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Explain the term adsorbed water? Ans:- The layer of water which surrounding the clay crystal are called adsorbed water. Discuss factors affecting compaction in the field? Ans:- Factor affecting compaction are the following: i) Compaction effort ii) Water content iii) Method of compaction iv) Type of soil Explain Stoke s Law? Ans Stokes law: - The constant terminal velocity of spherical particle settling through an infinitely large medium is given as : V = (Ys Yl)xD2/ 18 Ys = unit weight of settling solids Yl = unit weight of liquid suspension D =Diameter of settling solids = Dynamic coefficient of velocity

Explain Earth pressure at rest? Ans When the retaining wall is rigid and unyielding, the soil is in the state of rest and there are no deformations and displacements the earth pressure corresponding to this state is called earth pressure at rest. Explain the concept of OMC? Ans The water content corresponding to the maximum dry unit weight is called optimum moisture content(OMC).When soil is compacted at certain moisture content bulk density is found and at that moisture content dry density is computed as OMC. Q.8. What are the limitations of Direct Shear test? Ans Limitations 1.The plane of failure is predetermined which may not be the weakest plane. 2.The stress conditions are known only at failure hence it is difficult to plot the Mohrs circle. 3.The distribution of the stress on failure plane is not uniform. 4.There is no mechanism to measure pore pressure. 5.There is no control over drainage conditions. 6.The test is suitable for sands under drained conditions.

Differentiate between Consolidation and compaction? Ans Difference between compaction and consolidation:Compaction 1. It is almost an instantaneous phenomenon 2. Soil is always unsaturated Consolidation 1. It is a time depend phenomenon 2. Soil is completely saturated

(3). Densification is due to a reduction 3. Volume reduction is due to in the volume of air at given water expulsion of pore water from voids content

(4). Specified compaction technique are used in this process

4. Consolidation occurs on account of a load placed on the soil.

Write name of tests used for determination of in-situ unit weight? Ans The following tests are used to determine in-situ unit weight a) Core cutter method b) Sand Replacement method c) Water Displacement method.

What are soil aggregate properties? Ans-Soil aggregate properties are those properties which are depends on the soil mass as a whole and, thus, represent the collection behavior of a soil . Soil aggregate properties are influenced by soil stress history, mode of soil formation and the soil structure. Soil aggregate properties are of greater significance in engineering practice, Since engineering structure are founded on undisturbed, natural soil deposit. Distinguish between normally consolidated and overconsolidated soil? Ans-Normally Consolidated Soil:A soil is said to be normally consolidated when the existing effective stress is the maximum that it has ever experienced in its stress history. Over Consolidated Soil:A soil is said to be over consolidated , if the existing effective stress is less than the pre consolidation stress.
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What is passive earth pressure? Ans- In retaining wall if the wall pushed towards the backfill the resultant pressure is passive earth pressure. Define plastic limit? Ans- Plastic limit: - In Plastic Limit consistency change from semi solid stage to plastic stage. If soil is rolled into threads of 3mm dia than at plastic limit crack just start to appear. Give any two assumptions of wedge theory? Ans Assumptions:1. Coulomb considered equilibrium of entire wedge. 2. The backfill is dry, homogeneous, cohesionless and isotropic. 3. The backfill of wall assumed rough. What is Flow index ? Ans The slope of curve between water content & no. of blows is called flow index. 1 2 Flow Index N2 log N1 What is Base Exchange Capacity? Ans- Base (cation) Exchange capacity:- The ability of clay particle to adsorb ions on its surface or edge is called its base or cation

exchange capacity which is foundation of the mineral structure of the clay and the size of the particle . What is relative compaction? Ans- Relative compaction is defined as the ratio of the field dry unit weight , yd(field) to the laboratory maximum dry unit weight, y(dmax) as per specified standard test, namely Indian standard light or heavy compaction test. Relative compaction=Yd(field)/ Yd(max) What is compaction of soil? Ans- Compaction of soil :- Compaction is an instantaneous process in partially saturated soils by which density is increased by increasing external pressure. What is relative density? Ans- Relative density : (Id) Relative is also called degree of density or density index. It on index which quantifies the degree of packing b/w the loosest and densest possible state of coarse grain soil it is determine experimentally % ID emax = maximum void ratio enat= natural void ratio emin= minimum void ratio emax enat emax emin

a) b) c) d) e) f)

Name Methods to determine the water content? oven drying method pycnometer method calcium carbide method sand bath method alcohol method torsion balance method

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Q: - The atterberg limit of a clays soil are liquid limit 63%, plastic limit 40%, and shrinkage limit 27% & natural moisture content is 50%, determine shrinkage index, plasticity index, consistency index , liquidity index. Shrinkage index = Is = Wp Ws = 40 -27

= 13 Plasticity index Ip= Wl Wp = 63 40 = 23% Consistency index Ic = Wl Wn / Wl Wp = 63 50 / 63 40 = 0.56 Liquid index IL = Wn Wp / Wl Wp = 50 40 / 63 40 = 0.434

Q: - The depth of water in a lake is 3m the properties of soil below the bed strata are given in the table below . Determine total stress, neutral stress and effective stress. Depth of from bed take (m) Type of soil Void ratio (e) 0.9 0.75 0.60 G 2.70 2.64 2.70

0.4 m (1-1 layer) Clay 4-9 m(3-3 layer) Sand 9-15 m (4-4 layer) Clay

AnsYd (1) (1) Yw = . x 9.81 = 13.94 kn/m3 Y sat (2) (2) = Yw = Ysat (3) (3) =
. . . .

x 9.81 = 18.58 kn/ m3 x9.81 = 19kn/ m3

Yw =

.. . . .. .

Y sat (4) (4) = Yw = =total stress U= pore pressure bar =effective stress

x 9.81 = 20.2 kn/m3

Effective stress = Total stress - pore pressure At (1) (1) = Yd x H1 = 13.94 x 3 = 41.82 kn/m2 U=0 Effective stress bar = 41.82 0 = 41.82kn/m2 At (2) (2) = Yd x H1 + Ysat x 1= 13.94x3+18.58x1= 60

U = 9.81 x 1 = 9.81 bar = 60 9.81 = 50.59kn/m2 At = (3) (3) = Yd x H1 + Y sat x 1 + Y sat x H2 =13.94x3+18.58x1+19x5 = 41.82 + 18.58 + 95 = 155.4kn/m2 U = 9.81 x 1 + 98.1 x 5 = 58.86 bar = 155.4 58.86 = 96.54kn/m2 At = (4) (4) = 41.82 + 18.58 + 95 + 20.2 x 6 = 276.6kn/m2 U = 58.86 + (9.81 x 6) = 117.72

bar (effective stress) = 276.6-117.72kn/m2


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