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Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 39 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D.

University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

Telecommunication . A compound of the Greek prefix tele- (-), meaning 'far off', and the Latin communicare, meaning 'to share'.

douard Estauni gnals over a distance for the purpose of communication. History of Telecommunication smoke signals and drums. Drums were used by natives in Africa, New Guinea and South America whereas smoke signals were used by natives in North America and China. include Alexander Graham Bell, Guglielmo Marconi and John Logie Baird.

such as the telephone, television, radio or computer. Basic Elements of Telecommunication System

l and converts it back into usable information.


TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE telephone is a telecommunications device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly speech), usually two people conversing but occasionally three or more. Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 40 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

It is one of the most common household appliances in the world today. Most telephones operate through transmission of electric signals over a complex telephone network which allows almost any phone user to communicate with almost anyone. Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke constructed the first electromagnetic telegraph in 1839. Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray invented the conventional telephone in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849. Samuel Morse invented the Morse telegraph. RADIO AND TELEVISION The pre-history and early history of radio is the history of technology that produced instruments that use radio waves. Later in the timeline of radio, the history is dominated by programming and contents, which is closer to general history. Various scientists proposed that electricity and magnetism, both capable of causing attraction and repulsion of objects, were linked. Guglielmo Marcon established wireless communication between Canada and England earning him the 1909 Nobel Prize for Physics John Logie Baird demonstrated the transmission of moving pictures at the London department store Selfridges. Baird's device relied upon the Nipkow disk and thus became known as the mechanical television. The History of television technology can be divided along two lines: those developments that depended upon both mechanical and electronic principles, and those which are purely electronic. From the latter descended all modern televisions, but these would not have been possible without discoveries and insights from the mechanical systems. Television (often abbreviated to TV) is a widely used telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. The term may also be used to refer specifically to a television set, programming or television transmission. The word is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots, meaning "far sight": Greek tele (), far, and Latin vision, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person). Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 41 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

Radio is the transmission of signals, by modulation electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, was the first to develop workable radio communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. The word 'radio' is used to describe this phenomenon, and radio transmissions are classed as radio frequency emissions. COMPUTER NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET Computer, any programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. The basic idea of computing develops in the 1200's when a Moslem cleric proposes solving problems with a series of written procedures George Stibitz was able to transmit problems using teletype to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and receive the computed results back at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. -node network emerged on December 5, 1969 between the University of California, Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of Utah and the University of California, Santa Barbara. This network would become ARPANET, which by 1981 would consist of 213 nodes. In June 1973, the first non-US node was added to the network belonging to Norway's NORSAR project. This was shortly followed by a node in London. TIMELINE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS Text editing and storage

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Distance communication ptical signals (or optical telegraph) - fires (beacons), smoke signals

signals

r hardware

BASIC TELECOMMUNICATION CONCEPTS E-mail E -mail, short for electronic mail and often abbreviated to e-mail, email or simply mail, is a store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. The term "e-mail" (as a noun or verb) applies both to the Internet e-mail system based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and to X.400 systems, and to intranet systems allowing users within one organization to e-mail each other. Often these workgroup collaboration organizations may use the Internet protocols or X.400 protocols for internal e-mail service. E-mail is often used to deliver bulk unsolicited messages, or "spam", but filter programs exist which can automatically delete some or most of these, depending on the situation. Instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. The text is conveyed via computers connected over a network such as the Internet. Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 43 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

Sample Task Sheet utilizing video/television clips Read and analyze the tasks outline below; Topic: Hosting Objectives: The students should be able to: 1. Analyze video clips and synthesize the flow of the program; 2. Convene output with group members; 3. Apply the learned concept of hosting; Target Skill/s: Oral proficiency Tactfulness Speech and Oral Diction Video Clips: Unang Hirit segment with Lyn Ching and PAW representative Mareng Winnie Monsod with the former President Korina Sanchez with Janelle Manahan Willie R in Willieng Willie Tasks: a. Be able to review what you have learned about hosting/being toast master; b. You shall be watching video clips from selected shows and take note of your observations; c. Be able to answer the following questions; 1. Did the host observe the etiquette in asking questions? 2. Which language did the author use? Is it appropriate to the audience? 3. Did he/she hold the attention of the audience? How? 4. Were the questions properly sequenced? Or was there a part that the same questions were asked repeatedly? 5. Was the host spontaneous? Or she was always dependent on her cue card? 6. Did she wait for others to complete the other person/s part? 7. Was there a part that the host interrupted? How often? What do you think is the effect? 8. How did the host start and end the interview? d. With your answers, proceed to your assigned group for consensus of your responses; Write the answer on the manila paper; e. Prepare for a 3 minute group presentation; decide who shall be the guests, host, panel and the like; g. Do the group sharing on video clips for 15 minutes, 2-minute presentation of the reporter and 4 minute-group presentation for each group h. Be able to apply the guidelines in hosting; Choose any of the following: Kris with Diego Castro Money Manny Prizes Miriam Quiambao on Transgender Jena Talackova I. Make sure to prepare your questions or spills. Output: Hosting Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 44 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

A Warm Welcome from a Paradise Island Objectives: At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: a. Identify potential tourist spots in the local area; b. Recognize the benefits of progressive tourism in the economy; c. Generate ideas on how to encourage more prospective tourists; d. Construct a four-page brochure featuring the local tourist spots; e. Appreciate the tourists spots of the country. Language Focus: Adjectives, Subject-verb agreement, Target Skills: Recognizing the facts, Writing and Speaking skills, Summarizing, classifying Video Clip: News Clip: DoT targets 15% Hike in Tourist ArrivalsInterview with Usec. Ace Verano Comprehension Guide Questions: 1. What are the mentioned famous destinations in the country? 2. Name other places that you think have the potential to be tourist destination? 3. Do you think it is worth to pursue the 28 tourism projects amounting to P36.3 billion? 4. What advantages does Tourism growth bring to the country? 5. Do you think there are also disadvantages? If there is, what should the DOT do as precautionary measure to some threatening outcome? 6. Which do you think most likely makes the tourists stay in our country? Why? Context: You would like people to recognize your own local province. As one of the citizens advocating to promote the potential tourist spots you are inviting all local based Tour Operators and Travel Agencies to include your province in their list of tourist destinations by providing brochure that will encourage more tourist traffic to the country. Work Guide: 1. Work alone in this activity; 2. Think of the potential destinations that the province can vouch to local and foreign tourists; 3. Determine the features of the places; where visitors can conveniently access on transportation, food, shopping and accommodation, how to get to the place/s, the background and the like; 4. Compose all the descriptions and details about the featured places; 5. Make sure that appropriate descriptive words are used. 6. Decide on how you will present the illustrations captured through amatured camera etc. 7. Layout the texts and illustrations; 8. Present the dummy for the teachers correction; 9. Digitally layout the final output and submit on the assigned date. Output: Brochure Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 45 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

Task Sheet 1: Read and follow the instructions below: 1. Think of a topic related in your field and a television program or a movie that may possibly be used as a resource material; 2. Identify your output related to your topic; 3. Formulate the objectives and identify the target skills of the activity; 4. Sequence the tasks you expect the students to do; 5. Do not forget the time allotment for the activities; 6. Set guide questions for students to answer after watching the clip. 7. If possible provide advanced organizers to enhance comprehension as part of the task sheet.

Thematic Graphic Organizers


A graphic organizer is a visual and graphic display that depicts the relationships between facts, terms, and or ideas within a learning task. Graphic organizers are also sometimes referred to as knowledge maps, concept maps, story maps, cognitive organizers, advance organizers, or concept diagrams. Sample Graphic Organizers Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 46 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 47 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 48 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 49 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

Idea Frame It is a technique that sometimes serves as a companion piece to ideas together; for literature, whereby an introductory or main narrative is presented, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories. Task 4: 1. Design sets of idea frames which can also be used in any topic/s in your chosen field ( generic). 2. Make sure that provisions for transitional devices as well as provisions for possible answers are included; 3. Organize the figures and text on long bond paper/s ; 4. Printing could be by hand or by digital means; A Descriptive or Thematic Map works well for mapping generic information, but particularly well for mapping hierarchical relationships. Organizing a hierarchical set of information, reflecting superordinate or subordinate elements, is made easier by constructing a Network Tree. When the information relating to a main idea or theme does not fit into a hierarchy, a Spider Map can help with organization. When information contains cause and effect problems and solutions, a Problem and Solution Map can be useful for organizing. A Problem-Solution Outline helps students to compare different solutions to a problem. A Sequential Episodic Map is useful for mapping cause and effect. When cause-effect relationships are complex and non-redundant a Fishbone Map may be particularly useful. A Comparative and Contrastive Map can help students to compare and contrast two concepts according to their features. Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 50 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

Another way to compare concepts' attributes is to construct a Compare-Contrast Matrix. Continuum Scale is effective for organizing information along a dimension such as less to more, low to high, and few to many. A Series of Events Chain can help students organize information according to various steps or stages. A Cycle Map is useful for organizing information that is circular or cyclical, with no absolute beginning or ending. A Human Interaction Outline is effective for organizing events in terms of a chain of action and reaction (especially useful in social sciences and humanities). Reason out! What is the difference between advance organizers and post organizers? When would learning be effective, when graphic organizers are introduced before or after the learning task? What advantages would graphic organizers bring to teachers? What skills could students develop if teachers let them use organizers? Task 5: What appropriate graphic organizer could be used for the following topics: a. Human Nutrition Article b. Friends c. Biag ni Lam-ang d. Death March e. History of Dance .Task 6: 1. Design sets of idea frames which can also be used in any topic/s in your chosen field ( generic). 2. Make sure that provisions for transitional devices as well as provisions for possible answers are included; 3. Organize the figures and text on long bond paper/s ; 4. Printing could be by hand or by digital means to be included in the compilation. Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 51 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

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In the Absence of Instructional Media Teachers are expected to be inventive and practical when selecting, developing and utilizing materials to aid instruction. They must also draw these resources from the context that is most familiar and significant to their learners to ensure meaningfulness. A rather ideal way to satisfy the expectations is for the teachers to consider indigenous instructional materials. These materials should be anything that is easily available in the vicinity. These indigenized materials then likewise encourage the following values: Practicability Flexibility Resourcefulness and creativity Environment friendliness Functionality versatility Sample Indigenized materials Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 52 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 53 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 54 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 55 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 56 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 57 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 58 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 59 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

Task 7: 1. Group your selves into 4; 2. Have a consensus with the members; 3. Think of the available materials in your place that are potential as Instructional aids; 4. Decide on the designs considering the functionality in delivering the lesson; 5. Be creative in transforming these raw materials into a useful instructional aid; 6. Prepare the procedure in a sequential manner; 7. Transfer the whole output in a manila paper; 8. Be ready to present the output, use the format below. Name : Uses: Materials Needed: Illustration: Procedure: How to use: Conceptualized by: Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 60 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

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Considerations in Preparing Printed Instructional Materials The Learning Objectives based on the syllabus/lesson content, planned activities, language skills to be developed and cultural exposure. Instructional Element Once you have a general plan in mind, you can begin developing and gathering the materials for your instruction. Instructional and assessment activities should draw upon the following elements, depending upon the goals and objectives of the course:

uce language and have our students learn it

Competencies abilities and skills Skills specific activities or tasks that a student can proficiently do Competencies cluster of skills Abilities made up of related competencies categorized as: a. Cognitive b. Affective c. Psychomotor Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 61 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

When developing the content you should assess what are likely to be developed by using the instructional materials that you have created or selected. The material should be designed to develop these skills, depending upon the goals and objectives: Examples: listening skills person-to-person communication giving and receiving feedback leadership teamwork and cooperation conflict resolution vocabulary skills comprehension skills reasoning analyzing Digital Teaching and Learning Instructional Material for ED TECH 2 Page 62 JULIETA ST FULGADO, Ph. D. University of Rizal System, Province of Rizal

Strategies for Selecting Media Characteristics of Good Materials arouse the learners interest remind them of earlier learning tell them what they will be learning next explain new learning content to them relate these ideas to learners previous learning get learners to think about new content help them get feedback on their learning encourage them to practice make sure they know what they are supposed to be doing enable them to check their progress help them to do better When developing instructional materials alternative media forms are considered. The chart below shows some strategies that will assist in making the right choice for the teachers needs. Type Simulations Benefits Considerations Examples

Training Games

Role Playing

permits can be expensive Simulated bank independence in feedback important Transaction learning process to success contextualizes content can provide multiple perspectives develops critical thinking skills highly motivational may require Chinese Whisper encourages extensive teamwork uses preparation flexibility problem solving important skills develops communication skills introduces real world difficult with large groups situations promotes can require extensive understanding of other guidance to be effective positions