having his squad and detachment there was little difficulty in finding him. in the Fall of 1863. such as lurking boys frequently organize. where the commissioned officers' prison was. Let him scan this extended 251 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Hopkins enlisted in Battery H.

but the size of this diminished steadily until at last it faded away entirely. the red corpuscles were diminished. Andersonville. that imperfectly crushed the grains. onions. when another slice of fat pork and another cracker served for the dinner of roast beef and vegetables. uncomplicated with ulceration. in the cases of ulceration of the intestinal mucous membrane. At first we got a small piece of rusty bacon along with this. sugar. and I add to that unimpeachable testimony the following extract from the statement made in an attempted defense of Andersonville by Doctor R. the fibrinous element was deficient. Randolph Stevenson. green and preserved fruits.: V. Any of the boys who followed Grant to Appomattox Court House. Sherman to the Sea. The alimentary canals of all compelled to eat it were kept in a continual state of irritation that usually terminated in incurable dysentery. and in our Army they were always well made and very palatable. beans. the fibrinous element of the blood appeared to be increased. the blood was fluid and did not coagulate readily. and in all diseases uncomplicated with inflammation. formerly Surgeon in the Army of the Confederate States of America. and dependent upon the character of the food and the existence of scurvy. After a reluctant farewell to fish. and from the action of the poisonous gases in the densely crowded and filthy Stockade and Hospital. if necessity compelled him. will tell him of many weeks when a slice of fat pork on a piece of "hard tack" had to do duty for the breakfast of beefsteak and biscuits. washed down with creamless. contain all the elements necessary to support life. that a soldier who had these was expected to be on the summit level of contentment. the blood was altered in its constitution.. butter. In cases of ulceration of the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal. I say to these veterans in turn that they did not arrive at the first stages of destitution compared with the depths to which we were dragged. while in simple diarrhea. etc. That I have not over-stated this evil can be seen by reference to the testimony of so competent a scientific observer as Professor Jones. Heart-clots were very common. into the ventricles of the brain. In cases of hospital gangrene of the extremities. and I do not yet know of a more fitting comparison. by dull. In almost all cases which I examined after death. chemists tell us. it was either diminished or remained stationary.gutenberg. hard coating of the kernels in large. which long custom has made so common-place as to be uninteresting—perhaps even wearisome to think about —and see what he could omit from it. but the crackers alone. From the sameness of the food.htm bill-of-fare. In both the well and the sick. who styles himself. sharp. while in the uncomplicated cases of diarrhea and scurvy. and in 252 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . eggs. Chief Surgeon of the Confederate States Military Prison Hospitals.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. mica-like scales. and the heart-clots and fibrinous concretions were almost universally absent. I have before compared the size. unsweetened coffee. It would astonish the Innocent to have one of our veterans inform him that this was not even the first stage of destitution. like handfuls of pounded glass. The restriction for a few weeks to a diet of crackers and fat pork was certainly a hardship. and varied occasionally with additions of potatos. From the watery condition of the blood there resulted various serous effusions into the pericardium. he thinks that perhaps under extraordinary circumstances he might be able to merely sustain life for a limited period on a diet of bread and meat three times a day. before the manifestation of actual disease. Ga. and a third cracker and slice of pork was a substitute for the supper of toast and chops. or "Pap" Thomas till his glorious career culminated with the annihilation of Hood. milk. shape and appearance of the daily half loaf of corn bread issued to us to a half-brick.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. even. weakly propelled stones. even in the most emaciated. and during the last six months of our imprisonment I do not believe that we received rations of meat above a half-dozen times. there was more or less serous effusion into the abdominal cavity. and left the tough. which cut and inflamed the stomach and intestines. and into the abdominal cavity. I believe I risk nothing in saying that one of the ordinary square crackers of our Commissary Department contained much more real nutriment than the whole of our average ration. etc. The meal was ground very coarsely. if not universally present. To this smallness was added ineffable badness.

even of the greatest apparent suffering and distress. had been reared upon wheat bread and Irish potatos. as has been already shown by the health and rapid increase of the Southern population. and typhus fever. The medical history of Ireland is 253 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . listlessness. The Federal prisoners. and was especially active in destroying the appetite. established by my investigations. and with no hope for the future. consisted of unbolted corn-flour. and around the brain and spinal cord. also depressed all the nervous and vital actions. as a general rule. Those who were so disgusted with this form of food that they had no appetite to partake of it. feeble motions of the wasted. previous to the present war. stand in striking contrast with such a statement as the following by a recent English writer: "A deficiency of food. which is supposed to be generated in just such a state of things as existed at Andersonville. In such cases. uncomplaining misery. was almost unknown to them as an article of diet previous to their capture. but also in such lethargy. and especially of the negros. While Indian meal. and was succeeded by an actual loathing of food. and of defective nutrition. and immense piles of corn-bread could be seen in the Stockade and Hospital inclosures. and the Indian corn so extensively used at the South. or to relate their privations. skeleton-like forms. who were throughout the war confined to a great extent to unbolted corn-meal. The impoverished condition of the blood.htm cases of gangrene of the intestines. pestilence and famine are associated with each other in the public mind. Plague. were manifested not only in the slow. and the thin. skeleton-like forms moved about with the appearance of utter exhaustion and dejection. endurance and activity of the Confederate soldiers. instead of showing any anxiety to communicate the causes of their distress. become excessively tired of this kind of diet when suddenly confined to it without a due proportion of wheat bread.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The mental condition connected with long confinement. or of the gigantic mass of human misery by which they were surrounded. The presence of these clots in the cases of hospital gangrene. Large numbers of the Federal prisoners appeared to be utterly disgusted with Indian corn. Owing to the impossibility of obtaining the necessary sieves in the Confederacy for the separation of the husk from the corn-meal. they lay in a listless. with the most miserable surroundings. this circumstance rendered the corn-bread still more disagreeable and distasteful to the Federal prisoners. whilst they were absent in the cases in which there were no inflammatory symptoms. In many cases. as well as of the Federal prisoners. it soon disappeared. was gradually induced by the action of several causes. and by the strength. heart-clots and firm coagula were universally present. an urgent feeling of hunger was not a prominent symptom. These facts. taking no notice either of their own distressed condition. it is nevertheless true that those who have not been reared upon corn-meal. It is a fact of great interest. and their longings for their homes and their friends and relatives. In this state the muscular strength was rapidly diminished. even in those who are suffering from such a condition of the blood and from such diseases as are naturally accompanied with a decrease in the fibrinous constituent. uncomplaining state. or who have not accustomed themselves to its use gradually. were. in which the fibrinous element and coagulability of the blood are increased. but chiefly by the character of the food. VI. and the records of every country show how closely they are related. is one of the most wholesome and nutritious forms of food. Nothing appalled and depressed me so much as this silent. except in quantities insufficient to supply the waste of the tissues. which led to serous effusions within the ventricles of the brain. notwithstanding that the only farinaceous form of food which the Confederate States produced in sufficient abundance for the maintenance of armies was not withheld from them. especially of the nitrogenous part. The effects of mental depression. contagious fevers were rare. in the condition of men slowly starving. was unknown. that notwithstanding this defective nutrition in men subjected to crowding and filth. the tissues wasted.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. lethargic. and into the pericardial and abdominal cavities.gutenberg. appears to sustain the conclusion that hospital gangrene is a species of inflammation (imperfect and irregular though it may be in its progress). and even when it existed at first. and meal and grist. of course. quickly leads to the breaking up of the animal frame. and torpor of the mental faculties as rendered these unfortunate men oblivious and indifferent to their afflicted condition. even when prepared with the husk. the rations of the Confederate soldiers.

one out of nine perished. but after arriving at Andersonville. the difficulties of their situation were at times greatly increased by the sudden and desolating Federal raids in Virginia. without the possibility of much previous preparation. And as the Confederacy became more and more pressed. and other points. and the lurking seeds of pestilence are ready to burst into frightful activity. it crossed the broad ocean. Always the habitat of fever. The principal form of the scourge was known as the contagious famine fever (typhus). at the same time we are forced by the facts established by the present war. Added to the imperfect nature of the rations issued to the Federal prisoners. it every now and then becomes the very hot-bed of its propagation and development. and made itself painfully manifest in localities where it was previously unknown. both old and new. Even those who escaped the fatal influence of it. Georgia. Each one of these causes must be weighed when an attempt is made to estimate the unusual mortality among these prisoners of war. for wherever it came it struck down a seventh of the people. Let there be but a small failure in the usual imperfect supply of food.gutenberg. It fostered epidemics which have not been witnessed in this generation. and gave rise to scenes of devastation and misery which are not surpassed by the most appalling epidemics of the Middle Ages. and it spread. The famine of the present century is but too forcible and illustrative of this.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and thus induces the state of the entire population which is most favorable for the rapid and destructive spread of all contagious fevers. and when powerful hostile armies were plunging through her bosom. Savannah. but.htm remarkable for the illustrations of how much mischief may be occasioned by a general deficiency of food. which necessitated the sudden transportation from Richmond and other points threatened of large bodies of prisoners. breaking through all boundaries. as well as by a host of others. the Federal prisoners of Andersonville suffered incredibly during the hasty removal to Millen. were left the miserable victims of scurvy and low fever. and not only did these men suffer in transition upon the dilapidated and overburdened line of railroad communication." While we readily admit that famine induces that state of the system which is the most susceptible to the action of fever poisons. and of those whom it attacked. supposed at the time to be secure from the enemy. Thousands fell under the virulence of its action. the rations were frequently insufficient to supply the sudden addition of several thousand men. to admit that we are still ignorant of the causes necessary for the origin of typhus fever. not merely from end to end of the country in which it had originated. 254 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Charleston. and other States.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

Not only were the deaths referred to unknown causes.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. upon me than one occasion. without a guiding-star. confined in a foul ship upon salt meat and unvarying food. and it did not exceed the mortality which has. nine-tenths of the deaths among the Federal prisoners at Andersonville. to apoplexy. and in all acute diseases. more than doubled by the scorbutic taint. The general results of my investigations upon the chronic diarrhea and dysentery of the Federal prisoners of Andersonville were similar to those of the English surgeons during the war against Russia. annihilated large armies and desolated beleaguered cities.htm VII. but even those all but universal and deadly bowel affections arose from the same causes. either directly or indirectly. and typhoid fever. caused. IX. and without any apparent boundary or to their voyage. Scurvy. without a compass. in justice to her own unfortunate sons. and to debility. In truth. traceable to scurvy and its effects. Drugs exercised but little influence over the progress and fatal termination of chronic diarrhea 255 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Not only so. and derived their fatal character from the same conditions which produced the scurvy. to anasarca. without a rudder. but these unfortunate prisoners were men forcibly confined and crowded upon a ship tossed about on a stormy ocean. I saw nothing in the scurvy which prevailed so universally at Andersonville.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The mortality was no greater than that which has afflicted a hundred ships upon long voyages. which was compelled.gutenberg. to hold these men in the most distressing captivity. and in a much shorter period of time. pneumonia. at all different from this disease as described by various standard writers. these men at Andersonville were in the condition of a crew at sea. and without fresh vegetables. arising from sameness of food and imperfect nutrition. and they reflected in their steadily increasing miseries the distressed condition and waning fortunes of devastated and bleeding country. and not only was the mortality in small-pox.

and in the depressed. foul air. chiefly because the proper form of nourishment (milk. The root of the difficulty could not be reached by drugs. and bad diet are present. was proof positive that this disease will arise whenever the conditions of crowding. and of all the wasted and degenerated organs and tissues. My opinion to this effect was expressed most decidedly to the medical officers in charge of these unfortunate men. The origin of gangrene among these prisoners appeared clearly to depend in great measure upon the state of the general system. or a disease resembling this form of gangrene. This was further illustrated by the important fact. and originated spontaneously. The correctness of this view was sustained by the healthy and robust condition of the paroled prisoners. Opium allayed pain and checked the bowels temporarily. nothing short of the wanting elements of nutrition would have tended in any manner to restore the tone of the digestive system.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg. but the frail dam was soon swept away. without any previous contagion. The fact that hospital gangrene appeared in the Stockade first. The exhalations from the Hospital and Stockade appeared to exert their effects to a considerable distance outside of these localities. who received an extra ration. that hospital gangrene. rice. neglect of personal cleanliness. for this merely palliative treatment. and occurred sporadically all over the Stockade and Prison Hospital. and by various external noxious influences. vegetables. exposure. attacked the intestinal canal of patients laboring under ulceration of the bowels. or upon the direct application of poisonous matter to the wounded surface. and who supplied themselves with a liberal and varied diet.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and could not be procured in sufficient quantities for the sick prisoners. depraved condition of the system of these Federal prisoners. filth. X. and nourishing animal and vegetable soups) was not issued. although there were no local manifestations of gangrene upon the surface of the body. The rapidity of the appearance and action of the gangrene depended upon the powers and state of the constitution. induced by diet. if not the worse. and who were able to make considerable sums by trading. 256 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . as well as upon the intensity of the poison in the atmosphere. death ensued very rapidly after the gangrenous state of the intestines was established. and the patient appears to be but little better. This mode of termination in cases of dysentery was quite common in the foul atmosphere of the Confederate States Military Prison Hospital.htm and dysentery in the Military Prison and Hospital at Andersonville. anti-scorbutics.

and of solid parts generally. and wide field for investigation is open for the determination the characteristic changes—physical. according to the extent of the deficiency of certain articles of food. . . vegetable diet with vegetable acids would remove the scorbutic condition without curing the hospital gangrene.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but meager. which frequently took on true hospital gangrene. from the most fearful depravation of the blood and the perversion of every function subserved by the blood to those slight derangements which are scarcely distinguishable from a state of health.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Scurvy consists not only in an alteration in the constitution of the blood. but. and of the secretions and excretions of scurvy. We have. We are as yet ignorant of the true nature of the changes of the blood and tissues in scurvy. and physiological—of the blood and tissues. and the effusion into the various tissues of a deeply-colored fibrinous exudation. which leads to passive hemorrhages from the bowels. and wanting in that careful detail of the cases from which the blood was abstracted which would enable us to explain the cause of the apparent discrepancies in different analyses. and the differences which exist in the statements of different 257 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal. A scorbutic condition of the system appeared to favor the origin of foul ulcers. Up to the present war.htm XI. every degree of scorbutic derangement.gutenberg. as we have conclusively shown by postmortem examination. Thus it is not yet settled whether the fibrin is increased or diminished in this disease. the results of chemical investigations upon the pathology of the blood in scurvy were not only contradictory. Scurvy and gangrene frequently existed in the same individual. chemical. In such cases. Such inquiries would be of great value in their bearing upon the origin of hospital gangrene. this state is attended with consistence of the muscles of the heart.

. who has related several cases of malignant pustule produced in man and beasts.. Gangrenous spots. both by contact and by eating the flesh of diseased animals. was too firmly established by the experience of every one in Portugal and Spain to be a matter of doubt. and the Netherlands.. Stevenson's Statement] . France. and the former.htm writers appear to be referable to the neglect of a critical examination and record of all the symptoms of the cases from which the blood was abstracted. were one and all sources of such constant circulation of the gangrenous matter. 258 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .. Wagner found that the skin of one of the infected beasts had been hung on a neighboring wall. it might be assumed that the disease was propagated from one patient to another in every case. The flies swarming over the wounds and over filth of every description.. XII. one of twenty-six and the other of fifty years.. States Military Prison of Camp Sumter.. and had been subsequently washed and bleached. It is impossible to determine the length of time which rags and clothing saturated with gangrenous matter will retain the power of reproducing the disease when applied to healthy wounds... in Holland. Guthrie affirms in the same work. or bandages which had been in contact with infected parts. that the fact that this disease was readily communicated by the application of instruments. and in them the pustules were well marked. caused every ulcer to which it was applied to be affected by hospital gangrene. it was impossible to isolate the wounded from the sources of actual contact of the gangrenous matter. as quoted by Guthrie in his commentaries on the surgery of the war in Portugal. Andersonville.. and scanty rags.gutenberg. the limited number of sponges and wash-bowls (the same wash-bowl and sponge serving for a score or more of patients)... Upon inquiry.. With such data we could settle such important questions as whether the increase of fibrin in scurvy was invariably dependent upon some local inflammation.. both with and without the existence of hospital gangrene upon the surface. Both were women. 'charpie. the filthy. that she had also been bitten upon the right upper arm by a gnat. and without such well established facts. Spain. and the general symptoms similar to the other cases. demonstrates the dependence of the disease upon the state of the constitution. says that in 1797. was quite common in this foul atmosphere in cases of dysentery. and thought it very possible that the insects might have been attracted to them by the smell.. The latter patient said she had been bitten by a fly upon the back d the neck. either by exhalations from the gangrenous surface or by direct contact. on inquiry. In such a filthy and crowded hospital as that of the Confederate. followed by rapid destruction of tissue... [End of Dr. it was found had been already used in the great hospitals in France. Dr. There are facts to show that flies may be the means of communicating malignant pustules. appeared in some cases in which there had been no previous or existing wound or abrasion. and proves in a clear manner that neither the contact of the poisonous matter of gangrene.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.' composed of linen threads cut of different lengths. nor the direct action of the poisoned atmosphere upon the ulcerated surface. imperfectly washed... While the fact already considered. Wagner.. resembling hospital gangrene. at which part the carbuncle appeared. The true nature of the changes of the blood in scurvy can be established only by numerous analyses during different stages of the disease. is necessary to the development of the disease..ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. lint... and had thence conveyed the poison. which happened in the village of Striessa in Saxony. that a form of moist gangrene. that the disease might rapidly be propagated from a single gangrenous wound.. it is equally well-established that the disease may be communicated by the various ways just mentioned. in 1834. which. gives two very remarkable cases which occurred eight days after any beast had been affected with the disease. Professor Brugmans.. and followed up by carefully performed and recorded postmortem examinations. on the other hand.

and such other vegetables as were readily obtainable. It would have been as little trouble to have varied our rations with green corn and sweet potatos. it required all my determination to crowd the bread down my throat. Any day that the Rebels had chosen they could have gotten a thousand volunteers who would have given their solemn parole not to escape. She was saying. them into the camp. but allowed a free but temperate exercise. and saved thousands of lives. but there was a still more potent reason than all these. filled with all manner of green vegetation. to gather the potatos and corn. and. We again began to be exceedingly solicitous over the fate of Atlanta and Sherman's Army: we had heard but little directly from that front for several weeks. Nature does not intend that man shall live by bread alone. and especially to such wretchedly prepared meal.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. I was always much healthier than the average of the boys. as plainly as she ever spoke. In spite of their confident tones. Our men had held their own." but hunger failed to render this detestable stuff palatable. How needless was this confinement of our rations to corn meal. is conclusively shown by the Rebel testimony heretofore given. If his body needs one kind of constituents. It would have been very little extra trouble to the Rebels to have had our meal sifted. Whatever else may be said in defense of the Southern management of military prisons.gutenberg. it is true. the sense of satiety supervenes. SOLICITUDE AS TO THE FATE OF ATLANTA AND SHERMAN'S ARMY—PAUCITY OF NEWS —HOW WE HEARD THAT ATLANTA HAD FALLEN—ANNOUNCEMENT OF A GENERAL EXCHANGE—WE LEAVE ANDERSONVILLE. nor by any one kind of food. healed up the wasting dysentery. Anything short of an absolute 259 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . yet for the last month that I was in Andersonville. 22d. and which could not be supplied by corn meal. his tastes lead him to desire the food that is richest in those constituents. and gone any distance into the country. In this case Nature was protesting by a rebellion of the tastes against any further use of that species of food. and he "becomes tired" of that particular food. the wretched cooking. must forever remain impossible of explanation. A few wagon loads of roasting ears and sweet potatos would have banished every trace of scurvy from the camp.htm The old adage says that "Hunger is the best sauce for poor food. and our own sanguine hopes. we would gladly have done it ourselves if allowed the utensils and opportunity. and 28th of July. the outlook admitted of very grave doubts.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. as I have stated before. and forcing each down as I would a pill. and bring. and it became so loathsome that very many actually starved to death because unable to force their organs of deglutition to receive the nauseous dose and pass it to the stomach. and the lack of salt. and my appetite consequently much better. CHAPTER LI. in the midst of an agricultural region. I could only do this by breaking off small bits at a time. If tastes are not perverted. Few prisoners had come in since those captured in the bloody engagements of the 20th. but an invading army can not afford to simply hold its own. A large part of this repulsiveness was due to the coarseness and foulness of the meal. the permitting seven thousand men to die of the scurvy in the Summer time. She indicates this by the varying tastes and longings that she gives him. they are the surest indicators of the way to preserve health and strength by a judicious selection of alimentation. that death could only be averted by a change of diet. which would supply our bodies with the constituents they so sadly needed. The battles of the last week of July had been looked at it in the best light possible—indecisive. of which the country was then full. When he has taken as much as his system requires.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. For days thereafter we heard nothing. being beaten in detail. and they pretended no doubt that Sherman's failure was already demonstrated. and so it went around. We waited in tense expectancy for the decision of the fates whether final victory or defeat should end the long and arduous campaign." 260 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 2 repeated this cry. close Summer air seemed surcharged with the premonitions of a war storm about to burst. though the hot. so as to show the officers that they were awake and attending to their duty. This had been followed by a defeat of our infantry at Etowah Creek. One evening when our anxiety as to Atlanta was wrought to the highest pitch. half-past eight o'clock. Then we knew that the cavalry column sent out under Stoneman had been so badly handled by that inefficient commander that it had failed ridiculously in its object. and suffering the loss of its commander and a considerable portion of its numbers. At night the guards in the perches around the Stockade called out every half hour. and a-l-l 's w-e-l-l!" Post No.gutenberg.htm success is to it disguised defeat. and we felt something of the bitterness of despair. Next came well-authenticated news that Sherman had raised the siege and fallen back to the Chattahoochee. even as nature heralds in the same way a concentration of the mighty force of the elements for the grand crash of the thunderstorm. The formula for this ran thus: "Post numbah 1. one of the guards sang out: "Post numbah foah—half past eight o'clock—and Atlanta's—gone—t-o —hell. and then came a long interval in which we received no news save what the Rebel papers contained.

We looked toward each other. honest.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. as different from 261 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg. It was the genuine.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. in the first ecstatic moments of victory—a cheer to which our saddened hearts and enfeebled lungs had long been strangers. manly Northern cheer. and then gasped out: "Did 'you hear THAT?" The next instant such a ringing cheer burst out as wells spontaneously from the throats and hearts of men.htm The heart of every man within hearing leaped to his mouth. almost speechless with glad surprise.

schemed. and bitter curses and maledictions against the Rebels leaped unbidden to the lips at the slightest occasion. In our corner we stirred up our tuneful friend "Nosey. A few days later—on the evening of the 6th of September—the Rebel Sergeants who called the roll entered the Stockade. and each assembling his squads." The excitement that this news produced was simply indescribable. In some parts of the Stockade stump speeches were made. joy could. with throats hoarse from shouting.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and danced as if in a delirium. with higher hopes than that of starving and dying in Andersonville. where your vessels are now waiting for you. and remained so until the enthusiasm became less demonstrative. and shouted and cried. pain and death Are felt and feared no more. Groans from pain-racked bodies could not be repressed. lest our exaltation of spirits would lead to an assault upon the Stockade. planned." fairer than the sweet promised land of Canaan appeared to the rapt vision of the Hebrew poet prophet. But the emotion which pain and suffering and danger could not develop. I have seen men in every possible exigency that can confront men. Detachments from One to Ten will prepare to leave early to-morrow morning. dying wish of the thousands of our comrades who would now know no exchange save into that eternal "God's country" where Sickness and sorrow.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. It had come—at last it had come that which we had so longed for. and for which went up the last earnest. He sang the ever-glorious Star Spangled Banner. and made us remember that we were still Union soldiers. but there was no murmuring or whining. addressed them as follows: "PRISONERS: I am instructed by General Winder to inform you that a general exchange has been agreed upon. There was not a day—hardly an hour—in which one did not see such exhibitions of manly fortitude as made him proud of belonging to a race of which every individual was a hero. spread out in glad vista before the mind's eye of every one. joined in the chorus until the welkin rang again. and indulged in the most sanguine hopes as to the effect upon the Rebels.htm the shrill Rebel yell as the honest mastiff's deep-voiced welcome is from the howl of the prowling wolf. Twenty thousand men will be exchanged immediately at Savannah.gutenberg. and we. dreamed of. The boys around me had endured all that we suffered with stoical firmness." and they took up the acclamation with as much enthusiasm as we had begun it. wished for. 262 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . All thoughts of sleep were put to flight: we would have a season of rejoicing. prayed for. toiled for." who sang again the grand old patriotic hymns that set our thin blood to bounding. He sang the rousing "Rally Round the Flag. and boys sang. as he used to sing it around the camp fire in happier days. The Rebels became excited. I believe that Boston Corbett and his party organized a prayer and praise meeting. The shout was taken up all over the prison." with its wealth of patriotic fire and martial vigor. when we were in the field. They got under arms. debated the news. and a large proportion viewed that which impended over them with at least outward composure. Even those who had not heard the guard understood that it meant that "Atlanta was ours and fairly won. "God's country. Little knots gathered together.

my old habit of mind was so strongly upon me that I had some doubts of our going to be exchanged. and no less rude board. and shortly after the order to move. Entering the cars we thumped and pounded toilsomely along. My feet were still in miserable condition from the lacerations received in the attempt to escape. and the spoon made of hoop-iron. and my spirits soared to the skies. and crawled slowly over to the depot. but I took one of our tent poles as a staff and hobbled away. ages since. For scores of miles there would not be a sign of a human habitation. We re-passed the gates which we had entered on that February night. and bade farewell to the hole-in-the-ground that had been our home for nearly seven long months. 263 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . I had come to regard the Rebels around us as such measureless liars that my first impulse was to believe the reverse of anything they said to us." for leaving were few and simple. The route lay the whole distance through the cheerless pine barrens which cover the greater part of Georgia. and in the one hundred and eighty miles between Macon and Savannah there were only three insignificant villages. while I hoped for the best. after the manner of Southern railroads. our tattered overcoat. and even now. Andrews and I picked our well-worn blanket. The only considerable town on the way was Macon.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. those fellows can sing 'Homeward Bound.gutenberg. simply because it was a Rebel who had said so. who said to a Colonel as I passed: "Weil. at the rate of six or eight miles an hour.htm Our "preparations. But in the crowd of Rebels who stood close to the road upon which we were walking was a young Second Lieutenant. it seemed. When the morning came. and to our impatient minds it seemed as if we would never get there. Now I was certain that we were going to be exchanged.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.' can't they?" This set my last misgiving at rest. our rude chessmen. our little black can. which had then a population of five thousand or thereabouts. Savannah was two hundred and forty miles away.

at which the only building was an open shed.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. scraggy-bearded. they all looked alike—all looked as ignorant. to shelter from sun and rain a casual passenger. as stupid. dull-eyed and open-mouthed. Thin-chested. minded East Tennesseans look like models of elegant and cultured gentlemen in contrast. round-shouldered.htm There was a station every ten miles. and made our rough and simple.gutenberg. and as lazy as they were poor and weak. or a bit of goods. They suited their poverty-stricken surroundings as well as the gnarled and scrubby vegetation suited the sterile sand.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The occasional specimens of the poor white "cracker" population that we saw. seemed indigenous products of the starved soil. They were "low-downers" in every respect. 264 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

) "they intend to exchange us here. We could not understand it. When we were turned inside. and resolved to believe. unshorn. an angry-faced woman appeared on the steps and shouted out: "Boys! BOYS! What are you doin' there! Come up on the steps immejitely! Come away from them n-a-s-t-y things!" I will admit that we were not prepossessing in appearance. as unwashed. overcoat. for we thought we were leaving it forever. hope forsook me. in fact. The second day after leaving Andersonville our train struggled across the swamps into Savannah. which told us only too plainly how vain were our expectations of exchange.htm We looked on the poverty-stricken land with good-natured contempt. Through the interstices between the trees and clumps of foliage could be seen the gleaming white marble of the monuments erected to Greene and Pulaski.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. are our vessels down in the harbor yet?" The reply came in that piercing treble shriek in which a boy of ten or twelve makes even his most confidential communications: "I don't know.gutenberg. so badly. and we opened up a conversation with them: "Say." It was another pen. we were marched along the street. and blanket-upon the ground." (with our confidence in exchange somewhat dashed. with us." (with something of a quaver in the questioner's voice. looking like giant tombstones in a City of the Dead. allow a tramp. and a City that was an important port in Revolutionary days—became absolutely oppressive. don't they?" Another falsetto scream. "I don't know. so vacant and noiseless the streets. The unbroken stillness—so different from what we expected on entering the metropolis of Georgia. gave way to the bitterest despair. gathered around us as we marched. I flung our odious little possessions-our can. Nevertheless. and would soon be in one which. Finally some little boys straggled out to where our car was standing. chess-board." "Well. it was not pleasant to hear so accurate a description of our personal appearance sent forth on the wings of the wind by a shrill-voiced Rebel female. O. and I realized that the gates of another prison had closed upon me. I wanted to die. Ordered out of the cars. and the buildings everywhere so overgrown with luxuriant vegetation: The limbs of the shade trees crashed along and broke. if I could help it. uncombed. and populous with insects as we were." What a sinking of hearts was there then! Andrews and I would not give up hope so speedily as some others did." "Well. as if no train had passed that way for years. I may as well confess that I would not now.) "what are they going to do. for awhile at least. boys. compared to it. was as the fatness at Egypt to the leanness of the desert of Sinai. with high walls of thick pine plank. and rolled slowly down the live oak shaded streets into the center of the City.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. to come within several rods of me. A short march brought us to the place "they were fixing for us by the old jail. nor were we as cleanly as young gentlemen should habitually be. Never in all my life had I desired anything in the world so much as I did now to 265 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and." (the treble shriek became almost demoniac) "they are fixing up a place over by the old jail for you. upon the tops of our cars. but our thoughts were more intent upon the coming transfer to our flag than upon any speculation as to the cause of the remarkable somnolence of Savannah. A crowd of small boys. any way?" "O. It seemed like another Deserted Village. Suddenly a door in a rather nice house opened. sitting down beside them. full of the curiosity of the animal. that we were going to be exchanged. as dilapidated in raiment.

and his teeth still clenched its stem. The crowd around me noticed it. and was just in the act of stooping down to pick the boards up when a loud yell from those behind startled me. There was still another pile of these same kind of pieces of board lying at the further side of the prison. The latter had a pipe in his mouth when he was shot. knife. was destitute of all shelter. In spite of my lame feet I outstripped the rest.htm get out of it.gutenberg. not an hour age I was murmuring because I could find no way to die. with the whole Southern Confederacy gathered in another Temple of Dagon. Half an hour afterward we thought we saw all the guards march out of the front gate. and the shriek of the man who was struck." I found that lying around inside were a number of bits of plank—each about five feet long. a prisoner lying on the ground in the agonies of death. Twenty-five cents would be a liberal appraisement of the value of the lumber for which the boy lost his life. I longed to be another Samson. and laughed aloud. and I was in good condition otherwise. who had come with us from Andersonville. as quick as a flash. rope. and rode forward to see what the matter was. and he called out in his usual harsh. and he was rocking backward and forward on his back. and before he could cover me. Walking back to my place the full ludicrousness of the thing dawned upon me so forcibly that I forgot all about my excitement and scare. the man's done just as I awdahed him to. and I imagine the first intimation to the prisoner just killed that the boards were not to be taken was the bullet which penetrated his vitals. but if so." and. The charge had struck him just above the hip-bone. Cunnel. I sighed for death as a bridegroom for the coming of his bride. The fellow tried hard to draw a bead on me. which had been sawed off by the carpenters engaged in building the prison. Here. or poison. and die happy in slaying thousands of my enemies. and made me jump farther than I could possibly do when my feet were well. Looking towards the opposite end of the pen I saw a guard bringing his still smoking musket to a "recover arms. SAVANNAH—DEVICES TO OBTAIN MATERIALS FOR A TENT—THEIR ULTIMATE SUCCESS —RESUMPTION OF TUNNELING—ESCAPING BY WHOLESALE AND BEING RECAPTURED EN MASSE—THE OBSTACLES THAT LAY BETWEEN US AND OUR LINES.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. it had nearly scared me out of a year's growth. His legs and arms were drawn up convulsively. but I was too quick for him. I would have ended my prison life then and there. and mixed with it. I had not heard it. Lieutenant Davis. CHAPTER LII. I landed fully a rod back in the crowd. the firing of a musket. that I might pull down the supporting pillars. The Rebel officer in command of the guard was sitting on his horse inside the pen at the time. attracted my attention. an yet. The ground being a bare common. While I was thus sinking deeper and deeper in the Slough of Despond. but I would not give one of the bitterly hated Rebels the triumph of shooting me. and he finally lowered his gun with an oath expressive of disappointment in not being able to kill a Yankee. and the pieces looked as if they would be quite useful in building a tent. 266 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . not fifteen feet from him. Had I had pistol. Glancing to my left I saw a guard cocking his gun and bringing it up to shoot me. I remembered that I could get a quietus from a guard with very little trouble. and departed with the unceremoniousness of a French leave. and we all made a rush for it. There may have been an order issued forbidding the prisoners to touch them. With one frightened spring. disagreeable voice: "That's all right.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. when a Rebel had pointed his gun at me. was also sitting on a horse inside the prison.

as bed-clothes and tent at Andersonville. "ground-hog was mighty poor eatin'. and there was an imperative call for a substitute. Our solitary blanket had rotted and worn full of holes by its long double duty.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. even if there was. Andrews and I flattered ourselves that when we matched our collective or individual wits against 267 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm Andrews and I did not let the fate of the boy who was killed. digging vigorously at a hole. our family's out o' meat!" That was what actuated us: we were out of material for a tent. there's got to be a ground-hog there. nor my own narrow escape from losing the top of my head. replied to the remark of a passing traveler that there was probably no ground-hog there.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www." with: "Mister.gutenberg. deter us from farther efforts to secure possession of those coveted boards. My readers remember the story of the boy who. any way. and.

with which we made a lean-to. to be compelled to get out in the midst of it. it was all on one side.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and all the Balm of a Thousand Flowers in the world would not restore his comely ankles to that condition of pristine loveliness which would admit of their introduction into good society again. It was very unpleasant.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. there was not enough of it to go clear round. The Johnny had malice in his heart and buck-and-ball in his musket. and when the Johnny had concentrated all his attention on letting me have the contents of his gun just as soon as he could have a reasonable excuse for doing so. we found ourselves the possessors of some dozen planks. 268 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . I would approach a gap in the fence not yet closed as if I intended making a dash through it for liberty. Andrews used to lament very touchingly the sunburning his toe-nails were receiving. As the boards were not over five feet long. when a storm came up in a direction different from that we had calculated upon. and build our house over to face the other way. it left the lower part of our naked feet and legs to project out-of-doors. that formed a tolerable shelter for our heads and the upper portion of our bodies. Then I would fall back in pretended (and some real) alarm. He had too many different things to watch at the same time.htm those of a Johnny his defeat was pretty certain. He knew that his complexion was being ruined for life. and—Andrew would come up and draw his attention by a similar feint. and with this cheerful estimate of our own powers to animate us. like the fun in a practical joke. while I made off with a couple more pieces. Another defect was that. Andrews would pick u a couple of boards and slip away with them. we set to work to steal the boards from under the guard's nose. After a few hours c this strategy. but his eyes were not sufficiently numerous to adequately discharge all the duties laid upon him. and the slope reduce the sheltered space to about four-and-one-half feet.gutenberg.

There was a tunnel every ten or fifteen feet. When morning came it looked as if a colony of gigantic rats had been at work. or if a boy was too lazy to dig his own tunnel. and placed inside. On the north is the Savannah River. we began a general survey of our new abiding place. The ground was a sandy common in the outskirts of Savannah. There was nothing to prevent it. and had put up no Dead Line around the inside.htm Still we had a tent. had neglected to make the plank forming the walls of the Prison project any distance below the surface of the ground. By night about three thousand had been received from Andersonville. he could have the use of one of the hundred others that had been dug. are the two Ogeechee rivers. who knew nothing of our burrowing propensities. But escaping was only begun when the Stockade was passed. I never understood why all in the pen did not follow our example. An hour's industrious work with a half-canteen would take any one outside. so that it looked as if everything was arranged expressly to invite us to tunnel out. southeast and south.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. To the west is a canal 269 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The Rebels. and at least twelve hundred of us had gone out through them during the night. We were not the boys to neglect such an invitation. We were owners of a brown stone front on Fifth Avenue compared to the other fellows. and leave the guards watching a forsaken Prison. Our tent erected. The sand was covered with a light sod. and were that much better off than three-fourths of our comrades who had no shelter at all. to the east. The site of Savannah is virtually an island. and a chain of sounds and lagoons connecting with the Atlantic Ocean.

This only increased the labor of burrowing. entirely reckless as to what became of us. The next day a Dead Line was put up inside of the Prison. They occasionally did so. or engaged in building rafts for transportation. brought our faithful half canteens—now scoured very bright by constant use-into requisition again. I had that fear and horror of them that inhabitants of those districts feel. In this way we managed to evade the recapture that came to most of those who went out. if we could reach this we might perhaps get across the river. and then ceased operations. We had some slender hope that. but had we had the strength to do this. Orders were issued to guards to fire without warning on men who were observed to be digging or carrying out dirt after nightfall. and all the boats destroyed. We finished the burrow to within a few inches of the edge of the ditch. and find better opportunities for escape. we went back to a cleared place on the high ground. and so weary and footsore that we could scarcely move another step. and. and this ditch was filled with water from the City Water Works. but it was a fearful experience. where we lay concealed until night. we would doubtless have thought it too risky.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Lieutenant Davis. That night several hundred of us. It was not much more difficult to dig fifty feet than it had been to dig thirty feet. In spite of this precaution. We found ourselves headed off by water whichever way we went. and those brought back first stood around the gate and yelled derisively as the others came in. Almost famished with hunger. with all our painful and diligent search. it now took three or four hours. and before the morning. Besides. All the bridges were guarded. it offered little additional protection against tunneling. They picked up the boys in squads of from ten to thirty. Still we were not discouraged. moved the Dead Line out forty feet from the Stockade. His next device was a much more sensible one. in which we could float out to sea. We thought of making a raft of logs. to get across. Instead of being able to tunnel out in an hour. But no boat could we find. rested from our previous performance. and of which people living in sections free from such a scourge know little. During the night we came to the railroad bridge across the Ogeechee. since the number of prisoners in the pen had now risen to about six thousand. and being carried out to sea to perish of hunger. and trust to being picked up by some of the blockading fleet. and a single guard with a lantern was stationed on one of the middle spans.htm connecting the Savannah and Big Ogeechee Rivers. There was a post and a fire on the shore next us. Early in the morning the Rebels discovered our absence.gutenberg. quite a number escaped. and Andrews and I joined a crowd that was constructing a large tunnel from near our quarters on the east side of the pen. But these last expectations were blasted by the discovery that it was guarded. and put the Dead Line back to twenty feet. besides. twenty feet from the Stockade. We learned afterward that the Rebels made a practice of breaking up all the boats along the shore to prevent negros and their own deserters from escaping to the blockading fleet. lurking around the shores of the streams waiting for night to come. dawned we had gained the high reeds of the swamps.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. but the risk did not keep anyone from 270 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and laid down to sleep. Having been raised in a country where venomous snakes abounded. the snags and roots hurt our feet fearfully. and the whole garrison of Savannah was sent out on patrol after us. and hopeful of better luck. That night big fires were built all around the Stockade. since we dreaded missing the vessels. to await some stormy night. Our hope was to find a boat somewhere. and it required all my courage to venture into them barefooted. Late in the morning we were awakened by the Rebel patrol and taken back to the prison. and a line of guards placed on the ground inside of these. I fancied that the Southern swamps were filled with all forms of loathsome and poisonous reptiles. but this restricted our room greatly. by making us go farther. By evening the whole mob of us were back in the pen again. No one could cross this without attracting the attention of the guards. As nobody was punished for running away. disgusted with the perpetual attempts to escape. Davis soon realized this. when we could hope to get across the ditch unnoticed. we treated the whole affair as a lark. A crowd of one hundred and fifty negros dug a trench twenty feet wide and five feet deep around the whole prison on the outside.

unless the guard were a fool. Our tunnel went with the rest. taking my turn. This put an end to subterranean engineering. Though we always waited till the moon went down. But in walling with my back to him I was wholly at his mercy. The most disagreeable part was in turning my back to the guard. and those of our crowd who wore shoes had humiliation added to sorrow by being compelled to go in and spade the hole full of dirt. two hundred or three hundred feet. to imagine that I could make it difficult for him to hit me. Our tunnel ran directly under a sentry box. How he came to give birth to two ideas with no more than a week between them. I do not recall any more nervous promenades in my life. than those when.gutenberg. he could not help taking notice of what was going on under his eyes.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Fortune. and still more that he survived this extraordinary strain upon the gray matter of the cerebrum. I had sufficient confidence in my quickness of perception. it seemed as if. favored us. however. Could I have faced him.htm tunneling. and we were allowed to go on with our work—night after night—without a shot. puzzled all who knew him. In the meanwhile another happy thought slowly gestated in Davis's alleged intellect. and walked slowly away with it. I received my bucket of sand at the mouth of the tunnel. The wheels or the mule's feet broke through the thin sod covering the tunnels and exposed them. where he scattered the sand around—so as to give no indication of where it came from. 271 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. When carrying dirt away the bearer of the bucket had to turn his back on the guard and walk directly down the street in front of him. and talents as a dodger. both by nature and training. to the center of the camp. His new idea was to have driven a heavily-laden mule cart around the inside of the Dead Line at least once a day.

as he came from under the wagon. AND THEN STRIKES ACROSS THE COUNTRY FOR SHERMAN. with a smooth boyish face.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and brought back. FRANK REVERSTOCK'S ATTEMPT AT ESCAPE—PASSING OFF AS REBEL BOY HE REACHES GRISWOLDVILLE BY RAIL. He had made himself a pair of bag pantaloons and a shirt from pieces of meal sacks which he had 272 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Frank.htm One day one of the boys watched his opportunity. and clinging close to the coupling pole with hands and feet. had converted to his own use a citizen's coat. who had died in Andersonville. belonging to a young boy. got under the ration wagon. a Sutler's assistant. CHAPTER LIII. of whom I have before spoken. however. One of the shrewdest and nearest successful attempts to escape that came under my notice was that of my friend Sergeant Frank Reverstock. He was detected. was carried outside.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. of the Third West Virginia Cavalry. BUT IS CAUGHT WITHIN TWENTY MILES OF OUR LINES.gutenberg. who was quite small.

one of them saw Frank standing in our crowd." Frank stood back.gutenberg. that he himself was also one of the machinists employed there. He did it promptly but calmly.htm appropriated from day to day. and gave their consent. When we first arrived in the prison quite a crowd of the Savannahians rushed in to inspect us. touching him with his bayonet. near Macon. While perplexed with this annoyance. and desired to go thither but lacked the necessary means to pay his passage. he walked slowly away up the street.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. He hit upon an excellent one. Going to the engineer of a freight train making ready to start back to Macon. which they could neither make nor buy. as if his curiosity as to Yankees was fully satisfied.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. he wore on his head one of those hideous looking hats of quilted calico which the Rebels had taken to wearing in the lack of felt hats. Altogether Frank looked enough like a Rebel to be dangerous to trust near a country store or a stable full of horses. deliberating as he went on a plan for getting out of the City. and. said. with some sharpness: "See heah. and. to crown all. Frank told the story ingeniously. the engineer and firemen were won over. He had also the Sutler's assistant's shoes. he told him that his father was working in the Confederate machine shops at Griswoldville. 273 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . If the engineer would let him ride up on the engine he would do work enough to pay the fare. you must stand back. you musn't crowd on them prisoners so. The guards had some difficulty in keeping them and us separate. and then.

on their way from Andersonville to other prisons. and forever in motion during waking hours. At last when nearing Griswoldville. dividing their food with him. His greatest trouble was a fear of recognition by some one of the prisoners that were continually passing by the train load. always cheerful. and I believe I'll just run over and see him. that stood him in place of great strength. right over there is where my uncle lives. but his friends were so pressing that he was compelled to accede. every want of the engineer and his assistant.—every one in the Prison speedily became familiar with him. bright. and then walk into Griswoldville. 274 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and by busying himself on the opposite side of the engine.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. He kept the tender in perfect order. promised to call and see them frequently. He was one of the best known of the prisoners in Andersonville. He loaded wood with a nervous industry. and treated him with the greatest kindness. and anticipated." If any one on the passing trains had caught a glimpse of him.gutenberg. bade them good by. that glimpse would have been followed almost inevitably with a shout of: "Hello. pointing to a large white house at some distance across the fields.htm No more zealous assistant ever climbed upon a tender than Frank proved to be. and jumped off the train. Frank would have gladly declined this latter kindness with thanks. as he was conscious that the quantity of "graybacks" his clothing contained did not make him a very desirable sleeping companion for any one. Sergeant Frankie! What are you doing there?" Then the whole game would have been up. with his back turned to the other trains. They were delighted with him. active." He thanked his friends fervently for their kindness. Frank escaped this by persistent watchfulness. said: "Now. as far as possible. and insisting that he should share their bed when they "laid by" for the night. and all addressed him as "Sergeant Frankie.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Frank.

htm He walked towards the white house as long as he thought he could be seen. so he gathered himself some ears of corn and some berries.gutenberg. when he made his way to the neighboring woods. but was terribly tired. and began journeying northward as fast as his legs could carry him.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and did not wake up until late in the afternoon. of which he made his breakfast. and then entered a large corn field and concealed himself in a thicket in the center of it until dark. 275 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . fell asleep. and finding a suitable thicket he crawled into it. When morning broke he had made good progress. It was not prudent to travel by daylight.

and went to his home in a little town near Mansfield. or had he been ten minutes earlier or later. the patrol would not have been there. He looked sternly at Frank and his Rebel garments. fields. his captors belonged to that section themselves.gutenberg. who had become unusually numerous since the fall of Atlanta. in whose dense brushwood he had made his bed all day. He was given the usual furlough from the paroled camp at Annapolis. a mounted patrol. It was not the smallest of his griefs to realize by how slight a chance he had failed. his ears were assailed with the sharp click of a musket being cocked. he entered a large field full of standing corn. and living on what he could glean from the fields. after a refreshing rest and sleep. he sprang boldly over the fence and strode out for the other side. tore it to the collar. But. There was a strange sequel to this episode. the sound of whose approach had been masked by the deep dust of the road.. The patrol which caught him was on the look-out for deserters and shirking conscripts. on the other side. As he reached the middle of the road. he could have gained the next field unperceived. "By God. But he neglected his usual precautions on approaching a road. and hope cheered him up with the belief that his freedom would soon be won. yielded without a word. He knew that he must be very near Sherman's lines. unfortunately. A few weeks afterward a special exchange for ten thousand was made. Frank. O. His complete success so far had the natural effect of inducing a growing carelessness. and took it and his hat away from Frank.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and instead of coming up cautiously and carefully reconnoitering in all directions before he left cover. But there are always flaws in every man's armor of caution—even in so perfect a one as Frank's. One day while on the cars going—I think to Newark. I'll stop this!" caught the coat by the tails. which wrought his ruin. I say!" Turning with a start to his left he saw not ten feet from him. then less than twenty miles distant-greatly assisted. of course. in citizens' clothes.htm After another meal of raw corn and berries he resumed his journey. and muttering. and speedily caught him in a maze of cross-questioning from which he could not extricate himself. It also became apparent from his language that he was a Yankee. the fence that separated it from the main road. bridges and main roads. As he came into the prison gate Lieutenant Davis was standing near. off on a leave of absence to make a visit to sick relatives. into which his horse's hoofs sank noiselessly. dah. that he might not take even so much risk as was involved in going to the negro cabins for food. traveling by night through woods. and when sent to the officer in command he told the old story about his being an employee of the Griswoldville shops. He repeated this for several days and nights—lying in the woods in the day time. that Frank intended entering. He was sent back to us at Savannah. and it was not far from this to the conclusion that he was a spy—a conclusion to which the proximity of Sherman's lines. and that night made still better progress. He had been sent by the Rebel Government to Canada with dispatches relating to 276 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and two more nights of successful progress would have taken him into Sherman's lines at Sand Mountain. One evening he started off briskly. Descending from the hill. Had he looked down the road before he climbed the fence. and he concluded the wisest plan was to confess who he really was. and made his way between the rows until he reached. across which was another corn-field. and by-paths avoiding all the fords. O. and Frank succeeded in being included in this.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. he saw Lieutenant Davis on the train. By the next morning this belief had become so firmly fixed in the minds of the Rebels that Frank saw a halter dangling alarmingly near. and the harsh command: "Halt! halt.

but though Frank was small. who was then Chaplain of the One Hundred and Twenty-Eighth Ohio Infantry and the Post of Johnson's Island and who was the spiritual adviser appointed to prepare Davis for execution. as he washed himself elaborately the night before the day announced for the execution: "Well. Davis was the man to improve to the utmost every opportunity to strut his little hour. Davis fumed and blustered. I am ——. and sentenced him to be hanged as a spy. they readily secured a commutation of his sentence to imprisonment during the war.gutenberg. O. you can be sure of one thing. and served with it until the close of the war. arrested Davis. The official notice of the commutation of the sentence was not published until the day set for the execution. Robert McCune. At the conclusion of the trial Frank stepped up to the prisoner and said: "Mr. He was searched. I believe we're even on that coat. he let it leak out in some way that he had been well aware all the time that he would not be executed. after awhile became a banker at Bowling Green. his system carried in it the 277 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and he did it in this instance.htm some of the raids then harassing our Northern borders. He was taken to Fort Delaware for confinement." Davis was sent to Johnson's Island for execution. that made him remembered by all who had ever seen him. and died there some time after. had not regiments of infantry or batteries of artillery to emphasize his insolence. now. that he should not suffer the punishment. and.—where he was fully identified by a number of paroled prisoners. from what I have heretofore said of him. Davis was the last man in the world to successfully disguise himself. Frank recognized him instantly and said: "You are Lieutenant Davis?" Davis replied: "You are totally mistaken. sah. that the one.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. He had a large. But though naturally healthy and vigorous. O. that the sentence was hardly pronounced before Davis was visited by an emissary. and took him to Camp Chase—near Columbus. After a stormy scene Frank called in the assistance of some other soldiers in the car." Unfortunately for his braggadocio. while still the same insolent swaggerer. He posed. and none at all for the much better men whom he assisted to destroy. This found him guilty.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. attitudinized and vapored. but influences were immediately set at work to secure Executive clemency. who told him to dismiss his fears. Frank Beverstock went back to his regiment. but I am informed by the Rev. and documents showing the nature of his mission beyond a doubt." Frank insisted that he was right. It seems that the justice of this world is very unevenly dispensed when so much solicitude is shown for the life of such a man. Davis. and he gave Davis to understand that there had been a vast change in their relative positions. and the other was no longer embarrassed in the discussion by the immense odds in favor of his jailor opponent. A court martial was immediately convened for his trial. Among other things he said to his guard.. and as the Border State Unionists were then potent at Washington. What they were I know not. He then returned home. he was as game as a bantam rooster. He was a fine business man and became very prosperous. but the certain knowledge that it would be forthcoming enabled Davis to display a great deal of bravado on approaching what was supposed to be his end. to-morrow night there will certainly be one clean corpse on this Island. As the reader can readily imagine. It is likely that leading Baltimore Unionists were enlisted in his behalf through family connections. coarse mouth. were found upon his person. so that the camp and the country were filled with stories of the wonderful coolness with which he contemplated his approaching fate.

He had been one of the victims of the Rebels' vaccination. I do not think they ever fired a shot at one of us. as free hearted and kindly as sailors always are. he's always foaming mad. Every mouthful of air was not laden with disease germs. Best of all. even though they failed. After all Savannah was a wonderful improvement on Andersonville. inordinately vain of himself and his family. The earth did not breed gangrene.gutenberg. and shot us down at the least provocation. SAVANNAH PROVES TO BE A CHANGE FOR THE BETTER—ESCAPE FROM THE BRATS OF GUARDS—COMPARISON BETWEEN WIRZ AND DAVIS—A BRIEF INTERVAL OF GOOD RATIONS—WINDER. As only the more vigorous had come away. Lieutenant Davis had many faults. set the blood into more rapid circulation. He was a typical young Southern man. I had come away from Andersonville with considerable scurvy manifesting itself in my gums and feet. ignorant and bumptious as to the most common matters of school-boy knowledge. the virus injected into his blood had caused a large part of his right temple to slough off. generous humanity. THE MAN WITH THE EVIL EYE —THE DISLOYAL WORK OF A SHYSTER. we were freed from the depressing spectacle of every third man dying. Did they ever know any such men as Winder and his satellite. several hundred died. we escaped for a while from the upas-like shadow of Winder and Wirz. Those of us who tunneled out had an opportunity of stretching our legs. in whose presence strong men sickened and died. The keen disappointment prostrated very many who had been of average health. and the sick were taken away from among us. which we had not had for months in the overcrowded Stockade we had left. but after all with some streaks of honor and generosity that made the widest possible difference between him and Wirz. If he ever had even a wish to mitigate the pain or hardship of any man the expression of 278 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . They had the same rattlesnake venom of the Home Guard crowd wherever we met it. and shot men down as they would stone apples out of a tree. who guarded us at Andersonville.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and when it healed it left a ghastly cicatrix. Fortunately they only formed a small part of the sentinels. and died before his friends had any idea that his condition was serious. and I imagine. he was cynical and sardonic. if not violently abusive. coarse in tastes and thoughts. and toned up the mind and system both. I could comprehend how much foundation they could have for such a belief. since they aroused new ideas and hopes. from the Rebel fleet in the harbor—Irishmen. Never. if he ever was moved by any sight of suffering its exhibition in his face escaped my eye. The attempts to escape did all engaged in them good. but there was no comparison between him and the Andersonville commandant. We got away from the pestilential Swamp and that poisonous ground. in my little experience with him did I detect a glint of kindly. but there were hospital arrangements of some kind.htm seeds of death. nor the atmosphere promote fever. sown there by the hardships of captivity. CHAPTER LIV. We also got away from those murderous little brats of Reserves. as when near some malign genii of an Eastern story. I never saw Wirz when he was not angry.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. sailors. who never had any. nor every cup of water polluted with the seeds of death. Two years ago he was taken suddenly ill. As one of my chums said to me: "Wirz is the most even-tempered man I ever knew. Our guards now were mostly. violent in his prejudices. The only trouble we had was with that portion of the guard drawn from the infantry of the garrison. Englishmen and Scandinavians. Soon these signs almost wholly disappeared." This was nearly the truth. The peasantry of Italy believed firmly in the evil eye.

I give you notice that I'll not send in any moah rations till the money's returned to me.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. however. By-and-by. and never be moved by it except to scorn and mocking is beyond my limited understanding. How a man could move daily through such misery as he encountered. when it could be done without danger or trouble to himself. he gave one of his peculiar yells that he used to attract the attention of the camp with: "Wh-ah-ye!!" We all came to "attention. he was perpetually threatening to: "Open on ye wid de ahtillery. Now. standing at the gate. swearing big round oaths in the broadest of Southern patois.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. One day. Davis vapored a great deal.gutenberg. while I wuz in the camps (a Rebel always says camps. He would not put himself out of the way to annoy and oppress prisoners. as Wirz would." and he announced: "Yesterday. he got an idea that there was some money to be made out of the prisoners.) some of you prisoners picked my pockets of seventy-five dollars in greenbacks.htm such wish never fell on my ear." 279 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . but frequently showed even a disposition to humor them in some little thing." but the only death that I knew him to directly cause or sanction was that I have described in the previous chapter. and he set his wits to work in this direction.

answered to the dead men's names. and we each had a spoonful of salt issued to us regularly. and I have been informed on good authority that Jack Huckleby. that it has come to be nearly as essential as food itself.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. A special exchange was arranged between our Navy Department and that of the Rebels. who favored those who had ingratiated themselves with them. Lists of these were sent to the different prisons and the men called for. and a quart or so of vinegar.gutenberg. without salt in my food. I could get along to-day and to-morrow." How exquisite was the taste of the crackers and molasses! It was the first wheat bread I had eaten since my entry into Richmond —nine months before—and molasses had been a stranger to me for years. since the lack would be supplied from the excess I had already swallowed. Each of us received daily a half-dozen rude and coarse imitations of our fondly-remembered hard tack. I fancy that the news almost threw him into an apoplectic fit. nor money to bribe with. at a liberal estimate. and with these a small piece of meat or a few spoonfuls of molasses. we knew that he had been heard from when the tobacco. of the Eighth Tennessee. Still this was a vast improvement on Andersonville. perhaps the whole week. It seems that the Commissary at Savannah labored under the delusion that he must issue to us the same rations as were served out to the Rebel soldiers and sailors. It was some little time before the fearful mistake came to the knowledge of Winder. could have caused him such poignant sorrow as the information that so much good food had been worse than wasted in undoing his work by building up the bodies of his hated enemies. I do not know how true the story was. paid Davis five hundred dollars each to be allowed to go with the sailors. or having in his possession any of "the money of the enemy. The things were worth. As for Andrews and me. vinegar and molasses failed to come in. as the meal was fine and sweet. one thing is certain.htm This was a very stupid method of extortion. has so deeply ingrained it into our common nature. who kept the big sutler shop on the North Side at Andersonville. Without being told. Davis cut off the rations of the whole six thousand of us for one day for this. and no amount of deprivation can accustom us to its absence. we had no friends among the Rebels. There was a story that some of the boys in the prison had contributed to make up part of the sum. by which all seamen and marines among us were exchanged. that either the habit of countless generations or some other cause. went away with the squad and were exchanged.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. After the corn bread we had so long lived upon. Rather. Whether or not the appetite for salt be. and several plugs of tobacco for each "hundred. and the crackers gave way to corn meal. it seemed that the longer we did without it the more overpowering became our craving. and that is. and Davis took it and was satisfied. one dollar. of the One Hundredth Ohio. when they were sent in. I am quite sure that I cannot make the reader who has not had an experience similar to ours comprehend the wonderful importance to us of that spoonful of salt. but at the end of that time Nature would begin to demand that I renew the supply of saline constituent of my tissues. a purely artificial want. Nothing. so we stood no show. In many instances money was paid to secure this privilege. as the Rebel laws imposed severe penalties upon any citizen. since no one believed that he had lost the money. and she would become more clamorous with every day that I neglected her 280 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . but many soldiers divining. and still more upon any soldier dealing with. About three-fourths of them were dead." We did without rations until night. as some scientists claim. and Ira Beverly. this was manna. The rations issued to us for some time after our arrival seemed riotous luxury to what we had been getting at Andersonville. Much of this was through the connivance of the Rebel officers. the situation of affairs. We always imagined that the proceeds went into his pocket. save his being ordered to the front. and at all events he had no business to have the greenbacks. At another time some of the boys stole the bridle and halter off an old horse that was driven in with a cart.

the bugle signal "forward. Of course. I give you jist two minutes to cleah away from this gate. Our silver-voiced bugler seemed to be awakened. we became considerably wrought up over the matter. the thumping and shaking now had a significance. Quite a number of the old Raider crowd had come with us from Andersonville. had essayed a little diversion by knocking Forts Jackson and Bledsoe—two small forts defending the passage of the Savannah—about their defenders' ears. as he did on every possible occasion. We heard the gunners hitching up. We all had confidence—as we continue to have to this 281 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . what admirable soldiers we would be! One morning. we knew that all was not well in Denmark." and what bareback races ride. The having at his beck this array of frowning metal lent Lieutenant Davis such an importance in his own eyes that his demeanor swelled to the grandiose. It meant heavy Yankee guns somewhere near.htm bidding. The calls he played were nearly the same as we used in the cavalry.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The light artillery of the garrison of Savannah—four batteries. knowing we were in Savannah." and when "boots and saddles" followed. Among these was the shyster. aw I'll open on ye wid de ahtillery!" One of the buglers of the artillery was a superb musician—evidently some old "regular" whom the Confederacy had seduced into its service. We would be even glad to hear "guard" and "drill" sounded. he would throw open the wicket. We could see all the grinning mouths through the cracks in the fence. that to us were so closely associated with what now seemed the bright and happy days when we were in the field with our battalion. our vessels were trying to pass up to the City and take it. planted at convenient distance. The thumping and shaking continued until late in the afternoon." how eagerly we would attend to "stable duty. and there would be music in the disconsolate "surgeon's call:" "Come-get-your-q-n-i-n-i-n-e. There were enough of them to send us as high as the traditional kite flown by Gilderoy. and his instrument was so sweet toned that we imagined that it was made of silver." the wheels roll off. finding a crowd of several hundred lounging around the gate. For instance. and shout: "W-h-a-a y-e-e! Prisoners.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. We subsequently learned that some of our blockaders. too. The great mass of the prisoners were so bitter against the Rebels as to feel that they would rather die than ask or accept a favor from their hands." no Orderly's patience would be worn out in getting laggards and lazy ones to "fall in for roll-call. The raider crowd's favorite theme of conversation with the Rebels was the strong discontent of the boys with the manner of their treatment by our Government. If we were only back in the valleys of Tennessee with what alacrity we would respond to that "assembly." O. and finally summon Nausea to aid Longing. It'll make you sad: It'll make you sick. come." etc. as the batteries marched away. Come. After capturing the forts our folks desisted and came no farther." a minute later came an equally earnest "assembly. and currying favor with the Rebels in every possible way. about three or four o'clock. as we fancied that. It became very amusing to see him puff up and vaunt over it. we were awakened by the ground shaking and a series of heavy. come. and trained upon us." "left turn. ready for instant use. stalk in with the air of a Jove threatening a rebellious world with the dread thunders of heaven. Peter Bradley.gutenberg.. and for the first few days we became bitterly homesick every time he sent ringing out the old familiar signals. He set the echoes ringing with a vigorously played "reveille. get your quinine. if we were only back. going and coming. the guns unlimbered. dull thumps sounding oft seaward. finding time banging heavy upon their hands. and they had little else than contempt for these trucklers. in hopes to get paroles outside or other favors." how gladly mount our faithful horses and ride away to "water. They kept up their old tactics of hanging around the gates. and for a half hour afterwards we caught the receding sound of the bugle commanding "right turn. twenty-four pieces—was stationed around three sides of the prison. The assertion that there was any such widespread feeling was utterly false.

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day—that our Government would do everything for us possible, consistent with its honor, and the success of military operations, and outside of the little squad of which I speak, not an admission could be extracted from anybody that blame could be attached to any one, except the Rebels. It was regarded as unmanly and unsoldier-like to the last degree, as well as senseless, to revile our Government for the crimes committed by its foes. But the Rebels were led to believe that we were ripe for revolt against our flag, and to side with them. Imagine, if possible, the stupidity that would mistake our bitter hatred of those who were our deadly enemies, for any feeling that would lead us to join hands with those enemies. One day we were surprised to see the carpenters erect a rude stand in the center of the camp. When it was finished, Bradley appeared upon it, in company with some Rebel officers and guards. We gathered around in curiosity, and Bradley began making a speech. He said that it had now become apparent to all of us that our Government had abandoned us; that it cared little or nothing for us, since it could hire as many more quite readily, by offering a bounty equal to the pay which would be due us now; that it cost only a few hundred dollars to bring over a shipload of Irish, "Dutch," and French, who were only too glad to agree to fight or do anything else to get to this country. [The peculiar impudence of this consisted in Bradley himself being a foreigner, and one who had only come out under one of the later calls, and the influence of a big bounty.] Continuing in this strain he repeated and dwelt upon the old lie, always in the mouths of his crowd, that Secretary Stanton and General Halleck had positively refused to enter upon negotiations for exchange, because those in prison were "only a miserable lot of 'coffee-boilers' and 'blackberry pickers,' whom the Army was better off without." The terms "coffee-boiler," and "blackberry-pickers" were considered the worst terms of opprobrium we had in prison. They were applied to that class of stragglers and skulkers, who were only too ready to give themselves up to the enemy, and who, on coming in, told some gauzy story about "just having stopped to boil a cup of coffee," or to do something else which they should not have done, when they were gobbled up. It is not risking much to affirm the probability of Bradley and most of his crowd having belonged to this dishonorable class. The assertion that either the great Chief-of-Staff or the still greater War-Secretary were even capable of applying such epithets to the mass of prisoners is too preposterous to need refutation, or even denial. No person outside the raider crowd ever gave the silly lie a moment's toleration. Bradley concluded his speech in some such language as this: "And now, fellow prisoners, I propose to you this: that we unite in informing our Government that unless we are exchanged in thirty days, we will be forced by self-preservation to join the Confederate army." For an instant his hearers seemed stunned at the fellow's audacity, and then there went up such a roar of denunciation and execration that the air trembled. The Rebels thought that the whole camp was going to rush on Bradley and tear him to pieces, and they drew revolvers and leveled muskets to defend him. The uproar only ceased when Bradley was hurried out of the prisons but for hours everybody was savage and sullen, and full of threatenings against him, when opportunity served. We never saw him afterward. Angry as I was, I could not help being amused at the tempestuous rage of a tall, fine-looking and well educated Irish Sergeant of an Illinois regiment. He poured forth denunciations of the traitor and the Rebels, with the vivid fluency of his Hibernian nature, vowed he'd "give a year of me life, be J—-s, to have the handling of the dirty spalpeen for ten minutes; be G-d," and finally in his rage, tore off his own shirt and threw it on the ground and trampled on it. Imagine my astonishment, some time after getting out of prison, to find the Southern papers publishing as a defense against the charges in regard to Andersonville, the following document, which they claimed to have been adopted by "a mass meeting of the prisoners:"

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"At a mass meeting held September 28th, 1864, by the Federal prisoners confined at Savannah, Ga., it was unanimously agreed that the following resolutions be sent to the President of the United States, in the hope that he might thereby take such steps as in his wisdom he may think necessary for our speedy exchange or parole: "Resolved, That while we would declare our unbounded love for the Union, for the home of our fathers, and for the graves of those we venerate, we would beg most respectfully that our situation as prisoners be diligently inquired into, and every obstacle consistent with the honor and dignity of the Government at once removed. "Resolved, That while allowing the Confederate authorities all due praise for the attention paid to prisoners, numbers of our men are daily consigned to early graves, in the prime of manhood, far from home and kindred, and this is not caused intentionally by the Confederate Government, but by force of circumstances; the prisoners are forced to go without shelter, and, in a great portion of cases, without medicine. "Resolved, That, whereas, ten thousand of our brave comrades have descended into an untimely grave within the last six months, and as we believe their death was caused by the difference of climate, the peculiar kind and insufficiency of food, and lack of proper medical treatment; and, whereas, those difficulties still remain, we would declare as our firm belief, that unless we are speedily exchanged, we have no alternative but to share the lamentable fate of our comrades. Must this thing still go on! Is there no hope? "Resolved, That, whereas, the cold and inclement season of the year is fast approaching, we hold it to be our duty as soldiers and citizens of the United States, to inform our Government that the majority of our prisoners ate without proper clothing, in some cases being almost naked, and are without blankets to protect us from the scorching sun by day or the heavy dews by night, and we would most respectfully request the Government to make some arrangement whereby we can be supplied with these, to us, necessary articles. "Resolved, That, whereas, the term of service of many of our comrades having expired, they, having served truly and faithfully for the term of their several enlistments, would most respectfully ask their Government, are they to be forgotten? Are past services to be ignored? Not having seen their wives and little ones for over three years, they would most respectfully, but firmly, request the Government to make some arrangements whereby they can be exchanged or paroled. "Resolved, That, whereas, in the fortune of war, it was our lot to become prisoners, we have suffered patiently, and are still willing to suffer, if by so doing we can benefit the country; but we must most respectfully beg to say, that we are not willing to suffer to further the ends of any party or clique to the detriment of our honor, our families, and our country, and we beg that this affair be explained to us, that we may continue to hold the Government in that respect which is necessary to make a good citizen and soldier.
"P. BRADLEY, "Chairman of Committee in behalf of Prisoners."

In regard to the above I will simply say this, that while I cannot pretend to know or even much that went on around me, I do not think it was possible for a mass meeting of prisoners to have been held without my knowing it, and its essential features. Still less was it possible for a mass meeting to have been held which would have adopted any such a document as the above, or anything else that a Rebel would have found the least pleasure in republishing. The whole thing is a brazen falsehood.

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CHAPTER LV.
WHY WE WERE HURRIED OUT OF ANDERSONVILLE—THE FALL OF ATLANTA —OUR LONGING TO HEAR THE NEWS—ARRIVAL OF SOME FRESH FISH—HOW WE KNEW THEY WERE WESTERN BOYS—DIFFERENCE IN THE APPEARANCE OF THE SOLDIERS OF THE TWO ARMIES. The reason of our being hurried out of Andersonville under the false pretext of exchange dawned on us before we had been in Savannah long. If the reader will consult the map of Georgia he will understand this, too. Let him remember that several of the railroads which now appear were not built then. The road upon which Andersonville is situated was about one hundred and twenty miles long, reaching from Macon to Americus, Andersonville being about midway between these two. It had no connections anywhere except at Macon, and it was hundreds of miles across the country from Andersonville to any other road. When Atlanta fell it brought our folks to within sixty miles of Macon, and any day they were liable to make a forward movement, which would capture that place, and have us where we could be retaken with ease. There was nothing left undone to rouse the apprehensions of the Rebels in that direction. The humiliating surrender of General Stoneman at Macon in July, showed them what our folks were thinking of, and awakened their minds to the disastrous consequences of such a movement when executed by a bolder and abler commander. Two days of one of Kilpatrick's swift, silent marches would carry his hard-riding troopers around Hood's right flank, and into the streets of Macon, where a half hour's work with the torch on the bridges across the Ocmulgee and the creeks that enter it at that point, would have cut all of the Confederate Army of the Tennessee's communications. Another day and night of easy marching would bring his guidons fluttering through the woods about the Stockade at Andersonville, and give him a reinforcement of twelve or fifteen thousand able-bodied soldiers, with whom he could have held the whole Valley of the Chattahoochie, and become the nether millstone, against which Sherman could have ground Hood's army to powder. Such a thing was not only possible, but very probable, and doubtless would have occurred had we remained in Andersonville another week. Hence the haste to get us away, and hence the lie about exchange, for, had it not been for this, one-quarter at least of those taken on the cars would have succeeded in getting off and attempted to have reached Sherman's lines. The removal went on with such rapidity that by the end of September only eight thousand two hundred and eighteen remained at Andersonville, and these were mostly too sick to be moved; two thousand seven hundred died in September, fifteen hundred and sixty in October, and four hundred and eighty-five in November, so that at the beginning of December there were only thirteen hundred and fifty-nine remaining. The larger part of those taken out were sent on to Charleston, and subsequently to Florence and Salisbury. About six or seven thousand of us, as near as I remember, were brought to Savannah.

We were all exceedingly anxious to know how the Atlanta campaign had ended. So far our information only comprised the facts that a sharp battle had been fought, and the result was the complete possession of our great objective point. The manner of accomplishing this glorious end, the magnitude of the engagement, the regiments, brigades and corps participating, the loss on both sides, the completeness of the victories, etc., were all matters that we knew nothing of, and thirsted to learn. The Rebel papers said as little as possible about the capture, and the facts in that little were so largely diluted with fiction as to convey no real information. But few new, prisoners were coming in, and none of these were from Sherman. However, toward the last of September, a handful of "fresh

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fish" were turned inside, whom our experienced eyes instantly told us were Western boys. There was never any difficulty in telling, as far as he could be seen, whether a boy belonged to the East or the west. First, no one from the Army of the Potomac was ever without his corps badge worn conspicuously; it was rare to see such a thing on one of Sherman's men. Then there was a dressy air about the Army of the Potomac that was wholly wanting in the soldiers serving west of the Alleghanies. The Army, of the Potomac was always near to its base of supplies, always had its stores accessible, and the care of the clothing and equipments of the men was an essential part of its discipline. A ragged or shabbily dressed man was a rarity. Dress coats, paper collars, fresh woolen shirts, neat-fitting pantaloons, good comfortable shoes, and trim caps or hats, with all the blazing brass of company letters an inch long, regimental number, bugle and eagle, according to the Regulations, were as common to Eastern boys as they were rare among the Westerners. The latter usually wore blouses, instead of dress coats, and as a rule their clothing had not been renewed since the opening, of the campaign —and it showed this. Those who wore good boots or shoes generally had to submit to forcible exchanges by their captors, and the same was true of head gear. The Rebels were badly off in regard to hats. They did not have skill and ingenuity enough to make these out of felt or straw, and the make-shifts they contrived of quilted calico and long-leaved pine, were ugly enough to frighten horned cattle. I never blamed them much for wanting to get rid of these, even if they did have to commit a sort of highway robbery upon defenseless prisoners to do so. To be a traitor in arms was bad certainly, but one never appreciated the entire magnitude of the crime until he saw a Rebel wearing a calico or a pine-leaf hat. Then one felt as if it would be a great mistake to ever show such a man mercy. The Army of Northern Virginia seemed to have supplied themselves with head-gear of Yankee manufacture of previous years, and they then quit taking the hats of their prisoners. Johnston's Army did not have such good luck, and had to keep plundering to the end of the war. Another thing about the Army of the Potomac was the variety of the uniforms. There were members of Zouave regiments, wearing baggy breeches of various hues, gaiters, crimson fezes, and profusely braided jackets. I have before mentioned the queer garb of the "Lost Ducks." (Les Enfants Perdu, Forty-eighth New York.) One of the most striking uniforms was that of the "Fourteenth Brooklyn." They wore scarlet pantaloons, a blue jacket handsomely braided, and a red fez, with a white cloth wrapped around the head, turban-fashion. As a large number of them were captured, they formed quite a picturesque feature of every crowd. They were generally good fellows and gallant soldiers. Another uniform that attracted much, though not so favorable, attention was that of the Third New Jersey Cavalry, or First New Jersey Hussars, as they preferred to call themselves. The designer of the uniform must have had an interest in a curcuma plantation, or else he was a fanatical Orangeman. Each uniform would furnish occasion enough for a dozen New York riots on the 12th of July. Never was such an eruption of the yellows seen outside of the jaundiced livery of some Eastern potentate. Down each leg of the pantaloons ran a stripe of yellow braid one and one-half inches wide. The jacket had enormous gilt buttons, and was embellished with yellow braid until it was difficult to tell whether it was blue cloth trimmed with yellow, or yellow adorned with blue. From the shoulders swung a little, false hussar jacket, lined with the same flaring yellow. The vizor-less cap was similarly warmed up with the hue of the perfected sunflower. Their saffron magnificence was like the gorgeous gold of the lilies of the field, and Solomon in all his glory could not have beau arrayed like one of them. I hope he was not. I want to retain my respect for him. We dubbed these daffodil cavaliers "Butterflies," and the name stuck to them like a poor relation. Still another distinction that was always noticeable between the two armies was in the bodily bearing of the men. The Army of the Potomac was drilled more rigidly than the Western men, and had comparatively few long marches. Its members had something of the stiffness and precision of

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English and German soldiery, while the Western boys had the long, "reachy" stride, and easy swing that made forty miles a day a rather commonplace march for an infantry regiment. This was why we knew the new prisoners to be Sherman's boys as soon as they came inside, and we started for them to hear the news. Inviting them over to our lean-to, we told them our anxiety for the story of the decisive blow that gave us the Central Gate of the Confederacy, and asked them to give it to us.

CHAPTER LVI.
WHAT CAUSED THE FALL OF ATLANTA—A DISSERTATION UPON AN IMPORTANT PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM—THE BATTLE OF JONESBORO—WHY IT WAS FOUGHT —HOW SHERMAN DECEIVED HOOD—A DESPERATE BAYONET CHARGE, AND THE ONLY SUCCESSFUL ONE IN THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN—A GALLANT COLONEL AND HOW HE DIED—THE HEROISM OF SOME ENLISTED MEN—GOING CALMLY INTO CERTAIN DEATH. An intelligent, quick-eyed, sunburned boy, without an ounce of surplus flesh on face or limbs, which had been reduced to gray-hound condition by the labors and anxieties of the months of battling between Chattanooga and Atlanta, seemed to be the accepted talker of the crowd, since all the rest looked at him, as if expecting him to answer for them. He did so: "You want to know about how we got Atlanta at last, do you? Well, if you don't know, I should think you would want to. If I didn't, I'd want somebody to tell me all about it just as soon as he could get to me, for it was one of the neatest little bits of work that 'old Billy' and his boys ever did, and it got away with Hood so bad that he hardly knew what hurt him. "Well, first, I'll tell you that we belong to the old Fourteenth Ohio Volunteers, which, if you know anything about the Army of the Cumberland, you'll remember has just about as good a record as any that trains around old Pap Thomas—and he don't 'low no slouches of any kind near him, either—you can bet $500 to a cent on that, and offer to give back the cent if you win. Ours is Jim Steedman's old regiment—you've all heard of old Chickamauga Jim, who slashed his division of 7,000 fresh men into the Rebel flank on the second day at Chickamauga, in a way that made Longstreet wish he'd staid on the Rappahannock, and never tried to get up any little sociable with the Westerners. If I do say it myself, I believe we've got as good a crowd of square, stand-up, trust'em-every-minute-in-your-life boys, as ever thawed hard-tack and sowbelly. We got all the grunters and weak sisters fanned out the first year, and since then we've been on a business basis, all the time. We're in a mighty good brigade, too. Most of the regiments have been with us since we formed the first brigade Pap Thomas ever commanded, and waded with him through the mud of Kentucky, from Wild Cat to Mill Springs, where he gave Zollicoffer just a little the awfulest thrashing that a Rebel General ever got. That, you know, was in January, 1862, and was the first victory gained by the Western Army, and our people felt so rejoiced over it that—" "Yes, yes; we've read all about that," we broke in, "and we'd like to hear it again, some other time; but tell us now about Atlanta." "All right. Let's see: where was I? O, yes, talking about our brigade. It is the Third Brigade, of the Third Division, of the Fourteenth Corps, and is made up of the Fourteenth Ohio, Thirty-eighth Ohio, Tenth Kentucky, and Seventy-fourth Indiana. Our old Colonel—George P. Este —commands it. We never liked him very well in camp, but I tell you he's a whole team in a fight, and he'd do so well there that all would take to him again, and he'd be real popular for a while." "Now, isn't that strange," broke in Andrews, who was given to fits of speculation of psychological

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phenomena: "None of us yearn to die, but the surest way to gain the affection of the boys is to show zeal in leading them into scrapes where the chances of getting shot are the best. Courage in action, like charity, covers a multitude of sins. I have known it to make the most unpopular man in the battalion, the most popular inside of half an hour. Now, M.(addressing himself to me,) you remember Lieutenant H., of our battalion. You know he was a very fancy young fellow; wore as snipish' clothes as the tailor could make, had gold lace on his jacket wherever the regulations would allow it, decorated his shoulders with the stunningest pair of shoulder knots I ever saw, and so on. Well, he did not stay with us long after we went to the front. He went back on a detail for a court martial, and staid a good while. When he rejoined us, he was not in good odor, at all, and the boys weren't at all careful in saying unpleasant things when he could hear them, A little while after he came back we made that reconnaissance up on the Virginia Road. We stirred up the Johnnies with our skirmish line, and while the firing was going on in front we sat on our horses in line, waiting for the order to move forward and engage. You know how solemn such moments are. I looked down the line and saw Lieutenant H. at the right of Company—, in command of it. I had not seen him since he came back, and I sung out: "'Hello, Lieutenant, how do you feel?' "The reply came back, promptly, and with boyish cheerfulness: "'Bully, by ——; I'm going to lead seventy men of Company into action today!' "How his boys did cheer him. When the bugle sounded—'forward, trot,' his company sailed in as if they meant it, and swept the Johnnies off in short meter. You never heard anybody say anything against Lieutenant after that." "You know how it was with Captain G., of our regiment," said one of the Fourteenth to another. "He was promoted from Orderly Sergeant to a Second Lieutenant, and assigned to Company D. All the members of Company D went to headquarters in a body, and protested against his being put in their company, and he was not. Well, he behaved so well at Chickamauga that the boys saw that they had done him a great injustice, and all those that still lived went again to headquarters, and asked to take all back that they had said, and to have him put into the company." "Well, that was doing the manly thing, sure; but go on about Atlanta." "I was telling about our brigade," resumed the narrator. "Of course, we think our regiment's the best by long odds in the army—every fellow thinks that of his regiment—but next to it come the other regiments of our brigade. There's not a cent of discount on any of them. "Sherman had stretched out his right away to the south and west of Atlanta. About the middle of August our corps, commanded by Jefferson C. Davis, was lying in works at Utoy Creek, a couple of miles from Atlanta. We could see the tall steeples and the high buildings of the City quite plainly. Things had gone on dull and quiet like for about ten days. This was longer by a good deal than we had been at rest since we left Resaca in the Spring. We knew that something was brewing, and that it must come to a head soon. "I belong to Company C. Our little mess—now reduced to three by the loss of two of our best soldiers and cooks, Disbrow and Sulier, killed behind head-logs in front of Atlanta, by sharpshooters—had one fellow that we called 'Observer,' because he had such a faculty of picking up news in his prowling around headquarters. He brought us in so much of this, and it was generally so reliable that we frequently made up his absence from duty by taking his place. He was never away from a fight, though. On the night of the 25th of August, 'Observer' came in with the news that something was in the wind. Sherman was getting awful restless, and we had found out that this always meant lots of trouble to our friends on the other side. "Sure enough, orders came to get ready to move, and the next night we all moved to the right and rear, out of sight of the Johnnies. Our well built works were left in charge of Garrard's Cavalry, who concealed their horses in the rear, and came up and took our places. The whole army except the Twentieth Corps moved quietly off, and did it so nicely that we were gone some time before the

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enemy suspected it. Then the Twentieth Corps pulled out towards the North, and fell back to the Chattahoochie, making quite a shove of retreat. The Rebels snapped up the bait greedily. They thought the siege was being raised, and they poured over their works to hurry the Twentieth boys off. The Twentieth fellows let them know that there was lots of sting in them yet, and the Johnnies were not long in discovering that it would have been money in their pockets if they had let that 'moonand-star' (that's the Twentieth's badge, you know) crowd alone. "But the Rebs thought the rest of us were gone for good and that Atlanta was saved. Naturally they felt mighty happy over it; and resolved to have a big celebration—a ball, a meeting of jubilee, etc. Extra trains were run in, with girls and women from the surrounding country, and they just had a high old time. "In the meantime we were going through so many different kinds of tactics that it looked as if Sherman was really crazy this time, sure. Finally we made a grand left wheel, and then went forward a long way in line of battle. It puzzled us a good deal, but we knew that Sherman couldn't get us into any scrape that Pap Thomas couldn't get us out of, and so it was all right. "Along on the evening of the 31st our right wing seemed to have run against a hornet's nest, and we could hear the musketry and cannon speak out real spiteful, but nothing came down our way. We had struck the railroad leading south from Atlanta to Macon, and began tearing it up. The jollity at Atlanta was stopped right in the middle by the appalling news that the Yankees hadn't retreated worth a cent, but had broken out in a new and much worse spot than ever. Then there was no end of trouble all around, and Hood started part of his army back after us. "Part of Hardee's and Pat Cleburne's command went into position in front of us. We left them alone till Stanley could come up on our left, and swing around, so as to cut off their retreat, when we would bag every one of them. But Stanley was as slow as he always was, and did not come up until it was too late, and the game was gone. "The sun was just going down on the evening of the 1st of September, when we began to see we were in for it, sure. The Fourteenth Corps wheeled into position near the railroad, and the sound of musketry and artillery became very loud and clear on our front and left. We turned a little and marched straight toward the racket, becoming more excited every minute. We saw the Carlin's brigade of regulars, who were some distance ahead of us, pile knapsacks, form in line, fix bayonets, and dash off with arousing cheer. "The Rebel fire beat upon them like a Summer rain-storm, the ground shook with the noise, and just as we reached the edge of the cotton field, we saw the remnant of the brigade come flying back out of the awful, blasting shower of bullets. The whole slope was covered with dead and wounded." "Yes," interrupts one of the Fourteenth; "and they made that charge right gamely, too, I can tell you. They were good soldiers, and well led. When we went over the works, I remember seeing the body of a little Major of one of the regiments lying right on the top. If he hadn't been killed he'd been inside in a half-a-dozen steps more. There's no mistake about it; those regulars will fight." "When we saw this," resumed the narrator, "it set our fellows fairly wild; they became just crying mad; I never saw them so before. The order came to strip for the charge, and our knapsacks were piled in half a minute. A Lieutenant of our company, who was then on the staff of Gen. Baird, our division commander, rode slowly down the line and gave us our instructions to load our guns, fix bayonets, and hold fire until we were on top of the Rebel works. Then Colonel Este sang out clear and steady as a bugle signal: "'Brigade, forward! Guide center! MARCH!!' "And we started. Heavens, how they did let into us, as we came up into range. They had ten pieces of artillery, and more men behind the breastworks than we had in line, and the fire they poured on us was simply withering. We walked across the hundreds of dead and dying of the regular brigade, and at every step our own men fell down among them. General Baud's horse was shot down, and the General thrown far over his head, but he jumped up and ran alongside of us. Major Wilson, our

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regimental commander, fell mortally wounded; Lieutenant Kirk was killed, and also Captain Stopfard, Adjutant General of the brigade. Lieutenants Cobb and Mitchell dropped with wounds that proved fatal in a few days. Captain Ugan lost an arm, one-third of the enlisted men fell, but we went straight ahead, the grape and the musketry becoming worse every step, until we gained the edge of the hill, where we were checked a minute by the brush, which the Rebels had fixed up in the shape of abattis. Just then a terrible fire from a new direction, our left, swept down the whole length of our line. The Colonel of the Seventeenth New York—as gallant a man as ever lived saw the new trouble, took his regiment in on the run, and relieved us of this, but he was himself mortally wounded. If our boys were half-crazy before, they were frantic now, and as we got out of the entanglement of the brush, we raised a fearful yell and ran at the works. We climbed the sides, fired right down into the defenders, and then began with the bayonet and sword. For a few minutes it was simply awful. On both sides men acted like infuriated devils. They dashed each other's brains out with clubbed muskets; bayonets were driven into men's bodies up to the muzzle of the gun; officers ran their swords through their opponents, and revolvers, after being emptied into the faces of the Rebels, were thrown with desperate force into the ranks. In our regiment was a stout German butcher named Frank Fleck. He became so excited that he threw down his sword, and rushed among the Rebels with his bare fists, knocking down a swath of them. He yelled to the first Rebel he met: "Py Gott, I've no patience mit you,' and knocked him sprawling. He caught hold of the commander of the Rebel Brigade, and snatched him back over the works by main strength. Wonderful to say, he escaped unhurt, but the boys will probably not soon let him hear the last of, "Py Gott, I've no patience mit you.' "The Tenth Kentucky, by the queerest luck in the world, was matched against the Rebel Ninth Kentucky. The commanders of the two regiments were brothers-in-law, and the men relatives, friends, acquaintances and schoolmates. They hated each other accordingly, and the fight between them was more bitter, if possible, than anywhere else on the line. The Thirty-Eighth Ohio and Seventy-fourth Indiana put in some work that was just magnificent. We hadn't time to look at it then, but the dead and wounded piled up after the fight told the story. "We gradually forced our way over the works, but the Rebels were game to the last, and we had to make them surrender almost one at a time. The artillerymen tried to fire on us when we were so close we could lay our hands on the guns. "Finally nearly all in the works surrendered, and were disarmed and marched back. Just then an aid came dashing up with the information that we must turn the works, and get ready to receive Hardee, who was advancing to retake the position. We snatched up some shovels lying near, and began work. We had no time to remove the dead and dying Rebels on the works, and the dirt we threw covered them up. It proved a false alarm. Hardee had as much as he could do to save his own hide, and the affair ended about dark. "When we came to count up what we had gained, we found that we had actually taken more prisoners from behind breastworks than there were in our brigade when we started the charge. We had made the only really successful bayonet charge of the campaign. Every other time since we left Chattanooga the party standing on the defensive had been successful. Here we had taken strong double lines, with ten guns, seven battle flags, and over two thousand prisoners. We had lost terribly—not less than one-third of the brigade, and many of our best men. Our regiment went into the battle with fifteen officers; nine of these were killed or wounded, and seven of the nine lost either their limbs or lives. The Thirty-Eighth Ohio, and the other regiments of the brigade lost equally heavy. We thought Chickamauga awful, but Jonesboro discounted it." "Do you know," said another of the Fourteenth, "I heard our Surgeon telling about how that Colonel Grower, of the Seventeenth New York, who came in so splendidly on our left, died? They say he was a Wall Street broker, before the war. He was hit shortly after he led his regiment in, and after the fight, was carried back to the hospital. While our Surgeon was going the rounds Colonel

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but Grower wouldn't let him. please." "Do you believe in presentiments and superstitions?" said another of the Fourteenth. and was killed. But Hood had too much the start.' "The Doctor did so. We went out about five miles one night after a lot of nice smoked hams that a nigger told us were stored in an old cotton press.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.' after Hardee and the rest of Hood's army. and just as we all came stringing out to the wagon with as much meat as we could carry.' "So he went into the fight. He told the Lieutenant. we staid there the next day. "he had a presentiment. and the hams. and they tried to ridicule him out of it. too." "Well. "No. and got into the works at Lovejoy. I never shirked a fight yet. he said: "Doctor. Now. 'Fisher. and he was offered an honorable chance to stay out. and said quietly.' "Fisher's face blazed in an instant. and things quieted down so that it seemed almost like peace. we set our guns down to help load the meat. who said that the Rebels had blown up their stores and retreated. and that he would be killed. Grower received the news tranquilly. and then grasping the Doctor's hand. We had been under a strain so long that now we boys went in the other direction. do give me morphia enough to put me to sleep. wrung his hand. There was Fisher Pray. as he knew he would be. so that I will wake up only in another world. you stay here and guard the knapsacks.' "Well. It was met by the Mayor of Atlanta. examined his wound. that's what I call nerve. Orderly Sergeant of Company I. We found the cotton press. and that we would rest awhile and refit." "The same thing was true of Sergeant Arthur Tarbox.' and he nodded his head mournfully. of Company A. and told him that he could only live a few hours. When we were piling knapsacks for the charge. he knew he was going to be killed.' said he. 'When you get through with the men. and so did the Twentieth Corps.' "The Doctor would have attended to him then. and became too careless. if he went in. and that's how we got picked up. buried our dead. sir. 'hot blocks. and some of the boys about it. He came from Waterville. and gathered up the plunder we had taken from the Johnnies. had the Doctor write a letter to his wife.htm Grower called him. then.. which it was hoped would be caught outside of entrenchments. and I won't begin now. the Lieutenant. what is it?' "You say I can't live but a few hours?' "Yes. As we hadn't seen any Johnny signs anywhere. O. come and see me." said the narrator. and the next day—the 3d—Sherman came in. bade him good-by. who were lying back at the Chattahoochee. 'Certainly. and gave him his things to send her. He couldn't shake it off. The Twentieth Corps then came in and took 'possession of the City. and issued an order declaring the campaign at an end. took care of our wounded.gutenberg.' "And that I will likely be in great pain!' "I am sorry to say so. but he would not take it. and which we knew would be enough sight better eating for Company C. The night before we heard several very loud explosions up to the north. "We laid around Atlanta a good while. after the four months of continual fighting we had gone through. a company of Ferguson's Cavalry popped out of the woods about one hundred yards in front of us and were on top of us before we 290 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . but it was no good. just as the nigger told us. After he got through he went back to Grower. The rest of the army went off. and went to sleep to wake no more. When the sharp firing broke out in front some of the boys said. that is true. ahead of our fellows. Colonel Grower thanked him. I've just one more favor to ask. will you grant it?' "The Doctor said. who was a great friend of Fisher's.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. I do believe you are right. where his folks are now living. said: "Fisher. The day before we started out he had a presentiment that we were going into a fight. and we hitched up a team to take them into camp. than the commissary pork we had lived on so long. and went in and was killed. and the next morning the General commanding—Slocum—sent out a reconnaissance. We guessed what that meant.

too.htm could say I scat.gutenberg. A FAIR SACRIFICE—THE STORY OF ONE BOY WHO WILLINGLY GAVE HIS YOUNG 291 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM ." CHAPTER LVII.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. You see they'd heard of the meat.

and we parted in sorrow. visible to the eye of him who traveled through its enchanted breadth. misers hoarding gold. lionhearted adventurers were cowing and quelling whole tribes of barbarians. and was soon joined by the other party. At the time Hunter was making his retreat from the Valley of Virginia. mitigated on my side by roseate dreams of the future. He was taken. after roll-call." we spent our Saturdays and vacations in the miniature explorations of the rocky hills and caves." learned the same jargon of meaningless rules from "Greene's Grammar. There was a call for a volunteer for this service. His story was soon told.. if we were gotten up after the manner shown by "Cutter's Physiology. with that spirit of generous self-sacrifice that was one of his pleasantest traits when a boy. magicians were casting spells. Charley was the first to offer. I ran away from home in a truly romantic way. making reams of history with each diurnal revolution. On his way to Andersonville he was stripped of all his clothing but his 292 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . hidden mysteries coming to light. and so the world was going on. He knew what he had to expect. Charley Barbour. One hot August morning I met an old acquaintance at the Creek. He told me to come there the next morning. full of thrilling effects. our men had now a pretty clear understanding of what this was. gallant but blundering Irishmen." pondered over "Mitchell's Geography and Atlas. For an instant I was puzzled. poor and unknown boys achieving wealth and fame at a single bound. and he would take me to see some person who was very anxious to meet me. and making the funniest mistakes. We imagined that the only dull and commonplace spot on earth was that where we lived. We read from the same books the story of the wonderful world we were going to see in that bright future "when we were men. were daily thwarting cool and determined villains." and tried in vain to understand why Providence made the surface of one State obtrusively pink and another ultramarine blue. by becoming "devil boy" in a printing office in a distant large City. Everywhere else life was a grand spectacular drama. He threaded his way slowly for over half an hour through the closelyjumbled mass of tents and burrows." the "Arabian Nights.htm LIFE FOR HIS COUNTRY. For several terms we sat together on the same uncompromisingly uncomfortable bench. speaking the most delightful brogue. worried over the same boy-maddening problems in "Ray's Arithmetic-Part III. At the age of thirteen a perusal of the lives of Benjamin Franklin and Horace Greeley precipitated my determination to no longer hesitate in launching my small bark upon the great ocean. blue eyes.gutenberg. Six years passed. all that "Gulliver's Fables. Capture meant imprisonment at Andersonville. trod slowly and painfully over the rugged road "Bullion" points out for beginners in Latin. I was prompt at the rendezvous. and at length stopped in front of a blanket-tent in the northwestern corner.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. enjoyment and annoyance—all were generally meted out to us together. and had in it. Brave and handsome young men were rescuing distressed damsels. and furnishing boundless material for the most delightful books.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. bold tars were encountering fearful sea perils. then the clear. bloody pirates and swarthy murderers were being foiled by quaint spoken backwoodsmen. scientists making astonishing discoveries. Charley took the dispatches and rode into the enemy's lines. it was decided to mislead the enemy by sending out a courier with false dispatches to be captured. and dark cedar woods around our homes. Charley Barbour was one of the truest-hearted and best-liked of my school-boy chums and friends. I think. Charley's attachment to his mother and his home was too strong to permit him to take this step. The occupant rose and took my hand. who carried unerring rifles. to gather ocular helps to a better comprehension of that magical land which we were convinced began just beyond our horizon. and well-remembered smile recalled to me my old-time comrade. and placed my foot on what I expected to be the first round of the ladder of fame. He was a Sergeant in a Western Virginia cavalry regiment—the Fourth." and a hundred books of travel and adventure told of. We shared nearly everything —our fun and work. in Andersonville. beautiful as they were wealthy. and the false information produced the desired effect. and began to believe we should hate ourselves and everybody else." We were caught together in the same long series of school-boy scrapes—and were usually ferruled together by the same strong-armed teacher.

After leaving Andersonville. and after spending several days in hunting for him. This will give the reader an idea of the throng compressed within the narrow limits of the Stockade. He knew as little of my whereabouts.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and turned into the Stockade in this condition. 293 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . When I saw him he had been in a week or more. So ended his day-dream of a career in the busy world.gutenberg. I left him with the promise and expectation of returning the next day. neither we nor our common acquaintance could ever manage to meet again. I met this man once more.htm shirt and pantaloons. I had forgotten to ask the number of his detachment. He told his story quietly—almost diffidently—not seeming aware that he had done more than his simple duty.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. I was forced to give the search up. but when I attempted to find him again. and learned from him that Charley had sickened and died within a month after his entrance to prison. I was lost in the maze of tents and burrows. and though we were all the time within seventeen hundred feet of each other. however.

certainly. which made it necessary to take us elsewhere—probably to Charleston—for delivery to our men. blanket. Andrews and I hastily snatched our worldly possessions—our overcoat. It would hardly take us away from Savannah so soon after bringing us there for any other purpose than delivery to our people. spoon. and soon there was no doubt we were going back to Andersonville. Andrews and I took up our position in one corner. On the evening of the 11th of October there came an order for one thousand prisoners to fall in and march out. tried to "flank in"—that is. It was the junction of the road leading to Macon and that running to Augusta. That was our usual way of doing. dozed fitfully through a long. The Rebels encouraged this belief with direct assertions of its truth.htm CHAPTER LVIII. chessboard and men. At all events. They framed a plausible lie about there having arisen some difficulty concerning the admission of our vessels past the harbor defenses of Savannah. We could hardly sit down. When morning came we found ourselves running northwest through a poor. We were packed in too densely to be able to lie down. and trying to lean against each other in such a way as to afford mutual support and rest. we never failed to be numbered in the first squad of prisoners that were sent out. pine-barren country that strongly resembled that we had traversed in coming to Savannah. There is little difficulty in convincing a man of that of which he wants to be convinced. we argued. We forgot the lie told us when we were taken from Andersonville. for transfer to some other point. than exchange. can. Wishes are always the most powerful allies of belief. forced ourselves well up to the front of the crowd that was being assembled to go out. and running down to the gate. There could be no other motive for this move. We halted a little while at the "Y. weary night. The more we looked at it the more familiar it became. The cry would go up: "Look out for flankers!" The lines of the selected would dress up compactly. The seductive mirage of "exchange" was always luring us on. This one naturally resisted displacement. Holding that the chances were strongly in favor of every movement of prisoners being to our lines. Andrews and I "flanked" into this crowd.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and outsiders trying to force themselves in would get mercilessly pounded. We finally got out of the pen. and if not selected at first. and it would be most likely to come to those who were most earnestly searching for it. WE LEAVE SAVANNAH—MORE HOPES OF EXCHANGE—SCENES AT DEPARTURE —"FLANKERS"—ON THE BACK TRACK TOWARD ANDERSONVILLE—ALARM THEREAT —AT THE PARTING OF TWO WAYS—WE FINALLY BRING UP AT CAMP LAWTON.gutenberg. yelled to some of our neighbors that they could have our hitherto much-treasured house. we should leave no means untried to avail ourselves of whatever seeming chances there might be." and to us the minutes were full of anxiety. The usual scenes accompanying the departure of first squads were being acted tumultuously.' and the fights would become so general as to cause a resemblance to the famed Fair of Donnybrook. and believed the one which was told us now. and fifty-three from Augusta. If we turned off to the left we were going back to 294 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . 'vi et armis. which soon rolled away to the westward. Of course. The Confederacy was not likely to be at the trouble and expense of hauling us about the country without some good reason—something better than a wish to make us acquainted with Southern scenery and topography. By noon we had reached Millen—eighty miles from Savannah.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. piled our little treasures under us. slip into the place of some one else who had had better luck. and into the cars. Every one in the camp wanted to be one of the supposed-to-be-favored few. It must come some time.

" A cupful of corn meal was issued to each of us. the same dismal owls hooted at us. pungent odor. meagerly sodded with sparse. he thought them cunning inventions of the Northern Abolitionist to perplex and demoralize him. to our joy. The night was chilly one we soon had a number of fires blazing. we could still sleep.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. in the midst of one of the open. thank Heaven. hard. these Rebels worried over all of the afternoon. penetrating fumes diffused themselves everywhere. and death seemed more welcome than incarceration in those gloomy wooden walls. and spread it about half an inch thick on the back of our chessboard. At length we started.htm Andersonville. and. and went to sleep. What we both felt in the gloomy recesses of downcast hearts Andrews expressed as he turned to me with: "My God. never could succeed in reducing it to intelligibility. and halted while a party of Rebel clerks made a list of our names. We learned that the place at which we had arrived was Camp Lawton. I first became acquainted with it on entering Andersonville. What a half-dozen boys taken out of our own ranks would have done with ease in an hour or so. came in sight of another of those hateful Stockades. slipped it off the board and turned it over to brown the other side similarly. Shortly after dark we were turned inside the Stockade. when burned. and to this day it is the most powerful remembrance I can have of the opening of that dreadful Iliad of woes. adjusted the thin blanket so as to get the most possible warmth out of it. he took to them as reluctantly as if. with the chances in favor of exchange. our engine took the right hand track. badly written and misspelled. Reading and writing never came by nature. can. rank. As a rule. crawled in close together. and then their register of us was so imperfect." the same as Camp Sumter is universally known as Andersonville. God knows what. This. Mc. the same mournful whip-poor-will lamented.gutenberg. and forgot where we were. wiry grass. and regiments. after a run of five miles. This done. tucked chess-board. companies. I grow sick at heart with the flood of saddening recollections indissolubly associated with it. We marched despondently up to the gates of the Prison. which is never forgotten by one who has once smelled it. the same piney breezes blew in from the surrounding trees. We were ordered out of the cars. there was quite a quantity of wood—the offal from the timber used in constructing the Stockade—lying on the ground. Being the first that had entered. and Nature had some opportunity to repair the waste of the day. Green pitch pine. As they were Rebels it was slow work. We slept. in the gathering twilight. scattering forests of long leaved pine that I have before described. 295 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and as the well-remembered smell reaches me. and when the surface was neatly browned over. We stopped again. that the Yankee clerks afterwards detailed for the purpose. If we took the right hand road we were on the way to Charleston or Richmond. we could do. but we almost always spoke of it as "Millen. He propped this up before the fire. Again our hearts sank. gives off a peculiar. The night was as cool as the one when we arrived at Andersonville. the earth. was the same.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. which seemed to be as natural products of the Sterile sand of that dreary land as its desolate woods and its breed of boy murderers and gray-headed assassins. On my journey to Washington of late years the locomotives are invariably fed with pitch pine as we near the Capital. I hunted up some water. and marching a few rods. to any man fighting for Secession. this looks like Andersonville all over again. and spoon under far enough to be out of the reach of thieves. as Dogberry would say. Andrews made a stiff dough. spread our old overcoat on the ground. we divided it carefully between us. swallowed it in silence. As our fires blazed up the clinging.

The principal difference was that the upright logs were in their rough state. and the brook running through the camp was not bordered by a swamp. whereas they were hewed at Andersonville. In the morning we took a survey of our new quarters. OUR NEW QUARTERS AT CAMP LAWTON—BUILDING A HUT—AN EXCEPTIONAL COMMANDANT—HE IS a GOOD MAN. BUT WILL TAKE BRIBES—RATIONS. each commanded by a Sergeant. we found a full supply of material for this purpose. I was elected by my comrades to the Sergeantcy of the Second Hundred of the First Division. and found that we were in a Stockade resembling very much in construction and dimensions that at Andersonville. Ten hundreds constituted a division.gutenberg. and the use we made of it showed how infinitely better we would have fared if in each prison the Rebels had 296 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. For the first and only time in my prison experience. As soon as we were assigned to our ground. We were divided into hundreds.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. the head of which was also a Sergeant. but had clean. we began constructing shelter.htm CHAPTER LIX. firm banks. Our next move was to make the best of the situation.

A hundred or so of these would probably have saved thousands of lives at Andersonville and Florence. we gathered enough pine tops to cover the ground to a depth of several inches. It seemed as if beavers could have gnawed it off easier and more quickly. of which we made the corners of our dwelling. Making little wedges with a dull knife. we drove them into the log with clubs. we banked up the outside. and ditched around it. Andrews and I took possession of one side of the ten feet nearest the butt. and split off long. so that it was slow work "niggering off"—(as the boys termed it) a cut of the log. 297 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and we were very weak. held in place by sods torn up from the edge of the creek bank. The sides and ends were enclosed. One of our boys had succeeded in smuggling an ax in with him. thin strips. Other boys occupied the rest in a similar manner. It was truly a house builded with our own hands.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. We were lucky enough to find four forked sticks. A large tree lay on the ground assigned to our hundred. We only cut an inch or so at a time.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and then passed the ax to the next users. and then had the most comfortable abode we had during our prison career. and we kept it in constant use day and night. It was as dull as a hoe. like the weatherboards of a house. and by the time we had split off our share of the log in this slow and laborious way.htm done even so slight a thing as to bring in a few logs from the surrounding woods and distribute them to us. we had a fine lot of these strips. for we had no tools whatever save the occasional use of the aforementioned dull axe and equally dull knife. each group borrowing it for an hour or so at a time. and roofed it carefully with our strips.gutenberg.

but we gladly performed it. He came upon the grounds of our division one morning. Of one thing I am certain: that his acceptance of money to bias his official action was not singular on his part. I never heard that any one succeeded in bribing Wirz. so that in a little while we had between six and seven thousand in the Stockade. Those we left behind at Savannah followed us. and without anything. or the stupid malignance of Barrett.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Against this it may be said. but has what they all lacked—executive ability—and he secured results that they could not possibly attain. however. He will treat you as gentlemen. intelligent-appearing lad of about fifteen or sixteen. Davis was probably the most unscrupulous bribe-taker of the lot. and the prison there was broken up. like the friction that attended their efforts. but possibly my views might have been colored highly by my not having any money wherewith to procure my own inclusion in the happy lot of the exchanged. He said to us: "Gentlemen: (The only instance during our imprisonment when we received so polite a designation. I am convinced that every commandant we had over us—except Wirz—was habitually in the receipt of bribes from prisoners. The commandant of the prison—one Captain Bowes—was the best of his class it was my fortune to meet.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. He enforced discipline better than any of those named. the reckless deviltry of Davis. and consequently did not fare so well as the earlier arrivals. since I do not recall a single week passed anywhere else without at least one murder by the guards. Quite a number also came in from—Andersonville. He actually received money for permitting prisoners to escape to our lines. On the first occasion the meat was simply the heads of the cattle killed for the use of the guards. at Florence. and that is. and I know you will do the same to him. though it was absurdedly insufficient in quantity. The only charge I have to make against Bowes is made more in detail in another chapter. Young Bowes invariably spoke civilly to us. and we had the luxury daily of warm fires. as the meal was finer and better. which the increasing coolness of the weather made important accessories to our comfort. accompanied by a pleasantfaced.gutenberg. who will hereafter call your roll. Other prisoners kept coming in. and we obeyed his orders with a prompt cheerfulness that left him nothing to complain of. One instance will illustrate the difference of his administration from that of other prison commandants. and we received no salt. We broke them up so that every man got a piece of the bone. Compared with the senseless brutality of Wirz. and this is the sole good thing I can say of that fellow. manual labor as would be required to build a comfortable little cottage in the North. as long as a single bubble of grease would rise to the surface of the water. his administration was mildness and wisdom itself. and got down to as low a figure as one hundred dollars for this sort of service. Several wagon loads of these were brought in and distributed. For a while wood was quite plentiful.htm The rude little hut represented as much actual hard. that he took money from well prisoners for giving them the first chance to go through on the Sick Exchange. How culpable this was I must leave each reader to decide for himself. and each time the excitement created among those who had not tasted fresh meat for weeks and months was wonderful. The rations issued to us were somewhat better than those of Andersonville. I never heard that any of the other commandants went this far. which was boiled and reboiled. On several occasions fresh beef was dealt out to us. as we would have done any other work to better our condition. every vestige of meat was gnawed and scraped from the surface and then the bone was charred until it 298 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . that he plundered the boys so effectually on entering the prison as to leave them little of the wherewithal to bribe anybody. I do not remember that any one was shot during our six weeks' stay at Millen—a circumstance simply remarkable. The last comers found all the material for tents and all the fuel used up." This understanding was observed to the letter on both sides.) This is my son. I thought it very wrong at the time.

gutenberg. A number had been allowed to go with the sailors on the Special Naval Exchange from Savannah. On the way to Charleston a fight had taken place between them and the real sailors. Nature indicated fresh beef as the best medium to repair the great damage already done. and their relations to the Rebels were such that they were all given a chance to go with the first squads. when it was eaten. who was in such high favor with the Rebels that he was given the place of driving the ration wagon that came in the North Side at Andersonville —was killed. IN WHICH THE RAIDERS ARE DEFEATED—HOLDING AN ELECTION.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and our longing for it became beyond description. during which one of their number—a curly-headed Irishman named Dailey. CHAPTER LX THE RAIDERS REAPPEAR ON THE SCENE—THE ATTEMPT TO ASSASSINATE THOSE WHO WERE CONCERNED IN THE EXECUTION—A COUPLE OF LIVELY FIGHTS.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Our old antagonists—the Raiders—were present in strong force in Millen. and thrown under the wheels of the moving train. in the place of sailors and marines who had died. they had imagined the departure from Andersonville was for exchange. which 299 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Our exhausted bodies were perishing for lack of proper sustenance.htm crumbled. No one who has not experienced it can imagine the inordinate hunger for animal food of those who had eaten little else than corn bread for so long. Like ourselves.

Payne kept close to his crowd after that. Pete Donnelly. and fell upon him. The fight began after the usual amount of bad talk on both sides. in the course of it. His crowd rushed in to finish our man by clubbing him over the head. shouting: "Turn out! turn out. as their first victim. threw Payne heavily. who knew Payee. and in broad daylight. and the demonstration that he was thoroughly aroused. went up to his tent and one of them called to him: "Sergeant. arrested Dick Allen. came in. to kill Payne. and after a rattling exchange of blows all around. As he did so their heavy clubs crashed down upon his head.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and several other ringleaders. intending. of my company.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. as they had reason to expect. I want to see you. who was universally acknowledged to be the best man physically among the whole thirty-four thousand in Andersonville. Corporal Carrigan was the gigantic prize fighter. A shallow tin vessel containing water was placed under their faces to furnish them drink. both of our battalion. but we determined to report the matter to the Rebel Commandant. succeeded in getting Payne away. and the ropes around the necks of the condemned. The reader will remember Payne as one of the two Corporals who pulled the trigger to the scaffold at the time of the execution. and try conclusions with them. came crawling out on his hands and knees. I must ask the reader to again recall the fact that Sergeant Goody was one of the six hangmen who put the meal-sacks over the heads. which he thought he could reach. A few days after this Sergeant Goody and Corporal Ned Carrigan. Coming to the Creek. was enough for the Raider crew. and end the fight by cracking Donnelly's head with it. took them out and put them in the stocks in such a manner that they were compelled to lie upon their stomachs. and still Payne was ahead. and were checked. from whom we had reason to believe we could expect assistance. After things began to settle into shape at Millen. and was yet in fair condition. The sight of Ned. He sent in a squad of guards. and they abandoned the field hastily. felt reasonably confident of his ability to handle even so redoubtable a pugilist as Donnelly. The Raiders came up one day with their best man—Pete Donnelly—and provoked a fight. The Raider crowd. supposing it was one of us. hotly pursued by them. armed with a terrible looking club. and Dick Allen. One of our battalion boys. and the Raiders were much emboldened. Donnelly took instant advantage of the movement to get it. they seemed to believe that they were in such ascendancy as to numbers and organization that they could put into execution their schemes of vengeance against those of us who had been active participants in the execution of their confederates at Andersonville.htm passed over him. though they talked very savagely. and we were pleased to see our man slowly get the better of the New York plug-ugly. Ned Carrigan. come out. but his pursuers could not. The Raiders knew that Goody had come in before we of his own battalion did. had run to the side of Goody. but before we could reach them. he leaped it in his excitement. They resolved to kill him then and there. for God's sake! the Raiders are killing Goody!" We snatched up our clubs and started after the Raiders. who also comprehended what the trouble was. The issue of the fight seemed rather against us. He had secured in some way a shelter tent. After some little preliminaries they settled upon Corporal "Wat" Payne. and was inside of it fixing it up. We. but in an evil moment he spied a pine knot at his feet. headed by Pete Donnelly. He succeeded in rising to his feet. We sailed in to prevent this. 300 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . however.gutenberg. ran over to us." Goody. We did not feel ourselves strong enough to follow them on to their own dung hill. He was neither killed nor stunned. Payne was a very good man physically. and we gathered together a little squad of our friends to see fair play. We were right. the Raiders —with their accustomed prudence when real fighting was involved—did not attempt to molest him farther. and breaking through the crowd of assassins. who saw and comprehended the whole affair. After several sharp rounds they closed. He dashed down the side of the hill. and as we had shown such an entire willingness to stand by him.

but now. as far as I was concerned. one might say ornamental simply. and pantaloons as well ventilated as a paling fence might do very well for the broiling sun at Andersonville and Savannah. it became unpleasantly evident that as garments their office was purely perfunctory. me to my environment.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and when released. I used to imagine with what zeal they would send us over. if he wanted to be very sarcastic. They were worn solely to afford convenient quarters for multitudes of lice.gutenberg. entering the artillery company that manned the guns in the fort covering the prison. a round of shell or grape if they could get anything like an excuse. joined the Rebel Army. suddenly transplanted to more northern latitudes. a shirt like a fishing net.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and so unless exchange or death came speedily. and in deference to the prejudice which has existed since the Fall of Man against our mingling with our fellow creatures in the attire provided us by Nature. The depression in the temperature made me very sensible of the deficiencies in my wardrobe. Had I read Darwin then I should have expected that my long exposure to the weather would start a fine suit of fur. This gave us good riddance—of our dangerous enemies. with the thermometer nightly dipping a little nearer the frost line. Unshod feet.htm They staid there a day and night. in the effort of Nature to adapt. But no more indications of this appeared than if I had been a hairless dog of Mexico. I still retained an almost unconquerable prejudice against stripping the dead to secure clothes. and we had little further trouble with any of them. I was in a bad fix. Providence did not seem to be in the tempering-the-wind-to-theshorn-lamb business. 301 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

where it had dropped out of some fellow's bundle. We examined the garment with as much interest as ever a belle bestowed on a new dress from Worth's. I managed to subdue my aversion so far as to take a good shoe which a one-legged dead man had no farther use 302 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and I donned the garment as a shirt and coat and vest. The best suit I ever put on never gave me a hundredth part the satisfaction that this did. doubtless for a few sticks of wood. for that matter. Andrews was in sore need of clothes himself.htm One morning about day break. came slipping back in a state of gleeful excitement. but the owner had cut the buttons off to trade to the guard. It was neither. Shortly after. too. We did not make any extra exertion to find the owner. which he had found in the main street. or a spoonful of salt. but my necessities were so much greater that the generous fellow thought of my wants first. Andrews. At first I thought he either had found a tunnel or had heard some good news about exchange. He opened his jacket and handed me an infantry man's blouse. It was in fair preservation. We supplied the place of these with little wooden pins. who had started to go to another part of the camp.

. vote to whip the Rebels. CHAPTER LXI THE REBELS FORMALLY PROPOSE TO US TO DESERT TO THEM—CONTUMELIOUS TREATMENT OF THE PROPOSITION—THEIR RAGE—AN EXCITING TIME—AN OUTBREAK THREATENED—DIFFICULTIES ATTENDING DESERTION TO THE REBELS. strutted in with the peculiar "Ef-yer-don't-b'lieve—I'm-a-butcher-jest-smell-o'-mebutes" swagger characteristic of the class.. Instead. Of course this did not indicate that there was any such a preponderance of Republicans among us.. . They had come in to see us all voting for McClellan. The same day a similar election was held in Florence. with like result.. and a crowd of tightbooted. and get your Unconditional-Union-Abraham-Lincoln -tickets!" "Here's your straight-haired prosecution-of-the-war ticket. and turning around they strutted out. little as they might have liked Lincoln.. They gave orders that we might. The latter got very few votes outside the Raider crowd. and whose terms of service had expired. The Rebels thought that this might perhaps be used to advantage as political capital for their friends in the North..." "Vote the Lincoln ticket.. and a little later a comrade gave me for the other foot a boot bottom from which he had cut the top to make a bucket. The Rebels were naturally very much interested in the result. They sent in some ballot boxes. who were perpetually hanging around the gate to get a chance to insinuate themselves into the favor of the Rebel officers. I never heard that the Rebels sent the result North.. persuaded them that we were all so bitterly hostile to our Government for not exchanging us that if we were allowed to vote we would cast an overwhelming majority in favor of McClellan.. everywhere.. some little time after the occurrences narrated in the last chapter. orders came in to make out rolls of all those who were born outside of the United States. About noon of that day Captain Bowes. The Rebel officers did not find the scene what their fancy painted it. as they believed that the election of McClellan meant compromise and cessation of hostilities. and not half that many hundred for McClellan.. broad-hatted Rebel officers.htm for. if we chose.gutenberg. would have voted for him a hundred times rather than do anything to please the Rebels.. One day in November.. The toadying Raiders.. they found the polls surrounded with ticket pedlers shouting: "Walk right up here now. while the re-election of Lincoln meant prosecution of the War to the bitter end. and make peace with them when they've laid down their arms.... and we elected Judges of the Election. and concluded that some partial 303 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The day of the Presidential election of 1864 approached.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h..ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www....." etc. When the votes came to be counted out there were over seven thousand for Lincoln. It meant simply that the Democratic boys. We held a little council among ourselves as to the meaning of this.." "Don't vote a McClellan ticket and gratify Rebels. hold an election on the same day of the Presidential election...

by hundreds and thousands. and as nearly every man in camp was included. about—" Said we: "First Hundred. at the conclusion of the War receive a land warrant for a nice farm. you will receive the same rewards as the rest of its soldiers. We awaited his remarks with the greatest impatience. The other rolls were made out in the same way. and managed to give every man a foreign nativity. you can no longer have any doubt that your Government has cruelly abandoned you.htm exchange had been agreed on. evidently waiting to make us a speech. Ireland. and each man in the hundreds turned on his heel. and. and as having served out our terms.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The next day after sending out the rolls. with loaded guns and fixed bayonets. but He did not begin until the last division had marched out and came to a parade rest close to the stump. and I do not suppose that they showed five hundred native Americans in the Stockade. given a good bounty. forward! MARCH!" and we strode back into the Stockade. The Sergeant of our division—a man with a stentorian voice sprang out and shouted: "Attention. about—" etc. leaving the orator still standing on the stump. promptly. Then our leader commanded— "First Division. you served it faithfully during the term you enlisted for. We are anxious to get our men back. it throws you aside to starve and die. and the Rebels were going to send back the class of boys whom they thought would be of least value to the Government. I made out the roll of my hundred. Scotland France and Germany. about—" "Fourth Hundred. The Rebels were furious at this curt way of replying. etc. It now offers you an opportunity to join its service. It was the same old story: "Prisoners. and now. but it refuses to meet us on any reasonable grounds. about—" "Third Hundred. and refuses all our offers of exchange. when it is through with you. It will do this in a few months. I did not wonder that the Rebels believed the battles for the Union were fought by foreign mercenaries. We did so. it makes no efforts to release you. Acting on this conclusion the great majority of us enrolled ourselves as foreigners. and massed around a stump on which stood a Rebel officer.. We were then marched outside. Shouted he: "First Division. You will be taken out of here. and have made every effort to do so. We had scarcely reached our quarters when they came in with several companies. and the balance were distributed through Canada and the West Indies. we fell in as for other purposes. If you"— But we had heard enough. "You've already endured much more than it could expect of you. there came an order that all those whose names appeared thereon should fall in. be well clothed and fed. After finishing the roll and sending it out.gutenberg. and if you serve it faithfully to the end. Said he:— "FACE!!" Ten Sergeants repeated "Face!" one after the other. about—" "Second Hundred. and General Halleck has said that you were nothing but a set of blackberry pickers and coffee boilers anyhow. first Division!" We Sergeants of hundreds repeated the command down the line. You also can have no doubt that the Southern Confederacy is certain to succeed in securing its independence. They drove us out of our 304 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Those whose names would bear it were assigned to England. followed immediately by all the other divisions.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Your Secretary of War has said that the Government can get along very well without you.

htm tents and huts. After this no restriction was put upon any one who desired to go outside and take the oath. Captain Bowes. the best way was to let him go and get rid of him. The Rebel officers hastily retreated behind the line of guards. and to break down and injure our huts. The gunners. pay no attention to the lies they have told you to-day. They succeeded in catching several —snatching some of then back even after they had told the guard their wishes in a tone so loud that all near could hear distinctly. and that they would try to inform the Rebels of their desires by going to the gate during the night and speaking to the Officer-of-the-Guard. We became fearfully. a member of the Sixty-First Ohio—a rough. A Rebel Captain came running up. but brim full of patriotism and manly common sense. We were burning with the bitterest indignation. After this was kept up for several nights different ideas began I to prevail. slender man named Lloyd.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. however." he said.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. as if in obedience to the suggestion. divined the trouble at the outset. A glance down the line showed me an array of desperate. sullen-faced men. the guards marched out. uneducated fellow. and would be of none to the Rebels. jumped up on a stump and poured out his soul in rude but fiery eloquence: "Comrades. whose faces blanched. and force our way through the gate The shouts were taken up by others. who was leaning on his gun. gazing curiously at Lloyd: "What in —— are you standing gaping there for? Why don't you shoot the —— —— Yankee son—— — . It was believed that we had some among us who would like to avail themselves of the offer of the Rebels. said to the guard. and these were wholly confined to the Raider crowd. had. The long roll was summoning the infantry regiments back into line.——-?" and snatching the gun away from him. wrought up. "do not let the blowing of these Rebel whelps discourage you. costing us days of patient labor. cocked and leveled it at Lloyd. But very few did so. they destroyed in pure wantonness. Some of the more excitable shouted out to charge on the line of guards. When this was done. and some of the cooler-headed among us pointed these facts out and succeeded in getting the line to dissolve again into groups of muttering. but the boys near jerked the speaker down from the stump and saved his life. it has not deserted us. but they leveled the muskets and prepared to receive us. flexible strip of pine wielded by very willing hands. but in reality to steal our blankets. many of which. who was overlooking the prison from an elevation outside. snatch they guns away from them. He was of no benefit to the Government. such as one sees who looks a men when they are summoning up all their resolution for some deed of great peril. who had shotted the pieces and trained them upon us when we came out to listen t the speech. we instinctively formed in line-of-battle facing the guards. I tell you that as sure as there is a God who reigns and judges in Israel. into one corner. had again covered us with them. 305 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and. you know well that our Government is too honorable and just to desert any one who serves it. and whatever else they could find that they wanted. an was preparing to meet it. tensely drawn faces. under the pretense of hunting axes and spades. And the glorious old Stars and Stripes—" Here we began cheering tremendously. It was felt that if a man wanted to join the Rebels. before the Spring breezes stir the tops of these blasted old pines their Confederacy and all the lousy graybacks who support it will be so deep in hell that nothing but a search warrant from the throne of God Almighty can ever find it again. however.gutenberg. A tall. A squad armed themselves with clubs and laid in wait for these. and were ready to sweep the prison with grape and canister at the instant of command. The Officerof-the-Guard rushed in two or three times in a vain attempt to save the would be deserter from the cruel hands that clutched him and bore him away to where he had a lesson in loyalty impressed upon the fleshiest part of his person by a long. by a cautious indirect maneuver. so as not to turn their backs to us. their hell-born Confederacy is not going to succeed.

at the request of the author. I sought and obtained from Wirz a parole for myself and the six brave men who assisted as executioners of those desperados. 1864. KEY—HIS ADVENTURES SUBSEQUENT TO THE EXECUTIONS —HE GOES OUTSIDE AT ANDERSONVILLE ON PAROLE—LABORS IN THE COOK-HOUSE —ATTEMPTS TO ESCAPE—IS RECAPTURED AND TAKEN TO MACON—ESCAPES FROM THERE.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. SERGEANT LEROY L. be assassinated if we remained in the Stockade. Leroy L. when you would not be on hand to give us assistance. by the urgent request of my many friends (of whom you were one). and who presided at the execution of the six condemned men on the 11th of July. who organized and led the Regulators at Andersonville in their successful conflict with and defeat of the Raiders.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg. and thus lose our lives for rendering 306 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry. after what had been done. at a time possibly. BUT IS COMPELLED TO RETURN—IS FINALLY EXCHANGED AT SAVANNAH. and that we might be overpowered. the following story of his prison career subsequent to that event: On the 12th day of July. the heroic Sergeant of Company M. by the friends of the Raiders we had hanged.htm CHAPTER LXII. furnishes. It seemed that you were all fearful that we might. Key. the day after the hanging of the six Raiders. perhaps.

but. We could not possibly have been more than a mile. to be taken to another prison. Unfortunately. hoping thus to experience as little misery as possible. however. The hounds. and almost the Sergeant's voice calling the roll. as the sequel will prove. until the eighth day of September. I found four other boys who were also planning an escape. and the other boys either went to work there. that at any time that my squad (meaning the survivors of my comrades. anticipating. but this only had the effect of making him mad. from the Stockade. They finally appeared so close that I advised the boys to climb a tree or sapling in order to keep the dogs from biting them. I took a position in the cook-house. in the way of preparing their food. when we could plainly hear the reveille. and that in the morning we should be compelled to cheat the blood-hounds. stating that he was compelled to have men at the cookhouse to cook for those in the Stockade until they were all gone or exchanged. or at the hospital or grave-yard as occasion required. we thought we had come not less than twelve or fifteen miles. Our anxiety and mortification were doubled when at the usual hour—as we supposed—we heard the well-known and long-familiar sound of the hunter's horn. being my intimate mess-mates while in the Stockade. if you remember. Only a short time. and to be ready to surrender when the hunters came up. I worked here. Our plans were well laid and well executed. Plainer and plainer came the sound of the hunter's voice urging them forward. nearer and nearer still. calling his hounds to their accustomed task of making the circuit of the Stockade. as nearly as we could judge. as we afterwards discovered. though it had different results. either to be exchanged or to go to another prison. and in this particular my own experience in the endeavor to escape from Andersonville is not entirely dissimilar from yours. or a mile-and-a-half at the farthest. We heard them start. I reminded him of the condition in my parole. at least. This was agreed to. Imagine our surprise and mortification.htm the help we did in getting rid of the worst pestilence we had to contend with. considering that the parole had first been broken by the man that granted it.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. I cannot now recall to memory the name of one of them or remember to what commands they belonged. while the answers of "Here!" were perfectly distinct. till we imagined that we could see the undergrowth in the forest shaking by coming in contact with their bodies. however.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and found ourselves in the densest pine forest I ever saw. and in the terrible excitement we wondered if it could be possible for Providence to so arrange it that the dogs 307 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and did the best I could for the many starving wretches inside. for ere long—it could not have been more than an hour—we could plainly see that they were drawing nearer and nearer. I then and there made up my mind to attempt my escape. between Wirz and myself. then. On inquiry after my return to the cook-house. for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not any "Yankee" had had the audacity to attempt an escape. I knew that our greatest risk was run in eluding the guards. From our fatigue and bruises. Among the crowd so removed was my squad. a portion of them. in which it was my habit to chronicle what went on around me daily. as many of us thought. Our hearts were in our throats. were we allowed this pleasant reflection. and he threatened me with the stocks if I did not go back and resume work. the time of our starting. not without many hairbreadth escapes. and so written in my parole which I carried until it absolutely wore out. or. on came the hounds. The first we managed to do very well.gutenberg. On. and who were only too glad to get me to join them and take charge of the affair. but the sounds growing fainter and fainter gave us a little hope that our trail had been missed. and the long hours that had elapsed since 8 o'clock. no doubt. I very much regret that in the attempt I lost my penciled memorandum. quite a train load of men were removed. for the purpose of exchange. gave forth glad barks of joy at being thus called forth to duty. due north all night until daylight. but we did succeed in getting through both lines of guards. On obtaining my parole I was very careful to have it so arranged and mutually understood. and where I had the names of my brave comrades who made the effort to escape with me. which he refused. that I should be allowed to go with them. and asked permission to go with them. and not dreaming but that we were caught. We traveled. this usual daily work. at which time. As soon as I found this to be the case I waited on Wirz at his office. as was usual. from about the railroad depot (as we imagined). with whom I was originally captured) was sent away from Andersonville.

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. for I firmly believe that only through some mighty invisible power were we at that time delivered from untold tortures. We tried every way to stop him. brought to our aching hearts. and on the morning of the tenth day. could do nothing else but go into the woods. and two of them went off. when we happened to come upon a sweet potato patch. In a very few minutes our suspense was over. and lived on them raw during that day and the next night.. go to sleep and trust to luck. we came to a small pond at which there was a negro boy watering two mules before hitching them to a cane mill. It was very fortunate for us that before our escape from Andersonville we were detailed at the cook-house. they took us to a very quiet retreat in the woods. for almost instantly upon coming into sight. The first question asked us was: "Who are you. as the humor of Wirz might have dictated at the time—either of which would have been almost certain death.gutenberg. that we were the "patrols. while I came near losing my hold on the tree in which I was hidden. He had the start of us. or since. but had no remedy. Each one of us had our haversacks full of such small delicacies as it was possible for us to get when we started. "We are gone up. and being frightened put whip to the animals and ran off. who art in Heaven. they were called back and taken to camp. which not only gave us a good supper. who at first sight of us showed signs of running. and left us. but it was no use. He saw us at the same time we did him. By chance I happened to look around at my nearest neighbor in distress. They then guided us on our way for several miles. The next thing I remembered was being punched in the ribs by my comrade nearest to me. have suffered for days or perhaps weeks in the stocks or chain gang. and I. these consisting of corn bread and fat bacon—nothing less. a little before daylight. We continued to travel in this way for nine long weary nights. and the first thoughts that came to my mind as I landed on terra firma." This was spoken in so mild a tone as to lead me to believe that we might possibly be in the hands 308 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and passed us. We were very fearful of the consequences of this mishap. had taken possession of me. In a very short time they returned laden with well cooked provisions. we might have been torn and mutilated by the dogs. Yet we managed to subsist comfortably until our fourth day out. however. were the first words that escaped my lips." After explaining to them who we were and our condition. thinking. having previously agreed to travel at night and sleep in the day time. stating that they would soon be back. taken back to Andersonville. as we were going into the woods to hide as usual. became despondent. in order to be prepared for the night's march. Had we been found. we suddenly came across three negro men. in citizens' dress. and aroused with the remark. Their voices became fainter and fainter." On opening my eyes. and we could even see one of them. until finally we could hear them no longer. and felt like shouting to the dogs myself. we descended to the ground to get what rest we could. and being very tired. God only knows. the potatos in which had not been dug. The dogs came within not less than three hundred yards of us. We were ordered to get up. that I almost lost sight of our danger. My excitement was so great. but supplied us for the next day with all that we wanted. by some strange fancy. too. Just at evening. the hounds struck off on a different trail. but until that time not one of us left our position in the trees. When we were satisfied that we were safe for the present. Never before. each of whom had a shot gun ready for use. His expression was sufficient to quell any enthusiasm I might have had. for by this means we were enabled to bring away enough food to live for several days without the necessity of theft. This last thought. as they told us afterward. it then being cane grinding time in Georgia." etc. About noon.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.htm would pass us. In a very short space of time we were all well supplied with this article. I saw four men. in going through a field. had I experienced such a profound reverence for Almighty God. God in Heaven can only imagine what great joy was then. Why I believed it. and I here frankly acknowledge that I believed it would happen. after having refused compensation for what they had done. nothing more. indeed. "Our Father. or.

Our only hope now was that we would not be returned to Andersonville. to await further orders from the Military Commander of the District. enjoying our ludicrous attitudes and manners. I thought then that possibly I had been a little indiscreet in exposing our valuables. It was placed on the floor.htm of gentlemen. to my great surprise. and some kind-hearted lady or ladies (I only wish I knew their names. where we were placed in a prison somewhat similar to Andersonville. allowing us to sit at the table in a beautiful dining-room. and in the charge of Confederate soldiers. where we remained for two days and nights —fearing.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. about one hundred dollars in greenbacks. filled our haversacks with good. while many men and boys looked on. It was some time before any one answered. etc. by the mob on the streets. for we have an idea who you are. and should it prove that we are correct. around which we soon gathered.'" This proposition.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but of nothing like its pretensions to security. fork or spoon upon the dish. however. but it was a fact. but took us to a well-furnished and well-supplied farm house close by. they would be shipped to Andersonville. a small town. was refused. What 309 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . the county seat of Hamilton County. we were startled by these words. so that I could chronicle them with honor here) taking compassion upon our forlorn condition. and no table to set it upon. Before their return. all of which we now offer you.. and possibly. I took a hasty inventory of what valuables we had on hand. with a lady at the head.gutenberg. From Columbus we were sent by rail to Macon. and placed in jail. with grateful hearts. Before I had time to collect my thoughts. and again placed in jail. Soon. we have here four silver watches and several hundred dollars in Confederate money and greenbacks. we "got away" with it all. we never learned. where we were from. I told the boys to be sure not to refuse any request I should make. in an incredibly short space of time. as well as those of the gentlemen who had us first in charge. From here we were taken to Columbus. that there was not a knife. they returned and informed us that they would be compelled to take us to the County Jail. as we heard frequent threats of that nature." "'Who do you think we are?' I inquired. and who not only refused the bribe. We could easily see that we were gradually getting into hot water again. Whether it was done intentionally or not. seemed not to have deserted us in this trouble. and when they numbered two or three hundred. that the jail would be burned over our heads. Ga. if not indeed in those of friends. Georgia. we taking our own chances in the future. sent us a splendid dinner on a very large china platter. always.' was the reply. gave us an excellent breakfast. or some other place of greater dimensions and strength. But the same kind Providence that had heretofore watched over us. At this they withdrew a short distance from us for consultation. we had better at once own the truth. if possible. I found in the crowd four silver watches. for we had. ere many days. about three hundred dollars in Confederate money. We were then put into a wagon and taken to Hamilton. seemed to appeal to me for a reply to get them out of their present dilemma. The boys. I soon learned that it was only used as a kind of reception place for the prisoners who were captured in small squads. how ever. we would have to resume our old habits in prison. fallen into the hands of gentlemen. indeed." I jumped at the conclusion instantly that in order to save our lives. and allowed us to keep our property. coming from the same man that had asked the original question: "You had better not hesitate. leaving us for the time in terrible suspense as to what our fate might be. with an admonition to be careful how we showed it again." "'Horse thieves and moss-backs. In a very few words I told them who we were. whose zeal for the Lost Cause was greater than that for obtaining worldly wealth. wholesome food. and that. and. While they were talking together. One of the days we were confined at this place was Sunday. Said I: "'Gentlemen. how long we had been on the road. it will be the worse for you. by their looks and the expression of their countenances. if you will but allow us to proceed on our journey. knowing well that if we got back into the clutches of Wirz our chances for life would be slim indeed. but in this I was mistaken.

Among these officers were several of my acquaintance. there were shipped to Andersonville from this prison between two and three hundred men. there was a space of not more than thirty feet. I got out from under my dirty blanket. that I managed to make it serve me. to my great astonishment. was standing at the back door. on the platform. one being Lieut. We were marched out and around to the gate of the prison. after we got to Macon. who ever had charge of me while a prisoner of war after we were taken out of the hands of our original captors at Jonesville. stating that all who could stand it to be removed on stretchers must go. but I think I am). to the depot. so the prisoners were sent off in much smaller squads than formerly. With them were about forty more than the cartel called for. It was while enjoying this parole that I got more familiarly acquainted with Captain Hurtell. to wait on and take care of this office. through whose influence I was allowed to go outside with them on parole. and I started down along the walls of the Stockade alone. I stepped behind the gate office (a small frame building with only one room). We were then ordered to stand at one side with no guard over us but the officer who had brought us from the Hospital. were three guards. and as luck (or Providence) would have it. so that I was enabled to play another "dodge" upon the Rebel officers. I here assert. Meanwhile. but having had a sufficient experience of the hospitality of that hotel. but the guard in charge of that squad refused to let him do so. he accepted the trust. I was called on to go with the crowd. sufficiently clear the top to allow them to look inside with ease. I concluded to play "old soldier. Now. at the same time telling him in a whisper to hide them away for me until he heard from me again. and to show what a risk I was running at the time. had not abated in the least for several hours. The very next day after our arrival. Va. Huntly of our regiment (I am not quite sure that I am right in the name of this officer. An officer came early in the morning to muster us into ranks preparatory for removal. they never thought of dispatching less than two or three hundred together. On the outside of this Stockade was a platform.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. as I knew. and who had taken quite a liking for me. The officer in charge of us—we numbering possibly about ten—undertook to place us at the head of the column coming out. It so happened. and I would be forced back to my old haunts. with assistance. I do not know. I winked at him and threw him my blanket and the cup. I acknowledge that I began to get very uneasy. the negro man whose duty it was. however. of course. I was shaking with a chill. Taking this in at a glance.htm became of the other boys who were with me. In this way I escaped being sent off four different times. that he was the only gentleman and the only officer that had the least humane feeling in his breast. My teeth were actually chattering at the time. which. whereas. In order to make this more plain. quite a large number of commissioned officers had been sent up from Charleston to be exchanged at Rough and Ready. or Hurtrell. fully as high as the Stockade fence that was parallel with it. fearful that the "old soldier" dodge would not be much longer successful. built for the guards to walk on.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. I was passed.gutenberg. the prisoners were being marched from the Stockade. The next day the orders for removal were more stringent than had yet been issued. At my present place of confinement the fear of our recapture had also taken possession of the Rebel authorities. It now became very evident that the Rebels were moving the prisoners from Andersonville and elsewhere. for I lost sight of them there. which was not more than six feet from me. I had traveled about fifty 310 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . stood up and found I was able to walk. it so happened that just as we neared the gate of the prison. I fell in with the rest. I will state that between the Stockade and a brick wall. for I had learned how to make them do so. throughout its entire length on that side. and they were left at Macon for ten days or two weeks. frequently not more than ten or fifteen in a gang. so as soon as I learned how matters were. and on this side. I concluded that now was my chance to make my second attempt to escape. when the Sergeant would come around to find out who were able to walk." so I became too sick to travel. before. With a grin and a nod. I concluded at once that I was gone. so as to place them beyond the reach of Sherman and Stoneman. by getting detailed in the prison hospital as nurse. and to his honor. At first. according to my representation. who was in command of the prison at Macon.

ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. from the gate office.htm feet only. of course. you d—-d Yank?" said the guard. "Where are you going. when I heard the command to "Halt!" I did so.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg. 311 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .

how it was that I had played 'old soldier'" etc. This is my reason for running away yesterday. Therefore. when I felt confident that if I did not do so I would be returned under Wirz's command. sir. parole." but the other I have forgotten. I learned that my fears of the morning had not been groundless. sir." "I then explained to him freely my escape from Andersonville. There was no trouble in returning. when I would present myself at Captain H. yes." pointing to a small cabin just beyond the Stockade." "Yes. and what is your name?" I told him. I came back of my own accord. that are over there in the wash. I was soon convinced. it would be the worse for her. I stepped into the door as soon as I saw that he was not occupied and saluted him "a la militaire." The other guards heard this conversation and thinking it all right I was allowed to pass without further trouble. knowing I could not travel." The Captain's attention was here called to some other matters in hand. and have been treated very badly in all of them. and asked her to secrete me in the house until night. "Captain. that it would not be right for me to stay there." "Were you re-captured and brought back?" "No. as long as I am a prisoner of war. "Why didn't you answer to your name when it was called at the gate yesterday." said I. I went to the cabin in question—for I saw the last guard on the line watching me. and give myself up the next morning. Captain." Where were you?" "I ran away down into the swamp. "you look like a Yank." "Well. sir?" "I never heard anyone call my name.gutenberg. not wishing to entail misery upon another." "Who are you?" he asked. I thanked her very kindly and begged to be allowed to stay in the cabin till morning. I begged her to give me something to eat. This she allowed me to do. and during the time had a very severe chill and afterwards a burning fever. succeeded in getting well without detection. I resolved to return to the cabin and spend the night." "What do you mean by this evasion?" "I am not trying to evade.'s office and suffer the consequences. as well as from my own knowledge of how things were managed in the Confederacy. The truth is." said he. sir. I have been in many prisons since my capture. I wish to stay with you. or you will get left. "Now. She was white and her given name was "Sallie. "I am called by that name since I was captured in the Federal Army. where I happened to know that the officers had their washing done. for if the house was searched and I found in it. for having the audacity to attempt an escape from him. however. until I came here. About daylight I strolled over near the office and looked around there until I saw the Captain take his seat at his desk. what are you doing here. or under your command. and. I made a clear statement to the woman in charge of it about how I had made my escape. I would have killed myself rather than submit to the untold tortures which he would have put me to." "Well. hurry up. and going to the swamp near by. and boldly entered.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and my subsequent re-capture. I shall ever feel grateful to this woman for her protection. so that when night came. for the guards had actually searched the house for me. and I was sent back into the 312 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . from what she told me.htm "Going after my clothes. "you are one of the Yank's that's been on. "Oh. I lay there all day. The woman told them that I had got my clothes and left the house shortly after my entrance (which was the truth except the part about the clothes). or I might not have been here now. are you?" "Yes." said I. if I had been so returned.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

chill. until his reason fled. then lying in the harbor. On the 23d day of November. I mean those of us that had recently come from Macon. and by hopelessness as to any improvement of condition. When we arrived at the depot. The officer in charge of us wanted to know what train to put us on. I came near fainting when this was told to us. for I had really formed a liking for the man. as they told us. and did.gutenberg. Whether we were able or not.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and with minds vivacious and hopeful. that I could hardly hold my head up. The other poor fellows. trains waiting orders to start. which the train officer refused. to my great sorrow. near by. for there were two. we were taken to the Florida depot. and a commander of prisoners. PENNY. but we were much more miserable than under the sweltering heat of Andersonville. the order was imperative. we were called upon to sign a parole preparatory to being sent down the river on the flat-boat to our exchange ships. I was sick at the time. and the death-agony cramped his heart to stillness. receiving the benumbing drench of the sullen skies without a groan or a motion. but before giving the order he demanded a receipt for us. to our great relief. by coarse. and arrived in Savannah sometime in the afternoon of the 21st day of November. so well described in one of your articles on Andersonville. He was told to march us on to a certain flat car. rasping air. Our squad was placed in some barracks and confined there until the next day. The great. like the cruel drops that fell from the basin of the inquisitors upon the firmlyfastened head of their victim. Long may she wave.htm Stockade with a command very pleasantly given. to stand these day-and-night-long solid drenchings. so sick in fact. with bodies well-nourished and well clothed. if it was anything to compare to-what I had already suffered. CHAPTER LXIII. No one can imagine how fatal it was to boys whose vitality was sapped by long months in Andersonville. and incessantly. 313 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . who had already been loaded on the trains. by groveling on the bare earth. for I was confident that I could not survive another siege of prison life. which proved to be a most fortunate circumstance. The next day we all had to leave Macon. Each seemed to beat through our emaciated frames against the very marrow of our bones. dismally. and many of them never lived to return. This was the last chance I ever had to talk to Captain Hurtrell. As November wore away long-continued. we were quite comfortable. and were once more safely housed under that great. We traveled over the same road. The lagging. vigorous men. and looked out over acres of wretches lying dumbly on the sodden sand. and a few others. notwithstanding the fact that he was a Rebel. leaden hours were inexpressibly dreary. We were accordingly taken back to our quarters. It was enough to kill healthy. Soon after. if not three. DREARY WEATHER—THE COLD RAINS DISTRESS ALL AND KILL HUNDREDS —EXCHANGE OF TEN THOUSAND SICK—CAPTAIN BOWES TURNS A PRETTY. as our hut protected us from the actual beating of the rain upon our bodies. and to be battering its way remorselessly into the citadel of life. meager. When I say we. to be shipped to some prison in those dismal swamps. which I very gratefully promised to do. Compared with many others. Great was my joy when I learned that we were on the way to Savannah and not to Andersonville. were taken away to Florida. as we lay almost naked upon our bed of pine leaves. glorious and beautiful Star Spangled Banner. searching rains desolated our days and nights. active and resolute. changeless food. that I should stay there until ordered out.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. 1864. shivering in the raw. On the 24th those of us who had been paroled were taken on board our ships. who had also been fortunate in reaching Savannah in small squads. BUT NOT VERY HONEST. cold drops pelted down slowly. it was raining.

gutenberg. fifty. and received it again when the exchange was renewed. The Rebel Surgeons took praiseworthy care that our Government should profit as little as possible by this. borrowed a knife from a comrade. and more. were they willing to give for their lives. weary of the long struggle. succumbed to this new hardship. "All right. A very large portion of those sent through died on the way to our lines. dysentery and gangrene. cut the buttons off. that you could buy the soul of a mean man in our crowd for a pint of corn meal. There was still considerable money in the hands of a few prisoners. The boy stepped back." He dealt quite fairly. It used to be a proverbial comment upon the small treasons that were of daily occurrence on both sides. too. The Rebel Surgeon who was examining the sick for exchange saw the buttons and admired them very much. Had it been possible to buy our way out for five cents each Andrews and I would have had to stay 314 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . but he may have gone cheaper. ten. in Andersonville. O. for several times when the exchange was interrupted. twenty. and of hoping against hope. I know not. Soon we heard that one hundred and fifty dollars each had been sufficient to buy some men out. If he once reached our receiving officers it was all that was necessary.htm Fever. bright-trimmed buttons of a staff officer. I know nothing of the truth of this. there would be room for an enormous profit. As many as would form a splendid regiment—as many as constitute the first born of a populous City—more than three times as many as were slain outright on our side in the bloody battle of Franklin." said he as his itching palm closed over the coveted ornaments. every man whose lease of life was not likely to extend much beyond his reaching the parole boat. wore a blue vest. The sending of the sick through gave our commandant—Captain Bowes—a fine opportunity to fill his pockets. Hundreds. their price falls as rapidly as that of a piece of tainted meat in hot weather. laid themselves down and yielded to their fate. Whether the upright Bowes drew the line at the latter figure. one man in every ten died. Bowes sent the money back to those who had paid him. They were simply blotted out of existence. rheumatism." and pass he did to home and friends. A boy of the Fifth-fourth Ohio. who had accumulated perhaps one thousand dollars each by their shrewd and successful bartering. and sell them at their first price. All this. and at last five dollars. In the first batch that went away were two of the leading sutlers at Andersonville. and refused to sell his honor for less than the ruling rates of a street-walker's virtue. by sending every hopeless case. and handed them to the Doctor. It was generally believed that they gave every cent to Bowes for the privilege of leaving. Captain Bowes's merchandizing in the matter of exchange was as open as the issuing of rations. seventy-five. If one could buy them at the rate they wind up with. he counted to them as much as if he had been a Goliath. whose home was at or near Lima. then one hundred. The country for which they died does not even have a record of their names. In the six weeks that we were at Millen. for whom life's morning closed in the gloomiest shadows. I have always observed that when men or women begin to traffic in themselves. "you can pass. with the gilt. they became as though they had never been. The ghostly pines there sigh over the unnoted graves of seven hundred boys. but I am reasonably certain that they paid him very handsomely. or within a few hours after their transports at being once more under the old Stars and Stripes had moderated. The sick exchange was still going on. and the soul of a Rebel guard for a half dozen brass buttons. by conniving at the passage of well men. throat and lung diseases and despair now came to complete the work begun by scurvy.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. sir..ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. His agent in conducting the bargaining was a Raider—a New York gambler and stool-pigeon—whom we called "Mattie. The cheapest I ever knew a Rebel officer to be bought was some weeks after this at Florence. About the middle of the month the Rebels yielded to the importunities of our Government so far as to agree to exchange ten thousand sick. I have before spoken of the Rebel passion for bright gilt buttons. thirty. It was the lowest quotation that came to my knowledge.

there were so many more who were infinitely worse. had taken such a course as rendered it probable that Millen was one of his objective points. We did grumble savagely. shivering wretches. than take the chances of any longer continuance in prison. would rather give it all up and return to service with their regiments in the field. and were ignorant of his having begun his great raid. and I flatter myself we got up two cases that were apparently bad enough to serve as illustrations for a patent medicine advertisement. was that Sherman. which we did not learn until weeks later. therefore.htm back. to whom I have alluded above. and I would not be astonished to learn that it was ten thousand dollars in green. but they. and we expended our energies in simulating this condition. as they were mostly new men. I would have given it away willingly. But it would not do. A gun was fired from the Fort. and still have a snug amount left. About 3 o'clock in the morning the Rebel Sergeants. since we had not had that much money for months. Rheumatism was our forte. Like almost everybody else we had spent the few dollars we happened to have on entering prison. at Captain Bowes's venality. and see about one quarter of our number march out and away home. It was. The sutlers. the long-roll was beaten in the various camps of the guards.gutenberg. There was no hope left for us but to try to pass the Surgeons as desperately sick. I can only surmise how much Bowes realized out of the prisoners by his venality. during any probable term of imprisonment. as we groped around in the darkness for our pitiful little belongings of rags and cooking utensils. we were at an utter loss to account for the commotion among our keepers. however. that we stood no show in the competitive examination. had accumulated sufficient to supply themselves with all the necessaries and some of the comforts of life. As we had had no news from Sherman since the end of the Atlanta campaign. and huddled together in groups. The morning was one of the most cheerless I ever knew. We could not complain at this—much as we wanted to go ourselves. and all our friends were in an equally bad plight. "All that a man hath he will give for his life. We did not blame the men. in selling out chances to moneyed men. and the regiments answered by getting under arms in haste. and since then we had been entirely penniless. there was a general alarm around the prison. in a week or so. however.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The reason for this. rather than stand in prison another month. 315 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and all had good clothes and blankets." and I think that if I had owned the City of New York in fee simple. Bad as we made our condition appear. came in and ordered us to turn out immediately and get ready to move.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. necessary that we should be hurried away with all possible speed. since there could be no question that these poor fellows deserved the precedence. A cold rain poured relentlessly down upon us half-naked. toward the last of November. who had cut loose from Atlanta and started on his famous March to the Sea. urged on continually by the curses and abuse of the Rebel officers sent in to get us ready to move. CHAPTER LXIV ANOTHER REMOVAL—SHERMAN'S ADVANCE SCARES THE REBELS INTO RUNNING US AWAY FROM MILLEN—WE ARE TAKEN TO SAVANNAH. who called the roll. but I feel sure that it could not have been less than three thousand dollars. since it was not in human nature to resist an opportunity to get away—at any cost-from that accursed place. and forming near the prison gates. I doubt if we would have been given an average of "50" in a report. We had to stand back. since these were invariably those who were best prepared to withstand the hardships of imprisonment. AND THENCE DOWN THE ATLANTIC & GULF ROAD TO BLACKSHEAR One night.

took the bodies to some vacant ground.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and shielded themselves as best they could with blankets and bits of tent cloth. and again our hearts warmed up with hopes of exchange. and heart-sick. but giving no other funeral rites. trembling. The cars were open flats. why should we feel any regret at the passing away of those whose condition would probably be bettered thereby! It was difficult to see where we who still lived were any better off than they who were gone before and now "forever at peace. and were not allowed to approach those of the guards. but a piercing cold wind set in. new tin pans—a rare thing in the Confederacy at that time. We could not mourn. and sunk them out of sight in the sand. But the blanket was full of holes. cold. dead. all were parched brown and sere by the fiery heat of the long Summer. cold rain. Scores of our crowd found this the culmination of their misery. The hard. As we passed through the Rebel camp at dawn. we would rather be with them. if not quite. with carts. We were given a few crackers each—the same rude imitation of "hard tack" that had been served 316 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . like withered hopes drifting down to deepen some Slough of Despond. We were not hardened. it would slip at the most inconvenient times. and in spite of all our efforts. It seemed as if there could be no other purpose of taking us out of a prison so recently established and at such cost as Millen. The guards around us crouched over fires. that threatened to convert our soaked rags into icicles. and land them in a row. we were ordered off the cars. whom cold had pinched for the last time. the thousands that we had seen pass away made that emotion hackneyed and wearisome. Negro laborers came along afterwards. composing their limbs as well as possible. could control. A squad from each car carried the dead to a designated spot. We had nothing to build fires with. and the sparse foliage of the gnarled and dwarfish undergrowth. so as to show a broad glare of the bright metal. not even making a record of their names and regiments.htm Though roused at 3 o'clock. with the death of some friend and comrade as regularly an event of each day as roll call and drawing rations. Arriving at Savannah. just when it seemed it could not help attracting the attention of the guards or their officers. Our train headed back to Savannah. wiry grass that thinly covered the once and sand. Andrews and I huddled ourselves together so as to make our bodies afford as much heat as possible. Very many died on the way. and endured the inclemency as best we could. A dozen times at least we were on the imminent brink of detection. the sentiment of grief had become nearly obsolete. on our way to the cars. and now rattled drearily under the pitiless. and in an instant had them wrapped up in our blanket. and we left them lying there unburied when we moved to the cars. each in his windowless palace of rest. and for whom the golden portals of the Beyond had opened for an exchange that neither Davis nor his despicable tool. Winder. hopeless desolation of the approach of minter. gray. As we approached the coast the rain ceased. sapless leaves fell wearily to the sodden earth. In the meantime we stood in ranks—numb. every car had upon it one whom hunger no longer gnawed or disease wasted. the tall." If imprisonment was to continue only another month. When we arrived at Savannah almost.gutenberg. the cars were not ready to receive us till nearly noon. We managed to snatch them without the guard's attention being attracted. the occasional stunted weeds. Besides. naked pines moaned and shivered. To have had no one dead or dying around us would have been regarded as singular. pulled our faithful old overcoat around us as far as it would go. We did not sentimentalize over these. They laid down upon the ground and yielded to death as s welcome relief. bright. and sat down upon them. streaming from lowering clouds that seemed to have floated down to us from the cheerless summit of some great iceberg. Around us everywhere was the dull. Andrews and I noticed a nest of four large.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The rain still beat down unrelentingly. but we finally got our treasures safely to the cars. we had simply come to look upon death as commonplace and ordinary.

too. and seeing birds and animals that were free. necessitating a long stop for repairs. we should certainly not visit them again.htm out to us when we arrived at Savannah the first time. The country we were traversing was sterile and poor—worse even than that in the neighborhood of Andersonville. As long as the water tasted salty we knew we were near the sea. it made no difference to us whether the train got along or not." but anything more unlike grass I never saw. to deliver us to our folks there. or from exhaustion. whispered that perhaps it was exchange. The railroad was the worst of the many bad ones which it was my fortune to ride upon in my excursions while a guest of the Southern Confederacy. it was stripped of the best of its rolling-stock and machinery to supply the other more important lines. I have before mentioned the scarcity of grease in the South. Farms and farmhouses were scarce. and we were famishing for this. Frequently the engine stopped as if from sheer fatigue or inanition. we were not anxious to go anywhere. and the difficulty of supplying the railroads with lubricants. we said. and nowhere was there a farm which gave evidence of a determined effort on the part of its occupants to till the soil and to improve their condition. declined. that there was some difficulty about our vessels coming to Savannah. and a couple of negros riding on the tender would assail a panel of fence or a fallen tree with their axes. When the engine ran out of wood it would halt. we were allowed to descend from the cars and stretch our numbed limbs. whenever we could get an opportunity to dip up some. Not even a collection of houses big enough to justify a blacksmith shop or a store appeared along the whole route. running from Savannah along the sea coast towards Florida. but hope. Besides. to rest our eyes by looking away through the woods. A plant grew rather plentifully along the track that looked very much as I imagine a palm leaf fan does in its green state. The Rebel officers tried to get us to assist it up the grade by dismounting and pushing behind.gutenberg. to pick up something green to eat. It did us good in other ways. We were not losing anything by the delay. and came directly out of the ground. They must be happy. because to us to be free once more was the summit of earthly happiness. Some thing would break on the cars or blow out on the engine every few miles. but that did not solve the problem. who set themselves up as our entertainers. We were gentlemen of leisure. and we were sent down the Atlantic & Gulf road as a temporary expedient. We satisfied ourselves that we were running along the sea coast by tasting the water in the streams we crossed. Then there was no supply of fuel along the line. of which an employee of a rival route once said. and it would be a gross breach of hospitality to reflect upon our hosts by working our passage.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and the screeches of the dry axles revolving in the worn-out boxes were agonizing. and hope burned brightly. or for repairs. but firmly. we had been invited on this excursion by Mr. too. We were brought to Savannah. Apparently there had been no oil on the Atlantic & Gulf since the beginning of the war. probably to Florida. The scurvy still lingered in our systems. and decidedly averse to manual labor. So not a finger could they persuade any of us to raise to help along the journey. If this was insisted upon. "that all there was left of it now was two streaks of rust and the right of way. It seemed almost happiness to be outside of those cursed Stockades. But few fields of any kind were seen. Jeff. The leaf was not so large as an ordinary palm leaf fan. One part of the Southern Confederacy was just as good as another to us. We respectfully. When the train stopped for wood. and we were being taken to some other more convenient sea port. Davis and his friends. which sprang eternal in the prisoner's breast. What this meant we had little conception. and we were hungry for an antidote. so we rejected that 317 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM ." As it was one of the non-essential roads to the Southern Confederacy. and of towns there were none. The truth was—as we afterwards learned—the Rebels were terribly puzzled what to do with us. There was a chance. and after an hour or such matter of hard chopping. It had run down until it had nearly reached the worn-out condition of that Western road. would pile sufficient wood upon the tender to enable us to renew our journey. The natives called it "bull-grass.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and then were marched over and put upon a train on the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad.

seeking and. and supply all the meat used. and shot him down. and the scenes at that place were repeated. as I have since learned by the census report. BUT ARE CALLED OUT FOR EXCHANGE—EXCITEMENT OVER SIGNING THE PAROLE—A HAPPY JOURNEY TO SAVANNAH—GRIEVOUS DISAPPOINTMENT We were informed that the place we were at was Blackshear. CHAPTER LXV. Where they kept the Court House. is one of the poorest Counties of a poor section of a very poor State. is beyond conjecture to me." They were very hard to pull up. They seemed to find their way into every fiber of our bodies. half a dozen collard stalks and was on his way back before the guard could make up his mind to fire upon him. Even hunger could find no meat in them. Andrews espied a handful of onions. They tempted him as the apple did Eve. and that it was the Court House. escape. The onions he had." Scanning the patch's ruins of vine and stalk. Pierce County. off.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and probably little nutriment. secured were to us more delicious than wine upon the lees. and invigorate every organ.. in the expectation of finding in them something resembling the nutritious "heart" that we remembered as children. Without stopping to communicate his intention to me. with a stalk about a yard long) and some onions to vary the usual side-meat and corn pone. still it was fresh and green. The swiftness of his motions saved his life. and not one of them was a respectable dwelling. farmers. But we were disappointed. we halted permanently about eighty-six miles from Savannah.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. i. After some days of this leisurely journeying toward the South. the County seat of Pierce County. and we strained our weak muscles and enfeebled sinews at every opportunity. and dumped us. which had. diet of the Georgia "cracker. snatched the onions from their bed.htm nomenclature. and gain a meager subsistence by a weak simulation of cultivating patches of its sandy dunes and plains in "nubbin" corn and dropsical sweet potatos. Andrews used to insist that some of the hogs which we saw were so thin that the connection 318 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . BLACKSHEAR AND PIERCE COUNTRY—WE TAKE UP NEW QUARTERS. When pulled up there was found the smallest bit of a stock—not as much as a joint of one's little finger—that was eatable. it being usually as much as the strongest of us could do to draw them out of the ground. or County seat. a scanty lot of collards (a coarse kind of cabbage. and produce a few coarse cow peas.gutenberg. he sprang from the car. accumulated since we left Savannah. The train returned for another load of prisoners. pulled up. remained ungathered. one of those sorry "truck patches. It seemed as if the Rebels had simply tired of hauling us. We had another lot of dead. taking even so low a standard for respectable dwellings as that afforded by the majority of Georgia houses. since I could not see a half dozen houses in the whole clearing. As it was he was returning back before the guard could get his gun up. It had no particular taste. A population of less than two thousand is thinly scattered over its five hundred square miles of territory. society." which do poor duty about Southern cabins for the kitchen gardens of the Northern. There was no reason why we should stop there more than any place else where we had been or were likely to go. The collard stalks he had snatched up. for had he been more deliberate the guard would have concluded he was trying to. endeavoring to pull up a "green fan. The stalks were as dry and rotten as the bones of Southern." At one place where we stopped there was a makeshift of a garden. A few "razor-back" hogs —a species so gaunt and thin that I heard a man once declare that he had stopped a lot belonging to a neighbor from crawling through the cracks of a tight board fence by simply tying a knot in their tails—roam the woods. e. and dubbed them "green fans. finding in the stalks of cabbage.

As soon as the excitement had subsided somewhat. and toiled away at our cabin. About a week after our arrival we were startled by an order for the one thousand of us who had first arrived to get ready to move out. in this proposition. answered us with a loud shout of congratulation—the first real. three months before. that if a boy. In the absence of our own Surgeons he would have to decide for himself whether he was sick enough to be warranted in resorting to this means of saving his life. he was justified in taking the Oath. There were still many among us. the Rebels had felt around among us considerably as to how we were disposed toward taking what was called the "Non-Combatant's Oath. In a few minutes we were taken outside the guard line. the reader can disentangle them at his leisure. We held that our oaths to our own Government placed us at its disposal until it chose to discharge us. as at Millen. but if so. it looked very much like desertion. The poor land would not maintain anything but lank. there was no 319 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .gutenberg.htm between their fore and hindquarters was only a single thickness of skin. with a reasonable prospect of surviving some weeks longer." that is. and informed in a few words by a Rebel officer that we were about to be taken back to Savannah for exchange. The swine certainly did have proportions that strongly resembled those of the animals which children cut out of cardboard. by building shanties. To the most of us this seemed only a little less dishonorable than joining the Rebel army. I never ceased to marvel at the delicate adjustment of the development of animal life to the soil in these lean sections of Georgia. with hair on both sides—but then Andrews sometimes seemed to me to have a tendency to exaggerate. and this we did not feel at liberty to consider. by the side of a considerable stream. again with us.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. with few wants. lazy men. A heavy guard was placed around us. A ham from them would look like a palm-leaf fan. hearty cheering that had been done since receiving the announcement of the exchange at Andersonville. Andrews and I meditated plans of escape. massed close together. They were like the geometrical definition of a superfice—all length and breadth. For an instant the rush of emotion made us speechless. The opinion that I then held and expressed was. and when utterance returned. I may have tangled up cause and effect. Those inside the guard line. The announcement took away our breath. the swearing not to take up arms against the Southern Confederacy again during the war. Whether it would or not I must leave to more skilled casuists than myself to decide. felt that he was hopelessly sick. the first use we made of it was to join in one simultaneous outburst of acclamation. who. feeling certain that they could not survive imprisonment much longer. In short. and a number of pieces of artillery mounted where they would command the camp. were disposed to look favorably upon the Non-Combatant's Oath. It was a matter I believed every man must settle with his own conscience. and we soon had our old crowd of five or six thousand. The prisoners we left behind followed us. We knew we were still near the sea coast—really not more than forty miles away—and we felt that if we could once get there we should be safe. thinking that the circumstances of the case would justify their apparent dereliction from duty. and we could not make any engagements with its enemies that might come in contravention of that duty.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. We started in to make ourselves comfortable. If he was in as good health as the majority of us were. This set us to thinking. and told that this was to be our camp. with few wants. lazy men. genuine. After leaving the cars we were marched off into the pine woods. who had been our companions at Savannah and Millers. and no thickness. and that he could not live if he remained in prison." even as poorly as they lived. I should want fully that much of it to support one fair-sized Northern family as it should be. sought a maintenance from it. and none but lank. After our scornful rejection of the proposition to enlist in the Rebel army. understanding what our cheer meant. The place looked very favorable for escape. the Rebel proceeded to explain that we would all be required to sign a parole. I was not astonished to learn that it took five hundred square miles of Pierce County land to maintain two thousand "crackers.

let some of us read it. giving as much emphasis as possible to the all-important clause at the end—"until properly exchanged.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. for in that few weeks we might be exchanged. They all felt that signing that paper was to give them freedom and life. and the signing went on under the superintendence of a Rebel Sergeant and one of the prisoners. or perform any kind of military service until properly exchanged. or make our escape. and I stood by to direct the boys. this seems all right to me. some deed of fealty and truth that equals the simple fidelity of these unknown heros. and from many of whom no exalted conceptions of duty and honor were expected. I do not think that one of them felt that he was doing anything especially meritorious. that's all right. and he read over the printed condition at the top. Yet in all that thousand there was not one voice in favor of yielding a tittle of honor to save life. called the roll of the signers. Our next performance was to set to work. with almost one voice: "Yes. no. This formality removed the last lingering doubt that we had of the exchange being a reality. Many felt that unless released another week would see them in their graves. After this was done we fell into ranks again. I think this was the general opinion of the prisoners. We were separated into squads according to the first letters of our names." "Very well." said he. a suspicion that this was a trap to delude us into signing the Non-Combatant's Oath. or in garrison." I then said: "Boys. assist in any expedition. and they shouted: "No. do any sort of guard duty. Blank paroles for each letter were spread out on boxes and planks at different places. serve in any military constabulary. They knew too well from sad experience what the alternative was. in another. He only obeyed the natural promptings of his loyal heart. not to man any works. "get up on this stump and read this parole to these d—-d fools that won't believe me. those beginning with B. While the Rebel was talking about our signing the parole. all those whose name began with A being placed in one squad. or die faithfully. This 320 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . be recaptured. cook our two days' rations at once and eat them. which was that those signing agreed not to bear arms against the Confederates in the field. and carefully compared the number of men with the number of signatures so that nobody should pass unparoled.gutenberg. then their ingrained distrust of any thing a Rebel said or did returned." I mounted the stump. "Who the h—l is 'Illinoy!' Where is he?" said he." I was never so proud of the American soldier-boy as at that moment. let Ilinoy' read it—" The Rebel looked around in a puzzled manner. They would secure their freedom honorably. and sign for the very few who could not write. and the fellows still inside followed our example. The business of signing the paroles was then begun in earnest. gathered from all sections of the country. All knew that every day's stay in Rebel hands greatly lessened their chances of life.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h." and they answered. I saluted and said: "That's a nickname they give me. For a minute this was satisfactory. We'll sign that. We cheered ourselves hoarse. and so on. The oath was then administered to us. there flashed upon all of us at the same moment. I wish some one would point out to me. Remember that this was a miscellaneous crowd of boys.htm excuse for taking the Oath. Instantly there went up a general shout: "Read the parole to us. and two day's rations of corn meal and fresh beef were issued." The Rebel was handed a blank parole by a companion. The squad of M's selected me to superintend the signing for us. as they expected that they would share our good fortune in a day or two. and we gave way to the happiest emotions. on the brightest pages of knightly record. took the blank from his hand and read it over slowly.

to their comrades who were still inside. and certainly none looked for them in the possession of two such poverty-stricken specimens as we were. as he turned away from signing his name to the parole." but almost forgotten since. who had been with me in the Pemberton building. thank Heaven. We even began to feel a little good-humored contempt for our hateful little Brats of guards. and was it not better to do this. etc. spoon. and to reflect how much vicious education and surroundings were to be held responsible for their misdeeds. Months afterward I had to lend this man my little can to cook his rations in. blanket. and paid us no further attention. We exchanged addresses. We revived and talked over old schemes gotten up in the earlier days of prison life. clothing. as the whole supply for two days would hardly make one square meal. 321 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and had fashioned himself a little square pan out of a tin plate of a tobacco press. and encounter the difficulties of reaching our blockaders! We thought so. We laughed and sang as we rolled along toward Savannah—going back much faster than the came. in the general uncertainty of ever getting out. The wintry sun had something of geniality and warmth." said a boy near me. and then I wouldn't touch them d—-d lousy old rags with a ten-foot pole. as he tossed his blanket and overcoat back to some one inside. drawing rations. he looked at his faithful servant for a minute in undisguised contempt. Only some eight or ten were sent to the train. that had become wearisome months and months ago. "we'll be in God's country. he actually loathed it for its remembrances. and we staid on the cars. trampling upon it as he would everything connected with his prison life. We thought it best to retain possession of our little can. The train rolled away amid cheering by ourselves and those we left behind. He had cherished it as if it were a farm or a good situation. That done. but why should we? Were we not going directly to our vessels in the harbor of Savannah. He had carried it with him ever since. on the eve of restoration to happier. and overcoat. of what "we would do when we got out. and promised faithfully to write to each other and tell how we found everything at home.htm was not very difficult. chess-board. such as I have described in an earlier chapter. But now. the dreary palmettos had less of that hideousness which made us regard them as very fitting emblems of treason." One of the boys in the M squad was a Maine infantryman. to be scrambled for. better things. That was enough to wreathe the skies with glory. We were too excited to sleep.gutenberg. and guessing how near we were to Savannah.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. no one thought of escape. Though we were running along within fifteen or twenty miles of the coast. and these quartered themselves in the caboose. "To-morrow. We could step off the cars and walk over to the seashore as easily as a man steps out of his door and walks to a neighboring town. the landscape lost some of its repulsiveness. cooking utensils. in Richmond. many of the boys went to the guard line and threw their blankets. We were going home. inglorious contemptible trials and sorrows he had endured. and it was his sole vessel for all purposes—for cooking. the Rebels confirmed their previous action by taking all the guards from around us. and fill the world with sweetness and light. etc. but were now freshened up and given their olden pith by the joyousness of the occasion.. It was hard to tell who were the most surprised at their appearance—the Rebels or our own boys—for few had any idea that there were such things in the whole Confederacy. and repeated old jokes. recalling the objects we had passed on the way to Blackshear. No one thought they would have any further use for such things. So the afternoon and night passed. and passed the hours watching the scenery. We re-told old stories. it was a reminder of all the petty. One thousand happier boys than we never started on a journey. Andrews and I flung the bright new tin pans we had stolen at Millen inside the line. at this time. As we marched down and boarded the train. with all our guards asleep in the caboose. and flinging it upon the ground he crushed it out of all shape and usefulness with his feet. than to take the chances of escaping. carrying water.

we could not see how a force from the coast— whence we supposed an attack must come. He was a type of the old man of the South of the scanty middle class. knowing as we did how well the flanks of the City were protected by the Savannah and Ogeeche Rivers. Imprisonment had stupefied us. The whole sickening reality was made apparent by one glance at the guard line. the evident design being to keep us on the cars until the people were ready to receive us. it repeated this maneuver two or three times." We looked at each other an instant. I do not think we felt the disappointment as keenly as the first time we were brought to Savannah. and then the whole line stepped forward. clothes that had apparently descended to him from some ancestor who had come over with Oglethorpe. Long white hair and beard. could hope to reach the City's rear. and as the train dashed into the street we found ourselves between two heavy lines of guards with bayonets fixed. upon which he leaned as old peasants do in plays. and toiling with numbers of huge guns which were being moved out and placed in position. we were formed in line in the street. Our train stopped for a few minutes at the edge of this line of works. especially as we had just come up on the right flank of the City. a broad-brimmed hat of ante-Revolutionary pattern. and a two-handed staff with a head of buckhorn. step fohwahd one pace. his jaws then addressed themselves to motion thus: "Boys.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Our train ran down in the City. Halting in front of our car. and as opinionated as a Southern white always is. we were duller and more hopeless. Finally our engine ran with all the speed she was capable of. strongly contrasting with the somnolent lethargy that seemed to be the normal condition of the City and its inhabitants. tottered over to our car to take a look at us." He was as garrulous as a magpie. and leaning forward upon it. or to do anything else in the world. gangs of negros were felling trees. the small farmer. We could not understand this erection of fortifications on that side. We all felt too sick to go to Charleston. its only object being to get us to Savannah as easily as possible. Said a Rebel officer: "Now. Long lines of earthworks were being constructed.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. formed such an image as recalled to me the picture of the old man in the illustrations in "The Dairyman's Daughter. and to prevent benefit from our recapture to any of Sherman's Raiders. because.htm A cold. building forts and batteries. gray Winter morning was just breaking as we reached Savannah. who mout these be that ye got?" 322 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Our parole was a mockery. and saw no sign of our folks in that direction. As we had had no new prisoners nor any papers for some weeks—the papers being doubtless designedly kept away from us—we were at a loss to know what this meant. staring glasses. any of you fellahs that ah too sick to go to Chahlston. SPECIMEN CONVERSATION WITH AN AVERAGE NATIVE GEORGIAN—WE LEARN THAT SHERMAN IS HEADING FOR SAVANNAH—THE RESERVES GET A LITTLE SETTLING DOWN. After all. Ordered down out of the cars. There had been no intention of exchanging us. CHAPTER LXVI. he steadied himself by planting his staff. and an old citizen who had been surveying the scene with senile interest. spectacles with great round.gutenberg. making abatis. As the train left the northern suburbs of Savannah we came upon a scene of busy activity. clasping it with both lean and skinny hands. and then whistled sharply and ran back a mile or so. There was no exchange going on at Savannah. who might make a dash for the railroad while we were in transit.

these is some Yanks that we've bin hivin' down at Camp Sumter.htm One of the Guards:—"O.gutenberg." 323 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

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gutenberg. directing his conversation to me. I've wanted to see some Yankees ever sence the beginnin' of the wah. gentleman's perceptive powers were much more highly developed than his politeness. "So yer Yanks. (the nick-name in the South for Georgians). I'll declah." said the guard. they ain't what ye mout call purty. Whah did ye cum from?" 325 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . that's a fack. I'm powerful glad to see ye. followed by a close scrutiny of us through the goggle-eyed glasses.htm "Yes?" (with an upward inflection of the voice. but hev never had no chance. "Wall.) "Wall." It will be seen that the old. "Well. an' 'specially whar ye can't do no harm. air ye?" said the venerable Goober-Grabber.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. they're a powerful ornary lookin' lot.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.

do ye know I alluz liked the Westerners a heap sight better than them blue-bellied New England Yankees. sah. and then the wimmen'll fight ye. an' ye nevah can whip the South. Ye nevah kin conquer us! We're the bravest people and the best fighters on airth. Are them the regular blue-belly kind?" The old gentleman entered upon the next stage of the invariable routine of discussion with a Rebel: "Wall. air ye? Wall. and yet he talked of taking away "ouah niggahs. "Waal. One day. most of the boys in this car are from Illinois. You'd better make up your mind to it. The old man passed to the third inevitable proposition: "What air you'uns puttin' ouah niggahs in the field to fight we'uns foh?" Then the whole car-load shouted back at him at once: "What are you'uns putting blood-hounds on our trails to hunt us down." I replied in burlesque of his assumption of ownership: "What are you coming up North to burn my rolling mills and rob my comrade here's bank. you may think so. the more abjectly poor a Southerner was. and plunder my brother's store.htm I seemed called upon to answer. From the way our boys are snatching the Confederacy's real estate away. broke in with: "Out there by post numbah foahteen. what air you'uns down heah. We are not a drop in the bucket. We'll fight ye until all the men air killed. we warmed it to you pretty lively until you caught us. while I was holding a conversation similar to the above with an old man on guard. sah. No Rebels in our neighborhood had much to brag on. it begins to look as if you'd not have enough to fight anybody on 326 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and they are all determined to stamp out your miserable Confederacy. where I wuz yesterday. There were none of us but what were doing about as good work as any stock you fellows could turn out. and I hope I may never see the back of my neck ef I could understand ary word they said. and burn down my uncle's factories?" No reply. the old man passed on to the next stage: "What are you'uns takin' ouah niggahs away from us foh?" Now. that talked altogether in the language of the Fatherland." as if they were as plenty about his place as hills of corn. the more readily he worked himself into a rage over the idea of "takin' away ouah niggahs. You've got to come to it. there's a lot of Yanks who jest jabbered away all the hull time. As a rule. ye don't think ye kin ever lick us. and said: "I came from Illinois. it is doubtful whether the speaker had ever had money enough in his possession at one time to buy one. or you may not." Old Man—"No. you must knock under. sooner or later. There's millions more better men than we are where we came from. but its absurdity was comical. Indiana." No discussion with a Rebel ever proceeded very far without his making an assertion like this." "'Deed! All Westerners. a-fightin' we'uns foh?" As I had answered this question several hundred times.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Michigan and Iowa. It was a favorite declaration of theirs. who had been stationed near a squad made up of Germans. any way. nevah. when one remembered that the majority of them could not for their lives tell the names of the New England States. Ye nevah kin whip any people that's a fightin' fur their liberty an' their right. for?" Old Man—(savagely). if negros had been as cheap as oreoide watches. Ohio. leastways sich fellers as ye air?" Myself—"Well. either." Myself—"Well. sure as white blossoms make little apples. to this counter thrust.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.gutenberg. another guard. and could no more distinguish a Downeaster from an Illinoisan than they could tell a Saxon from a Bavarian. sah. I had found the most extinguishing reply to be to ask in return: "What are you'uns coming up into our country to fight we'uns for?" Disdaining to notice this return in kind.

We'll soon hev him just whar we want him. But we'll show him.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. where he thought there was lots of good stealin' to be done. What's the meaning of all this fortifying?" Old Man—"Why. an' runnin' off folkses' beef critters. who belonged to these Reserves." Old Man—"Oh. he'd tried that on too often.htm pretty soon. an' we'll learn him how to go traipesin' 'round the country. sah. these sorry little Reserves. I can't hev ye talkin' to these prisoners. but as he did he flung this Parthian arrow: "When Sherman gits down deep. burnin' cotton. whar the gun-boats'll help 'im out.gutenberg." Myself—"Well." Our guards." "Bill Sherman!" we all shouted in surprise: "Why he ain't within two hundred miles of this place. stealin' nigahs. we didn't set nothing afore him up thar except Joe Brown's Pets. Go 'way now!" The old fellow moved off. He found out he couldn't lick him in a squar' fight. old man. is he?" Old Man—"Yes.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. he'll find he's got to fight real soldiers. tho'. nohow. if you fellows intended stopping him. But he'll nevah git thar. and we'll purty' soon hev him jist whar you fellows air. no sah. an' he's tryin' to get to the coast. why didn't you do it up about Atlanta? What did you let him come clear through the State. and made a break for the center of the State. they'd break their necks runnin' away ef ye so much as bust a cap near to 'em. you must go off. He sees now the scrape he's got into. as you say? It was money in your pockets to head him off as soon as possible. so he just sneaked 'round behind him. but he is. don't you know? Our folks are fixin' up a place foh Bill Sherman to butt his brains out gain'. sah. He thinks he's played a sharp Yankee trick on Hood. He's mouty nigh the end of his rope. nevah. they're powerful little account. sah. no stand-up to'em at all." 327 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . instantly felt that the conversation had progressed farther than was profitable and one of them spoke up roughly: "See heah. burning and stealing. hits agin my awdahs. he'll find somethin' different from the —little snots of Reserves he ran over up about Milledgeville.

You — fellows — will — go — into — a — circus — tent — and — throw — tobacco — quids in — the — face — of — the — lion — in — the — cage — when — you — haven't — spunk enough — to — look — a woodchuck — in — the — eye — if — you — met — him — alone. and assist in crushing the audacious invader. committing all sorts of depredations. They're — jest — as — different — as — a — lion in — a — menagerie — is — from — his — brother — in — the woods — who — has — a — nigger — every day — for-dinner." "Yaas — sonnies. we added fuel to the flames of their anger by confiding to each other that we always "knew that little Brats whose highest ambition was to murder a defenseless prisoner. over the low estimate placed upon the fighting ability of themselves and comrades. a paper. in some mysterious manner. but — when — you — see — a — Yank with — a — gun — in — his — hand — your — livers get — so — white — that — chalk — would — make — a — black — mark — on — 'em.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. could be nothing else than cowards end skulkers in the field. around about what they would do if they were only given an opportunity to go into a line of battle against Sherman. and the Governor called upon all good citizens to rise en masse.htm We could not help enjoying the rage of the guards." A little later. "you — trundle — bed — soldiers — who've never — seen — a — real — wild — Yankee — don't — know — how — different — they — are — from — the kind — that — are — starved — down — to tameness. It's — lots — o' — fun — to you — to — shoot — down — a — sick — and — starving-man — in — the — Stockade. and as they raved. and communicated its contents to the rest of the boys. that he always assumed." said Charlie Burroughs. which some one had gotten hold of. when he wanted to say anything very cutting. that he had prepared the way for his own destruction. in that nasal Yankee drawl. Bridges must be burned before and behind him. setting forth that General Sherman was now traversing the State. I read it as I could find opportunity.gutenberg. of the Third Michigan. 328 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. was secretly passed to me. The most important of these was a flaming proclamation by Governor Joe Brown.

and the grinding axles shrieked in the dry journals. which had become wearisome to the sight. if we were not going to be exchanged. 329 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .htm roads obstructed. the landscape was more grateful to the eye than the famine-stricken. vegetation was luxuriant. the Georgian woods were almost destitute of living creatures. The river was wide and apparently deep. and we began to feel some of that confidence that "Sherman will come out all right. the evergreen live-oak. that reminded us of the fresh color of the vegetation of our Northern homes.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. great clumps of laurel showed glossy richness in the greenness of its verdure. The road lay through the tide swamp region of South Carolina. The soil where it appeared. and we soon came to and crossed the Savannah River into South Carolina.gutenberg. pine-barrens of Georgia. a peculiar and interesting country. Though swamps and fens stretched in all directions as far as the eye could reach. CHAPTER LXVII. and every inch of soil resolutely disputed. muddy current. as we pulled across. It showed that the Rebels were terribly alarmed. so different from the parched and impoverished look of Georgian foliage. and the ugly and useless palmettos gave novelty and interest to the view. We enjoyed this. OFF TO CHARLESTON—PASSING THROUGH THE RICE SWAMPS—TWO EXTREMES OF SOCIETY—ENTRY INTO CHARLESTON—LEISURELY WARFARE—SHELLING THE CITY AT REGULAR INTERVALS—WE CAMP IN A MASS OF RUINS—DEPARTURE FOR FLORENCE. the crazy old bridge creaked and shook. was rich. the tide was setting back in a swift. Immense flocks of wild fowl fluttered around us." which so marvelously animated all under his command.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The train started in a few minutes after the close of the conversation with the old Georgian. It looked very much at times as if we were to all crash down into the turbid flood—and we did not care very much if we did. with its queer festoons of Spanish moss.

org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg.htm 330 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM .ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www.

htm The rice swamps through which we were passing were the princely possessions of the few nabobs who before the war stood at the head of South Carolina aristocracy—they were South Carolina. and breeding. which demands that a man shall be of use. Esteeming personal courage as a supreme human virtue. and never wearying of prating their devotion to the highest standard of intrepidity. and their greatest politicians achieved eminence by advocating ideas which only attracted attention by their balefulness. as absolutely as Louis XIV. "accomplished" in the superficial acquirements that made the "gentleman" one hundred years ago. with frequent spice-work of duels. solid age. dawdled through society when young. they never produced a General who was even mediocre. Regarding politics and the art of government as. and not merely for show. nor did any one ever hear of a South Carolina regiment gaining distinction.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. They ran horses and fought cocks. and the destruction of which more than compensated for every drop of blood shed in those terrible days. wealth. but are grotesquely out of place in this sensible. because they had found the 331 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . was France. and intrigued in politics the rest of their lives. they were gay. culture. They represented a pinchbeck imitation of that regime in France which was happily swept out of existence by the Revolution. they have never given the Nation a statesman. Still further resembling the French 'grandes seigneurs' of the eighteenth century. in fact. dissipated and turbulent. they rolled in wealth wrung from the laborer by reducing the rewards of his toil to the last fraction that would support his life and strength. Like the provincial 'grandes seigneurs' of Louis XVI's reign. In their hands—but a few score in number—was concentrated about all there was of South Carolina education. equally with arms. The rice culture was immensely profitable. their natural vocations.

and they had learned a bastard. to one of slavery in the swamps of the Combahee. nor can I now. I could not then. thousands to the Manigault the Lowndes. and they did not care to learn. we were marched some distance through well-lighted streets. Leaving the train. They wore. Then they wondered "whar a feller'd be likely to make a raise of a canteen of good whisky?" Bad as the whites were. It will be recollected that we ate the whole of the two days' rations issued to us at Blackshear at once. the Barnwells. They only remembered that sometimes they had had "sorter good times. or he was a loutish hind. and their slaves were not so expensive to keep as good horses in the North. yams and rice. but fled thence to summer resort in the highlands as the miasmatic season approached. There was no middle class visible anywhere—nothing but the two extremes." and they hoped there would be plenty to eat wherever they went. We thought we had found in the Georgia "cracker" the lowest substratum of human society. clad in mere apologies for garments. Towards night a distressingly cold breeze. His mind was a shaking quagmire. and did not want to find out. We wanted most to devise a way to keep warm. snuggled together so as to make each one's meager body afford the other as much heat as possible—and endured. inexpensive. instead of bananas. they had learned nothing of Christian civilization. They had no conception of what the war was being waged for. the Hugers. they ate corn meal. in malarious swamps. The people we saw at the stations along our route were melancholy illustrations of the evils of the rule of such an oligarchy. as their forefathers did. possibly. It was late at night when we reached Charleston. surrounded by noble old trees. the taxes were nominal. almost unintelligible. he might develop into something. though they had been raised in that section. The lights of the City.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and not too much hard marching. except an occasional bitter execration on Rebels and Rebel practices. if that were possible. a little more clothing than their Senegambian ancestors did. and superb grounds.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. There was little foundation for such hope in the average low South Carolinian. nor the time they had enlisted for. and did not remember where it had been. set in from the sea. they did not know where their regiment was going. Here they lived during the healthy part of the year. yams and rice. The South Carolina guards about us did not know the name of the next town. and the apparent warmth and comfort there cheered us up somewhat with the hopes that we might have some share in them. or to any place else. but he was bright intelligence compared to the South Carolina "clay-eater" and "sand-hiller. Brought to the country centuries ago. and put an end to future observations by making us too uncomfortable to care for scenery or social conditions. Occasionally one of their stately mansions could be seen on some distant elevation. except that it meant endless toil.htm secret for raising it more cheaply than even the pauper laborer of the of world could.gutenberg." and sometimes "they had been powerful bad. the Middletons. Thousands of the acres along the road belonged to the Rhetts. thousands to the Heywards. as brutal savages from Africa. regret the downfall of a system of society which bore such fruits. These were the sole blessings acquired by a transfer from a life of freedom in the jungles of the Gold Coast. which did not admit of the erection of any superstructure of education upon it. in which were plenty of people walking to and fro. fainting stage of great hunger. We reached the sullen. They did not know how far it was there. and the Elliots—all names too well known in the history of our country's sorrows. they could not tell how long they had been in service. and we had received nothing since. under the lash of the taskmaster. A man was either a "gentleman. the improvements of dikes and ditches were comparatively. the rice plantation negros were even worse. Their lands had cost them nothing originally. laden with a penetrating mist. Andrews and I pulled our overcoat and blanket closely about us. apparently stocked with goods. and could be made to understand that laziness was dishonorable. There were many stores. We became fearfully hungry. and for hours nothing was said by any one." and wore white shirt and city-made clothes. and the 332 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . English." The "cracker" always gave hopes to one that if he had the advantage of common schools.

and a vibration. and sat down. there came to our ears a prolonged. Starting from a point miles away. "Whish—ish-ish-ish-ish!" We watched it breathlessly. and I knew I could stand any fire that a Rebel could. and it seemed to be long minutes in running its course. escaping I suppose from the ruptured pipes. but not sharp." and we marched away from the lighted portion of the City. as some one shouted: "There comes one of 'em!" It was a great shell from the Swamp Angel Battery. then a thump upon the ground. At first I felt much alarmed. told that it had struck. who would necessarily be in as much clanger as we were.htm citizens seemed to be going about their business very much as was the custom up North. for being shot I had much less for being killed by our own men.gutenberg. mingled with the cold. to make every breath intensely disagreeable. An almost insupportable odor of gas. only to jump up the next instant. rasping air from the sea. which slowly unrolled itself against the star-lit vault over our heads. At length our head of column made a "right turn. was a narrow ribbon of fire. For a moment there was a dead silence. Little relish as I had on general principles. 333 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . the sky came down to the sea. and they were putting us under the fire of our own guns. As it reached the zenith.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. it flashed upon me that this was the burnt district of the city. On.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. to a part which I could see through the shadows was filled with ruins. As I saw the ruins. and was apparently following the sky down to the horizon behind us. We were halted in a vacant lot. on it came. where. Then I reflected that if they put me there—and kept me—a guard would have to be placed around us. seemingly.

waked up. etc. then it exploded with a dull roar.htm Then came a loud roar. as the number might be since our people opened fire upon the City. For awhile we forgot all about hunger in the excitement of watching the messengers from "God's country. 1865. from early in August. We wanted to cheer but restrained ourselves. but our shells kept coming over at regular intervals with the same slow deliberation. Many large buildings had been knocked down. The routine was the same from day to day. for perhaps an hour each time. with like results. It must have been a lesson to the Charlestonians of the persistent. and began answering with dull.. 393d. month in. Soon a Rebel battery of heavy guns somewhere near and in front of us. All was still for an instant." or 391st. and were to keep it up months longer until the City was captured.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. the Rebel batteries would talk back. and twice a day. and was shaky. and the crash of breaking timber and crushing walls. and the same dreadful crash when they struck. The part where we lay was a mass of ruins. Finally the great building fell. very many more were riddled with shot holes and tottering to their fall. followed by more crashing of timber and walls. This continued about an hour. The sound died away and was succeeded by a moment of silence. the same prolonged warning. when it quieted down again. It had already been struck several times. 1863.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www." What happiness to be where those shells came from. with a noise like that of a dozen field pieces. to the middle of April. and month out. This was the nearest to us that 334 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . slow thumps that made the ground shudder. The shell went through with a deafening crash.gutenberg. methodical spirit of the North. a shapeless heap of ruins. They had already gone on this way for over a year. and the papers each day had a column headed: "390th DAY OF THE SIEGE. Every few minutes during the day our folks would hurl a great shell into the beleaguered City. They prided themselves on the length of the time they were holding out against the enemy. One night a shell passed through a large building about a quarter of a mile from us. Ten minutes later another shell followed. The shell had bursted.

Their shells did not come at one in that wildly. that one day our fellows threw a shell clear over the City to this race course. the people felt themselves as safe as in one of our northern Cities to-day. and there was likely to be oceans of trouble for everybody in that neighborhood about that time. I reasoned from this that bigger guns made a proportionally greater amount of noise. But the next shell fell inside the established limits. they could have depopulated the place in a few hours. drives and balls. as Andrews expressed it. something like that produced by striking an empty barrel with a wooden maul.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. all within a few hundred yards of where the shells were falling-struck me as a most singular method of conducting warfare. and bred an infinitely larger quantity of trouble. The only artillery I had ever seen in action were field pieces. They made an earsplitting crash when they were discharged.htm any shell came. and now the whole city must go. I learned afterwards from some of the prisoners. trying the effect of an extra charge of powder. The whole matter impressed me queerly. and they were not so impressive as a lively battery of three-inch rifles. Fires had come to complete the work begun by the shells. I have never heard any explanation of the matter. marrying and giving in marriage. There was an immediate and terrible panic among the citizens. Their reports did not threaten to shatter everything. drinking and sleeping. Now I was hearing the giants of the world's ordnance. so that the panic abated. They had an abiding faith that they were clear out of reach of any artillery that we could mount. leisurely manner. having dances. but had a dull resonance. with which a missile from a six-pounder convinces every fellow in a long line of battle that he is the identical one it is meant for. but they meandered over in a lazy. They thought we had mounted some new guns of increased range. Outside of the boundaries of this region. There was only one section of the City in reach of our guns and this was nearly destroyed.gutenberg.—and of being fired back at for an hour at 9 o'clock every morning and evening. and those following were equally well behaved. Had our people known of its signal effect. 335 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . as if time was no object and no person would feel put out at having to wait for them. eating. Then. It may have been some freak of the gun-squad. who went into Charleston ahead of us. and were camped on the race course outside of the City. ferocious way.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. of fifty thousand people going on buying and selling. the idea of firing every quarter of an hour for a year—fixing up a job for a lifetime.

through which they dropped to the ground and escaped. When the train had nearly passed him he started to run up the bank. At the announcement of rations. We did nothing for hours but lie around on the ground and try to forget how famished we were. In the imperfect light the guards mistook him for one of us 336 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . During the night quite a number of the boys.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and so Andrews and I staid in. No blame for this is attached to the Charlestonians. They distinguished themselves from the citizens of every other place in the Southern Confederacy where we had been. and then they were scanty. and the Sisters of Charity came among us. Just at dusk we came to the insignificant village of Florence. We had been put into close box cars. though fair in quality. seeking and ministering to the sick. and it was all that the Sergeants could do to restrain the impatient mob from tearing the food away and devouring it. They sent quite a quantity of food to us. with guards at the doors and on top. We remained in Charleston but a few days. There was no hole cut in our car. when they were trying to divide it out.htm We received no rations until the day after our arrival. many acted as if crazy. the junction of the road leading from Charleston to Cheraw with that running from Wilmington to Kingsville. We were by this time so hungry and faint that we could hardly move. and the vegetation generally assumed a more Northern look. It was about one hundred and twenty miles from Charleston. cut holes through the bottoms of the cars.gutenberg. there was more oak and other hard woods. and put aboard a still more rickety train. and the same distance from Wilmington. except that the pine was short-leaved. The prisoners who passed through Charleston before us all spoke very highly of the kindness shown them by the citizens there. who had fabricated little saws out of case knives and fragments of hoop iron. When morning came we found ourselves running northward through a pine barren country that resembled somewhat that in Georgia. One night we were marched down to a rickety depot. by making efforts to relieve our condition. but were mostly recaptured after several days. I believe our experience was the usual one.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. Very many—perhaps thirty—died during the night and morning. As our train ran through a cut near the junction a darky stood by the track gazing at us curiously.

and the other by the arms. The men were going about their business as coolly as if loading slaughtered hogs.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and its load of what were once gallant." The horses strained. in tones of wearisome disgust: "Well. three. walk off on your tails. and shouted to his animals: "Now. a few hundred yards from us. boys. with guards stationed around it." and up it would go into the wagon. the wagon moved. When morning came we saw. two. As we stood looking at the sickeningly familiar architecture of the prison pen. and the unlucky negro fell. They would give it a swing—"One. a Seventh Indianian near me said. That night we camped in the open field. this Southern Confederacy is the d—-dest country to stand logs on end on God Almighty's footstool. devoted soldiers. 'One of them would catch the body by the feet. was carted off to nameless graves.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h." 337 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . grasped the lines.htm who had jumped from the train. a negro mounted the wheel horse. and two men were tossing the bodies up into the four-horse wagon which hauled them away for burial. They were just bringing the dead out. pierced by a score of bullets. This filled heaping full with corpses.gutenberg. This was a part of the daily morning routine. a Stockade of rough logs. They all fired. It was another prison pen.

338 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . When the portentous palisades showed to a fatal certainty that the word of promise had been broken to their hearts. they gave up the struggle wearily. and died. As usual. lay back on the frozen ground.htm CHAPTER LXVIII.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. FIRST DAYS AT FLORENCE—INTRODUCTION TO LIEUTENANT BARRETT. this discovery was the death-warrant of many whose lives had only been prolonged by the hoping against hope that the movement would terminate inside our lines. It did not require a very acute comprehension to understand that the Stockade at which we were gazing was likely to be our abiding place for some indefinite period in the future. THE RED-HEADED KEEPER—A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF OUR NEW QUARTERS—WINDERS MALIGN INFLUENCE MANIFEST.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.gutenberg.

the pride. 339 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and we had been on very intimate terms with him for a year now. and would not be denied to any one. and negro servants loitered around. a dull. fluttering with rags. If we. frozen hard and stiff. More than for anything else.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. While I stood gazing in gloomy silence at the depressing surroundings Andrews. and Andrews reasoned that as we would be likely to have a repetition of this in the Stockade we were about to enter. repelling. and smote our bodies like blows from sticks. could live to come back to our oppressors as the armed ministers of retribution. only makes us dread death when she desires us to preserve life. cut and hurt our bare feet at every step. in hideous ugliness. the despised. blanketed like Indians. Had the thrice-accursed Confederacy and our malignant gaolers millions of lives. the privations of hunger. whose light had now gone out forever. Since my entry into prison fully fifteen thousand boys had died around me. Around the prison walls shambled the guards. irresistible as the agents of heavenly justice. I believe this is generally true of death by disease. the death of four out of every five of our number had indeed dulled and stupefied us—bred an indifference to our own suffering and a seeming callosity to that of others. Over and around us hung like a cold miasma the sickening odor peculiar to Southern forests in Winter time.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. smoldering fire of hate and defiance toward everything Rebel. we should make an effort to secure the stump. striving to spread the least amount of work over the greatest amount of time. and in the hearts of every one about us. the joy of a hundred fair Northern homes. Nature. less speculative and more practical. Our ever kindly mother. somber. and mete out to them that Biblical return of seven-fold of what they had measured out to us. and talked idle gossip in the broadest of "nigger" dialect. then we would be content to go to death afterwards. an icy breeze drove in through the holes in our rags. When she summons us hence she tenderly provides that we shall willingly obey the call. Officers swelled and strutted hither and thither. The trees and shrubbery around were as naked and forlorn as in the North in the days of early Winter before the snow comes. the insulted. At the gate the two men continued at their monotonous labor of tossing the dead of the previous day into the wagonheaving into that rude hearse the inanimate remains that had once tempted gallant. While we were arranging our stump so as to carry it to the best advantage. snow-laden clouds swept across the sky before the soughing wind. The December morning was gray and leaden. There was little fear of death. and after a great deal of hard work. and in no one of them had I seen the least. everywhere. sullen. To simply die would be of little importance. and swarming with vermin. We had had bitter experience in other prisons as to the value of wood.gutenberg. which had so much of the earth washed away from it that it looked as if it could be readily pulled up. in a mass of nameless. our great revenge would have stomach for them all. The long imprisonment. manly hearts. the contemned. glowing with patriotism and devotion to country—piling up listlessly and wearily. Other Rebels—also clad in dingy butternut—slouched around lazily. saw a good-sized pine stump near by. terrible in the remembrance of the wrongs of ourselves and comrade's. who dropped in upon us at all hours of the day and night. the scourging by the elements. unlovely earth rose the Stockade. the starved and maltreated. He was a constant visitor. and with faces and hearts of wolves. We both attacked it. but to die unrevenged would be fearful. but there still burned in our hearts. since it was the greatest help in preserving our lives through the three long months that we remained at Florence. dull.htm Andrews and I were not in the humor for dying just then. The ground. a vulgar-faced man. we wanted to live now to triumph over the Rebels. succeeded in uprooting it. dread or reluctance to go. even the King of Terrors loses most of his awful character upon tolerably close acquaintance. crouched over diminutive fires. Out of the naked. emaciated corpses. and a lust for revenge upon those who had showered woes upon our heads. It was very lucky that we did.

and swore until he was fairly black in the face. a ludicrous failure. prescribed for them. and for several days comparisons of experience were in order. and were encumbered with blankets.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. The front of the prison was toward the West. there was a very strong Union element there. Intelligent physicians had visited the sick. because he had a little more brains than the commandant at Andersonville. A man stood behind each of these guns continually. the crowd inside was not so dense as at Camp Sumter. and 340 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . as at Andersonville. furnished them with proper medicines.htm with fiery red hair. along the top of which the guards on duty walked. Also. in loud. Prisoners!" We all stood up and fell in in two ranks. with Sergeants at the heads of the divisions. food and vegetables. Despite the disagreeable prominence which the City had in the Secession movement. The same story of exchange was dinned into their ears until they arrived at Charleston. Another officer took command then. their recollections of the place were quite pleasant. The citizens sent in clothing. Inside the inevitable dead-line was traced by running a furrow around the prisontwenty feet from the Stockade—with a plow. it being high enough to elevate their head.. when the truth was told them. Said he: "By companies. which prevented our moving with such freedom as to make a company wheel. where they were given something of the care that one would expect in such an institution. the yellow fever broke out in the City. wood. He fired his revolver off over our heads. The earth was thrown up against the outside of the palisades in a high embankment. etc. and this extra intellect was wholly devoted to cruelty. but he was furious. and also a few spoonfuls of vinegar. molasses and rice were issued to them. We found this a small copy of Andersonville. The attempt to obey the command was. As he came near he commanded. daily. but were taken to Charleston instead of Savannah.gutenberg. In one respect it was an improvement on Andersonville: regular streets were laid off. The prisoners were divided into hundreds and thousands. which were very grateful to them in their scorbutic condition. perhaps. A piece of artillery stood before the gate. and shrieked and shouted until he had to stop from sheer exhaustion. A Stockade of rough logs. Our thousand was made up of infantry. wheeling by companies is one of the most difficult of manuvers. of course. Altogether. right wheel. cooking utensils. We found very many of our Andersonville acquaintances inside. and that they had been deceived for the purpose of getting them safely out of reach of Sherman. There was a stream running north and south. The Rebel officers standing near Barrett laughed openly at his stupidity in giving such an order. shoulders and breasts above the tops of the logs. and a more inhuman wretch even than Captain Wirz. A very good police force-organized and officered by the prisoners—maintained order and prevented crime. Still they were treated well in Charleston—better than they had been anywhere else. and a platform at each corner bore a gun. After they had been in Charleston a fortnight or more. so as to open with them at any moment. by the Chief of Police sentencing the offenders to be spanked or tied up. Wheat bread. and cleanliness was promoted. The Sisters of Charity were indefatigable in ministering to the sick and dying. tents. representing. He hurled at us a torrent of the vilest abuse the corrupt imagination of man can conceive. They had left Andersonville a few days after us. approached. march!" This was simply preposterous. This was Lieutenant Barrett. one hundred different regiments.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. that no exchange was contemplated. commandant of the interior of the prison. and marched us into prison. even had we been divided up into companies and drilled for the maneuver. and many men found opportunity to do favors to the prisoners and reveal to them how much they abhorred Secession. so that motion about the camp was possible. brutal tones: "Attention. and admitted the worst cases to the hospital. and requires some preparation of a battalion before attempting to execute it. and wearing on his collar the yellow bars of a Lieutenant. inclosed several acres. with the bark still on. on either side of which was a swamp. Thefts and other offenses were punished. As every soldier knows. cavalry and artillery. elevated high enough to rake the whole inside of the prison. We had not been divided off into companies.

The low-down class—the clay-eaters—on the other hand. and with such persistent thoroughness that after some weeks there was certainly not enough woody material left in that whole fifteen acres of ground to kindle a small kitchen fire. Those who had less eked out their materials in various ways. but instead of being a strip of plank upon the top of low posts. After getting out they scattered. etc. murdered them in cold blood. and for awhile the same fatal results followed. would adjust the rest of their material so as to form sloping sides capable of 341 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . leaving about seven or eight for the actual use of the prisoners. and the sending away of several thousand on the sick exchange. and one night they forced the guard-line. The guards always resolved matters of doubt against the prisoners. About this time Winder came on from Andersonville. The lateral roots would be followed with equal determination. Then the stumps were attacked for fuel. All good citizens were enjoined to turn out and assist in arresting the runaways. Few of these complained of any special ill-treatment by their captors. He began the erection of the Stockade. Then putting up a stick at each end and laying a ridge pole across. had let out its fatal band of armed men. The ground was rather thickly wooded. reduced the aggregate number at the time of our arrival to about eleven thousand. The men would begin work on the stump of a good sized tree. The vigilance of all patrolling was redoubled. which was then a piece of forest land. and sometimes. The roots of shrubs and vines were followed up and gathered with similar industry. whose number swelled to fifteen thousand by the arrivals from Andersonville. and three or four more by the Dead Line. and the rest trying to gain the mountains. The whole State was thrown into the greatest perturbation by the occurrence. each group taking a different route. of which five were taken up by the creek and swamp. introduced into the heart of the Confederate Troy.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and fired on them when they supposed them too near where the Dead Line ought to be. and such was the effectiveness of the measures taken that before a month nearly every one of the fugitives had been retaken and sent back to Florence.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and other places along the seaboard. and then everything changed immediately to the complexion of that place. The huts constructed were as various as the materials and the tastes of the builders. to get a root as thick as one's wrist. This made the crowding together nearly as bad as at the latter place. was furnished. they. No shelter. it was simply a shallow trench. Fifteen acres of ground were enclosed by the palisades. it is pretty certain. but was still not one-twentieth of the space which that number of men should have had. some seeking Beaufort. and chip and split it off painfully and slowly until they had followed it to the extremity of the tap root ten or fifteen feet below the surface. as at Andersonville. and lauded fulsomely the gallantry of the guards in endeavoring to withstand the desperate assaults of the frenzied Yankees. The mortality. The trees and brush were cut down and worked up into hut building materials by the same slow and laborious process that I have described as employed in building our huts at Millen. especially when their captors belonged to the middle and upper classes. and two or three feet deep were dug with case-knives and half-canteens. quite a number dying from it. The cold weather and the scanty issues of wood forced men to do this. which gave more room to all. almost always abused their prisoners. and made it very strong. The people were wrought up into the highest alarm as to outrages and excesses that these flying desperados might be expected to commit. There was no stockade or other enclosure about them. Those who were fortunate enough to get plenty of timber built such cabins as I have described at Millen. One would think that another Grecian horse. main streets. under a pretty sharp fire from the guards. They would dig a hole in the ground two feet deep and large enough for them all to lie in. and sometimes not. The papers magnified the proportion of the outbreak. Early in October they had been sent away from the City to their present location.. when the Stockade was built. which was sometimes plainly visible. and certainly no bit of soil was ever so thoroughly cleared as this was. while many reported frequent acts of kindness.gutenberg. and covered with undergrowth. The Dead Line was established. nor material for constructing any.htm soon extended its ravages to the prisoners. about fifteen hundred escaping. Most frequently all that a squad of three or four could get would be a few slender poles and some brush. and trenches thirty feet long.

The fellow would starve the whole camp to death with as little compunction as one drowns blind puppies. CHAPTER LXIX. The rations at that time were very scanty. and made adobe houses. and could no more handle even one thousand men properly than a cabin boy could navigate a great ocean steamer. It was necessary to get up a tunnel to show Barrett. crazy. nothing of which to build. The Sergeants counseled together.gutenberg. as there was no question but that the punishment meted out would be as fearful as the cruel mind of the fellow could conceive. Both were absolutely destitute of any talent for commanding men. they selected these by lot. The two resembled each other in many respects. A number of gallant fellows volunteered to brave his wrath. picking his teeth with his penknife in the comfortable. These exhibitions were such as an overgrown child might be expected to make.htm supporting earth enough to make a water-tight roof. and save the rest of their comrades. marched them to the gate and delivered them over to 342 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Remember that all these makeshifts were practiced within a half-a-mile of an almost boundless forest. coming and going without apparent cause. Both were given to the same senseless fits of insane rage. walked hither and thither. trooped to the Creek and drank water until their gorges rose and they could swallow no more—did everything in fact that imagination could suggest—to assuage the pangs of the deadly gnawing that was consuming their vitals. during which they fired revolvers and guns or threw clubs into crowds of prisoners. They did not secure any result except to increase the prisoners' wonder that such ill-tempered fools could be given any position of responsibility. if heaped together. and to get boys who would confess to being leaders in the work. and had absolutely. The Sergeants decided that four would be sufficient to answer the purpose. which lasted very well until a hard rain came. when they dissolved into red mire about the bodies of their miserable inmates. shaped like a bee hive.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. He was not suffering any. They had recourse to the clay of the swamp. of whom he inquired tantalizingly: "Air ye're hungry enough to give up them G-d d d s—s of b——s yet?" That night thirteen thousand men.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. BARRETT'S INSANE CRUELTY—HOW HE PUNISHED THOSE ALLEGED TO BE ENGAGED IN TUNNELING—THE MISERY IN THE STOCKADE—MEN'S LIMBS ROTTING OFF WITH DRY GANGRENE. why should he relax his severity? He strolled leisurely out from his dinner table. until exhaustion forced them to become quiet. from which in a day's time the camp could have been supplied with material enough to give every man a comfortable hut. but they did not know their man. and still no signs of yielding by Barrett. or knocked down such as were within reach of their fists. Something must be done. would not sum up a greater aggregate of anguish than was endured by them. sat on the ground and pressed their bowels in by leaning against sticks of wood laid across their thighs. self-satisfied way of a coarse man who has just filled his stomach to his entire content—an attitude and an air that was simply maddening to the famishing wretches. A short time previous to our entry Barrett thought he had reason to suspect a tunnel. The great majority were not so well off as these. Winder had found in Barrett even a better tool for his cruel purposes than Wirz. It required high courage to do this. fainting with hunger. All the cruelties of the terrible Spanish Inquisition. The boys thought he would surely relent the next day. so that the first day they were cut off the sufferings were fearful. He immediately announced that no more rations should be issued until its whereabouts was revealed and the ringleaders in the attempt to escape delivered up to him. from which they fashioned rude sun-dried bricks. The third day came.

I'll learn these Yanks to be more afeard of me than of the old devil himself. will ye? Ye'll try to git out. but let me down from here!" The only effect of this upon Barrett was to light up his brutal face with a leer of fiendish satisfaction. and were carried away to the hospital. where they were weeks in recovering from the effects. They'll soon understand that I'm not the man to fool with. a burning fever was consuming them. and had resolved to stand their punishment without a groan. and two or three Rebels hauled upon it until the miserable Yankee was lifted from the ground.htm Barrett. but this was too much for human endurance. to feed the men he was going to torture. Each one screamed: "For God's sake. The devoted four were brought out—one by one—and their hands tied together behind their backs. kill me! kill me! Shoot me if—you want to. Though thousands were continually dying. I am. The boys who had offered themselves as a sacrifice for the rest were put into a guard house. One of the commonest of sights was to see men whose hands and feet were simply rotting off. when I git started. he set about his entertainment. More uniformly wretched creatures I had never before seen. To the locker-on it seemed long hours. after which the rope was thrown over a log projecting from the roof of the guard house.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. clean. and they shrieked aloud so pitifully that a young Reserve standing near fainted. Their will was strong. so that a large portion of those inside looked in fairly good condition. and swallowed it raw. to the poor fellows themselves it was ages. but Nature could not be denied. and thousands had their extremities so badly frozen as to destroy the life in those parts. won't yer?" Then walking from one prisoner to another. I'm old pizen. and doubtless fortified himself with some of the villainous sorgum whisky. Up to the time of our departure from Andersonville the constant influx of new prisoners had prevented the misery and wasting away of life from becoming fully realized. he said: "D—-n yer skins. The agony was simply excruciating. Then a noose of a slender. but in many instances mixed the meal up with water. Frequently their stomachs. The nights were frequently so cold that ice a quarter of an inch thick formed on the water. I'll learn ye all about that. thousands more of healthy. The other three were treated in the same manner. while his weight seemed tearing his limbs from his shoulder blades. and kept over night that Barrett might make a day of the amusement of torturing them. Perhaps it was an hour or more. Jest hear 'em squeal. and run through the country stealin' and carryin' off niggers. strong hemp rope was slipped over the first one's thumbs and drawn tight. Some of them were crippled for life. the money which made such a show about the sutler shops of Andersonville had been spent. too. After he had laid in a hearty breakfast. the same lack-luster eyes and hopeless countenances. and induce a rotting of the tissues by 343 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . ad infinitum. and hundreds more were so debilitated by the terrible strain that they did not linger long afterward. and there was in every face the same look of ghastly emaciation. The naked frames of starving men were poorly calculated to withstand this frosty rigor. d——d ef I don't kill ye ez soon ez I ketch ye." And so on. If I ketch ye at this sort of work again. Put now no new prisoners had come in for months. Hundreds died within a few days. well-clothed men were as continually coming in from the front. which the Rebels were now reduced to drinking. all fainted. irritated by the long fast. He said to the guards with a gleeful wink: "By God. He was considerate enough. any very many had reached the stage where they loathed food. When they were let down at last. who thereupon ordered the rations to be sent in. When we came into the prison there were about eleven thousand there. The boys were brave. the same shrunken muscles and feeble limbs. rejected the mess. The starving men in the Stockade could not wait after the rations were issued to cook them. and seething their brains with delirium. and makin' more trouble than yer d——d necks are worth.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. How long the boys were kept up there undergoing this torture can not be said. ye'll dig tunnels. and hung suspended by the thumbs.gutenberg.

and thousands finally carried their putrefied limbs through our lines. to be treated by our Surgeons. as I was passing: "S-a-y. and cut my toes off?" answered the inmate. but simply let it run its course. "You'd better let one of the Rebel doctors see this. I examined the latter carefully. but this seemed to hurt the rest of the feet and annoy the man. The rotted flesh frequently remained in its place for a long time —a loathsome but painless mass.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. except little pads at the ends. The little tendons still remained. "before you conclude to have them off. that gradually sloughed off.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. "Just take these shears.gutenberg. and try to check the disease by wholesale amputation. after finishing my survey. when the Confederacy broke up in the Spring. May be they can be saved.htm a dry gangrene. and dreadful to the last degree. leaving the bones as clean as if scraped. Sergeant! Won't you please take these shears and cut my toes off?" "What?" said I. and elevating a foot for me to look at. All the flesh of the toes." I said. white cords." 344 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . leaving the sinews that passed through it to stand out like shining. in amazement. I had been in prison but a little while when a voice called out from a hole in the ground. an Indiana infantryman—holding up a pair of dull shears in his hand. won't you. it was more generally diffused. stopping in front of the dugout. and held the bones to their places. had rotted off. The Rebel Surgeons at Florence did not follow the habit of those at Andersonville. While this was in some respects less terrible than the hospital gangrene at Andersonville.

and declare that he felt as well refreshed as if he had slept on a spring mattress. bother! what business is that of yours? They're my toes. I picked them up and handed them to their owner.htm "No. and taking the shears.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. the proprietor of a hole in the ground covered with an arch of adobe bricks. whom we found in the prison. take the shears and cut 'em off. and I want 'em off." to which I belonged. being assigned to these vacancies according to the initials of our surnames. now. and in a few seconds had the whole ten toes lying in a heap at the bottom of the dug-out. Some of our company.gutenberg. and looked out for its sick during the rest of our stay there. and in it a little fireplace to economize our scanty fuel to the last degree. We hoisted our blanket upon these. which we sewed on with yarn raveled from other fragments of woolen cloth. put his two bits of board so that they joined over his breast." CHAPTER LXX HOUSE AND CLOTHES—EFFORTS TO ERECT A SUITABLE RESIDENCE—DIFFICULTIES ATTENDING THIS—VARIETIES OF FLORENTINE ARCHITECTURE—WAITING FOR DEAD MEN'S CLOTHES—CRAVING FOR TOBACCO. The pinching cold cured me of my repugnance to wearing dead men's clothes. and then I wouldn't. complacently." "O. I'd die first. One of these. donated us the three sticks necessary to make tent-poles —wonderful generosity when the preciousness of firewood is remembered. in which he would slumber quietly till morning. Cold as this was we decided that it was safer to endure it and risk frost-biting every night than to build one of the mud-walled and mud-covered holes that so many. This separated Andrews and me. "I might lame you for life. and began fixing up what little we could to protect ourselves against the weather. and its Sergeant dying shortly after." whereupon his friends would cover him up with dry sand from the sides of his domicile. or rather it made my 345 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM ." was the reply. They hurt me so I can't sleep." "I don't like to. We watched the dead men to get pieces of cloth from their garments to make patches. Just try it. the same rolls being used that we had signed as paroles. and remarked: "Well. and that no one lived long who inhabited them. There has been much talk of earth baths of late years in scientific and medical circles. sufficiently large to contain his body below his neck. These were much warmer than lying out on the frozen ground. It's just a little snip. I won't be bothered with corns any more. and commanded the hundred. I was given his place. "You can do it better than they can." I yielded. I flatter myself. made out its rolls. We were put into the old squads to fill the places of those who had recently died." I replied. went into the next Thousand. lived in. and make you lots of trouble. Andrews and I got together again. and much better off than most of our neighbors. Come. I'm darned glad they're off. cover me over. built a wall of mud bricks at one end. had absolutely no bed-clothes except a couple of short pieces of board—and very little other clothing. At nightfall he would crawl into this. when he would rise. for the "A's" were taken to fill up the first hundreds of the First Thousand. but we believed that they were very unhealthy. He dug a trench in the bottom of what was by courtesy called his tent. boys. who gazed at them. d——d if I'm going to have any of them Rebel butchers fooling around me. and then say: "Now. and were once more at home. while the "M's. drew its rations. close to the feet. snipped one tendon after another. I have been sorry that our Florence comrade if he still lives—did not contribute the results of his experience.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. So we set about repairing our faithful old blanket—now full of great holes. shake the sand from his garments. I was put into the Second Hundred of the Second Thousand.

and I began foraging among the corpses for garments. I had picked up a pair of boot bottoms. come right across the line there and I'll drop you down a bit. and left the rest of the clothes to those who were more needy than I. Yet every night a group of boys would be found standing at the head of the path crying out: "Fill your buckets for a chew of tobacco. chewers frequently became so desperate as to beg the guards to throw them a bit of the precious nicotine." That is. which answered me for shoes. dark trousers. My first "find" of any importance was a young Pennsylvania Zouave. I have frequently seen so many as fifty of these. the first real covering those members had had for four or five months. can't you give a fellow a chew of tobacco?" To which the guard replied: "Yes. Almost the next morning I had the good fortune to find a dead man with a warm. There were no sacrifices they would not make to obtain it. and do my hunting. except his baggy. and fire upon him. When means of barter were gone. scraped out from each of the dozens of great folds in the legs about a half pint of lice. and the guard—a boy of sixteen—raised his gun and killed him. trying to keep warm by exercise. were very likely to imagine that any one going along the path for water was across the Dead Line. The nights were so cold that many could not sleep. Towards morning. It was as bad as going upon the skirmish line to go for water after nightfall. His clothes were all badly worn. and it was no uncommon thing for boys to trade off half their rations for a chew of "navy plug. The pantaloons only came down about half-way between my knees and feet. which was a mere furrow in the ground. infantry dress-coat. careful housewife. and drew the garments over my own half-frozen limbs.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. but on one of them I was rewarded with finding a corpse with a good brown one —army make—and a few days later I got another. of blue yarn. a good." The unsuspecting prisoner stepped across the Dead Line. by some patient. This took several morning expeditions. becoming exhausted. the path down to the Creek lay right along side of the Dead Line. Before one was fairly cold his clothes would be appropriated and divided. 346 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . they would lie down on the ground almost anywhere. I now considered my wardrobe complete. in their zeal to kill somebody. who was lying dead near the bridge that crossed the Creek. I removed these. and they would walk up and down the streets. a prisoner on the East Side approached one of the Reserves with the request: "Say. At the North Side of the prison. I found that dying men with good clothes were as carefully watched over by sets of fellows who constituted themselves their residuary legatees as if they were men of fortune dying in the midst of a circle of expectant nephews and nieces. Those who used tobacco seemed to suffer more from a deprivation of the weed than from lack of food. As I still had for a shirt the blouse Andrews had given me at Millen." As long as one had anything —especially buttons—to trade.htm nakedness so painful that I was glad to cover it as best I could. Guard. thick genuine one. but still they were wonderfully comfortable to what I had been—or rather not been—wearing. and die. they were willing to take all the risk of running that gauntlet for this moderate compensation. Shortly after our arrival at Florence. whole. which were nearly new. knit at home.gutenberg. and I have seen many sharp fights between contesting claimants. At night the guards. and now I began a hunt for socks. tobacco could be procured from the guards. For awhile my efforts to set myself up in the mortuary second-hand clothing business were not all successful. who were plentifully supplied with it. I soon perceived that my best chance was to get up very early in the morning.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. a most serviceable garment.

The pitch-pine produced great quantities of soot. Less than half as much as is contained in a penny bunch of kindling was made to suffice in preparing our daily meal." and 347 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and communicating with the prison by a hole two or three feet square. One morning." to use the words of Dickens's Fat Boy. upon examining the pockets of an infantryman of my hundred who had just died.htm CHAPTER LXXI. I had the wonderful luck to find a silver quarter. By an effort he succeeded in calming himself to the point of receiving the news with philosophic coolness. I hurried off to tell Andrews of our unexpected good fortune. There was not a nail or a bolt used in their entire construction. buried them in the bottom of our tent. and the next morning we determined upon investing our twenty-five cents in sweet potatos. etc. as we could get nearly a half-bushel of them. when we hung over the fires all the time. until at last they settled down to a piece about the size of a kitchen rolling-pin per day for each man. than anything else offered us. DECEMBER—RATIONS OF WOOD AND FOOD GROW LESS DAILY—UNCERTAINTY AS TO THE MORTALITY AT FLORENCE—EVEN THE GOVERNMENT'S STATISTICS ARE VERY DEFICIENT—CARE FOB THE SICK. The articles for sale were corn meal and bread. The Dead Line was broken at this point. The stump Andrews and I had the foresight to save now did us excellent service. If we baked bread we spread the dough upon our chessboard. Forked posts at the ends and sides supported poles upon which were laid the long "shakes. and we went into Committee of the Whole Upon the State of Our Stomachs. of that rude architecture common to the coarser sort of buildings in the South. and restricted ourselves to two per day until we had eaten them all. sweet potatos. I went down to the place. and piled the little sticks around it so carefully that none should burn without yielding all its heat to the vessel. molasses. carried them home in our blanket. as well as warming. with our hands and bodies. A hospital was established in the northwestern corner of the Stockade. flour and wheat bread. The rations of wood grew smaller as the weather grew colder.gutenberg. honey. At the south side of the Stockade on the outside of the timbers." we let nothing in the way of caloric be wasted by distance.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and used them parsimoniously. "That the white man built a big fire and sat away off from it. to consider how the money could be spent to the best advantage. the Indian made a little fire and got up close to it. while within five minutes' walk from the prison-gate stood enough timber to build a great city. so as to permit prisoners to come up to the hole to trade. and not one more was burned than absolutely necessary. which. There was the same economy of fuel in cooking. blackened our faces until we were beyond the recognition of intimate friends. kept by a Rebel. The sides and ends were enclosed by similar "shakes.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. composed of our own men. in fact. and propped it up before the little fire-place. in cold and rainy days. We had to pinch and starve ourselves thus. beaus. I came back. never building a fire so big that it could not be covered with a half-peck measure. and studied the relative food value of each. It was pitch pine. We hovered closely over this—covering it. reported my observations and conclusions to Andrews. and then staid at the tent while he went on a similar errand. so that not a particle of heat was lost. forming the roofs. The Rebels did something more towards properly caring for the sick than at Andersonville. If we cooked mush we elevated our little can an inch from the ground upon a chunk of clay. The consideration of the matter was continued during the day and night." or split shingles. carefully inspected the stock. This had to serve for all purposes —cooking. and which were held in place by other poles laid upon them. to keep them from being stolen. and separated from the rest of the camp by a line of police. very fat with resin. meat. In this space several large sheds were erected. We split the rations up into slips about the size of a carpenter's lead pencil. cut through the logs. which was "more fillin' at the price. and used every particle of heat evolved. priced everything there. We bought the potatos. Remembering the Indian's sage remark. was a sutler shop. and a little piece split off each day added much to our fires and our comfort.

putrid.htm altogether they formed quite a fair protection against the weather.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. or to exchange their lice-infested garments for others less full of torture.gutenberg. speedily fatal gangrene of Andersonville became here a dry. or would have been. The filthy. Beds of pine leaves were provided for the sick. and some coverlets. had we not become accustomed to them. Men who had laid in their mud hovels until they had become helpless and hopeless. which 348 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . without being necessarily fatal. Men's feet and legs. decayed and sloughed off. The diseases were different in character from those which swept off the prisoners at Andersonville. The long tangled hair and whiskers were not cut. The appearance of these was.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and less frequently their hands and arms. and sometimes startled one by dropping off in a lump. The parts became so dead that a knife could be run through them without causing a particle of pain. usually only to die. here of the respiratory. There they were mostly of the digestive organs. frightful. nor indeed were any of the commonest suggestions for the improvement of the condition of the sick put into execution. slow wasting away of the parts. were admitted to the hospital. The dead flesh hung on to the bones and tendons long after the nerves and veins had ceased to perform their functions. of course. which continued for weeks. even months. The spectacle of men with their feet and legs a mass of dry ulceration. which our Sanitary Commission had been allowed to send through. But nothing was done to bathe or cleanse them. without causing pain or hemorrhage.

.. died. of three thousand three hundred and ninety. 16... Nor can I find that anybody else is in possession of much more than my own information on the subject. 187...... it is fair to presume that not less than that number were confined there on a certain date... and the hundred and thousand to which he belonged is recorded opposite each man's name on said register........ but from this register........... Total.. and that more than that number were confined there during the time it was continued as a prison... 11. The prison records of Florence... three hundred and twenty-six..... 227... I had now been a prisoner a year. 11th thousand. Inquiry at the War Department has elicited the following letters: I..674 Percentage of deaths ....... five hundred and thirty-eight. and the percentage of deaths............ that I cared comparatively little for anything save the rations of food and of fuel. Since date of said report there have been added to the records as follows: Died. mentally and physically.. two hundred and twelve............. was too common to excite remark or even attention... one....... since I had ceased to interest myself about the number dying each day. (less the number paroled on the field)......... The hospital register on file contains that part only of the alphabet subsequent to..768 349 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM ....htm had reduced the flesh to putrescent deadness.. and left the tendons standing out like cords.774 Percentage of deaths ....... according to the changes of the weather...... is a small proportion of the number actually confined there.... 1869..gutenberg.. as shown by records on file. it was shown from records as follows: Escaped....... and occasionally ragging in destructive epidemics.. This....... and had become so torpid and stupefied.. it is shown that the prisoners were arranged in hundreds and thousands.... I am unable to speak with any degree of definiteness as to the death rate................. two thousand eight hundred and fifty-two. 1861-1865 FEDERALS Captured ..ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. In the report to Congress of March 1......375 CONFEDERATES Captured .... C.... or a large splinter of wood in the daily issues to me...... fifty-eight...... The difference of a few spoonfuls of meal.. and including part of the letter S. nor do I think that any statement purporting to show that number has ever been made.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h... no one specially heeded his condition... S.. II.. two thousand seven hundred and ninety-three....." Eleven thousand being the highest number thus recorded.. no doubt...570 Died . Total. paroled...... 30.. Unless the victim was a comrade. 26. have never come to light... and therefore the number of prisoners confined there could not be ascertained from the records on file in this office. Thus: "John Jones... enlisted in Rebel army.... Lung diseases and low fevers ravaged the camp.... At Andersonville I frequently took the trouble to count the number of dead and living.... Statement showing the whole number of Federals and Confederates captured.... 10th hundred.. were of more actual importance than the increase or decrease of the death rate by a half a score or more.. (as shown by prison and hospital records on file)................ the number who died while prisoners.....818 Died.... but all curiosity of this kind had now died out..... existing all the time in a more or less virulent condition.. Making a total disposed of from there...

Calculating the percentage of deaths on this basis would give the number of deaths at thirty-seven thousand four hundred and forty-five and percentage of deaths at 20. which it undoubtedly was. The red pepper I used to warm up our bread and mush. damp. even this flimsy substitute was inexpressibly grateful to palate and stomach. and succeeded in drawing a small quantity of each.] If we assume that the Government's records of Florence as correct.. and an imitation of sweet oil made from peanuts. which had now become so loathsome to us. much the worse place and more fatal to life. Atlanta. 1864 alone. or with wild cherry bark the consumption of a man lying in a cold.. made by fermenting a small quantity of meal in a barrel of water. of eleven hundred and fifty deaths.. I reported to them an imaginary comrade in my tent. but since that date evidence of three thousand six hundred and twenty-eight additional deaths has been obtained from the captured Confederate records. Ga. But one morning the Hospital Steward made a mistake.htm In the detailed statement prepared for Congress dated March 1. But it was idle to attempt to arrest with blackberry root the diarrhea. whose symptoms indicated those remedies. of the Sixteenth Connecticut. S.. since the physical condition of the prisoners confined there had been greatly depressed by their long confinement. it will be apparent that one man in every three die there. and Salisbury. and struggling to maintain life upon less than a pint of unsalted corn meal per diem. He had relatives living in 350 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and gave me castor oil instead. devoured by vermin... For diarrhea red pepper and decoctions of blackberry root and of pine leave were given.. The peanut oil served to give a hint of the animal food we hungered for.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.. mud hovel. given me by a boy named Henry Clay Montague Porter. Salisbury. Ga. food and clothing. the Confederate "burial report". For the month of December.. were given a weak acid drink. C. and would have benefitted the patients had they been accompanied by proper shelter. Chills and fever were treated with decoctions of dogwood bark. This would make the mortality much greater than at Andersonville. 1869. N. I think also that all who experienced confinement in the two places are united in pronouncing Florence to be. This is believed to be many thousands less than the actual number of Federal prisoners who died in Confederate prisons. or twenty per cent. since. [End of the Letters from the War Department. while there might have been as high as fifty thousand at one time in the prison. and the consequences were unpleasant. making a total of twenty-nine thousand nine hundred and fifty-six as above shown. It was greasy. For coughs and lung diseases. It also appears from Confederate inspection reports of Confederate prisons. Ala. two or three times a week. Finding that the doctors issued red pepper for diarrhea. while the bulk c the prisoners at Andersonville were those who had been brought thither directly from the field. the whole number of deaths given as shown by Prisoner of War records was twenty-six thousand three hundred and twenty-eight. Marietta. a decoction of wild cherry bark was administered. are very incomplete. on the whole. S.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Ga. Mobile. about the size of walnuts. C. show that out. and as we did not have any meat for three months. Charleston. as the only records of said prisons on file (with one exception) are the Hospital records. Millen. and give some different taste to the corn meal. The records of Florence. during the last three months of its existence I am quite sure that the number did not exceed seven thousand. C. and others. and fever patients who craved something sour.023. as we have no records from those at Montgomery Ala. that large percentage of the deaths occurred in prison quarter without the care or knowledge of the Surgeon. two hundred and twenty-three..gutenberg. N. and therefore not taken into consideration in the above report. A more agreeable remembrance is that of two small apples. The medicines furnished the sick were quite simple in nature and mainly composed of indigenous substances. C. died in prison quarters and are not accounted for in the report of the Surgeon. All these remedies were quite good in their way. for the gangrenous sores above described.

These men are outlaws who have not only broken their oaths to the Government. Home. turned it over and inspected it curiously for some time without apparently getting the least idea of what it was for. or refresh their remembrances of home. out of which. had a sister living at Augusta. Joe Darling. with: "Here. and in addition. Ga. By far the largest portion of those the Rebels obtained were of this class. relatives. mostly made up from the old Raider crowd." Still another class.gutenberg. Speaking of eatables reminds me of an incident. loose-jointed Georgia cracker—who in all his life seen very little more inviting food than the his hominy and molasses. since quite a number were turned back in after their utter uselessness had been demonstrated. They went out more than for anything else because their hearts were prone to evil and they did that which was wrong in preference to what was right." Before them they saw nothing but weeks of slow and painful progress towards bitter death. and with much better success than at any previous time. but I imaging this is under the truth. however. They are perjurers and traitors. and usually closed their arguments in defense of their course with: "No oath administered by a Rebel can have any binding obligation. but this was very few when the 351 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . DULL WINTER DAYS—TOO WEAK AND TOO STUPID To AMUSE OURSELVES —ATTEMPTS OF THE REBELS TO RECRUIT US INTO THEIR ARMY—THE CLASS OF MEN THEY OBTAINED —VENGEANCE ON "THE GALVANIZED"—A SINGULAR EXPERIENCE—RARE GLIMPSES OF FUN—INABILITY OF THE REBELS TO COUNT. the oath they administer to us is under compulsion and for that reason is of no account. The other alternative was enlistment in the Rebel army. The official report says three hundred and twenty-six. enlisted from natural depravity. all that had nerved them up to endure the present and brave the future—now seemed separated from them forever by a yawning and impassable chasm. of the First Maine. who sent him a small packs of eatables. mum. For many weeks no new prisoners had come in to rouse their drooping courage with news of the progress of our arms towards final victory. the number who deserted their flag was astonishingly small.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. while sitting in Colonel Iverson's tent. I suppose that five hundred "galvanized. upon which he had been raised. After all. in the fulness of his generous heart he gave me this share—enough to make me always remember him with kindness. who occasionally came to Florence with basket of food and other necessaries for her brother. waiting for her brother to be brought out of prison. The Rebels continued their efforts to induce prisoners to enlist in their army. and the gladsomeness of "God's Country. friends. Many men had become so desperate that they were reckless as to what they did." as we termed it. I don't believe I've got any use for it" CHAPTER LXXII. but who have deserted from its service. considering all the circumstances. our Chief of Police. happiness—all they had remembered or looked forward to. and a more worthless crowd of soldiers has not been seen since Falstaff mustered his famous recruits. guard. saying: "Really.htm North Carolina. with no other intention than to escape at the first opportunity. On one of these journeys. wouldn't you like a genuine Yankee doughnut?" The guard-a lank. she picked out of her basket a nicely browned doughnut and handed it to the guard pacing in front of the tent. They justified their bad faith to the Rebels by recalling the numberless instances of the Rebels' bad faith to us.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and then handed it back to the donor.. Another class went out and joined. took the cake. and turned its arms against it.

Among them was a gigantic fellow with a fist like a wooden beetle. and.gutenberg. The latter knew him also. followed by a crowd of smaller and nimbler "shades. Before the sentence could be carried into effect Sherman came so close to the City that it was thought best to remove the prisoners. The big darky. nothing 352 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . The whole camp enjoyed it as rare fun. you —— black ——. He was originally a member of a Texas regiment and was captured at Arkansas Post. sentenced to be shot. but we held all who did so as despicable scoundrels. and in an instant despoil him of his blanket and perhaps the larger portion of his warm clothing. He then took the oath of allegiance and enlisted with us. took him for one of Foster's men. were stopped for a few hours in some little Town. had himself relieved. too vile to be adequately described in words. We had nothing to read. "I know you. and while waiting execution was confined in the jail. It was not safe for a man to announce his intention of "galvanizing. Those who went over to the enemy had to use great discretion in letting the Rebel officer. A few prisoners were brought in in December. On one occasion one hundred or more of the raider crowd who had galvanized. of course. We chose to consider their good clothes and equipments an aggravation of their offense and an insult to ourselves. nothing to make or destroy. They lost no time in stealing everything they could lay their hands upon. the smaller darkies would pounce upon him. a member of Company I's of our battalion.htm hopelessness of exchange. The luckless Charley was tried by court martial. In the confusion Charley managed to make his escape.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. guilty." for he incurred much danger of being beaten until he was physically unable to reach the gate. The motives actuating men to desert were not closely analyzed by us. the Johnnies drove our fellows. that he was in such a dangerous locality. and took him out. The operation was repeated with a dozen or more. Our days went by as stupidly and eventless as can be conceived. "Yes. and at the moment the battle of Pocataligo opened. and carrying blankets. Men were frequently knocked down and dragged away while telling the officers they wanted to go out. that used to be in my company. But the reverse happened. found. What the business is that of yours?" At that instant the bony fist of the darky. know so much of their wishes as would secure their being taker outside. without knowing. He found him with little difficulty. The plan was carried out capitally." would approach one of the leaders among them with: "Is you a Galvanized?" The surly reply would be. and lift him about a rod. who had been taken in Foster's attempt to cut the Charleston & Savannah Railroad at Pocataligo. Some of the white boys resolved to use these to wreak the camp's displeasure on the Galvanized. all well rigged out in Rebel uniforms. finding Charley in his place of concealment. They came in in the evening. especially as he momentarily expected our folks to advance and drive the Rebels away. and in a few minutes came in with an officer in search of the deserter. descending like a pile-driver. After the firing opened. the despair of life. where he staid until we went through to our lines. The moment he spoke to the man he recognized him as a former comrade in the Texas regiment. but the latter called for the Corporal of the Guard. As he fell. he thought it better to lie still than run the risk from the fire of both sides. on their way to the front.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. was lying concealed between the two lines of battle. to elude the fellow's eyes. He had had a strange experience. While we were at Savannah he approached a guard one day to trade for tobacco. and the disgusted Rebel commander ordered them to be returned to the Stockade. and it was the only time that I saw nearly every body at Florence laugh. would catch the recreant under the ear. and sent him to Florence. We had grown too spiritless and lethargic to dig tunnels or plan escapes. and the wretchedness of the condition of the eleven or twelve thousand inside the Stockade is remembered. and sang out. We had at that time quite a squad of negro soldiers inside with us." Charley backed into the crowd as quickly as possible. Among them we were astonished to find Charley Hirsch. you're Charley Hirsch.

leaping.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. The other was the antics of a circus clown—a member. made with one poor handful of splinters. on the rare occasions when we were feeling not exactly well so much as simply better than we had been. But he died long ago. enfeebled by the long disuse of it except in a few limited channels. and even no desire to contrive anything for amusement. but we were too listless to play. and Andrews and I still had our chessmen. His fingers war long. He had no teeth to eat de corn cake. and which ran something like this: There was an old darky. I believe. like de cane in de brake. De place whar de wool ought to grouw. Den hang up de fiddle an' de bow. long ago He had no wool on de top of his head. hunted up their friends. over diminutive. On cold days everybody seemed totally benumbed. The mind. flickering fires. etc. When the sun shone.htm to work with. All the cards in the prison were worn out long ago. who. I remember but two other bits of amusement we had while at Florence. which they did with great gusto when the weather became mild. an' his name was Uncle Ned. of a Connecticut or a New York regiment. 353 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . more activity was visible. CHORUS. was unfitted for even so much effort as was involved in a game for pastime. Nor were there any physical exercises. would give us an hour or two of recitations of the drolleries with which he was wont to set the crowded canvas in a roar. For dere's no more hard work for poor Uncle Ned He's gone whar de good niggahs go. boxing. was a stilted paraphrase of "Old Uncle Ned" a song very popular a quarter of a century ago. So he had to let de corn cake be. There was no running. I remember. All were too weak and hungry to make any exertion beyond that absolutely necessary. moody and sullen. During the warmest part of the day everybody disrobed. and spent an hour or more killing the lice that had waxed and multiplied to grievous proportions during the few days of comparative immunity. such as that crowd of young men would have delighted in under other circumstances. nothing to play with. and saw what gaps death—always busiest during the cold spells—had made in the ranks of their acquaintances. One of his happiest efforts. Little groups everywhere hovered for hours. And his eyes war too dim for to see. Boys wandered around. Besides the whipping of the Galvanized by the darkies.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Some of the boys had made dominos from bones.gutenberg. wrestling. CHORUS Den lay down de shubel an' de hoe. The camp would be silent and still. One of these was in hearing the colored soldiers sing patriotic songs. jumping.

htm His legs were so bowed dat he couldn't lie still. who believed himself made of finer clay than most mortals. CHORUS. I have before alluded several times to the general inability of Rebels to count accurately. And so on. In the hands of this artist the song became— CHORUS. and knew the Rule of Three as well as a Presbyterian boy does the Shorter Catechism. An' de tears ran down massa's cheek like rain. He possessed no capillary substance on the summit of his cranium. And suspend the musical instruments in peace neon the wall. One cold frosty morning old Uncle Ned died. So he had to take a pill through his nose. The place designated by kind Nature for the capillary substance to vegetate. He would never see poor Uncle Ned again. He thought South Carolina aristocracy the finest gentry. For he knew when Uncle Ned was laid in de groun'. and though an inborn young aristocrat.gutenberg.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. But he is deceased since a remote period. he was not a bad fellow at all. One continually met phases of this that seemed simply incomprehensible to us. These rare flashes of fun only served to throw the underlying misery out in greater relief. Then let the agricultural implements rest recumbent upon the ground. His neck was so crooked dot he couldn't take a pill. For there's no more physical energy to be displayed by our Indigent Uncle Edward He has departed to that place set apart by a beneficent Providence for the Reception of the better class of Africans. a very remote period.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. It was like lightning playing across the surface of a dreary morass. and the South Carolina Military Institute the greatest 354 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . There was an aged and indigent African whose cognomen was Uncle Edward. An' he had no nails on his toes. who had taken in the multiplication table almost with our mother's milk. A cadet—an undergraduate of the South Carolina Military Institute —called our roll at Florence. CHORUS. even in low numbers.

but his aim was still bad. It is true that we had expected no change. and shouted curses and imprecations. and then made to file slowly back—one at a time—between two guards stationed on the little bridge that spanned the Creek. for the life of him. can do it. As it would have cankered his soul to feel that he was being beaten out of a half-dozen rations by the superior cunning of the Yankees. coming to a little gully jumped. while one foot and three inches of the top is broken off?" In a minute a dozen answered. He was very awkward. facing the west. When reminded that the day was one that in all Christendom was sacred to good cheer and joyful 355 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . but his fit subsided before he obtained it. striking in the bank above us. We yelled still louder.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.—memories now bitter because they marked the high tide whence our fortunes had receded to this despicable state—came. The first time this was done after our arrival he gave us a display of his wanton malevolence. one-fifth of which is in the mud. and Colonel Iverson. he could get our number correctly. shook his fist. He snatched out his revolver. CHRISTMAS—AND THE WAY THE WAS PASSED—THE DAILY ROUTINE OF RATION DRAWING—SOME PECULIARITIES OF LIVING AND DYING. he adopted a plan which he must have learned at some period of his life when he was a hog or sheep drover. two-thirds in the water. CHAPTER LXXIII. and none have got the right answer. and such things. Barrett was walking along the opposite edge of the swamp. and hardly knew when it arrived. and began firing at our line." "Heavens. We were nearly all assembled on the East Side. and. he unburdened his mind: "Now you fellers are all so d—-d peart on mathematics. it. He posted of to get another gun. so indifferent were we to the lapse of time. Then he jerked a gun from a guard and fired. our red-headed tormentor. Dismissing our hundred after roll-call. smart as you think you are. but that is common with all South Carolinians. By this means. but I guess I've got something this time that'll settle you." Lieutenant Barrett. if you South Carolina Institute fellows couldn't answer such questions as that they wouldn't allow you in the infant class up North." said he. could not. We all yelled derisively. and one-eighth above the water.htm institution of learning in the world. One day he came in so full of some matter of rare importance that we became somewhat excited as to its nature. and I'm powerful sure that none of you. that you want to snap me up on every opportunity. He turned toward us in a fury. and all the officers out there have been figuring on it ever since. and one of our fellows said contemptuously: "Why. "Well. and came near falling into the mud. Every Sunday morning all in the camp were driven across the Creek to the East Side. if he was able to count up to one hundred. and were standing in ranks. "One hundred and fifty feet. Christmas. Its something that a fellow gave out yesterday. let's hear this wonderful problem. We still yelled.gutenberg. count those inside in hundreds and thousands in such a manner as to be reasonably certain of correctness.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. at the edge of the swamp. with its swelling flood of happy memories." The cadet could only look his amazement at the possession of such an amount of learning by a crowd of mudsills. we had not looked forward to the day. and the bullet sang over our heads." said we all. but brought no change to mark its coming. and earth. The distance was considerable—say four or five hundred feet—and the bullets struck in the mud in advance of the line. "what is the length of a pole standing in a river.

long-time friends. As there are thirty-two quarts in a bushel. brothers and sisters. and allowed to pick out and carry away one. such treatment as we received in Andersonville. Let the reader imagine—anywhere he likes—a fifteen-acre field. but lie around on the ground. One quarter of them—two thousand five hundred—pick up brush. until the gates opened to admit the rations. but Florence showed us a much lower depth. The weather was in harmony with our feelings. to a certain degree. from which there was little hope that we would ever be exempt. The huts are in no case as good shelter as an ordinarily careful farmer provides for his swine. The number intended for the day's issue were all brought in and piled up in the street. as our beggarly little ration of saltless corn meal was to the sumptuous cheer that loaded the dinner-tables of our Northern homes.htm meetings. debilitated by months of imprisonment. Every week saw a reduction in the number. We thought we had sounded the depths of misery at Andersonville. Then there was a division of the sacks to the thousands. on old blankets and overcoats. it would still go much farther towards supporting life than the handful of saltless meal at Florence. bracing sharpness of a Northern Christmas morning. eight bushels. That many did live is only an astonishing illustration of the tenacity of life in some individuals. made by standing logs on end.. hung stupidly over the flickering little fires. with which they build shelters that wash down at every hard rain. as shelter from the rain and wind. splits from logs. work the mud up into rude bricks. I cannot understand how anybody could live through a month of Florence. and a piece of wood about the size of an ordinary stick for a cooking stove to cook it with. Half of the prisoners—five thousand—who cannot do so well.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. etc. All stood around and counted each sack of meal. by taking due precautions. and healthy in every way. Let them be given not to exceed a pint of corn meal a day. until by midwinter the daily issue to a thousand averaged four sacks. Perhaps it was well. leaden sky was as sharp a contrast with the crisp." parents and children. and in day-time prop these up on sticks. hunger. or the four.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. It softened the poignancy of our reflections over the difference in the condition of ourselves and our happier comrades who were elsewhere. to get an idea of the rations we were likely to receive. It could not come to us again. with a stream running through the center. that wherever the upraised cross proclaimed followers of Him who preached "Peace on Earth and good will to men. sufficient to make huts that will turn the rain tolerably. that we felt so. with the forces of life strong within him. until all were taken. The experience we had had of it belonged to the dim and irrevocable past. While I believe it possible for any young man. on an average. When we entered the prison each thousand received. The remaining two thousand five hundred do not do even this. or less than a half pint each. Let him imagine this inclosed by a Stockade eighteen feet high. turned inside this inclosure. it was still not so bad as having one's life chilled out by exposure in nakedness upon the frozen ground to biting winds and freezing sleet. We turned out languidly in the morning to roll-call. cold and wasting disease had become the ordinary conditions of existence.gutenberg. Let him conceive of ten thousand feeble men. The dull. ten or eleven sacks a day. maggotfilled bread of Andersonville was. For an hour there was bustle and animation. pieces of rail. Wretched as the rusty bacon and coarse. It seemed years since we had known anything of the kind. nor we go to it. one thousand men received two hundred and fifty-six quarts. and all congenial spirits were gathering around hospitable boards to delight in each other's society. gray. Then let such weather prevail as we 356 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . without a yard of covering given them. the Sergeant of each being called up in turn. endured silently the raving abuse of the cowardly brute Barrett. Bad as was parching under the burning sun whose fiery rays bred miasma and putrefaction. Squalor. and strengthen the bonds of unity between them. to survive. Let us say that one of these sacks held two bushels. This was a daily custom. and told to make their homes there. we listened as to a tale told of some foreign land from which we had parted forever more.

that man's dead. lying there with his eyes closed. with frequent days and nights when the ice forms as thick as a pane of glass. and said with a painful effort: "F-i-r-s-t R-a-t-e!" This scene was repeated every morning for over a week. wherever we moved. it would simply grow still slower and feebler in some. he isn't. was running slowly and feebly. Looking back. and took his partner away to the gate. or manifesting any. one morning." His name was Bickford. and then he was carried out to join the two score others being loaded into the wagon. he belonged to the Twenty-First Ohio Volunteer Infantry. The machinery of life in all of us. When we picked up Bickford we found he still lived. When the Rebel Surgeon came in on his rounds." We laid him back to die. on the vessels coming to Annapolis." Stooping. was little of the violence of dissolution so common at Andersonville. was unknown. and every morning Bickford would gasp out with troublesome exertion that he felt: "F-i-r-s-t R-a-t-e!" It ended one morning by his inability. none but the Recording Angel can tell. Every day the Rebel Surgeon would insist that the man should betaken out. Nightly one of two or three comrades sleeping together would die. in an hour or so. I remember one who. I showed him Bickford. 357 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . desire to get away from the corpse. O. so long as I was with the doleful caravan. was —"an unconscionable long time in dying. I shook the boy sharply. He will be astonished to learn that probably not more than four or five thousand of those who underwent this in Florence died there. and I was not surprised. as we supposed. on making my rounds. without a sensation to manifest it.gutenberg. and was in my hundred. the most salient characteristic seems to be the ease with which men died.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. or after they reached home. to find them apparently quite dead. or at most a fortnight. I called help. CHAPTER LXXIV. Such a thing as a boy making an outcry when he discovered his comrade dead. as Charles II. would see the last and strongest of these ten thousand lying dead in the frozen mire where he wallowed. and then stop without a jar.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. but the lips opened slowly. said of himself. near Findlay. lived. and had strength enough to gasp out: "You fellers had better let me alone. but lie up the closer to it until morning. NEW YEAR'S DAY—DEATH OF JOHN H. There. and limbs motionless. How long does he think men could live through that? He will probably say that a week. The survivors would not know it until they tried to get him to "spoon" over. As they could not spare even so little heat as was still contained in his body. How many died after release—in Washington. Just see. when they would find him rigid and motionless. WINDER—HE DIES ON HIS WAY TO A DINNER —SOMETHING AS TO CHARACTER AND CAREER—ONE OF THE WORST MEN THAT EVER LIVED. His partner and he were both in a very bad condition. they would not remove this. to make his usual answer. I think. in hospital and camp at Annapolis.htm ordinarily have in the North in November—freezing cold rains. why don't you have him taken out?" I replied: "No. after these lapse of years.. The Surgeon said: "O. All that I know is we left a trail of dead behind us. and said: "Bickford! Bickford!! How do you feel?" The eyes did not unclose.

" No twenty regiments in the Rebel Army ever succeeded in slaying anything like thirteen thousand Yankees in six months. Winder—was dead. with great objects. at whose door can be laid such a terrible load of human misery. by coming into contact with the enemy. he could say with a quiet chuckle that he was "doing more to kill off the Yankees than twenty regiments at the front. until the patience even of the citizens of Richmond gave way. Just as Winder bent his head to enter the tent he fell. But Winder was an obscure. And shut the gates of mercy on mankind. but at last yielded. Brigadier General John H. that he might find excuse for harrying and persecuting. and it was always insisted that his last words were: "My faith is in Christ. Be sure and cut down the prisoners' rations. and pressure was brought upon Jefferson Davis to secure the suppression of his satellite. whose benefits they thought would be more than an equivalent for the suffering they caused. and the substitution in his place of some one who unites both energy and good judgment with some feelings of humanity and consideration for the welfare and 358 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . Jefferson Davis. I doubt if the history of the world can show another man.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. his father had lost reputation and almost his commission. he would take no such foolish risks. The wildest tales malice and vindictiveness could concoct found welcome reception in his ears. Colonel D. Winder. but took up his quarters in Richmond. The delight of the Richmond people was great. or any other time. surveying the thousands of new graves at Andersonville. and shot people. It seemed that the Rebel Sutler of the Post had prepared in his tent a grand New Year's dinner to which all the officers were invited. dull old man—the commonplace descendant of a pseudo-aristocrat whose cowardly incompetence had once cost us the loss of our National Capital. he was restrained somewhat by public opinion and the laws of the land. 1865—certainly not less than twenty-five thousand incarcerated men died in the most horrible manner that the mind can conceive. when. reported back. T. insulted. There have been many great conquerors and warriors who have Waded through slaughter to a throne." Thus passed away the chief evil genius of the Prisoners-of-War. under date of August 5.gutenberg. High-Inquisitor and Chief Eavesdropper for his intimate friend. From the time he assumed command of all the Prisons east of the Mississippi—some time in the Fall of 1863—until death removed him. American history has no other character approaching his in vileness. His cold blooded cruelty was such as to disgust even the Rebel officers. The boys said it was a clear case of Death by Visitation of the Devil. He arrested.htm On New Year's Day we were startled by the information that our old-time enemy—General John H. imprisoned. When false expectations of the ultimate triumph of Secession led him to cast his lot with the Southern Confederacy. Chandler. January 1. Before. banished. These no longer deterred him. More prudent than his runaway father. but they were great men. he did not solicit a command in the field. to become a sort of Informer-General.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. with grand plans to carry out. 1864: "My duty requires me respectfully to recommend a change in the officer in command of the post. for whom sympathy had been dulled by long antagonism. God have mercy upon those to whom he has been sent. of the Rebel War Department. sent on a tour of inspection to Andersonville. he held himself aloof from the field. and usually the sufferers were men of other races and religions. One of the papers expressed it in an article. and expired shortly after." Remorseless and cruel as his conduct of the office of Provost Marshal General was. and he did not. so insignificant in abilities and position. to discover traces of Union sentiment. it gave little hint of the extent to which he would go in that of Commissary General of Prisoners. I expect to be saved. For a long while Davis resisted. He was only too willing to believe. He pried and spied around into every man's bedroom and family circle. The misery they inflicted was not the motive of their schemes. the key note of which was: "Thank God that Richmond is at last rid of old Winder. and transferred Winder to the office of Commissary General of Prisoners. He cannot be accused of exaggeration. but an unpleasant incident.

or to do as much as I thought he ought to do. and in cold blood. I remonstrated with him as well as I could. without reference to the situation beyond these lines of defense. by the exercise of a little energy and judgment.. Even if we imagine him inspired by a hatred of the people of the North that rose to fiendishness. and pointed out to him that the sickly season was coming on. rotting and freezing to death. A still fewer number thirst for a more comprehensive retribution. open upon the Stockade with grapeshot. There is many a man who has a hatred so intense that nothing but the death of the detested one will satisfy it. to alleviate their sufferings. It seems impossible for the mind of any man to cherish so deep and insatiable an enmity against his fellow-creatures that it could not be quenched and turned to pity by the sight of even one day's misery at Andersonville or Florence. and in better quantity.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. When I spoke of the great mortality existing among the prisoners. Ga. July 27. ANDERSONVILLE. upon receiving notice that the enemy has approached within seven miles of this post. 1864." In his examination touching this report. of the vast number of unfortunates placed under his control. and he used that language which I reported to the Department with reference to it—the language stated in the report." It was he who could issue such an order as this. Colonel Chandler says: "I noticed that General Winder seemed very indifferent to the welfare of the prisoners. but the Government is to-day supporting his children in luxury by the rent it pays for the use of his property —the well-known Winder building.gutenberg. Brigadier General Commanding. indisposed to do anything. have considerably improved. This man was not only unpunished. educated in the same principles. starving. some one who. creed. and there may be such gluttons of revenge as would not be satisfied 359 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and other sanitary suggestions which I made to him—he replied to me that he thought it was better to see half of them die than to take care of the men. and who will not consider it a matter of self-laudation and boasting that he has never been inside of the Stockade —a place the horrors of which it is difficult to describe. I confess that all my attempts to satisfactorily analyze Winder's character and discover a sufficient motive for his monstrous conduct have been futile. associates in the same institutions. which is occupied by one of the Departments at Washington.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. as far as is consistent with their safe keeping. and that it must necessarily increase unless something was done for their relief—the swamp. No one man could possess such a grievous sense of private or national wrongs as to be proof against the daily spectacle of thousands of his own fellow citizens. for instance. will not advocate deliberately. even with the limited means at his command. when it was supposed that General Stoneman was approaching Andersonville: HEADQUARTERS MILITARY PRISON. JOHN H.htm comfort. drained. at least. the propriety of leaving them in their present condition until their number is sufficiently reduced by death to make the present arrangements suffice for their accommodation. and all that unite men into great communities. we can not understand him. WINDER. they would slay perhaps a half-dozen persons. proper food furnished. and which is a disgrace to civilization—the condition of which he might. speaking the same language—thousands of his brethren in race. The officers on duty and in charge of the Battery of Florida Artillery at the time will. inhabitants of the same country.

REACHES OUR LINES IN FLORIDA. It does not seem possible that he had either the brain to conceive. His training in the Regular Army was against the likelihood of his displaying zeal in anything. "as soon as the 360 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . what little of his own energy was infused into it was in the direction of impetus. five hundred deaths a day would doubtless have been insufficient to disturb them. they ventured upon ever widening ranges of destructiveness. Probably at the beginning of the war they would have felt uneasy at slaying one man per day by such means. what also militates greatly against the presumption that either revenge or an abnormal predisposition to cruelty could have animated Winder. CHAPTER LXXV. How must they all bow their diminished heads before a man who fed his animosity fat with tens of thousands of lives. and.htm with the sacrifice of less than a score or two.-not of controlling or improving the course. He was not only too indifferent and too lazy to do this. The probability is that neither Winder nor his direct superiors—Howell Cobb and Jefferson Davis—conceived in all its proportions the gigantic engine of torture and death they were organizing. even in fiction. Had the war lasted another year. and still greater ones the day following. nor did they comprehend the enormity of the crime they were committing. OF COMPANY K. even if there were no other charges against him. but as retribution came not. or the firmness of purpose to carry out so gigantic and long-enduring a career of cruelty. But. is that the possession of any two such mental traits so strongly marked would presuppose a corresponding activity of other intellectual faculties. but such would be monsters of whom there have been very few. SIXTEENTH ILLINOIS CAVALRY—HE GETS AWAY FROM THE REBELS AT THOMASVILLE. and securing a fragment of a lead pencil from one comrade. ONE INSTANCE OF A SUCCESSFUL ESCAPE—THE ADVENTURES OF SERGEANT WALTER HARTSOUGH. which was not true of him. By an effort of one hour a day for two weeks he could have had every man in Andersonville and Florence given good shelter through his own exertions. for the use of Andrews and myself in attempting to escape. and the smaller crimes of to-day prepared them for greater ones to-morrow. and they lived. and let things take their course. AND AFTER A TOILSOME AND DANGEROUS JOURNEY OF SEVERAL HUNDRED MILES. To have done things better would have involved soma personal discomfort. While I was at Savannah I got hold of a primary geography in possession of one of the prisoners. When we were at Blackshear we still had the map. August and September. remember—the prisoners to protect their lives by providing their own shelter.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. and as their sympathy with human misery atrophied from long suppression. and as their appetite for slaughter grew with feeding. but it was still in the direction of his wishes. I made a copy of the South Carolina and Georgia sea coast. gives the key to his whole disposition. because that would imply superhuman qualities in a man who had previously held his own very poorly in the competition with other men. but he was too malignant. by starvation and hardship. as from all I can learn of him his mind was in no respect extraordinary. and intended to make another effort. and would stamp his memory with infamy. Winder doubtless went about his part of the task of slaughter coolly. leisurely.gutenberg. He was not likely to incur personal discomfort to mitigate evils that were only afflicting someone else.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. Killing ten men a day on Belle Isle in January. led very easily to killing one hundred men a day in Andersonville. But they were willing to do much wrong to gain their end. and this neglect to allow—simply allow. almost perfunctorily. The reader remembers the ill success of all our efforts in that direction. in July. He instituted certain measures. and a sheet of note paper from another. That course was a rapid transition from bad to worse.

in company with Frank Hommat. and we began signaling for Clipson. We thought that by a little strategy and boldness we could pass these. heedless of those concealed under his very feet. I want to make a copy. under the firm name of Hartsough & Martin. or killed by the rifles of his pursuers. which. By stinting ourselves we had got a little meal ahead.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h. 7. sang out: "Whar ye gwine to thar boys?" 361 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . and myself to the left. and a man by the name of Clipson. which saved him a ducking at least. and as Thomasville was the end of the railroad. one signed "Walter Hartsough. without a shot.. which was the last they ever heard of him. Dear Comrade Mc. Pretty soon a Johnny came along with a bunch of turnip tops. Clipson was to go to the right. which I intended to do if he saw us. and take us back to Andersonville.. started across it. As he passed over the log I could have caught him by the leg. at receiving among the dozens of letters which came to me every day while this account was appearing in the BLADE. We crawled up to the road.. for we were resolved to drown him if he discovered us. and have been more successful than I anticipated. running a general store. the woods were full of Rebels waiting transportation. as almost immediately after we were taken out "on parole" and sent to Florence.. IA. 1864. that he was taking up to the camp to trade to the prisoners.." One day while we were waiting for this. We were camped in the woods then. I wish you'd lend me your map a little while. At that moment a guard about thirty yards to our left. would hardly be so to the general reader.: .. but seeing no one.. But we could find nothing of him... 1879. they knew not. Hommat in the center. which was only intended as a private communication to myself... K. I take pleasure in presenting the reader with his reply. Ga. through which flowed a small stream that supplied the prisoners with water. by running the guards. of our battalion." I handed it over to him.. and we ate it all up before starting.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and never saw him more. Walter Hartsough.. who evidently supposed that we were Rebels. a Sergeant of Company g.. as it contains only gossip about our old comrades. We concluded we would take a heavy risk on our lives rather than return there. Dec. We all slipped through. The reader can judge of my astonishment as well as pleasure. We were now between Thomasville and the camp. Waiting here a little longer we left our lurking place and made a circuit of the edge of the swamp. with no Stockade—only a line of guards around us. which we thought we would bake up for the journey. of Company M.. The first part of the letter I omit. I heard from other comrades of the battalion that he had succeeded in getting past the guard line and into the Woods. inquiring eagerly of his adventures after we separated.. WAYNE COUNTY. late of Co. We determined to try. and the next mail took a letter to him. and at last had to give him up. I have been living in this town for ten years. Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry. of the Twenty-First Illinois Infantry.. We laid down by a large log that lay across the stream. the better to screen ourselves from observation.. whether torn to pieces by dogs.. I had heard the officers in charge of us say that they intended to march us across to the other road. Hommat and I got together soon after passing the guard lines... Our rendezvous was to be the center of a small swamp.htm sign got right. and submerged our limbs and part of our bodies in the water." It was like one returned from the grave. May 27... and we approached the road carefully. supposing that it was guarded to keep their own men from going to town. but our appetites got the better of us. Whether starved to death in some swamp. came to me and said: "Mc.gutenberg. however interesting to myself. but he passed along. I made my escape from Thomasville. still signaling for Clipson. GENOA.

" and asked him if he believed we were Yankees. and further. and then said: "Yes. which a sailor fabricated for me. The country was very swampy. began praying aloud.gutenberg. In a few minutes a young negro came in. the night rainy and dark. "No. and stranger still. one old man passing on the opposite side of the thicket from the rest. 362 of 414 11/24/2013 3:14 PM . I thought it the best prayer I ever listened to. and whom I immediately recognized as our friend of the prayerful proclivities. walked back to his post. The temptation to hungry men was very great. shook hands with us. Finding a large turnip patch. to wait for our supper. and. after satisfying herself that we were really Yankees. she got up from her seat. Passing up close to the negro quarters we got over the fence and lay down behind it. and shortly after the old man came with a good supper of corn bread. We selected a thicket in the center of a large pasture. going to their work in an adjoining field. but we concluded that it was best and safest to let it alone. who had taken a French leave of Thomasville. went into a fence corner a few panels distant and. to make me a shirt and pantaloons. "if you 'uns had stood a little longer at Stone River. in spite of the meal we had already eaten. After we had eaten. and wanted something to eat. Finishing his devotions he returned to the house.ANDERSONVILLE--Complete http://www. and close to a road leading from Thomasville to Monticello. He surveyed us carefully for a few seconds. no stars were out to guide us. They had a bucket of victuals with them for dinner. and then run. and added: "Yes. that we were tired of guarding Yanks. and started fairly on our way. kneeling down. Hommat had a full suit of Rebel clothes. She set immediately about preparing it for us. molasses and milk. He said that he had no meat. His master lived in Thomasville. After much trouble we succeeded in getting through all the troops. which they hung on the fence in such a way that we could have easily stolen it without detection. and very. I then acknowledged that we were Yankee prisoners. earnestly. wait till he halts us. He said that he had been a body servant to his young master. "Golly!" says he. to our great relief. and we made such poor progress that when daylight came we were only eight miles from our starting place." He walked up to where we had crossed his beat—looked after us a few minutes. Some negros passed close to us. that we were hungry. but he would show us where to stay. trying to make our escape to our lines. himself. the burden of his supplication was for the success of our armies. we had better come into his cabin and rest awhile. we filled our pockets. when they were issuing rations. from which she cut as much as we could eat. which we did. but I said. We crawled into this and laid down. to which we did full justice. We had been there but a short time when a young negro came out. and gave us some to carry with us.org/files/3072/3072-h/3072-h.htm I answered: "Je