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Sua ELEMENTS Mase La WITH EUROCODES a Ce UR Greek letters Greek letter Letter name Pronounced a alpha alfa B beta beater Y gamma 6 delta n eta eater e epsilon —_ep-silon a lambda lam-da P tho row o sigma t tau tore a> phi fi x chi Asatthe start of child v psi As inthe middle of campsite Chapter 1 and generally ‘Symbol = Meaning 8» G, Characteristic permanent action, €.9. Dead Load qv Q, — Characteristic variable action, e.g. Imposed Load SLS — Serviceabilty limit state ULS Ultimate limit state w Vertical deflection yy Partial factor of safety for load Yu Partial factor of safety for material strength ‘y Combination factor 1, Undrifted snow load coefficient Chapter 2 Timber ‘Symbol Meaning ‘Area of cross section Breadth of section Diameter of fastener Elastic modulus of timber ‘Strength of timber Shear modulus of timber Depth of section axial compressive strength FOP rs-2raoymace ‘on long term deflection To rhyme wih Baez Radius of gyration of section ‘Second moment of area of section Factor for the effect of buckling on Factor giving enhanced strength at bearings Factor for the effect of service class Chapter 2 Timber (continued) Ba @covrse Factor for combined bending Factor for the effect of load duration and service class on strength System strength factor, used when several members can share a load Factor reducing shear strength at notched ends Vertical deflection of a beam Elastic section modulus Slenderness ratio Density of timber ‘Stress in timber Combination factors from ECO Chapter 3 Reinforced Concrete ‘Symbol — Meaning Area of reinforcement Cross-section area of shear reinforcement Breadth of section Breadth of the compression face of a beam Breadth of beam used to calculate the shear stress Effective depth to reinforcement Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement Overall depth of section formula for rectangular beams ‘Key is the upper limit on K if compression reinforcement is not to be provided Spacing of shear links Shear force Shear stress Shear stress due to loads Shear resistance Depth to neutral axis Lever arm Reinforcement ratio for longitudinal reinforcement Reinforcement ratio for shear reinforcement Diameter of reinforcing bar Chapter 4 Masonry ‘Symbol Meaning horizontal cross-section area of a wall Eccentricity of load on a wall leaf Effective height of a wall Design compressive strength of masonry Characteristic compressive strength of masonry Characteristic compressive strength of mortar Normalised mean strength of masonry unit Height of wall panel Effective height of wall Thickness of a wall Thicknesses of the leaves of a cavity wall Effective thickness of a wall, or of one leaf of a cavity wall Load ratio Shape factor for a masonry unit Moment reduction factor Slenderness ratio Mw/ter Capacity reduction factor for walls of area less than 0.1 m? Capacity reduction factor for slenderness Effective height reduction factor Effective thickness coefficient for a wall stiffened by piers Chapter 5 Steel ‘Symbol ‘Meaning A Area of section b Breadth of section a Factor for shape of bending moment diagram Outstand of a flange d Depth of straight portion of a web gE Modulus of elasticity of steel f Enhancement factor for LTB f Yield strength of steel G Shear modulus of steel h Depth of section Iw Clear height of web between flanges ky LTB, LT Myra x PP