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Cable Engineering in Substation and Power Plant
Asif Eqbal

Cab le Eng ine e ring in Sub s tatio n and Po we r Plant (o n p ho to : Se aling o f p o we r c ab le s thro ug h the o ute r wall in s ub s tatio n; b y Ro xte c Ltd . @ Flic kr)

Single core cable should be unarmored?
Is it true that single core cable should be unarmored because eddy currents are induced in armor of single core cable which will cause additional losses? If true then why not three core cables also unarmored and why single core armored cables manufactured at all. In this scenario one phase induces eddy current in the armor and in three phases it is not there as the flux of all the three phases cancel each other so armoring is required what is the solution, we can use non Ferromagnetic substance for armoring. A detailed description is given below: 1. Aluminium Wire Armor ( AWA) and Galvanized Steel Wire (GSW) are of f ered as standard mechanical protection f or single and three core cables respectively. 2. Non f erromagnetic materials must be used on single core cables. As the magnetic f ield travels through any protection layers on single core cables, a f erromagnetic material such as steel will have signif icant eddy current losses induced in the wires causing signif icant heating of the cable and subsequent derating of its current carrying capacity.

wire or strip armor and when? As per bureau of Indian standards no 7098 part-2 clause 16. is more than adequate f or required dielectric strength. Even if a single core cable is armored with f erromagnetic material like steel then three single core cable has to be laid in tref oil arrangement so that the f lux of all the three single core cable cancel each other as happens in three core cable. the phase to ground voltage of two healthy phases rises to approximately phase to phase voltage when earth f ault occurs in the third phase.T he same principle applies when selecting cable clamps. 3. provided that the total of such periods in a year does not exceed 125 hours. What is meant by earth grade of cables? Earth grade of a cable is parameter which governs the degree of suf f icient separation between the conductor and the nearest electrical ground to preclude dielectric f ailure and makes sure that the required thickness of insulation. T he armor of cables having calculated diameter below armoring greater than 13 mm shall consist of either galvanized round steel wires or galvanized steel strips. 3. the armor shall consist of galvanized round steel wires. T his earth grade is to be adopted when the system is solidly earthed without any intentional resistance or inductance in neutral circuit. Neutral point or the mid-point connection is earthed in such a manner that. In case of ac systems only. even under f ault conditions. the maximum voltage that can occur between any conductor and the earth does not exceed 80 percent of the nominal system voltage. What are the required conditions f or earthed system? Earthed System – An electric system which fulfils any of the following conditions: 1. What type of armor should be used.2 Type of Armor – Where the calculated diameter below armoring does not exceed 13 mm. the neutral-point is earthed through an arc suppression coil with arrangement f or isolation within 1 h of occurrence of the f ault f or the non-radial f ield cables and within 8 hours f or radial cables. In case the system is resistance/inductance earthed or unearthed. What are the required conditions f or unearthed system? An electric system which does not f ulf ill the requirement of the earthed system is unearthed system. . For cables to be used in solidly earthed system. 2. T he neutral-point or the mid-point connection is not earthed but a protective device is installed which automatically cuts out any part of the system which accidently becomes earthed. to physically protect the conductor. the phase conductor to armor insulation has to be rated f or VL/√3 volts that is phase to ground voltage only.

unarmored (but – non-magnetic metallic tape covered) 2.35/11 kV. T hree-core armored.6kV resistance earthed system can we use 11kV/6. 6.T he phase to ground voltage of healthy phase comes very close to or attains phase to phase value depending upon the degree of ef f ectiveness of system neutral earthing.6kV UE class cables should be used while 6.35kV.6kV/3.6kV/6. unarmored 3. Series type cable f ault 2.85kV E class cables are adequate f or solidly earthed system.6 kV (unearthed system ) also. So insulation class of cables of any particular voltage level f or unearthed system is equivalent to insulation class of next voltage level of earthed system. the permissible variation of declared voltage at the point of commencement of supply is +6 & -9 percent.6kV system and hence during earth f ault in one phase the insulation of healthy phase may prove to be insufficient. So now question is f or 6. How many types of cable f aults are there & how are they diagnosed? Faults can be divided into two types: 1.9/3.3/3.8/6. which is lesser than the phase to phase voltage of 6. Single-core unscreened. 3. Under Rule 54 of the Indian Electricity Rules 1956. Indian Standard Specif ication f or cross linked polyethylene insulated PVC sheathed cables part-2 f or working voltage f rom 3. 12.6kV unearthed or resistance earthed system 6. in case of high voltage. screened or unscreened b) Voltage Grade (UO/U) 1.3 kV.6 kV.35/11 kV grade (earthed system ) are suitable f or use on 6. Earthed System – 1. Shunt type cable f ault 1. T he cables conf orming to this standard may be operated continuously at a power f requency voltage 10 percent higher than rated voltage. Series t ype cable f ault s . Unearthed System – 3. AS PER IS-IS 7098. Single-core screened.35kV E class cables? Since f or the selected cable phase to phase voltage is 11kV and phase to ground voltage is 11kV/√3=6. Single-core armored (non-magnetic) screened or unscreened 4. Hence phase conductor to armor insulation of cables used in unearthed or resistance/inductance earthed system should be rated f or f ull phase to phase voltage instead of VL/√3. For example in case of 6.3kV up to and including 33kV (7098 part-2) gives the f ollowing clause f or the same:T he standard covers the requirements of f ollowing categories of cross linked polyethylene insulated and PVC sheathed power cables f or single phase or three phase (earthed or unearthed) systems f or electricity supply purposes: a) Types of Cables 1.7/22 kV and 19/33 kV 2.3 kV and 11/11 kV NOTES: Cables of 6.6/6.

Cables between PLC and MCC f or analog and binary signals. 3. Usually series f aults only become apparent when continuity has been completely lost at least in one conductor. cable continuity should be checked.e. The C&I cable supposed to be considered by electrical group: 1. Engineering including scheduling with terminal details and interconnection diagram. procurement and erection of above mentioned two types of C&I cables is carried out by electrical group. the value of f ault resistance should be measured with a multimeter.C. If the insulation indicates a “healthy” result. the shunt fault could be of following types: 1. 2. High Resistance f ault 2. Depending on the degree of carbonization of the dielectric. T hose C&I cables which are to be considered by Instrumentation group. Facts about interf ace cabling between control & instrumentation and electrical f or any power plant or process plant.Series f ault occur where the continuity one or more of metallic element (i. Regarding C&I cables for any power or process plants. Paired cables between Instrument JB in the local instrument rack or enclosure to f ield instruments. High voltage or by Megger. 2. IPR & . Flashing f ault Diagnosis: Usually the first indication of the possible existence of a fault is given by the automatic operation of the circuit protection . Shunt t ype cable f ault s Shunt f ault occur where the insulation of one or more conductor is damaged . T hose C&I cables which are to be considered by electrical group. In most cases nature of such cables is Fiber optics because of large amount of data to be carried over a large distance. 2. which may be twisted or untwisted pair. T he f aulty cable should be disconnected f rom the other electrical equipments and is retested f or conf irmation of f ault in insulation by applying D. to cause an open circuit f ault. T he most common type of shunt f ault is single phase to earth f ault. T hey are mainly control/indication/annunciation related cables. Low Resistance f ault 3. all shunt f aults are earth f aults. Paired cable between PLC & packaged vendor panels like VMS (Vibration monitoring system ). The C&I cables supposed to be considered by Instrumentation group and consequently excluded by electrical group: 1. In case the insulation shows a f aulty cable. On screened cables. conductor or sheath) of cable is impaired . Special cables f or interf ace between PLC/Relay based control panel (in local control room to) and main plant DCS or ECP. 2. please note that there are two categories of cables: 1. Paired cable f rom PLC to instrument JB in the local instrument rack or enclosure in the f ield. Nature of such cables is usually paired cables.

Eight types of cables mentioned in point number-III. by def ault each system will have its clock adjusted individually f rom the PC which downloaded the program in the system. Paired cable between PLC to modulating drives. should not be considered by electrical group of any project. if we have more than one controller system. T hese cables are exclusively C&I cables and entire engineering & procurement is to be carried out by C&I department. Cable Block Diagram Download cable block diagram in PDF . 8. 6. So a main controller or GPS signal is send to every control system in a specif ied time so that every system readjusts its clock and has same time in terms of hour minute and seconds. . .SOV. 7. Special cables between f ield junction box to individual instruments by packaged vendors like vibration sensors. 4. the reports will be messy and conf used about at which time the problem occur due to dif f erence in reporting time. Please note that the target of such time synchronization of DCS or PLCs (located geographically apart) with GPS is that. Cables between GPS clock system (for time synchronization) and PLC/SCADA. Summary Cables mentioned in point number-II are the only two types of instrumentation cable which electrical group considers and engineering done thereby requires interf ace & coordination with C&I department. but in most cases erection is carried out by C&I site team on perf orated type cable trays dedicated f or instrumentation. 5. Erection is sometimes carried out by electrical contractor. Paired cable between above mentioned packaged vendor panels to Junction box in f ield. Paired cable between bidirectional drive to PLC. so if any trip or trouble occur in the system and all the system doesn’t have the same time.

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