Overview of Renewable Energy Scenario in India

Rangan Banerjee Energy Systems Engineering

Lecture delivered at RENET Workshop, IIT Bombay, September 21, 2006

ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM
PRIMARY ENERGY

COAL, OIL, SOLAR, GAS POWER PLANT, REFINERIES REFINED OIL, ELECTRICITY RAILWAYS, TRUCKS, PIPELINES WHAT CONSUMERS BUY DELIVERED ENERGY

ENERGY CONVERSION FACILITY

SECONDARY ENERGY

TRANSMISSION & DISTRN. SYSTEM FINAL ENERGY

AUTOMOBILE, LAMP, ENERGY UTILISATION EQUIPMENT & SYSTEMS MOTOR, STOVE
USEFUL ENERGY END USE ACTIVITIES (ENERGY SERVICES)

MOTIVE POWER RADIANT ENERGY DISTANCE TRAVELLED, ILLUMINATION,COOKED FOOD etc..

India- Primary Commercial Energy
Hydro Nuclear 2.4% 1.8% Nat gas 9.1% Wind 0.2%

2003-4 Total comm 14000 PJ Biomass 6500 PJ (33%)

Oil Import 24.9%

Coal 51.7%

Total 20500 PJ 19700 PJ (-non energy)

Oil (D) 9.8%

India - Fossil Fuel reserves
Fuel Coal Oil
(Million Tonnes)
+Lignite

(Million Tonnes)

N.Gas
Billion m3 Tonnes

Reserves Prodn R/P 2003-4 ratio 34000 414 ~83 (P) 140 P+I 760 33 23 (7) (117) 920 32 29 PHWR ~50 10GW

Uranium 61000

Data Source Plg Comm IEPC, 2006

Small Hydro Power
Classification - Capacity -Micro less than 100 kW Mini 100 kW - 3 MW Small 3 MW - 15 MW Micro and Mini - usually isolated, Small grid connected Heads as low as 3 m viable Capital Cost Rs 5-6crores/MW , Rs 1.50-2.50/kWh

200 kW Chizami village, Nagaland

Aleo (3MW) Himachal Pradesh

Technology Options for Solar power
Solar Power

Thermal

PV

Low Temp. <100 o C

Medium Temp. Up to 400 o C Line Focusing Parabolic

High Temp. >400 o C

Material

Production Process

Single Crystal Silicon Polycrystalline Silicon Amorphous Silicon CdTe/ GAAs

Solar Flat Plate Collectors

Solar Chimney

Solar Pond

Parabolic Dish

Central Tower

Wafer

Thin Film

Comparison of Solar Thermal Power Generation Technologies
Efficiency Technology Solar Flat Plate Collectors Solar Chimney Solar Pond 2% 1% 1-2% Indian Experience 10 kW exptl unit at IITM No experience 50 kW Spain Experience for hot water Bhuj (Israel power 5MW) 50 kW system in SEC Planned 35MW solar in 140 MW ISCC at Mathania Demo unit 10 kW Vellore No experience Status D D D Capital Cost (Rs/kW) Rs. 300.000 Rs. 200,000 ($4600/kW) Electricity (Rs/kWh) _ _

Line focussing Parabolic

Peak 20% Average 1114%

C

Rs. 140,000 ($3000/kW) ~390 MW of operating plants Rs. 150,000 ~Rs. 200,000 ($4700/kW)

15 c/kWh Rs. 6/kWh

Paraboloid Dish Central Tower

29% peak 1218% 23% peak 714%

D D

Need for Alternatives
Fossil fuel reserves limited India - 17% of World population, 4% of primary energy Present pattern – predominantly fossil based (87% comm, 64% total) 52% of households unelectrified Linkage between energy services and quality of life

Characteristics of Renewables
Large, Inexhaustible source -Solar energy intercepted by earth 1.8*1011 MW Clean Source of Energy Dilute Source - Even in best regions 1kW/m2 and the total daily flux available is 7 kWh/m2 Large Collection Areas, high costs Availability varies with time Need for Storage, Additional Cost

Renewable Energy Options

Solar Wind Biomass

Small Hydro

Tidal Energy

Ocean Thermal Energy Solar Thermal

Wave Energy

Solar Photovoltaic

Geothermal*

Applications
Power Generation Cooking Heating-Water Heating, Space Heating Transportation Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Distillation Drying

Power Generation Options
Power Generation

Centralised Grid Connected

Decentralised Distributed Generation Isolated Demand Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar)

Cogeneration/Trigeneration

Geothermal/OTEC/Tidal/Wave
World Geothermal COMMERCIAL 8240 MW Cost Estimates 4c/kWh $2000/kW No Indian experience 50 MW plant J & K planned LF 20% No Indian experience India 1MW gross plant under construction India 150kW plant Thiruvananthpuram

Tidal OTEC

PROTOTYPE PROTOTYPE

240 MW FRANCE 50 kW 210 kW NELHA < 1MW Grid Connected

Wave Energy

PROTOTYPE

Renewable Power Generation
8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

♦ Each data point corresponds to installed capacity as on March of that year

Source: MNES, NEW DELHI

Renewable installed capacity and generation
Installed Capacity* (MW) Wind Biomass Power Biomass Gasifier Bagasse Cogeneration Small Hydro Waste to Energy Solar PV Total
5000 376 69 540 1826 41 2.74 7855
*as on March-2006

Estimated Capacity factor
14% 70% 70% 60% 50% 70% 20%

Estimated Generation (GWh)
6132 2306 423 2838 7998 251 4 19952

Renewables in Power
Power generation 6500 PJ -46% of Comm Energy, 33% of total Installed Capacity 130,000 MW (2004), Nuclear 2720 MW(2004) Renewables 7855(2006) Gross Generation 633000GWh (2003-4) Nuclear 17780 GWh(2003-4) Renewables 19950 GWh (2006) Renewables ~ 6% of Capacity and 2-3% of generation

Fuel GTG 2sets of35.2 GTG-2 sets of 35 M W each MW ~ Air Gas Turbine sets

Proposed ISCC

Steam, 103 b,500 o C

W HRB Aux. Firing Flue gas from GT Solar Radiation 391 o C Heat exchanger Steam turbine To W HRB ~ 103 b,371 o C Steam, 103 b,500 o C Feed water Heat exchanger
75.5 M W

Solar Heat Exchanger

Heat Transfer oil, 291 o C

BFP

Condenser

b- bar

Wind Power
5000 MW installed Single machine upto 2.1 MW Average capacity factor 14% Capital cost Rs 45crores/MW, Rs 2-3/kWh (cost effective if site CF >20%) India 45000 /13000 MW potential estimated 39% (1990-2002), 21% 2001-2 CAGR

Satara, Maharashtra
40 A n n u a l L o a d F a c to r (% ) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

End-Note
The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun Ralph Nader US Consumer activist

BIOMASS CONVERSION ROUTES
BIOMASS
THERMOCHEMICAL COMBUSTION RANKINE CYCLE BIOCHEMICAL

GASIFICATION PYROLYSIS DIGESTION PRODUCER GAS BIOGAS

FERMENTATION ETHANOL

ATMOSPHERIC Duel Fuel SIPGE Gas Turbines

PRESSURISED

Biomass Power
Higher Capacity factors than other renewables Fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal waste Atmospheric gasification with dual fuel engine 500 kW gasifier - largest installation

100 Kwe Pfutseromi village, Nagaland

Kaganti Power Ltd. Raichur Distt. A.P.

Biogas
45-70% CH4 rest CO2 Calorific value 16-25MJ/m3 Digestor- well containing animal waste slurry Dome - floats on slurry- acts as gas holder Spent Slurry -sludge- fertiliser Anaerobic Digestion- bacterial action Family size plants 2m3/day Community Size plants 12- 150 m3/day Rs 12-14000 for a 2m3 unit Cooking, Electricity, running engine

2 2 a ta 330o C FEED W ATER

5 8 T /h r

F eed w ater

4 .5 T /h r B O IL E R
0 .5 T /h r

2 7 T /h r

2 6 T /h r

PRDS

BA G A SSE 0 .5 T /h r M IL L IN G
PRDS

6 a ta
~ P ro cess

2 .5 M W STEA M T U R B IN E

2 a ta

F la s h e d C o n d e n sa te

P ro cess

S c h e m a tic o f ty p ic a l 2 5 0 0 tc d S u g a r fa c to r y

Solar PV
India -2740 kW Grid connected systems (25-239 kW) Array efficiency in field 12-15% Cost Rs 26cr/MW Rs 15-20 /kWh

Vidyut Saudha Building, 100 kWp , APTRANSCO (2001) BHEL

Mousuni Island , 105 kWp, West Bengal Renewable Energy Agency (2003 )

B O IL E R F e e d w a te r

75 TPH , 65 a ta , 4 8 0 O C

STEA M T U R B IN E 13 M W 9 .5 M W P ow er export

BA G A SSE
( A lt e r n a t e f u e l) ~

PR O C ESS 2 a ta 2 a ta

CO NDENSER

Condenser

6 a ta 4 .5 T P H

1 .0 M W M ill d r iv e s

BFP PR O C ESS

2 .5 M W C a p tiv e lo a d

P R O P O S E D P L A N T C O N F IG U R A T IO N : O P T IO N 2

Power Generation
Indicator Unit Coal Solar PV 8-14 1.6-4.2 WECS Gasificati on 20-30 8.5-12.5

EnI (Efficiency) RI (NER)

% -

35-40 0.350.4 0.850.9
0.9-1.35

30-40 8-26

EnvI (GHG emission) EcI (Life cycle cost)

kgCO2/kWh Rs/kWh

0.050.13 5.4-82.4

0.0120.04 1-17.5

0.06-0.08

2-5.5

PV-Hydrogen
100 kg hydrogen/ day Electrolyser efficiency 70% Annual capacity factor 25% Module area 6590 m2 989 kW PV, 939 kW electrolyser Cost of Hydrogen Rs 1094/ kg (98 Rs/Nm3 or 9120 Rs/GJ or 11.3£/Therm)

Comparison of Renewable Hydrogen Methods
PVHydrogen 1094 2.9 2.3 51.4 WECSSMR Hydrogen 381 48 0.9 10.4 11.5 12.8 0.6 192

Cost (Rs/kg) Emissions (kg CO2/kg H2) Net Energy Ratio Primary Energy Consumption (MJ/kg H2)

Hydrogen production
Indicator Unit SMR PVelectroly sis 6-10 0.88-2.63 25-74 WECSelectrolysi s 15-25 3.3-12 7.9-29 Gasificatio n

EnI (Efficiency) RI (NER) EnvI (GHG emission) EcI (Life cycle cost)

% kgCO2/GJ Rs/GJ

89 0.66 106. 7 400

60-65 1.7-2.1 42-52

490044500

1600-11600

360-450

Indian Experience -Hybrid
Wind-Solar PV – 9 systems- 42 kW total e.g 5 kW Chunnambar Island – 3.3 kW Wind, 1.8 kW PV, 800 Ah Battery PV-Diesel - Kiltan, Minicoy (100kW) 500 kW Wind-Diesel – Sagar Island – West Bengal(10×50 kW wind m/cs with 2 ×360 KVA generators)

Tariffs in Rs./kWh Conventio nal Do m Germa ny* 6.0 (20 01) Co mm 2.3 (20 02) 1st 5 years a Next 15 years (Cap. <12 MW) France 5.2 1 (20 02) 1.8 3 (20 02) 1st 5 years Next 15 years (Windy sites b ) 5.2 3.4 (Windy sites) 4.6 1.7 (Cap. <50MW)d Spain+ 5.2 9 (20 01) 2.0 0 (20 01) Premium of Fixed 3.6 OR 1.5 20.63 26.9 Austria
e

WIND (Non windy) 5.2 4.6 (Non windy) 4.6 4.6 (Interme diate) 4.6 3.4

PHOTOVOLTAICS (Cap. <5 MW) 27.6 Guaranteed for 20 years c 0-.0.5 MW 5.85

BIOM ASS 0.55MW 5.27 520M W 4.99

8.6 (Mainland) (Cap<5kW ) 22.7

17.2 (Overs eas) (Cap>5 kW) 12.4 3.5 OR 10.32 1.4 4.4 TO 9.2

6.4 8 (20 02)

2.5 4 (19 95)

4.5

TO 34.4

Possible Applications
Islands- Existing Diesel grids Remote locations – Hilly terrain 80,000 Non-electrified villages – relatively remote Industries with captive power (DG)

Conclusions -I
Isolated systems - Cost depends on load factor - need to link with rural industry Technology- early stage of development Need to explicitly account for “externalities” Premium for renewable energy – labelling, green pricing Electricity Sector -Transition, Payments Crisis Innovative financing required Cost reductions & targetted demonstrations

Conclusions-II
Solar Thermal for low grade heat – almost cost effective, Biomass – thermal applications Wind, Small Hydro – power –cost effective Most renewables – subsidised, policy support Growth rates in renewables high 20-25% per year. Can the growth sustain? Will capital cost reductions occur? Market penetration Strategies? Mainstreaming of renewables

References
World Energy Assessment – Energy & the Challenge of Sustainability,UNDP, 2000, AKNReddy,R H Williams, T. Johannson,Energy After Rio- Prospects and Challenges-,UNDP, 1997, New York. Menanteu Tech Forecasting & Soc Change 2000 v63 MNES Annual Report, 2005-2006, March 2006 www.greenpeace.org/~climate/climatecountdown/sol argeneration USDOE Energy Information Administration S.P.Sukhatme, Solar Energy, Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi,1997 Banerjee, Comparison of DG options, Energy Policy, in press

SCHEFFLER CONCENTRATING COOKER WITH A VIEW OF KITCHEN

Source : MNES Annual Report 1998-99

Solar Pond at Bhuj, Gujarat (100m*60m*3.5m) , TERI

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