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tehnologija mesa

Osniva~ i izdava~: Institut za higijenu i tehnologiju mesa, Beograd

UDC: 664.039.7:579.67:637.523(4) BIBLID: 0494-9846

Originalni nau~ni rad Original scientific paper

Technological, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of traditionally fermented sausages in Mediterranean and central European countries*
J. Gasparik-Reichardt, Sz. Tth, L. Cocolin, G. Comi, E. Drosinos, Z. Cvrtila, L. Koza~inski, A. Smajlovi}, S. Sai~i}, B. Borovi}
A b s t r a c t: The authors presented the microbiological and chemical data of traditionally ripened dry sausages in different countries. The differences in composition, size and fermentation-ripening process were determined among the produced fermented sausages in the 6 countries. The physicochemical changes that occurred are summarized in terms of: decrease of pH-value, decrease of aw and increase of NaCl content. The microbiological analyses involved pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms as well as other bacteria. The isolated lactic acid bacteria were identified and compared by traditional and molecular-biological methods. Molecular genetic techniques showed good reproducibility and gave reliable results in doubtful cases, too. The API Staph identification system gave reliable results for staphylococci yet micrococci could be identified only with the traditional key. Key words: fermented sausage, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococci, identification, physicochemical and sensorial characteristic

TEHNOLO[KE, FIZI^KOHEMIJSKE I MIKROBIOLO[KE KARAKTERISTIKE TRADICIONALNO FERMENTISANIH KOBASICA U MEDITERANSKIM I CENTRALNOEVROPSKIM ZEMLJAMA
S a d r ` a j: Autori su predstavili mikrobiolo{ke i hemijske podatke suvih kobasica dobijenih tradicionalnim postupkom zrenja u razli~itim zemljama. Razlike u sastavu, veli~ini i procesu fermentacije odnosno zrenja odre|ivani su kod fermentisanih kobasica proizvedenih u 6 zemalja. Fizi~kohemijske promene do kojih je do{lo svode se na slede}e: smanjenje pH-vrednosti, smanjenje aw i porast sadr`aja NaCl. Mikrobiolo{ke analize obuhvatile su i patogene i trule`ne mikroorganizme kao i druge bakterije. Izolovane bakterije mle~ne kiseline identifikovane su i upore|ene tradicionalnim metodom i metodom molekularne biologije. Tehnike molekularne genetike pokazale su dobru ponovljivost, a dale i pouzdane rezultate u sumnjivim slu~ajevima. Sistem za identifikaciju API Staph dao je pouzdane rezultate za stafilokoke, dok se mikrokoke mogu utvrditi samo na tradicionalan na~in. Klju~ne re~i: fermentisana kobasica, bakterije mle~ne kiseline, Micrococci, odre|ivanje, fizi~kohemijske i senzorske karakteristike

BACKGROUND
Fermentation and drying of meat products are probably the most ancient ways of preservation. Fermentation of sausages in a traditional way has got a long history in the European countries (Figures 14) and in Hungary, too (Roca & Incze, 1990). Sausages prepared traditionally or with starter cultures can be considered as safe (Holley, Lammerding, & Tittiger, 1988, Incze, 1998, Samelis, Metaxopoulos, Vlassi, & Pappa, 1998). Namely, reduction of water activity (ripening/drying at low tem-

perature) and of pH (e.g., by using starter cultures) are generally sufficient for that purpose. However, in the last decades, some newly emerged pathogens have been isolated from foods. In raw fermented meat products, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogens were identified, being resistant to low pH, low aw and other environmental factors. They can induce serious human health risks (Farber, Daley, Holley & Usborne, 1993, Clavero & Beuchat, 1996). In view of the need to maintain the traditional sensorial quality of dry sausages and assure its safe-

* Rad je saopten na Me|unarodnom 53. savetovanju industrije mesa, 13-15 juna 2005. godine, Vrnja~ka Banja
AUTORI: J. Gasparik-Reichardt, Sz. Tth, Hungarian Meat Research Institute, H-1097 Budapest, Gubacsi t 6/b, Hungary; L. Cocolin, G. Comi University of Udine, Via Palladio 8 I-33100 Udine, Italy; E. Drosinos, The Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Lera Odos str. GR-118 55 Athens, Greece; Z. Cvrtila, L. Koza~inski, Zagreb University Veterinary Faculty, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia; A. Smajlovi}, University of Sarajevo Veterinary Faculty, Zmaja od Bosne 90, 71100 Sarajevo,Bosnia and Herzegovina; S. Sai~i}, B. Borovi} Institute of Meat Hygiene and Technology, Kacanskog 13, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro

tehnologija mesa 46 (2005) 3-4, 143-153

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J. Gasparik-Reichardt, Sz. Tth, L. Cocolin, G. Comi, E. Drosinos, Z. Cvrtila, L. Koza~inski, A. Smajlovi}, S. Sai~i}, B. Borovi}

ty, it is important to improve the industrial production of fermented sausages on the basis of development of protective cultures with acceptable technological and sensorial characteristics, after selection of strains isolated from naturally fermented products.

Objective
The objective of the investigation was to isolate and identify microflora of naturally fermented sausages in different countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Hungary and Serbia-Montenegro) with traditional and molecular methods and select lactic acid bacteria, which will not have negative effect on the sensorial characteristics and determination of the main differences in traditional production of sausages during fermentation and ripening. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics were investigated, too.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Sausage preparation: Sausages were manufactured according to each country's standard practice without commercial starter cultures. Three batches of sausages were prepared for the experiments. Samples were taken from each batch for chemical and microbiological (total viable count, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococci, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds, aerobic spore formers, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas and sulphite reducing clostridia) and physicochemical (moisture, NaCl, nitrite and nitrate content, pH and aw) analysis on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after formulation. The specifications applied in the preparation stage (final size of meat and fat pieces and used casings) as well as the critical technological parameters (i.e. temperature, relative humidity and duration) in the subsequent stages of technological production (curing of stuffed sausages, smoking, fermentation, ripening and drying) are presented in Table 4. At the end of each process, sausage samples were subjected to sensory analysis. A panel of 10 persons was created in each country. In a 10 degrees scale, the panelists had to grade the produced sausages for coherence, smell, acidity, tenderness, flavor and overall impression. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria: A total of 150 (50 per batch) isolates were collected from MRS agar plate. Half of the colonies were isolated from days 0 to 7 and the rest from day 14th to the end. The isolates were tested for cell mor144

phology by phase contrast microscopy, Gram reaction, and catalase formation. Gram-positive and catalase-negative strains were subjected to the following physiological and biochemical tests: gas (CO2) formation from glucose, arginine hydrolysis, growth in 8 and 10 % NaCl, growth at 4, 10, 15, 37 and 45C, slime formation, hydrolysis of arginine, ammonia, gas and slime formation. Sugar fermentation pattern was determined by API 50 CHL (BioMerieux) and identification was performed by the computer program APILAB Plus. Isolation and characterization of catalase-positive cocci: Total of 150 (50 per batch) isolates were collected from MSA agar plate. The isolates were rapidly checked for cell morphology by phase contrast microscopy, Gram reaction, and catalase production to ensure their classification to family Micrococcaceae. The isolates were subjected to the following tests: sensitivity to novobiocin, production of ammonia from urea, coagulase production, -galactosidase activity, oxidase reaction, nitrate reduction and acetoin formation. Micrococci were separated from staphylococci on the basis of fermentation of glucose and growth in the presence of erythromycin and lysozyme. The strains were tested with the API Staph (BioMerieux) and the identification was performed by the computer program APILAB Plus. Molecular identification of the isolated strains using PCR-based methods: DNA extraction: Total DNA was extracted using the method of Daud Khaled et al. (1997) with modification or by the method described by Andrighetto et al. (2001). RAPD-PCR and electrophoresis of RAPD-PCR products were carried out with the oligonucleotide primer M13 (Andrigetto et al., 2001). 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing: After grouping of the strains with RAPD-PCR, one representative strain of each group was selected for identification by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The primers used for 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing were P1V1 and P4V3 (Klijn et al., 1991).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The results of the microbiological analysis showed that lactic acid bacteria count was generally lower than total viable count in the first days of ripening in all sausages until the 4th day of fermentation. The population of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased rapidly everywhere to about log 8 CFU/g and became the dominant flora of the sausages from this day in all batches in all countries and stayed constant during ripening. The adaptation tehnologija mesa 46 (2005) 3-4, 143-153

Technological, physicochemical and microbiological ...

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of lactic acid bacteria to meat environment is well known and this feature made their growth faster. The ripening parameters were different and these were reflected in the composition of LAB. Based on the identification with API 50 CHL and traditional identification keys (Table 1), the dominant microbes were identified as L. plantarum in three countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Greece), Lc. lactis subsp. lactis in Italy, L. sakei in Hungary and L. fermentum in Serbia-Montenegro. Dominant strains were also L. pentosus and L. curvatus as well as Leu. mesenteroides strains. The results of the genetic identification (Table 3) comply with the results of other workers. According to the genetic identification, the predominant species were L. sakei, L. plantarum and L. curvatus. Comparing the results obtained with API 50 CHL and molecular methods, it is clear that there were differences between the two identifications (see Table 1 and 3). The database of API 50 CHL identification programme did not contain L. sakei strain which has importance in testing of meat industrial strains and was the dominant flora in Italian, Hungarian, Bosnian and Serbian strains by PCR-based methods and second among Greek strains. This strain could be identified only with conventional identification keys and molecular methods. Our results confirm that the API 50 CHL method is not very convenient and may be misleading in the identification of lactic acid bacteria. Molecular genetic techniques showed good reproducibility and gave good results in doubtful cases, too. Micrococci population was different among the countries (Table 2). For example, in the Hungarian sausages the number was very low from the first days (log 2 CFU/g) and did not increase further in any of the batches, in fact, in batches 1 and 3 it was actually eliminated by the end of ripening process. The average initial micrococci population, was higher in Croatian (log 3 CFU/g), Greek, Bosnian, Italian and Serbian (about log 4 CFU/g) sausages. This tendency was increasing only in Italy, where the final number of population was higher at the end of the ripening process (log 56 CFU/g). When comparing Staphylococci, the dominant strains were St. xylosus and St. saprophyticus (in 33 countries) followed by St. simulans, St. hominis and St. capitis. The API Staph identification gave good results in every country for identification of Staphylococci strains; in some cases micrococci needed additional tests. Sausage composition, dimensions as well as fermentation/ripening processes varied among the different countries (Table 4). Serbian, Hungarian tehnologija mesa 46 (2005) 3-4, 143-153

and Italian sausages are produced from pork meat, only. The Bosnian sausages are produced from beef meat only, while the Croatian and Greek producers use mixed pork and beef meat. Other ingredients are sugars, salt, fat and spices (it might be simply black pepper for Italian sausages, garlic and paprika for Serbian sausages or spice mixture). The size of sausages varied between 28 and 50 mm in diameter. Smoking was applied for the sausages produced in Serbia, Bosnia and Croatia, partial smoking in Hungary and Greece, while in Italy no smoking was performed. Ripening of the sausages was carried out under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity. In general, temperature was between 12C and 22C and relative humidity 6080%, except in Serbia, where the ripening temperature was 512C. Sausages were considered ready for consumption on the 28th day in Croatia and in Hungary the fermentation time was shorter but for harmonization of the results, experiments were carried out for the same tenure. The most intensive decrease of pH was measured in Greek product (Table 5) during fermentation and ripening (from 6.25 to 4.90). The lowest initial pH-value (5.47) was detected in sausages produced by Serbia and Montenegro, but the decrease was very low (final 5.27). In sausages produced of beef meat (Bosnia and Herzegovina), pH decreased from 6.15 to 4.86. The Croatian, Bosnian and Italian sausages showed pH decrease till the 7th day, after a slight increase, Hungarian and Serbian sausages showed the same pattern after 14 days of ripening. Final pH-values were between 4.86 and 5.66; the most acid sausages were produced in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Greece (4.86 and 4.90); the most basic was in Italy (5.66). Salt content (Table 6), just after the preparation (day 0) was between 1.51 (Croatia) and 2.52 (Italy). Proportionally to starting content and degree of moisture losses, an increase of NaCl content was observed. In the final product, the highest concentration of salt was determined in Hungarian sausages (4.71), but the ripening time was longer than usual in Hungary. Sensorial characteristics of sausages processed in the traditional way were evaluated very high (overall impression was above 70) except products examined in Croatia. Differences among investigated sausages in other countries and Croatia were probably due to prolongation of the usual process. Sensorial characteristics of sausages, in all 6 countries, showed that they were of very high quality with characteristic smell, flavor and coherence. 145

J. Gasparik-Reichardt, Sz. Tth, L. Cocolin, G. Comi, E. Drosinos, Z. Cvrtila, L. Koza~inski, A. Smajlovi}, S. Sai~i}, B. Borovi}

CONCLUSIONS
The differences in composition, size and fermentation/ripening process were determined among the produced fermented sausages in the 6 countries. The physicochemical changes that occurred were summarized in terms of: decrease of pH-value, decrease of aw and increase of NaCl content. From the hygienic standpoint, it is important that L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and S. aureus were not found in finished products. The number of other REFERENCES
Andrighetto C., Zampase, L. Lombardi, A., 2001. RAPD-PCR characterization of lactobacilli isolated from artisanal meat plants and traditional fermented sausages of Veneto region (Italy). Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 33, 26-30; Clavero, M.R.S., Beuchat, L.R., 1996. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in broth and processed salami as influenced by pH, water activity and temperature, and the suitability of media for its recovery. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 62, 2735-2740; Daud Khaled A.K., Neilan, B.A., Henriksson, A., Conway, P.L., 1997. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Lactobacillus using multiplex RAPD-PCR. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 153,191-197; Farber, J.M., Daley, E., Holley, R., Usborne, W.R., 1993. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during the production of uncooked German, American and Italian-style sausages. Food Microbiol. 10, 123-132; Holley, R.A., Lammerding, A.N., Tittiger, F., 1988. Microbiological safety of traditional and starter-mediated processes for the manufacture of Italian dry sausage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 34, 49-62; Klijn, N., A. H. Weerkamp, W. M. deVos, 1991. Identification of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by using polymerase

pathogens, if they were present in the raw material or sausage batter, decreased or became non-detectable. Based on the API tests, conventional identification keys, and molecular methods, the dominant Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains isolated from different countries were determined and compared. Sensory analysis of final products showed an overall acceptability of the products, above 70% for all partners, except that of Croatia, due to the extension of the regular ripening time.

chain reaction-amplified variable regions of 16S rRNA and specific DNA probes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 3390-3393; Roca, M., Incze, K., 1990. Fermented sausages. Food Reviews International 6, 91-118; Incze, K., 1998. Dry fermented sausages. Meat Science, 49, 169-177; Samelis, J., Metaxopoulos, J., Vlassi, M., Pappa, A., 1998. Stability and safety of traditional Greek salami - a microbiological ecology study. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 44: 69-82; Schillinger, U., Lcke, F.K. (1987): Identification of lactobacilli from meat and meat products. Food Microbiol. 4, 199-208.

This research has been carried out under the umbrella of the "SAFETYSAUSAGE" project, which is funded by the E.C. within the framework of the INCO-DEV program (Contract No ICA4-CT2002-10037).

Rad primljen: 4.07.2005.

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Table 1. Comparison of the lactic acid bacteria (%) isolated from naturally fermented sausages of different countries and identified with API 50 CHL kit Tabela 1. Pore|enje bakterija mle~ne kiseline (%) izolovanih iz prirodno fermentisanih kobasica iz razli~itih zemalja i identifikovanih kompletom API 50 CHL
Greece Lc. lactis subsp. lactis 26 L. fermentum 14 L. plantarum 11.3 L. curvatus 8 L. brevis 6 L. mesenteroides 5.3 L. paracasei 4 P. pentosaceus 2.7 L. mesenteroides/ dextrinicus 2 L. lactis 1.3 L. acidophilus 0.7 P. acidilactici 0.7 L. cellobiosus 0.7 Not identified 18 L. sakei 28.7 Leu. mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides 6.7 Leu. mesenteroides dextranicum 4.7 L. sanfrancisco 4.7 L. plantarum 3.4 L. curvatus 3.4 L. delbrueckii 3.4 L. alimentarius 3.4 L. amylophilus 2.7 L. bavaricus 2 W. viridescens 2 L. confosus 1.4 L. salivarius 0.7 L. acidophilus 0.7 L. maltoromicus 0.7 L. yamanashiensis 0.7 L. halotolerans 0.7 L. fructivorans 0.7 Leu. citreum 0.7 Leu. oenos 0.7 17 % was unidentified Italy Hungary Serbia and Montenegro L. fermentum 24 Leu. mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides 12.6 L. brevis 9.3 L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii 9.3 L. curvatus 7.3 S. faecalis 6.6 Lc. lactis ssp. lactis 6.6 L. plantarum 6 L. cellobiosus 4.6 L. collinoides 4.6 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 2.6 Leu. mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides 2.6 S. faecium 2 L. acidophilus 0.6 L. paracasei ssp. paracasei 0.6

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Tehnolo{ke, fizi~kohemijske i mikrobiolo{ke karakteristike ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

L. plantarum 40.7 L. pentosus 18 L. curvatus 16.7 L. sakei 8.7 L. brevis 7.3 P. pentosaceus 4.7 Leu. lactis 3.3. L. salivarius 0.6

L. plantarum (1*) 34 L. plantarum 43.3 L. brevis 20.7 L. curvatus 10.7 L. curvatus 18 L. pentosus 10.7 L. pentosus 6.7 L. brevis 8.7 L. plantarum (2*) 5.3 Lc. lactis subsp. L. fermentum 4 lactis 6.7 P. pentosaceus 3.3 Leu. mesenteroides Lc. lactis subsp. subsp. mesenteroides 5.3 lactis 2 L. rhamnosus 3.3 Leu. mesenteroides subsp. L. sakei 4 mesenteroides 2 L. lactis 4 L. rhamnosus 3.3 L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 1.3 L. salivarius 0.7 E. faecium 0.7

L. : Lactobacillus, Lc. : Lactococus , Leu. : Leuconostoc, E. : Enterococcus, P. : Pediococcus S. :Streptococcus and in Table 2 St.: Staphylococcus and * means serotype

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Greece St. xylosus 74 St. hominis 10 St.warneri 8 St. saprophyticus 3.3 St. lentus 2 St. epidermidis 1.3 St. simulans 0.7 Not identified 0.7 St. saprophyticus 34.7 St. xylosus 14.7 St. simulans 11.3 St. haemolyticus 11.3 St. haemolyticus 11.3 St. caprae 8 St. capitis 6 St. aureus/intermedius 5.3 St. sciuri 3.3 St. hominis 2 St. auricularis 0.7 St. warneri 0.7 St. cohnii subsp. cohnii 0.7 St. cohnii subsp. urealyticum 0.7 St. epidermidis 0.7 St. xylosus 43 Micrococcus spp. 16 t. hominis 15 St. lentus 10 St. warneri 6 St. capitis 4 St. epidermidis 2 St. haemoliticus 1 St. auricularis 1 St saprophyticus 1 St. cohnii 1 Italy Hungary Serbia and Montenegro S. saprophyticus 21.1 St. simulans 14.4 St. xylosus 21 St. auricularis 12.2 St. warneri 6.7 St. aureus 6.7 St. hominis 4.4 St. cohnii 1.1 M. varians 35 M. nishinomiyaensis 23.3 M. lylae 10 M. luteus 6.7 M. roseus 10 Micrococccus spp. 15 J. Gasparik-Reichardt, Sz. Tth, L. Cocolin, G. Comi, E. Drosinos, Z. Cvrtila, L. Koza~inski, A. Smajlovi}, S. Sai~i}, B. Borovi}

Table 2. Comparison of the staphylococci and micrococci (%) isolated from naturally fermented sausages of different countries and identified with API Staph kit Tabela 2. Pore|enje stafilokoka i mikrokoka (%) izolovanih iz prirodno fermentisanih kobasica iz razli~itih zemalja i identifikovanih kompletom API 50 CHL

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

St. saprophyticus 30.7 St. simulans 22 St. xylosus 16 St. epidermidis 10.6 St. caprae 10.6 St. capitis 6 St.aureus /intermedius 2.7 St. auricularis 0.7 St. sciuri 0.7

St.xylosus 29.2 St. capitis 25 St. carnosus 25 St. saprophyticus 20.8

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Table 3. Comparison of lactic acid bacteria (%) isolated from naturally fermented sausages of different countries and identified with PCR method Tabela 3. Pore|enje bakterija mle~ne kiseline (%) izolovanih iz prirodno fermentisanih kobasica iz razli~itih zemalja i identifikovanih metodom PCR
Italy L. sakei 42.7 L. curvatus 36 L. plantarum 6 L. paraplantarum 4.7 L. paraplantarum/ pentosus 2.7 Leu. mesenteroides 2.7 W. paramesenteroides/ hellenica 2.7 Leu. citreum 0.7 L. brevis 0.7 Lc. lactis subsp. lactis 0.7 Enterococcus pseudoavium 0.7 L. sakei 64 L. curvatus 7.3 Leu. paramesenteroides/ W. hellenica 6.7 W. viridescens 6 Leu. mesenteroides 4.7 Ln. kimchii 2.7 L. plantarum 2 L. plantarum/ paraplantarum 2 Leu. citreum 2 E. infantar 0.7 Enterococcus spp. 0.7 St.saprophyticus 0.7 Hungary Serbia and Montenegro L.sakei 52.7 L. curvatus ssp. curvatus 16.7 L. brevis 9.3 L. plantarum/ paraplantarum 6 L. parakasei ssp. parakasei 5.3 E. fecium/durans 4.6 L. johansoni 2.7 L. casei MCRF 2.7

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Greece L. curvatus 43.3 L. sakei 23.3 L. plantarum 18 L. paraplantarum 4 E. faecium/durans 3.3 L. casei/paracasei 2.7 L. farciminis 2 Leu. mesenteroides 2 L. alimentarius 1.3 Tehnolo{ke, fizi~kohemijske i mikrobiolo{ke karakteristike ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

L. sakei 39.3 L. curvatus 24 L. plantarum 16.7 L. brevis 7.3 P. acidilactici 6 P. pentosaceus 2.7 L. alimentarius 2.7 Lb. Farciminis 1.3

L. plantarum (1) 51.3 L. curvatus 21.3 L. plantarum (2) 6.6 L. brevis 16 L. fermentum 6 L. pentosus 4 Pediococcus pentosaceus 2 Lc. lactis subsp. lactis 2

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150
Serbia and Montenegro 8 5 natural 30-32 15-18 2-3 h 15 90 7 days4 traditional drying and ripening traditional drying and ripening 20 85-90 2 days 20 75 2 h6 20 80 2 days 15 75 14 days 127 60-90 5 days 12 65-85 21 days environmental 1 day classic2 4 days traditional drying and ripening 20 95 12 h 15-18 2-3 h 10 2-3 synthetic 32 12 2 natural 32-34 3-5 3-5 natural 28-32 natural 50 22 85 2 days Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Hungary Italy 5-123 85-60 21 days 14-18 90-75 21 days 20-16 90-75 26 days J. Gasparik-Reichardt, Sz. Tth, L. Cocolin, G. Comi, E. Drosinos, Z. Cvrtila, L. Koza~inski, A. Smajlovi}, S. Sai~i}, B. Borovi}

Table 4. Technological parameters in the production of traditional sausages Tabela 4. Tehnolo{ki parametri u proizvodnji tradicionalnih kobasica

Parameter

Greece

10 2 synthetic 45

15-18 2-3 h after 2nd day1 24 2-3 h

Sausage preparation -meat pieces (mm) -final fat size (mm) -casing -diameter (mm) Drying -temperature (C) -rel. humidity (%) -duration Smoking -temperature (C) -rel. humidity (%) -duration Fermentation -temperature (C) -rel. humidity (%) -duration Ripening -temperature (C) -rel. humidity (%) -duration

24-20 94-86 7 days

15-16 80 21 days

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smoking performed after 2nd day of fermentation; 2 smoking process in classic smoking chamber without the possibility for air conditioning with open burning fire; temperature depended of the outdoor temperature; 4smoking regime was 4h of smoking and 4h pause during 24h, 5usual duration of drying and ripening is 19 days; 6 after draining sausages were in fermentation chamber 8h at 17 C and 70%RH, prior of smoking, 7 temperature was decreased from 22 C to 12 C with a rate of 2 C per day

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tehnologija mesa 46 (2005) 3-4, 143-153 Table 5. Changes of pH during fermentation and ripening of sausages (mean values of three batches) Tabela 5. Promene pH tokom fermentacije i zrenja kobasica (srednje vrednosti tri grupe)
0 6.25 5.47 6.15 6.15 5.89 5.73 5.54 5.40 5.34 5.84 5.79 5.64 5.48 5.50 6.00 5.84 5.21 5.23 5.58 5.03 4.81 4.82 4.86 5.38 5.53 5.66 5.34 5.26 5.15 5.06 5.27 5.70 5.37 4,91 4.85 4.90 2 4 7 14 28 Tehnolo{ke, fizi~kohemijske i mikrobiolo{ke karakteristike ...

Country/day

Greece

Serbia and Montenegro Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia

Hungary

Italy

151

152
Country/day Greece 2.42 / 0.92 3.15 / 0.87 3.80 / 0.90 2.22 / 0.95 3.94 / 0.92 3.11 / 0.93 4.71 / 0.86 3.34 / 0.92 2.29 / 0.94 4.32 / 0.90 3.73 / 0.85 2.36 / 0.96 1.51 / 0.97 2.30 / 0.96 2.52 / 0.97 Serbia and Montenegro Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Hungary Italy 2.39 / 0.86 3.89 / 0.83 4.05 / 0.78 J. Gasparik-Reichardt, Sz. Tth, L. Cocolin, G. Comi, E. Drosinos, Z. Cvrtila, L. Koza~inski, A. Smajlovi}, S. Sai~i}, B. Borovi} 0 14 28

Table 6. Changes of salt % and aw during fermentation and ripening of sausages (mean values of three batches) Tabela 6. Promene % soli i aw tokom fermentacije i zrenja kobasica (srednje vrednosti tri grupe)

tehnologija mesa 46 (2005) 3-4, 143-153

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Figure 1. Traditional Hungarian sausage Slika 1. Tradicionalna ma|arska kobasica

Figure 2. Traditional Hungarian sausage, Small diameter Slika 2. Tradicionalna ma|arska kobasica, malog pre~nika

Figure 3. Traditional Italian sausage Slika 3. Tradicionalna italijanska kobasica

Figure 4. Traditional Greek sausage Slika 4. Tradicionalna gr~ka kobasica

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