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Simultaneous Transmission of Gigabit Wireline Signal and ECMA 387 mmW over Fiber Using a Single MZM in Multi

-Band Modulation
Tong Shao, Flora Paresys, Yannis Le Guennec, Ghislaine Maury, Nicolas Corrao, and Béatrice Cabon
Institut de Microélectronique, Electromagnétisme et Photonique - LAboratoire d’Hyperfréquences et de Caractérisation Grenoble, France
Abstract—We propose a multi-band radio over fiber system compatible with wired and 60GHz band wireless transmission by implementing two-band modulation with a single Mach-Zehnder modulator. In this paper, broadband millimeter wave at 60 GHz band, which is compliant with the ECMA 387 standard, is generated by photodetection after 25 km long optical fiber transmission. Furthermore, baseband transmission, which feeds up the requirement of fiber-to-the-Home, has been realized simultaneously. Keywords—radio over fiber (RoF), photodetection, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), multi-band modulation, fiber-to-the-home (FTTH).

A versatile WDM-RoF system should support different data streams for wireless and wired connectivity, but still using a limited number of transceivers to reduce the overall system cost. In [7], a single electro absorption modulator (EAM) is employed to realize a multi-band RoF system transmitting RF and baseband simultaneously. The device needs to be properly operated and special attention has to be paid to the distortion produced by the EAM non-linearity on the RF signal. Dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is used to limit the impact of chromatic dispersion. In [8], a single MZM is used to generate both wireline and wireless signals, but only OOK modulation format is supported, which is not compliant with ECMA 387 [2] or IEEE 802.15.3c [3]. In this paper, we propose a new multi-band RoF system compatible with IEEE 802.15.3c or ECMA 387 modulation formats, in which independent digital modulations for baseband and 60 GHz band signals are implemented simultaneously by one dual-electrode MZM to lower the infrastructure cost. Interference between RF and baseband modulations with this configuration is investigated theoretically and experimentally. II. ROF SYSTEM FOR WIRELINE AND WIRELESS ACCESS A. Multi-band RoF system Fig. 1 shows the configuration of the proposed multi-band RoF downlink system. In the central station (CS), the experiment is performed by a single longitudinal mode distributed feedback (DFB) Laser emitting at 1550 nm wavelength which corresponds to optical frequency fop.A MZM (MZM #1) is employed to generate two different optical spectral lines. A DC voltage of 2.02 V is applied to the MZM #1 in order to get the minimum optical carrier output. A continuous wave (CW) signal at fLO1=25 GHz, with the power of 12 dBm, is applied to the MZM. Therefore, two spectral lines with the frequency interval of 50 GHz are generated by MZM # 1. The optical signal is then amplified by a erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to obtain a constant output power of 20 dBm, and is sent into a four-channel DEMUX #1 with a channel spacing of 25 GHz. The two optical spectral lines separated by 50 GHz, are therefore divided in channel #2 and channel #4 respectively. Channels #1 and #3 could be used to feed another BS, for a multi-user WDM-RoF demonstration which is not investigated in this paper.

I. INTRODUCTION adio over Fiber (RoF) technology has raised great interest in the last decade to provide optical transmission of radio signals to numerous simplified base stations (BSs). Another main advantage of RoF technology relies on the possibility to centralize broadband optical signal processing functions such as optical mmW generation, with the objective of limiting the use of expensive broadband electronics in BSs [1]. Different approaches have been proposed to generate broadband mmW signals in order to meet the requirements of different standards, such as ECMA 387 [2] or IEEE 802.15.3c [3]. Considering optical access networks wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) passive optical networks (PON) technology has recently attracted much attention for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. WDM-PON can support higher data rate to the end user than typical PON technologies. In order to reduce the infrastructure cost for high data rate wired and wireless access, convergence of wired and wireless access networks has been recently investigated. In [4] [5], a WDM-PON system compatible with wired transmission and UWB transmission in the frequency band 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz has been introduced. In the 60 GHz band a WDM-RoF system supporting simultaneous transmission of mmW band and baseband has been demonstrated [6]. To decrease the overall system cost, a unique reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is used to generate RF and wireline signals to the end user. However, since only single band (baseband) modulation is implemented by the RSOA, wired and wireless signal with the same data stream are generated simultaneously by this configuration.


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32GHz to 2GHz band. E2 and E4 are the amplitudes of the optical fields in channel #2 and #4. in which another DEMUX #2 is applied to separate different spectral lines to different receivers in the BS. ȆTBB and ȆTIF are the gate functions for the baseband and RF signals respectively. the optical field is modulated using a second dual-electrode MZM (MZM #2) biased in linear regime. -B}. DEMUX: WDM Demultiplex. 1). 794 Mbps. B. PC: Polarization Controller. BERT: Bit Error Rate Tester In channel #2. As it is mentioned above. Finally. The bit stream with a pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) of 231-1 from the PPG is divided into two parts with an electrical power divider for both RF modulation and baseband modulation. DSO: Digital storage oscilloscope. VSA: Vector Signal Analyzer.32 GHz. another PPG (PPG #2) is directly fed into the other electrode of the dual-electrode MZM #2 for baseband modulation. due to our experimental condition.32 GHz with the output power of 10 dBm. 1 Multi-band RoF system CS: Central Station. A Polarization Controller (PC #1) is employed to adjust the input optical polarization of MZM #2. One is directly sent to the baseband receiver. DFB Laser: Distributed Feedback Laser. from 58. The baseband signal is either digitalized by the DSO for the display of eye diagram or applied to the Bit Error Rate Tester (BERT). The photonic generated mmW is down-converted using a 7dB conversion loss mmW mixer. The required data rate of the baseband signal is typically higher than 1 Gbps. LO: Local oscillator. According to ECMA 387 standard [2]. The error vector magnitude (EVM) measurement is performed by the VSA software to quantify the quality of the photonic generated broadband mmW. the optical carrier of channel #2 and #4 can be written as: E2 ( t ) = E2 exp ( j 2π ( fOP + f LO1 ) t ) E4 ( t ) = E4 exp ( j 2π ( fOP − f LO1 ) t ) (1) where fOP is the frequency of the DFB Laser. the received optical wave is detected by a 70 GHz bandwidth photodiode (PD) and amplified by an electrical amplifier (AMP1) with a gain of 28 dB. MZM: Mach-Zehnder Modulator. The key technique of the proposed multi-band RoF system lies in the two-band modulation of E2(t) by a baseband and a digitally modulated RF signal using a dual-electrode MZM. In channel #4. which is driven by a second local oscillator (LO2) at frequency 60. BS: Base Station. or 1588 Mbps. Moreover. ESA: Electrical Spectrum Analyzer. The two optical signals from channels #2 and #4 are combined by a 3dB optical coupler and transmitted through a 25 km long single mode fiber (SMF) to the remote access node (RAN). another PC #2 is applied to adapt the optical polarization of channel #4 to the optical polarization of channel #2. -A} and bk={+B. LPF: Low-pass Filter. PD: Photo Diode. Concerning the broadband mmW generation. The digital modulated optical field in channel #2 of DEMUX #2 is divided by an optical coupler. baseband signal VBB(t) is applied to one electrode of MZM #2 (Fig. The broadband signal at 8. SMF: Single Mode Fiber. 1) and a BPSK signal VIF(t) at fIF is applied to the other electrode simultaneously. The electrically down-converted signal is either digitalized with the digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) and demodulated by the Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) software (Agilent) or analyzed by using an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA). IF: Intermediate Frequency. AMP: electrical Amplifier. fIF is the intermediate frequency. Note that we do not down-convert the mmW signal to baseband in order to benefit from the synchronization facility provided by the VSA software for coherent RF demodulation. Theoretical Analysis of Two-Band Modulation using a Single MZM Since DEMUX #1 is employed to separate different spectral lines.32 GHz is applied to one electrode of the dual-electrode MZM #2. a 7 GHz bandwidth PD cascaded with an electrical amplifier (AMP2) is employed for baseband detection. One pulse pattern generator (PPG #1) is applied to a wideband modulator of PSG to implement a binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation at intermediate frequency (IF) fIF=8. However. The other is combined with the optical wave in channel #4 of DEMUX #2 and transmitted to the mmW receiver in the BS. A low-pass filter (LPF) with the cut-off frequency of 4 GHz is employed to filter out all the undesired spectral components. The output optical field of MZM #2 is expressed as: 150 . the required data rates for BPSK modulation are 397 Mbps.Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE MWP Fig. EDFA: Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier. only one PPG is available to generate the multi-gigabit signal for both broadband mmW and baseband signal generation. VBB ( t ) = ¦ ak Π TBB ( t − kTBB ) k =0 +∞ VIF ( t ) = ¦ bk Π TIF ( t − kTIF ) cos ( 2π f IF t ) k =0 +∞ (2) where ak={+A. fLO1 is the frequency of the local oscillator (LO1 in Fig.

32 GHz -30. the broadband mmW is also not degraded by the fiber chromatic dispersion. which are compared with the EVM requirements according to ECMA 387 standard. EVM measurements for the optical generated broadband mmW at 397 Mbps and 794 Mbps meet the requirements of the ECMA 387 standard with a large margin (Tab. I. Due to 7 dB down-conversion loss of the mixer and the -30 dBm sensitivity of the DSO.3 -30.32 GHz -30. It can be seen that there is no impact from the baseband modulation on the mmW signal. I Power and EVM measurements after electrical down-conversion compared with the requirements of ECMA 387 standard (i) ECMA387 requirements for transmitter and receiver Data Rate (Mbps) 397 794 1588 Maximum emitted power 10 10 10 (dBm) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) -60. 2.7 (dBm) EVM (%) 8.0 -57.6 14.3 -30. B. It also shows that RF modulation will bring interference to the baseband photocurrent iBB. From iBB in (6). it is obvious that there is no impact from the baseband modulation to the mmW signal.Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE MWP Eout = = ª § V + VIF ( t ) · § VDC − VBB ( t ) · º 1 E2 ( t ) « exp ¨ jπ DC ¸ + exp ¨ − jπ ¸» V Vπ 2 « » π © ¹ © ¹¼ ¬ § VIF ( t ) · · ¨ jπ ¸ ¸ exp ¨ Vπ ¸ ¹ © ¹ III.1 -37. up-converted baseband at 2fLO1 and mmW). The desired component at mmW frequency can be effectively selected using a wave-guide 60 GHz band antenna in practice.4 23. 1).5 Maximum allowed EVM (%) 33.7 11. the sensitivity of the receiver.0 -50.7 (dBm) Received Power at 58.7 14. inset: BPSK constellation diagram Tab. are reported in Tab. -20 -30 § V 1 E2 exp ( j 2π ( fOP + f LO1 ) t ) exp ¨ jπ DC Vπ 2 © (3) § V · 1 + E2 exp ( j 2π ( fOP + f LO1 ) t ) exp ¨ − jπ DC ¸ exp ( jπ VBB ( t ) ) Vπ ¹ 2 © where VDC is the DC voltage applied to the MZM #2. which agrees with the theoretical conclusions drawn in section II. it will degrade the power or signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the baseband signal. the MZM has to be biased in linear regime (VDC=0. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS A. the photodetected mmW can be recovered to BPSK. In BS. including the mixer and DSO. the photocurrent at the mmW receiver iPD1 is issued from the beating of Eout(t) and E4(t) and can be written as : § V (t ) · V iPD1 = iDC + E2 E4 cos ¨ 4π f LO1t + π DC + π IF ¸ + Vπ Vπ ¹ © VBB ( t ) · 1 2 V ( t ) − VBB ( t ) · § § VDC VDC E2 E4 cos ¨ 4π f LO1t − π +π + π IF ¸ + E2 cos ¨ 2π ¸ V V V Vπ 2 π π π © ¹ © ¹ Contellation Diagram Power [dBm] -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 0 1 2 3 4 (4) Since a PD with the bandwidth of 70 GHz is applied for the mmW detection.3 -37. it can also support different modulation formats compliant with ECMA 387 or IEEE 815. since the mmW signal is actually generated from a single beating between a phase modulated optical wave from MZM #2 and a pure CW optical spectral line in channel #4 (Fig. the output of mmW receiver in BS consists all the modulation products (baseband.3c requirements.6 10.2 (ii) Broadband mmW with baseband signal Data Rate (Mbps) 397 794 1588 Power after down-conversion -37. Finally the desired mmW and baseband signal from mmW receiver and baseband receiver can be derived as: § +∞ · ¨ ¦ bk ΠTIF ( t − kTIF ) ¸ § V · ¸ sin ¨ 2π ( f LO1 + f IF ) t + π DC ¸ immW = − E2 E4 J1 ¨ π k =0 Vπ Vπ ¹ ¨ ¸ © ¨ ¸ © ¹ § V −V ( t ) · § bk · 1 iBB = E22 cos ¨ 2π DC + π BB ¸ ¸ J0 ¨π 2 Vπ Vπ ¹ © Vπ ¹ © (6) From immW in (6). I (i) and (ii)).1 -30. EVM values are in the limit of the ECMA 387 standard to insure error free transmission [2] except for the 1588 Mbps data rate. can be evaluated to -23 dBm. Despite on the constant amplitude for BPSK RF signal (|bk|=constant). Vʌ is the half wave voltage of MZM #2.75 Vʌ) in order to obtain the maximum output of baseband signal. which can be seen in (4).6 (5) The PD of baseband receiver is of 7 GHz bandwidth. which is not low enough compared to the ECMA 387 standard. Furthermore. As a consequence.1 -37.7 dBm. since the first order Bessel function of the first kind J1(x) is a linear function.6 10.7 (dBm) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) -23 -23 -23 EVM (%) 8. which is far below the authorized maximum power of 10 dBm [8] and even much lower than the sensitivity 151 .7 (dBm) Received Power at 58. EVM of the broadband mmW with and without baseband modulation.1 -30. I (ii) and (iii). therefore there are no other undesired modulation products except for the DC component iDC. The power of the photonic generated 1588 Mbps signal is around -30. Comparing Tab. Broadband mmW Measurements The electrical spectrum and constellation diagram for 1588 Mbps data rate signal are shown in Fig.3 -37.6 (iii) Broadband mmW without baseband signal Data Rate (Mbps) 397 794 1588 Power after down-conversion -37. The photocurrent at the baseband receiver iPD2 is: iPD 2 = iDC § V V ( t ) − VBB ( t ) · 1 + E22 cos ¨ 2π DC + π IF ¸ 2 Vπ Vπ © ¹ Frequency [GHz] Fig 2 Measurement results of photonic generated 1588Mbps mmW after electrical down-conversion. which depends on the amplitude of the RF signal |bk|.

T. A. Y. Vegas Olmos. [3] IEEE Std 802. Hyun-Seung. J. A. [8] Z. G. Le Guennec. pp. Cabon and J. therefore the amplitude of the signal |bk| is B=1 V. K. Prince. Su-Khiong Yong. "60 GHz Technology for Gbps WLAN and WPAN: From Theory to Practice. Monroy. G. which amounts to 1 dB in power. [4] K. a. However. T. D. 2213-2218. c1-187. pp. Maury. J. log10(BER) 152 .3c-2009 (Amendment to IEEE Std 802. and I. Zibar. Gibbon. Kuri. Therefore. 1691-1693. B. 28. "Simultaneous Generation of Independent Wired and Wireless Services Using a Single Modulator in Millimeter-Wave-Band Radio-Over-Fiber Systems. B. V. It has been shown that for constant envelope RF modulation such as BPSK. Chowdhury. for the same BER value. "Reconfigurable Radio-Over-Fiber Networks: Multiple-Access Functionality Directly Over the Optical Layer. T.15.6% has been generated by photonic up-conversion without any interference from the baseband signal modulation and any impact of chromatic dispersion after 25 km long fiber transmission. Journal of. B. Caballero. owing to the impact of the RF modulation induced by MZM #2 (Fig. S. 4 shows the measured BERs as a function of the received optical power for the single baseband modulation and two-band modulation. 1) could improve again the quality of the broadband mmW. Ellinas. vol. vol.ecma-international. Yao. Fig. 19. the baseband signal with low BER (<10-9) has been transmitted over 25 km long SMF by our system. During the experiment. IV. pp. and I. [7] J. 3 Eye diagrams of the baseband signal with single band and two-band modulation configurations -3 -4 -5 Single Baseband Modulation Two-band modulation -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 Recieved Optical Power [dBm] Fig. Ltd. Jia." Microwave Theory and Techniques. T. vol. Tien-Thang. Sang-Kook. Monroy. 58. Baseband Signal Measurements In the proposed multi-band RoF system. Jensen. Kitayama. Furthermore. and H. We expect an additional DEMUX as DEMUX #2 to realize the multiuser system as we proposed in section II. X.32 GHz is applied to the MZM #2 (Fig. pp. This agrees with the result of eye diagrams and BERs. N. 2010. pp. The baseband signal will lose 10% amplitude.” International Symposium on Microwave Photonics. only one DEMUX (DEMUX #1) is available due to the limitation of our experimental condition. the degradation of baseband signal induced by the RF modulation is limited to be lower than 1 dB electrical power. 2011. A. Comparing Fig. 3 (a) and (b). Yu. Oct.83V to iBB (6). IEEE Transactions on.htm. 3 (a) and (b) show the eye diagrams of 1 Gbps baseband signal with or without 1 Gbps RF signal modulation respectively.15. 3. [5] P. vol. This technique is compatible with WDM-RoF scheme to feed multiple BSs. Chang. IEEE. A. 10 dBm BPSK signal at 8." Lightwave Technology. 1588 Mbps BPSK signal at 60GHz band with the EVM as low as 14. The digital signal modulations for mmW and baseband signal are implemented by using a single dual-electrode MZM. and K." John Wiley & Sons. 2009. Yong-Hwan. DEMUX #2 in the RAN is employed to separate different spectral lines to different receivers (Fig. 2007. "Full Colorless WDM-Radio Over Fiber Access Network Supporting Simultaneous Transmission of Millimeter-Wave Band and Baseband Gigabit Signals by Sideband Routing." Ieee Photonics Technology Letters. vol. Guerrero. Osadchiy. pp." Photonics Journal. 1274-1276.Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE MWP of the receiver. [1] Y. Baseband signal with the BER lower than 10-9 has been transmitted simultaneously. Yu. Sep 2009. the interference from RF signal modulation to the baseband signal has been quantified by theoretical approach and experiment. 2011. L. [9] P. J. it is possible to calculate the power degradation on iBB induced by the RF modulation. 4 BER measurement as a function of received optical power for single band and two-band modulation configurations. 4. B. 1). Dittmann. T. From Fig. 1).3-2003). “Up-Conversion of IQ Modulated Subcarriers with Dispersive Fiber for 60 GHz Radio-Over-Fiber Networks. B. which amounts to 1 dB electrical power as well. 1). Considering B=1 and Vʌ=4.5 dB. 13-19. [2] http://www. is around 0.2006. Gibbon. V. B. channel #4 of DEMUX #1 is cut-off during the baseband signal detection in the experiment. which amounts to 1 dB loss in electrical power. and G. considering a high MZM input RF modulation power of 10 dBm. it can be seen that the baseband signal loses 11% of amplitude. "A WDM-PON-Compatible System for Simultaneous Distribution of Gigabit Baseband and Wireless Ultrawideband Services With Flexible Bandwidth Allocation. 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