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Analysis of Variance

Recall:

Variable Screening

**What are the two types of experiments?
**

Optimization Experiments

Variable Screening

Optimization

Complete Randomized Design (CRD) vs Randomized Block Design (RBD) .

Some Terms Response Variable • dependent variable Factors • qualitative or quantitative Factor Levels • values of the factor utilized Treatments • factor-level combinations Experimental Unit • sample for which a data can be obtained .

.

=μa ▫ H1: at least two of the a treatment means differ ..The Completely Randomized Design (CRD) • a design for which random samples of experimental units are independently selected for each treatment • objective: compare the treatment means ▫ H0: μ1=μ2=..

. Product engineering thinks that the tensile strength is a function of the hardwood concentration in the pulp and that the range of hardwood concentrations of practical interest is between 5% and 20%.Example A manufacturer of paper used for making grocery bags is interested in improving the tensile strength of the product.

Example A team of engineers responsible for the study decides to investigate 4 levels of hardwood concentration: 5%. . 15% and 20%. using a pilot plant. All 24 specimens are tested on a laboratory tensile tester. in random order. 10%. They decided to make up 6 test specimens at each concentration level.

▼ . y. y2.. ▼ ya. ▼ ... . ... ▼ y2.... y. y1n y2n ▼ yan y1. . .. y2... .Typical Data for a Single-Factor Experiment Treatment Observations Totals Averages 1 2 ▼ a y11 y21 ▼ ya1 y12 y22 ▼ ya2 . ... y1.. ▼ .......

Table of Results Hardwood Conc. (%) 5 10 15 20 Observations 1 7 12 14 19 2 8 17 18 25 3 15 13 19 22 4 11 18 17 23 5 9 19 16 18 6 10 15 18 20 Totals Averages .

Step 1: Formulating Hypotheses • H0: μ1=μ2=μ3=μ4 ▫ Different hardwood concentrations do not affect the mean tensile strength of the paper • H1: at least two means are not equal ▫ Different hardwood concentrations affect the mean tensile strength of the paper .

v2=N-a) . we will be using an α of 0.01.01 (99% confidence) • Use F-tables ▫ f(0. and 0.10. 0.v1=n-1.05.01 ▫ For the example. 0.25.Step 2: Deciding on the confidence interval • The usual values of α are 0.

Computing for Sum of Squares .

Sum of Squares Total (SST) • measures the total variability in the data y SSTotal y N i 1 j 1 2 ij a n 2 .. .

.67 17.00 15.96 2 2 2 2 ..Computing for Total Sum of Squares Hardwood Conc. (%) 5 10 15 20 Observations 1 7 12 14 19 2 8 17 18 25 3 15 13 19 22 4 11 18 17 23 5 9 19 16 18 6 10 15 18 20 Totals 60 94 102 127 383 Averages 10. (20) 24 512.17 15.96 (383) SST (7) (8) .00 21.

. .Sum of Squares for Treatments (SSTreatments) • measures the variations between treatment means y y SSTreatments N i 1 n n 2 i 2 .

(%) 5 10 15 20 Observations 1 7 12 14 19 2 8 17 18 25 3 15 13 19 22 4 11 18 17 23 5 9 19 16 18 6 10 15 18 20 Totals Averages 60 94 102 127 383 10.79 2 2 2 2 2 .00 21.67 17.17 15.Computing for Treatment Sum of Squares Hardwood Conc.00 15.96 (60) (94) (102) (127) (383) SSTreatments 6 24 382.

Sum of Squares for Error (SSE) • measures the sampling variability within the treatments • accounts for the sampling error SS E SST SSTreatments .

96) SSTreatments(382.67 17.00 21.79) 130.Computing for Error Sum of Squares Hardwood Conc.00 15.17 15.17 .96 SS E SST (512. (%) 5 10 15 20 Observations 1 7 12 14 19 2 8 17 18 25 3 15 13 19 22 4 11 18 17 23 5 9 19 16 18 6 10 15 18 20 Totals Averages 60 94 102 127 383 10.

Step 4: Summarizing of Results Perform Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Source of Variation Treatments Sum of Squares SSTreatments Degrees of Freedom a-1 Mean Squares MST Computed f MST/MSE Error Total SSE SST N-a (a-1)+(N-a) MSE SSTreatments MSTreatments a 1 SS Error MS Error N a .

51 SSTreatments MSTreatments a 1 SS Error MS Error N a .17 512.79 df 3 Mean Squares 127.96 20 23 6.Step 4: Summarizing of Results Source of Variation Hardwood concentration Sum of Squares 382.6 Error Total 130.60 Computed f 19.

Step 5: Decision • H0 is true if the ratio f=MST/MSE is a value of the random variable F having the F-distribution with n-1 and (N-a) degrees of freedom • The null hypothesis is rejected at the α – value of significance when ▫ f > fα[a-1. N-a)] .

The unwanted material is then selectively removed by etching. 180. Four test levels of RF power: 160. and 220 W (with 5 wafers at each level of RF) were prepared.Example 2 In many integrated circuit manufacturing steps. 200. whose rate is dependent on the radiofrequency (RF) power setting. An engineer is interested in investigating the relationship between the RF power setting and the etch rate. wafers are completely coated with a layer of material such as silicon dioxide or a metal. .

756 2.0 617.Example 2 RF Power (W) Observed Etch Rate (Å/min) Totals 1 2 3 4 5 Averages 160 180 200 220 575 565 600 725 542 593 651 700 530 590 610 715 539 579 637 685 570 610 629 710 2.4 707.127 3.75 Use α=0.355 551.2 587.535 12.937 3.4 625.05 .

Example 2 ANOVA for the experiment Source of Variation RF Power Error Total Sum of Squares df Mean Square F0 Ftable .

290.Example 2 ANOVA for the experiment Source of Variation RF Power Error Total Sum of Squares 66.870.70 F0 66.209.20 72.55 5.24 .75 df 3 16 19 Mean Square 22.339.18 333.80 Ftable 3.

The Analysis of Variance .

Description • more number of levels of a factor is tested • examples: ▫ the effect of curing temperature on the compressive strength of concrete blocks ▫ the effect of dosage size of a certain drug on its curative properties .

feed rate. etc.Statistically-based experiments will lead to… • better and improved processes • development of new processes Control Variables are used to describe the said processes. Examples of which are time. concentration. . amount of material. temperature.

The Pro’s • improved process yield • reduced variability and closer conformance to specifications • reduced design and development time • reduced cost .

In Engineering Design • evaluation and comparison of configurations and materials • selection of design parameters that will make the product work well under varying field conditions • determination of key product design parameters that affect product performance .

Steps involved in an experiment • Conjecture • Experiment • Analysis • Conclusion .

. The samples are exposed to moisture for 48 hours. It is decided that 6 samples are to be tested for each aggregate. requiring a total of 30 samples to be tested.Exercise An engineer is interested in how the mean absorption of moisture in concrete varies among 5 different concrete aggregates.

Summary of Results Absorption of Moisture in Concrete Aggregates Aggregate Run 1 1 551 2 595 3 639 4 417 5 563 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 Run 5 Run 6 457 450 731 499 632 580 508 583 633 517 615 511 573 648 677 449 517 438 415 555 631 522 613 656 679 .

RBD .

Randomized Block Design • blocks. each block (b) should contain units which are as similar as possible • an experimental unit from each block is assigned to each treatment . are formed • each block consists of p experimental units. or matched sets of experimental units.

General ANOVA Table for RBD Source of Variation Treatment SS SST df a-1 MS MST f MST/MSE Block Error Total SSB SSE SS(Total) b-1 N-a-b+1 N-1 MSB MSE .

Formulas SSTreatments b( xTi x ) 2 i 1 a SS Blocks p ( xBi x ) i 1 b 2 SSTotal ( xi x ) i 1 n 2 SS Error SSTotal SSTreatments SS Blocks .

Assuming that 10 balls of each brand are to be utilized in the experiment ▫ Suppose that an RBD is used.Example: • Suppose the USGA wants to compare the mean distances associated with four brands of golf balls when struck by a driver. in random sequence Use one way ANOVA to see if there is a difference among the mean distance for the brands of golf balls . and will employ human golfers. utilizing a random sample of 10 golfers with each golfer using a driver to hit four balls. one of each brand.

4 230.3 .7 909.4 1018 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Totals 202.7 268.7 259.1 244.0 195.3 243.2 895.7 218.6 247.8 243.0 214.8 238.9 257.7 207.3 2207.0 247.7 821.8 245.9 991.Table of Results Golfer (block) Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D Totals 832.4 224.8 1012.5 2331.7 214.0 220.1 233.8 240.4 242.0 191.0 252.9 200.8 2453.7 227.2 248.4 226.1 211.8 227.9 215.2 203.4 253.6 231.3 974.7 245.2 223.8 859.4 203.6 240.2 265.1 947.5 255.2 2270.

2 265.1 233.9 257.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Totals 202.7 245.4 224.8 223.7 214.6 247.4 253.8 238.2 2331.6 231.8 245.4 242..7 821.4 230.8 240.7 227.7 259.0 252.8 243.6 240.7 909.2 .0 195.2) 2 40 15919.2) 2 ..0 214.0 191.4 2453.1 947.7 268.7 218.9 215.1 244.0 220.3 859.8 227.3 203.5 203.3 243.8 1012.2 248.9 200.Computing for the Sum of Squares Total Golfer (block) Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D Totals 832.2 2207.1 211.9 991.5 255.3 974.0 247.4) 2 (203. (245.7 207.4 226.4 1018 2 ( 9262 ) SSTotal (202.2 2270.2 895.

8 265.2 2207.0 214.7 268.6 231.1 233.0 191.0 247.2 248.9 991.0 195.2 2331.2 Brand D 203.1 947.8 859.7 227.9 257.5) 2 .6 240.7 259.2 895.4 224.7 821.8 245.8 238.3 (2270.8 243..2 2270.3) 2 (9262) 2 SSTreatments 10 40 3298.6 247.7 .7 Totals 832.4 2453.1 244.5 255.(2207.4 1018 10 Totals 252.0 Brand B 203.1 211.7 214.5 Brand C 223.9 200.7 909.9 215.3 243..7 207.0 220.8 227.4 242.4 230.8 1012.Computing for the Sum of Squares Treatments Golfer (block) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Brand A 202.4 226.7 218.3 974.3 245.8 240.4 253.

0 247. (1018) 2 (9262) 2 SS Blocks 4 40 12073.4 226.2 2270.7 214.2 265.1 211.0 214.9 257.0 195.7 259.7 268.0 191.5 255.0 220.9 991.7 227.5 Brand B 203.2) 2 .8 859.6 240.1 244.4 242.8 238.2 2331.1 233.8 227.8 243.0 252.8 1012.7 207.7 218.6 231.6 247.4 224.8 Brand C 223.9 200.Computing for the Sum of Squares Blocks Golfer (block) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Totals Brand A 202.9) 2 (991.4 230.2 895.3 Totals 832.4 253.9 .2 248.2 2207.1 947.7 909.7 821.7 245.3 Brand D 203.3 243.9 215.4 1018 (832..8 240.4 2453.3 974.8 245..

4 253.0 247.4 2453.7 218.2 895.0 195.0 214.6 240.1 233.1 244.1 211.9 257.7 207.8 240.3 Totals 832.0 252.7 259.4 224.0 220.2 2207.2 248.2 2270.4 230.2 2331.8 227.7 268.9 991.5 Brand B 203.7 227.6 247.2) SSTreatments(3298.8 243.6 .9 200.5 255.9) 546.8 859.4 242.7 821.7 214.2 265.6 231.4 1018 SS Error SST (15919.8 Brand C 223.7) SS Blocks (12073.1 947.8 1012.9 215.Computing for the Sum of Squares Error Golfer (block) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Totals Brand A 202.3 Brand D 203.0 191.8 245.7 909.3 243.8 238.3 974.7 245.4 226.

5 20.26 20.7 12073.9 546.6 MS Error 20.6 1341.9 MS Blocks 1341.ANOVA Table Source of Variation df SS MS f Treatment Block Error Total 3 9 27 39 3298.2 1345.31 66.2 27 1099.5 9 546.1 FBlocks 66.2 1099.2 54.2 .7 MSTreatments 1099.26 3298.31 20.6 15919.6 FTreatments 54.6 3 12073.

6-9pm at the P&G Room Melchor Hall .Announcement Midterms is on February 7 (Thurs).

lecture about analysis of variance

lecture about analysis of variance

- b;kl
- Fractional Factorial Design
- Combined Analysis
- Rcbd Anova Notes (III)
- Sol_HW7
- Using Graphics and Statistics
- Post-ANOVA Comparison of Means.ppt
- Ch 6 the 2 k Factorial Design
- Comp Formulas a Nova
- 3.4. A computer ANOVA output is shown below. Fill in the blanks. You may give bounds on the P-value.
- A Design of Experiments
- Rcbd
- Engineering Statistics (ANOVA)
- Science and Technology
- Guide to ANOVA
- One Way Anova
- LECTURE Notes on Design of Experiments
- 1. Introduction to Taguchi Techniques
- An Ova
- Doe
- Chapter 13
- cosme1x
- 4. Analysis of Variance
- 05 Experimental Design
- Stats 845 Lecture 14n
- Appl Stat
- An Experimental Study of the Impact of Turning Parameters on Surface Roughness.pdf
- two-way
- ED302_2012_DOE&Anova
- ANOVA-III
- 06 Analysis of Variance

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