INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS: CHAPTER 1

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INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS: CHAPTER 1

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When data are collected in a statistical study for only a portion or subset of all elements of interest we are using: a sample a parameter a population both b and c In statistics, a population consists of: all people living in a country all people living in the area under study all subjects or objects whose characteristics are being studied none of the above In statistics, a sample means: a portion of the sample a portion of the population all items under investigation none of the above In descriptive statistics, we study: the description of decision making process the methods for organizing, displaying, and describing data how to describe the probability distribution none of the above In inferential statistics, we study: the methods to make decisions about population based on sample results how to make decisions about mean, median, or mode how a sample is obtained from a population none of the above You asked five of your classmates about their height. On the basis of this information, you stated that the average height of all students in your university or college is 67 inches. This is an example of: descriptive statistics inferential statistics parameter population In statistics, conducting a survey means: collecting information from elements making mathematical calculations drawing graphs and pictures none of the above

In statistics, conducting a census means: making decisions based on sample information checking if a variable is qualitative or quantitative collecting information from all members of the population none of the above In statistics, a representative sample is the sample that: contains the characteristics of the population as closely as possible represents the results of a sample exactly contains all people living in an area none of the above A simple random sample is a sample drawn in such a way that: each member of the population has some chance for being included in the sample every tenth element of an arranged population is included each member of the population has equal chance for being included in the sample each member of the population has .10 chance for being included in the sample A data set is a: set of decisions made about the population set of graphs and pictures collection of observations on a variable none of the above A variable is a: result that varies from sample to sample characteristic under study that assumes different values for different elements sample drawn from a population in such a way that all its elements are different none of the above An observation is the: graph observed for a data set value of a variable for a single element table prepared for a data set sample observed from the population A quantitative variable is the one that can: assume numerical values be graphed be used to prepare tables none of the above A discrete variable is a variable that can assume: categorical values only countable values only uncountable values

non-numerical values A continuous variable is a variable that can assume: categorical values only countable values only uncountable values non-numerical values A qualitative variable is the one that: can assume numerical values cannot be graphed can assume uncountable values cannot be measured numerically Time-series data are collected: on the same element for the same variable for different periods of time on a variable that involves time, e.g., minutes, hours, weeks, months, etc. for a qualitative variable on different elements for the same period of time Cross-section data are collected: on the same element for the same variable for different periods of time on different elements for the same period of time for a qualitative variable none of the above

Test scores of a student for four different exams are 45, 69, 33, and 78. 20. a. b. c. d. 21. a. b. c. d. 22. a. b. c. d. The value of x is: 245 225 276 280 The value of x2 is: 50,625 12,768 9,870 13,959 The value of (x)2 is: 13,959 50,625 25,930 12,768

23. a. b. c. d.

Test scores of five students for final exam are 87, 66, 98, 74, and 83. 24. a. b. c. d. 25. a. b. c. d. 26. a. b. c. d. 27. a. b. c. d. The value of x is: 417 387 398 408 The value of x2 is: 166,464 143,986 33,894 49,829 The value of (x)2 is: 166,464 33,894 187,683 45,980 The value of (x 10) is: 408 395 358 429

Consider the following five pairs of m and values: m 6 9 7 12 7 28. a. b. The value of m is: 68 41 4 2 5 1 6 3

37 46 The value of m is: 163 157 153 181 The value of m2 is: 289 432 671 359 The value of 2 is: 73 65 75 82 The value of m2 is: 751 153 1,537 834 The value of m2 is: 751 153 1,537 834 The value of (m 3)2 is: 646 1,290 748 1,095 Which one of the following is an example of qualitative data? total quarterly revenue average graduation rate for athletes number of visitors to theme parks last year For U. S. universities, it is recorded whether their enrollment increased from last year to this year or not.

Which one of the following is an example of cross-section data? daily checking account balance last year total insect population among 12 U.S. national parks in 2000 consumption (in pounds) of pork products in the U.S. from 1980 to 2000 total value of U.S. Savings Bonds each year from 1991 to 2000 Which of the following is not the goal of descriptive statistics? Summarizing data Displaying aspects of the collected data Reporting numerical findings Estimating characteristics of the population Which one of the following is a continuous variable? types of boats owned by the U.S. Coast Guard lengths of top-ten hit songs number of candles lit during the Christmas season the outcome of a single coin flip A statistician wants to determine the total annual medical costs incurred by all U.S. states from 1981 to 2001 as a result of health problems related to smoking. She polls each of the fifty states annually to obtain health care expenditures, in dollars, on smoking-related illnesses. Which one of the following is not a true statement? The population is all U.S. states. The sample is the same as the population. The data collected are qualitative data. Each state can be considered an element of the study. A summary measure that is computed from a sample to describe a characteristic of the population is called a parameter a statistic a population both a and c since they are the same A scientist is conducting an experiment to determine the relationship between consumption of a certain type of food and high-blood pressure. He conducts a random sample on 2,000 people and first asks them a "yes" or "no" question: Do you eat this type of food more than once a week? He also takes the blood pressure of each person and records it (example: 120/80). Which one of the following statements is true? The blood-pressure data is quantitative data. The data regarding whether each person eats the food regularly is quantitative data. The population is all U.S. males. The data collected is time-series data.

a. b. c. d. 40. a. b. c. d. 41.

a. b. c. d.

42.

a. b. c. d. 43. a. b. c. d. 44. a. b. c. d.

As part of a study on worker productivity, three employees (John, Mary, and Chris) are asked at the end of a particular work week to estimate how long, in minutes, their morning coffee breaks were on each day of that week. Which one of the following lists describes the elements, or members, of the sample? Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday 14.5 minutes 15 minutes, 12 minutes, 11 minutes, 14 minutes, 16 minutes John, Mary, Chris An experiment is conducted at an automotive plant to determine the effect of production demands on stress levels. Which one of the following describes the drawing of a random sample of all paid employees of the plant? Names are selected at random from the payroll for the sample. The first 20 employees who enter the building after 8:00 a.m. are selected for the sample. All machine operators are chosen for the sample. The names of all employees with more than 6 months' experience at their present job are put into a hat, and 20 names are drawn at random from the hat for the sample. A summary measure that is computed from a population is called a parameter a statistic a population both a and c since they are the same

Answer Key 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. a c b b a b a c a c c b b a b c d a b b d b a d c a c b b d c c a c d b d b c b a d a a

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