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like a "airytale come true. In #eptem$er 200% I met a Turkis !ance stu!ent at one o" our &itc es ca"es. One t in' lea! to anot er an! at (ule I met a 'irl"rien! o" is w o li)es in Istan$ul. &e c atte! an! en!e! up a)in' t is won!er"ul i!ea o" settin' up PFI Turkey. *any ours o" Instant *essa'in' an! emailin' ensue! $ut $y Fe$ruary we a! a we$site in Turkis + www.tr.pa'an"e!eration.or' ,urin' our con)ersation I a! e-presse! an interest in )isitin' Turkey an! .t eneris /ust appene! to mention some "esti)als+ w ic are still cele$rate! in Turkey t at are not particularly Islamic. 0ow I s oul! mention imme!iately t at Turkey is secular an! t ere is complete separation $etween state an! reli'ion. .t least t is is t eir )ision an! in many respects Turkey is "ar more secular t an most western so-calle! !emocracies+ $ut t at is anot er story1 2ut to ear o" pa'an "esti)als still $ein' cele$rate! was new to me an! o" course I wante! to ear more. .t eneris mentione! one )ery small )illa'e "esti)al $ein' el! near to t e site o" t e Temple o" Hekate+ 3a'ina. 3a'ina is not well known partly $ecause e-ca)ations a)e only $een restarte! recently 4 in 5666. T e "irst e-ca)ations were ma!e in t e later 57008s.
I e-presse! interest an! so s e starte! makin' in9uiries. ."ter many mont s o" meetin's wit local arc aeolo'ists+ t e mayor o" t e )illa'e+ tour 'ui!es an! istorians+ plus $ookin' "li' ts an! arran'in' accommo!ation Flora+ an! I met in 2o!rum+ &estern Turkey. Our "irst "ew !ays were spent in )isitin' t e local attractions in 2o!rum or Halicarnassus :2o!rum;s ancient name<+ inclu!in' t e =astle o" #t. Peter. T is was $uilt on t e ruins o" an ol!er castle+ now known to a)e $een $uilt $y t e ,orians aroun! 5500 2=.
0ot "ar "rom . .pollo. On anot er occasion we a! a pri)ate tour to >uromos w ere we saw t e Temple o" ?eus+ "ollowe! $y a )isit to .i!yma an! t e Temple o" .i!yma is t e ancient city o" *iletos+ w ere we saw a mar)ellous e-ample o" a t eatre.Per aps t e most "amous ancient monument in 2o!rum owe)er is t e *ausoleum+ one o" t e #e)en &on!ers o" t e &orl!. O)erlookin' t e *ausoleum are t e ruins o" an ancient t eatre+ w ic o""ers a mar)ellous )iew o)er 2o!rum an! t e =astle.
One $e'ins to un!erstan! ow important .at >p esus.natolian istory. . >p esus too is anot er one o" t e “#e)en &on!ers o" t e &orl!”… . He also tol! us a$out t e “Hellenisation o" Turkey” an! t e settlement o" Breeks in t is area+ w ic e-plains w y many o" t e $est e-amples o" Breek arc itecture are in "act in mo!ern Turkey.natolia is to >uropean istory 4 it is )erita$le open-air museum ere.&e were later /oine! $y our 'uests "rom t e @A an! ma!e a return /ourney to )isit t e won!er"ul Temple comple. #emi our tour 'ui!e on t is particular occasion tol! us muc a$out Turkis an! . 2ut so "ar we a! )isite! t e more touristy areas.n! I coul! also spen! muc more time writin' a$out t ese won!ers.
&e picke! up our last 'uests 4 t ree pa'an "rien!s "rom t e @# .at 2o!rum . T e Hekatesia "esti)al+ t at as $een takin' place since 2000 is mostly a )i!eo s ow "or t e $ene"it o" t e in a$itants o" nei' $ourin' Tur'ut )illa'e o" w o Hekate was in . T is was un"ortunately spoile! $y a swarm o" press p oto'rap s t at accompanie! t e procession takin' constant p oto'rap s "rom all an'les as it procee!e!.Howe)er t e aim o" t is )isit was a$out to un"ol!.ncient .natolia an! o" t e pro'ress o" t e e-ca)ations+ $ut inclu!e! t is year "or our $ene"it a splen!i! procession $y t e stu!ents o" an Istan$ul !rama sc ool.irport an! /ourneye! to Tur'ut+ )ia *ilas+ nort -east o" 2o!rum. Fre! 3amon! w o a! also /oine! us continues t e storyC “:I was<… /ust in time to /oin t e main party in t e mini$us to Tur'ut Dilla'e on 5E #eptem$er+ wit a )isit to an opencast coal mine on t e way+ w ere many arc aeolo'ical arte"acts are "re9uently "oun!. T e !ay a"ter t e o""icial "esti)al+ on t e e)enin' o" 5F #eptem$er+ our 'roup was allowe! to ol! a pri)ate ceremony in t e temple ruins+ w ic in t e $ri' t moonli' t a! a remarka$le atmosp ere. .
. or .Hekat.sia *inor+ an! was inte'rate! into Breek reli'ion aroun! t e si-t century 2=>.< T e "ro' ea!e! 'o!!ess He9it assiste! wit t e !aily $irt o" t e #un an! was associate! wit t e apparently ma'ical 'ermination o" t e seemin'ly li"eless corn see!. ..s HistoryC GHekate pro$a$ly ori'inate! in t e myt olo'y o" t e Aarians in sout west . It. Ima'es t ere s ow er as a sin'le "i'ure+ seate! on a t rone+ or sometimes wit lions+ o"ten stan!in'+ er )eil in"late! in a crescent-s ape! nim$us a$o)e er ea!. e9.Heket. From .T e place was "ull o" power !espite not a)in' $een use! as a place o" Pa'an wors ip "or 5E00 years. Hesio!..s "at er came "rom t e nei' $ourin' pro)ince+ 3ycia in . # e writes o" t e early HekateC “Inscriptions "rom t e Jr!42n! century 2=> in t e a!/oinin' city+ #tratonikeia+ !escri$e er as KBreatest Bo!!ess8L s e is paire! wit t e local ?eus+ imsel" calle! KBreatest Bo!8L an! like =y$ele in P yr'ia s e was ser)e! in er temple $y sacre! eunuc s. . $y a newly-!ominant priest oo!+ an! so it appears to $e.."ter linkin' in a circle we eac o" us went in!i)i!ually to a!!ress our own personal prayers to Hekate+ an! I "elt a )ery stron' personal contact wit t e Bo!!ess.$ou' t o"". Picture! as a youn' mai!en carryin' one an! sometimes two torc es+ s e is t e one w o li' ts t e way. Howe)er+ t ere is e)i!ence t at Hekate e)ol)e! "rom t e >'yptian mi!wi"e 'o!!ess He9it+ :alternati)ely spelt .” In!ee! t e Aarian Hekate is 9uite !i""erent to t e Hellenic or # akespearian ima'e o" Hekate many o" us are use! to.s interestin' to note t at Hekate is associate! wit c il!$irt .s e emer'es $y t e 5t cent.. &e may suspect t at a 'o!!ess so ric ly onoure! $y t e all-power"ul Olympian ?eus was a local rulin' 'o!!ess w o was $ein' .l$ert Henric sC GHectare was a popular an! u$i9uitous 'o!!ess "rom t e time o" Hasi! until late anti9uity.sia *inor+ w ic a! $een colonise! $y Breek-speakin' peoples as recently as t e nint an! ei' t centuries 2=>+ an! so t e importance o" t e ancestral !eities was no !ou$t )i)i! in t e memory o" is son t e poet. In pre!ynastic >'ypt t e matriarc an! wise woman o" t e tri$e was calle! t e .G From Hekate. Howe)er t e ima'e we saw was 9uite !i""erent.G #ee also t e article “Tria!s an! Trinities 4 T e ori'in o" t e *o!ern Pa'an Bo!!ess” $y Pru!ence Hones+ up!ate! an! pu$lis e! in &iccan Ie!e 3ammas 2005.s a more sinister !i)ine "i'ure associate! wit ma'ic an! witc cra"t+ lunar lore an! creatures o" t e ni' t+ !o' sacri"ices an! illuminate! ca)es+ as well as !oorways an! crossroa!s. T e 5000 pre)ious years o" continuous wors ip must a)e le"t t eir mark+ or else it is a natural power spot an! was c osen "or t at reason as t e location o" a temple to Hekate.
an! 3a!y o" t e &ays+ an! sometimes s own ol!in' a key.< on to t e present. away+ was t e political centre.t t e 3a'ina sanctuary t ere are propylon :monumental 'ateway<+ t e interconnectin' #acre! Ioa!+ an altar :sacri"icial an! !ippin' place<+ peri$olos :wall encirclin' t e sanctuary<+ . .ncient Breek its naturalise! "orm woul! recall hekaton+ one un!re!+ an! t us wit er a$un!ant ric es s e was+ so to speak+ t e 'o!!ess o" millionaires+ in)oke! $y e)eryone "or prosperity an! 'oo! "ortune in all areas o" li"e :Theogony %5E "".ntioc us I #oter w o "oun!e! t e city in onour o" is erstw ile step-mot er an! present wi"e. From t e monumental entrance 'ate to t e altar+ t ere are ten rows o" steps lea!in' to t e stone-pa)e! roa!.natolian 'o!!ess was 3eto8s twin sister.Hekate. . Oracles an! witc es were er priests. T e temple+ encircle! wit "i)e rows o" steps+ locate! on an .s ori'inal name+ Akta+ is =arian+ its meanin' unknown+ $ut to t e a)era'e . .<. . t e prominent reli'ious centre o" =aria !e!icate! to Hecate.s t e 'o!!ess at ome in all worl!s :t e t ree le)els o" ea)en into w ic t e sun an! planets mo)e! t rou' out t eir cycles+ calle! t e T ree &ays in 2a$ylonian astrocosmolo'y<+ s e was 'o!!ess o" t e roa!s+ 'uar!ian o" t e 'ates an! 'uarantor o" sa"e con!uct.=. T e 55 kmM F miles lon' #acre! Ioa!. T is .Protectress.ttic Ionian pe!estal+ wit a sin'le row o" columns wit =orint ian capital+ is at t e centre o" t e sanctuary.” Her Temple at 3a'ina was a t ri)in' centre an! was linke! $y a processional way to Stratoniceia “T e city was name! a"ter #tratonice+ t e wi"e o" #eleucus 0icator w o "orce! t e ol! kin' to !i)orce in or!er to marry is son .urin' reli'ious "esti)als+ a splen!i! ritual procession carrie! t e key o" t e Temple o" Hecate "rom 3a'ina to #tratoniceia.” T e 3a'ina #anctuary+ w ic was a prominent cult centre o" t e =arians is still "amous to!ay an! is also known $y t e name o" 3eyne. # e was calle! . T e monumental entrance $uil!in'+ wit t ree entrances an! an apsis at t e western en! supporte! $y "our Ionian columns+ is connecte! to t e stoa wit a !oor. T e sanctuary is surroun!e! $y walls o" a$out two meters in ei' t+ w ic also "orm t e $ack wall o" t e stoa.oric stoa an! t e Temple o" Hecate. T e Ain's o" #elecuci! !ynasty $y )irtue o" 'reat constructional e""orts+ $uilt t e 3a'ina sanctuary as a reli'ious centre an! t e city o" #tratoniceia+ 55 km. T e most si'ni"icant Hellenistico-Ioman )esti'es are t e >ntrance Bate+ t e Bymnasium+ t e 2ouleuterion locate! at t e centre o" t e city+ t e T eatre. line! wit tom$s an! startin' "rom t e entrance 'ate+ connecte! #tratoniceia+ w ic was t e political centre+ to 3a'ina #anctuary.'e :J000 2. Iecent researc as re)eale! t at t is re'ion was in a$ite! "rom t e .nti9ue 2ronNe . # e rei'ne! o)er t e air+ eart an! sea+ an! s e was present at "unerals to take care o" t e !ea!s8 spirits. T e temple is pseu!o-!ipteral wit 7-55 columns+ an! is $uilt in t e =orint ian style.
met ."ter lea)in' Tur'ut we )isite! t e *useum at *ilas+ a small $ut lo)ely museum opene! in 567F. T ey are t e "irst Turkis scientists to a)e e-ca)ate! a sacre! site. &it a *e!iterranean climate one woul! a)e e-pecte! e)eryt in' to a)e $een $rown an! $urnt $y now 4 in late summer. T e )iew "rom t is “ oney country” was $reat takin'. TOrpan.n! on t e we$site ttpCMMwww. To!ay e-ca)ations are $ein' carrie! out un!er t e !irection o" Pro"essor .'o). @sually it as $een t e 2ritis + Berman+ #we!is w o a)e e-ca)ate! in Turkey … an! taken priNe "in!in's to t e respecti)e museums.r.asp we rea!C On t e remainin' 'ate t ere is an inscription+ w ic mentions . Famous e-amples are t e Bate o" *iletos an! t e Per'amon .. T e temple was $uilt accor!in' to Hellenistic "as ion o" t e time in t e =orint ian style+ t ou' interprete! in a mo!ernist manner $y t e "oun!ers o" #tratonikea+ t e #eleuci!s+ w o especially use! it in t e $uil!in' o" t is temple.r . It is important to t e Turkis people t at t eir own scientists are now in c ar'e an! t at arte"acts are kept in Turkey. T ere are many statues "oun! "or e-ample at #tratonikea+ in t e 1500 m2 'ar!en.u'ustus a)in' restore! it in 2F 2=. . .ltar in 2erlin.rc aeolo'y.urin' recent e-ca)ations t e arc itectural portions o" t e temple were put in an or!erly "as ion+ t e propylon was !u' up an! totally uneart e! an! a so "ar un!e"ine! sacre! structure was !isco)ere!. Tirpan an! is arc aeolo'ical team. &e were )ery "ortunate to meet . 2ut no t e 'reenness o" t e countrysi!e was un$elie)a$le. He as $een at t e 3a'ina site since 5666. .T e inscriptions at 3a'ina an! on t e walls o" t e 2ouleterion at #tratoniceia re)eal t at t ose two cities were connecte! $y a #acre! Ioa! an! !urin' "esti)ities a splen!i! ritual procession carrie! t e key o" t e temple "rom 3a'ina to #tratoniceia .trMenM5%520. . In t e a"ternoon anot er “won!er” was waitin' "or us at 3a$ran!a.mu'la-turiNm. T e "at er o" Turkis museums+ Osman Ham!i 2ey+ carrie! out e-ca)ations at 3a'ina $etween 5765-576J. T e inscriptions "oun! were taken to t e Istan$ul *useums o" . I a)e $een amaNe! at ow 'reen t is area o" Turkey is. T e )i!eo an! presentation e 'a)e on t e Fri!ay e)enin' was interestin' to watc . 2ut t is !oes not pre)ent cultural e-c an'es o" course.'ain /oine! $y a processional way 4 t is time 20 kms "rom *ilas 4 t e clim$ up t e mountain pat must a)e $een strenuous "or t e ancient pil'rims.
or $uil!in' :pro$a$ly a "ountain $uil!in'<+ monumental stairs+ two lar'e "east alls :an!rons<+ s e! $uil!in' :name! as oikoi<+ #toa an! ?eus Temple surroun!e! wit columns must $e constructe! a"ter t is e)ent.I s oul! mention one ot er eye-opener. war took place in t e oly area in %6F an! Aaria army as $een !e"eate! $y t e Persian army wit its alliances. Howe)er it appears t at TH> ancient sym$ol "or Aaria is t e la$rys. 2ecause o" t e $i' "ire !isaster t at took place in %t century 2=+ t e oly area as lost its "eature o" $ein' a cult place. .t t e times o" t e satraps name! *ausolos :JFF . “3a$ran!a+ w ic is t e oly area o" ?eus 3a$raun!os+ is in ancient Aaria :#out western . . In J55+ !urin' t e sacri"ice "esti)al in 3a$ran!a+ *ausolos escape! "rom an assassination towar!s im at t e last moment. 2uil!in's suc as a series o" arti"icial terraces ere+ one or two entrance $uil!in's+ a small . %t century 2= is t e most important perio! o" t e temple.J52 2=< an! I!rieus :J55 . &it t e !eat o" I!rieus in J%%+ suc works a)e $een stoppe!. I a! always t ou' t t at t e sacre! !ou$lea-e+ t e la$rys was a *inoan sym$ol.natolia<+ 5% km nort eastern o" *ylasa city to w ic it is a""iliate!.J%% 2=<+ t is place 'aine! a new appearance. T e most ancient "in!in's $elon' to t e year E00 2=. It was no surprise t en to "in! out t at ?eus o" 3a$ran!a carrie! a !ou$le a-e. . T e area t at as $een use! as oly area in Et an! 5t centuries an! t en as temple terrace consiste! o" a sin'le+ small+ arti"icial terrace.
T e access "rom *ylasa to t e oly area a! $een pro)i!e! )ia t e oly roa! a)in' a wi!t o" 7 m.or $uil!in'G was locate! at /ust east o" t e sout ern propylon $uil!in' wit its irre'ular "ormation close to a rectan'le. . T is small $uil!in' as $een inclu!e! in t e $at comple-. T e current e-ca)ations are $ein' e-ecute! $y P. It is a $uil!in' t at is turne! towar!s nort + as "our columns+ a "ront courtyar!+ a mar$le si!e an! is in .s Ben' is+ our mini$us !ri)er note!+ “ ere t e sacre! water sprin's "orm t e eart .ccess to t e area a! $een pro)i!e! wit one o" t e two entrance $uil!in's :propylon<.” Howe)er t e most interestin' spot "or me was at t e sacre! sprin'+ w ic still e-ists to!ay+ "lowin' un!er a u'e rock t at as spilt !own t e centre.or style. It a$solutely a! t e "unction o" a "ountain $uil!in'. 200 m west o" t e oly $uil!in'+ lies t e sta!ium w ose $ack si!e is rein"orce! wit a retainin' wall.” an! in!ee! t e oney was !elicious.&. T e sacre! $ee !rinks t e sacre! water to make t e sacre! oney.. HellstrPm. It is suppose! t at some competitions a)e $een ma!e ere !urin' t e "east o" 5 !ays ma!e in t e oly area.T e e-ca)ation works ere a)e $een starte! in 56%7 $y . . T e startin' an! en! stones o" t e competitions are still e-istin' at $ot en!s.Persson an! are continuin' wit inter)als since t at time. T e layin' traces on t is roa! can $e seen e)en to!ay. T ese were impressi)e passa'e !oors ma!e o" *ilas mar$le+ a)in' two columns an! Ionian "rontons on eac si!e. T e $uil!in' calle! as G. ..
(oun'er people o" $ot se-es wore >uropean style /eans an! skirts. *any t anks to . O" course t e picture may $e !i""erent in >astern an! #out ->astern .rtemis statue an! $lue an! yellow e)il-eye arm$an! an! ot er sou)enirs o" Aaria + I am sure we will $e $ack.s "ilms o" t e 56J0s !escri$in' li"e in t e #out ern Frenc )illa'es o" t e *i!i.. T e only youn' women wearin' Islamic !ress I saw later in Istan$ul an! was assure! $y t at t ey were ."ter we all sai! our 'oo!$yes on 20 #eptem$er I spent two !ays as a tourist in Istan$ul+ w ere I a! also ne)er $een $e"ore. Tur'ut )illa'e+ w ere we staye!+ 'a)e me a sense o" !Q/R )u alt ou' t is was my "irst )isit to Turkey.natolia+ $ut t en so were #ar!inia an! #icily e9ually !i""erent "rom t e 0ort ern Italian mainlan! 50 years a'o an! still are. . 0o one wante! to lea)e+ nor say 'oo!-$ye to our Turkis "rien!s. Fre! a!!e! in is reportC “Turkis o""icial interest in t eir pa'an past+ an! tolerance "or contemporary neoPa'anism contrasts )ery "a)oura$ly wit attitu!es in France+ w ere Pa'anism like all new reli'ions is )iewe! wit suspicion as a GsectG an! can $e li$elle! wit impunity+ or Breece w ere Ort o!o.= ristianity is re'ar!e! as so muc part o" t e Breek national i!entity t at any alternati)es are implicitly i" not always e-plicitly acti)ely !iscoura'e!. People 'enerally assume t at Turkis secularism is limite! to t e sop isticate! elites o" Istan$ul an! .” It is ope! t at we will repeat t is )isit an! arran'ements are alrea!y $ein' ma!e "or a return )isit in 200E. . *or'ana . (et t e only women wearin' tra!itional Islamic !ress wit a scar" aroun! t e ea! were a "ew ol!er women. . 2ut wit 5E00 in a$itants an! no otel Tur'ut "ul"ille! most o" t e re9uirements o" a $ackwoo!s )illa'e."ter 3a$ran!a we ma!e our way $ack to 2o!rum w ere we spent t e last couple o" !ays “reco)erin'” "rom our pil'rima'e.s claim to $e part o" >uropean culture.n! t en I remem$ere! *arcel Pa'nol.t eneris+ 2oran an! #emi an! all t e PFI !ele'ates w o elpe! in makin' t is a memora$le )isit.ll t is remo)e! any !ou$ts t at I a! a$out Turkey.ra$ tourists. .n! now lookin' at my .nkara+ an! t at t e countrysi!e must $e still stron'ly Islamic.
kulturturiNm.For more in"ormation a$out "uture )isits to TurkeyM3a'ina+ please email us at ekatesiaSpa'an"e!eration.comMturkeyM3a'ina.mu'la-turiNm.'ui!e-martine.asp 3a$ran!aC ttpCMMwww.comMclassicM3a'inaM .lan W Ho n an! pu$lis e! wit permission an! t anks11 02 3a'ina is t e ancient city+ nort west o" (ata'an+ w ic $elon's to t e (ata'an .pa'an"e!eration.e'ean =oast o" Turkey . T is !istrict is part o" *u'la+ t e pro)ince on t e . ttpCMMwww.n! ttpCMMwww. tml Stratoniceia: ttpCMMwww.or' 0otes Hekate8s istoryC ttpCMM ekate.pa'an"e!eration.aspU$el'enoVJ0%% P otos $y .or' Beneral in"ormation a$out Pa'an Fe!eration International see www. tm “Tria!s an! Trinities 4 T e ori'in o" t e *o!ern Pa'an Bo!!ess” $y Pru!ence Hones+ up!ate! an! pu$lis e! in &iccan Ie!e 3ammas 2005.comMae'ean50.trMportalMarkeolo/iTen.istrict.asp P otos o" 3a'inaC ttpCMMwww."oto'ra"cilar.or' an! PFI Turkey www.netM istory.arc aeolo'y-classic.'o).tr.trMenM5%520.'o).timeri"t.
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