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Chapter 3: Declension

NOUNS ................................................................................................................ 4
I. A. Unchangeable Stems ................................................................................. 4
Stems in Dentals ........................................................................................... 5
Stems in Labials ............................................................................................ 5
Stems in Palatals ........................................................................................... 6
Stems in Cerebrals ........................................................................................ 6
Stems in .................................................................................................. 6
Stems in .................................................................................................. 7
Stems in ................................................................................................. 7
I. B. Changeable Stems ..................................................................................... 8
Nouns with Two Stems .................................................................................. 8
Nouns with Three Stems .............................................................................. 11
Irregular Stems in .................................................................................. 13
Adjectives in ..........................................................................................
15

Irregular Nouns with Changeable Stems ....................................................... 18


II. Stems ending in Vowels .............................................................................. 19
A. Stems in (masc. neut.) and (fem.) .................................................... 19
B. Stems in (masc. fem. neut.) ............................................................... 20
Irregularities ............................................................................................... 21
C. Stems in (fem.) ................................................................................. 22
D. Stems in (masc. and fem.) ................................................................... 23
E. Stems in ..................................................................................... 25
Degrees of Comparison ................................................................................... 26
NUMERALS ........................................................................................................ 27
Cardinals ........................................................................................................ 27
Declension of Cardinals ................................................................................ 28
Ordinals ......................................................................................................... 29
1

Numeral Adverbs and other Derivatives............................................................ 29


PRONOUNS ....................................................................................................... 30
A. Personal Pronouns ...................................................................................... 30
B. Demonstrative Pronouns ............................................................................. 31
C. Interrogative Pronoun ................................................................................. 32
D. Relative Pronoun ........................................................................................ 33
E. Reflexive Pronoun ....................................................................................... 33
F. Possessive Pronouns ................................................................................... 33
G. Compound Pronouns .................................................................................. 33
H. Pronomial Adjectives .................................................................................. 34

Nouns: Consonant Stems unchangeable changeable: with Two Stems; with


Three Stems Vowel stems Degrees of Comparison Numerals: Cardinals
Ordinals Numeral Adverbs Pronouns: Personal Demonstrative Interrogative
Relative Reflexive Possessive Compound Quantitative Indefinite
Pronomial Adjectives.
[70] Declension or the inflexion of nominal stems by means of endings is most
conveniently treated under the three heads of 1. nouns (including adjectives); 2.
numerals; 3. pronouns.
In Sanskrit there are:

a. three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter;


b. three numbers: singular, dual and plural.
c. eight cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative,
genitive, locative1.
1

This is the order of the Hindu grammarians excepting the vocative which is not
regarded by them as a case. It is convenient as the only arrangement by which such
cases as are identical in form, either in the singular, dual or the plural, may be
grouped together.

[71] The normal case-endings added to the stem are the following
SINGULAR
M. F.

N.

N.

DUAL
---

---

---

A.

--

D.

Ab.

M. F.

N.

M. F.

L.

G.

N.

V.
I.

PLURAL

a. The voc. is the same (apart from the accent) as the nom. in all numbers
except the masc. and fem. sing. of vowel stems generally and the masc. sing.
of consonant stems in (cp. 76a)

b. The nom. acc. sing. neut. has the bare stem excepting the words in - which
add

c. The nom. voc. acc. plur. neut. before the insert after a vowel stem and
before a single final mute or sibilant of a consonant stem (modifying the
according to the class of the consonant).
[72] An important distinction in declension (in stems ending in ) is that
between the strong and weak stem. If the stem has two forms, the strong and the
weak stem are distinguished. If it has three forms, strong, middle and weakest are
distinguished.

a. Shifting of accent was the cause of the distinction. The stem, having been
accented in the strong cases, here naturally preserved its full form; but it was
shortened in the weak cases by the accent falling on the endings. For a
similar reason the last vowel of the strong stem, if long, is regularly shortened
in the vocative, because the accent always shifted to the first syllable in that
case.
[73] The strong stem appears in the following cases:

Nom. Voc. Acc. Sing. of masc. nouns1


Nom. Voc. Acc. Dual of masc. nouns1
Nom. Voc. (not Acc.) Plur. of masc. nouns1
3

Nom. Voc. Acc. Plur. only of neuter nouns

Excepting the stems in (101) nearly all nouns with changeable stems form their

feminine with the suffix (100).

a. When the stem has three forms, the middle stem appears before terminatinos
beginning with a consonant2 ( ); the weakest, before
terminations beginning with a vowel in the remaining weak cases.
nom. dual. inst. plur. gen. dual (93).

b. In neuters with three stems, the nom. voc. acc. sing. are middle, the nom.
voc. acc. dual are weakest. sing. dual. plur (93). The
other cases are as in the masc.
2

It is practically most convenient to name changeable stems in the middle form,


since this is also the form in which they appear as prior members in compounds.

NOUNS
[74] The declension may conveniently be divided into 2 classes:
I. Stems ending in consonants3 A. unchangeable B. changeable
II. Stems ending in vowels A. B. C. D. E.
3

Some grammars begin with the vowel declension in (II. A) since this contains

the majority of all the declined stems in the language. But for practical reasons it
appears preferable to begin with the cons. declension which adds the normal
endings (71) without modification; while the wide deviation of the -declension from
these endings is apt to confuse the beginner.

I. A. Unchangeable Stems
[75] The number of these stems is comparatively small, there being none ending in
guttural or cerebral mutes and none in nasals or semi-vowels except They are
liable to such changes only as are required by the rules of sandhi before consonant
terminations (cp 16a). Masc. and fem. ending in the same consonant are inflected
exactly alike; and the neuters differ only in the nom. voc. acc. dual and plural.
[76] The final consonants of the stem retain their original sound before vow. terms.
(71) but when there is no ending (nom. sing. the of the m.f. being dropped) and
before the loc. plur. they must be reduced to one of the letters or
4

visarga (27) which respectively become or before the terms beginning


with

a. The voc. sing. m. f. is the same as the nom. except in stems in (derivative)
as (83).

b. Forms of the nom. voc. acc. plur. neut. are extremely rare in this declension
eg. from sharing nom. sing.
Stems in Dentals
[77] Paradigm friend (lit. good-hearted).
MASCULINE
SINGULAR
N. V.

(27)

A.

I.

D.

Ab.
G.

L.

DUAL

PLURAL

(32)

a. In the paradigms of regular nouns with unchangeable stems it will be


sufficient to remember the nom. sing. and the nom. inst. loc. plur. eg. from
conquering: from destroying:
from
increasing:


Stems in Labials
[78] Only a few ending in occur. They are declined exactly like
STEM
(m) guardian of
law
(f) region

NOM. SING.

NOM. PLUR.

INST. PLUR.

LOC. PLUR.

Stems in Palatals
[79] The palatals undergo a change of organ when final and before cons.
term. (cp. 63). always becomes guttural nearly always become
guttural but sometimes cerebral
STEM
(f) speech

NOM. SING.

NOM. PLUR.

INST. PLUR.

LOC. PLUR.

(n) blood

(m) sovereign

(f) cardinal point

(m) settler

(f) disease

Stems in derivative are changeable (93).

a. Like are declined (f) skin (f) light (f) ladle (m) cloud.
b. Like are declined (m) priest (m) merchant (m)
physician (f) garland (f) strength (nom. 28).

c. Like is declined (m) mendicant.


d. Like are declined seeing
touching (at the end of compounds).
Stems in Cerebrals
[80] The only cerebral stems are those in the sibilant which is naturally changed to
cerebral

STEM
(m) enemy

(f) rainy season

NOM. SING.

NOM. PLUR.

INST. PLUR.

LOC. PLUR.

Stems in
[81] Most of the few stems in change that letter when final or before cons. terms.
to a guttural but (cp. 69 b) in (licking) it becomes cerebral and in (f)
shoe (lit. that which is tied on) dental
STEM
milking

injuring

NOM. SING.

NOM. PLUR.

INST. PLUR.

LOC. PLUR.

(f) a metre

(m) bee

(f) shoe

Stems in
[82] The becomes visarga only when final i.e. in the nom. sing. only remaining
before the of the loc. plur. (50). A preceding is lengthened when the is final
or followed by a consonant.
STEM
(f) door

NOM. SING.

NOM. PLUR.

INST. PLUR.

(f) voice

(f) town

LOC. PLUR.

Stems in
[83] These stems consist almost entirely of words formed with the derivative suffixes
chiefly neuters. They lengthen their final vowel (before the inserted
nasal) in the nom. voc. acc. plur. neut. The masc. and fem. are nearly all adjective
compounds with these stems as their final member; those in lengthen the in
the nom. sing.

(( fame

(n) oblation

(n) life

a. as an adjective (cheerful) has in the nom. sing. masc. (voc.


) but neut. (but nom. sing. in all genders). Similarly

(m) (m) names of seers (f) dawn, form the nominatives


(sometimes )

b. 1 (f) blessing lengthens its (like the stems in ) in the nom. sing.
and before cons. nom. sing. nom. plur. inst. plur.
loc. plur.

c. (n) arm is quite regular. nom. sing. nom. dual inst. plur.
loc. plur.
1

derived not with the suffix but from the weakened root with the prefix

I. B. Changeable Stems
[84] Regular changeable stems end in the dentals or the palatal those in
end in those in end in those in end
in (comparatives) (perf. participles active); those in end in which is
properly a root meaning to bend. The stems in (85-86) (87) (88) have
two forms, strong and weak; those in (90-92) (89) (93) have three
forms, strong, middle and weakest (73).
Nouns with Two Stems
[85] 1. Stems in comprise Present and Future Participles (156) active (masculine
and neuter). The strong stem is in the weak in from eat.
MASCULINE
SINGULAR

DUAL

PLURAL

N. V.

A.

I.

D.

Ab.
G.
L.

NEUTER
N. A.

a. (great) originally a present participle from the root (originally ) cp.


Lat. mag-nus, forms its strong stem in
SINGULAR MASC.

PLURAL MASC.

PLURAL NEUT.

N.

A.

I.

L.

V.

[86] The stems of the adjectives formed with the suffixes which means
possessed of or having differ from those in at solely in lengthening the vowel
in the nom. sing. masc. eg. (1) (m. n. having a sacrificial fire).
SINGULAR MASC.

PLURAL MASC.

PLURAL NEUT.

N.

A.

L.

V.

(2) (m. n. possessed of knowledge).


SINGULAR MASC.

PLURAL MASC.

N.

A.

a. when used as the present participle of (be) is declined like (only


the accent remains on the first syllable throughout) but when it means your
honour it is declined (as if derived with the suffix ) like
nom. sing. acc. sing. Besides there is also an irregular voc. (cp.
49) (sir, a contraction of ).

b. (how much) and (so much) are also declined like

SINGULAR MASC.

PLURAL MASC.

PLURAL NEUT.

N.

A.

[87] 2. Adjectives formed with the suffix (masc. and neut.) which means
possessing are very numerous. They are derivatives from substantives in thus
strength strong. The stem of these words is weak only before cons. and in
teh nom. acc. sing. neut. where it drops the In the nom. sing. masc. where (as
in all regular stems) the is dropped and in the nom. voc. acc. plur. neut. the is
lengthened. possessing wealth.
MASCULINE
N.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

A.

I.

V.

NEUTER

N. A.
V.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

a. Stems in have a similar meaning and are declined in the same way.
wise eloquent. (m. lord, having property) is used as a
substantive only.
[88] 3. Comparatives in (masc. and neut.) form their strong stem in
heavier, comparative of heavy.

10

MASCULINE
SINGULAR

PLURAL

N.

A.

V.

I.


NEUTER

N. A.

Nouns with Three Stems


[89] 1. Participles of the reduplicated perfect in (masc. and neut.) form their
strong stem with the middle with 1 the weakest with (67 cp. 157). 2
(having done) from (to do).
1

The change of to here began in the early Vedic period before extending

thence to the loc. plur. and the nom. acc. sing. neut. is the unaccented form of
(cp. 137, 2c).
2

Beginners sometimes confuse this reduplicated perf. part. active with the active

participle formed by adding the suffix to the perfect passive part. nom. masc.
(having done) acc. (cp. 161). The confusion is caused by both
ending in in the nom. sing.
MASCULINE
N.

A.

V.

I.

L.

NEUTER
N. A.

11

a. The which is inserted before the in some of these participles is dropped


before thus but

b. The following examples of these stems may be useful:

NOM. SING.

NOM. PLUR.

ACC. PLUR.

INSTR. PLUR.

[90] 2. Nouns in masc. and neut. form the strong stem in the
weakest in the middle in In the nom. sing. masc. the final is dropped. In
the loc. sing. and the nom. voc. acc. dual the syncopation of the of the suffix is
optional. In the weakest cases syncope does not take place when are
immediately preceded by a consonant.
The concurrence of three consonants is here avoided, though not in stems in simple
Hence but Examples of the inflexion of these stems are:
(1) (m) king
SINGULAR

PLURAL

N.

A.

V.

I.

L.

12

(2) (n) name


N. A.

V.

I.

L.

(3) (m) brahman ( after consonant)


SINGULAR

PLURAL

N.

A.

V.

I.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

(4) (m) stone

N.

A.

I.

Irregular Stems in

[91] 1. ( path) has for its strong stem for its middle for its
weakest stem; the nom. irregularly adds
SINGULAR

PLURAL

N.

A.

I.

13

(2) (n. day) takes as its middle stem.


N. V. A.

I.

L.

The Visarga in the N. V. A. sing. and when the word is the prior member of a

compound (except in m. n. day and night) is treated like an original (46):


hence (day by day) (series of days).
(3) (m. dog) forms its weakest stem with samprasraa. Otherwise it is
declined like
SINGULAR

PLURAL

N.

V.

A.

I.

(4( (m. youth) forms its weakest stem by samprasraa and contraction.
SINGULAR

PLURAL

V.

A.

I.

N.

14

(5) (m. bountiful, name of Indra) also forms its weakest stem 1 by
samprasraa and contraction.
SINGULAR

PLURAL

N.

V.

A.

I.

Forms from are also sometimes found. nom. gen.

[92] The root (kill) when used as a noun at the end of a compound, for the most
part follows the analogy of stems in The strong stem is (with a long vowel
in the nom. sing. only) the middle and the weakest m. brahmankiller.
SINGULAR

PLURAL

N.

V.

A.

I.

L.

The cerebralization of (65) does not take place here probably because the

guttural mute immediately precedes it.


Adjectives in
[93] These words, the suffix1 of which is generally expressed by -ward form the
strong stem in the middle in and the weakest in 2 (according as
is preceded by ). (m. n. backward, westward).

15

These words are properly compounds formed with the verb (bend) which has,

however, practically acquired the character of a suffix.


2

Contractions for respectively (which usually would be shortened to ).

The apparent irregularity of the long vowel is probably due to the samprasraa
here being not internal, but external, at the junction of a compound. If the vowel
were short, the stem would look as if formed with a suffix added to the final vowel
of the prior member. eg.
MASCULINE
N. V.

(61)

A.

I.

L.

(30, 67)

NEUTER

N. A.

a. Other words similarly declined are


STRONG STEM
(downward)

MIDDLE STEM

WEAKEST STEM

(right)

(transverse)

(upward)

(following)

(all-pervading)

From + (going across, horizontal); as a noun m. n. it means animal.

though no precedes the of the suffix, by analogy.

b. (turned away) (forward, eastern) (downward, southern) have


only two stems. for the strong and for
the weak.
16

MASCULINE
N. V.

(61)

A.

I.

L.

[94] The beginner will find it useful to remember the following points with regard to
changeable stem
1. The vowel of the suffix is lengthened in the nom. sing. masc. except in stems in
but

2. The nom. sing. masc. ends in a nasal in all changeable stems except those in
( ( which drop it.
3. All changeable stems which lengthen the vowel in the nom. sing. masc. keep it
short in the vocative and always retain the of the stem.

a. In other changeable stems the vocative differs from the nom. solely in always
having the accent on the first syllable. dan voc. adn nom.
prtya voc. praty nom.
[95] The feminine of nouns with changeable stems are formed by adding to the
weak stem (when there are two stems) or the weakest (when there are three) and
follow the declension of (100).
(named) (bitch) (killing)

a. The feminine of the present participle active of the first conjugation (125) is
made from the strong masc. stem in (cp. 156) that of the second
conjugation from the weak stem in being1 striking
playing stealing, but sacrificing joining
pressing doing buying.

17

b. The feminine of the simple future participle active is usually formed like the
present part. of the first conjugation. 2 about to be about
to do.

c. The few adjectives in form their feminines in fat f.


The fem. of the irregular young (91, 4) is
1

But from (your honour).

If the verbal base, however, ends in accented eg. tud bhaviy, the weak form

may optionally be taken when the receives the accent:


Irregular Nouns with Changeable Stems
[96] 1. (f. water) which is always plural lengthens its in the strong cases (N.
V.) and substitutes for before
N.

A.

I.

L.

2. (m. ox lit. cart-drawer from + ) has 3 stems: the last syllable is


lengthened in the strong stem and shortened by samprasraa in the
weakest and in the middle (dissimilated for cp. 27). The nom.
and voc. are irregularly formed as if from a stem in
SINGULAR

PLURAL

V.

A.

I.

N.

L.

3. 1 (m. man) has 3 forms, being lengthened in the strong stem to

shortened by syncope in the weakest to and in the middle to (with necessary


loss of the cp. 28 and 16a).
1

Probably an old compound, with the second part of which the Lat. ms (male) may
be allied.

18

SINGULAR

PLURAL

(cp. 89, 1)

V.

A.

I.

N.

L.

II. Stems ending in Vowels


A. Stems in (masc. neut.) and (fem.)
[97] 1 (beloved, past part. of love).
SINGULAR

N.

MASCULINE

NEUTER

FEMININE

A.

I.

D.

Ab.

G.

L.

V.

DUAL

N. A. V.

MASCULINE

NEUTER

I. D. Ab.

G. L.

FEMININE

PLURAL

N. V.

MASCULINE

NEUTER

FEMININE

A.

I.

D. Ab.

19

G.

L.

B. Stems in (masc. fem. neut.)


[98] (pure)
(soft).
SINGULAR
MASC.

N.
A.
D.

V.

L.

MASC.

Ab. G.

NEUT.

I.

FEM.

FEM.

NEUT.

DUAL

N. A. V.

MASC.

I. D. Ab.
G. L.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

FEM.

NEUT.

PLURAL

N. V.
A.
I.
D. Ab.
G.
L.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

a. Neuter adjectives (not substantives) may be declined throughout (except


N.V.A. of all numbers) and fem. adjectives and substantives in the D. Ab. G.
L. sing. like masculines. Thus, the L. sing. of (f. thought) is
but (n. water) only
20

b. The voc. sing. of neuters may optionally follow the masc. form.

c. The feminine of adjectives in is sometimes also formed by adding


(fem. thin) (fem. light)

(fem. broad, earth).
Irregularities
[99] 1. (m. husband) is irregular in the weak cases of the singular: I. D.
Ab. G. 1 L. When it means lord or occurs at the end of compounds,
it is regular (like ). The fem. is wife.
2. (m. friend) has the same irregularities but in addition has a strong stem
formed with vddhi Sing. N. A. I. D. Ab. G. 1 L.
V. Dual. N.A.V. Plu. N.V. A. At the end of
compounds is regular in the weak cases but retains the stem in the
strong. The fem. is
3. The neuters eye bone curds thigh, form their weakest cases
from stems in ( like )

N. A. V.

Singular

Dual

Plural

I.

G.

4. (f. sky, originally weak grade of 102a) retains this stem before

consonant terminations (taking vddhi in the N.V. sing.) but changes it to before
vowels:
N.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

A.

I.

D.

Ab.

G.

21

L.

V.

C. Stems in (fem.)
[100] According as they are monosyllabic or polysyllabic show various differences of
inflexion.
1. Monosyllabic stems change to before vowels, the polysyllabic stems to

2. Monosyllabic stems have the normal terminations (71) throughout: they may take
the special feminine terminations ( )1 polysyllabic stems must.
3. Monosyllabic stems use the nom. (which takes ), polysyllabic stems shorten the
of the nom. in the voc. sing.
4. Polysyllabic stems in have no in the nom. sing. except goddess of
prosperity string, and optionally sloth.
5. Polysyllabic stems form the acc. sing. in and the acc. plur. in
1

These terminations started from the polysyllabic stems in (originally ) which

was fused with the normal endings to and in the loc. with an ending
(of unknown origin) to
SINGULAR
(thought)

(earth)

(river)

(woman)

N.

A.

I.

D.

Ab. G.

L.

V.
DUAL
22

N. V. A.

I. D. Ab.

G. L.

PLURAL
N. V.

A.

I.

D. Ab.

G.

L.

a. (f. woman) though monosyllabic hsa most of the characteristics of


polysyllabic stems in (100, 2-5): it must take the special fem. terminations,
it shortens its in the voc. it has no in the nom. and has an optional acc.
sing. in and acc. plur. in This is doubtless due to its originally having
been a dissyllable.
N.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

A.

I.

D.

Ab.

G.

L.

V.

Dual. N.V.A. I. D. Ab. G. L.


D. Stems in (masc. and fem.)
[101] In origin these stems are consonant stems in are closely analogous in their
declension to stems in (90). These nouns mostly end in the suffix They
distinguish a strong stem a middle and a weakest The inflexion of
masc. and fem. differs in the acc. plur. only. In the strong stem the names of
23

relations take the gua form the names of agents take the vddhi form The
sing. gen. is formed in the loc. in the voc. in the plur. acc. masc. in
fem. in gen. in
SINGULAR
(m. giver)

(m. father)

(f. mother)

N.

A.

I.

D.

Ab. G.

L.

V.

DUAL
N. V. A.

I. D. Ab.

G. L.

PLURAL
N. V.

A.

I.

D. Ab.

G.

L.

a. though names of relations, follow taking the vddhi form in the


strong stem; acc. sing. Aslo (fem. sister) acc. sing.
but acc. plur.

b. (m. man) takes the gua form in the strong stem; the gen. pl. is
as
well as the I. D. Ab. G. sing. are not found in classical Sanskrit (but
24

the D. and G. in the Rigveda are ) N. A. I. N. pl. A.


I. L.

c. (m. jackal) substitutes in the middle cases: N. pl. I. pl.


d. Stems in if declined in the neuter would be inflected like the neut. of


N.A. sing. du.
pl. I. sing.
pl.

e. Feminine agent nouns are formed from masculines in by the suffix


masc. fem. giver (declined like ).
E. Stems in
[102] The only stems in diphthongs are (m. wealth) (m. f. bull, cow) (f.
sky) (f. ship). changes the of the diphthong to before vowels but drops it
before consonants. in the strong cases takes vddhi and becomes which is
shortened to in the acc. sing. and plur. The ab. gen. has a contracted form (os for
av-as). These stems form a transition between the consonant and vowel declension:
they agree with the former in taking the normal endings; with the latter in adding
in the nom. sing. and in showing a vowel before endings with initial consonant.
SINGULAR
N. V.

A.

I.

D.

Ab. G.

L.

DUAL
N. V. A.

I. D. Ab.

G. L.

PLURAL
N. V.

25

A.

I.

D. Ab.

G.

L.

a. (sky) is declined like nom. sing. is the same as that of (99, 4); in
the dual and plur. the strong forms alone occur: N. A. D. Ab.
G. L. Dual N. A. N. pl.

Degrees of Comparison
[103] 1. The secondary suffix of the comparative and that of the superlative
are added to the weak or middle stem of derivative adjectives (and even
substantives).

a. These suffixes form their feminine in but when used as an ordinal


suffix, forms its fem. in (cp. 107).
2. The primary suffix of the comparative and that of the superlative added
to the root which generally takes gua and is accented. Before them every word
must be reduced to one syllable by dropping suffixes. minute

heavy light far choice


better mean young short with
irregular radical syllable. long abundant

a. In some cases is attached (instead of ) eg. superior


more dearer better firm

b. Some comparatives and superlatives belong only in sense to their positives.


near small

26

NUMERALS
Cardinals
[104] (as first member of a compound )
(here is
an old dual: two and ten) ( for is the nom. pl. 105)



(
for 105 neut. plur. like )



, ,, ,,

a. In order to form the numbers from 20 to 100 not enumerated above, it is only
necessary to remember that 2, 3 and 8 are before 20 and 30
( ) and before 80; both forms may
be used with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 90.
b. The alternative designations of 19, 29, &c. are formed with the old past
participle (diminished). 20 diminished (by one). By prefixing the
necessary cardinal to this participle, other alternatives may be formed.
27 (30 diminished by 3).

c. Similarly alternatives to 101, 102, &c. are formed by means of the adjective
(exceeding, plus). (100 exceeded by 2).

d. The difference of sense in is only to be distinguished by the


accent, these compounds meaning 102, 103, &c. when accented on the first
member, but 200, 300, &c. when accented on the last.

27

Declension of Cardinals
[105] Only the first four cardinals distinguish the genders.
1. following the declension of the pronominal adjectives is inflected
like (120 b).
2. is declined like the dual of N.A. m. f. n. I. D. Ab. G.
L.
3. in the masc. and neut. is declined like the plural of except in the gen.
which is formed as if from (the regular form is found in the Rigveda). Its
fem. stem is the inflexion of which differs in the N. A. G. from that of the
regular stems in
4. in the masc. and neut. has the strong stem The G. pl. though the
stem ends in a consonant, inserts before the ending (like ). The fem. stem is
which is inflected exactly like

N. V.

MASC.

NEUT.

FEM.

MASC.

NEUT.

FEM.

A.

I.

D. Ab.

G.

L.

[106] N. A. (27) I. D. Ab. G. (65) L.


is declined like a neuter in (90, 2) except in the gen. where it follows :
N. A. I. D. Ab. G. L.
The numerals for 7 to 10 are declined in exactly the same way. however has
the following alternative (older) forms: N. A. I. D. Ab. L.
and are old dual forms meaning probably the two tetrads
(perhaps with reference to the fingers of the two hands).
28

The cardinals 3 to 19 are used as plural adjectives agreeing with their substantives
in number and case (3 and 4 in gender also). The cardinals from 20 to 99 (which are
feminine) as well as are used as singular substantives, the
accompanying substantive being either in the same case or in the genitive.
with a 100 female slaves.

Ordinals
[107] The ordinals from first to tenth are formed with various suffixes: (for
original ) or a combination of the first with the second and fourth (
); those from eleventh to nineteenth have the same form as the cardinals
(excepting both inflexion like and change of accent); while those from
twentieth onward either abbreviate the cardinal or add the suffix to it. The
feminine of all but first to fourth is formed with
th
1st 2nd 3rd

4

5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th


11th 19th 20th 30th 40th
50th 60th 61st 70th
71st 80th 81st
90th 91st 100th

Numeral Adverbs and other Derivatives


[108]

a. Multiplicative adverbs: once twice thrice four times


five times six times, &c.

b. Adverbs of Manner: in one way in two ways in


three ways in four ways in five ways in six ways (cp. 104,
foot-note 3) in seven ways in eight ways, &c.

c. Distributive advers: singly in pairs in threes by fives.


d. Aggregative nouns: adj. twofold n. a pair adj. f. threefold n. f.
and n. triad adj. fourfold n. tetrad adj. fivefold
adj. eightfold n. ogdoad adj. tenfold n. decade.
29

PRONOUNS
A. Personal Pronouns
[109] Stem (in composition) (sing) and (plur).
Stem (in composition) (sing) and (plur).
SINGULAR
N.

A.

I.

D.

Ab.

G.

L.

DUAL
N.A.

I. D. Ab.

G. L.

PLURAL
N.

A.

I.

D.

Ab.

G.

L.

These are properly not genitives at all but neuter singulars of possessive adjectives
meaning belonging to us, our, belonging to you, your which have come to be used
as genitives. Similarly in German, a case of possessive pronouns mein, dein, sein
came to be employed as the gen. of personal pronouns.

30

a. The following unaccented forms which are not allowed at the beginning of a
sentence are also used. Sing. A. D. G. Dual. A. D. G. Pl.

B. Demonstrative Pronouns
[110] The stem (in composition ) that (also = he, she, it) may be taken as
the type of the pronominal declension.

N.

MASC.

SINGULAR
NEUT.

FEM.

MASC.

PLURAL
NEUT.

FEM.

A.

I.

D.

Ab.

G.

L.

DUAL
N. A. m. f. n. I. D. Ab. m.f.n. G. L.

a. A compound of (that) is (this). It is declined exactly like the former:


Sing. N. (48, 67) A.
[111] Both the pronominal roots (which here in some cases show a double
inflexion) are employed in the declension of this (indefinitely)

N.

MASC.

SINGULAR
NEUT.

FEM.

MASC.

PLURAL
NEUT.

FEM.

A.

I.

D.

Ab.

G.

L.

31

DUAL
N. A. m. f. n. I. D. Ab. m.f.n. G. L.
[112] The demonstrative pronoun, which is the nom. sing. has the curious form m. f.
n. meaning that, you employs in the rest of its declension the stem
for which is substituted in the fem. plur. (also acc. sing. and partly in dual) and
in the masc. plur. (except the acc.).

N.

MASC.

SINGULAR
NEUT.

FEM.

A.

I.

D.
Ab.
L.

FEM.

G.

MASC.

PLURAL
NEUT.

DUAL
N. A. m.f.n. I. D. Ab. m.f.n. G. L.

a. The unaccented defective pronoun of the third person (he, she, it) is
declined in the A. of all numbers, I. sing and G. L. dual: A.

C. Interrogative Pronoun
[113] The stem of the interrogative pronouns (who, which, what) is inflected
exactly like excepting that the N. A. neuter is N. plur.
L. sing. plur.

a. In derivation the stems are used how great? where?


when? As the first member of a compound is generally employed,
sometimes adj. of what form? n. what kind of = wicked
deed.

32

D. Relative Pronoun
[114] The stem of the relative pronoun (who, which) is declined exactly like

N.

MASC.

SINGULAR
NEUT.

MASC.

PLURAL
NEUT.

FEM.

FEM.

A.

D.

E. Reflexive Pronoun
[115]

a. (self) is indeclinable (originally a nom. sing. (. It may express any


person or number (eg. myself, himself, yourselves). It usually has the
meaning of a nominative but often of an instrumental and sometimes of a
genitive. It frequently also means spontaneously.

b. (self) is a masc. substantive (declined like 90, 3). It is used in


the singular as a reflexive pronoun of all persons and genders.

c. (own) is a reflexive adjective (declined like 120 b) referring


to all three persons and numbers (my, thy, his, our, your, their own). It is
also used (like ) in the oblique cases as a reflexive pronoun.
they blame themselves.

d. properly an adjective meaning inborn, native is often used in the sense


of a pronominal reflexive adjective (like ).

F. Possessive Pronouns
[116] Possessives are formed with the suffix from the stems of the personal
pronouns my thy our your his, her, its,
their.

a. With the suffix are formed my your your, from


G. Compound Pronouns
[117] By adding to certain pronominal stems, the following compound
pronouns have been formed such (lit. of that look)

33

what like, of what kind such what like? like


me like thee.

a. The feminine stem of the compounds in is the same as the masc. and
neut. nom. sing. m.f.n. that of the compounds in is formed with
of those in with
[118] By adding to certain pronominal stems the following compounds
implying quantity have been formed. so much as much so
much how much? These are all declined like nouns in (86) and form their
feminines in the same way &c.

a. how many so many as many, are uninflected in the N. A. but in


the other cases are declined like (98) in the plural.
[119] The interrogative by the addition of is changed to the
indefinite pronoun some, someone

a. In the same manner indefinite adverbs are formed: when?


some time or other, once where? not anywhere, nowhere.

b. The relative preceding the interrogative renders it indefinite:


whosoever of whomsoever
whosoever.

c. The relative pronoun, if doubled, assumes a distributive meaning:


whoever, whatever in each case (followed by a double correlative).

H. Pronomial Adjectives
[120] Several adjectives derived from or allied in meaning to pronouns follow the
pronominal declension like either together or in part.

a. other either other which of two? which of many?


one (of many), follow the pronominal declension throughout, taking
in the N.V.A sing. neut. D. L.

34

b. every, all both (sing. and plur) but both is declined in the dual
only (like ) one (105) either, differ only in taking instead of
in the N.A. sing. neut. D. Ab. G. L.
pl. N.

c. prior, east posterior, west inferior, west subsequent, north


south subsequent, other other, inferior outer own,
besides necessarily taking in the N. A. sing. neut. may follow the nominal
declension in the Ab. L. sing. m. n. and in the N. plur. masc. N. A. n. Ab.
m. n. L. N. pl. m.

d. half little some first last twofold (and


similar words in ) are inflected like ordinary adjectives except that they
may follow the pronominal declension in the N. pl. masc.

e. second
third, may follow the pronominal declension throughout
the oblique cases of the singular D. m.n.

L. f.

but N. pl. m. only


f. Any of these pronominal words occurring at the end of possessive compounds


(180) are declined like ordinary adjectives.

35