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There are four commonly cited characteristics of services that make them different to market from goods: Intangibility, Inseparability, Variability and Perishability.
Intangible means that which cannot be seen or touched. Intangible services are difficult to sell because they cannot be produced and displayed ahead of time. They are therefore harder to communicate to prospective customers. Apart from food beverages provided by the hotels, all other offerings such as accommodation, catering etc are intangible are e!perience"oriented, thus its difficult to convince the customer about the #uality of these offerings. $arketers of hotel services can overcome this characteristic by stressing tangible cues like brochures, photos etc., that will convey reassurance and #uality to the prospective customers. These tangible cues range from the firm%s physical facilities to the appearance and demeanor of its staff to the letterhead on its stationery to its logo, recent facts figures etc. &!: 'entaur hotel overcomes this factor through its logo ( The 'entaur )a mythical creature who is half man half horse*, with a bow arrow, signifying speed focus. $c+onalds uses ,onald, the clown to attract children.
This characteristic is interpreted differently by different service marketing marketers, but all interpretations point out that special operations problems e!ist for the firm%s managers. -ne interpretation of this term is the inseparability of customers from the service delivery process. In particular, many services re#uire the participation of the customer in the production process. In case of the hotel industry, customer has to be present for e!periencing the services being offered. This factor can be overcome by opening new branches.outlets, facilitating instant communication )through telecom*, with the customers in case of any type of information.services needed during the stay in the hotel etc. &! : Previously +omino/s mostly used to deliver its products to the homes of the customer0 but there was no #uestion of serving the customers. Thus,
+omino/s started opening more and more outlets so that it could provide the customers with more range of services.
The fact that service #uality is difficult to control compounds the marketer%s task. Intangibility alone would not be such a problem in customers could be sure that the services they were to receive would be 1ust like the successful e!periences their neighbors were so pleased with. 2ut in fact, customers know that services can vary greatly. &ven the same service provider has good days and bad days or may be less focused at different times of day. 3ervices are performances, often involving the cooperation and skill of several individuals, and are therefore unlikely to be same every time. This potential variability of service #uality raises the risk faced by the consumer. In the hotel industry, different front"line personnel have different abilities. The variability of hotel and catering services would differ because of the distinct skills and behavior of the various personnel serving the customers. The service provider must find ways to reduce the perceived risk due to variability. -ne method is to design services to be as uniform as possible " by training personnel to follow closely defined procedures, or by automating as many aspects of the services as possible. A second way to deal with perceived risk from variability is to provide satisfaction guarantees or other assurances that the customer will not be stuck with a bad result. &! : 'oin operated soft drink machines which saves the time of the consumer. There is no scope for variations in the service level.
The fourth characteristic distinguishing services from goods is their time dependence. 3ervices cannot be inventoried, since they are performed in real time. And time periods during which service delivery capacity sits idle represent revenue"earning potential that is lost forever. Periods of peak demand cannot be prepared for in advance by producing and storing services, nor can they be made up for after the fact. A service opportunity occurs at a point in time, and when it is gone, it is gone forever. This can present great difficulty in facilities planning. In the hotel industry, the accommodation provided can get perished if not booked or occupied on time. The service providers must developed alternative, counter seasonal service products to use slack capacity, although that has long been a common practice by goods marketers. $any service providers also control demand by re#uiring appointments. 3ome service firms keep on call frontline personnel who can arrive on short notice to meet the surges in demand, or cross train support personnel to assist with customer service during busy periods. The service providers must overmarket their services to avoid the perishability factor. &! : 4otels in 5oa have less occupancy during monsoon.
the combination of different sub"mi!es is found significant. a sophisticated 1ob manned by trained personnel from hotel schools. This draws our attention on the combination of sub"mi!es in the hotel industry. the education and training programme for the development of hotel personnel efficacious in enriching their e!cellence as high performers are important decision making areas which gravitate our attention on the formulation of a sound mi! for the hotel industry. and while including new services in the product mi!. we need to eliminate them. assign due weightage to their preferences. The hotel services also re#uire a fair combination of core and peripheral services. The combination of core and peripheral services. the pricing strategies helping hotels in maintaining the commercial viability. more attractions we add to our product mi!. The hotel professionals are . 6hile formulating the product mi! it is pertinent that we make the ways for fre#uent innovation. the efficient hotel personnel instrumental in minimising the gap between the services"promised and services"offered. 6ith the passage of time. It is against this background that we go through the different sub"mi!es of the marketing mi!0 PRO UCT MIX In any organisation. 6ith the viewpoint of marketing a hotel product. $ore innovative the peripheral services. the creative promotional decisions. e!cellent services and personal attention. A modern hotel is a ma1or establishment. It is also right to mention that fre#uency in innovation is found essential and at the same time easier in the conte!t of peripheral services. it is #uite natural that some of the services becomes outdated and therefore. an institution of commercial hospitality and a building or an institution where guests e!pect refined behaviour. we find product the focal point.FORMULATION OF ORGANISATIONS MARKETING MIX FOR HOTELS The term marketing mi! is the combination of what market offers and studies which help in identifying the actual point where marketing action can be taken to improve the acceptability of hotel product and stimulate demand. it is essential that we keep our minds open and come to know the latest developments in the likes and dislikes of the customers. This makes it essential that hotels and hotel companies assign due weightage to the formulation of an optimal product mi! in which peripheral services prove to be a point of attraction. It is right to mention that in almost all the hotels of same category by and large the core services are found identical and therefore the peripheral services divert a close attention where the hotel personnel need professional e!cellence. At the same time. The emerging trends in the socio"economic parlance necessitate an analogous change in the product mi!.
new guest. any complaints and . 6hile formulating the product mi!. such as age"bracket. profile of potential customers. se!. 6hat to offer7 6hat to modify7 6hat to alter7 6hat to eliminate7 These #uestions re#uire suitable answers which are e!pected from the professionally sound and high performing team of hotel personnel. it is essential that we assign due weightage to the mi! of services e!pected and desired by the potential customers. The information regarding the details of competition are also to be collected regarding the various facilities made available in a hotel including the prices. restaurant and cafeteria management. the industries and their e!ecutives also divert our attention since they help us substantially in getting the business. water. In addition. the lodging services also become significant. The boarding services are considered to be an important part of product mi!. place of residence. our focus is on the tourism industry because from there we get profitable business. sanitation arrangement of bed etc. it is pertinent that the hotel professionals keep in their minds the users of services and their characteristics. length of stay. 4ere it is essential that facilities like light. entertainment. In the formulation of a sound product strategy. management of bedrooms. These facts make it clear that while formulating product strategy. electricity. 6e can%t devalue the instrumentality of educational institutions and business houses in getting business for our convention halls. ventilation. first choice. 6e can%t deny the fact that as and when we talk about the services of hotel industry. mode of transport. room popularity. In addition.re#uired to formulate a package that helps in attracting the customers. A hotel manager bears the responsibility of adding attractions to the product mi! and this is possible when they have world class professional e!cellence. The generation of idea. In addition. Type of group. the information regarding the facilities available in the hotel would be related to both such as areas producing revenue and areas not generating profitable financial returns. are available to the guests. we have no option but to practise the same. 6e need to make the information system strong enough to initiate suitable guidelines for the strategic decisions. 6hile formulating the product mi! for the hotel services. we have no option but to make the ways for innovation. the formulation of concept. If we find that our competitors have been innovating their strategies. $odifications in the e!isting services by adding a few outstanding properties is found to be a suitable strategy for the development of product. 6e need broad"based information related to the local community vis"a"vis the foreign and domestic tourists. the analysis of product cost and the testing of services before their final commercial launch become significant in the very conte!t. it is essential that catering management. the hotel organisations are re#uired to make possible a fair mi! of core and peripheral services. This necessitates an in depth study of product life cycle. management of convention halls are given due weightage. place of employment. If we want to pro1ect our image as a leader.
brand name. 6hile formulating strategic decisions. type of people and corporate institutions patronising a hotel would be instrumental in building up a fair image. It is against this background that we talk about the promotional measures. it is significant that we include in our product mi! all the new services offered by our competitors. There are a number of components for promoting the business and it is hoped that a professionally sound employee would blend the different constituents in such a way that effects are proactive but the process of persuasion is cost"effective. PROMOTION MIX 9or successful marketing. number of empty days. pattern of sales in restaurant and bar or so. publicity. It is not to be forgotten that needs of the guests are the cornerstone of marketing analysis. we also need information related to hotel activities. advertise a promise which is genuine and creditable and in which the customers can easily discern their own benefits can%t be devalued in the very conte!t. The success rate of a hotel is virtually coiled in the essence of transforming the occasional visitors into the habitual visitors because this helps substantially the process of increasing the occupancy ratio. optimally blended promotional measures are used by the professionally"sound and personally"committed hotel . 2esides. Image is the way in which a hotel portrays itself. The sensitivity is vigorously influenced by creativity. 8ot only the primary and au!iliary or core and peripheral but even the supportive services offered by allied industries divert our attention. The components like advertisement. The issue of concern here is how and what to incorporate7 A sound product strategy is found a pre"re#uisite for establishing a fair or positive image. The development process can/t remain static. determination of ob1ectives and the formulation of strategies. This makes it essential that the decision makers in the hotel industry make sincere efforts to formulate sound promotional strategy. personal selling. it is only not sufficient that we concentrate on the #uality of services but it is also impact generating that we promote our business in such a way that our prospects come to know about the #uality to be offered to them as hotel customers" This focuses our attention on innovative promotional measures. word"of"mouth promotion and telemarketing need due attention of hotel professionals. An in depth study of what the competitors are doing. sales promotion. The factors like atmosphere. It is pertinent that we view everything from the customers perspective. 6e can%t deny the fact that creation of awareness has a far reaching effect on the formulation of promotional strategy.who made the booking. The accommodation facilities available and the housekeeping draw our attention to improve the #uality of services. And the most important thing in the pro1ection of a fair image is the #uality of services and the behaviour of the front"line staff. implementation of uni#ue selling proposition to fulfill the needs of customers. If scientifically formulated. This necessitates a continuous effort for incorporating %he necessary changes in our service mi!. such as occupancy statistics. the status. seat turnover percentage.
costs etc.personnel. landscape. The maga:ines. comforts. The hotel professionals are supposed to select a suitable time for transmission when a ma1ority of the target audience are supposed to be close to the radio set. 6e find a number of instances to #uote that even #uality services failed in creating and e!panding market because the promotional measures failed in sensiti:ing the prospects. it is significant that the hotel professionals make possible a productive use of print media. re#uirements and the intensity of competition. Public relations activities thus become instrumental in the process of publicising. This draws our attention on using the different components of promotion in such a way that we find them very much instrumental in throwing a positive impact. 6e are in a position to attract the attention of prospects by displaying attractive scenes. . events. 6hile selecting the media for advertisement. It is possible to be descriptive while advertising. 6e find a particular season during which the pilgrims prefer to visit the sacred places and the hotels located in that catchment area need to advertise on sensitive hours. it is pertinent that the hotel professionals advertise sensibly. In the face of potentials. newspapers preferred by women and teens should be given due weightage since in a ma1ority of the cases. newspapers preferred by the target audience. the decisions regarding a particular tour hotel are taken by them. it is significant that we keep in our minds the maga:ines. It is essential that the advertising professionals are well aware of the nature and re#uirements of target audience. A!ver"ise#en": 6e are well aware of the fact that advertisement is a paid form of communication which helps in informing. we can take a decision in the every conte!t. 6e have a big circulation of different newspapers. P$%&i'i"(: Another dimension of promotion known as an unpaid form of persuasive communication also plays an incremental role in promoting the hotel business. intelligently and for that seek the co" operation of advertising professionals who can simplify and sensiti:e the process.audience to be covered. the effects are found of low intensity. maga:ines and keeping in view the target market. In this conte!t. 6hile advertising. The services of advertising professionals would make possible creativity in the advertisement messages and appeals. 6hile publicising. we need to select media for promoting our messages and slogans. sensing and persuading the prospects or users. The messages. themes need rural orientation in the very conte!t. thy hotel professionals play a significant role by managing the media personnel or publishing news items related to the hotel. the rate of success would be found satisfactory. The broadcast media can also be used for advertising the hotel services but if we make a comparative analysis of this media with others. broadcast media and telecast media.
In thy hotel companies. sponsored entertainment programmes. particulars of certain important conferences or e!hibitions to be held. . the tour operators. -f late. In the public relations.ournalists always prefer to visit a hotel as they get their full en1oyment free of cost. sponsored fashion"designing events. the photographs cover a lot of space but if media use it. copy and the spoken word are the primary publicity to media which are grouped into the following heads: = Printed Publicity = Advertising Publicity = Pro1ected Publicity = 3tructural Publicity . we find this the finest eye"catching free publicity. we find public relations activities more instrumental in informing the clients the outstanding merits of different services offered. The vast ma1ority of hoteliers welcome publicity not only because it is free but because they know that most people buy a maga:ine or a newspaper to read the articles. = Personal Publicity Thus it is right to say that public relations activities occupy a significant place in the promotion mi! of hotel companies. specially to create the interest of prospects in a holiday package in a good resort of a country. organised by tour operators for the travel agents help them in enriching their knowledge and making the travelling decisions. it also helps in collecting the information on the preferences of the prospects. we find a number of events which should be transmitted to the local press. menus for special days of the year. the sponsored events start and finish at hotels or are run even in the hotel grounds. news and editorials. 3ometimes a stunt is also thought to obtain a write"up. sponsored beauty contest or so. -f course. such as the appointment of a new chef. travel agents e!plore opportunities for . list of cocktails. 3ponsored walks. 6e find all appearing in the newspapers and maga:ines. There are a number of media sources available for publicity.In the hotel industry. the activities range from a press release to% newspapers and maga:ines. The specialities of hotel are presented in such a way that the prospects are motivated to avail of the facilities offered by a particular hotel" It also helps in creating an atmosphere where the users at large are convinced. <ou can give 1ournalists a write"up of your story and preferably a story with a photograph. sponsored car rallies. rather than the advertisements unless they are looking for a product or are interested in booking a holiday or a restaurant or a convention hall or a wedding hall. 2esides. Illustration. menus for certain functions held at hotel. The holiday package tours and trips on familiarity with a tour spot. photographs of staff dressed up for special days and well"known people staying in the hotel. It is right to mention that we find a few or even a very few consumer industries to be benefited substantially by public relations as the hotel industry. In the hotel business.
It is #uite natural that the tools of sales promotion attract buyers even having little brand loyalty. . 6e find three"tier arrangements for sales promotion in the hotel business. if not at present of course in future. the hotels and hotel companies also offer incentives to the users vis"a"vis to the personnel and organi:ations evincing interest in promoting the business. The guests. In addition. In the hotel business. tour operator and the travel agents including the users of the services. It is against this background that the promotional measures are found more effective where brand loyalty is a feature. These facts make it clear that sales promotion is complementary to advertising. 6e find tools of sales promotion directed at the hotel staff. The techni#ues may be directed the hotel staff.$re: It is a device to stimulate customers and motivate them to visit a hotel and avail of the benefits offered by the management of the hotel It is a detailed publication helping hotel companies in promoting their business. This tool of promotion is designed to appeal particularly to those customers who are found sensitive to price. we find perishability a risk and this factor is also given due weightage while offering off"season accommodation at low price tags. S)&es Pr*#*"i*n : In almost all the organisations. 6e find repeated advertising and competitive market conditions two important reasons for the growing significance of sales promotion in the hotel industry. such as certain cruise makers are holiday package operators but here it is essential that efforts are aimed at present clientele to attract more business from the e!isting market instead of trying to encourage brand"switching and targeting new clients" This is not to be a case of value"addition to the business of tour operators and the travel agents. clients get detailed information from the brochure. ?. tour operator and travel agents and guests or clients. we also find some of the hotels offering concessional travelling and accommodation facilities.educating the masses <ou spend nominal amount but get big coverage which help you substantially. 2esides. 6e consider sales promotion a temporary device to increase the business with certain ob1ectives. Br*'. T**&s *+ S)&es Pr*#*"i*n The following tools of sales promotion are used for all the three heads instrumental in promoting the hotel business. It is a short term activity seeking to boost sales during peak demand periods to make it sure that the firm obtains its market share and helps launch a new product or support an ailing or modified services. we also find cases of organising sales contests. There are a number of incentives offered to them. >ike other organisations. 3ales promotion and advertising ob1ectives do not conflict but reinforce one another. we feel the need of offering incentives for promoting the business. specially to their staff.
e'i)& O++i'er: 6e also find a provision for special offer for all. Pr*#*"i*n : 6e consider word"of"mouth promotion very much instrumental in sensiti:ing the prospects. there are a number of components to promote sale but it is right to mention that other constituents may be ineffective but the word"of"mouth can%t. the dissatisfied group of users are free to complain to the hotel management but often they don%t act. F. G. hotel personnel. 0*r!1*+1#*$". A""r)'"i*n &e)+&e"s: This is e!clusively meant for presenting a view of the different theme parks. This speaks of the fact that word"of"mouth promotion can show more negative effects and therefore the hotels and hotel companies need to assign due weightage to this component of the promotion mi!. C. museums. such as tourists spots. C*#. The particulars are re#uired to be in brief but clear. ire'" M)i& M)"eri)&s: The sales letters are found to be a direct mail material which can either be used alone or in combination with brochures and folders.@. 6e can use these materials in the offices of the travel agents. our emphasis is on the outer cover and internal layout of brochures and leaflets. The hotels can use folders for promoting the business.i%i"i*n: 6e find organisation of competition and e!hibition for promoting the business. P)'-)ging: 6e call packaging an attractive wrapper of product. such as users. outstanding points of attraction in the hotels or so. e!hibits etc. F*&!er: 6e find folder the most commonly used sales promotion tool. travel agents. 6hen we talk about packaging in the hotel industry.)n!ising: It is found helpful in promoting mass"market" This tool is found significant to restaurants and bars. A. -ur guests take a good meal for granted but don%t forget to narrate to their friends and relatives about a bad meal or the bitter e!periences of menu"fatigue. D. 6e can%t deny the fact that one bad meal would often do more damage by word"of"mouth than fifty good meals. The word"of"mouth promoters are those who are satisfied with the services of hotels or are motivated to motivate the prospects. tour operators or at the places where tourists come. it is essential that folders have an impressive appearance in totality.&)( M)"eri)&s: In the materials to be displayed at sensitive points are posters. S. B. is. -f course. dispensers. 6e find them close"mouthed and . Mer'. The merchandising involves displaying of food stuffs and drinks in the right location. E. tour operators.e"i"i*n )n! E/. amusement parks. it is much more significant that the satisfaction of users is give top priority" -f course. The aforesaid tools of sales promotion help hotels and hotel companies in increasing the business. resorts. airports. In this respect. In the hotel industry. railway and bus stations.
the telemarketing can be helpful in promoting the business since the tour operators. There is no doubt in it that the goods or services are found half"sold when their properties are well told. Thus we find persuasion the main thing in energising the process of marketing. the travel agents. The hotel business is substantially influenced by personal selling" The personal selling brings considerable momentum to the process of boosting the hotel business. the users need multi"dimensional informations regarding the new provisions. It is against this background that we talk about the instrumentality of telemarketing in promoting the hotel business. 6e can%t deny the fact that personal selling has proved to be an important constituent of promotion. The oral representation in conversation bears the efficacy of transforming the motivation into persuasion. A person with high communicative ability is to perform as a telemarketer who bears the responsibility of answering to the #uestions and #ueries of customers. The transport operators. the transmission of first hand information is also an outstanding contribution of this tool of promotion. a change in the hotel tariff or so. availability of package tour. Te&e#)r-e"ing : 6e can%t negate the fact that even in the hotel industry. the tour operators. cancellation. 6e are well aware of the fact that hotel is a multi"segment industry in which a number of industries are found involved in the process. The art of telling "and " selling is personal promotion which depends upon the personal e!cellence. it is pertinent that the telemarketers remove their misunderstanding by answering to their . 6e accept the fact that the instrumentality of telemarketing is substantially influenced by the skill of telemarketers vis"a"vis the instruments used in the process.stiff"lipped till they make a good"bye and after going back they try their best to think twice before coming to that hotel again. Pers*n)& Se&&ing : 8othing happens unless anyone sells something and nothing is sold unless the buyers are motivated to purchase things of their choice. They are re#uired to be helpful and patient and above all. If they have misunderstanding or they are confused. they should appear satisfied and work towards generating more "satisfaction to customers. $oreover they start narrating to their friends and relatives their bitter e!periences of menu fatigue even without taking a rest. The feedback received from the salesforce engaged in the process helps marketers in designing the development plans. travel agents and the users develop a number of confusions and misunderstanding about booking. 3ervice does not mean servility" The Phrase %the customer is always right%. The sales personnel are re#uired to be friendly in dealings and cheerful in e!pression. These services pave the ways for oral communication and recommendation. In the hotel industry. the telemarketing can play an incremental role. refined behaviour and world class services by the hotel personnel carry some meaning. 2esides. prospects regarding the business transactions. confirmation. It is against this background that high" level functions. applies specifically to the hotel industry. transport operators.
6e also need to consider the economic criteria. the hotel professionals are re#uired to take into account a number of factors. deciding the position or image which each accommodation unit or chain of units should occupy. In addition. target average spends. 6e accept the fact that pricing menus and drinks in hotel food and beverage areas to obtain ma!imum sales and profits is a very comple! sub1ect. &!periences show that in the . current menu and drink prices. target covers per meal period. such as planning the most profitable business mi! of segments and products. They need world class e!cellence while making strategical and tactical pricing decisions" It is in this conte!t that we go through the problem of price mi!. Pricing decisions are found important in both strategic and tactical sense.#uestions suitably. we find world"wide economic depression and the trend is not likely to be reversed in the near future. it plays an outstanding role. it la also right to mention that the hotel professionals need more e!cellence while fi!ing the hotel tariffs since the services are found of perishable nature. tactical pricing is found instrumental in promoting the hotel business. encouraging and rewarding fre#uent users of the services and developing marketing integration between units in common ownership )chains* or units in individual ownership )voluntary co"operatives*. This is also due to the inability of the service engineering organisations to carry over unsold stocks as a buffer to cope with future demand as found in the goods manufacturing organisations. At the same time. 6hile formulating the pricing strategy.The e!istence and prosperity of hotels and hotel companies are substantially influenced by the #uality of pricing decisions. involvement of costs and spending power of the customers. 3trategic decisions are e!pected to generate a profitable mi! of bookings and room"occupancy through the production and distribution of appropriately priced distinctive products which match the needs and re#uirements of identified segments. make to their e!ternal business environment. specially the diverse nature and character of dishes. The pricing decisions are beset with many problems. There are four elements in the strategic marketing response which accommodation supplier". $anaging relatively volatile demand around a relatively fi!ed capacity of highly perishable product supply is identified as one of the principal characteristics of the hotel business. It is in this conte!t that we go through the problem of pricing in the hotel industry. the hotels and hotel companies also need to make pricing decisions. 8o doubt in it that fi!ing the hotel tariffs is 1ust like pricing other goods and services. It is in this conte!t that we find telemarketers very much instrumental in activating the business transactions. the seasonal fluctuation in demand and increasing intensity of competition also complicate the task of professionals. Also known as price deregulation. This is due to the inseparability and perishability of the hotel products. PRICE MIX >ike other organisations. -f late. In the tactical sense.
There are some of the important points to be considered in the process: = +o you find that your guests are eating in the hotel restaurant or coffee shop where the competitive restaurants are very close to the hotel. = 2udgets on room sales are to be planned based on sales mi! taking into account the different sources of business. Pri'ing +*r F**! )n! Bever)ge 6e can%t deny the fact that pricing food and beverage is much more complicated.hotel industry. 6hile fi!ing room tariffs. we find special function room rates for overnight convention. it is found to be a ma1or selling tool. = -n the basis of the above. net operating cost plus rent )if payable* net operating cost plus interest and net operating cost plus a target return on capital. The following are the economic criteria on room tariffs: = The total amount of net operating costs )after contribution from the food and beverage departments*. we go through the guidelines for fi!ing reasonable room tariffs. it is possible to calculate the different sources of business. 5enerally a proportion do eat in but a significant proportion go out. staff numbers and staff standards are known. = This helps in calculating the total room sales and to achieve various levels of profits with the assumption that room department cost ratios. In a ma1ority of the hotels.e'i)& is'*$n"s: In the hotel industry. 'ustomary to charge lower prices. = Tr)!e is'*$n"s: 9ound applicable in the hotel industry as tour operators and travel agents are offered discounts.not be e!ceeded if the average rate re#uired is to be achieved. = S. A hotel may also adopt a policy to give high pay roll to provide a higher standard of services which the customers are ready to pay. There are a number of ways for practising and benefiting from this tool: = Se)s*n)& is'*$n"s: 9ound applicable in the hotel industry. based on the current #uoted tariffs. must. . a schedule should be produced as per the average room rates re#uired in order to break even and. Pri'ing +*r R**# T)ri++s 4ere. specially during the off"season.or to achieve the profit targets at various occupancy levels. The average room rate should not be much higher than the competitive hotels otherwise the market will not welcome it. it is essential that we assign due weightage to the price structure to be adopted. there are three or four types of rooms but so far as the menus are concerned we can have do:en of dishes. 8et operating costs. = After this.
As a . The hotel personnel and the travel agents are found instrumental in offering the services related to hotels. A sound distribution system is found significant to the development of almost all the organisations either producing goods or generating services. complaints and grievances redressal cell. the hotel institutes and travel and tourism institutes have been educating and training the personnel keeping in view the changing needs and increasing e!pectations of the users. The hotels and hotel companies have been found innovating their service mi! but they also bear the responsibility of making it sure that the promised services reach to the ultimate users in a right fashion. -f course. it is much more impact" generating that we bridge over the gap between the services"promised and service offered. the waiters. the distribution of services is mainly related to the transmission of information by the related persons to the ultimate users. emerging trends in economy and changing lifestyles are the important factors drawing due attention of the hotelH management. the promised services would reach to the users without any distortion that would generate satisfaction to the users and even the pro1ection of a positive image would not be found much more difficult. 6e can%t negate the fact that the pricing policy affordable to the guests and remunerative to the establishment is found to be a rational policy sub"serving the interests of all. they compete with each other and help splitting the market down the middle rather than offering a true price.= 6here a hotel has two or more restaurants. services or atmosphere is uni#ue or 1ust a little better than the competitors. en#uiries. In the hotel industry. the tour operators are found involved in the process. 2ut this aspect is found more complicated for function room services. This makes it essential that we assign due weightage to the processing of services. 3ome guests are found e!tremely sensitive to price and for them the reduced rate would normally be stimulant. the porters. In view of the above. it is right to mention that the intensity of competition. Pricing for 9unction .estaurants can get more business because the food. It is against this background that we focus on the place mi! of hotel companies. The front"line"staff. still we find cases where they generate a gap while processing the services which results into dissatisfaction vis"a"vis pro1ection of a negative image. specially while making the pricing decisions. <et the reduction in rate must be done carefully because we also find users considering high pricing a status symbol. PLACE MIX It is only not sufficient that we have a product mi! of world class0 it is not only significant that we promise the best. the doormen. the travel agents. = The business in the function room. $ost of the functions are fairly routined which makes it difficult to produce a gastronomic e!perience. If they are professionally"sound and personally"committed. receptionists.
The three"tier distribution system is re#uired to be managed properly so that the users e!pectations are fulfilled . tactical strategy and the motivational schemes. The travel agents buy the services at the re#uest of their clients and provide a convenient network of sales outlets which caters to the needs of the catchment area. the most important business decision. This is due to the fact that a well located small business can often be sure of an ade#uate now of customers to its catchment area. The middlemen are wholesalers buying hotel rooms in bulk and then selling the same to the retailers known as the travel gents. 9or accomplishing the organisational goals or for bridging over the gap between the services"promised and services"offered. the confirmation is found essential. helping us substantially in purchasing the hotel bed rooms. sales contests or so. 3pecially for proprietor"owned restaurants. the tour operators sell them to the travel agents. If the hotels and hotel companies are well connected with the offices of the travel agents and the tour operators. specially for the organisation of conferences. This makes it essential that hotels. two"level. In this case. The tour operators buy a range of tourist products in bulk. 6e can%t deny the fact that with the introduction of sophisticated information technologies. point"of sale the cost of distribution. one"level and :ero"level. 4ere we find three systems for distributing the services. essentially through the chain of distribution. The transmission of information related to cancellation is also found important. we find the distribution channels less significant. the tour operators play a decisive role in promoting the hotel business. guest houses and small tourist attractions.when the bookings are made of a bedroom or a function room or of a restaurant. offices of travel agents and the tour operators are well connected with computers. e. The hotels and hotel companies are here re#uired to take a decision regarding a strong and. the occupancy ratio can be increased. inter"net services. This also includes accommodation facilities which is found relevant to the hotel industry. e!hibition. function rooms restaurants. the task is made easier but the professionals operating and maintaining the technologies have also been found generating the gap. The choice of location is. A number of factors arc found influencing the distribution process.the distribution processes. effectiveness of marketing resources. the consumers come to the producer directly and therefore. the service generating organisations find it convenient o increase the occupancy ratio. image of hotels and hotel companies. The middlemen are the link ad if the link is strong. efficient chain which maintains economy in the process and at the same time also minimises the possibilities of distortion in the process. of course. such as location. seminars. After buying a number of services and making them a lucrative package. They also buy function rooms. The tour operators are called the producers of services. The selection of tour operators and travel agents is an important decision"making area for hotels and hotel companies. The distribution chain denotes the methods by which a product or services a processed from producers to the ultimate users.g. we need to innovate . 4ere.
2uilding and maintaining the cooperation of middlemen is a critical decision making area which re#uires more professional e!cellence. T3*1&eve& is"ri%$"i*n S(s"e# The aforesaid facts and figures make it clear that all the three systems of distribution are found important to the hotel companies" They are supposed to seek the co"operation of channels failing which the task of increasing or optimi:ing the occupancy ratio would be much more difficult. it is also right to mention that in addition to profitability. visa issues. One &eve& !is"ri%$"i*n 6e find one"level distribution system where between the hotel companies and their ultimate users. -f course. Innovation in distribution occupies a place of outstanding significance. -f course. ancillary services. displaying and merchandising opportunities. passport issues. providing brochure and leaflets and focusing on their services products. it is pertinent to select the best channel alternative. 6e can%t negate the positive contributions of distribution processes in improving or degenerating the #uality of services. the small hotels can promote their business even without taking the support of a distribution chain but so far as the big hotels and hotel companies are concerned they can%t work if the travel agents and tour operators don%t make available to them the #uality services. supplementing hotel%s promotional activities and lodging and redressing complaints from customers. In view of the above. This strengthens the hypothesis that tour operators and travel agents are customers for the product of hotels and hotel companies. 2er* Leve& is"ri%$"i*n This is a process of direct distribution without any middlemen.and the promised services reach to the ultimate users in a right way. such as insurance. advice on other peripheral services. This calls for a harmonious working relationships with the middlemen so that the hotel companies are not to face the multi"dimensional problems. This is due mainly to the fact that they are supposed to transmit substantial information to the prospects. if they don%t perform efficiently they suffer. itinerary planning. serving as marketing intelligence for hotel companies. we also find satisfaction to users playing a decisive role in the entire process and the world class middlemen need to perceive it. If the distribution chain is working satisfactorily. 9or the hotel companies working on a large"scale. we find travel agents responsible for distributing or processing the services. Innovation of product can%t be the lone solution for demand stimulation. the hotels and hotel companies succeed and contrary to it. confirm and cancel with the help of their own system. such as conventional customer access. 2ut at the same time. The hotels book. the most profitable channel is considered to be the best channel. . It is in this conte!t that the hotel management re#uires world class professional e!cellence which would simplify the distribution process besides maintaining economy and making possible cost effectiveness. the hotel companies need to think about one"level or two"level distribution system.
we find a basic change in the e!pectations of users. The personnel serving the hotel companies no doubt depend substantially on the instrumentality of information technologies but here it is . the marketing managers. professionally"sound. it is also important that we organise for them an ongoing training programme. refresher courses. lecture programmes. A gap is generated between the #uality"promised and the #uality"offered. the waiters and waiteresses and even the doormen play an incremental role in promoting the business. The world class hotel professionals are supposed to make the decisions sound so that the process of distribution is made cost effective. This makes it essential that the hotel personnel are made available an ongoing training facility efficacious in enriching their professional e!cellence. the house" keepers. aware of the behavioural management0 familiar with the aesthetic management0 they can satisfy the users even if the sophisticated technologies develop a fault. the strategic choice between internal and e!ternal selling. also important that hotels and hotel companies assign due weightage to the development of personnel. function rooms and restaurants. It is against this background that the marketing e!perts the world over have been found making a strong advocacy in favour of an ongoing training programme for the personnel servicing the hotel companies. In an age of information e!plosion. In this conte!t. The front" line"staffing particular need to identify the changing levels of e!pectations of users and in a ma1ority of the cases they virtually fail in doing such. -f course. they arc supposed to have proper education and knowledge regarding the services they need to offer but here. domestic and internationalH selling. direct and indirect selling occupy a place of significance. the distance carries no meaning if well developed transportation facilities are available. capsule courses. The sales e!ecutives. specially related to the behavioural profile. the porters. PEOPLE MIX In an age of sophisticated information technologies when we have been making superhighway for communications.2ecause of the choice and fle!ibility of distribution channels in service products in general and the hotel products in particular. the senior e!ecutives bear the responsibility of managing the front"line"personnel in such a way that the promised services reach to the ultimate users without making any distortion. it is also important that they think about locational points"since of late the high spending tourists prefer cottages located in the outskirts on even in villages. personally"committed. This phrase is meaningful not only for the technologies but even for the people who manage them. If the hotel personnel prove to be high"performers. indecent behaviour . The cases of menu fatigue. mismanaged bedrooms. a minor mistake committed by the receptionists or the housekeepers has resulted in a bigloss. value"oriented. power interruption. our prime focus is on the front"line"personnel working in hotels in different capacities. 6e find several cases to #uote that even the five star hotels where the users stay with high e!pectations. In addition. The receptionists.
en1oying the ambiance. Physical surroundings and other visible cues can have a profound effect on the impressions customers form about the #uality of the service they receive. . including clothes and grooming. receiving and eating the meal " is important. the flow and progress of the production process is more important for services than it is for goods.(si')& Evi!en'e This element of the e!panded marketing mi! addresses the ItangibleI components of the service e!perience and firm%s image referred earlier. 2ut the customer at a fine restaurant is not merely interested in the end result " the cessation of hunger. ordering. The entire e!perience of arriving at the restaurant " of being seated. poor information to the receptionists and en#uires can be minimised considerably if we assign due weightage to performance" orientation. the ambience. The pace of the process and the skill of the provider are both apparent to the customer and fundamental to his or her satisfaction with the purchase. The IservicescapeI " that is. The appearance of the staff. PROCESS MIX 2ecause customers are often involved in the production of services. 6e should not forget that the technologies in no case can replace the high" performers. the comfort of seating and the physical layout of a service facility " can greatly affect a customer%s satisfaction with a service e!perience. P. the background music. A customer who buys a television set is not particularly concerned about the manufacturing process that made it.of doormen. may be used as important clues.
choice available.e'"e! Servi'e: 4ygienic facilities. Accommodation services. 'ommunication Transport etc.. silver" services. etc. fine wines. ('eeping pr !i"e"# C n"(!er" According to the Product"3ervice 'ontinuum ( 4H*"e& 5 C)"ering is ) #i/ *+ G**!s 5 Servi'es6 G**!s ( 9ood 2everages Servi'es ( 'atering 3ervices.ner"*A-!n H. TOTAL PRO UCT CONCEPT C*re Servi'e: 9ood provision. . prompt services. free delivery. External Marketing (Making pr !i"e"# Internal Marketing (Ena$ling pr !i"e"# E!pl )ee"*+aiter"* Manager" Intera%ti&e Mktg. take" aways. F*r#)&7E/. A$g#en"e! Servi'e: &!otic menu. &ntertainment. H tel O.SERVICE TRIANGLE OF HOTEL & CATERING IND.
lifestyles are fantastically influenced by the positive trends in the discretionary income. meditation. The professionals taking part in the process hear multi" dimensional responsibilities. we are often beset with multi"faceted problems. They need . new TV channels fascinate masses to entertain and en1oy. culture and civilisation. music centres. drama centres. The sophistication in the development of communication technologies paves avenues for the development of entertainment facilities. education. the process of concentration. The entertainment organisations also need to promote the services in such a way that the prospects are informed. The liberalisation of economy makes the ways for the Inter"nationalisation of fashion.LEISURE SERVICES INTRO UCTION Temptation for recreation is a natural phenomenon. disco and pub. If we develop a negative attitude regarding the natural laws. ethical and human values. sensed and persuaded in a right fashion. open air"theatres. cultural. This engineers a foundation for the development of monotony vis"a"vis inefficiency" 6e have no option but to follow up the busy schedule to earn more in order to spend more since consumerism is found changing our lifestyles. pessimism would take its root and a beginning in the degeneration process can%t be ruled out. It is against this background that we make a strong advocacy in favour of entertainment facilities so that we get an opportunity to get ourselves re1uvenated to work more. In the modern age. The emerging trends in the preferences. An optimal product mi! needs due attention on information. A process of contraction in the development of faculties would invite multi"dimensional problems. entertainment and a respect to culture. The formulation of a sound marketing mi! for the different types of entertainment organisations is found essential to make the services competitive. likes and dislikes. The increasing urbanisation and domination of corporate sector in the development processes make the businesss conditions conducive for the development and e!pansion of entertainment facilities. efficiency"generation would be reversed and resulting from which the monotony would develop. The opening of new air"conditioned picture palaces. to earn more and to avail the modern amenities and facilities to lead a comfortable life. They need to formulate a sound product mi! so that #uality entertainment services are made available to the users. entertainment. It is pertinent to mention in the very conte!t that the perception of #uality is re#uired to be shaped in the face of healthy entertainment which gravitates our attention on making a fair mi! of entertainment services in which we find provisions for developing knowledge.
a rational pricing policy which paves avenues for generating profits and these things are possible when we think in favour of conceptualising marketing. Thus leisure is purely e!perience oriented and so there is a lot of intangibility factor in it. which are often produced in a location far removed from the customer and totally under the control of the manufacturing firm. The variability in this case can be reduced by constant practice. It is a planned effort to organise the business which re#uires world class professional e!cellence. 3ince leisure marketing re#uires a lot of conceptuali:ation of products. &!: -nline games maga:ines are a very good e!ample that can be used to overcome this problem. LEISURE MARKETING 8 A CONCEPTUAL FRAME0ORK 2y entertainment marketing. It is an intelligent effort to study and understand the changing behavioural profile of users based on the segmentation results" The making of creative marketing decisions is an important functional responsibility before the professionals which re#uires a well"developed and technology"driven information system. This gravitates our attention on the formulation of marketing mi! for the services which help the entertainment organisations in improving the #uality of services for satisfying and benefiting the users. &!: Performer in a theatre play will have slight variations in his performance over a week. service production often re#uires the presence and active participation of the customer " and of other customers. . it is very difficult to convince the customers. stage shows and other live performances that are repeated. frame of mind. The marketing processes make the ways for profit" generation since the optimal inputs make the services cost"effective by making possible operational economy. the results can be good or bad. Inse. &!: &ssel 6orld publici:es its services )amusing rides* through ads. our focus is on the application of marketing principles in the entertainment services. cooperation and so on that customers bring to the service encounter. but in any event are hard to standardi:e. +epending upon the attitude. brouchers etc. UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF LEISURE IN USTRY In")ngi%i&i"(: 8obody can be induced into e!periencing any leisure activities0 it has to be impulse in nature. It is a managerial process of making the services productive so that the organisations succeed in accomplishing the organisational goals.)r)%i&i"(: Jnlike goods. 6e find entertainment marketing a productive approach to fulfil the changing e!pectations of users. V)ri)%i&i"(: The variability factor is found in leisure providing activities like dramas.
'ircus 'ompanies. All the entertainment organisations are supposed to offer healthy entertainment items which on the one hand refresh the viewers while on the other hand also educate and sense them in a right perspective so that the possibilities of taste"perversion. the price mi!. +isco 4alls. the promotion mi!. Pr*!$'" Mi/: In the entertainment services. such as they develop other services close to the centres.)%i&i"(: >ike hotel industry. This in a natural way draws our attention on the service mi! or service profile of the entertainment organisations. +rama 'entres. In view of the above. -pen"air Theatres. Pubs. cultural invasion are regulated. it is also pertinent that they assign due weightage to the peripheral services. the place mi! and the people mi!. Theatre 'ompanies and amusement centres offering different items to entertain the users who are supposed to come to the centres. if all the seats are not occupied the service provider loses the opportunity cost of those empty seats. no doubt.e.i. It is in this conte!t that we talk about the formulation of different submi!es.Peris. if the theatre is not full . THE FORMULATION OF MARKETING MIX $arketing professionals bear the responsibility of formulating a sound marketing mi! for the entertainment organisations so that #uality entertainment services are made available to the users. The following e!ample signifies the importance of overcoming the perishability factor in the leisure industry: &!: In cinema halls and theaters. The product mi! is re#uired to be a fair combination of ancient and modern culture. TV 'hannels. 3ome of the organisations are managed under the public sector whereas a large number of -rganisations are managed under the private sector. the products are entertainment programmes made available to the viewers. The different categories of organisations are Picture Palaces. but we should not think like this that in the modern culture we have a freedom to promote open se!. The entertainment organisations in general and the TV 'hannels in particular need to assign due weightage to Indian culture. such as the product mi!. +ance 'entres. 6hile formulating the product mi!. they make world class arrangements for the conveniences and comforts to the viewers and more so they make it a point of attraction. The entertainment organisations offer different types of services to the different categories of users. it is right to mention that the product mi! of the entertainment organisations is re#uired to be made competitive so that the world class services get a profitable market. the leisure industry also has the perishability factor involved in it. 6e are not opposed to .
the entertainment organisations are also re#uired to engineer a sound base for the generation of profits which makes a strong advocacy in favour of effective promotional measures. such as advertising. In addition. Almost all categories of the entertainment organisations need to advertise with the support of advertising professionals having the world class e!cellence. Pr*#*"i*n Mi/ >ike other organisations. It is in this conte!t that the entertainment organisations need a new prescription for the formulation of a sound product mi! which refreshes viewers and develop their faculties. -f course they need to produce the services selling more for generating profits and maintaining commercial viability but 1ust for making more profits they are not supposed to derail the society. sensing and persuading the users. -f course. The print media would be suitable for almost all categories of the entertainment organisations because today we have sophisticated print technology and #uality print materials which would add attractions to advertisement. It is not possible for all the entertainment organisations to have an independent wing for advertising. The effectiveness in advertising messages and themes is felt essential which draws our attention on creativity. In this conte!t. They bear the responsibility of entertaining the masses and therefore they should entertain by presenting items which on the one hand refresh them while on the other hand also provide to them an opportunity to learn something positive. The different components of promotion. the cost economy is also an . This makes it essential that they take the support of syndicate or the leading advertising professionals who would help them in making the advertisement messages and themes creative. It is against this background that they need to use the different constituents of the promotion mi! which would help them substantially in informing. they need #uality entertainment programmes to satisfy the users and this re#uires the formulation of a sound service mi!.entertainment but they need to perceive the right perception of entertainment. 6e need to understand the level of e!pectations of the prospects which would help us in formulating and innovating the service profile. distorting social relationships or so. promote se! and violence and invite and welcome the values making an invasion on the Indian culture. The marketing professionals need to formulate a sound product profile in which different types of entertainment programmes are included. it is pertinent that the users or prospects come to know about the #uality of services which makes it essential that the entertainment organisations make possible creativity in the promotional measures. they also re#uire to design a package to motivate the users. publicity. In addition. personal selling. the advertisement helps entertainment organisations in increasing the mass awareness. A!ver"ise#en": As a paid form of persuasive communication. word"of"mouth promotion and telemarketing are re#uired to be made effective to transform the prospects into the habitual users. sales promotion. misguide the teens.
The task of creating the impulse may be successfully carried on with the help and cooperation of sales personnel. They should have high communicative ability. active or handsome physi#ue. sales personnel help substantially the promotion of business. Pr*#*"i*n: The audience satisfied with the #uality of entertainment program communicate their positive or negative feelings to their friends and relatives that they are satisfied with your services. A temporary incentive to the sales personnel as well as to the users of services helps in boosting the sale. they can afford telecast media. it is essential that they assign due weightage to the budgetary provisions and the financial constraint. If they succeed in impressing upon the media. The tact. It is against this ground that we find this constituent of the promotion mi! playing a positive provided the #uality of programme is superior. The entertainment organisations may also advertise through the broadcast media. dinner parties or get"together functions in which the media people. such as concessional services. the publicity would be possible which would help the entertainment organisations considerably in promoting the business. offering of gifts. dealers. they may also think in favour of such an incentive to the users Pers*n)& Se&&ing: 6e find this component of the promotion mi! very instrumental in promoting the entertainment organisations. 6hile selecting a vehicle.additional benefit specially with the view point of those entertainment organisations who find it difficult to advertise through the telecast media. P$%&i'i"(: 6e find publicity the most effective component of promotion since the entertainment organisations find it convenient to develop rapport with the media people. opinion leaders and the popular artists are to be invited. dedication and commitment to the profession% would directly contribute to the business graph of the entertain organi:ations. 0*r!1*+1#*$". 3o far as the bigentertainmenI organi:ations are concerned. If they succeed in developing rapport and the media people are found influenced with the #uality of entertainment programmes. The marketing professionals need to organise lunch. organisation of fair or e!hibition by the entertainment organisations. specially for the sales people addition. brokers. . It is in this conte!t that we make an advocacy for innovative tools of sales promotion. S)&es Pr*#*"i*n: The entertainment organisations also need to think about the sales promotion measures to promote the business. an eye"catching coverage as a news item would promote their business even without making a substantial investment. they advocate in your favour and a positive remark helps in promoting the business because all of them prefer to watch the same as and when they get an opportunity. they have a big budget for advertisement and therefore. The agents. ability and skill of sales personnel play here an mental role. There is no doubt in it that we find high intensity of effectiveness in the telecast media.
the circus companies. Pri'e Mi/ In the formulation of marketing mi!. 2esides. The traditional theatres. $oreover. the pricing decisions are found significant. the e!che#uer re#uires due support of the viewers but at the same time. they are mentally prepared to pay high prices for the services. -f course. the entertainment organisations need to assign due weightage to the category and paying capacity of the viewers. car"racing or horse"racing. the entertainment organisations producing programmes visualising social. This makes it clear that high"pricing strategy is found suitable where the services indicate high status of viewers. All of us feel that the masses find it difficult to view the movies. cultural and national problems need an overriding priority. it is also right to mention that the viewers are re#uired to be promoted since they have very limited means for entertainment. dance or music centres. 6ith the development of sophisticated communication technologies. dramas regularly because the high slab of ta! makes the price structure high. 2ut for all the services. multi"faceted support in promoting the entertainment programme re#uire due support of government.Te&e#)r-e"ing: ln addition to other components of the promotion mi!. The ta! concessions. theatres. To be more specific the entertainment service used by the masses need due attention of the government. 2ut it is essential the entertainment organisations make available sophisticated telephonic instruments to the telemarketers who bear the responsibility of influencing and impressing upon the users. This dimension of promotion re#uires the involvement of a successful telemarketer who should have high communicative ability to receive and transmit the messages related to the #ueries the prospects or the users" Any confusion or misunderstanding in the minds prospects is re#uired to be removed by the telemarketers. availability of subsidised infrastructural facilities or essential inputs. cricket"show. movies and amusement parks need a pricing strategy that is found suitable even to the low"income group of the society. . the government also bears the responsibility of promoting the entertainment organisations and this needs due attention on the entertainment ta! charged. Thus. A rational ta! structure is thus found essential to promote the entertainment organisations. If the users of the services come to view the open"air theatres. we find enough for promoting through telephones and televisions. the entertainment organisations can%t adopt the same strategy. find telemarketing emerging as an important constituent of promotion. >ike this when the high"cost inputs are used in the process. the entertainment organisations charge high"pricing strategy" This makes it clear that the entertainment organisations can%t take a decision in isolation since a number of factors influence the process. The most important thing in the Indian perspective is found the entertainment ta! which is found throwing a big impact on the pricing decisions of the entertainment organisations.
3ince a ma1ority of the entertainment programmes need ade#uate and uninterrupted power facilities. first the process of offering the services and second. safe and accessible. also need due attention since they are found involved in the process. the pricing decisions of the entertainment organisations also need to consider the nature and types of services offered by them. folk songs deserve special support to be more specific by the government and the social organisations. The personnel working at the ticket counters. the entertainment organisations need to make it sure that in . at the entry and e!it points need due attention of the entertainment organisations since we find them acting as sensitive personnel or as the front"line"staff. 9urther. In view of the above. it is also essential that the place selected for the entertainment centres is safe. The dimension of the place mi! becomes significant to make the services comfortable. If they don%t know about the behavioural management and start behaving indecently with the users or the prospects. This draws our attention on the two important problems. P&)'e Mi/ In the making of marketing decisions. dealers. traditional theatre companies promoting cultural heritage. This makes it essential that personnel engaged in the process are well aware of the behavioural management. the marketing professionals need to make it sure that the problem of breakdown or inade#uate supply is not to degenerate the #uality of services. The process of offering the services is found significant with the viewpoint of making available the promised services to the audience. This re#uires a liberal policy of government in which the entertainment organisations found of sensitive nature are supposed to make available multi"dimensional support. 6e can%t negate that a place where we find assembling of target prospects would be suitable and therefore cities precincts draw our attention while locating the entertainment centres.In addition to other aspects. The circus companies. the selection of an appropriate place for the entertainment organi:ations. To be more specific when the entertainment centres are meant for the children and women. 6e can%t negate that such a negative trend in the business environment would close doors for the development of some of the entertainment organisations instrumental in entertaining the masses. it is right to mention that the entertainment organisations need to make the pricing decisions rational failing which the commercial viability of a ma1ority of them would adversely be affected. we find place mi! an important decision making area. the business would adversely be affected. In addition. It is not possible for the circus companies to bring down the price structure since they are re#uired to spend huge amount for he inputs thy use for offering the services. the agents. 6hile selecting location points. it is pertinent that the entertainment organisations select a place which is smoothly accessible" The availability of supporting infrastructural facilities can%t be underestimated in the very conte!t.
Thus. . 6hen we find the distribution network at the small"scale. It is against this background that the marketing professionals are re#uired to have a sound place mi!. it is pertinent that we locate distribution centres where the rural prospects are available in a good number. it is also pertinent that they assign due weightage to the management of distribution channel.&e Mi/ Technologies. agents. the transportation and communication facilities are available specially during and after the show times. 6hile rationalising the e!penses. In view of the above. 3ince we find distribution process nationally and even internationally. 'ontrary to it when they locate distribution centres for the ultra"modern prospects. The aforesaid facts make it clear that marketing professionals need to assign due weightage to the management of place which directly or indirectly influences the business prospects of entertainment organisations" To be more specific " for the leading and large"si:ed entertainment organisations. 6hen we produce entertainment programmes for the rural viewers. 6e don%t need to locate distribution centres for all the services at all the places. they can manage the distribution process in tune with their own conveniences and potentials. no doubt. dealers who have not been facing the image problem. It is against this background that we need to assign due weightage to the people mi! of an organisation. the distribution representatives facing the image problem complicate the process of distribution. It is right to mention that with the help of sophisticated communication technologies the entertainment organisations have been successful in improving the #uality of their services but failing the world class personnel working as characters or serving as distributors they would hardly be successful in accomplishing the organi:ational goals. it is essential that they are particular to the selection of distribution representatives. it is much more impact generating that they concentrate in metropolises or in the big industrial towns and cities. It is important that they are offered reasonable incentives to promote sale.addition to other aspects. The marketing professionals need to make the distribution e!penses optimal. Pe*. the entertainment organisations are found directly involved in the entire process and therefore. play an important role in improving the #uality of goods or services produced and generated by an organisation but ultimately it is the #uality of human resources that plays a decisive role. the place decisions re#uire to take into consideration a number of factors which substantially influence the business prospects of the entertainment organisations. 6e can%t deny the fact that representatives with a well" established image simplify the task of entertainment organisations" 'ontrary to it. they need to make it sure that they go to the places where the target audience are available in a good nrmber. it is right to mention that the entertainment organisations bear the responsibility of making the distribution processes convenient as well as economic.
Pr*'ess Mi/ The flow and progress of the production process is more important for services than it is for goods. the accuracy of bank statements and the ease of getting redress if mistakes are found all affect the person%s attitudes about doing further business with the bank and his or her willingness to recommend it to others. . 'ontrary to it. A customer who applies for a loan at a bank evaluates the purchase not only by the amount of the loan received and the interest rate paid. it is pertinent that they are efficient. if they don%t think about employee"orientation. 3ince we find them working at almost all the stages. 6e can%t negate that even they need an ongoing training to perform efficiently and decently. specially related to the behavioural profile. they also need to make it sure that the supporting personnel are of #uality. 6hile managing the marketing activities. even the inefficients would evince their interests in improving the credentials. The personnel proving their e!cellence as high performers and helping the entertainment organisations in promoting the #uality and sale ability need to be rewarded suitably. they need performance" orientation which would hardly be possible. how to influence. It is in this conte!t that the professionals need to link their incentive plans to the efficiency inde!. imparted an ongoing training facility. how to convince and how to win. They need to know how to behave. The speed and sensitivity of the approval process. the professionals are supposed to make it sure that #uality artists are recruited. dedicated. motivated sufficiently and controlled professionally. the interaction with the bank officers. either acting as core personnel or serving as supporting personnel. The marketing professionals bear the responsibility of improving their efficiency and enriching their faculties. The importance of the process is true even for less %sensualI e!periences. get suitable incentives. core and supporting need due attention of the professionals" 6e are not supposed to forget that ultimately it is the #uality of human resources that plays a decisive role in shaping a new perception of #uality. In both the categories of personnel.They need to manage different categories of personnel because some of them work as artists whereas some others work as distributors. sincere. if the professionals start rewarding uniformly to both the efficients and inefficients even the efficients would start degenerating. vi:. In view of the above. value"based and prove themselves to be high performers. it is right to mention that the entertainment organisations also need to manage the people mi! where both the categories of personnel. committed to the profession. In addition to the core personnel. If the efficients.
(si')& Evi!en'e The ItangibleI components of the service e!perience and firm%s image is focused upon by this element of the e!panded marketing mi!. Promotional materials and written correspondence provide tangible reassurance. they can be incorporated into the firm%s marketing communications to help reduce customer an!iety about committing to the purchase. particular attention must be paid to customer perceptions of that process. since they will play a ma1or role in influencing a customer%s impression of the firm. 3ervice firms should design these items with e!treme care. all physical evidence must be designed to be consistent with the IpersonalityI that the firm wishes to pro1ect in the marketplace. 9or this reason. .Therefore. marketing and operations are closely related in service management. In particular. P. when designing service production processes.