Weld Nugget Development and Integrity in Resistance Spot Welding of High-Strength Cold-Rolled Sheet Steels

The relationship between sheet steel microstructure and welding cycles is investigated


ABSTRACT. Spot welds were produced using a high-strength cold-rolled sheet steel 0.08-in. (1.9-mm) thick. The welding parameters were systematically varied to examine their effects on nugget formation, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Following welding, several spot welds were cross-sectioned and mechanically polished for metallographic examination. Other spot welds were submitted to shear tensile tests. It is observed that welding current and weld time are more significant parameters than applied electrode force in affecting expulsion. In all the spot welds examined, it was found that solidification cracking could be reduced but not eliminated, and it was observed that for this particular steel, a weld cycle of 1 8 and a holding cycle of 15 resulted in the least amount of solidification cracking. Nugget displacement to one side of the faying surface, also known as "stuck w e l d , " was observed in some samples that showed banding from rolling. Prior to melting, it appears that solid-state metallic bonding occurs during nugget development. Introduction Resistance spot welding is a joining process in w h i c h coalescence of the Z. HAN andj. E. INDACOCHEA are in the Civil Engineering, Mechanics and Metallurgy Dept., University of Illinois, Chicago. C. H. CHEN and S. BHAT are with Inland Steel Co. Research Laboratories, East Chicago, Ind. Paper presented at the 71st AWS Annual Convention, held April 22-27, 1990, in Anaheim Calif.

metal sheets is produced at the faying surface by the heat generated at the joint by the resistance of the work to the flow of electric current. This process has wide application in industries of mass production, where lengthy production runs and reliable conditions are maintained. The automotive industry is the major user, and it is also utilized by industries fabricating products with thin-gauge metals. It is well known that high-strength cold-rolled sheet steels obtain their strength from a combination of fine grain size, solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening by means of microalloying additions of titanium, niobium and vanadium (Refs. 1, 2). Extensive studies, both by automotive and steel companies, have demonstrated that these steels can be easily formed into the desired shapes with only moderate changes in press-shop practice. In addition to their formability, it is imperative that these steels be weldable by resistance welding since this is the major

manufacturing process used on automotive assembly lines for joining sheet steel parts together. Since low-carbon steel is readily spot welded, it is therefore the standard by w h i c h all other materials will be judged. It is reasonable to expect that the closer the welding characteristics of the high-strength cold-rolled sheet steels are to low-carbon steel, then the smaller the changes in accepted w e l d ing schedules. The thermomechanical process of resistance spot welding is a complicated phenomenon which involves mechanical, electrical, thermal and metallurgical factors. These factors in combination with the welding parameters have a significant influence on weld nugget development and final geometry. In order to consistently produce sound weld nuggets, it is necessary to understand these complicated phenomena and evaluate the role of the major metallurgical factors and processing parameters. Many high-strength steels are known to have narrow welding current ranges. Sometimes, this limited weldability is a consequence of the interfacial failure of the weld nugget (Ref. 3), producing an apparently smaller fusion zone. Highstrength sheet steels have also been shown to be more susceptible to expulsion because of their higher electrical resistivity (Refs. 4-6), hence, lower welding currents must be used with the higher resistivities to avoid expulsion in spot weld production (Ref. 7). The physical variables of the metal may include not only the composition of the steels, but also the surface condition. Surface effects have been studied (Refs. 8, 9) and found to have noticeable effects on spot weldability. Likewise, chemistry varia-

KEY WORDS Weld Nugget Resistance Spot Weld HSLA Cold-Rolled Sheet Steel Microstructure Mechanical Properties Expulsion Welding Current Weld Time Nugget Displacement


12). the spot w e l d s were cross-sectioned and mechanically polished for metallographic e x a m i n a tion.9 m m ) a n d a 4 5 .s t r e n g t h c o l d . 3 1 in (7. it has b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d that the m a x i m u m w e l d i n g speed that c a n be a t t a i n e d i n c r e a s e s as t h e sheet thickness is r e d u c e d (Ref.42 0. 4 X 1.50 P = 1600Lbs. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . A LECO 300 metall o g r a p h w i t h an i m a g e a n a l y z e r w a s used for the m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l e v a l u a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g w e l d i n g . The electrodes utilized w e r e a Class II c o p p e r a l l o y . 0 Accepted Nugget e • Undersize Nugget Expulsion No N u g g e t 40 0 • • Constant Electrode Force (1600 Lbs. Several spot w e l d s w e r e processed w h e r e o n e w e l d i n g v a r i a b l e w a s m e t h o d i c a l l y v a r i e d as t h e o t h e r s w e r e h e l d f i x e d .s e c t i o n areas o f t h e s p o t w e l d specimens used to construct the Table 1 — Steel Composition. this increase in w e l d i n g speed has to be c o m p r o m i s e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f exp u l s i o n . O OO J* O10KA 8- 20 «f> ecx • e e 10 020 •» 030 • o • Nugget Formed Expulsion — i 8 9 10 11 \2 13 14 13 Weld 18 Cvcles 28 33 38 Weld Current (KA) Fig. w h i c h o c c u r s at h i g h c u r r e n t s (Ref.010 210-s I M A Y 1993 . r e s u l t i n g in w e a k e r n u g g e t s . they experience expulsion.r o l l e d s h e e t steel c o u p o n s o f d i m e n s i o n s 4 X 1 X 0. T h i s p h e n o m e n o n has generated concern a m o n g manufacturers b e c a u s e o f t h e p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l a c k of w e l d s t r e n g t h a n d r a p i d e l e c t r o d e d e t e r i o r a t i o n (Ref. Experimental Procedure Spot w e l d s w e r e p r o d u c e d u s i n g h i g h . 2 — Weld nugget size as a function two welding currents. e x t e n d i n g b e y o n d t h e e l e c t r o d e c o n t a c t z o n e w h i c h is i n a d e q u a t e l y f o r g e d . 9-11). a n d q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y . 8 % Cr. Figure 1 s h o w s t h e l o b e c u r v e d e v e l o p e d for the steel used in this investigation. (102 X 2 5 . 1 3). T h e o b j e c t i v e of this i n v e s t i g a t i o n is t o assess t h e e f f e c t o f p r o c e s s i n g c h a r acteristics a n d sheet steel m i c r o s t r u c t u r e o n nugget d e v e l o p m e n t a n d integrity. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of ranges of w e l d i n g variables o v e r w h i c h a c c e p t a b l e spot w e l d s are f o r m e d o n a specific material w e l d e d w i t h a preselected e l e c t r o d e f o r c e is k n o w n as a " s p o t w e l d l o b e c u r v e " (Ref.d e g t r u n c a t e d c o n e nose i n a c c o r d a n c e to t h e m a n u f a c t u r ing standards o f the Ford M o t o r C o .08 i n .023 •\i Table 2 — Steel Tensile Properties Yield Strength: 80 ksi Ultimate Tensile Strength: 90 ksi Elongation: 18"o 0. T h e steel c o u p o n s w e r e used in the as-rolled c o n dition and were cleaned thoroughly w i t h a c e t o n e . the spot w e l d s at t h e u p p e r l i m i t o f t h e c u r v e are larger. T h e t i p s h a d a c o n t a c t d i a m e t e r o f 0 . 1 5 ) . This e x p u l s i o n is a result of the excessive h e a t i n g a n d of the m o l t e n a n d plastic d e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e m e t a l . next t o the n u g g e t . A Sciaky press-type 1 0 0 k V A single-phase resistance w e l d i n g m a c h i n e was used.93 m m ) . T h e steel c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s are s h o w n in T a b l e s 1 a n d 2 . T h i s has l e d to t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f o p e r a t i n g ranges o v e r w h i c h a c c e p t a b l e s p o t w e l d s are o b t a i n e d o n p l a i n c a r b o n sheet steel. of welding time (cycles) for tions have been f o u n d to have noticea b l e effects o n s p o t w e l d a b i l i t y (Refs. 14). 1 6 ) .003 0. of a c o m p o s i t i o n of 9 9 . T h e spot w e l d s d e f i n i n g t h e l o w e r l i m i t o f the l o b e c u r v e are s m a l l . T h e c r o s s . a n d 2 % nital w a s used to b r i n g o u t the phase microconstituents. Fig.12 0.) E J 20 30 - \ CD OCD 1• \ db«» ^oo w M . a n d in s o m e cases u n d e r s i z e . w h i c h decreases w e l d s t r e n g t h a n d i n c r e a s e s e l e c t r o d e w e a r . (Ref. 2 % Cu a n d 0 . A sodium trydecylbenzene sulfonate plus p i c r i c a c i d e t c h a n t was used t o reveal t h e s o l i d i f i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e . C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f s u c h c u r v e s m u s t b e m a d e if e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f w e l d i n g p a r a m e t e r s is sought to consistently p r o d u c e sound spot w e l d s .053 0. Results a n d D i s c u s s i o n Effect of Welding Parameters on Nugget Characteristics In t h e c o n t i n u e d d e s i r e t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y . 1 . H o w e v e r .Lobe curve for the sheet steel used in this investigation.27 1. wt-% Mn 0.

Note that the nugget size of the spot welds corresponding to weld times of 28 and 33 cycles remained constant and did not experience expulsion. 12 * 8 ^o- 910KA 4 • • Expulsion 0 _ 1 i i i 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Electrode Force (Lbs. 4 for the same welding time and several applied electrode forces and for t w o welding currents. clearly observed for the 10-kA weld samples. but experienced expulsion w h i c h resulted in a thinner nugget thickness as seen in Fig. followed by a columnar dendritic structure and equiaxed dendrites if expulsion occurs at the faying surface. leading to a reduction in the amount of Joule heat. The carbon content should be low for the cellular structure because solidification begins at this location and consequently the solute segregation is low."'••••^y-f Fig. The increase of electrode force is accompanied by a small but continuous reduction in nugget size. It is apparent that external indentation of the steel sheet is a consequence of nugget expulsion. Figure 3 shows two typical spot welds corresponding to weld cycles of 1 8 and 23 for an applied current of about 12 kA. 5. Examining the data presented in Fig. In the case of the 10-kA current. for the spot welds produced at 12 kA. This small decrease in the weld nugget crosssection area could be explained. (t=23) •12KA 16 Fig.) W E L D I N G RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT I 211-s . The 12-kA spot welds increased in size at a faster rate. On the other hand. 4. The weld time used for processing these last spot welds was 23 cycles. been plotted as a function of the weld cycle in Fig. expulsion only occurred in those spot welds processed at the higher welding currents. 3 — Cross-sectional versions of spot welds with (left) and without (right) expulsion. beyond w h i c h it may either remain constant or experience expulsion. Note the occurrence of expulsion and deep indentation for the 23-cycle spot weld specimen. The spot welds processed with a 10-kA welding currentsustained a gradual increase in nugget size up to a weld cycle of 23. in part. 2. Note that previously it was determined that such weld time at 12 kA resulted in expulsion (Fig. 2). Both factors w i l l con- tribute to a small reduction of the total resistance of the system. The effect of applied electrode force on nugget characteristics was monitored also in terms of nugget size and whether expulsion occurred. that the welding cur- rent and time are the most sensitive welding parameters to cause expulsion. the tendency is for the nugget to increase in size with longer weld cycles up to a point. no expulsion was found even when the applied force was as low as 1400 Ib (636 kg). as shown in Fig. as seen in Fig. 4 — Effect of electrode force on nugget size for two applied currents. It was established that the microhardness difference between the cellular. causing the normal weld nugget to be thinner since the rest of the liquid weld metal is expelled beyond the usual nugget containment. The 1 2-kA spot welds all showed expulsion. Such results indicate that expulsion is not dependent only on the applied force. columnar and equiaxed structures is more dependent on the amount of carbon available than on the magnitude of the cooling rates. It is apparent then. expulsion was found even in those welds produced at 2200 Ib (1000 kg). 2 for two welding currents (10 k A a n d 1 2 kA) at a constant electrode force of 1 600 Ib (727 kg). The martensite corresponding to the columnar dendrites would have a higher 20 Constant W e l d C y c l e s 6k. As expected. The solidification structure is cellular near the fusion line. Weld Nugget Microstructure and Mechanical Properties The microstructure of all these spot welds is martensitic and their solidification structure is influenced by the degree of constitutional undercooling. and no consistent relationship could be established between cross-section area size and applied electrode force. to be due to the fact that the increase in applied force w o u l d result in a minor decrease in the sheet thickness and in a larger increase in contact area at the faying surface in view of the deformation of the asperites.

consistent with an increase in nugget size. the electrode force at 1 600 Ib. the result of the largest carbon segregation.. Tensile shear tests were performed on these spot weld samples to establish the effect of solidification cracks on shear strength. But.. 1=12. because of the smaller nuggets compared to the spot welds with no expulsion and due to the effect of indentation. and a more uniform carbon distribution. show no change in tensile shear strength among the spot welds processed with holding times of 60 and 30 cycles. 2. The tensile shear strength of the spot welds increased with weld time. 5 — Solidification microstructures observed in a weld nugget of the high-strength cold-rolled sheet steel. impurity segregation. apparently. In this investigation. Despite the lack of correspondence between solidification cracking and spot weld shear strength. because of the steady-state solidification. Holding cycles lower than 1 5 apparently do not allow sufficient time for the w e l d nugget to solidify thoroughly before the electrodes are w i t h drawn. A defect frequently present in the weld nugget is solidification cracking. it w o u l d be expected that this type of cracking can have an impact on the soundness of the nugget under more dynamic testing. as the holding time was reduced below 1 5 cycles. 6 — Effect of holding time on solidification cracking in spot welds. However. at the faying surface. the spot welds with expulsion show lower strengths. It is observed that by decreasing the holding time from 60 to 1 5 cycles there was a decrease in the extent of solidification cracking. and the weld time at 18 cycles. t=23 Cycles msm x400 Faying Interface Fig. the effect of cooling rate on solidification cracking was studied by varying the holding cycle and by maintaining the weld current at 12 kA. A relative measurement of the total crack length on these samples was performed and plotted as a function of holding cycles. These results. yet it was not significant enough to be correlated with the degree of solidification cracking. 212-s I M A Y 1993 .X400 Cokimrwr Grains. presented in Fig. probably caused by the relaxation of the system (withdrawal of the electrodes) before a large portion of the liquid metal solidified. 8. as shown in Fig. VHN 482 x400 Heat-affected Zone. as expected. as shown in Fig. e. Several factors affect its occurrence. 6. cracking results upon release of the electrodes. it was established that weld time was most influential of nugget strength as shown in Fig. The highest microhardness was encountered in the equiaxed region. cooling rate and processing stresses. 7.g. and consequently. Fig. w h i c h is expected in this region as a result of the overlapping of the opposite solidification fronts. Several spot weld macrographs corresponding to different holding cycles are shown in Fig.VHN 427 am Echant: Sodium Trydecy[benzene Sulfonate Weld Paremeters: P=1600Lbs. 9. Note that the amount of solidification cracking for th=60Cycles th=15Cycles th=10Cycles th = 7Cycles th = 5Cycles th = OCyeles holding times lower than 1 5 cycles was greater than for the commonly used 60 cycles. there was a slight drop in strength for the welds processed w i t h holding times of less than 1 5 cycles. However.49 KA. Furthermore. there was again an increase in solidification cracking.

I=12KA.. 100 P= 1600Lbs. 4 — 3 50 c $ 25 • a Pull-out failure A a Faying surface failure » A Expulsion 13 18 23 28 Weld Time. which is most frequently observed when welding sheet metals of dissimilar thicknesses. Weld Nugget Displacement In assessing the influence of resistance welding processing parameters on nugget characteristics. resulted in smaller nuggets be- Welding Parameters: P=1600Lbs. Cycles WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT I 213-s . such as fatigue. 100 Fig. I=12KA. Tw=18Cyls. Figure 1 0 shows several macrographs of weld nuggets arranged according to variations in weld time for two welding currents. and 1= 12KA e s ir. P=1600Lbs. Fatigue tests will be conducted in the follow-up investigation.tw= 18Cyls. A constant electrode force of 1 600 Ib was used in producing these spot welds. 7 — Relative solidification crack lengths in spot welds as a function of welding cycles.. j 0 15 30 Holding Cycles 45 60 Holding cycles Fig. Fig. and also as a function of current for a fixed weld time of 18 cycles.— ' c . This type of spot weld is sometimes known as "stuck w e l d " (Ref. and th=60Cyls. It was observed for the series of spot welds processed with a 12-kA current that expulsion was eliminated and the nugget size increased when the weld time was reduced from 23 to 1 8 cycles. occasionally. o 75 £ o C '•Z3 o 5 w J 1 Q> o ____.. o CO a A J3 ft 0) cd n C 0) H 25 O Pull-out failure O Faying surface failure o II _ i i . 1 7). Further decrease of the weld time to 1 3 cycles. 9 — Effect of welding cycles on the tensile shear strength of spot welds. o 50 o 1 c b CC s. 8 — Effect of holding cycles on the tensile shear strength of spot welds. it was observed that. the weld nugget was displaced to one side of the faying surface.

' V2u"un Fig. thus. includes not only solute segregation. because apparently this microstructural irregularity ran continuously across the portion of the material compressed between the copper electrodes. 11 and 1 2. on the other hand. The greatest displacement of the weld nugget occurred for the lowest weld current of 8. no expulsion occurred. manufacturing standards. Most significant. Resistivity is an intrinsic material characteristic which depends on the composition and microstructure of the material. was the shifting of the spot weld to one member of the steel sheets for the shortest weld cycle. as seen in Fig. "banding" shown in Figs. . This same set of spot welds. 10. A microstructure feature observed in the base metal. 214-s I M A Y 1993 . and also. and the microstructural gap that this banding causes seems to be wider than the gap found at the faying surface. Melting would then occur at a banding region if the resistance at this location is larger than that at the faying surface. both of which can disrupt the continuity of the ferrite and consequently increase its resistivity. but also pearlite lamination.5 kA. 11 — Micrograph composite showing "banding" in the sheet steel and the nugget displacement. but this does not run all the way across the material squeezed between the electrodes. The nugget is displaced toward the bottom sheet steel. though. Note that banding is observed on both steel sheets of the spot w e l d . a decrease in nugget size accompanied the reduction of weld time. Banding. These compounds have melting points well below the melting temperature of iron. but were found to comply w i t h specified dimensions. The resistivity of a metallic conductor is known to increase with the concentration of a solute. A second possibility for the nugget displacement might be the presence of low-melting-temperature compounds such as iron sulfide and manganese sulfide with the banding microstructure. despite the temperature at the Fig. showed no significant displacement of the weld nugget. In the case of the 10kA spot welds.cause of the lower heat per time available due to the shorter current flow time. the sheet thicknesses were measured and found to be uniform in all cases. Figure 11 shows a displaced w e l d nugget cross-section that includes banding in the base metal. 10 — Effect of welding parameters on weld nugget soundness and appearance. The top steel sheet also shows banding. is speculated to contribute to the nugget displacement. in accordance to the Ford Motor Co. The copper electrodes were also examined for any possible irregularities that could affect the nugget formation. In investigating the possible causes of nugget displacement. however. Similar results were found for the welds processed at the fixed w e l d time of 18 cycles and three weld currents.

during the welding cycle. and because of the higher stresses at these locations. It should be noted that the current distribution at the faying surface is not uniform. deformation will occur more rapidly. Conclusions 1) In addition to composition and surface condition. similar to the electrode used in this investigation. despite extensive banding on the two sheet members. W E L D I N G RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT I 215-s . to solid-state bonding. Tighter control of either parameter w i l l improve weld nugget soundness and reduce expulsion. leading Fig. at the onset of welding. since it also depends on the electrode geometry. the contact resistance drops to zero at the edges. but a minor gap or highresistance interface still remains at the center of the faying surface which does not completely stop the current flow. it could be speculated that. no banding lines were found running continuously across the material between the copper electrodes. 18) determined the stress distribution at the faying surface for a truncated electrode. Despite the small changes in room-temperature tensile shear strength found in this study. melting will commence at these binding regions because the local temperatures are already above the melting points of such compounds. Melting could then initiate at this center spot and expand outward to the edges. while region C shows a gap. Neid (Ref. however. regions exposed to the largest stresses would be in tighter contact since the asperite gaps become reduced resulting in lower resistances. In this study. heat w o u l d be produced at a faster rate at the edges of the forming nugget. 13 are consistent with a nonuniform but symmetrical stress distribution. where the stresses are highest at the regions corresponding to the edge of the electrodes and lowest at the center. 13 — Microstructural characterization ot different regions of the faying surface prior to the formation of the weld nugget. As the current starts flowing. the microstructure of the steel is an important physical variable in resistance spot welding. the temperature at the faying surface increases causing further deformation and greater contact that could lead to solid-state bonding in some places. 12 — Banding in the sheet steel with nugget centered at faying sudace. Furthermore. 3) Holding cycles influence the extent of solidification cracking. the current flow lines w o u l d be more constricted near the edges. implying larger current densities at these edge locations than at the center of the electrode. These results. thus. the electrode load also helps to maintain proper electrical contact. This local deformation at the faying surface mechanically breaks d o w n the surface films. and thus improve electrode wear. Formation of the Weld Nugget The electrode force produces a local deformation at the common interface to seat the workpiece properly and to establish good electrical contact before current flows. as schematically represented in Fig. Figure 1 3 shows the state of the faying surface prior to any melting. Regions B and D clearly show metallic bonding in these areas without melting taking place. because of the electrode geometry. It is understood that.faying surface being several degrees higher. 14. It is apparent that with time melting will initiate at the center and w i l l spread outward. shown in Fig. 2) Welding current and welding time are the most sensitive parameters to control expulsion. it is expected that fatigue and toughness will Fig. oxides and asperites. The contact areas at the faying surface are dependent on the stress distribution and local deformation. Based on the combination of these two factors. Figure 12 shows the weld nugget centered at the faying surface. As a result of this bonding. it was found that holding cycles smaller or greater than 15 produced weld nuggets with larger amounts of solidification cracks.

Schumacher. 6. ITW Doc. and Mitchell. American Welding Society. J. NY 10017. J.C. B.. Johnson. Washington.00 per copy. 47th St.. f o l l o w e d b y m e l t i n g at t h e c e n t e r are t h e first steps in nugget d e v e l o p m e n t . 1980. Welding Journal 53(8)'343-s to 350s. British Welding journal 20:1 76-1 8 1 . p. V o l . Ohio. British Welding Journal 15(11:7-16. Spot weldability comparison of selected HSLA steels. H.. 4) It appears that solid-state b o n d i n g at t h e e d g e o f t h e c o n t a c t s u r f a c e . The price of WRC Bulletin 369 is $85. Indacochea. Commission II of the International Institute of Welding (IIW) initiated an effort to review and examine the role of nitrogen in steel weld metals. 9th edition. C.. J. T. 1978. 1980. 1984. Schedule BA 13-4.. the available information on how nitrogen enters weld metals produced by various arc welding processes. 1968. and Baker. D. 7.. Materials Park. Spot welding characteristics of HSLA steel for automotive application.. 478. Z. C. Sawhill. 1975. E. 14. New York.. 216-s I MAY 1993 . 1 8. Publication of this report was sponsored by the Welding Research Council. 172..C. 14 — Schematic representation of the current distribution between electrodes. D. Han.Electrode Steel sheets Fig. Welding Journal 57(2):43-s to 50-s. and $10. 1975. M. F. Welding Handbook. Proceedings. pp. 345 E. M i croalloying 75 Proceeding. F. G. Resistance spot w e l d i n g of LC and HS steels. 3. 8.N . Welding Journal 59:19-s to 30-s. 6. ). Yamanchi. Acknowledgments The authors a c k n o w l e d g e the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f I n l a n d Steel C o . M. N.. what forms it takes in these welds. 1989. Ford Laboratory Test Methods. B. M. Inc. 1 5. References 1. Welding journal 63:123-s to 1 32-s. 1 984. T. and Chen. Metal Progress. Dickinson. 111-644-80. be a f f e c t e d b y t h e a m o u n t o f this t y p e of c r a c k i n g . This bulletin contains 13 reports and several hundred references related to Nitrogen in Weld Metals that has been prepared as a review to show the importance nitrogen has in determining weld metal properties. N. F. pp. W e are also grateful to D a n C a l i h e r for c a r r y i n g o u t t h e s p o t w e l d s at I n l a n d Steel Research Laboratories.and Ries. 18th e d i tion. E. Nippes.. and Taka. plus $5. Savage. M. W. for future reference. F. Yamamoto. Pollard. 9. Welding journal 68: 363-s to 371-s. p.00 for U. Spot weldability of M n Mo-Cb. H. Nied. dynamic contact resistance of series spot welds. and Lamberigts. 111-504-74. I. W . Watanabe. Spot weldability of high-strength sheet steels. J. D. D. 1 1 . 1973. J. Spot weld properties when welding with expulsion — a comparative study. 1974. 1975. Greday. and Wassell. 2. and SAE 1008 Steels. 1977. Study on seam welding phenomena and their application to speed up of seam welding.. H. Vlasov. Orders should be sent with payment to the Welding Research Council. Kirnchi. Metals Handbook. 17. V . 1982. Microalloying 75. The objective was to compile in one source. 30-36. 1 0. T „ and Okuda. Vol. 1 3.S. WRC Bulletin 369 December 1991 Nitrogen in Arc Welding — A Review By IIW Commission II In 1983. The combined effect of microalloying steels with columbium and vanadium. Washington. Welding Journal 63:58-s to 63-s. postage and handling. 12. K. 373. M i c r o a l l o y i n g of carbon steels with vanadium and cobalt. HaserJ. ASM International. 1 974. 1980. Resistance spot welding: a heat transfer study. W . 1 6. N. A. The finite element modeling of the resistance spot welding process. Welding Journal 56:21 7-s to 224-s.00 for overseas. W . Orozco. 4. Room 1301. A. Dix. and how it affects weld metal properties. 188. J. M. IIW Doc. Sawhill. 5. T. Quality c o n t r o l resistance w e l d i n g quality—control techniques. Metallurgical study of resistance weld nugget formation and stuck welds. pp.. Republic Steel Research Report 12055-8.

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