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Hardware

(1) It is the Physical Components of a

Software
(1) It is the very large Computer

Computer System. (2) Hardware is Manufactured. (3) It is Physical in Nature. (4) Duplication from the Original is Not Possible.

Program or It is a set of many Programs. (2) It is Developed. (3) It is Non Physical in Nature. (4) Duplication from the Original is Possible.

Software

System Software
Operating System Compiler Interpreter Linker Assembler

Applications Software
MS WORD

Operating System:Software used to manage Hardware and software Resources.

Compiler & Interpreter:It is the software that Translate high-level language into lowlevel language.

Linker:It is software that is used to attach Pre-Defined Translated Code in a Program to Produced Executables file.

Source Program:The Code we Type in a Computer Language Program is called Source Program. OR High Level Language Code we Type in an IDE (Integrated Development Environment)

Object Program:It is the Program with Comes in Machine Language from after Translation of Source Program.

OR
Translated (Complied) Version of Source Program.

Executable:The Complied and Library Code Intended Version of program is Called Executable program.

Input Device
Device that are used to take data Input into the Computer Memory. Example Key Board, Mouse, Toy Stick, Scanner Light Pen Exc.

Mouse:It is a small Assembly which keep Two, Three button and a Digital Circuitry to Navigate. Pointer over the Screen Area. Some Mouse Keep is Roiling Mechanism to Navigate Cursor while same keep Optical Mechanism.

Working
When the Mouse button is pressed a signal is sent to the Computer for the Corresponding Screen Position. The Mouse is accepted by the Computer and the Application to do Corresponding Action.

Mouse Clicking Types


(I) Left Click (II) Right Click (III) Double Click

(I) Left Click


Pressing of Left Mouse button is called Left Click. (II) Right Click Pressing of Right Mouse button is called Right Click.

(III) Double Click


The Pressing of Left Mouse Button Twice is a Rapid Succession.

Keyboard:It is an assembly that continues Number Button (Key) corresponding to Different types of data and action input into the memory of a Computer. Key are Grouped together in a special manner and their Grouping are as follow. 1. Character Key Pad (A to Z, a to z, Symbol)

2. Numeric Key Pad (0 to 9) 3. Functions Key Pad (F1 to F12) 4. Screen Navigate Key Pad ( ) 5. Special Function Key Pad (Tab, Ctrl, Alt) Working When a key is pressed it is Corresponding ASCII Code is send in a Memory Buffer than the contents of Buffer is sent to R.A.M.

Software Development Process/ Life Cycle


System Development:System is the computerized solution for a set of Problem of an organization or a group of persons. Its development is divided mainly into four phases; A. Analysis B. Design C. Coding D. Testing & Maintenance (A) Analysis:This is the first Phase in which following major tasks are done. 1. Meeting with Client. 2. Finding all existing problems. 3. Selecting subset of problem that can be solved through computer. (B) Design Phase:In this phase we deal with following Task are performed here; 1. Designing of Algorithms and flow Charts. 2. Determination of inputs, procedures, filing method and outputs. (C) Coding:It is simply the typing of source program in a Selected IDE. (D) Testing & Maintenance:In testing we check for verification and validation of program. Verification is the functionality check whether the program is running or not validation is the achievement of desired level of accuracy and precision. In Maintenance we perform following tasks; 1. Delivery of system to client. 2. Software/Hardware Changes are made. 3. Training of end users. 4. Away of doing tasks.

Networking
Networking:-The Interconnection of Hardware resources to Share resources.

Topology:-The art of Physical Connection of Computers to form a Network.

Node:-A Physical Device or Computer on a Network.

Server:-A Computer that services its resources and Application.

Client:-A Computer or Node that request for the Services.

Types of Topology:-1. 2. 3. 4. Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Ring Topology

Bus Topology:--

In Bus on all the Node are connected to the main Bus (Group of Wire) At ends High Value residences are connected to signal lows. Working:The Communication in the Bus Topology is slow due to a single port. At a time only two Node can either Transfer or received data. No either Transmition can take Place during a Communication Return two Nodes. Advantages:1. Easy to build. 2. Suitable for work group. 3. Low building cost. Disadvantages:1. It is very slow Topology for Network Communication. 2. If a main Bus is Broken or a Node Expire, the whole Network Collapse. 3. To add new node, the network has to be stop.

Star Topology:--

In Star Topology All the Nodes are connected to a Central Node (HUB/Switch). It is sample to construct but it is costly. Hub can be Active or Passive. The Active Hub Required a Power supply so that it can regenerate in coming signal. Passive Hub do not required a Power supply.

Working:The Data from a Node is first sent to Central Node then it is routed. Advantages:1. It is easy to build. 2. New user can be entering without stopping whole Network. 3. If any single Node Expire the networks remain operating. Disadvantages:1. It is costly Topology. 2. If a Central Node expired the whole Network Collapse.

Ring Topology:--

In Ring Topology, Every Node is connected physically to its two neighboring Node to from a circular Pattern called Ring. In Electronic privilege called Token.

Working:The Token Circulator in either Clock-wise, Anti Clock-wise Direction. Node attaches massage to the token with Destination I.D and other

information. The Token is then passed to the Neighboring Node the Neighbor checks the massage in the token and it accept or reject the take it. It can also attach a new massage the token and the distributions of data take place due to circulating token or tokens. Advantages:1. It is easy to build. 2. It is low in cost. 3. It is easy to maintain. Disadvantages:1. It a single Node Expire the whole Network Collapse. 2. The Network has to be stop for enter a new user/Node. 3. It the Number of Node increase the Network be come slow.

Mesh Topology:--

In this Topology every Node is individually connected to every other on the Network. It is a costly Network but Reliable. Data Communication can be Perform through more than one Route. Advantages:1. There is no chance of data collision. 2. Most Reliable Network Topology. Disadvantages:1. It is very costly. 2. It is time Consuming to build and Difficult maintains.

Types of Network
The Network is categorized basically into 4 types. 1. Local Area Network (LAN) 2. Wild Area Network (WAN) 3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 4. Global Area Network (GAP) (1) Local Area Network (LAN):It is a Network that is confine within geographical area of one squire Kilometer. Example:A Computer Network in a building or group of building extra It is the faster Communication Network that is owned by a person or a group of person. It is easy to minuteness and incorporate few Networking devices. (2) Wild Area Network (WAN):This Network is extended geographically ever more than 1KM distance. It can cover many buildings and mach area of the city It user both Networking and internetworking devices. It cant be Owen by a person it is 10 time Slower than Local Area Network. Many Protocols are used and so the gateway is used to form Wild Area Network. (3) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):This Network is extended across entire city. It is much bigger than WAN and it used Telephone line as well and Telephone exchange service for building communication link. (4) Global Area Network (GAP):This Network is extended across the entire global and it covered all sold devices, topology, Links and services to from global Area Network. There much is single topology so that information can uniformally be exchange ever the world. Example:Internet uses Transportation control protocol /Internet Protocol (TCO/IP).

Networking:-Networking Devices are used for two purposes 1. To build a Network. 2. To extend the Network. These exude LAN Card, Switches, Hub, repeater, cables and Bridge.

Inter networking:-Inter Networking Devices are used to link to deformfan Types of Inter Networking Devices these are Router, Booster, Gateway, CSU, DSC extra

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Network Operating System:-An Operating System that manages the resources of every Node on the Network is called Network Operating System. Example:UNIX, Linux, Windows NT (New Technology) The server Computer is the Real Place for NOS.

Protocol:-Protocols are the rule and resolution to convey information from one Computer to another. Some protocols are routable and same are not. Protocols are installing as standard for information exchange on every Node on the Network. There are install on client side and on sever side. Example:-NA, NET, BUE, IE, TCP/IP Groper FTP extra Media:-There are two types of media (1) wires media (2) Wireless Wires Media:-In wires media we used toasted cable, to estate cable, coaxial cable and optical fibber. Wireless Media:-In wireless media we used redo value microbes and seta light System.

OSI Model:-- (open system interconnection)


It is a model proposed by a comate to define the standard to establish and manage a Computer Network. It defines protocols for every single tastes and group, than protocol in the form of layers every layer is categorized difficultly due to its nature of work. Following are the OSI layers 1. Physical Layer 2. Data link Layer 3. Network Layer 4. Transport Layer 5. Session Layer 6. Presentation Layer 7. Application Layer

1. Physical Layer:-This Layer due all the physical issues of the Network Topology Cable, Represent of Data encoding, decoding, Number of pens in a connector and Network Devices are the men issues solve.

2. Data link Layer:-This Layer is Responsible for establishing a single link between to Node it manages and Inlay terminates that link. The Data is broken in to small Data picket and CRCO is imposed.

3. Network Layer:-This Layer is responsible for managing all links between source and destination Computer. It is responsible for making correct routing decision.

4. Transport Layer:-This Layer is responsible for transporting Data packets across different types of Network in a reliable and error-free manner.

5. Session Layer:-This Layer is responsible for building a session (A Communication Channels) between two Applications running on different Nodes on a Network. It establishes the session and transported after the communication ends.

6. Presentation Layer:-This Layer is responsible for transforming the transportable form of Data in to use able form and wise ware.

7. Application Layer:-This Layer is used to serve services to Network like email services, file transport services, chatting services, video confessing services.

Networking Devices:-Devices that are used to create and extend a single Network are called Networking Devices. Example:-HUB, switch, repeater, bridge and ether Net card /LAN Card 1. LAN Card :--( Network Adapter/ether Net Card) This is Hardware card install client side and it Casper UNIX IP address. This makes the Node dusting disable on a Network for communication. 2. HUB/Switch:-It is a central Node of a Network that provides connective among all Node It may be Active (Requiring a Power Supply) or It may be passive (Does not Requiring compare supply) which is similar to HUB but is farmer indigent as it can take write design for the Network.

Data Communication Modal:-Source:-A Point where the Data is first originated

Modulator:-A device that mixes the low frequency data with the carrier high frequency during sending of data

Transmitter:-A device that increases the gain of modulated signal so that it can be transmitted to long distances

Transmission Media:-It is an entity that carries the data signal from source to destination.

Point:-It is divided into two types (A) Wires Media (Twisted pair, curial cable, Optical fiber ) (B) Wireless Media (Radio waves, microwaves, FM Satellite)

Receiver:-A cirevit that catches the weak incoming signal and amplitude of signal is amplified.

Demodulator:-A device that separate the low frequency signal from the high frequency carrier wave

Destination:-A point where the data is to be reached finally

Types of Data
(A) Analog Data (Continuous(point) wave from signal element) (B) Digital Data (Discrete(whole (number) wave from signal element)

Encoding:-Transformation of one form of signal into another form of signal Types of Encoding:-(A) Digital to Digital Encoding (B) Digital to Analog Encoding (C) Analog to Analog Encoding (D) Analog to Digital Encoding

Digital to Digital Encoding:-In this type of encoding the input Digital signal is transformed into another form of Digital signal.

Digital to Analog Encoding:-In this type of encoding the input Digital signal is transformed into another form of Analog signal.

Analog to Analog Encoding:-Here input signals an analog wave form while the output signal is also an Analog Signal. Example are ASK, FSK, and PSK modulation.

Analog to digital Encoding:-Here input signals an analog wave form while the output signal is also a Digital Signal. Examples are Pulse Code, Delta Modulation.

Wires Media
Media:-Entities that convey energy from one place to another wires media include mainly three types of wires; 1. Twisted Pair 2. Coaxial Cable 3. Optical Fiber

1. Twisted Pair wire:--

It is a group of two insulated wires that are twisted together to cancel the effect of inductions in the wires conveying data signal. They are covered by an outer covering for strength and protection.

2. Coaxial Cable:--

Here two wires runs side by side in such a way that the main inner conductor is in the center (axial) and the second outer Conductor is around the axial and absorbing any leak radiation from both in and outside of conductor. It is used for high frequency transmission.

3. Optical Fiber:--

It is a fiber of light conducting material its inner central region is of high density and the outer region is of low density. Light travels in denser median and remain travels in it due to total internal reflection signal of very high frequency is transmitted through optical fiber.

Multiplexing Playing:-It is the division of time allocated for sending more than one types of signal throws a signal channel of frequency. The devices that perform Multiplexing are called Multiplayer.

Modulation:-It is a process of mixing low Data frequency with the high carrier frequency to from modulated signal.

Demodulation:-It is a process in which the signal is separated from the carrier frequency.

Time sharing:-It is the distribution of time allocated for different tasks.

Register:-It is a digital sharked that storages a single instruction at a time. It size me be 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit, 64 bit extra. They are located in site micro processor and are the fasted memory aliasing. Some of the common registers are 1. Program Counter 2. Memory Address Register 3. Intrusion Register 4. Accumulator Register 5. Buffer Register 6. Stack Register 7. Flag Register 1. Program Counter:-This register generates the count this count is actually the address of memory where over program is storage the address is send to the memory address Register. 2. Memory Address Register This register gets the count is address a loads the contents on that memory address. It then protect for super wise what is being brought in to the memory and what is being taking out from the memory. 3. Intrusion Register:-This register holds a complete single instruction. It sends command part to controller unit and address to MAR. 4. Accumulator Register:-This register is used to holds the accumulator is filled with data. B-Register This register holds the second next value after the accumulator is filled with data. Out register This register supplies the data to the outside world or accepts the data form. 6. Stack Register:-This register holds the data item in last in first out principle. It I used to store paused state of programs that can lather recondite.

7. Flag register:-This register is used to indicate and storage the current status of all register and operations during program execution every operation is educated by a single bit .etc

Fetch Operation
Step 1 Program counter generates the count (Address of 1st instruction of a program) and send the count to memory address register. Step 2 MAR enable the contents of given address to be taken from the memory. Step 3 The loaded content of memory is brought into instruction register.

Fetch Decode Operation


Decode Operation:-In this operation, the command is interpreted into series of sub infraction trough controller unit. Execute Operation:-Application of sub-instructions to all units from the controller unit is called execution.

Virus
Virus:-A Computer program that is designed specifically to perform illegal tasks.

Types of Virus:--

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Following are some main categories into which virus are divided. Worms Trojans Time Booms File Infectors Boot Sector virus

WORM:-This virus is designed to duplicate is self to accomay maximum memory space. They can special form network ant another input/output resources and can slow down processing of computer.

Trojans:-They are the programs that do not horn computer operations during there accept ion Next time went the Computer is run they gates into operation and perform illegal tasks.

Time booms:-These viruses are design to perform illegal operations on a carting date and time for example; Michelangelo virus activate on March 6.

File Infectors:-These virus spreads automatically injure them self in a file that latter on Ram in affectedly.

Boot Sector virus:-This virus reside it salve in hard drive on the boot sector and prevent the booting operations of the system.

Data Protections
Method of data protection:-We have two resources that need to protect. Following are the ways mentioned. 1. Use of Anti-virus 2. Use of password and domain 3. Use of proxy server and firewall 4. Use of Data back-up 5. Use of Audile Software

6. Use of Alternate Power supply 7. Use of SCSI port and devices 8. Use of Physical protection methods 9. Use of copyright Law 10. Use of Anti-Hacking and Anti-spying Software

1. Use of anti-virus:-The Antivirus software is used to scan hard drive and its contents, detect the virus organize a strategy to remove or isolate the virus the scanning is centralled by the user or it can automatically be set. The Antivirus software has to be updated download latest virus definitions. Example; AVG, Norton, Avast and ESET NOD32

2. Use of password and domain:-On the Network we use a policy to share resources. We define and grant privileges to the user in a group of a domain hence only authorized user can effectively and safely use resources. Password is a digital lock for a users account if the password is correctly typed, then the user can use domain privileges. Bio metrically set password can also be applied.

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